METHODS: While infusing 0.9% normal saline at 22 °C (room temperature) into elbow cephalic and median cubital veins, the infusion rate may be controlled by adjusting the fluid height and PVC diameter. To assess the validity of the laminar flow assumption, the study estimated the Reynolds number (Re) using the velocity obtained by applying Bernoulli's equation considering the friction coefficient.

RESULTS: At a constant fluid height, the infusion rate increased with increasing PVC diameter. At a constant PVC diameter, the infusion rate increased with increasing fluid height. In a comparison between the cephalic and median cubital veins at constant fluid height and PVC diameter, the solution was infused at a higher rate into the cephalic vein, which was under lower venous pressure.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of the infusion rate according to fluid height and PVC diameter provided basic data on intravenous infusion nursing. The results are expected to provide evidence for the standardization of intravenous infusion nursing.}, } @article {pmid38027788, year = {2023}, author = {Jamil, DF and Uddin, S and Kazi, M and Roslan, R and Gorji, MR and Kamalrulzaman Md Akhir, M}, title = {MHD blood flow effects of Casson fluid with Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives through an inclined blood vessels with thermal radiation.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e21780}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e21780}, pmid = {38027788}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {This study investigates a fractional-order time derivative model of non-Newtonian magnetic blood flow in the presence of thermal radiation and body acceleration through an inclined artery. The blood flow is formulated using the Casson fluid model under the control of a uniformly distributed magnetic field and an oscillating pressure gradient. Caputo-Fabrizio's fractional derivative mathematical model was used, along with Laplace transform and the finite Hankel transform technique. Analytical expressions were obtained for the velocity of blood flow, magnetic particle distribution, and temperature profile. These distributions are presented graphically using Mathcad software. The results show that the velocity increases with the time, Reynolds number and Casson fluid parameters, and diminishes when Hartmann number increases. Moreover, fractional parameters, radiation values, and metabolic heat source play an essential role in controlling the blood temperature. More precisely, these results are beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of certain medical issues.}, } @article {pmid38027752, year = {2023}, author = {Alklaibi, AM and Chandra Mouli, KVV and Syam Sundar, L}, title = {Experimental and support vector machine predictions of entropy generations and exergy efficiency of Fe3O4-SiO2/Water hybrid nanofluid in a plate heat exchanger.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e21730}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e21730}, pmid = {38027752}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Several experiments of Fe3O4-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluids with volumetric concentrations ranging from 0.2 % to 1.0 % circulating in the cold-side of a plate heat exchanger at flow rates ranging from 0.05 kg/s to 0.1166 kg/s are performed. Under these ranges of flow rates and volumetric concentrations, the flow of Fe3O4-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluids remains laminar. The results of these experiments are predicted with support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to determine hybrid nanofluid entropy generation thermal, entropy generation frictional, and efficiency of exergy. Fe3O4-SiO2 nanomaterials was synthesized with reduction of chemicals and insitu development techniques, with XRD, FTIR and VSM instruments, characterizations were done. The SVM model gives large precision predictions of the measured data with correlations coefficients of 0.9944, 0.99798, and 0.99428 for frictional entropy generation, thermal entropy generation and exergy efficiency. At a flow rate of 0.1166 kg/s in the cold-side of PHE, the exergy efficiency is found to be 77.96 % for water (Reynolds number of 935.4) and with 1.0 vol% of Fe3O4-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluid in the cold-side of PHE, the efficiency is increased to 82.97 %, respectively. Under similar conditions of 0.1166 kg/s of flow circulation and 1.0 % vol. concentration of hybrid nanofluid, the thermal entropy generation is dropped off to 18.37 %, but the frictional entropy generation is increased by 20.97 %, compared to water, with the results that the total entropy generation drops off by 15.91 %, compared to water data. Preliminary curve-fitting correlations have been developed for the frictional entropy generation, thermal entropy generation, and exergy efficiency.}, } @article {pmid38005406, year = {2023}, author = {Krauter, N and Stefani, F}, title = {Simultaneous Measurement of Flow Velocity and Electrical Conductivity of a Liquid Metal Using an Eddy Current Flow Meter in Combination with a Look-Up-Table Method.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {22}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/s23229018}, pmid = {38005406}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {787544/ERC_/European Research Council/International ; }, abstract = {The Eddy Current Flow Meter (ECFM) is a commonly employed inductive sensor for assessing the local flow rate or flow velocity of liquid metals with temperatures up to 700 ∘C. One limitation of the ECFM lies in its dependency on the magnetic Reynolds number for measured voltage signals. These signals are influenced not only by the flow velocity but also by the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal. In scenarios where temperature fluctuations are significant, leading to corresponding variations in electrical conductivity, it becomes imperative to calibrate the ECFM while concurrently monitoring temperature to discern the respective impacts of flow velocity and electrical conductivity on the acquired signals. This paper introduces a novel approach that enables the concurrent measurement of electrical conductivity and flow velocity, even in the absence of precise knowledge of the liquid metal's conductivity or temperature. This method employs a Look-Up-Table methodology. The feasibility of this measurement technique is substantiated through numerical simulations and further validated through experiments conducted on the liquid metal alloy GaInSn at room temperature.}, } @article {pmid38004897, year = {2023}, author = {Borbas, SW and Shen, K and Ji, C and Viallat, A and Helfer, E and Peng, Z}, title = {Transit Time Theory for a Droplet Passing through a Slit in Pressure-Driven Low Reynolds Number Flows.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14112040}, pmid = {38004897}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {DMS 1951526//National Science Foundation/ ; 1948347//National Science Foundation/ ; IIP-1841473//National Science Foundation/ ; PHY2210366//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {Soft objects squeezing through small apertures are crucial for many in vivo and in vitro processes. Red blood cell transit time through splenic inter-endothelial slits (IESs) plays a crucial role in blood filtration and disease progression, while droplet velocity through constrictions in microfluidic devices is important for effective manipulation and separation processes. As these transit phenomena are not well understood, we sought to establish analytical and numerical solutions of viscous droplet transit through a rectangular slit. This study extends from our former theory of a circular pore because a rectangular slit is more realistic in many physiological and engineering applications. Here, we derived the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of a droplet passing through a slit by combining planar Poiseuille flow, the Young-Laplace equations, and modifying them to consider the lubrication layer between the droplet and the slit wall. Compared to the pore case, we used the Roscoe solution instead of the Sampson one to account for the flow entering and exiting a rectangular slit. When the surface tension and lubrication layer were negligible, we derived the closed-form solutions of transit time. When the surface tension and lubrication layer were finite, the ODEs were solved numerically to study the impact of various parameters on the transit time. With our solutions, we identified the impact of prescribed pressure drop, slit dimensions, and droplet parameters such as surface tension, viscosity, and volume on transit time. In addition, we also considered the effect of pressure drop and surface tension near critical values. For this study, critical surface tension for a given pressure drop describes the threshold droplet surface tension that prevents transit, and critical pressure for a given surface tension describes the threshold pressure drop that prevents transit. Our solutions demonstrate that there is a linear relationship between pressure and the reciprocal of the transit time (referred to as inverse transit time), as well as a linear relationship between viscosity and transit time. Additionally, when the droplet size increases with respect to the slit dimensions, there is a corresponding increase in transit time. Most notably, we emphasize the initial antagonistic effect of surface tension which resists droplet passage but at the same time decreases the lubrication layer, thus facilitating passage. Our results provide quantitative calculations for understanding cells passing through slit-like constrictions and designing droplet microfluidic experiments.}, } @article {pmid37964837, year = {2023}, author = {Rahman, MT and Habib, K and Quader, MN and Aslfattahi, N and Kadirgama, K and Das, L}, title = {Effect of porous density of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer performance inside a closed conduit.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e21206}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e21206}, pmid = {37964837}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {This study examines the impact of varying the porosity density of twisted tape inserts (TTI) on the temperature distribution, fluid velocities, heat transfer coefficients (HTC), Nusselt numbers (Nu), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and performance from 5000 to 12500 Reynolds numbers (Re). The entire process involved the design of TTIs and double pipe heat exchangers using SolidWorks. Subsequently, a three-dimensional fluid flow model was employed to solve equations related to energy mass, energy, and momentum within the ANSYS Fluent interfaces. The findings highlight the noteworthy impact of high porosity TTIs, which consistently reduce temperature spans, increase fluid velocities, and greatly HTC and Nu when compared to low porosity TTI, typical TTI, and plain tubes. Furthermore, high porosity TTI significantly increases TKE, indicating increased fluid turbulence and higher heat transfer efficiency, especially at Re = 12500. The assessment of PEC emphasizes the superiority of high porosity TTI, demonstrating their significant performance increase potential of over 6.44 % over low porosity TTI and a staggering 62.5 % above typical TTI. In conclusion, high porosity TTI emerges as a potential solution for improving heat transfer efficiency and overall system performance in a variety of industrial applications, promising enhanced energy efficiency and superior performance.}, } @article {pmid37963561, year = {2023}, author = {Htet, PH and Lauga, E}, title = {Cortex-driven cytoplasmic flows in elongated cells: fluid mechanics and application to nuclear transport in Drosophila embryos.}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface}, volume = {20}, number = {208}, pages = {20230428}, doi = {10.1098/rsif.2023.0428}, pmid = {37963561}, issn = {1742-5662}, abstract = {The Drosophila melanogaster embryo, an elongated multi-nucleated cell, is a classical model system for eukaryotic development and morphogenesis. Recent work has shown that bulk cytoplasmic flows, driven by cortical contractions along the walls of the embryo, enable the uniform spreading of nuclei along the anterior-posterior axis necessary for proper embryonic development. Here, we propose two mathematical models to characterize cytoplasmic flows driven by tangential cortical contractions in elongated cells. Assuming Newtonian fluid flow at low Reynolds number in a spheroidal cell, we first compute the flow field exactly, thereby bypassing the need for numerical computations. We then apply our results to recent experiments on nuclear transport in cell cycles 4-6 of Drosophila embryo development. By fitting the cortical contractions in our model to measurements, we reveal that experimental cortical flows enable near-optimal axial spreading of nuclei. A second mathematical approach, applicable to general elongated cell geometries, exploits a long-wavelength approximation to produce an even simpler solution, with errors below [Formula: see text] compared with the full model. An application of this long-wavelength result to transport leads to fully analytical solutions for the nuclear concentration that capture the essential physics of the system, including optimal axial spreading of nuclei.}, } @article {pmid37957450, year = {2023}, author = {Bureau, L and Coupier, G and Salez, T}, title = {Lift at low Reynolds number.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {46}, number = {11}, pages = {111}, pmid = {37957450}, issn = {1292-895X}, support = {101039103/ERC_/European Research Council/International ; }, abstract = {Lift forces are widespread in hydrodynamics. These are typically observed for big and fast objects and are often associated with a combination of fluid inertia (i.e. large Reynolds numbers) and specific symmetry-breaking mechanisms. In contrast, the properties of viscosity-dominated (i.e. low Reynolds numbers) flows make it more difficult for such lift forces to emerge. However, the inclusion of boundary effects qualitatively changes this picture. Indeed, in the context of soft and biological matter, recent studies have revealed the emergence of novel lift forces generated by boundary softness, flow gradients and/or surface charges. The aim of the present review is to gather and analyse this corpus of literature, in order to identify and unify the questioning within the associated communities, and pave the way towards future research.}, } @article {pmid37952804, year = {2023}, author = {Lordifard, P and Shariatpanahi, SP and Khajeh, K and Saboury, AA and Goliaei, B}, title = {Frequency dependence of ultrasonic effects on the kinetics of hen egg white lysozyme fibrillation.}, journal = {International journal of biological macromolecules}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {127871}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.127871}, pmid = {37952804}, issn = {1879-0003}, abstract = {Our study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound on the fibrillation kinetics of HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme) and its physicochemical properties. Ultrasound, a mechanical wave, can induce conformational changes in proteins. To achieve this, we developed an ultrasound exposure system and used various biophysical techniques, including ThT fluorescence spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR, Far-UV CD spectrophotometry, Fluorescence microscopy, UV-spectroscopy, and seeding experiments. Our results revealed that higher frequencies significantly accelerated the fibrillation of lysozyme by unfolding the native protein and promoting the fibrillation process, thereby reducing the lag time. We observed a change in the secondary structure of the sonicated protein change to the β-structure, but there was no difference in the Tm of native and sonicated proteins. Furthermore, we found that higher ultrasound frequencies had a greater seeding effect. We propose that the effect of frequency can be explained by the impact of the Reynolds number, and for the Megahertz frequency range, we are almost at the transition regime of turbulence. Our results suggest that laminar flows may not induce any significant change in the fibrillation kinetics, while turbulent flows may affect the process.}, } @article {pmid37942161, year = {2023}, author = {Abdalkarem, AAM and Ansaf, R and Muzammil, WK and Ibrahim, A and Harun, Z and Fazlizan, A}, title = {Preliminary assessment of the NACA0021 trailing edge wedge for wind turbine application.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e21193}, pmid = {37942161}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The airfoil blade is the primary component of a wind turbine, and its aerodynamic properties play a crucial role in determining the energy conversion efficiency of these blades. Many researchers have proposed different airfoil modifications intending to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and limit the unsteady interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer. This study evaluates the benefits of mounting wedge tails (WTs) on the trailing edge of an airfoil. The aerodynamic characteristics of a 2-D, steady-state NACA 0021 airfoil featuring the wedge tails (WT) and fish wedge tails (FWT) were studied computationally by employing the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model. Different WT and FWT configurations were studied at various wedge length (L) to wedge height (H) ratios, L/H, at the airfoil's trailing edge. The effects of different L/H ratios, including L/H > 1, L/H = 1, and L/H < 1, were considered in the present study to determine the optimal configuration to achieve the maximum glide ratio, CL/CD at the Reynolds number of 180,000. The findings indicate that the performance of the NACA 0021 airfoil was notably affected by the height of the tail; however, the length had only a minor impact when L/H was less than 1. The mounted FWT resulted in significant enhancements to both the lift and glide ratio of the airfoil. Specifically, the lift ratio experienced an increase of over 41 % compared to the clean airfoil, while the glide ratio increased by more than 31 %. These improvements were observed at an ideal height and length of 2.5 % and 1 % of the airfoil, respectively. Moreover, the mounted FWT performed better than the Gurney flap using the same configurations.}, } @article {pmid37939394, year = {2023}, author = {Fercak, O and Lyons, K and Murphy, CT and Kamensky, K and Cal, RB and Franck, JA}, title = {Multicolor dye-based flow structure visualization for seal-whisker geometry characterized by computer vision.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ad0aa8}, pmid = {37939394}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Pinniped vibrissae possess a unique and complex three-dimensional topography, which has beneficial fluid flow characteristics such as substantial reductions in drag, lift, and vortex induced vibration. To understand and leverage these effects, the downstream vortex dynamics must be studied. Dye visualization is a traditional qualitative method of capturing these downstream effects, specifically in comparative biological investigations where complex equipment can be prohibitive. High-fidelity numerical simulations or experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) are commonplace for quantitative high-resolution flow measurements, but are computationally expensive, require costly equipment, and can have limited measurement windows. This study establishes a method for extracting quantitative data from standard dye visualization experiments on seal whisker geometries by leveraging novel but intuitive computer vision techniques, which maintain simplicity and an advantageous large experimental viewing window while automating the extraction of vortex frequency, position, and advection. Results are compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for comparable geometries. Power spectra and Strouhal numbers show consistent behavior between methods for a Reynolds number of 500, with minima at the canonical geometry wavelength of 3.43 and a peak frequency of 0.2 for a Reynolds number of 250. The vortex tracking reveals a clear increase in velocity from roll-up to 3.5 whisker diameters downstream, with a strong overlap with the DNS data but shows steady results beyond the limited DNS window. This investigation provides insight into a valuable bio-inspired engineering model while advancing an analytical methodology that can readily be applied to a broad range of comparative biological studies.}, } @article {pmid37927848, year = {2023}, author = {Gjerde, IG and Rognes, ME and Sánchez, AL}, title = {The directional flow generated by peristalsis in perivascular networks-Theoretical and numerical reduced-order descriptions.}, journal = {Journal of applied physics}, volume = {134}, number = {17}, pages = {174701}, pmid = {37927848}, issn = {0021-8979}, abstract = {Directional fluid flow in perivascular spaces surrounding cerebral arteries is hypothesized to play a key role in brain solute transport and clearance. While various drivers for a pulsatile flow, such as cardiac or respiratory pulsations, are well quantified, the question remains as to which mechanisms could induce a directional flow within physiological regimes. To address this question, we develop theoretical and numerical reduced-order models to quantify the directional (net) flow induceable by peristaltic pumping in periarterial networks. Each periarterial element is modeled as a slender annular space bounded internally by a circular tube supporting a periodic traveling (peristaltic) wave. Under reasonable assumptions of a small Reynolds number flow, small radii, and small-amplitude peristaltic waves, we use lubrication theory and regular perturbation methods to derive theoretical expressions for the directional net flow and pressure distribution in the perivascular network. The reduced model is used to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the net flow for simple network configurations of interest, including single elements, two elements in tandem, and a three element bifurcation, with results compared with numerical predictions. In particular, we provide a computable theoretical estimate of the net flow induced by peristaltic motion in perivascular networks as a function of physiological parameters, notably, wave length, frequency, amplitude, and perivascular dimensions. Quantifying the maximal net flow for specific physiological regimes, we find that vasomotion may induce net pial periarterial flow velocities on the order of a few to tens of μm/s and that sleep-related changes in vasomotion pulsatility may drive a threefold flow increase.}, } @article {pmid37920481, year = {2023}, author = {Vakilabadi, KA and Ghafari, HR and Ghassemi, H}, title = {Experimental and numerical investigation on a trimaran airwake, geometry modification.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e21144}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e21144}, pmid = {37920481}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The aerodynamic interaction between a helicopter and a trimaran ship's flight deck can be complex and have an impact on handling quality and performance, especially in turbulent conditions. This article presents research on the flight deck geometry of a trimaran vessel without the presence of a helicopter. Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to analyze the effect of wind velocity on air pressure in the flight deck region. The study proposed and evaluated different geometries of the top structure at several air velocities to minimize pressure differences. The results of the numerical simulation were validated by experimental measurements using PIV, which showed that the effect of the Reynolds number on the non-dimensional pressure near the top structure is negligible except for the biggest Reynolds number (Re = 50e6), while at x/L = 0.5 the significant difference can be seen, however, the same result found for Re = 38e6 and 50e6. At the farthest distance (x/L = 1), the pressure difference for different Reynolds numbers case studies is negligible. Among the various geometries assessed, the maximum non-dimensional pressure differences along the lines show the highest value occurs for the base geometry (A) while geometries C and F show lower values, which have chamfering along the middle and side horizontal edges at a 45-degree angle and chamfering along all vertical and horizontal edges at a 30-degree angle.}, } @article {pmid37918090, year = {2023}, author = {Zhou, ZL and Zhu, LF and Li, TX and Wu, LH and Guan, M and Ma, ZK and Liu, YH and Qin, J and Gao, BL}, title = {Sub-satisfactory stenting recanalization of severe vascular stenosis of the posterior circulation can significantly improve cerebral hemodynamic perfusion.}, journal = {European journal of radiology}, volume = {169}, number = {}, pages = {111135}, doi = {10.1016/j.ejrad.2023.111135}, pmid = {37918090}, issn = {1872-7727}, abstract = {PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sub-satisfactory stenting recanalization of severe vascular stenosis of the posterior circulation on cerebral hemodynamic perfusion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe vascular stenosis of the posterior circulation who had undergone three-dimensional cerebral angiography before and after stenting were retrospectively enrolled. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of hemodynamic parameters at the stenosis, perforating branch, and normal arterial segments proximal and distal to the stenosis were performed.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with basilar artery stenosis aged 60.9 ± 9.6 years were enrolled, and stent angioplasty resulted in the reduction of stenosis degree from 85.3 ± 7.2% before to 18.6 ± 6.4% after stenting. After stenting, at the proximal normal artery, the total pressures had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas all the other parameters (WSS, cell Reynolds number, velocity, vorticity, turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate) had significantly (P < 0.05) increased. At the stenosis, all hemodynamic parameters had significantly decreased. At the stenosis perforating branch, the WSS, cell Reynolds number, velocity, and vorticity were all significantly decreased, and the total pressure, turbulence intensity, kinetic energy, and dissipation rate were all significantly increased. At the distal normal artery, the total flow pressure (perfusion pressure) and velocity were both significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and the total pressure, WSS, cell Reynolds number, vorticity, turbulence intensity, kinetic energy, and dissipation rate were all significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. The hemodynamic parameters after stenting were closer to those after virtual stenosis repair at all measurements.

CONCLUSION: Sub-satisfactory recanalization has significantly restored the stenosis and improved the hemodynamic parameters near the stenosis and at the root of the perforating branch, thus significantly improving the cerebral perfusion, similar to the changes of hemodynamic status and cerebral perfusion after virtual removal of the vascular stenosis. This may indicate the good effect of sub-satisfactory stenting recanalization of the vascular stenosis at the posterior circulation.}, } @article {pmid37914697, year = {2023}, author = {Javaherchian, J and Moosavi, A and Tabatabaei, SA}, title = {Numerical analysis of pressure drop reduction of bubbly flows through hydrophobic microgrooved channels.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {18861}, pmid = {37914697}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Due to the high performance of hydrophobic surfaces in pressure drop reduction, they have been proposed for various applications. However, despite the extensive uses of two-phase flows in many industries, the effect of hydrophobic surfaces on the pressure drop reduction of two-phase flows has not been well understood yet. Thus, in the present study, by implementing the phase-field and finite element methods, the bubbly flows as an example of two-phase flows are considered for examining the effect of hydrophobic microgrooved microchannels on the pressure drop reduction of these regimes in the laminar state. We found out that hydrophobic microgrooved surfaces not only can be efficient in the bubbly flow but also can even cause a maximum pressure drop reduction of up to 70%, which is almost 3.5 times higher than in single-phase flow. We also studied the influence of each parameter, such as bubbles volume or length, Reynolds number, capillary number, and their combination on this phenomenon. The pressure drop reduction grows by increasing the volume of the bubbles but decreases by increasing the flow velocity or the surface tension coefficient. The combination of these parameters demonstrated different results in some circumstances.}, } @article {pmid37909299, year = {2023}, author = {Zhao, W and Shang, X and Zhang, B and Yuan, D and Nguyen, BTT and Wu, W and Zhang, JB and Peng, N and Liu, AQ and Duan, F and Chin, LK}, title = {Squeezed state in the hydrodynamic focusing regime for Escherichia coli bacteria detection.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3lc00434a}, pmid = {37909299}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Flow cytometry is an essential technique in single particle analysis and cell sorting for further downstream diagnosis, exhibiting high-throughput and multiplexing capabilities for many biological and biomedical applications. Although many hydrodynamic focusing-based microfluidic cytometers have been demonstrated with reduced size and cost to adapt to point-of-care settings, the operating conditions are not characterized systematically. This study presents the flow transition process in the hydrodynamic focusing mechanism when the flow rate or the Reynolds number increases. The characteristics of flow fields and mass transport were studied under various operating conditions, including flow rates and microchannel heights. A transition from the squeezed focusing state to the over-squeezed anti-focusing state in the hydrodynamic focusing regime was observed when the Reynolds number increased above 30. Parametric studies illustrated that the focusing width increased with the Reynolds number but decreased with the microchannel height in the over-squeezed state. The microfluidic cytometric analyses using microbeads and E. coli show that the recovery rate was maintained by limiting the Reynolds number to 30. The detailed analysis of the flow transition will provide new insight into microfluidic cytometric analyses with a broad range of applications in food safety, water monitoring and healthcare sectors.}, } @article {pmid37906645, year = {2023}, author = {Zöttl, A and Tesser, F and Matsunaga, D and Laurent, J and du Roure, O and Lindner, A}, title = {Asymmetric bistability of chiral particle orientation in viscous shear flows.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {45}, pages = {e2310939120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2310939120}, pmid = {37906645}, issn = {1091-6490}, support = {682367//European Commission (EC)/ ; M 2458-N36//Austrian Science Fund (FWF)/ ; ANR-10- EQPX-34//Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)/ ; 21H05879//MEXT | Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)/ ; JPMJPR21OA//MEXT | JST | Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO)/ ; }, abstract = {The migration of helical particles in viscous shear flows plays a crucial role in chiral particle sorting. Attaching a nonchiral head to a helical particle leads to a rheotactic torque inducing particle reorientation. This phenomenon is responsible for bacterial rheotaxis observed for flagellated bacteria as Escherichia coli in shear flows. Here, we use a high-resolution microprinting technique to fabricate microparticles with controlled and tunable chiral shape consisting of a spherical head and helical tails of various pitch and handedness. By observing the fully time-resolved dynamics of these microparticles in microfluidic channel flow, we gain valuable insights into chirality-induced orientation dynamics. Our experimental model system allows us to examine the effects of particle elongation, chirality, and head heaviness for different flow rates on the orientation dynamics, while minimizing the influence of Brownian noise. Through our model experiments, we demonstrate the existence of asymmetric bistability of the particle orientation perpendicular to the flow direction. We quantitatively explain the particle equilibrium orientations as a function of particle properties, initial conditions and flow rates, as well as the time-dependence of the reorientation dynamics through a theoretical model. The model parameters are determined using boundary element simulations, and excellent agreement with experiments is obtained without any adjustable parameters. Our findings lead to a better understanding of chiral particle transport and bacterial rheotaxis and might allow the development of targeted delivery applications.}, } @article {pmid37898603, year = {2023}, author = {Jalili, B and Shateri, A and Akgül, A and Bariq, A and Asadi, Z and Jalili, P and Ganji, DD}, title = {An investigation into a semi-porous channel's forced convection of nano fluid in the presence of a magnetic field as a result of heat radiation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {18505}, pmid = {37898603}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This study investigates the impact of heat radiation on magnetically-induced forced convection of nanofluid in a semi-porous channel. The research employs Akbari-Ganji's and Homotopy perturbation methods to analyze the effects of multiple parameters, including Hartmann number, Reynolds number, Eckert number, radiation parameter, and suction parameter, on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results demonstrate that increasing Reynolds number, suction, and radiation parameters increases temperature gradient, providing valuable insights into improving heat transfer in semi-porous channels. The study validates the proposed methods by comparing the results with those obtained from other established methods in the literature. The main focus of this work is to understand the behavior of nanofluids in semi-porous channels under the influence of magnetic fields and heat radiation, which is essential for various industrial and engineering applications. The future direction of this research includes exploring the effects of different nanoparticle shapes and materials on heat transfer performance and investigating the influence of other parameters, such as buoyancy forces and variable properties, on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient thermal management systems in the future.}, } @article {pmid37893255, year = {2023}, author = {Zhao, H and Ma, H and Yan, X and Yu, H and Xiao, Y and Xiao, X and Liu, H}, title = {Investigation of Hydrothermal Performance in Micro-Channel Heat Sink with Periodic Rectangular Fins.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14101818}, pmid = {37893255}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The micro-channel heat sink (MCHS) is an excellent choice due to its exceptional cooling capabilities, surpassing those of its competitors. In this research paper, a computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics of five different configurations of a variable geometry rectangular fin. The study utilized a water-cooled smooth MCHS as the basis. The results indicate that the micro-channel heat sink with a variable geometry rectangular fin has better heat dissipation capacity than a straight-type micro-channel heat sink, but at the same time, it has larger pressure loss. Based on the analysis of various rectangular fin shapes and Reynolds numbers in this study, the micro-channel heat sink with rectangular fins exhibits Nusselt numbers and friction factors that are 1.40-2.02 and 2.64-4.33 times higher, respectively, compared to the smooth heat sink. This significant improvement in performance results in performance evaluation criteria ranging from 1.23-1.95. Further, it is found that at a relatively small Reynolds number, the micro-channel heat sink with a variable geometry rectangular fin has obvious advantages in terms of overall cooling performance. Meanwhile, this advantage will decrease when the Reynolds number is relatively large.}, } @article {pmid37886753, year = {2023}, author = {Vaferi, K and Vajdi, M and Nekahi, S and Heydari, A and Sadegh Moghanlou, F and Nami, H and Jafarzadeh, H}, title = {Thermo-hydraulic performance optimization of a disk-shaped microchannel heat sink applying computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural network, and response surface methodology.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {10}, pages = {e21031}, pmid = {37886753}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The current research focuses on optimizing the Nusselt number (Nu) and pressure drop (ΔP) in a bionic fractal heat sink. The artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to model the thermos-hydraulic behavior of the MCHS. The aspect ratios of t/b (cavities' upper side to bottom side ratio) and h/b (cavities' height to bottom side ratio), as well as the Reynolds number, were set as the independent variables in both ANN and RSM models. After finding the optimum state for the copper-made MCHS (containing the optimum design of the cavities along with the best applied velocity), different materials were tested and compared with the base case (heat sink made of copper). The obtained results indicated that both ANN and RSM models (with determination coefficient of 99.9 %) could exactly anticipate heat transfer and ΔP to a large extent. To achieve the optimal design of the microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with the objective of maximizing Nu and minimizing ΔP, the efficiency index of the device was evaluated. The analysis revealed that the highest efficiency index (1.070 by RSM and 1.067 by ANN methods) was attained when the aspect ratios were t/b = 0.2, h/b = 0.2, and the Reynolds number was 1000. Next, the effect of the different materials on heat sink performance was investigated, and it was observed that by reducing the thermal conductivity, the thermal resistance of the heat sink increased and its overall performance decreased.}, } @article {pmid37849125, year = {2023}, author = {Paludan, MV and Biviano, MD and Jensen, KH}, title = {Elastohydrodynamic autoregulation in soft overlapping channels.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {108}, number = {3-2}, pages = {035106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.108.035106}, pmid = {37849125}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Controlling fluid flow from an unsteady source is a challenging problem that is relevant in both living and man-made systems. Animals have evolved various autoregulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in vital organs. This keeps the influx of nutrients essentially constant and independent of the perfusion pressure. Up to this point, the autoregulation processes have primarily been ascribed to active mechanisms that regulate vessel size, thereby adjusting the hydraulic conductance in response to, e.g., sensing of wall shear stress. We propose an alternative elastohydrodynamic mechanism based on contacting soft vessels. Inspired by Starling's resistor, we combine experiments and theory to study the flow of a viscous liquid through a self-intersecting soft conduit. In the overlapping region, the pressure difference between the two channel segments can cause one pipe segment to dilate while the other is compressed. If the tissue is sufficiently soft, this mode of fluid-structure interactions can lead to flow autoregulation. Our experimental observations compare well to a predictive model based on low-Reynolds-number fluid flow and linear elasticity. Implications for conduit arrangement and passive autoregulation in organs and limbs are discussed.}, } @article {pmid37850032, year = {2021}, author = {Xing, Y and Burdsall, AC and Owens, A and Magnuson, M and Harper, WF}, title = {The effect of mixing and free-floating carrier media on bioaerosol release from wastewater: a multiscale investigation with Bacillus globigii.}, journal = {Environmental science : water research & technology}, volume = {7}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37850032}, issn = {2053-1400}, abstract = {Aeration tanks in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are significant sources of bioaerosols, which contain microbial contaminants and can travel miles from the site of origin, risking the health of operators and the general public. One potential mitigation strategy is to apply free-floating carrier media (FFCM) to suppress bioaerosol emission. This article presents a multiscale study on the effects of mixing and FFCM on bioaerosol release using Bacillus globigii spores in well-defined liquid media. Bioaerosol release, defined as percentage of spores aerosolized during a 30 minute sampling period, ranged from 6.09 × 10[-7]% to 0.057%, depending upon the mixing mode and intensity. Bioaerosol release increased with the intensity of aeration (rotating speed in mechanical agitation and aeration rate in diffused aeration). A surface layer of polystyrene beads reduced bioaerosol released by >92% in the bench-scale studies and >74% in the pilot-scale study. This study discovered strong correlations (R[2] > 0.82) between bioaerosol release and superficial gas velocity, Froude number, and volumetric gas flow per unit liquid volume per minute. The Reynolds number was found to be poorly correlated with bioaerosol release (R[2] < 0.5). This study is a significant step toward the development of predictive models for full scale systems.}, } @article {pmid37848600, year = {2023}, author = {Maruai, NM and Ali, MSM and Zaki, SA and Ardila-Rey, JA and Ishak, IA}, title = {The influence of different downstream plate length towards the flow-induced vibration on a square cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {17681}, pmid = {37848600}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {PY/2021/00886//Universiti Teknologi Malaysia/ ; PY/2021/00886//Universiti Teknologi Malaysia/ ; PY/2021/00886//Universiti Teknologi Malaysia/ ; Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)//FONDECYT Regular 1230135/ ; }, abstract = {The investigations of flow-induced vibration have been around for decades to solve many engineering problems related to structural element. In a hindsight of advancing technology of microelectronics devices, the implementation of flow-induced vibration for energy harvesting is intrigued. The influence of downstream flat plate to flow-induced vibration experienced by a square cylinder is discussed in this study to surpass the limitation of wind energy due to geographical constraints and climate change. The mechanism of flow-induced vibration experienced by a square cylinder with downstream flat plate is numerically simulated based on the unsteady Reynolds Navier-Stokes (URANS) flow field. The Reynolds number, Re assigned in this study is ranging between [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] and the mass damping ratio designated for the square cylinder is [Formula: see text] = 2.48. The influence of three different flat plate lengths [Formula: see text], 1 and 3 is examined. Each case of different flat plate is explored for gap separation between the square cylinder and the plate in the range [Formula: see text]. Based on the numerical findings, the configuration of cylinder-flat plate with length [Formula: see text] has shown the highest potential to harvest high energy at comparatively low reduced velocity.}, } @article {pmid37822907, year = {2023}, author = {Akram, M and Memon, AA and Memon, MA and Obalalu, AM and Khan, U}, title = {Investigation of a two-dimensional photovoltaic thermal system using hybrid nanofluids and a rotating cylinder.}, journal = {Nanoscale advances}, volume = {5}, number = {20}, pages = {5529-5542}, pmid = {37822907}, issn = {2516-0230}, abstract = {This article focuses on a numerical investigation aimed at enhancing the electrical performance of a two-dimensional photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) through the application of cooling using hybrid nanofluids. The hybrid nanofluids consist of titanium oxide and silver nanoparticles suspended in water, while the PV/T system is based on polycrystalline silicon, copper, and a flow channel with a rotating cylinder. PV/T devices generate electricity from sunlight, but their performance degrades over time due to the heat generated by solar radiation. Therefore, nanofluids can be circulated through the bottom flow channel to cool the device. This study utilizes 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to control fluid flow and energy equations to manage energy distribution. The COMSOL 6.0 finite element software is employed for comprehensive modeling and simulation. To enhance the performance of the PV/T system, a parametric study is conducted by varying the Reynolds number (ranging from 100 to 1000), cylinder rotational speed (varying from 0.01 to 0.2 m s[-1]), and silver volume fraction (ranging from 0.01 to 0.2). The results show that increasing the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of silver leads to a reduction in the maximum temperature of the cell. The maximum temperature of the cell also decreases with the rotational speed of the cylinder but only for high Reynolds numbers. By applying the present model, the cell's efficiency is improved by 5.93%.}, } @article {pmid37822766, year = {2023}, author = {Sutton, GP and Szczecinski, NS and Quinn, RD and Chiel, HJ}, title = {Phase shift between joint rotation and actuation reflects dominant forces and predicts muscle activation patterns.}, journal = {PNAS nexus}, volume = {2}, number = {10}, pages = {pgad298}, pmid = {37822766}, issn = {2752-6542}, abstract = {During behavior, the work done by actuators on the body can be resisted by the body's inertia, elastic forces, gravity, or viscosity. The dominant forces that resist actuation have major consequences on the control of that behavior. In the literature, features and actuation of locomotion, for example, have been successfully predicted by nondimensional numbers (e.g. Froude number and Reynolds number) that generally express the ratio between two of these forces (gravitational, inertial, elastic, and viscous). However, animals of different sizes or motions at different speeds may not share the same dominant forces within a behavior, making ratios of just two of these forces less useful. Thus, for a broad comparison of behavior across many orders of magnitude of limb length and cycle period, a dimensionless number that includes gravitational, inertial, elastic, and viscous forces is needed. This study proposes a nondimensional number that relates these four forces: the phase shift (ϕ) between the displacement of the limb and the actuator force that moves it. Using allometric scaling laws, ϕ for terrestrial walking is expressed as a function of the limb length and the cycle period at which the limb steps. Scale-dependent values of ϕ are used to explain and predict the electromyographic (EMG) patterns employed by different animals as they walk.}, } @article {pmid37821662, year = {2023}, author = {Saparbayeva, N and Balakin, BV}, title = {CFD-DEM model of plugging in flow with cohesive particles.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {17188}, pmid = {37821662}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {300286//Norges Forskningsråd/ ; }, abstract = {Plugging in flows with cohesive particles is crucial in many industrial and real-life applications such as hemodynamics, water distribution, and petroleum flow assurance. Although probabilistic models for plugging risk estimation are presented in the literature, multiple details of the process remain unclear. In this paper, we present a CFD-DEM model of plugging validated against several experimental benchmarks. Using the simulations, we consider the process of plugging in a slurry of ice in decane, focusing on inter-particle collisions and plugging dynamics. We conduct a parametric study altering the Reynolds number (3000...9000), particle concentration (1.6...7.3%), and surface energy (21...541 mJ/m[Formula: see text]). We note the process possesses complex non-linear behaviour for the cases where particle-wall adhesion reduces by more than 20% relative to inter-particle cohesion. Finally, we demonstrate how the simulation results match the flow maps based on the third-party experiments.}, } @article {pmid37810730, year = {2023}, author = {Sun, T and Liu, H and Yan, T and Zhang, Y}, title = {Numerical Study on Enhanced Heat Transfer of Downhole Slotted-Type Heaters for In Situ Oil Shale Exploitation.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {8}, number = {39}, pages = {36043-36052}, pmid = {37810730}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {In order to improve the flow state of the heater shell side and enhance the performance evaluation of the heater, this paper proposes a perforated plate-type heater model. Based on Fluent, numerical studies are conducted on the heat transfer performance and shell-side fluid flow characteristics of a perforated plate-type heater. The variations of the heat transfer factor Nu, friction factor f, and evaluation parameter Nu/f[1/3] are analyzed for different helix angles β and ratios of the long and short semiaxes of the circular holes on the heating plate under different Reynolds numbers Re. The results reveal that under the same shell-side Reynolds number Re, the heat transfer factor Nu shows an increasing trend with the increase in the proportion of the helix angle β. The heat transfer factor Nu for the heating plate with the hole shape ratio a/b = 1 does not exhibit significant improvement compared to hole shape ratios a/b = 0.8 and a/b = 0.6, but it increases by 4.87 to 7.07% compared to the hole shape ratio a/b = 0.4 in the perforated plate-type heater. On the other hand, the friction factor f decreases as the helix angle β and the ratio of hole shapes on the heating plate increase. The lowest friction factor f is observed for the helix angle β of 25° and the hole shape ratio a/b = 1 in the perforated plate-type heater. When the helix angle β is 25° and the hole shape ratio is a/b = 1, the evaluation parameter Nu/f[1/3] reaches its highest value, indicating the optimal overall performance of the perforated plate-type heater.}, } @article {pmid37809404, year = {2023}, author = {Hosseinzadeh, K and Roshani, M and Attar, MA and Ganji, DD and Shafii, MB}, title = {Heat transfer study and optimization of nanofluid triangular cavity with a pentagonal barrier by finite element approach and RSM.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {9}, pages = {e20193}, pmid = {37809404}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Nowadays, several engineering applications and academic investigations have demonstrated the significance of heat transfers in general and mixed convection heat transfer (MCHT) in particular in cavities containing obstacles. This study's main goal is to analyze the MCHT of a nanofluid in a triangular cavity with a pentagonal barrier using magneto hydrodynamics (MHD). The cavity's-oriented walls are continuous cold temperature, whereas the bottom wall of the triangle and all pentagonal obstacle walls are kept at a constant high temperature. For solving governing equations, we utilized the Galerkin's finite element approach. Four dimensionless factors, Richardson number (0.01 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), Reynolds number (10 ≤ Re ≤ 50), Buoyancy ratio (0.01 ≤ Br ≤ 10) and Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤20) are examined for their effects on streamlines, isotherms, concentration, velocity, and the Nusselt number. Also, with the help of Taguchi method and Response Surface Method (RSM) the optimization of the studied dimensionless parameters has been done. The optimum values of Ri, Re, Ha and Br are obtained 4.95, 30.49,18.35 and 0.05 respectively. Ultimately, a correlation has been extracted for obtaining the optimum average Nusselt number (Nu) in mentioned cavity.}, } @article {pmid37809384, year = {2023}, author = {Rasul, MG and Ahmed, S and Sattar, MA and Jahirul, MI}, title = {Hydrodynamic performance assessment of photocatalytic reactor with baffles and roughness in the flow path: A modelling approach with experimental validation.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {9}, pages = {e19623}, pmid = {37809384}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Purification of wastewater is essential for human being as well as for the flora and fauna, and sustainable environment. Photocatalytic reactor with TiO2 coated layer can be used to degrade the pollutants but without proper pollutant mass transfer in the reactive surface, photocatalytic reactor decreases its effectiveness. The baffles and rough surface in the flow path can improve the fluid mixing to enhance pollutant mass transfer to improve the reactor's performance. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to investigate the effect of four top baffles and three rough surfaces (semi-circular, triangle, and rectangle) on pressure drops, mass transfer and the hydrodynamic performance of the reactor. The experimental investigation was carried out using Formic Acid (FA) as pollutant in feed water for model validation. The simulated result varies only within 5% with the experimental data of FA concentration versus feed flow rate and fluid velocity. The model was run at fluid velocity of 0.15 m/s and 0.5 m/s (Reynolds number of 2150 (laminar flow) and 7500 (turbulent flow), respectively. The simulation result shows that the addition of baffles and roughness on the reactive surfaces increases the turbulent kinetic energy (minimum increase 8%) and consequently increases the mass transfer (maximum increase 37%) of the pollutant. The highest wall shear was observed to be 40 Pa when both square and triangular elements were used as roughness elements at turbulent flow condition. The results also shows that the highest pressure-drop of 8 kPa was found when the square roughness element was used at turbulent flow condition. Overall, the photocatalytic reactor performance is significantly enhanced by the application of combined baffles and roughness elements in the reactive surface.}, } @article {pmid37807009, year = {2023}, author = {Allehiany, FM and Memon, AA and Memon, MA and Fenta, A}, title = {Maximizing electrical output and reducing heat-related losses in photovoltaic thermal systems with a thorough examination of flow channel integration and nanofluid cooling.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {16961}, pmid = {37807009}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In recent years, global energy demand has surged, emphasizing the need for nations to enhance energy resources. The photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system, capable of generating electrical energy from sunlight, is a promising renewable energy solution. However, it faces the challenge of overheating, which reduces efficiency. To address this, we introduce a flow channel within the PV/T system, allowing coolant circulation to improve electrical efficiency. Within this study, we explore into the workings of a PV/T system configuration, featuring a polycrystalline silicon panel atop a copper absorber panel. This innovative setup incorporates a rectangular flow channel, enhanced with a centrally positioned rotating circular cylinder, designed to augment flow velocity. This arrangement presents a forced convection scenario, where heat transfer primarily occurs through conduction in the uppermost two layers, while the flow channel beneath experiences forced convection. To capture this complex phenomenon, we accurately address the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations, employing simulations conducted via COMSOL 6.0 software, renowned for its utilization of the finite element method. To optimize heat dissipation and efficiency, we introduce a hybrid nanofluid comprised of titanium oxide and silver nanoparticles dispersed in water, circulating through the flow channel. Various critical parameters come under scrutiny, including the Reynolds number, explored across the range of 100-1000, the volume fractions of both nanoparticle types, systematically tested within the range of 0.001-0.05, and the controlled speed of the circular cylinder, maintained within the range of 0.1-0.25 m/s. It was found that incorporating silver nanoparticles as a suspended component is more effective in enhancing PV/T efficiency than the addition of titanium oxide. Additionally, maintaining the volume fraction of titanium oxide between 4 and 5% yields improved efficiency, provided that the cylinder rotates at a higher speed. It was observed that cell efficiency can be regulated by adjusting four parameters, such as the Reynolds number, cylinder rotation speed, and the volume fraction of both nanoparticles.}, } @article {pmid37798525, year = {2023}, author = {Zhang, B and Liu, G and Li, Y and Lin, Z}, title = {Experimental study on the seepage mutation of natural karst collapse pillar (KCP) fillings over mass outflow.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37798525}, issn = {1614-7499}, support = {41807209//Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {Conduction between the unique geological formation karst collapse pillar (KCP) and the fractures caused by mining in the coal seam floor can lead to catastrophic water inrush disasters in many coalmines in Northern China. It is widely recognized that seepage mutation induced by the migration/loss of KCP fillings (highly broken rocks filling the fractured rocks) happens during occurrence of the KCP-related water inrush. However, roles of fluid path (mining-induced fracture) scale and KCP filling porosity in seepage mutation evolution remain unclear. Here, we conducted seepage tests on natural KCP fillings containing rock particles of different sizes. The filling specimens were deformed to different porosities from 14 to 26% through axial compression, and small to large fluid paths were simulated by seepage plates with distinct pore sizes from 2.5 to 12.5 mm. We found that seepage mutation occurs with significant permeability enhancement by 2 orders of magnitude under a pore diameter of 12.5 mm and a specimen porosity of 26%. There is a strong linear relationship between specimen permeability and Reynolds number (Re) over seepage mutation. The mutation is caused by the sudden collapse of the specimen skeleton and subsequent quick outflow of the particles. Therefore, it is inferred that the KCP-related water inrush is more likely to happen when highly porous KCP fillings are present and mining-induced fractures are well developed.}, } @article {pmid37787128, year = {2023}, author = {Duraes, ADS and Gezelter, JD}, title = {A theory of pitch for the hydrodynamic properties of molecules, helices, and achiral swimmers at low Reynolds number.}, journal = {The Journal of chemical physics}, volume = {159}, number = {13}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1063/5.0152546}, pmid = {37787128}, issn = {1089-7690}, abstract = {We present a theory for pitch, a matrix property that is linked to the coupling of rotational and translational motion of rigid bodies at low Reynolds numbers. The pitch matrix is a geometric property of objects in contact with a surrounding fluid, and it can be decomposed into three principal axes of pitch and their associated moments of pitch. The moments of pitch predict the translational motion in a direction parallel to each pitch axis when the object is rotated around that axis and can be used to explain translational drift, particularly for rotating helices. We also provide a symmetrized boundary element model for blocks of the resistance tensor, allowing calculation of the pitch matrix for arbitrary rigid bodies. We analyze a range of chiral objects, including chiral molecules and helices. Chiral objects with a Cn symmetry axis with n > 2 show additional symmetries in their pitch matrices. We also show that some achiral objects have non-vanishing pitch matrices, and we use this result to explain recent observations of achiral microswimmers. We also discuss the small but non-zero pitch of Lord Kelvin's isotropic helicoid.}, } @article {pmid37774714, year = {2023}, author = {Zhu, Q}, title = {Locomotion performance of an axisymmetric 'flapping fin'.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/acfeb9}, pmid = {37774714}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Inspired by the jet-propulsion mechanism of aquatic creatures such as sea salps, a novel locomotion system based on an axisymmetric body design is proposed. This system consists of an empty tube with two ends open. When the diameters of the front and back openings are changed periodically, the forward-backward symmetry is broken so that the system starts swimming. Viewed within a cross section, this system resembles a two-dimensional ﬂapping ﬁn with its leading edge located at the front opening and the trailing edge at the back opening. The feasibility of this system has been proven via numerical simulations using a ﬂuid-structure interaction model based on the immersed-boundary framework. According to the results, at relatively low Reynolds number (O(100)), this simple locomotion method can easily achieve a mean swimming speed of 2 to 3 body lengthes per deformation period. Further simulations illustrate the following characteristics: 1) Within the chamber, the hydrodynamic interactions among diﬀerent parts of the body leads to a performance-enhancing mechanism similar to the ground eﬀect; 2) Reducing the diameter of the body can strengthen this eﬀect so that both the swimming speed and the energy eﬃciency are improved; 3) For better performance the amplitude of diameter oscillation at the trailing edge should be larger or at least equal to the one at the leading edge. .}, } @article {pmid37763958, year = {2023}, author = {Juraeva, M and Kang, DJ}, title = {Design and Mixing Analysis of a Passive Micromixer Based on Curly Baffles.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14091795}, pmid = {37763958}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {Daedong2023//Daedong Heavy Industry/ ; }, abstract = {A novel passive micromixer based on curly baffles is proposed and optimized through the signal-to-noise analysis of various design parameters. The mixing performance of the proposed design was evaluated across a wide Reynolds number range, from 0.1 to 80. Through the analysis, the most influential parameter was identified, and its value was found to be constant regardless of the mixing mechanism. The optimized design, refined using the signal-to-noise analysis, demonstrated a significant enhancement of mixing performance, particularly in the low Reynolds number range (Re< 10). The design set obtained at the diffusion dominance range shows the highest degree of mixing (DOM) in the low Reynolds number range of Re< 10, while the design set optimized for the convection dominance range exhibited the least pressure drop across the entire Reynolds number spectrum (Re< 80). The present design approach proved to be a practical tool for identifying the most influential design parameter and achieving excellent mixing and pressure drop characteristics. The enhancement is mainly due to the curvature of the most influential design parameter.}, } @article {pmid37757685, year = {2023}, author = {Jafari, E and Malayeri, MR and Brückner, H and Weimer, T and Krebs, P}, title = {Innovative spiral electrode configuration for enhancement of electrocoagulation-flotation.}, journal = {Journal of environmental management}, volume = {347}, number = {}, pages = {119085}, doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.119085}, pmid = {37757685}, issn = {1095-8630}, abstract = {The performance of electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) process can profoundly be affected by the reactor design and electrode configuration. These may, in turn, influence the removal efficiency, flow hydrodynamic, floc formation, and flotation/settling characteristics. The present work aimed at developing a new spiral electrode configuration to enhance the ECF process. To do so, the impacts of parameters such as energy consumption, removal efficiency of the contaminants from industrial wastewater with a composition of turbidity, emulsified oil, and heavy metals (Si, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Cd), as well as stirring speed and foaming have been investigated. Comparison was also made between the experimental results of the new electrode configuration with the conventional rectangular cell with plate electrode configuration with the same volume and electrode surface area. The findings revealed that energy consumption of the spiral electrode configuration within the operating times of 10, 20, 30, 32, 48, and 70 min, was approximately 20% lower compared to that of the conventional ECF. Moreover, the maximum and minimum removal efficiency of 97% and 60% were obtained for turbidity and TOC for the stirring speed of 500 rpm and Reynolds number of 10,035, respectively. Finally, the formed gas bubbles tilted toward the center due to the enhanced flow hydrodynamic which resulted in substantial reduction of foam formation.}, } @article {pmid37756554, year = {2023}, author = {Rajendran, S and Jog, MA and Manglik, RM}, title = {Predicting the Splash of a Drop Impacting a Thin Liquid Film.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c02185}, pmid = {37756554}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {An experimental study is carried out to investigate droplet-film interactions when a drop impinges on a thin stagnant film of the same liquid. The impacting drop causes either liquid deposition or splash, consisting of prompt generation of secondary drops or a delayed process. By varying the drop diameter and impact velocity, measurements are made to characterize the phenomena using five different liquids that are chosen to cover a wide range of liquid properties (viscosity and surface tension). The drop impact dynamics are captured with a high-speed digital camera with real-time, high-resolution image processing. The drop-splash threshold is found to scale with inertial and viscous forces, or Reynolds number (Re), as well as capillary forces, as described by the balance of gravitational and interfacial tension forces, or Bond number (Bo); fluid properties are described by their Morton number (Mo). A correlation, functionally expressed as Re = ϕ(Bo,Mo), is devised to determine the splash/no-splash (or deposition) boundary, and the predictions for the splash/no-splash outcomes agree well with the experimental outcomes as well as those readily available in the literature.}, } @article {pmid37756336, year = {2023}, author = {Hickey, DJ and Golestanian, R and Vilfan, A}, title = {Nonreciprocal interactions give rise to fast cilium synchronization in finite systems.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {40}, pages = {e2307279120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2307279120}, pmid = {37756336}, issn = {1091-6490}, support = {//Max Planck Society/ ; P1-0099//Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS (ARRS)/ ; }, abstract = {Motile cilia beat in an asymmetric fashion in order to propel the surrounding fluid. When many cilia are located on a surface, their beating can synchronize such that their phases form metachronal waves. Here, we computationally study a model where each cilium is represented as a spherical particle, moving along a tilted trajectory with a position-dependent active driving force and a position-dependent internal drag coefficient. The model thus takes into account all the essential broken symmetries of the ciliary beat. We show that taking into account the near-field hydrodynamic interactions, the effective coupling between cilia even over an entire beating cycle can become nonreciprocal: The phase of a cilium is more strongly affected by an adjacent cilium on one side than by a cilium at the same distance in the opposite direction. As a result, synchronization starts from a seed at the edge of a group of cilia and propagates rapidly across the system, leading to a synchronization time that scales proportionally to the linear dimension of the system. We show that a ciliary carpet is characterized by three different velocities: the velocity of fluid transport, the phase velocity of metachronal waves, and the group velocity of order propagation. Unlike in systems with reciprocal coupling, boundary effects are not detrimental for synchronization, but rather enable the formation of the initial seed.}, } @article {pmid37749273, year = {2023}, author = {Younis, O and Abderrahmane, A and Hatami, M and Mourad, A and Guedri, K}, title = {Nanoencapsulated phase change material in a trapezoidal prism wall under the magnetic field effect for energy storage purposes.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {16060}, pmid = {37749273}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Recently, Nano-encapsulated phase change materials (NEPCM) have attracted the attention of researchers due to their promising application in thermal management. This research investigates magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection of NEPCM contained within a lid-driven trapezoidal prism enclosure containing a hot-centered elliptical obstacle. The upper cavity wall is moving at a constant velocity; both inclined walls are cold, while the rest of the walls are insulated. The Galerkin Finite Element Method was used to solve the system's governing equations. The influence of Reynolds number (Re 1-500), Hartmann number (Ha = 0-100), NEPCM volumetric fraction φ (0-8%), and elliptical obstacle orientation α (0-3π/4) on thermal fields and flow patterns are introduced and analyzed. The results indicated that the maximum heat transfer rate is observed when the hot elliptic obstacle is oriented at 90°; an increment of 6% in the Nu number is obtained in this orientation compared to other orientations. Reducing Ha from 100 to 0 increased Nu by 14%. The Maximum value of the Bejan number was observed for the case of Ha = 0, α = 90° and φ = 0.08.}, } @article {pmid37749138, year = {2023}, author = {Abd-Alla, AM and Abo-Dahab, SM and Abdelhafez, MA and Elmhedy, Y}, title = {Effect of heat and mass transfer on the nanofluid of peristaltic flow in a ciliated tube.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {16008}, pmid = {37749138}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The current work focuses attention on discussing the peristaltic flow of Rabinowitsch nanofluid through ciliated tube. This technical study analyzes heat and mass transfer effects on the flow of a peristaltic flow, incompressible, nanofluid via a ciliated tube. The governing non-linear partial differential equations representing the flow model are transmuted into linear ones by employing the appropriate non-dimensional parameters under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The flow is examined in wave frame of reference moving with the velocity [Formula: see text]. The governing equations have been solved to determine velocity, temperature, concentration, the pressure gradient, pressure rise and the friction force. Using MATLAB R2023a software, a parametric analysis is performed, and the resulting data is represented graphically. The results indicate that the various emerging parameters of interest significantly affect the nanofluid properties within the tube. The present study enhances the comprehension of nanofluid dynamics in tube and offers valuable insights into the influence of heat and mass transfer in such setups. Convective heat transfer is found to be greater at the boundaries resulting in decreased temperature there.}, } @article {pmid37749119, year = {2023}, author = {Abbas, N and Shatanawi, W and Hasan, F and Mustafa, Z}, title = {Thermodynamic flow of radiative induced magneto modified Maxwell Sutterby fluid model at stretching sheet/cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {16002}, pmid = {37749119}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {A steady flow of Maxwell Sutterby fluid is considered over a stretchable cylinder. The magnetic Reynolds number is considered very high and induced magnetic and electric fields are applied on the fluid flow. Joule heating and radiation impacts are studied under the temperature-dependent properties of the liquid. Having the above assumptions, the mathematical model has been evolving via differential equations. The differential equations are renovated in the dimensionless form of ordinary differential equations using the appropriate transformations. The numerical results have been developed employing numerical techniques on the ordinary differential equations. The impact of involving physical factors on velocity, induced magneto hydrodynamic, and temperature function is debated in graphical and tabular form. The velocity profile is boosted by thicker momentum boundary layers, which are caused by higher values of the magnetic field factor. So, the fluid flow becomes higher velocity due to enlarging values of the magnetic field factor. Heat transfer factor and friction at surface factor boosted up for increment of [Formula: see text] (Magnetic field factor). The [Formula: see text](Magnetic field factor) is larger which better-quality of heat transfer at surface and also offered the results of friction factor boosting up in both cases of stretching sheet/cylinder. The [Formula: see text](Magnetic Prandtl number) increased which provided better-quality of heat transfer at surface.}, } @article {pmid37741030, year = {2023}, author = {Wang, Z and Sedighi, M}, title = {Dispersion properties of nanoplastic spheres in granular media at low Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {Journal of contaminant hydrology}, volume = {259}, number = {}, pages = {104244}, doi = {10.1016/j.jconhyd.2023.104244}, pmid = {37741030}, issn = {1873-6009}, abstract = {Nanoplastic particles (<1 μm) are among the contaminants of emerging concern, and compared to microplastic (<5 mm), our understanding of the transport and fate of nanoplastic in water, sediments and soil is very limited. This paper focuses on developing fundamental insight into the dispersion behaviour (sum of hydrodynamic dispersion and diffusion) of nanoplastic spheres, which are likely the most mobile shape of nanoplastic. We measured the dispersion coefficient and dispersivity of nanoplastic spheres (100 nm, 300 nm and 1000 nm diameter) in granular media with a range of pore sizes. We investigated the mechanisms that control the behaviour at low Reynolds number (smaller than 2), relevant to the dispersion of nanoplastic across the riparian area at water velocities of the common river and shallow groundwater. The measured dispersion coefficients were compared with the predictions by two commonly used models. The results show that there are significant differences between measurements and predictions for the case of colloidal size nanoplastics (MAPE>100%). The retarded dispersion caused by the size-exclusion effect was observed to be important in the case of 1.7 mm and 0.4 mm granular media for 300 nm and 1000 nm nanoplastics, reducing the dispersivity and sensitivity to Reynolds number. The methodology in this paper can be adopted in studies on other sizes and shapes of nanoplastic, assisting with predicting the transport and fate of nanoplastic granular media.}, } @article {pmid37723692, year = {2023}, author = {Mamori, H and Nabae, Y and Fukuda, S and Gotoda, H}, title = {Dynamic state of low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {108}, number = {2-2}, pages = {025105}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.108.025105}, pmid = {37723692}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We numerically study the dynamic state of a low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow from the viewpoints of symbolic dynamics and nonlinear forecasting. A low-dimensionally (high-dimensionally) chaotic state of the streamwise velocity fluctuations emerges at a viscous sublayer (logarithmic layer). The possible presence of the chaotic states is clearly identified by orbital instability-based nonlinear forecasting and ordinal partition transition network entropy in combination with the surrogate data method.}, } @article {pmid37690262, year = {2023}, author = {Dong, B and Guo, Y and Yang, J and Yang, X and Wang, L and Huang, D}, title = {Turbulence induced shear controllable synthesis of nano FePO4 irregularly-shaped particles in a counter impinging jet flow T-junction reactor assisted by ultrasound irradiation.}, journal = {Ultrasonics sonochemistry}, volume = {99}, number = {}, pages = {106590}, doi = {10.1016/j.ultsonch.2023.106590}, pmid = {37690262}, issn = {1873-2828}, abstract = {FePO4 (FP) particles with a mesoporous structure amalgamated by nanoscale primary crystals were controllably prepared using an ultrasound-intensified turbulence T-junction microreactor (UTISR). The use of this type of reaction system can effectively enhance the micro-mixing and remarkably improve the mass transfer and chemical reaction rates. Consequently, the synergistic effects of the impinging streams and ultrasonic irradiation on the formation of mesoporous structure of FP nanoparticles have been systematically investigated through experimental validation and CFD simulation. The results revealed that the FP particles with a mesoporous structure can be well synthesised by precisely controlling the operation parameters by applying ultrasound irradiation with the input power in the range of 0-900 W and the impinging stream volumetric flow rate in the range of 17.15-257.22 mL·min[-1]. The findings obtained from the experimental observation and CFD modelling has clearly indicated that there exists a strong correlation between the particle size, morphology, and the local turbulence shear. The application of ultrasonic irradiation can effectively intensify the local turbulence shear in the reactor even at low Reynolds number based on the impinging stream diameter (Re < 2000), leading to an effective reduction in the particle size (from 273.48 to 56.1 nm) and an increase in the specific surface area (from 21.97 to 114.97 m[2]·g[-1]) of FP samples. The FPirregularly-shaped particles prepared by UTISR exhibited a mesoporous structure with a particle size of 56.10 nm, a specific surface area of 114.97 m[2]·g[-1]and a total pore adsorption volume of 0.570 cm[3]·g[-1] when the volumetric flow rate and ultrasound power are 85.74 mL·min[-1]and 600 W, respectively.}, } @article {pmid37689862, year = {2023}, author = {Fuciños, C and Rodríguez-Sanz, A and García-Caamaño, E and Gerbino, E and Torrado, A and Gómez-Zavaglia, A and Rúa, ML}, title = {Microfluidics potential for developing food-grade microstructures through emulsification processes and their application.}, journal = {Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.)}, volume = {172}, number = {}, pages = {113086}, doi = {10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113086}, pmid = {37689862}, issn = {1873-7145}, abstract = {The food sector continues to face challenges in developing techniques to increase the bioavailability of bioactive chemicals. Utilising microstructures capable of encapsulating diverse compounds has been proposed as a technological solution for their transport both in food and into the gastrointestinal tract. The present review discusses the primary elements that influence the emulsification process in microfluidic systems to form different microstructures for food applications. In microfluidic systems, reactions occur within small reaction channels (1-1000 μm), using small amounts of samples and reactants, ca. 102-103 times less than conventional assays. This geometry provides several advantages for emulsion and encapsulating structure production, like less waste generation, lower cost and gentle assays. Also, from a food application perspective, it allows the decrease in particle dispersion, resulting in a highly repeatable and efficient synthesis method that also improves the palatability of the food products into which the encapsulates are incorporated. However, it also entails some particular requirements. It is important to obtain a low Reynolds number (Re < approx. 250) for greater precision in droplet formation. Also, microfluidics requires fluid viscosity typically between 0.3 and 1400 mPa s at 20 °C. So, it is a challenge to find food-grade fluids that can operate at the micro-scale of these systems. Microfluidic systems can be used to synthesise different food-grade microstructures: microemulsions, solid lipid microparticles, microgels, or self-assembled structures like liposomes, niosomes, or polymersomes. Besides, microfluidics is particularly useful for accurately encapsulating bacterial cells to control their delivery and release on the action site. However, despite the significant advancement in these systems' development over the past several years, developing and implementing these systems on an industrial scale remains challenging for the food industry.}, } @article {pmid37676785, year = {2023}, author = {Giurgiu, V and Caridi, GCA and Alipour, M and De Paoli, M and Soldati, A}, title = {The TU Wien Turbulent Water Channel: Flow control loop and three-dimensional reconstruction of anisotropic particle dynamics.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {94}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1063/5.0157490}, pmid = {37676785}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {A horizontal water channel facility was built to study particle dynamics in a turbulent flow. The channel is sufficiently long to produce fully developed turbulence at the test section, and the width-to-height ratio is sufficiently large to avoid the sidewall effect for a large proportion of the cross-section. The system was designed to study the dynamics of complex-shaped particles in wall-bounded turbulence, the characteristics of which can be finely controlled. A maximum bulk velocity of up to 0.8 m s-1 can be achieved, corresponding to a bulk Reynolds number of up to 7 × 104 (shear Reynolds number ≈1580), and flow parameters can be controlled within ±0.1%. The transparent channel design and aluminum structures allow easy optical access, which enables multiple laser and camera arrangements. With the current optical setup, a measurement volume of up to 54 × 14 × 54 mm3 can be imaged and reconstructed with six cameras from the top, bottom, and sides of the channel. Finally, the in-house developed reconstruction and tracking procedure allows us to measure the full motion of complex objects (i.e., shape reconstruction, translational, and rotational motions), and in this instance, it is applied to the case of microscopic, non-isotropic polyamide fibers.}, } @article {pmid37663493, year = {2023}, author = {Zheng, Y and Min, F and Zhu, H}, title = {Study on the Classification Performance of a Novel Wide-Neck Classifier.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {8}, number = {34}, pages = {31237-31245}, pmid = {37663493}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {A novelty-designed wide-neck classifier (WNC) was proposed to enhance the passing ability and classification efficiency of fine particles. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we studied the flow field and velocity distribution in the newly designed WNC. The velocity of the fluid gradually decreased from the wall to the center and from the cylinder to the cone, which facilitates particle classification and thickening. The Reynolds number (Re) and turbulent intensity (I) inside the WNC were discussed. The turbulent intensity increased with increasing feed velocity and overflow outlet diameter and decreased with increasing feed concentration and spigot diameter. The classification of coal slurry was performed to analyze the performance of WNC. The classification efficiency increased with increasing feed velocity but decreased as the feed concentration, spigot diameter, and overflow outlet diameter increased. The predictive models for classification efficiency influenced by the operational and structural parameters were constructed at high correlation coefficients, and the average error of these models was analyzed at 0.28%. Our results can provide valuable insights into the development of mineral classification.}, } @article {pmid37663238, year = {2022}, author = {Beaver, LE and Wu, B and Das, S and Malikopoulos, AA}, title = {A First-Order Approach to Model Simultaneous Control of Multiple Microrobots.}, journal = {... International Conference on Manipulation Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS). International Conference on Manipulation Automation and Robotics at Small Scales}, volume = {2022}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37663238}, abstract = {The control of swarm systems is relatively well understood for simple robotic platforms at the macro scale. However, there are still several unanswered questions about how similar results can be achieved for microrobots. In this paper, we propose a modeling framework based on a dynamic model of magnetized self-propelling Janus microrobots under a global magnetic field. We verify our model experimentally and provide methods that can aim at accurately describing the behavior of microrobots while modeling their simultaneous control. The model can be generalized to other microrobotic platforms in low Reynolds number environments.}, } @article {pmid37660186, year = {2023}, author = {Mishra, NK and Sharma, BK and Sharma, P and Muhammad, T and Pérez, LM}, title = {Entropy generation optimization of cilia regulated MHD ternary hybrid Jeffery nanofluid with Arrhenius activation energy and induced magnetic field.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {14483}, pmid = {37660186}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {SA77210040//Convocatoria Nacional Subvención a Instalación en la Academia Convocatoria Año 2021/ ; }, abstract = {This study deals with the entropy generation analysis of synthetic cilia using a ternary hybrid nanofluid (Al-Cu-Fe2O3/Blood) flow through an inclined channel. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effects of entropy generation optimization, heat, and mass transfer on ternary hybrid nanofluid passing through an inclined channel in the proximity of the induced magnetic field. The novelty of the current study is present in studying the combined effect of viscous dissipation, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, exponential heat sink/source, porous medium, endothermic-exothermic chemical reactions, and activation energy in the proximity of induced magnetic field is examined. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriate transformations. Applying the low Reynolds number and the long-wavelength approximation, resultant ODEs are numerically solved using shooting technique via BVP5C in MATLAB. The velocity, temperature, concentration, and induced magnetism profiles are visually discussed and graphically analyzed for various fluid flow parameters. Graphical analysis of physical interest quantities like mass transfer rate, heat transfer rate, entropy generation optimization, and skin friction coefficient are also graphically discussed. The entropy generation improves for enhancing values of Reynolds number, solutal Grashof number, heat sink/source parameter, Brinkman number, magnetic Prandtl number, and endothermic-exothermic reaction parameter while the reverse effect is noticed for chemical reaction and induced magnetic field parameter. The findings of this study can be applied to enhance heat transfer efficiency in biomedical devices, optimizing cooling systems, designing efficient energy conversion processes, and spanning from renewable energy technologies to aerospace propulsion systems.}, } @article {pmid37659126, year = {2023}, author = {Adeyemi, I and Meribout, M and Khezzar, L and Kharoua, N and AlHammadi, K and Tiwari, V}, title = {Experimental and numerical analysis of the emulsification of oil droplets in water with high frequency focused ultrasound.}, journal = {Ultrasonics sonochemistry}, volume = {99}, number = {}, pages = {106566}, doi = {10.1016/j.ultsonch.2023.106566}, pmid = {37659126}, issn = {1873-2828}, abstract = {Focused high frequency ultrasound emulsification provides significant benefits such as enhanced stability, finer droplets, elevated focal pressure, lowered power usage, minimal surfactant usage and improved dispersion. Hence, in this study, the high frequency focused ultrasound emulsification of oil droplets in water was investigated through experiments and numerical modeling. The effect of transducer power (74-400 W), frequency (1.1 and 3.3 MHz), oil viscosity (10.6-512 mPas), interfacial tension (25-250 mN/m) and initial droplet radius (10-750 µm) on the emulsification process was assessed. In addition, the mechanism of droplet break-up was examined. The experiments showed that the acoustic pressure increased from 9.01 MPa to 26.24 MPa as the power was raised from 74 W to 400 W. At 74 W, the Weber number (We) at the surface and focal zone are 0.5 and 939.8, respectively. However, at 400 W, the We at the transducer surface and focal region reached 2.7 and 6451.8, respectively. Thus, bulb-like and weak catastrophic break up dominates the emulsification at 74 W. The catastrophic break up at 400 W is more vigorous because the ultrasound disruptive stress and We are higher. The time for the catastrophic dispersion of a single droplet at We = 939.8 and We = 6451.8 are 1.01 ms and 0.45 ms, respectively. The numerical model gives reasonable prediction of the trend and magnitude of the experimental acoustic pressure data. The surface and focal pressure amplitudes were estimated with errors of ∼ 6.5% and ∼ 10%, respectively. The predicted Reynolds number (Re) between 74 and 400 W were 8442 and 21364, respectively. The acoustic pressure at the focal region were ∼ 26 MPa and ∼ 69 MPa at frequencies of 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz, respectively. Moreover, the acoustic velocities were ∼ 16 m/s and ∼ 42 m/s at 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz, respectively. Hence, smaller droplets could be attained at higher frequency excitation under intense catastrophic modes. The Ohnesorge number (Oh) increased from 0.062 to 3.12 with the viscosity between 10.6 mPas and 530 mPas. However, the We remained constant at 856.14 for the studied range. Generally, higher critical We is required for the different breakup stages as the viscosity ratio is elevated. Moreover, the We increased from 25.68 to 1284.22 as the droplet radius was elevated from 15 to 750 µm. Larger droplets allow for higher possibility and intensity of breakup due to diminished viscous and interfacial resistance.}, } @article {pmid37655637, year = {2023}, author = {Gladman, NW and Askew, GN}, title = {The hydrodynamics of jet propulsion swimming in hatchling and juvenile European common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, Linnaeus (1758).}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.246225}, pmid = {37655637}, issn = {1477-9145}, abstract = {Cuttlefish swim using jet propulsion, taking a small volume of fluid into the mantle cavity before it is expelled through the siphon to generate thrust. Jet propulsion swimming has been shown to be more metabolically expensive than undulatory swimming, which has been suggested to be due to the lower efficiency of jet propulsion. The whole cycle propulsive efficiency of cephalopod molluscs ranges from 38-76%, indicating that in some instances jet propulsion can be relatively efficient. Here, we determined the hydrodynamics of hatchling and juvenile cuttlefish during jet propulsion swimming to understand the characteristics of their jets, and whether their whole cycle propulsive efficiency changes during development. Cuttlefish were found to utilise two jet types: isolated jet vortices (termed jet mode I) and elongated jets (leading edge vortex ring followed by a trailing jet; termed jet mode II). The use of these jet modes differed between the age classes, with newly hatched animals nearly exclusively utilising mode I jets, while juveniles showed no strong preferences. Whole cycle propulsive efficiency was found to be high, ranging from 72-80%, and did not differ between age-classes. During development, Strouhal number decreased as Reynolds number increased, which is consistent with animals adjusting their jetting behaviour in order to maximise whole cycle propulsive efficiency and locomotor performance. While jet propulsion swimming can have a relatively high energetic cost, in cuttlefish and nautilus, both neutrally buoyant species, the whole cycle propulsive efficiency is actually relatively high.}, } @article {pmid37651341, year = {2023}, author = {Sun, B and Zheng, W and Tong, A and Di, D and Li, Z}, title = {Prediction of the roughness coefficient for drainage pipelines with sediments using GA-BPNN.}, journal = {Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research}, volume = {88}, number = {4}, pages = {1111-1130}, doi = {10.2166/wst.2023.249}, pmid = {37651341}, issn = {0273-1223}, abstract = {Accurate prediction of the roughness coefficient of sediment-containing drainage pipes can help engineers optimize urban drainage systems. In this paper, the variation of the roughness coefficient of circular drainage pipes containing different thicknesses of sediments under different flows and slopes was studied by experimental measurements. Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm-Back Propagation Neural Network (GA-BPNN) were used to predict the roughness coefficient. To explore the potential of artificial neural networks to predict the roughness coefficient, a formula based on drag segmentation was established to calculate the roughness coefficient. The results show that the variation trend of the roughness coefficient with flow, hydraulic radius, and Reynolds number is consistent. With the increase of the three parameters, the roughness coefficient decreases overall. Compared to the traditional empirical formula, the BPNN model and the GA-BPNN model increased the determination factors in the testing stage by 3.47 and 3.99%, respectively, and reduced the mean absolute errors by 41.18 and 47.06%, respectively. The study provides an intelligent method for accurate prediction of sediment-containing drainage pipes roughness coefficient.}, } @article {pmid37646074, year = {2023}, author = {Pandian, SK and Broom, M and Balzan, M and Willmott, GR}, title = {Influence of rheology and micropatterns on spreading, retraction and fingering of an impacting drop.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3sm00944k}, pmid = {37646074}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {Rheology and surface microstructure affect many drop impact processes, including in emerging printing and patterning applications. This study reports on experiments systematically addressing the influence of these parameters on drop impacts. The experiments involved drop impacts of water, glycerol, and shear-thinning carbopol solutions on ten different microstructured surfaces, captured using high-speed photography. The impact Weber number (We) was varied from 70 to 350, and the microstructures consisted of 20 μm wide pillars with circular and square cross sections arranged in square arrays. The data focus on maximum spreading, retraction rates, threshold conditions for asymmetric (non-circular) spreading, and fingers protruding from the spreading rim. The extent of spreading was reduced by the presence of micropillars, and was well-explained using a hybrid scaling model. The drop retraction rate ((?)) showed moderate agreement with the inertial regime scaling (?) ∝ We[-0.50], but did decrease with effective viscosity. Retraction was slower when the contact line was pinned on surfaces that were flat or had relatively tall or closely-spaced pillars, and was disrupted by drop break-up at We ≳ 250 for low-viscosity fluids. Impact velocities at the onset of asymmetric spreading had weak dependence on viscosity. Fingers were more numerous for greater We, lower effective viscosity, lower pillar height, and for pillars with square cross-sections. Fingers were favoured in directions parallel to the rows of the pillar array, especially near the onset of finger formation. Consistent comparisons between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were enabled by calculating an effective Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid37631640, year = {2023}, author = {Gao, S and Rui, X and Zeng, X and Zhou, J}, title = {EWOD Chip with Micro-Barrier Electrode for Simultaneous Enhanced Mixing during Transportation.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {16}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/s23167102}, pmid = {37631640}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {62274039//The National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {Digital microfluidic platforms have been extensively studied in biology. However, achieving efficient mixing of macromolecules in microscale, low Reynolds number fluids remains a major challenge. To address this challenge, this study presents a novel design solution based on dielectric electro-wetting (EWOD) by optimizing the geometry of the transport electrode. The new design integrates micro-barriers on the electrodes to generate vortex currents that promote mixing during droplet transport. This design solution requires only two activation signals, minimizing the number of pins required. The mixing performance of the new design was evaluated by analyzing the degree of mixing inside the droplet and quantifying the motion of the internal particles. In addition, the rapid mixing capability of the new platform was demonstrated by successfully mixing the sorbitol solution with the detection solution and detecting the resulting reaction products. The experimental results show that the transfer electrode with a micro-barrier enables rapid mixing of liquids with a six-fold increase in mixing efficiency, making it ideal for the development of EWOD devices.}, } @article {pmid37630135, year = {2023}, author = {Fu, Q and Liu, Z and Cao, S and Wang, Z and Liu, G}, title = {Topology-Optimized Micromixer Design with Enhanced Reverse Flow to Increase Mixing Efficiency.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14081599}, pmid = {37630135}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In this work, a serpentine mixing unit model based on topology optimization is proposed to enhance the reverse flow in both horizontal and vertical directions. The increase in reverse flow in both directions can enhance the chaotic advection phenomenon, leading to a rapid increase in the mixing index. The proposed mixing unit model is applied in a T-shaped micromixer to create a new micromixer design, named TOD. Numerical simulations of TOD are performed using Comsol Multiphysics software to analyze the characteristics of the liquid flow, mixing surface, and pressure drop. The simulation results confirm that TOD has an outstanding mixing performance. By widening the surface area of contact and enhancing the chaotic advection phenomenon, TOD shows an excellent mixing performance at both a high and low Reynolds number, making it a promising micromixer design. For Re > 5, the mixing indexes of TOD are all beyond 90%.}, } @article {pmid37630030, year = {2023}, author = {Knüppel, F and Sun, A and Wurm, FH and Hussong, J and Torner, B}, title = {Effect of Particle Migration on the Stress Field in Microfluidic Flows of Blood Analog Fluids at High Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14081494}, pmid = {37630030}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {469384587//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; }, abstract = {In the present paper, we investigate how the reductions in shear stresses and pressure losses in microfluidic gaps are directly linked to the local characteristics of cell-free layers (CFLs) at channel Reynolds numbers relevant to ventricular assist device (VAD) applications. For this, detailed studies of local particle distributions of a particulate blood analog fluid are combined with wall shear stress and pressure loss measurements in two complementary set-ups with identical flow geometry, bulk Reynolds numbers and particle Reynolds numbers. For all investigated particle volume fractions of up to 5%, reductions in the stress and pressure loss were measured in comparison to a flow of an equivalent homogeneous fluid (without particles). We could explain this due to the formation of a CFL ranging from 10 to 20 μm. Variations in the channel Reynolds number between Re = 50 and 150 did not lead to measurable changes in CFL heights or stress reductions for all investigated particle volume fractions. These measurements were used to describe the complete chain of how CFL formation leads to a stress reduction, which reduces the apparent viscosity of the suspension and results in the Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect. This chain of causes was investigated for the first time for flows with high Reynolds numbers (Re∼100), representing a flow regime which can be found in the narrow gaps of a VAD.}, } @article {pmid37622989, year = {2023}, author = {Gojon, R and Parisot-Dupuis, H and Mellot, B and Jardin, T}, title = {Aeroacoustic radiation of low Reynolds number rotors in interaction with beams.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {154}, number = {2}, pages = {1248-1260}, doi = {10.1121/10.0020672}, pmid = {37622989}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {The radiation characteristics of rotor-beam interaction noise are studied experimentally for low Reynolds number small-scale rotors in interaction with beams of different shapes, sizes, and downstream positions. The number of blades ranges from two to four. For the two-bladed rotor, the presence of the beam has no effect on the mean aerodynamic performance. Moreover, the blade passing frequency (BPF) and the high frequency broadband noise (BBN) appear not to be affected by the presence of the beam. On the contrary, the magnitude of the 2×BPF-25×BPF harmonics increases up to 30 dB compared to the case without beam, with an envelope consisting of two humps: one centered around 5×BPF and another around 20×BPF-25×BPF. For the first hump, a dipole-like pattern with minimal amplitude aligned with the beam can be observed, whereas another dipole-like pattern is observed for the higher frequency hump, but with a minimal amplitude over all the rotor disk plane. Compared to the two-bladed rotor, the presence of the beam has an effect on the mean aerodynamic performance of the three- and four-bladed rotors, increasing both the torque and the thrust at iso-rotational speed. This change leads to a change in the directivity of the BPF tone that decreases at a latitude angle of θ=0° and increases at a latitude angle of θ=40°. Moreover, the same two competing humps are observed on the BPF harmonics envelope. Interestingly, the frequency range over which an amplification of the harmonic magnitude is observed seems not to be influenced by the number of blades. Finally, the magnitude of the low frequency hump increases with the beam diameter, the rotational speed, and the number of blades but decreases with the rotor-beam distance. That of the high frequency hump increases also with the rotational speed and the number of blades, but not anymore with the beam diameter, and reaches a maximum value when the rotor-beam distance is at an intermediate distance of L = 25 mm. This hump is also influenced, to a lesser extent, by the shape of the beam. The two different evolutions permit us to conclude that the noise generation mechanisms leading to the two humps must be different. Scaling laws of the acoustical energy are derived for all those parameters. As already done for previous experiments without beam, all of the results are made available as an open database, at https://dataverse.isae-supaero.fr/.}, } @article {pmid37611057, year = {2023}, author = {Cui, Z and Wang, Y and Zhang, S and Wang, T and den Toonder, JMJ}, title = {Miniaturized metachronal magnetic artificial cilia.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {35}, pages = {e2304519120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2304519120}, pmid = {37611057}, issn = {1091-6490}, support = {833214//EC | European Research Council (ERC)/ ; 833214//EC | European Research Council (ERC)/ ; 833214//EC | European Research Council (ERC)/ ; 833214//EC | European Research Council (ERC)/ ; }, abstract = {Biological cilia, hairlike organelles on cell surfaces, often exhibit collective wavelike motion known as metachrony, which helps generating fluid flow. Inspired by nature, researchers have developed artificial cilia as microfluidic actuators, exploring several methods to mimic the metachrony. However, reported methods are difficult to miniaturize because they require either control of individual cilia properties or the generation of a complex external magnetic field. We introduce a concept that generates metachronal motion of magnetic artificial cilia (MAC), even though the MAC are all identical, and the applied external magnetic field is uniform. This is achieved by integrating a paramagnetic substructure in the substrate underneath the MAC. Uniquely, we can create both symplectic and antiplectic metachrony by changing the relative positions of MAC and substructure. We demonstrate the flow generation of the two metachronal motions in both high and low Reynolds number conditions. Our research marks a significant milestone by breaking the size limitation barrier in metachronal artificial cilia. This achievement not only showcases the potential of nature-inspired engineering but also opens up a host of exciting opportunities for designing and optimizing microsystems with enhanced fluid manipulation capabilities.}, } @article {pmid37607926, year = {2023}, author = {Barbhuiya, NH and Yodh, AG and Mishra, CK}, title = {Direction-dependent dynamics of colloidal particle pairs and the Stokes-Einstein relation in quasi-two-dimensional fluids.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {14}, number = {1}, pages = {5109}, pmid = {37607926}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {Hydrodynamic interactions are important for diverse fluids, especially those with low Reynolds number such as microbial and particle-laden suspensions, and proteins diffusing in membranes. Unfortunately, while far-field (asymptotic) hydrodynamic interactions are fully understood in two- and three-dimensions, near-field interactions are not, and thus our understanding of motions in dense fluid suspensions is still lacking. In this contribution, we experimentally explore the hydrodynamic correlations between particles in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal fluids in the near-field. Surprisingly, the measured displacement and relaxation of particle pairs in the body frame exhibit direction-dependent dynamics that can be connected quantitatively to the measured near-field hydrodynamic interactions. These findings, in turn, suggest a mechanism for how and when hydrodynamics can lead to a breakdown of the ubiquitous Stokes-Einstein relation (SER). We observe this breakdown, and we show that the direction-dependent breakdown of the SER is ameliorated along directions where hydrodynamic correlations are smallest. In total, the work uncovers significant ramifications of near-field hydrodynamics on transport and dynamic restructuring of fluids in two-dimensions.}, } @article {pmid37595246, year = {2023}, author = {Bätge, T and Fouxon, I and Wilczek, M}, title = {Quantitative Prediction of Sling Events in Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {131}, number = {5}, pages = {054001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.054001}, pmid = {37595246}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Collisional growth of droplets, such as occurring in warm clouds, is known to be significantly enhanced by turbulence. Whether particles collide depends on their flow history, in particular on their encounters with highly intermittent small-scale turbulent structures, which despite their rarity can dominate the overall collision rate. Here, we develop a quantitative criterion for sling events based on the velocity gradient history along particle paths. We show by a combination of theory and simulations that the problem reduces to a one-dimensional localization problem as encountered in condensed matter physics. The reduction demonstrates that the creation of slings is controlled by the minimal real eigenvalue of the velocity gradient tensor. We use fully resolved turbulence simulations to confirm our predictions and study their Stokes and Reynolds number dependence. We also discuss extrapolations to the parameter range relevant for typical cloud droplets, showing that sling events at high Reynolds numbers are enhanced by an order of magnitude for small Stokes numbers. Thus, intermittency could be a significant ingredient in the collisional growth of rain droplets.}, } @article {pmid37585463, year = {2023}, author = {Tian, Y and Woodward, M and Stepanov, M and Fryer, C and Hyett, C and Livescu, D and Chertkov, M}, title = {Lagrangian large eddy simulations via physics-informed machine learning.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {34}, pages = {e2213638120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2213638120}, pmid = {37585463}, issn = {1091-6490}, support = {20180059DR//DOE | NNSA | LDRD | Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)/ ; }, abstract = {High-Reynolds number homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) is fully described within the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which are notoriously difficult to solve numerically. Engineers, interested primarily in describing turbulence at a reduced range of resolved scales, have designed heuristics, known as large eddy simulation (LES). LES is described in terms of the temporally evolving Eulerian velocity field defined over a spatial grid with the mean-spacing correspondent to the resolved scale. This classic Eulerian LES depends on assumptions about effects of subgrid scales on the resolved scales. Here, we take an alternative approach and design LES heuristics stated in terms of Lagrangian particles moving with the flow. Our Lagrangian LES, thus L-LES, is described by equations generalizing the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formulation with extended parametric and functional freedom, which is then resolved via Machine Learning training on Lagrangian data from direct numerical simulations of the NS equations. The L-LES model includes physics-informed parameterization and functional form, by combining physics-based parameters and physics-inspired Neural Networks to describe the evolution of turbulence within the resolved range of scales. The subgrid-scale contributions are modeled separately with physical constraints to account for the effects from unresolved scales. We build the resulting model under the differentiable programming framework to facilitate efficient training. We experiment with loss functions of different types, including physics-informed ones accounting for statistics of Lagrangian particles. We show that our L-LES model is capable of reproducing Eulerian and unique Lagrangian turbulence structures and statistics over a range of turbulent Mach numbers.}, } @article {pmid37583155, year = {2023}, author = {Keirsbulck, L and Cadot, O and Basley, J and Lippert, M}, title = {Base suction, entrainment flux, and wake modes in the vortex formation region at the rear of a three-dimensional blunt bluff body.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {108}, number = {1-2}, pages = {015101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.108.015101}, pmid = {37583155}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A slitted base cavity of constant depth with a varying filling ratio 0≤R_{f}≤100% is experimentally investigated to reduce the form drag of a three-dimensional blunt body (the so-called squareback Ahmed body) at a Reynolds number Re=2.89×10^{5}. The drag reduction is achieved by a decrease of base suction (or, equivalently, the increase of pressure at the base). The plain cavity (R_{f}=100%) reduces the base suction by 22% compared to the case with no cavity (R_{f}=0). All intermediate filling ratio are obtained by the enlargement of the slits, initially having a zero width for the plain cavity case. It is shown that the gradual base suction change can be related to the level of the entrainment flux of the free shear layers developing from the rear separation and to the suppression of the transverse steady asymmetric instability of the wake. The model of the vortex formation region length of Gerrard [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 401 (1966)0022-112010.1017/S0022112066001721] is shown to provide an insightful interpretation of the drag reduction mechanism using ventilated base cavities.}, } @article {pmid37583143, year = {2023}, author = {Maji, M and Eswaran, KS and Ghosh, S and Seshasayanan, K and Shukla, V}, title = {Equivalence of nonequilibrium ensembles: Two-dimensional turbulence with a dual cascade.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {108}, number = {1-2}, pages = {015102}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.108.015102}, pmid = {37583143}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We examine the conjecture of equivalence of nonequilibrium ensembles for turbulent flows in two dimensions in a dual-cascade setup. We construct a formally time-reversible Navier-Stokes equation in two dimensions by imposing global constraints of energy and enstrophy conservation. A comparative study of the statistical properties of its solutions with those obtained from the standard Navier-Stokes equations clearly shows that a formally time-reversible system is able to reproduce the features of a two-dimensional turbulent flow. Statistical quantities based on one- and two-point measurements show an excellent agreement between the two systems for the inverse- and direct-cascade regions. Moreover, we find that the conjecture holds very well for two-dimensional turbulent flows with both conserved energy and enstrophy at finite Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid37576259, year = {2023}, author = {Uwadoka, O and Adelaja, AO and Olakoyejo, OT and Fadipe, OL and Efe, S}, title = {Numerical study of heat transfer, pressure drop and entropy production characteristics in inclined heat exchangers with uniform heat flux using mango bark/CO2 nanofluid.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {8}, pages = {e18694}, pmid = {37576259}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {For sustainable low-carbon cities, using sustainable urban energy system solutions is imperative. CO2-based bionanofluid is one proposed energy system solution that is sustainable and environmentally friendly. This paper examines the thermal-hydraulic and entropy production properties of mango bark/CO2 nanofluid for industrial-inclined gas cooling applications. The influence of gravitational force (in terms of tube inclination angle), volume fraction, and Reynolds number on the heat transfer, pressure drop, and entropy production of CO2-based mango bark nanofluids in laminar flow through a circular aluminum tube are numerically studied. The bionanofluid flows through a tube with an inner radius of 2.25 mm, a length of 970.0 mm, and an initial temperature of 320.0 K. A constant heat flux of -10.0 W/m[2] is applied to the flow at its walls. The laminar flow regime with Reynolds numbers of 100, 400, 700, and 1000 are subjected to flow inclinations of ±90°, ±60°, ±45°, ±30°, and 0° and bionanofluid volume fractions of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. Results show that ±45° tube inclination angle offers the optimal heat transfer coefficient, maximum pressure drop, and minimum total entropy production rates for Re > 100; however, for Re = 100, these occur at the inclination angle of -30° and +60°. The pressure drop shows less sensitivity to the inclination angle; however, it offers peak values at the same inclination angles as the heat transfer coefficient for the respective Reynolds number values. The maximum thermal enhancements due to gravitational effect are 42%, 93.98%, 121.28%, and 150% for Reynolds numbers of 100, 400, 700, and 1000, respectively, while that due to nanofluid volume fraction are less than 16%.}, } @article {pmid37567889, year = {2023}, author = {Mohamed, RA and Abo-Dahab, SM and Abd-Alla, AM and Soliman, MS}, title = {Magnetohydrodynamic double-diffusive peristaltic flow of radiating fourth-grade nanofluid through a porous medium with viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {13096}, pmid = {37567889}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This article focuses on determining how to double diffusion affects the non-Newtonian fourth-grade nanofluids peristaltic motion within a symmetrical vertical elastic channel supported by a suitable porous medium as well as, concentrating on the impact of a few significant actual peculiarities on the development of the peristaltic liquid, such as rotation, initial pressure, non-linear thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption in the presence of viscous dissipation and joule heating with noting that the fluid inside the channel is subject to an externally induced magnetic field, giving it electromagnetic properties. Moreover, the constraints of the long-wavelength approximation and neglecting the wave number along with the low Reynolds number have been used to transform the nonlinear partial differential equations in two dimensions into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in one dimension, which serve as the basic governing equations for fluid motion. The suitable numerical method for solving the new system of ordinary differential equations is the Runge-Kutta fourth-order numerical method with the shooting technique using the code MATLAB program. Using this code, a 2D and 3D graphical analysis was done to show how each physical parameter affected the distributions of axial velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, solutal concentration, pressure gradients, induced magnetic field, magnetic forces, and finally the trapping phenomenon. Under the influence of rotation [Formula: see text], heat Grashof number [Formula: see text], solutal Grashof number [Formula: see text], and initial stress [Formula: see text], the axial velocity distribution [Formula: see text] changes from increasing to decreasing, according to some of the study's findings. On the other hand, increasing values of nonlinear thermal radiation [Formula: see text] and temperature ratio [Formula: see text] have a negative impact on the temperature distribution [Formula: see text] but a positive impact on the distributions of nanoparticle volume fraction [Formula: see text] and solutal concentration [Formula: see text]. Darcy number [Formula: see text] and mean fluid rate [Formula: see text] also had a positive effect on the distribution of pressure gradients, making it an increasing function.}, } @article {pmid37535112, year = {2023}, author = {Mounkaila Noma, D and Dagois-Bohy, S and Millet, S and Ben Hadid, H and Botton, V and Henry, D}, title = {Nonlinear evolution of viscoplastic film flows down an inclined plane.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {46}, number = {8}, pages = {68}, pmid = {37535112}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {In this article, we experimentally investigate the nonlinear behaviour of a viscoplastic film flow down an inclined plane. We focus on the nonlinear instabilities that appear as roll waves. Roll waves are generated by perturbing a permanent flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid (Carbopol 980) at low frequencies. To determine the local thickness of the film, we used a laser sensor and a camera to globally capture the transverse shape of the waves. For a regular forcing, the results show the existence of different regimes. First, we observe primary instabilities below the cut-off frequency at the entrance of the channel. After the exponential growth of the wave in the linear regime, we recognise the nonlinear dynamics with the existence of finite amplitude waves. This finite amplitude depends on the frequency, the Reynolds number and the inclination angle. The results show that this instability is supercritical. At moderate Reynolds numbers, the finite 2-D waves become sensitive to transverse perturbations, due to a secondary instability, and become 3-D waves. The experimental results illustrate a phenomenology of viscoplastic film flows similar to Newtonian fluids, except for the capillary waves.}, } @article {pmid37519826, year = {2023}, author = {Kechagidis, K and Owen, B and Guillou, L and Tse, H and Di Carlo, D and Krüger, T}, title = {Numerical investigation of the dynamics of a rigid spherical particle in a vortical cross-slot flow at moderate inertia.}, journal = {Microsystems & nanoengineering}, volume = {9}, number = {}, pages = {100}, pmid = {37519826}, issn = {2055-7434}, abstract = {The study of flow and particle dynamics in microfluidic cross-slot channels is of high relevance for lab-on-a-chip applications. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of a rigid spherical particle in a cross-slot junction for a channel height-to-width ratio of 0.6 and at a Reynolds number of 120 for which a steady vortex exists in the junction area. Using an in-house immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann code, we analyse the effect of the entry position of the particle in the junction and the particle size on the dynamics and trajectory shape of the particle. We find that the dynamics of the particle depend strongly on its lateral entry position in the junction and weakly on its vertical entry position; particles that enter close to the centre show trajectory oscillations. Larger particles have longer residence times in the junction and tend to oscillate less due to their confinement. Our work contributes to the understanding of particle dynamics in intersecting flows and enables the design of optimised geometries for cytometry and particle manipulation.}, } @article {pmid37518499, year = {2023}, author = {Yokoo, H and Yamamoto, M and Matsumoto, T and Yamada, T and Kanda, T}, title = {Study of the reverse transition in pipe flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {12333}, pmid = {37518499}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In the reverse transition in pipe flow, turbulent flow changes to less disturbed laminar flow. The entropy of the flow appears to decrease. This study examined the reverse transition experimentally and theoretically using entropy change and momentum balance models, not in terms of disturbance in the flow. The reverse transition was accomplished by decreasing the Reynolds number. The transitions approximately correlated with local Reynolds numbers. The initial Reynolds number of the transition became larger, and the pressure at low Reynolds numbers was greater than in ordinary pipe flow. These behaviours were caused by turbulent flow in the pipe undergoing a reverse transition. We showed that the entropy did not decrease in the reverse transition by including the entropy due to friction in the development region.}, } @article {pmid37512778, year = {2023}, author = {Mihai, I and Suciu, C and Picus, CM}, title = {Assessment of Vapor Formation Rate and Phase Shift between Pressure Gradient and Liquid Velocity in Flat Mini Heat Pipes as a Function of Internal Structure.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14071468}, pmid = {37512778}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Flat mini heat pipes (FMHPs) are often used in cooling systems for various power electronic components, as they rapidly dissipate high heat flux densities. The main objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate whether differences in the rate of vapor formation occur on an internal structure containing trapezoidal microchannels and porous sintered copper powder material. Several parameters, such as hydraulic diameter and fluid velocity through the material, as a function of the internal structure porosity, were determined by calculation for a steady state regime. Reynolds number was determined as a function of porosity, according to Darcy's law, and the Nusselt number was calculated. Since the flow is Darcy-type through the porous medium inside the FMHP, the Darcy friction factor was calculated using five methods: Colebrook, Darcy-Weisbach, Swamee-Jain, Blasius, and Haaland. After experimental tests, it was found that when the porous and trapezoidal microchannel layers are wetted at the same time, the vaporization progresses at a faster rate in the porous material, and the duration of the process is shorter. This recommends the use of such an internal structure in FMHPs since the manufacturing technology is simpler, the materials are cheaper, and the heat flux transport capacity is higher.}, } @article {pmid37512729, year = {2023}, author = {Ray, DR and Das, DK}, title = {Simulations of Flows via CFD in Microchannels for Characterizing Entrance Region and Developing New Correlations for Hydrodynamic Entrance Length.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14071418}, pmid = {37512729}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Devices with microchannels are relatively new, and many correlations are not yet developed to design them efficiently. In microchannels, the flow regime is primarily laminar, where entrance length may occupy a significant section of the flow channel. Therefore, several computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed in this research to characterize the developing flow regime. The new correlations of entrance length were developed from a vast number of numerical results obtained from these simulations. A three-dimensional laminar flow for 37 Reynolds numbers (0.1, 0.2, …, 1, 2, …, 10, 20, …, 100, 200, …, 1000), primarily in low regime with water flow through six rectangular microchannels (aspect ratio: 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, 0.2, 0.125), has been modeled, conducting 222 simulations to characterize flow developments and ascertain progressive velocity profile shapes. Examination of the fully developed flow condition was considered using traditional criteria such as velocity and incremental pressure drop number. Additionally, a new criterion was presented based on fRe. Numerical results from the present simulations were validated by comparing the fully developed velocity profile, friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length for Re > 100 in rectangular channels, for which accurate data are available in the literature. There is a need for hydrodynamic entrance length correlations in a low Reynolds number regime (Re < 100). So, the model was run numerous times to generate a vast amount of numerical data that yielded two new correlations based on the velocity and fRe criteria.}, } @article {pmid37507561, year = {2023}, author = {Singh, S and Suman, S and Mitra, S and Kumar, M}, title = {Optimization of a novel trapezoidal staggered ribs configuration for enhancement of a solar air heater performance using CFD.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37507561}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {A novel transverse trapezoidal staggered ribs configuration as artificial roughness is investigated using CFD to understand the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviors for improving the performance of a solar air heater. In addition, experimental validation of Nusselt numbers for smooth duct against CFD results is established. The staggered ribs arrangement outperforms the continuous ribs and insights obtained from the thermal-fluid flow behaviors are further applied to optimize the staggered arrangements of the rib. Reynolds number Re is varied from 5000 to 24,000, and rib parameters are optimized with a special focus on understanding the effects of discontinuous rib width (w) and gap width (g). Two widely studied shapes of rib, namely, cylindrical and rectangular, are also investigated for the transverse staggered arrangement with the same optimized parameters for the comparison of thermo-hydraulic performances. Trapezoidal ribs having discontinuous rib width of 50 mm and gap width of 10 mm give the maximum thermo-hydraulic performance of 1.57 at Reynolds number of 5000. The optimized staggered trapezoidal ribs outperform the staggered cylindrical and rectangular ribs. However, staggered rectangular ribs give the highest increase in the Nusselt number and these may be preferred for application when pressure drop is not of concern.}, } @article {pmid37506216, year = {2023}, author = {Shinder, II and Johnson, AN and Filla, BJ and Khromchenko, VB and Moldover, MR and Boyd, J and Wright, JD and Stoup, J}, title = {Non-nulling protocols for fast, accurate, 3-D velocity measurements in stacks.}, journal = {Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)}, volume = {73}, number = {8}, pages = {600-617}, doi = {10.1080/10962247.2023.2218827}, pmid = {37506216}, issn = {2162-2906}, abstract = {The authors present protocols for making fast, accurate, 3D velocity measurements in the stacks of coal-fired power plants. The measurements are traceable to internationally-recognized standards; therefore, they provide a rigorous basis for measuring and/or regulating the emissions from stacks. The authors used novel, five-hole, hemispherical, differential-pressure probes optimized for non-nulling (no-probe rotation) measurements. The probes resist plugging from ash and water droplets. Integrating the differential pressures for only 5 seconds determined the axial velocity Va with an expanded relative uncertainty Ur(Va) ≤ 2% of the axial velocity at the probe's location, the flow's pitch (α) and yaw (β) angles with expanded uncertainties U(α) = U(β) = 1 °, and the static pressure ps with Ur(ps) = 0.1% of the static pressure. This accuracy was achieved 1) by calibrating each probe in a wind tunnel at 130, strategically-chosen values of (Va, α, β) spanning the conditions found in the majority of stacks (|α| ≤ 20 °; |β| ≤ 40 °; 4.5 m/s ≤ Va ≤27 m/s), and 2) by using a long-forgotten definition of the pseudo-dynamic pressure that scales with the dynamic pressure. The resulting calibration functions span the probe-diameter Reynolds number range from 7,600 to 45,000.Implications: The continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) that measure the flue gas flow rate in coal-fired power plant smokestacks are calibrated (at least) annually by a velocity profiling method. The stack axial velocity profile is measured by traversing S-type pitot probes (or one of the other EPA-sanctioned pitot probes) across two orthogonal, diametric chords in the stack cross-section. The average area-weighted axial velocity calculated from the pitot traverse quantifies the accuracy of the CEMS flow monitor. Therefore, the flow measurement accuracy of coal-fired power plants greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depends on the accuracy of pitot probe velocity measurements. Coal-fired power plants overwhelmingly calibrate CEMS flow monitors using S-type pitot probes. Almost always, stack testers measure the velocity without rotating or nulling the probe (i.e., the non-nulling method). These 1D non-nulling velocity measurements take significantly less time than the corresponding 2D nulling measurements (or 3D nulling measurements for other probe types). However, the accuracy of the 1D non-nulling velocity measurements made using S-type probes depends on the pitch and yaw angles of the flow. Measured axial velocities are accurate at pitch and yaw angles near zero, but the accuracy degrades at larger pitch and yaw angles.The authors developed a 5-hole hemispherical pitot probe that accurately measures the velocity vector in coal-fired smokestacks without needing to rotate or null the probe. This non-nulling, 3D probe is designed with large diameter pressure ports to prevent water droplets (or particulates) from obstructing its pressure ports when applied in stack flow measurement applications. This manuscript presents a wind tunnel calibration procedure to determine the non-nulling calibration curves for 1) dynamic pressure; 2) pitch angle; 3) yaw angle; and 4) static pressure. These calibration curves are used to determine axial velocities from 6 m/s to 27 m/s, yaw angles between ±40°, and pitch angles between ±20°. The uncertainties at the 95% confidence limit for axial velocity, yaw angle, and pitch angle are 2% (or less), 1°, and 1°, respectively. Therefore, in contrast to existing EPA-sanctioned probes, the non-nulling hemispherical probe provides fast, low uncertainty velocity measurements independent of the pitch and yaw angles of the stack flow.}, } @article {pmid37505953, year = {2023}, author = {Küchler, C and Bewley, GP and Bodenschatz, E}, title = {Universal Velocity Statistics in Decaying Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {131}, number = {2}, pages = {024001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.024001}, pmid = {37505953}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {In turbulent flows, kinetic energy is transferred from large spatial scales to small ones, where it is converted to heat by viscosity. For strong turbulence, i.e., high Reynolds numbers, Kolmogorov conjectured in 1941 that this energy transfer is dominated by inertial forces at intermediate spatial scales. Since Kolmogorov's conjecture, the velocity difference statistics in this so-called inertial range have been expected to follow universal power laws for which theoretical predictions have been refined over the years. Here we present experimental results over an unprecedented range of Reynolds numbers in a well-controlled wind tunnel flow produced in the Max Planck Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel. We find that the measured second-order velocity difference statistics become independent of the Reynolds number, suggesting a universal behavior of decaying turbulence. However, we do not observe power laws even at the highest Reynolds number, i.e., at turbulence levels otherwise only attainable in atmospheric flows. Our results point to a Reynolds number-independent logarithmic correction to the classical power law for decaying turbulence that calls for theoretical understanding.}, } @article {pmid37501997, year = {2023}, author = {Aich, W and Javid, K and Tag-ElDin, ESM and Ghachem, K and Ullah, I and Iqbal, MA and Khan, SU and Kolsi, L}, title = {Thermal and physical impact of viscoplastic nanoparticles in a complex divergent channel due to peristalsis phenomenon: Heat generation and multiple slip effects.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {7}, pages = {e17644}, pmid = {37501997}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {In the advance studies, researchers have performed productive research contributions in the field of nanofluid mechanics under various biological assumptions. These contributions are fruitful to understand the applications of nanofluids in the various fields such as hybrid-powered engine, heart-diagnose, to prevent numerous diseases, heat exchanger, pharmaceutical processes, etc. The current analysis explores the combined effects of heat generation and chemical reaction on the peristaltic flow of viscoplastic nanofluid through a non-uniform (divergent) channel. The physical effects of second-order velocity slip, thermal slip and mass slip parameters on the rheological characteristics are also considered. To describe non-Newtonian effects, the Casson fluid is deployed. The greater wavelength assumption and low Reynolds number theory are used to attain the rheological equations. Numerical solutions of these governing equations associated with suitable boundary conditions are obtained via Mathematica symbolic software. The velocity magnitude of Casson fluid is higher than associated with Newtonian fluid. Radiation parameter has a vigorous impact in the reduction (enhancement) of temperature (mass concentration) profile. The porous parameter has a remarkable impact in reduction of temperature and velocity profile. Thermal enhancement is perceived by intensifying the chemical reaction parameter, and opposite inclination is noticed in mass concentration. Temperature has been demonstrated to be increased by increasing the Darcy number. The magnitudes of both axial velocity and temperature distribution are smaller in the presence of second-order velocity slip parameters effect as compared with no-slip condition. The magnitudes of axial velocity and mass (or, nanoparticle) concentration are augmented by accumulating the Prandtl number. A rise in Brownian parameter is noticed to depress the mass concentration. The present study has been used in bio-mechanical processes, nanomaterial devices, heat transfer enhancement, radiators, and electronics cooling systems.}, } @article {pmid37467268, year = {2023}, author = {Buaria, D and Sreenivasan, KR}, title = {Forecasting small-scale dynamics of fluid turbulence using deep neural networks.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {30}, pages = {e2305765120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2305765120}, pmid = {37467268}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Turbulence in fluid flows is characterized by a wide range of interacting scales. Since the scale range increases as some power of the flow Reynolds number, a faithful simulation of the entire scale range is prohibitively expensive at high Reynolds numbers. The most expensive aspect concerns the small-scale motions; thus, major emphasis is placed on understanding and modeling them, taking advantage of their putative universality. In this work, using physics-informed deep learning methods, we present a modeling framework to capture and predict the small-scale dynamics of turbulence, via the velocity gradient tensor. The model is based on obtaining functional closures for the pressure Hessian and viscous Laplacian contributions as functions of velocity gradient tensor. This task is accomplished using deep neural networks that are consistent with physical constraints and explicitly incorporate Reynolds number dependence to account for small-scale intermittency. We then utilize a massive direct numerical simulation database, spanning two orders of magnitude in the large-scale Reynolds number, for training and validation. The model learns from low to moderate Reynolds numbers and successfully predicts velocity gradient statistics at both seen and higher (unseen) Reynolds numbers. The success of our present approach demonstrates the viability of deep learning over traditional modeling approaches in capturing and predicting small-scale features of turbulence.}, } @article {pmid37464695, year = {2023}, author = {Zheng, JL and Liu, YL}, title = {Experimental study on the flow structures and dynamics of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an annular cell.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {6-2}, pages = {065112}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.065112}, pmid = {37464695}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We conduct an experimental study on the flow structures and dynamics of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an annular cell with radius ratio η≃0.5 and aspect ratio Γ≃4. The working fluid is water with a Prandtl number of Pr≃5.4, and the Rayleigh number (Ra) ranges from 5.05×10^{7} to 5.05×10^{8}. The multithermal-probe method and the particle image velocimetry technique are employed to measure the temperature profiles and the velocity fields, respectively. Two distinct states with multiroll standing waves are observed, which are the quadrupole state (QS) characterized by a four-roll structure and the sextupole state (SS) by a six-roll structure. The scaling exponents of Reynolds number Re with Ra are different for the two states, which are 0.56 for QS and 0.41 for SS. In addition, the standing waves become unstable upon tilting the cell by 1^{∘} in relation to the horizontal plane, and they evolve into traveling waves. At relatively high Ra, for instance, Ra⩾2.55×10^{8}, it is observed that the traveling wave state SS undergoes a transition to the traveling wave state QS. However, the opposite transition from QS to SS is not observed in our experiments. Our findings provide insights into the flow structures and dynamics in the convection flow with rotation symmetry.}, } @article {pmid37455389, year = {2023}, author = {Zhang, T and Inglis, DW and Ngo, L and Wang, Y and Hosokawa, Y and Yalikun, Y and Li, M}, title = {Inertial Separation of Particles Assisted by Symmetrical Sheath Flows in a Straight Microchannel.}, journal = {Analytical chemistry}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.analchem.3c02089}, pmid = {37455389}, issn = {1520-6882}, abstract = {Over the past two decades, inertial microfluidics, which works at an intermediate range of Reynolds number (∼1 < Re < ∼100), has been widely used for particle separation due to its high-throughput and label-free features. This work proposes a novel method for continuous separation of particles by size using inertial microfluidics, with the assistance of symmetrical sheath flows in a straight microchannel. Here, larger particles (>3 μm) are arranged close to the channel sidewalls, while smaller particles (<2 μm) remain flowing along the channel centerline. This conclusion is supported by experimental data with particles of different sizes ranging from 0.79 to 10.5 μm. Symmetrical Newtonian sheath flows are injected on both sides of particle mixtures into a straight rectangular microchannel with an aspect ratio (AR = height/width) of 2.5. Results show that the separation performance of the developed microfluidic device is affected by three main factors: channel length, total flow rate, and flow rate ratio of sheath to sample. Besides, separation of platelets from whole blood is demonstrated. The developed microfluidic platform owns the advantages of low fabrication cost, simple experiment setup, versatile selections of particle candidates, and stable operations. This systematic study provides a new perspective for particle separation, which is expected to find applications across various fields spanning physics, biology, biomedicine, and industry.}, } @article {pmid37449188, year = {2023}, author = {Ahmad, S and Ali, K and Katbar, NM and Akhtar, Y and Cai, J and Jamshed, W and El Din, SM and Abd-Elmonem, A and Elmki Abdalla, NS}, title = {Vortex generation due to multiple localized magnetic fields in the hybrid nanofluid flow - A numerical investigation.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {7}, pages = {e17756}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17756}, pmid = {37449188}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Vortices capture the attention of every scientist (as soon as they come into existence) while studying any flow problem because of their significance in comprehending fluid mixing and mass transport processes. A vortex is indeed a physical phenomenon that happens when a liquid or a gas flow in a circular motion. They are generated due to the velocity difference and may be seen in hurricanes, air moving across the plane wing, tornadoes, etc. The study of vortices is important for understanding various natural phenomena in different settings. This work explores the complex dynamics of the Lorentz force that drives the rotation of nanostructures and the emergence of intricate vortex patterns in a hybrid fluid with Fe3O4-Cu nanoparticles. The hybrid nanofluid is modeled as a single-phase fluid, and the partial differential equations (PDEs) that govern its behavior are solved numerically. This work also introduces a novel analysis that enables us to visualize the flow lines and isotherms around the magnetic strips in the flow domain. The Lorentz force confined to the strips causes the spinning of hybrid nanoparticles, resulting in complex vortex structures in the flow domain. The results indicate that the magnetic field lowers the Nusselt number by 34% while raising the skin friction by 9%. The Reynolds number amplifies the influence of the localized magnetic field on the flow dynamics. Lastly, the nano-scaled structures in the flow enhance the Nusselt number significantly while having a minor effect on the skin friction factor.}, } @article {pmid37449115, year = {2023}, author = {Li, S and Khan, MI and Alruqi, AB and Khan, SU and Abdullaev, SS and Fadhl, BM and Makhdoum, BM}, title = {Entropy optimized flow of Sutterby nanomaterial subject to porous medium: Buongiorno nanofluid model.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {7}, pages = {e17784}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17784}, pmid = {37449115}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Owing to enhanced thermal impact of nanomaterials, different applications are suggested in engineering and industrial systems like heat transfer devices, energy generation, extrusion processes, engine cooling, thermal systems, heat exchanger, chemical processes, manufacturing systems, hybrid-powered plants etc. The current communication concerns the optimized flow of Sutterby nanofluid due to stretched surface in view of different thermal sources. The investigation is supported with the applications of external heat source, magnetic force and radiative phenomenon. The irreversibility investigation is deliberated with implementation of thermodynamics second law. The thermophoresis and random movement characteristics are also studied. Additionally, first order binary reaction is also examined. The nonlinear system of the governing problem is obtained which are numerically computed by s method. The physical aspects of prominent flow parameters are attributed graphically. Further, the analysis for entropy generation and Bejan number is focused. It is observed that the velocity profile increases due to Reynolds number and Deborah number. Larger Schmidt number reduces the concentration distribution. Further, the entropy generation is improved against Reynolds number and Brinkman parameter.}, } @article {pmid37437157, year = {2023}, author = {Saxena, A and Kroll-Rabotin, JS and Sanders, RS}, title = {Role of Flow Inertia in Aggregate Restructuring and Breakage at Finite Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c01012}, pmid = {37437157}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Forces acting on aggregates depend on their properties, such as size and structure. Breakage rate, stable size, and structure of fractal aggregates in multiphase flows are strongly related to the imposed hydrodynamic forces. While these forces are prevalently viscous for finite Reynolds number conditions, flow inertia cannot be ignored, thereby requiring one to fully resolve the Navier-Stokes equations. To highlight the effect of flow inertia on aggregate evolution, numerical investigation of aggregate evolution in simple shear flow at the finite Reynolds number is conducted. The evolution of aggregates exposed to shear flow is tracked over time. Particle coupling with the flow is resolved with an immersed boundary method, and flow dynamics are solved using a lattice Boltzmann method. Particle dynamics are tracked by a discrete element method, accounting for interactions between primary particles composing the aggregates. Over the range of aggregate-scale Reynolds numbers tested, the breakage rate appears to be governed by the combined effect of momentum diffusion and the ratio of particle interaction forces to the hydrodynamic forces. For higher shear stresses, even when no stable size exists, breakage is not instantaneous because of momentum diffusion kinetics. Simulations with particle interaction forces scaled with the viscous drag, to isolate the effect of finite Reynolds hydrodynamics on aggregate evolution, show that flow inertia at such moderate aggregate Reynolds numbers has no impact on the morphology of nonbreaking aggregates but significantly favors breakage probability. This is a first-of-its-kind study that establishes the role of flow inertia in aggregate evolution. The findings present a novel perspective into breakage kinetics for systems in low but finite Reynolds number conditions.}, } @article {pmid37425484, year = {2023}, author = {Birtek, MT and Alseed, MM and Sarabi, MR and Ahmadpour, A and Yetisen, AK and Tasoglu, S}, title = {Machine learning-augmented fluid dynamics simulations for micromixer educational module.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {17}, number = {4}, pages = {044101}, pmid = {37425484}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {Micromixers play an imperative role in chemical and biomedical systems. Designing compact micromixers for laminar flows owning a low Reynolds number is more challenging than flows with higher turbulence. Machine learning models can enable the optimization of the designs and capabilities of microfluidic systems by receiving input from a training library and producing algorithms that can predict the outcomes prior to the fabrication process to minimize development cost and time. Here, an educational interactive microfluidic module is developed to enable the design of compact and efficient micromixers at low Reynolds regimes for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The optimization of Newtonian fluids designs was based on a machine learning model, which was trained by simulating and calculating the mixing index of 1890 different micromixer designs. This approach utilized a combination of six design parameters and the results as an input data set to a two-layer deep neural network with 100 nodes in each hidden layer. A trained model was achieved with R[2] = 0.9543 that can be used to predict the mixing index and find the optimal parameters needed to design micromixers. Non-Newtonian fluid cases were also optimized using 56700 simulated designs with eight varying input parameters, reduced to 1890 designs, and then trained using the same deep neural network used for Newtonian fluids to obtain R[2] = 0.9063. The framework was subsequently used as an interactive educational module, demonstrating a well-structured integration of technology-based modules such as using artificial intelligence in the engineering curriculum, which can highly contribute to engineering education.}, } @article {pmid37420830, year = {2023}, author = {Scheuer, KG and DeCorby, RG}, title = {All-Optical, Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Detection of Low-Pressure Gas Leaks and Observation of Jet Tones in the MHz Range.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {12}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/s23125665}, pmid = {37420830}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {Innovation Catalyst Grant//Government of Alberta/ ; AI//Alberta Innovates/ ; CREATE 495446-17//Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council/ ; Quantum Technologies//Alberta EDT Major Innovation Fund/ ; }, abstract = {We used an ultrasensitive, broadband optomechanical ultrasound sensor to study the acoustic signals produced by pressurized nitrogen escaping from a variety of small syringes. Harmonically related jet tones extending into the MHz region were observed for a certain range of flow (i.e., Reynolds number), which is in qualitative agreement with historical studies on gas jets emitted from pipes and orifices of much larger dimensions. For higher turbulent flow rates, we observed broadband ultrasonic emission in the ~0-5 MHz range, which was likely limited on the upper end due to attenuation in air. These observations are made possible by the broadband, ultrasensitive response (for air-coupled ultrasound) of our optomechanical devices. Aside from being of theoretical interest, our results could have practical implications for the non-contact monitoring and detection of early-stage leaks in pressured fluid systems.}, } @article {pmid37420356, year = {2022}, author = {Li, X and Su, H}, title = {A Modular Grad-Div Stabilization Method for Time-Dependent Thermally Coupled MHD Equations.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e24101336}, pmid = {37420356}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {In this paper, we consider a fully discrete modular grad-div stabilization algorithm for time-dependent thermally coupled magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to add an extra minimally intrusive module to penalize the divergence errors of velocity and improve the computational efficiency for increasing values of the Reynolds number and grad-div stabilization parameters. In addition, we provide the unconditional stability and optimal convergence analysis of this algorithm. Finally, several numerical experiments are performed and further indicated these advantages over the algorithm without grad-div stabilization.}, } @article {pmid37418738, year = {2023}, author = {Gotoh, T and Watanabe, T and Saito, I}, title = {Kinematic Effects on Probability Density Functions of Energy Dissipation Rate and Enstrophy in Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {130}, number = {25}, pages = {254001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.254001}, pmid = {37418738}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Direct numerical simulation and theoretical analyses showed that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the energy dissipation rate and enstrophy in turbulence are asymptotically stretched gamma distributions with the same stretching exponent, and both the left and right tails of the enstrophy PDF are longer than those of the energy dissipation rate regardless of the Reynolds number. The differences in PDF tails arise due to the kinematics, with differences in the number of terms contributing to the dissipation rate and enstrophy. Meanwhile, the stretching exponent is determined by the dynamics and likeliness of singularities.}, } @article {pmid37414852, year = {2023}, author = {Kim, M and Schanz, D and Novara, M and Godbersen, P and Yeom, E and Schröder, A}, title = {Experimental study on flow and turbulence characteristics of jet impinging on cylinder using three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {10929}, pmid = {37414852}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {2021R1C1C2009287//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; 2021R1I1A3047664//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; DFG SPP 1881//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; }, abstract = {When a round jet impinges on a convex cylindrical surface, complex three-dimensional (3D) flow structures occur, accompanied by the Coanda effect. To characterize the flow and turbulence properties of the general system, ensemble averages of 3D Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry measurements were taken. The radial bin-averaging method was used in post-processing the tracked particles and corresponding instantaneous velocity vectors to generate appropriate ensemble-averaged statistics. Two impinging angles were selected, and at a fixed Reynolds number, the ensemble-averaged volumetric velocity field and turbulent stress tensor components were measured. The flow and turbulence characteristics of the impinging jet on the cylinder were notably different based on the impinging angle, especially in the downstream region. Surprisingly, the attached wall jet with a half-elliptic shape was abruptly thickened in the wall-normal direction, similar to the axis switching phenomenon observed in elliptic jets in the case of oblique impingement. In the jet-impinging region, the flow spread in all directions with high mean vorticity values. With the development of a 3D curved wall jet, both the Coanda effect and centrifugal force played a significant role in the flow behavior. A notable feature of the self-preserving region was the similarity of mean velocity profiles with scaling by the maximum velocity and the jet half-width for both impinging angle cases. Local isotropy of turbulent normal stresses was observed in this region, supporting the existence of self-preservation in the 3D curved wall jet. The volumetric ensemble-averaged Reynolds stress tensor revealed strong inhomogeneous turbulence in the boundary layer region and the curvature effect on the Reynolds shear stress in the free shear layer.}, } @article {pmid37407860, year = {2023}, author = {Dutt, N and Hedau, AJ and Kumar, A and Awasthi, MK and Singh, VP and Dwivedi, G}, title = {Thermo-hydraulic performance of solar air heater having discrete D-shaped ribs as artificial roughness.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37407860}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {In this paper, the thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater (SAH) duct roughened with discrete D-shaped ribs is numerically investigated using ANSYS Fluent 2020 R2. The numerical investigation is carried out at rib radius to transverse pitch ratio (r/Pt) from 0.1 to 0.35 and longitudinal pitch to rib radius ratio (Pl /r) from 4 to 10 under various operating conditions with Reynolds number (Re) varied from 10,200 to 20,200. The numerical results are validated with previous experimental results for the Nusselt number (Nu) values, and good agreement is found with mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 3.6%. Based on the results of the numerical investigation, it was found that the value of Nu and the friction factor (f) decreases with the increase of the value of Pl/r, while the ratio r/Pt is kept constant. From the overall analysis, it is concluded that the optimum results are obtained for r/Pt of 0.25 and Pl/r = 4, and the maximum thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is 1.12. Further correlations are developed for the value of Nu and f for the whole range of r/Pt as 0.10-0.35 and Pl/r as 4-10. According to the developed correlations, the values of Nu are within ± 2% of the results of CFD, while the values of f are within ± 2.7% of the results of CFD.}, } @article {pmid37391140, year = {2023}, author = {Firatoglu, ZA}, title = {The effect of natural ventilation on airborne transmission of the COVID-19 virus spread by sneezing in the classroom.}, journal = {The Science of the total environment}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {165113}, doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165113}, pmid = {37391140}, issn = {1879-1026}, abstract = {Since school classrooms are of vital importance due to their impact on public health in COVID-19 and similar epidemics, it is imperative to develop new ventilation strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of the virus in the classroom. To be able to develop new ventilation strategies, the effect of local flow behaviors in the classroom on the airborne transmission of the virus under the most dramatic conditions must first be determined. In this study, the effect of natural ventilation on the airborne transmission of COVID-19-like viruses in the classroom in the case of sneezing by two infected students in a reference secondary school classroom was investigated in five scenarios. Firstly, experimental measurements were carried out in the reference class to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results and determine the boundary conditions. Next, the effects of local flow behaviors on the airborne transmission of the virus were evaluated for five scenarios using the Eulerian-Lagrange method, a discrete phase model, and a temporary three-dimensional CFD model. In all scenarios, immediately after sneezing, between 57 and 60.2 % of the droplets containing the virus, mostly large and medium-sized (150 μm < d < 1000 μm) settled on the infected student's desk, while small droplets continued to move in the flow field. In addition, it was determined that the effect of natural ventilation in the classroom on the travel of virus droplets in the case of Redh < 8.04 × 10[4] (Reynolds number, Redh=Udh/νu, dh and are fluid velocity, hydraulic diameters of the door and window sections of the class and kinematic viscosity, respectively) was negligible.}, } @article {pmid37388310, year = {2023}, author = {Théry, A and Maaß, CC and Lauga, E}, title = {Hydrodynamic interactions between squirmers near walls: far-field dynamics and near-field cluster stability.}, journal = {Royal Society open science}, volume = {10}, number = {6}, pages = {230223}, doi = {10.1098/rsos.230223}, pmid = {37388310}, issn = {2054-5703}, abstract = {Confinement increases contacts between microswimmers in dilute suspensions and affects their interactions. In particular, boundaries have been shown experimentally to lead to the formation of clusters that would not occur in bulk fluids. To what extent does hydrodynamics govern these boundary-driven encounters between microswimmers? We consider theoretically the symmetric boundary-mediated encounters of model microswimmers under gravity through far-field interaction of a pair of weak squirmers, as well as the lubrication interactions occurring after contact between two or more squirmers. In the far field, the orientation of microswimmers is controlled by the wall and the squirming parameter. The presence of a second swimmer influences the orientation of the original squirmer, but for weak squirmers, most of the interaction occurs after contact. We thus analyse next the near-field reorientation of circular groups of squirmers. We show that a large number of swimmers and the presence of gravity can stabilize clusters of pullers, while the opposite is true for pushers; to be stable, clusters of pushers thus need to be governed by other interactions (e.g. phoretic). This simplified approach to the phenomenon of active clustering enables us to highlight the hydrodynamic contribution, which can be hard to isolate in experimental realizations.}, } @article {pmid37366832, year = {2023}, author = {Saeed, A and Farooq, H and Akhtar, I and Tariq, MA and Khalid, MSU}, title = {Deep-Learning-Based Reduced-Order Model for Power Generation Capacity of Flapping Foils.}, journal = {Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {8}, number = {2}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/biomimetics8020237}, pmid = {37366832}, issn = {2313-7673}, support = {Digital Pakistan Lab, National Center for Big Data and Cloud Computing//Higher Education Commission/ ; }, abstract = {Inspired by nature, oscillating foils offer viable options as alternate energy resources to harness energy from wind and water. Here, we propose a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based reduced-order model (ROM) of power generation by flapping airfoils in conjunction with deep neural networks. Numerical simulations are performed for incompressible flow past a flapping NACA-0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 1100 using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach. The snapshots of the pressure field around the flapping foil are then utilized to construct the pressure POD modes of each case, which serve as the reduced basis to span the solution space. The novelty of the current research relates to the identification, development, and employment of long-short-term neural network (LSTM) models to predict temporal coefficients of the pressure modes. These coefficients, in turn, are used to reconstruct hydrodynamic forces and moment, leading to computations of power. The proposed model takes the known temporal coefficients as inputs and predicts the future temporal coefficients followed by previously estimated temporal coefficients, very similar to traditional ROM. Through the new trained model, we can predict the temporal coefficients for a long time duration that can be far beyond the training time intervals more accurately. It may not be attained by traditional ROMs that lead to erroneous results. Consequently, the flow physics including the forces and moment exerted by fluids can be reconstructed accurately using POD modes as the basis set.}, } @article {pmid37361718, year = {2023}, author = {Ben Mariem, I and Kaziz, S and Belkhiria, M and Echouchene, F and Belmabrouk, H}, title = {Numerical optimization of microfluidic biosensor detection time for the SARS-CoV-2 using the Taguchi method.}, journal = {Indian journal of physics and proceedings of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (2004)}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-8}, doi = {10.1007/s12648-023-02632-z}, pmid = {37361718}, issn = {0973-1458}, abstract = {The performance of microfluidic biosensor of the SARS-Cov-2 was numerically analyzed through finite element method. The calculation results have been validated with comparison with experimental data reported in the literature. The novelty of this study is the use of the Taguchi method in the optimization analysis, and an L8(2[5]) orthogonal table of five critical parameters-Reynolds number (Re), Damköhler number (Da), relative adsorption capacity (σ), equilibrium dissociation constant (KD), and Schmidt number (Sc), with two levels was designed. ANOVA methods are used to obtain the significance of key parameters. The optimal combination of the key parameters is Re = 10[-2], Da = 1000, σ = 0.2, KD = 5, and Sc 10[4] to achieve the minimum response time (0.15). Among the selected key parameters, the relative adsorption capacity (σ) has the highest contribution (42.17%) to the reduction of the response time, while the Schmidt number (Sc) has the lowest contribution (5.19%). The presented simulation results are useful in designing microfluidic biosensors in order to reduce their response time.}, } @article {pmid37360015, year = {2023}, author = {Ahmed, A and Ul Islam, S and Khan, AQ and Wahid, A}, title = {Reduction of fluid forces for flow past side-by-side cylinders using downstream attached splitter plates.}, journal = {Computational particle mechanics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-19}, doi = {10.1007/s40571-023-00565-2}, pmid = {37360015}, issn = {2196-4378}, abstract = {A two-dimensional numerical simulation is performed to investigate the drag reduction and vortex shedding suppression behind three square cylinders with attached splitter plates in the downstream region at a low Reynolds number (Re = 150). Numerical calculations are carried out using the lattice Boltzmann method. The study is carried out for various values of gap spacing between the cylinders and different splitter plate lengths. The vortices are completely chaotic at very small spacing, as observed. The splitter plates are critical in suppressing shedding and reducing drag on the objects. The splitter plates with lengths greater than two fully control the jet interaction at low spacing values. There is maximum percentage reduction in CDmean for small spacing and the selected largest splitter plate length. Furthermore, systematic investigation reveals that splitter plates significantly suppress the fluctuating lift in addition to drastically reducing the drag.}, } @article {pmid37344457, year = {2023}, author = {Baldygin, A and Ahmed, A and Baily, R and Ismail, MF and Khan, M and Rodrigues, N and Salehi, AR and Ramesh, M and Bhattacharya, S and Willers, T and Gowanlock, D and Waghmare, PR}, title = {Effect of gravity on the spreading of a droplet deposited by liquid needle deposition technique.}, journal = {NPJ microgravity}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {49}, pmid = {37344457}, issn = {2373-8065}, support = {19FAALBB36 - FAST 2019//Gouvernement du Canada | Canadian Space Agency (Agence Spatiale Canadienne)/ ; }, abstract = {This study represents an experimental investigation, complemented with a mathematical model, to decipher the effect of gravity on the spreading dynamics of a water droplet. For the theoretical discussion, an overall energy balance approach is adopted to explain the droplet spreading under both microgravity (μg) and terrestrial gravity condition. Besides explaining the mechanism of the droplet spreading under microgravity condition achieved during the parabolic flight, a technique with a detailed experimental set-up has also been developed for the successful deposition of droplet. A rational understanding is formulated through experimental investigation and theoretical analysis, which allows us to distinguish the transient variation of the spreading of a droplet, between microgravity and terrestrial gravity condition. The spreading of the droplet is predicted by the non-linear overall energy balance equation, which accounts for the operating parameters in the form of non-dimensional groups like Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]), Weber number (We) and Bond number (Bo). To distinctly identify the difference in the drop spreading at terrestrial and microgravity conditions, the Bo with transient gravitational field obtained through the on-board accelerometer is considered. The obtained theoretical results are further corroborated by experimental results which are obtained from the parabolic flight.}, } @article {pmid37338259, year = {2023}, author = {Qiao, S and Ouyang, H and Zheng, X and Qi, C and Ma, L}, title = {Magnetically actuated hydrogel-based capsule microrobots for intravascular targeted drug delivery.}, journal = {Journal of materials chemistry. B}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3tb00852e}, pmid = {37338259}, issn = {2050-7518}, abstract = {Microrobots for targeted drug delivery in blood vessels have attracted increasing interest from researchers. In this work, hydrogel-based capsule microrobots are used to wrap drugs and deliver drugs in blood vessels. In order to prepare capsule microrobots of different sizes, a triaxial microfluidic chip is designed and built, and the formation mechanism of three flow phases including the plug flow phase, bullet flow phase and droplet phase during the preparation of capsule microrobots is studied. The analysis and simulation results show that the size of the capsule microrobots can be controlled by the flow rate ratio of two phases in the microfluidic chip, and when the flow rate of the outer phase is 20 times that of the inner phase in the microfluidic chip, irregular multicore capsule microrobots can be prepared. On this basis, a three degree of freedom magnetic drive system is developed to drive the capsule microrobots to reach the destination along the predetermined trajectory in the low Reynolds number environment, and the magnetic field performance of the magnetic drive system is simulated and analyzed. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of targeted drug delivery of the capsule microrobots in the blood vessel, the motion process of the capsule microrobots in the vascular microchannel is simulated, and the relationship between the motion performance of the capsule microrobots and the magnetic field is studied. The experimental results show that the capsule microrobots can reach a speed of 800 μm s[-1] at a low frequency of 0.4 Hz. At the same time, the capsule microrobots can reach a peak speed of 3077 μm s[-1] and can continuously climb over a 1000 μm high obstacle under a rotating magnetic field of 2.4 Hz and 14.4 mT. Experiments show that the capsule microrobots have excellent drug delivery potential in similar vascular curved channels driven by this system.}, } @article {pmid37330555, year = {2023}, author = {Algehyne, EA and Ahammad, NA and Elnair, ME and Zidan, M and Alhusayni, YY and El-Bashir, BO and Saeed, A and Alshomrani, AS and Alzahrani, F}, title = {Entropy optimization and response surface methodology of blood hybrid nanofluid flow through composite stenosis artery with magnetized nanoparticles (Au-Ta) for drug delivery application.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {9856}, pmid = {37330555}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Entropy creation by a blood-hybrid nanofluid flow with gold-tantalum nanoparticles in a tilted cylindrical artery with composite stenosis under the influence of Joule heating, body acceleration, and thermal radiation is the focus of this research. Using the Sisko fluid model, the non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is investigated. The finite difference (FD) approach is used to solve the equations of motion and entropy for a system subject to certain constraints. The optimal heat transfer rate with respect to radiation, Hartmann number, and nanoparticle volume fraction is calculated using a response surface technique and sensitivity analysis. The impacts of significant parameters such as Hartmann number, angle parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction, body acceleration amplitude, radiation, and Reynolds number on the velocity, temperature, entropy generation, flow rate, shear stress of wall, and heat transfer rate are exhibited via the graphs and tables. Present results disclose that the flow rate profile increase by improving the Womersley number and the opposite nature is noticed in nanoparticle volume fraction. The total entropy generation reduces by improving radiation. The Hartmann number expose a positive sensitivity for all level of nanoparticle volume fraction. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the radiation and nanoparticle volume fraction showed a negative sensitivity for all magnetic field levels. It is seen that the presence of hybrid nanoparticles in the bloodstream leads to a more substantial reduction in the axial velocity of blood compared to Sisko blood. An increase in the volume fraction results in a noticeable decrease in the volumetric flow rate in the axial direction, while higher values of infinite shear rate viscosity lead to a significant reduction in the magnitude of the blood flow pattern. The blood temperature exhibits a linear increase with respect to the volume fraction of hybrid nanoparticles. Specifically, utilizing a hybrid nanofluid with a volume fraction of 3% leads to a 2.01316% higher temperature compared to the base fluid (blood). Similarly, a 5% volume fraction corresponds to a temperature increase of 3.45093%.}, } @article {pmid37329080, year = {2023}, author = {Kim, M and Borhan, A}, title = {Critical conditions for development of a second pair of Dean vortices in curved microfluidic channels.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {5-2}, pages = {055103}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.055103}, pmid = {37329080}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The centrifugal force in flow through a curved channel initiates a hydrodynamic instability that results in the development of Dean vortices, a pair of counter-rotating roll cells across the channel that deflect the high velocity fluid in the center toward the outer (concave) wall. When this secondary flow toward the concave (outer) wall is too strong to be dissipated by viscous effects, an additional pair of vortices emerges near the outer wall. Combining numerical simulation and dimensional analysis, we find that the critical condition for the onset of the second vortex pair depends on γ^{1/2}Dn (γ: channel aspect ratio; Dn: Dean number). We also investigate the development length for the additional vortex pair in channels with different aspect ratios and curvatures. The larger centrifugal force at higher Dean numbers produces the additional vortices further upstream, with the required development length being inversely proportional to the Reynolds number and increasing linearly with the radius of curvature of the channel.}, } @article {pmid37329043, year = {2023}, author = {Mizerski, KA}, title = {Helical correction to turbulent magnetic diffusivity.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {5-2}, pages = {055205}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.055205}, pmid = {37329043}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The effect of helicity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence on the effective turbulent magnetic diffusion is considered here. The helical correction to turbulent diffusivity is analytically calculated with the use of the renormalization group approach. In agreement with previous numerical findings, this correction is shown to be negative and proportional to the second power of the magnetic Reynolds number, when the latter is small. In addition, the helical correction to turbulent diffusivity is found to obey a power-law-type dependence on the wave number of the most energetic turbulent eddies, k_{ℓ}, of the form k_{ℓ}^{-10/3}.}, } @article {pmid37329025, year = {2023}, author = {Parfenyev, V and Mogilevskiy, E and Falkovich, G}, title = {Sum-of-squares bounds on correlation functions in a minimal model of turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {5-1}, pages = {054114}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.054114}, pmid = {37329025}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We suggest a new computer-assisted approach to the development of turbulence theory. It allows one to impose lower and upper bounds on correlation functions using sum-of-squares polynomials. We demonstrate it on the minimal cascade model of two resonantly interacting modes when one is pumped and the other dissipates. We show how to present correlation functions of interest as part of a sum-of-squares polynomial using the stationarity of the statistics. That allows us to find how the moments of the mode amplitudes depend on the degree of nonequilibrium (analog of the Reynolds number), which reveals some properties of marginal statistical distributions. By combining scaling dependence with the results of direct numerical simulations, we obtain the probability densities of both modes in a highly intermittent inverse cascade. As the Reynolds number tends to infinity, we show that the relative phase between modes tends to π/2 and -π/2 in the direct and inverse cascades, respectively, and derive bounds on the phase variance. Our approach combines computer-aided analytical proofs with a numerical algorithm applied to high-degree polynomials.}, } @article {pmid37324036, year = {2023}, author = {Jiang, J and Wang, F and Huang, W and Sun, J and Ye, Y and Ou, J and Liu, M and Gao, J and Wang, S and Fu, D and Chen, B and Liu, L and Peng, F and Tu, Y}, title = {Mobile mechanical signal generator for macrophage polarization.}, journal = {Exploration (Beijing, China)}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {20220147}, pmid = {37324036}, issn = {2766-2098}, abstract = {The importance of mechanical signals in regulating the fate of macrophages is gaining increased attention recently. However, the recently used mechanical signals normally rely on the physical characteristics of matrix with non-specificity and instability or mechanical loading devices with uncontrollability and complexity. Herein, we demonstrate the successful fabrication of self-assembled microrobots (SMRs) based on magnetic nanoparticles as local mechanical signal generators for precise macrophage polarization. Under a rotating magnetic field (RMF), the propulsion of SMRs occurs due to the elastic deformation via magnetic force and hydrodynamics. SMRs perform wireless navigation toward the targeted macrophage in a controllable manner and subsequently rotate around the cell for mechanical signal generation. Macrophages are eventually polarized from M0 to anti-inflammatory related M2 phenotypes by blocking the Piezo1-activating protein-1 (AP-1）-CCL2 signaling pathway. The as-developed microrobot system provides a new platform of mechanical signal loading for macrophage polarization, which holds great potential for precise regulation of cell fate.}, } @article {pmid37323615, year = {2023}, author = {Madonia, M and Guzmán, AJA and Clercx, HJH and Kunnen, RPJ}, title = {Reynolds number scaling and energy spectra in geostrophic convection.}, journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics}, volume = {962}, number = {}, pages = {A36}, pmid = {37323615}, issn = {0022-1120}, abstract = {We report flow measurements in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the rotationally-constrained geostrophic regime. We apply stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to measure the three components of velocity in a horizontal cross-section of a water-filled cylindrical convection vessel. At a constant, small Ekman number Ek = 5 × 10[-8] we vary the Rayleigh number Ra between 10[11] and 4 × 10[12] to cover various subregimes observed in geostrophic convection. We also include one nonrotating experiment. The scaling of the velocity fluctuations (expressed as the Reynolds number Re) is compared to theoretical relations expressing balances of viscous-Archimedean-Coriolis (VAC) and Coriolis-inertial-Archimedean (CIA) forces. Based on our results we cannot decide which balance is most applicable here; both scaling relations match equally well. A comparison of the current data with several other literature datasets indicates a convergence towards diffusion-free scaling of velocity as Ek decreases. However, the use of confined domains leads at lower Ra to prominent convection in the wall mode near the sidewall. Kinetic energy spectra point at an overall flow organisation into a quadrupolar vortex filling the cross-section. This quadrupolar vortex is a quasi-two-dimensional feature; it only manifests in energy spectra based on the horizontal velocity components. At larger Ra the spectra reveal the development of a scaling range with exponent close to -5/3, the classical exponent for inertial-range scaling in three-dimensional turbulence. The steeper Re(Ra) scaling at low Ek and development of a scaling range in the energy spectra are distinct indicators that a fully developed, diffusion-free turbulent bulk flow state is approached, sketching clear perspectives for further investigation.}, } @article {pmid37308628, year = {2023}, author = {Sharma, M and Jilte, R}, title = {Heat transfer and hydraulics for a novel receiver pipe of solar parabolic trough: a computational approach.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37308628}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {The effect of symmetrical convex-concave corrugations on receiver pipe of a parabolic trough solar collector is numerically investigated. Twelve distinct geometrically configured receiver pipes with corrugations have been examined for this purpose. The computational study is conducted for varying corrugation pitch (4 mm to 10 mm) and height (1.5 mm to 2.5 mm). Heat transfer enhancement, flow behavior, and overall thermal performance of fluid moving through a pipe under non-uniform heat flux condition are all determined in this work. The Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 50,000. The findings reveal that presence of corrugations leads to axial whirling and vortices in the receiver pipe, thus enhancing the heat transfer. The receiver pipe having corrugations of 8 mm pitch and 2 mm height gave the best results. The maximum enhancement in average Nusselt number over smooth pipe has been observed as 28.51%. In addition, relationships of Nusselt number and friction factor against selected design parameters and operating conditions are also displayed as correlations.}, } @article {pmid37303552, year = {2023}, author = {Alizadeh, A and Shahabi Takami, SF and Iranmanesh, R and Pasha, P}, title = {Evaluation of AGM and FEM method for thermal radiation on nanofluid flow between two tubes in nearness of magnetism field.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {6}, pages = {e16788}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16788}, pmid = {37303552}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The nanofluid flow through two orbicular cylinders is explored utilizing the overall Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL) model within the nearness of a magnetic field. The impact of thermal radiation is considered in the energy equation. The novelty of this study is examining convective heat transfer for nanofluid flow between two flat tubes with the Akbari-Ganji method and Finite Element Techniques to examine the heat flux field by implies of 2D forms of temperature and velocity at unprecedented Reynolds numbers. The approaches for solving ODEs are AGM and FEM. Semi-analytical methods are assessed for specific parameters of aspect ratio, Hartmann number, Eckert number, and Reynolds quantity with various values. Adding Ha, Ec, and G causes the temperature gradient to grow, while adding the Reynolds number causes it to decrease. As the Lorentz forces increase, the velocity decreases; nevertheless, as the Reynolds number rises, the velocity decreases. With the reduction of the fluid's dynamic viscosity, the temperature will decrease, which will decrease the thermal trend along the vertical length of the pipes.}, } @article {pmid37297077, year = {2023}, author = {Tang, TL and Salleh, H and Sadiq, MI and Mohd Sabri, MA and Ahmad, MIM and Ghopa, WAW}, title = {Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Behavior of Multiple Jet Impingement Using MgO-Water Nanofluids.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {16}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/ma16113942}, pmid = {37297077}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {Nanofluids have attracted significant attention from researchers due to their ability to significantly enhance heat transfer, especially in jet impingement flows, which can improve their cooling performance. However, there is a lack of research on the use of nanofluids in multiple jet impingements, both in terms of experimental and numerical studies. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to fully understand the potential benefits and limitations of using nanofluids in this type of cooling system. Thus, an experimental and numerical investigation was performed to study the flow structure and heat transfer behavior of multiple jet impingement using MgO-water nanofluids with a 3 × 3 inline jet array at a nozzle-to-plate distance of 3 mm. The jet spacing was set to 3, 4.5, and 6 mm; the Reynolds number varies from 1000 to 10,000; and the particle volume fraction ranges from 0% to 0.15%. A 3D numerical analysis using ANSYS Fluent with SST k-ω turbulent model was presented. The single-phase model is adopted to predict the thermal physical nanofluid. The flow field and temperature distribution were investigated. Experimental results show that a nanofluid can provide a heat transfer enhancement at a small jet-to-jet spacing using a high particle volume fraction under a low Reynolds number; otherwise, an adverse effect on heat transfer may occur. The numerical results show that the single-phase model can predict the heat transfer trend of multiple jet impingement using nanofluids correctly but with significant deviation from experimental results because it cannot capture the effect of nanoparticles.}, } @article {pmid37296306, year = {2023}, author = {Liu, Y and Zou, Z and Pak, OS and Tsang, ACH}, title = {Learning to cooperate for low-Reynolds-number swimming: a model problem for gait coordination.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {9397}, pmid = {37296306}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Biological microswimmers can coordinate their motions to exploit their fluid environment-and each other-to achieve global advantages in their locomotory performance. These cooperative locomotion require delicate adjustments of both individual swimming gaits and spatial arrangements of the swimmers. Here we probe the emergence of such cooperative behaviors among artificial microswimmers endowed with artificial intelligence. We present the first use of a deep reinforcement learning approach to empower the cooperative locomotion of a pair of reconfigurable microswimmers. The AI-advised cooperative policy comprises two stages: an approach stage where the swimmers get in close proximity to fully exploit hydrodynamic interactions, followed a synchronization stage where the swimmers synchronize their locomotory gaits to maximize their overall net propulsion. The synchronized motions allow the swimmer pair to move together coherently with an enhanced locomotion performance unattainable by a single swimmer alone. Our work constitutes a first step toward uncovering intriguing cooperative behaviors of smart artificial microswimmers, demonstrating the vast potential of reinforcement learning towards intelligent autonomous manipulations of multiple microswimmers for their future biomedical and environmental applications.}, } @article {pmid37296249, year = {2023}, author = {Kumar, D and Layek, A and Kumar, A}, title = {Enhancement of thermal efficiency and development of Nusselt number correlation for the solar air heater collector roughened with artificial ribs for thermal applications.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {37296249}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {The thermal efficiency of conventional solar air heater is very low. This research article concentrates on incorporating V-shaped staggered twisted ribs over absorber surface of solar air heater. Various roughness parameters were tested to determine their effect on the Nusselt number, friction factor, thermo-hydraulic performance index, and thermal efficiency. During experiment, the Reynolds number is varied from 3000 to 21,000; while relative roughness length varied for 4.39 to 10.26 and relative staggered distance for 2 to 6. However, relative roughness pitch, twist length, and angle of attack were kept constant. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the roughened collector enhances to 3.41 and 2.56 times that of the smooth collector, respectively. The thermal efficiency of the roughened solar air heater increases to 73.64% of the roughened plate as it was noticed 42.63% for smooth surface due to breakage of the laminar sublayer. The correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor as function of Reynolds number and roughness parameters are also developed. The maximum thermohydraulic performance gained at the optimum parameters of d/e of 4 and S/e of 6.15 is 2.69. The percentage deviation between the developed correlations and the experimental findings shows very satisfactory outcomes. Therefore, it can be concluded that inclusion of twisted V staggered ribs enhances the thermal performance of solar air heater with the lowest frictional penalty.}, } @article {pmid37295437, year = {2023}, author = {Liu, F and Li, S and Dong, X and Wang, Z and Xiang, J and Li, D and Tu, Z}, title = {Design, modelling, and experimental validation of a self-rotating flapping wing rotorcraft with motor-spring resonance actuation system.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/acdd3d}, pmid = {37295437}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Compared with traditional flapping motion, Flapping Wing Rotor (FWR) frees the rotating freedom by installing the two wings asymmetrically, which introduces rotor's motion characteristics and enables FWR to have higher lift and aerodynamic efficiency at low Reynolds number. However, most of the proposed FWRs contain linkage mechanical transmission structures, the fixed degrees of freedom (DoFs) of which prohibit the wings from achieving variable flapping trajectories, limiting the further optimization and controller design of FWRs. In order to fundamentally address the above challenges of FWRs, this paper presents a new type of FWR with two mechanically decoupled wings, which are directly driven by two independent motor- spring resonance actuation systems. The proposed FWR has 12.4 grams of system weight and 165-205mm wingspan. In addition, a theoretical electromechanical model based on the DC motor model and quasi-steady aerodynamic forces is established, and a series of experiments are conducted in order to figure out the ideal working point of the proposed FWR. It is notable that both our theoretical model and experiments exhibit uneven rotation of the FWR during flight, i.e., rotation speed dropping in the downstroke while boosting in the upstroke, which further tests the proposed theoretical model and uncover the relationship between flapping and passive rotation in the FWR. To further validate the performance of the design, free flight tests are conducted, and the proposed FWR demonstrates stable liftoff at the designed working point.}, } @article {pmid37295099, year = {2023}, author = {Zhu, HY and Xie, JH and Xia, KQ}, title = {Circulation in Quasi-2D Turbulence: Experimental Observation of the Area Rule and Bifractality.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {130}, number = {21}, pages = {214001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.214001}, pmid = {37295099}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We present an experimental study of the velocity circulation in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow. We show that the area rule of circulation around simple loops holds in both the forward cascade enstrophy inertial range (ΩIR) and the inverse cascade energy inertial range (EIR): When the side lengths of a loop are all within the same inertial range, the circulation statistics depend on the loop area alone. It is also found that, for circulation around figure-eight loops, the area rule still holds in EIR but is not applicable in ΩIR. In ΩIR, the circulation is nonintermittent; whereas in EIR, the circulation is bifractal: space filling for moments of the order of 3 and below and a monofractal with a dimension of 1.42 for higher orders. Our results demonstrate, as in a numerical study of 3D turbulence [K. P. Iyer et al., Circulation in High Reynolds Number Isotropic Turbulence is a Bifractal, Phys. Rev. X 9, 041006 (2019).PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.9.041006], that, in terms of circulation, turbulent flows exhibit a simpler behavior than velocity increments, as the latter are multifractals.}, } @article {pmid37292291, year = {2023}, author = {Das, A and Mahmood, FT and Smriti, RB and Saha, S and Hasan, MN}, title = {CFD analysis of heat transfer enhancement by wall mounted flexible flow modulators in a channel with pulsatile flow.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {6}, pages = {e16741}, pmid = {37292291}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The aim of the present study is to explore heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a pulsating channel flow due to wall-mounted flexible flow modulators (FFM). Cold air in pulsating fashion is forced to enter through the channel having isothermally heated top and bottom walls with one/multiple FFMs mounted on them. The dynamic conditions of pulsating inflow are characterized by Reynolds number, non-dimensional pulsation frequency and amplitude. Applying the Galerkin finite element method in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework, the present unsteady problem has been solved. Flexibility (10[-4] ≤ Ca ≤ 10[-7]), orientation angle (60° ≤ θ ≤ 120°), and location of FFM(s) have been considered in this study to find out the best-case scenario for heat transfer enhancement. The system characteristics have been analyzed by vorticity contours and isotherms. Heat transfer performance has been evaluated in terms of Nusselt number variations and pressure drop across the channel. Besides, power spectrum analysis of thermal field oscillation along with that of the FFM's motion induced by pulsating inflow has been performed. The present study reveals that single FFM having flexibility of Ca = 10[-5] and an orientation angle of θ = 90° offers the best-case scenario for heat transfer enhancement.}, } @article {pmid37285818, year = {2023}, author = {Derikvand, M and Salehi, AA and Solari, MS and Najafi, F}, title = {Investigation of the effects of hydrophobic surfaces on thermohydraulic characteristics and entropy generation of hybrid nanofluids with magnetic properties in a micro-heat sink under a magnetic field.}, journal = {Nanotechnology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-6528/acdc2f}, pmid = {37285818}, issn = {1361-6528}, abstract = {The cooling process of the devices is a big challenge in the electronic industry, and most of the process units (graphical are central) experience defects under harsh temperature conditions, so dissipating generated heat under various working conditions should seriously be studied. This study investigates the magnetohydrodynamics of hybrid-ferro nanofluids in the presence of hydrophobic surfaces in a micro-heat sink. To scrutinize this study, a Finite Volume Method (FVM is applied. The ferro nanofluid includes water as base fluid and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 as nano-additives, which are used in three concentrations (0, 1 and 3%). The other parameters such as Reynold number (5-120), Hartmann number (magnitude of the magnetic field from 0 to 6) and hydrophobicity of surfaces are considered to be scrutinized for their impacts on heat transfer and hydraulic variables as well as entropy generation ones. The outcomes indicate that increasing the level of hydrophobicity in surfaces leads to improve heat exchange and reduces the pressure drop simultaneously. Likewise, it decreases the frictional and thermal types of entropy generations. Intensifying the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances the heat exchange as much as the pressure drop. In the same result, it can decrease the thermal term in entropy generation equations for the fluid, but it increases the frictional one and adds a new term named magnetic entropy generation. Incrementing Reynolds number improves the convection heat transfer parameters although it intensifies the pressure drop in the length of the channel. Also, the thermal and frictional kinds of entropy generation decrease and increase with increasing the flow rate (Reynold number).}, } @article {pmid37280357, year = {2023}, author = {Ibrahim, MG and Abou-Zeid, MY}, title = {Computational simulation for MHD peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid with density-dependent parameters.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {9191}, pmid = {37280357}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This study aimed to give a new theoretical recommendation for non-dimensional parameters depending on the fluid temperature and concentration. This suggestion came from the fact of fluid density may change with the fluid temperature ([Formula: see text]) and concentration ([Formula: see text]). So, a newly released mathematical form of Jeffrey fluid with peristalsis through the inclined channel is constructed. The problem model defines a mathematical fluid model which converts using non-dimensional values. A sequentially used technique called the Adaptive shooting method for finding the problem solutions. Axial velocity behavior has become a novel concern to Reynolds number. In contradiction to different values of parameters, the temperature and concentration profiles are designated/sketched. The results show that the high value of the Reynolds number acts as a fluid temperature damper, while it boosts the concentration of the fluid particle. The non-constant fluid density recommendation makes the Darcy number controls with a fluid velocity which is virtually significant in drug carries applications or blood circulation systems. To verify the obtained results, a numerical comparison for obtained results has been made with a trustful algorithm with aid of AST using wolfram Mathematica version 13.1.1.}, } @article {pmid37278331, year = {2023}, author = {Shashank, HJ and Melikhov, Y and Ekiel-Jeżewska, ML}, title = {Dynamics of ball chains and highly elastic fibres settling under gravity in a viscous fluid.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3sm00255a}, pmid = {37278331}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {We study experimentally the dynamics of one and two ball chains settling under gravity in a highly viscous silicon oil at a Reynolds number much smaller than unity. We record the motion and shape deformation using two cameras. We demonstrate that single ball chains in most cases do not tend to be planar and often rotate, not keeping the ends at the same horizontal level. Shorter ball chains usually form shapes resembling distorted U. Longer ones in the early stage of the evolution form a shape resembling distorted W, and later deform non-symmetrically and significantly out of a plane. The typical evolution of shapes observed in our experiments with single ball chains is reproduced in our numerical simulations of a single elastic filament. In the computations, the filament is modelled as a chain of beads. Consecutive beads are connected by springs. Additional springs link consecutive pairs of beads. Elastic forces are assumed to be much smaller than gravity. As a result, the fibre is very flexible. We assume that the fluid sticks to the surfaces of the beads. We perform multipole expansion of the Stokes equations, with a lubrication correction. This method is implemented in the precise HYDROMULTIPOLE numerical codes. In our experiments, two ball chains, initially one above the other, later move away or approach each other, for a larger or smaller initial distance, respectively.}, } @article {pmid37276558, year = {2023}, author = {Lustro, JRT and Shimizu, Y and Kawahara, G}, title = {Homoclinic bifurcation and switching of edge state in plane Couette flow.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {33}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1063/5.0133492}, pmid = {37276558}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {We identify the presence of three homoclinic bifurcations that are associated with edge states in a system that is governed by the full Navier-Stokes equation. In plane Couette flow with a streamwise period slightly longer than the minimal unit, we describe a rich bifurcation scenario that is related to new time-periodic solutions and the Nagata steady solution [M. Nagata, J. Fluid Mech. 217, 519-527 (1990)]. In this computational domain, the vigorous time-periodic solution (PO3) with comparable fluctuation amplitude to turbulence and the lower branch of the Nagata steady solution are considered as edge states at different ranges of Reynolds number. These edge states can help in understanding the mechanism of subcritical transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows. At the Reynolds numbers at which the homoclinic bifurcations occur, we find the creation (or destruction) of the time-periodic solutions. At a higher Reynolds number, we observe the edge state switching from the lower-branch Nagata steady solution to PO3 at the creation of this vigorous cycle due to the homoclinic bifurcation. Consequently, the formation of the boundary separating the basins of attraction of the laminar attractor and the time-periodic/chaotic attractor also switches to the respective stable manifolds of the edge states, providing a change in the behavior of a typical amplitude of perturbation toward triggering the transition to turbulence.}, } @article {pmid37274523, year = {2023}, author = {Ijaz, S and Abdullah, M and Sadaf, H and Nadeem, S}, title = {Generalized complex cilia tip modeled flow through an electroosmotic region.}, journal = {Journal of Central South University}, volume = {30}, number = {4}, pages = {1217-1230}, pmid = {37274523}, issn = {2227-5223}, abstract = {In this analysis, we explore a nanofluid model that represents the role of ciliary carpets in the transport of magnetohydrodynamic fluid in an electroosmotic channel. Hybrid nanofluid features are also taken into interpretation. The equations leading the flow analysis are converted into non-dimensional form by supposing long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Analytical solutions for velocity distribution, pressure gradient and stream function are acquired and solved by a mathematic solver. The effects of the relevant physical parameters are graphically noted. The consequence of the present model has remarkable applications, which can be used in various areas of biological transport processes, artificial cilia design and in the operation of other mechanical devices.}, } @article {pmid37263239, year = {2023}, author = {Ronco, C and Bellomo, R}, title = {The Process of Adsorption and Cartridge Design.}, journal = {Contributions to nephrology}, volume = {200}, number = {}, pages = {1-8}, doi = {10.1159/000529295}, pmid = {37263239}, issn = {1662-2782}, abstract = {The mechanism of adsorption is regulated by various factors including the nature of the sorbent and the molecules involved in the adsorption process. The design of a device for adsorption therapies must fulfil specific requirements. The device should allow the use of the minimum amount of sorbent material sufficient to achieve safe and effective blood purification therapy. Each component of the device must respond to criteria of safety and function in order to maximize the efficiency of the cartridge. The design should be optimized to enable utilization of all the sorbent surface available for adsorption. The structure and packing of the sorbent particles should allow the even distribution of flow inside the cartridge and the avoidance of channeling phenomena and excessive resistance to flow. All these factors depend on specific governing laws such as the Kozeny-Carman equation and Darcy's law. The system must also consider blood viscosity and possible turbulent flows (Reynolds number). The final manufacturing process of a sorbent unit must also consider the dimensions and the cost, and the final performance after sterilization and storage.}, } @article {pmid37259126, year = {2023}, author = {Bocanegra Evans, H and Segnini, JM and Doosttalab, A and Cordero, J and Castillo, L}, title = {Effect of cartilaginous rings in tracheal flow with stenosis.}, journal = {BMC biomedical engineering}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, pages = {5}, pmid = {37259126}, issn = {2524-4426}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In respiratory fluid dynamics research, it is typically assumed that the wall of the trachea is smooth. However, the trachea is structurally supported by a series of cartilaginous rings that create undulations on the wall surface, which introduce perturbations into the flow. Even though many studies use realistic Computer Tomography (CT) scan data to capture the complex geometry of the respiratory system, its limited spatial resolution does not resolve small features, including those introduced by the cartilaginous rings.

RESULTS: Here we present an experimental comparison of two simplified trachea models with Grade II stenosis (70% blockage), one with smooth walls and second with cartilaginous rings. The use a unique refractive index-matching method provides unprecedented optical access and allowed us to perform non-intrusive velocity field measurements close to the wall (e.g., Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)). Measurements were performed in a flow regime comparable to a resting breathing state (Reynolds number ReD = 3350). The cartilaginous rings induce velocity fluctuations in the downstream flow, enhancing the near-wall transport of momentum flux and thus reducing flow separation in the downstream flow. The maximum upstream velocity in the recirculation region is reduced by 38%, resulting in a much weaker recirculation zone- a direct consequence of the cartilaginous rings.

CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of the cartilaginous rings in respiratory flow studies and the mechanism to reduce flow separation in trachea stenosis.}, } @article {pmid37255166, year = {2023}, author = {Silva, MLFD and Gonçalves, SF and Haniel, J and Lucas, TC and Huebner, R}, title = {Comparative study between 1-way and 2-way coupled fluid-structure interaction in numerical simulation of aortic arch aneurysms.}, journal = {Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias}, volume = {95}, number = {suppl 1}, pages = {e20210859}, doi = {10.1590/0001-3765202320210859}, pmid = {37255166}, issn = {1678-2690}, abstract = {Hemodynamic forces are related to pathological variations of the cardiovascular system, and numerical simulations for fluid-structure interaction have been systematically used to analyze the behavior of blood flow and the arterial wall in aortic aneurysms. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of 1-way and 2-way coupled fluid-structure interaction for aortic arch aneurysm. The coupling models of fluid-structure interaction were conducted using 3D geometry of the thoracic aorta from computed tomography. Hyperelastic anisotropic properties were estimated for the Holzapfel arterial wall model. The rheological behavior of the blood was modeled by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The results showed that the 1-way approach tends to underestimate von Mises stress, displacement, and strain over the entire cardiac cycle, compared to the 2-way approach. In contrast, the behavior of the variables of flow field, velocity, wall shear stress, and Reynolds number when coupled by the 1-way model was overestimated at the systolic moment and tends to be equal at the diastolic moment. The quantitative differences found, especially during the systole, suggest the use of 2-way coupling in numerical simulations of aortic arch aneurysms due to the hyperelastic nature of the arterial wall, which leads to a strong iteration between the fluid and the arterial wall.}, } @article {pmid37249683, year = {2023}, author = {Deng, X and Sheng, P}, title = {Evolution of channel flow and Darcy's law beyond the critical Reynolds number.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {46}, number = {6}, pages = {37}, pmid = {37249683}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {For incompressible channel flow, there is a critical state, characterized by a critical Reynolds number Rec and a critical wavevector mc along the channel direction, beyond which the channel flow becomes unstable in the linear regime. In this work, we investigate the channel flow beyond the critical state and find the existence of a new fluctuating, quasi-stationary flow that comprises the laminar Poiseuille flow superposed with a counter-flow component, accompanied by vortices and anti-vortices. The net flow rate is reduced by ~ 15% from the linear, laminar regime. Our study is facilitated by the analytical solution of the linearized, incompressible, three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equation in the channel geometry, with the Navier boundary condition, alternatively denoted as the hydrodynamic modes (HMs). By using the HMs as the complete mathematical basis for expanding the velocity in the NS equation, the Rec is evaluated to 5-digit accuracy when compared to the well-known Orszag result, without invoking the standard Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Beyond Rec, the analytical solution is indispensable in offering physical insight to those features of the counter-flow component that differs from any of the pressure-driven channel flows. In particular, the counter flow is found to comprise multiple HMs, some with opposite flow direction, that can lead to a net boundary reaction force along the counter-flow direction. The latter is analyzed to be necessary for satisfying Newton's law. Experimental verification of the predictions is discussed.}, } @article {pmid37241559, year = {2023}, author = {Che, H and Xu, Q and Xu, G and Fu, X and Wang, X and He, N and Zhu, Z}, title = {Numerical Study on Characteristics of Convection and Temperature Evolution in Microchannel of Thermal Flowmeter.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14050935}, pmid = {37241559}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {During practical usage, thermal flowmeters have a limited range of applications. The present work investigates the factors influencing thermal flowmeter measurements and observes the effects of buoyancy convection and forced convection on the flow rate measurement sensitivity. The results show that the gravity level, inclination angle, channel height, mass flow rate, and heating power affect the flow rate measurements by influencing the flow pattern and the temperature distribution. Gravity determines the generation of convective cells, while the inclination angle affects the location of the convective cells. Channel height affects the flow pattern and temperature distribution. Higher sensitivity can be achieved with smaller mass flow rates or higher heating power. According to the combined influence of the aforementioned parameters, the present work investigates the flow transition based on the Reynolds number and the Grashof number. When the Reynolds number is below the critical value corresponding to the Grashof number, convective cells emerge and affect the accuracy of flowmeter measurements. The research on influencing factors and flow transition presented in this paper has potential implications for the design and manufacture of thermal flowmeters under different working conditions.}, } @article {pmid37230014, year = {2023}, author = {Yeom, J and Park, J and Park, JY}, title = {Fluid dynamic simulation for cellular damage due to lymphatic flow within the anatomical arrangement of the outer hair cells in the cochlea.}, journal = {Computers in biology and medicine}, volume = {161}, number = {}, pages = {106986}, doi = {10.1016/j.compbiomed.2023.106986}, pmid = {37230014}, issn = {1879-0534}, abstract = {Damage to the sensory hair cells in the cochlea is a major cause of hearing loss since human sensory hair cells do not regenerate naturally after damage. As these sensory hair cells are exposed to a vibrating lymphatic environment, they may be affected by physical flow. It is known that the outer hair cells (OHCs) are physically more damaged by sound than the inner hair cells (IHCs). In this study, the lymphatic flow is compared using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the arrangement of the OHCs, and the effects of such flow on the OHCs is analyzed. In addition, flow visualization is used to validate the Stokes flow. The Stokes flow behavior is attributed to the low Reynolds number, and the same behavior is observed even when the flow direction is reversed. When the distance between the rows of the OHCs is large, each row is independent, but when this distance is short, the flow change in each row influences the other rows. The stimulation caused by flow changes on the OHCs is confirmed through surface pressure and shear stress. The OHCs located at the base with a short distance between the rows receive excess hydrodynamic stimulation, and the tip of the V-shaped pattern receives an excess mechanical force. This study attempts to understand the contributions of lymphatic flow to OHC damage by quantitatively suggesting stimulation of the OHCs and is expected to contribute to the development of OHC regeneration technologies in the future.}, } @article {pmid37231052, year = {2023}, author = {Li, S and Mao, L and Alizadeh, A and Zhang, X and Mousavi, SV}, title = {The application of non-uniform magnetic field for thermal enhancement of the nanofluid flow inside the U-turn pipe at solar collectors.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {8471}, pmid = {37231052}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The improvement of heat transfer inside the solar heat exchangers is important for the development of solar energy in an urban area. In this study, the usage of a non-uniform magnetic field on the thermal efficiency of the nanofluid (Fe3O4) streaming inside the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers is examined. Computational fluid dynamic is applied to visualize the nanofluid flow inside the solar heat exchanger. The role of magnetic intensity and Reynolds number on thermal efficiency are fully investigated. The effect of single and triple sources of the magnetic field is also studied in our research. Obtained results indicate that the usage of the magnetic field results in the production of vortex in the base fluid and heat transfer improves inside the domain. Our finding indicates that the usage of the magnetic field with Mn = 25 K would improve the average heat transfer by about 21% along the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers.}, } @article {pmid37220708, year = {2023}, author = {Tisdell, CC}, title = {Improved perturbation solution for two-dimensional viscous flow between expanding or contracting permeable walls.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanics}, volume = {155}, number = {}, pages = {111642}, doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2023.111642}, pmid = {37220708}, issn = {1873-2380}, abstract = {Despite the continuing interest in the transport of biological fluid within contracting or expanding vessels, our knowledge is yet to be fully developed, even in the two-dimensional case. For example, explicit solutions and close approximations to these models remain unknown, and the physical problem has been restricted to the "slow" expansion or contraction of the walls. Thus, the purpose of this short communication is to partially address such challenges and gaps by generating explicit solutions and improving approximations to the flow problem without the "slowness" restriction being imposed. We show that when the Reynolds number is zero (i.e., the inviscid case), the corresponding homogeneous differential equation under consideration may be completely solved. We then illustrate how this exact solution may be leveraged to form more precise approximations to the flow via perturbation techniques when the Reynolds number is small. Our perturbation approach is only in one parameter (the Reynolds number) instead of the usual two parameters (the Reynolds number and wall dilation rate), and thus we make no restriction regarding the "slowness" of wall expansion or contraction for our general perturbation scheme. Our act of "shining new light through old windows" improves and extends the results of Majdalani, Zhou and Dawson and, moreover, our method has significant potential to be applied by researchers to form more precise one-parameter perturbation approximations to flow problems in contrast to the limitations of the traditional two-parameter perturbation approaches that have dominated the literature.}, } @article {pmid37215871, year = {2023}, author = {Zhao, L and Wang, Y and Qi, Z}, title = {Investigation of periodic characteristics of perturbed flow over a slender body.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {5}, pages = {e16194}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16194}, pmid = {37215871}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The asymmetric flow over a slender body was particularly sensitive to the nose at a high angle of attack (AoA). Two patterns of separation occurred on the noses of the pointed-nosed slender body and blunt-nosed slender body as open- and close-type separation, respectively. The effects of the bluntness were investigated at high AoA (α = 50°) to clarify the evolution of the separated pattern from open-to close-type separation by the nose and by the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow. Wind tunnel experimental tests were conducted to investigate the periodic characteristics of asymmetric flow at a Reynolds number ReD = 1.54 × 10[5], based on incoming free-stream velocity (U∞) and the diameter (D) of the model. A particle was attached to the tip of the nose to induce the perturbed flow and attain a definite and predictable asymmetric flow in experimental tests. The pressure scanning and surface oil-flow visualization techniques were used to capture the pressure distributions and flow separations. The major findings were that axial flow increases with the increase of bluntness, resulting in open-type separation turning into close-type separation, and the perturbation moved from downstream to upstream of starting points of the separation line. The critical bluntness of separation pattern switching from open-type to close-type located between 1.5 and 3. Thus, the management of perturbation on asymmetric flow pattern switched from directly participating in separation to influencing separation through micro-flow. Therefore, the locations of perturbation and starting points of the separation line were closely related to asymmetric flow management by perturbation, then affecting the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow.}, } @article {pmid37198775, year = {2023}, author = {Yoo, H and Wissocq, G and Jacob, J and Favier, J and Sagaut, P}, title = {Compressible lattice Boltzmann method with rotating overset grids.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045306}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.045306}, pmid = {37198775}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The numerical instability of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at high Mach or high Reynolds number flow is well identified, and it remains a major barrier to its application in more complex configurations such as moving geometries. This work combines the compressible lattice Boltzmann model with rotating overset grids (the so-called Chimera method, sliding mesh, or moving reference frame) for high Mach flows. This paper proposes to use the compressible hybrid recursive regularized collision model with fictitious forces (or inertial forces) in a noninertial rotating reference frame. Also, polynomial interpolations are investigated, which allow fixed inertial and rotating noninertial grids to communicate with each other. We suggest a way to effectively couple the LBM with the MUSCL-Hancock scheme in the rotating grid, which is needed to account for thermal effect of compressible flow. As a result, this approach is demonstrated to have an extended Mach stability limit for the rotating grid. It also demonstrates that this complex LBM scheme can maintain the second-order accuracy of the classic LBM by appropriately using numerical methods like polynomial interpolations and the MUSCL-Hancock scheme. Furthermore, the method shows a very good agreement on aerodynamic coefficients compared to experiments and the conventional finite-volume scheme. This work presents a thorough academic validation and error analysis of the LBM for simulating moving geometries in high Mach compressible flows.}, } @article {pmid37190405, year = {2023}, author = {Niven, RK}, title = {Dimensionless Groups by Entropic Similarity: I - Diffusion, Chemical Reaction and Dispersion Processes.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {25}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {37190405}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {Since the time of Buckingham in 1914, dimensional analysis and similarity arguments based on dimensionless groups have served as powerful tools for the analysis of systems in all branches of science and engineering. Dimensionless groups are generally classified into those arising from geometric similarity, based on ratios of length scales; kinematic similarity, based on ratios of velocities or accelerations; and dynamic similarity, based on ratios of forces. We propose an additional category of dimensionless groups based on entropic similarity, defined by ratios of (i) entropy production terms; (ii) entropy flow rates or fluxes; or (iii) information flow rates or fluxes. Since all processes involving work against friction, dissipation, diffusion, dispersion, mixing, separation, chemical reaction, gain of information or other irreversible changes are driven by (or must overcome) the second law of thermodynamics, it is appropriate to analyze them directly in terms of competing entropy-producing and transporting phenomena and the dominant entropic regime, rather than indirectly in terms of forces. In this study, entropic groups are derived for a wide variety of diffusion, chemical reaction and dispersion processes relevant to fluid mechanics, chemical engineering and environmental engineering. It is shown that many dimensionless groups traditionally derived by kinematic or dynamic similarity (including the Reynolds number) can also be recovered by entropic similarity-with a different entropic interpretation-while many new dimensionless groups can also be identified. The analyses significantly expand the scope of dimensional analysis and similarity arguments for the resolution of new and existing problems in science and engineering.}, } @article {pmid37186956, year = {2023}, author = {Guo, Q and Zhang, J and Li, D and Yu, H}, title = {Effect of Wettability on the Collision Behavior of Acoustically Excited Droplets.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c00571}, pmid = {37186956}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is a noncontact technique for micro-liquid handling (usually nanoliters or picoliters) that is not restricted by nozzles and enables high-throughput liquid dispensing without sacrificing precision. It is widely regarded as the most advanced solution for liquid handling in large-scale drug screening. Stable coalescence of the acoustically excited droplets on the target substrate is a fundamental requirement during the application of the ADE system. However, it is challenging to investigate the collision behavior of nanoliter droplets flying upward during the ADE. In particular, the dependence of the droplet's collision behavior on substrate wettability and droplet velocity has yet to be thoroughly analyzed. In this paper, the kinetic processes of binary droplet collisions were investigated experimentally for different wettability substrate surfaces. Four states occur as the droplet collision velocity increases: coalescence after minor deformation, complete rebound, coalescence during rebound, and direct coalescence. For the hydrophilic substrate, there are wider ranges of Weber number (We) and Reynolds number (Re) in the complete rebound state. And with the decrease of the substrate wettability, the critical Weber and Reynolds numbers for the coalescence during rebound and the direct coalescence decrease. It is further revealed that the hydrophilic substrate is susceptible to droplet rebound because the sessile droplet has a larger radius of curvature and the viscous energy dissipation is greater. Besides, the prediction model of the maximum spreading diameter was established by modifying the droplet morphology in the complete rebound state. It is found that, under the same Weber and Reynolds numbers, droplet collisions on the hydrophilic substrate achieve a smaller maximum spreading coefficient and greater viscous energy dissipation, so the hydrophilic substrate is prone to droplet bounce.}, } @article {pmid37123410, year = {2023}, author = {Ishimoto, K and Gaffney, EA and Smith, DJ}, title = {Squirmer hydrodynamics near a periodic surface topography.}, journal = {Frontiers in cell and developmental biology}, volume = {11}, number = {}, pages = {1123446}, pmid = {37123410}, issn = {2296-634X}, abstract = {The behaviour of microscopic swimmers has previously been explored near large-scale confining geometries and in the presence of very small-scale surface roughness. Here, we consider an intermediate case of how a simple microswimmer, the tangential spherical squirmer, behaves adjacent to singly and doubly periodic sinusoidal surface topographies that spatially oscillate with an amplitude that is an order of magnitude less than the swimmer size and wavelengths that are also within an order of magnitude of this scale. The nearest neighbour regularised Stokeslet method is used for numerical explorations after validating its accuracy for a spherical tangential squirmer that swims stably near a flat surface. The same squirmer is then introduced to different surface topographies. The key governing factor in the resulting swimming behaviour is the size of the squirmer relative to the surface topography wavelength. For instance, directional guidance is not observed when the squirmer is much larger, or much smaller, than the surface topography wavelength. In contrast, once the squirmer size is on the scale of the topography wavelength, limited guidance is possible, often with local capture in the topography troughs. However, complex dynamics can also emerge, especially when the initial configuration is not close to alignment along topography troughs or above topography crests. In contrast to sensitivity in alignment and topography wavelength, reductions in the amplitude of the surface topography or variations in the shape of the periodic surface topography do not have extensive impacts on the squirmer behaviour. Our findings more generally highlight that the numerical framework provides an essential basis to elucidate how swimmers may be guided by surface topography.}, } @article {pmid37115869, year = {2023}, author = {Ambruş, VE and Schlichting, S and Werthmann, C}, title = {Establishing the Range of Applicability of Hydrodynamics in High-Energy Collisions.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {130}, number = {15}, pages = {152301}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.152301}, pmid = {37115869}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We simulate the space-time dynamics of high-energy collisions based on a microscopic kinetic description in the conformal relaxation time approximation, in order to determine the range of applicability of an effective description in relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. We find that hydrodynamics provides a quantitatively accurate description of collective flow when the average inverse Reynolds number Re^{-1} is sufficiently small and the early preequilibrium stage is properly accounted for. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the (in)applicability of hydrodynamics in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and light nucleus collisions.}, } @article {pmid37112102, year = {2023}, author = {Lin, W and Li, Z and Zhang, S and Lin, J}, title = {Numerical Study on the Distribution of Rodlike Particles in Laminar Flows of Power Law Fluids Past a Cylinder.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {15}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/polym15081956}, pmid = {37112102}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {The contraction/expansion laminar flow containing rodlike particles in power-law fluid is studied numerically when the particles are in a dilute phase. The fluid velocity vector and streamline of flow are given at the finite Reynolds number (Re) region. The effects of Re, power index n and particle aspect ratio β on the spatial and orientation distributions of particles are analyzed. The results showed that for the shear-thickening fluid, particles are dispersed in the whole area in the contraction flow, while more particles are gathered near the two walls in the expansion flow. The spatial distribution of particles with small β is more regular. Β has a significant, n has a moderate, but Re has a small impact on the spatial distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. In the case of large Re, most particles are oriented in the flow direction. The particles near the wall show obvious orientation along the flow direction. In shear-thickening fluid, when the flow changes from contraction to expansion, the orientation distribution of particles becomes more dispersed; while in shear-thinning fluid, the opposite is true. More particles orient to the flow direction in expansion flow than that in contraction flow. The particles with a large β tend to align with the flow direction more obviously. Re, n and β have great influence on the orientation distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. Whether the particles initially located at the inlet can bypass the cylinder depends on the transverse position and initial orientation of the particles at the inlet. The number of particles with θ0 = 90° bypassing the cylinder is the largest, followed by θ0 = 45° and θ0 = 0°. The conclusions obtained in this paper have reference value for practical engineering applications.}, } @article {pmid37100809, year = {2023}, author = {Pilloton, C and Lugni, C and Graziani, G and Fedele, F}, title = {Wave dispersion in moderate channel turbulence.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {6801}, pmid = {37100809}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {We study channel turbulence by interpreting its vorticity as a random sea of ocean wave packet analogues. In particular, we investigate the ocean-like properties of vortical packets applying stochastic methods developed for oceanic fields. Taylor's hypothesis of frozen eddies does not hold when turbulence is not weak, and vortical packets change shape as they are advected by the mean flow, altering their own speed. This is the physical manifestation of a hidden wave dispersion of turbulence. Our analysis at the bulk Reynolds number Reb = 5600 suggests that turbulent fluctuations behave dispersively as gravity-capillary waves, with capillarity being dominant near the wall region.}, } @article {pmid37097943, year = {2023}, author = {Prasad, V and Sharma, A and Kulkarni, SS}, title = {Chaotic advection in a recirculating flow: Effect of a fluid multiple-flexible-solid interaction.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {33}, number = {4}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1063/5.0132986}, pmid = {37097943}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {This paper deals with chaotic advection due to a two-way interaction between flexible elliptical-solids and a laminar lid-driven cavity flow in two dimensions. The present Fluid multiple-flexible-Solid Interaction study involves various number N(= 1-120) of equal-sized neutrally buoyant elliptical-solids (aspect ratio β = 0.5) such that they result in the total volume fraction Φ = 10 % as in our recent study on single solid, done for non-dimensional shear modulus G ∗ = 0.2 and Reynolds number R e = 100. Results are presented first for flow-induced motion and deformation of the solids and later for chaotic advection of the fluid. After the initial transients, the fluid as well as solid motion (and deformation) attain periodicity for smaller N ≤ 10 while they attain aperiodic states for larger N > 10. Adaptive material tracking (AMT) and Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE)-based Lagrangian dynamical analysis revealed that the chaotic advection increases up to N = 6 and decreases at larger N(= 6-10) for the periodic state. Similar analysis for the transient state revealed an asymptotic increase in the chaotic advection with increasing N ≤ 120. These findings are demonstrated with the help of two types of chaos signatures: exponential growth of material blob's interface and Lagrangian coherent structures, revealed by the AMT and FTLE, respectively. Our work, which is relevant to several applications, presents a novel technique based on the motion of multiple deformable-solids for enhancement of chaotic advection.}, } @article {pmid37092929, year = {2023}, author = {Yang, C and Arcondoulis, EJG and Yang, Y and Guo, J and Maryami, R and Bi, C and Liu, Y}, title = {Active control of airfoil turbulent boundary layer noise with trailing-edge blowing.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {153}, number = {4}, pages = {2115}, doi = {10.1121/10.0017787}, pmid = {37092929}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy are performed to study the effect of trailing-edge blowing on airfoil self-noise. Simulations were conducted using a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack and a chord-based Reynolds number of 4 × 10 5. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics of the baseline airfoil were thoroughly verified by comparison with previous numerical and experimental data. The noise reduction effects of continuous and local blowing with different blowing ratios and blowing momentum coefficients were compared. A maximum noise reduction of 20 dB was achieved via trailing-edge blowing and the noise reduction mechanisms of the two blowing methods were discussed. The LES results show a pair of recirculation bubbles in the airfoil wake which are suppressed by trailing-edge blowing. As the blowing vortices convect into the wake, they stretch and stabilize the shear flows from airfoil surfaces. Instantaneous vorticity and root mean square velocity fluctuations are also weakened. There is a decrease in the spanwise coherence and an increase in the phase difference, which contribute to noise reduction. It is concluded that the suppression of turbulence fluctuations in the near wake is the main mechanism of noise reduction for airfoil trailing-edge blowing.}, } @article {pmid37073470, year = {2023}, author = {Roggeveen, JV and Stone, HA and Kurzthaler, C}, title = {Transport of a passive scalar in wide channels with surface topography: An asymptotic theory.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {35}, number = {27}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/acc8ad}, pmid = {37073470}, issn = {1361-648X}, abstract = {We generalize classical dispersion theory for a passive scalar to derive an asymptotic long-time convection-diffusion equation for a solute suspended in a wide, structured channel and subject to a steady low-Reynolds-number shear flow. Our asymptotic theory relies on a domain perturbation approach for small roughness amplitudes of the channel and holds for general surface shapes expandable as a Fourier series. We determine an anisotropic dispersion tensor, which depends on the characteristic wavelengths and amplitude of the surface structure. For surfaces whose corrugations are tilted with respect to the applied flow direction, we find that dispersion along the principal direction (i.e. the principal eigenvector of the dispersion tensor) is at an angle to the main flow direction and becomes enhanced relative to classical Taylor dispersion. In contrast, dispersion perpendicular to it can decrease compared to the short-time diffusivity of the particles. Furthermore, for an arbitrary surface shape represented in terms of a Fourier decomposition, we find that each Fourier mode contributes at leading order a linearly-independent correction to the classical Taylor dispersion diffusion tensor.}, } @article {pmid37069324, year = {2023}, author = {Nyatchouba Nsangue, BT and Tang, H and Liu, W and Xu, L and Hu, F}, title = {Turbulent flow interacting with flexible trawl net structure including simulation catch in flume tank.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {6249}, pmid = {37069324}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The interaction between fluid and the midwater trawl with stocked catches is extremely complex, but essential to improve the understanding of the drag force acting on the trawl, the behavior of the fishing structure during a trawling process, and to predict its selectivity process. The present study assesses the turbulent characteristics inside and around the midwater trawls with catch and without catch linked to its fluttering motion. The analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic current velocity meter measurements performed in the multiple points inside and outside different parts of a 1/35 scaled midwater trawl model with the aim of access the main turbulent flow structure inside and around the gear. Time-averaged normalized flow velocity fields and turbulent flow parameters were analyzed from the measured flow data. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was conducted by watching the time-frequency Power spectrum content of instantaneous flow velocities fields, the fluttering trawl motions, turbulent kinetic energy, and momentum flux. Based on successive analyzes of mean flow characteristics and turbulent flow parameters, it has been demonstrated that the presence of catch inside the trawl net impacts the evolution of unsteady turbulent flow by creating large trawl fluttering motions that strongly affect the flow passage. The results showed that the time-averaged normalized streamwise and transverse flow velocities inside and around the trawl net with catch were 12.41% lower compared with that obtained inside and around the trawl without catch. The turbulent length scale and turbulent Reynolds number obtained in the different part of the trawl net with catch were about 33.05% greater than those obtained on the trawl net without catch, confirming that the unsteady turbulent flow developing inside and around the midwater trawl is influence by the catch and liner. It is observed that the motions of both the trawl without catch and the trawl with catch are mainly of a low-frequency activity and another component related to unsteady turbulent flow street. A complex fluid-structure interaction is then demonstrated where the fluttering motions of the trawl net affect the fluid flow inside and around trawl net, the fluid force, turbulent pattern, and simultaneously, the periodic unsteady turbulent flow influence the trawl motions.}, } @article {pmid37064396, year = {2023}, author = {Ding, Y and Liu, Z and Wang, X and Xin, R and Shan, D and He, B and Jing, J and Gao, Q and Yang, J and Chen, Y}, title = {Validation of hemodynamic stress calculation in coronary computed tomography angiography versus intravascular ultrasound.}, journal = {Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {2339-2351}, pmid = {37064396}, issn = {2223-4292}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Development in computational fluid dynamics and 3D construction could facilitate the calculation of hemodynamic stresses in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). However, the agreement between CCTA derived stresses and intravascular ultrasound/intravascular coronary angiography (IVUS/ICA)-derived stresses remains undetermined. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate if CCTA can serve as alternative to IVUS/ICA for hemodynamic evaluation.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, 13 patients (14 arteries) with unstable angina who underwent both CCTA and IVUS/ICA at an interval of less than 7 days were consecutively included at the Chinese PLA General Hospital within the year of 2021. Slice-level minimal lumen area (MLA), percent area stenosis, velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, wall shear stress (WSS) and axial plaque stress (APS) were determined by both modalities. The agreement between CCTA and IVUS/ICA was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis.

RESULTS: CCTA overestimated the degree of area stenosis (50.22%±16.15% vs. 36.41%±19.37%, P=0.004) with the MLA showing no significant difference (5.81±2.24 vs. 6.72±2.04 mm[2], P=0.126). No statistical difference was observed in WSS (6.57±6.26 vs. 5.98±5.55 Pa, P=0.420) and APS (16.03±1,159.45 vs. -1.27±890.39 Pa, P=0.691) between CCTA and IVUS. Good correlation was found in velocity (ICC: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.752-0.833), Reynolds number (ICC: 0.810, 95% CI: 0.768-0.844) and WSS (ICC: 0.769, 95% CI: 0.718-0.810), while the ICC of APS was (ICC: 0.341, 95% CI: 0.197-0.458), indicating a relatively poor correlation.

CONCLUSIONS: CCTA can serve as a satisfactory alternative to the reference standard, IVUS/ICA in morphology simulation and hemodynamic stress calculation, especially in the calculation of WSS.}, } @article {pmid37064764, year = {2011}, author = {Fan, DL and Zhu, FQ and Cammarata, RC and Chien, CL}, title = {Electric Tweezers.}, journal = {Nano today}, volume = {6}, number = {4}, pages = {339-354}, pmid = {37064764}, issn = {1748-0132}, abstract = {Electric tweezers utilize DC and AC electric fields through voltages applied on patterned electrodes to manipulate nanoentities suspended in a liquid. Nanowires with a large aspect ratio are particularly suitable for use in electric tweezers for patterning, assembling, and manipulation. Despite operating in the regime of extremely small particle Reynolds number (of order 10[-5]), electric tweezers can manipulate nanowires with high precision to follow any prescribed trajectory, to rotate nanowires with controlled chirality, angular velocity and rotation angle, and to assemble nanowires to fabricate nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) devices such as nanomotors and nano-oscillators. Electric tweezers have also been used to transport in a highly controlled manner drug-carrying functionalized nanowires for cell-specific drug delivery.}, } @article {pmid37039923, year = {2023}, author = {Guastoni, L and Rabault, J and Schlatter, P and Azizpour, H and Vinuesa, R}, title = {Deep reinforcement learning for turbulent drag reduction in channel flows.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {46}, number = {4}, pages = {27}, pmid = {37039923}, issn = {1292-895X}, support = {2021-CoG-101043998/ERC_/European Research Council/International ; }, abstract = {We introduce a reinforcement learning (RL) environment to design and benchmark control strategies aimed at reducing drag in turbulent fluid flows enclosed in a channel. The environment provides a framework for computationally efficient, parallelized, high-fidelity fluid simulations, ready to interface with established RL agent programming interfaces. This allows for both testing existing deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms against a challenging task, and advancing our knowledge of a complex, turbulent physical system that has been a major topic of research for over two centuries, and remains, even today, the subject of many unanswered questions. The control is applied in the form of blowing and suction at the wall, while the observable state is configurable, allowing to choose different variables such as velocity and pressure, in different locations of the domain. Given the complex nonlinear nature of turbulent flows, the control strategies proposed so far in the literature are physically grounded, but too simple. DRL, by contrast, enables leveraging the high-dimensional data that can be sampled from flow simulations to design advanced control strategies. In an effort to establish a benchmark for testing data-driven control strategies, we compare opposition control, a state-of-the-art turbulence-control strategy from the literature, and a commonly used DRL algorithm, deep deterministic policy gradient. Our results show that DRL leads to 43% and 30% drag reduction in a minimal and a larger channel (at a friction Reynolds number of 180), respectively, outperforming the classical opposition control by around 20 and 10 percentage points, respectively.}, } @article {pmid37037634, year = {2023}, author = {Wang, YH and Lin, XY and Cheng, Y and Wang, H and Liu, W and Zhuge, XK and Huo, XL and Bao, N}, title = {Vibration for enhancement of electrochemical analysis of biomolecules in a droplet on the rough surface of a disposable working electrode.}, journal = {Analytica chimica acta}, volume = {1256}, number = {}, pages = {341158}, doi = {10.1016/j.aca.2023.341158}, pmid = {37037634}, issn = {1873-4324}, abstract = {Although electrochemical detection of microliters-level solutions is attractive for analysis of low-amount biological samples, its performance could be weakened by limited mass transfer due to low Reynolds number and laminar flow. Herein we designed a 3D-printed electroanalytical device to apply vibration for improvement of mass transfer during electrochemical detection. In our approach, the droplet-size sample solution containing Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, as a model) was directly applied on the effective surface of a disposable working electrode. We demonstrated that vibration could enhance electrochemical responses of IAA more on the rough surface than on the smooth surface of the working electrodes. After optimization, the sensitivity for electrochemical detection of a 20-μL droplet under vibration with the voltage of 7 V increased more than 100% compared with the static condition. The enhanced electrochemical responses brought by vibration could be achieved reproducibly, which could be ascribed to improved mass transfer. Our strategy could be practically applied for differentiation of IAA in different tissues of Marchantia polymorpha with enhanced responses. This study suggested that vibration might become a simple and effective method to improve mass transfer in analysis of microliter-volume solutions, which might be extended for more biochemical assays.}, } @article {pmid37034318, year = {2023}, author = {Dyverfeldt, P and Trenti, C and Ziegler, M and Bjarnegård, N and Lindenberger, M}, title = {Helical flow in tortuous aortas and its relationship to turbulence: A whole-aorta 4D flow MRI study.}, journal = {Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine}, volume = {10}, number = {}, pages = {1124604}, pmid = {37034318}, issn = {2297-055X}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Increased vascular tortuosity is a hallmark of ageing of the vascular system, including the aorta. However, the impact of tortuosity on aortic blood flow is unknown. We hypothesized that increased tortuosity would be associated with increased blood flow helicity and with decreased degree of blood flow turbulence as measured by the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE).

METHODS: 4D Flow MR images covering the entire aorta from the aortic valve to the iliac bifurcation were acquired in 23 normal volunteers aged 18-30 years ("Young") and 23 normal volunteers aged 66-76 years ("Old") without aortic disease. The aorta was segmented and divided into four regions: the ascending, descending, suprarenal abdominal and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Tortuosity, helicity, TKE, flow velocity, and Reynolds number were computed for the whole aorta and for each section.

RESULTS: Tortuosity and helicity were higher whereas TKE, velocity, and Reynolds number were lower in Old than in Young, for all aortic regions (p < 0.05) except for helicity in the descending aorta. Tortuosity correlated positively with helicity and negatively with TKE for all aortic regions (Spearman rho=±0.45-±0.72, p < =0.002) except for TKE in the ascending aorta. Further, helicity correlated with TKE in the descending, suprarenal abdominal and infrarenal abdominal aorta (Spearman rho=-0.56--0.77).

CONCLUSION: Tortuosity increases with age and blood flow in tortuous aortas is more helical. Increasing helicity, in turn, is associated with decreasing TKE.}, } @article {pmid37033871, year = {2023}, author = {Meng, M and Yang, Q}, title = {Investigation of the Microscopic Process of the Media Coalescence Treatment of Water-in-Oil Emulsion.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {8}, number = {13}, pages = {11908-11915}, pmid = {37033871}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Medium coalescence technology is a research hotspot for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions. However, the coalescence mechanism is still unclear, making it challenging to effectively improve the separation performance. Herein, the microscopic mechanism of medium coalescence was revealed. We found that the effective collision positions under the action of the flow field include the exposed granule surface, adherent droplet surface, and three-phase contact line. Furthermore, a numerical model of the microscopic process of water-in-oil emulsion permeation through a granular bed was established. The effects of different parameters (including the number of medium layers, Reynolds number, and inlet concentration) on the microscopic process of capturing dispersed-phase droplets in the bed and the pressure drop in the coalescence area were studied. The numerical results show that the droplets form the bridging structure between the granules. On the one hand, the bridging structure promotes the capture of the droplets by the bed; on the other hand, it causes pressure-drop fluctuations in the coalescence area and asymmetric distribution of the velocity field.}, } @article {pmid37029144, year = {2023}, author = {Abdelhafez, MA and Abd-Alla, AM and Abo-Dahab, SM and Elmhedy, Y}, title = {Influence of an inclined magnetic field and heat and mass transfer on the peristaltic flow of blood in an asymmetric channel.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {5749}, pmid = {37029144}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This article presents a theoretical study on heat and mass transfer analysis of the peristaltic flow of blood conveying through an asymmetric channel in the presence of inclined to the magnetic field. The effects of ratio of relaxation to retardation times, non-uniform parameter, the non-dimensional amplitude, Hartman number and phase difference have been taken into account. The governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations representing the flow model are transmuted into linear ones by assuming that the wave is very long with a small Reynolds number. The converted mathematical formulations are solved analytically via the Mathematica software. Analytical expressions for the dimensionless velocity profiles of fluid, temperature, concentration, pressure gradient, increase in pressure, heat transfer coefficient and shear stress of the blood are derived. The velocity, temperature, concentration, pressure gradient, increase in pressure, heat transfer coefficient and shear stress were calculated numerically for different values of the parameters, which were represented graphically and find their physical meaning.}, } @article {pmid37025873, year = {2023}, author = {Nishu, IZ and Samad, MF}, title = {Modeling and simulation of a split and recombination-based passive micromixer with vortex-generating mixing units.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {4}, pages = {e14745}, pmid = {37025873}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {As a state-of-the-art technology, micromixers are being used in various chemical and biological processes, including polymerization, extraction, crystallization, organic synthesis, biological screening, drug development, drug delivery, etc. The ability of a micromixer to perform efficient mixing while consuming little power is one of its basic needs. In this paper, a passive micromixer having vortex-generating mixing units is proposed which shows effective mixing with a small pressure drop. The micromixer works on the split and recombination (SAR) flow principle. In this study, four micromixers are designed with different arrangements of mixing units, and the effect of the placement of connecting channels is evaluated in terms of mixing index, pressure drop, and mixing performance. The channel width of 200 μm, height of 300 μm, and size of mixing units are maintained constant for all the micromixers throughout the evaluation process. The numerical simulation is performed for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 0.1-100 using Comsol Multiphysics software. By categorizing the flow patterns into three regimes based on the range of Re, the fluid flow throughout the length of the micromixer is visualized. The micromixer with dislocated connecting channels provides a satisfactory result with the mixing index of 0.96 and 0.94, and the pressure drop of 2.5 Pa and 7.8 kPa at Re = 0.1 and Re = 100 respectively. It also outperformed the other models in terms of the mixing performance. The proposed micromixer might very well be used in microfluidic devices for a variety of analytical procedures due to its straightforward construction and outstanding performance.}, } @article {pmid37018723, year = {2023}, author = {Van Impe, M and Caboor, L and Deleeuw, V and Olbinado, M and De Backer, J and Sips, P and Segers, P}, title = {Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of the Aortic Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish: a Pilot Study based on Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography.}, journal = {IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering}, volume = {PP}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1109/TBME.2023.3236488}, pmid = {37018723}, issn = {1558-2531}, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The zebrafish is increasingly used as a small animal model for cardiovascular disease, including vascular disorders. Nevertheless, a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the zebrafish cardiovascular circulation is still lacking and possibilities for phenotyping the zebrafish heart and vasculature at adult - no longer optically transparent - stages are limited. To improve these aspects, we developed imaging-based 3D models of the cardiovascular system of wild-type adult zebrafish.

METHODS: In vivo high-frequency echocardiography and ex vivo synchrotron x-ray tomography were combined to build fluid-structure interaction finite element models of the fluid dynamics and biomechanics inside the ventral aorta.

RESULTS: We successfully generated a reference model of the circulation in adult zebrafish. The dorsal side of the most proximal branching region was found as the location of highest first principal wall stress and was also a location of low wall shear stress. Reynolds number and oscillatory shear were very low compared to mice and humans.

SIGNIFICANCE: The presented wild-type results provide a first extensive biomechanical reference for adult zebrafish. This framework can be used for advanced cardiovascular phenotyping of adult genetically engineered zebrafish models of cardiovascular disease, showing disruptions of the normal mechano-biology and homeostasis. By providing reference values for key biomechanical stimuli (including wall shear stress and first principal stress) in wild-type animals, and a pipeline for image-based animal-specific computational biomechanical models, this study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the role of altered biomechanics and hemodynamics in heritable cardiovascular pathologies.}, } @article {pmid37012373, year = {2023}, author = {Lee, S and Bui-Vinh, D and Baek, M and Kwak, DB and Lee, H}, title = {Modeling pressure drop values across ultra-thin nanofiber filters with various ranges of filtration parameters under an aerodynamic slip effect.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {5449}, pmid = {37012373}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics simulations of fibrous filters with 56 combinations of different fiber sizes, packing densities, face velocities, and thicknesses were conducted for developing models that predict pressure drops across nanofiber filters. The accuracy of the simulation method was confirmed by comparing the numerical pressure drops to the experimental data obtained for polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber filters. In the simulations, an aerodynamic slip effect around the surface of the small nanofibers was considered. The results showed that, unlike in the case of conventional filtration theory, pressure drops across the thin layers of electrospun nanofiber filters are not proportional to the thickness. This might be a critical factor for obtaining precise pressure drops across the electrospun nanofiber filters with extremely thin layers. Finally, we derived the product of drag coefficient and Reynolds number as a function of packing density, Knudsen number, and ratio of thickness to fiber diameter to get the correlation equation for pressure drop prediction. The obtained equation predicted the pressure drops across the nanofiber filters with the maximum relative difference of less than 15%.}, } @article {pmid37009788, year = {2023}, author = {Connor, AA and Webster, DR}, title = {Hydrodynamics of the fast-start caridoid escape response in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {5376}, pmid = {37009788}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Krill are shrimp-like crustaceans with a high degree of mobility and variety of documented swimming behaviors. The caridoid escape response, a fast-start mechanism unique to crustaceans, occurs when the animal performs a series of rapid abdominal flexions and tail flipping that results in powerful backward strokes. The current results quantify the animal kinematics and three-dimensional flow field around a free-swimming Euphausia superba as it performs the caridoid escape maneuver. The specimen performs a single abdominal flexion-tail flip combination that leads to an acceleration over a 42 ms interval allowing it to reach a maximum speed of 57.0 cm/s (17.3 body lengths/s). The krill's tail flipping during the abdominal closure is a significant contributor to the thrust generation during the maneuver. The krill sheds a complex chain of vortex rings in its wake due to the viscous flow effects while the organism accelerates. The vortex ring structure reveals a strong suction flow in the wake, which suggests that the pressure distribution and form drag play a role in the force balance for this maneuver. Antarctic krill typically swim in a low to intermediate Reynolds number (Re) regime where viscous forces are significant, but as shown by this analysis, its high maneuverability allows it to quickly change its body angle and swimming speed.}, } @article {pmid37004257, year = {2023}, author = {Ozawa, K and Nakamura, H and Shimamura, K and Dietze, GF and Yoshikawa, HN and Zoueshtiagh, F and Kurose, K and Mu, L and Ueno, I}, title = {Capillary-driven horseshoe vortex forming around a micro-pillar.}, journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science}, volume = {642}, number = {}, pages = {227-234}, doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2023.03.039}, pmid = {37004257}, issn = {1095-7103}, abstract = {HYPOTHESIS: Horseshoe vortices are known to emerge around large-scale obstacles, such as bridge pillars, due to an inertia-driven adverse pressure gradient forming on the upstream-side of the obstacle. We contend that a similar flow structure can arise in thin-film Stokes flow around micro-obstacles, such as used in textured surfaces to improve wettability. This could be exploited to enhance mixing in microfluidic devices, typically limited to creeping-flow regimes.

EXPERIMENTS: Numerical simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to elucidate the flow structure associated with the wetting dynamics of a liquid film spreading around a 50 μm diameter micro-pillar. The employed multiphase solver, which is based on the volume of fluid method, accurately reproduces the wetting dynamics observed in current and previous (Mu et al., Langmuir, 2019) experiments.

FINDINGS: The flow structure within the liquid meniscus forming at the foot of the micro-pillar evinces a horseshoe vortex wrapping around the obstacle, notwithstanding that the Reynolds number in our system is extremely low. Here, the adverse pressure gradient driving flow reversal near the bounding wall is caused by capillarity instead of inertia. The horseshoe vortex is entangled with other vortical structures, leading to an intricate flow system with high-potential mixing capabilities.}, } @article {pmid36997565, year = {2023}, author = {Monti, A and Olivieri, S and Rosti, ME}, title = {Collective dynamics of dense hairy surfaces in turbulent flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {5184}, pmid = {36997565}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Flexible filamentous beds interacting with a turbulent flow represent a fundamental setting for many environmental phenomena, e.g., aquatic canopies in marine current. Exploiting direct numerical simulations at high Reynolds number where the canopy stems are modelled individually, we provide evidence on the essential features of the honami/monami collective motion experienced by hairy surfaces over a range of different flexibilities, i.e., Cauchy number. Our findings clearly confirm that the collective motion is essentially driven by fluid flow turbulence, with the canopy having in this respect a fully-passive behavior. Instead, some features pertaining to the structural response turn out to manifest in the motion of the individual canopy elements when focusing, in particular, on the spanwise oscillation and/or on sufficiently small Cauchy numbers.}, } @article {pmid36984947, year = {2023}, author = {Lei, Y and Wang, J and Li, Y and Gao, Q}, title = {In-Hover Aerodynamic Analysis of a Small Rotor with a Thin Circular-Arc Airfoil and a Convex Structure at Low Reynolds Number.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {14}, number = {3}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi14030540}, pmid = {36984947}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {This study focused on the in-hover aerodynamics of a small rotor with a thin circular-arc airfoil and a convex structure at a low Reynolds number. The method combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the blade element momentum theory (BEMT). The former was used for studying the two-dimensional parametric aerodynamics of the airfoil at a low Reynolds number and the latter was used for the prediction of the rotor's hover performance. A novel thin circular-arc airfoil with a convex structure with a high aerodynamic performance, high structural strength, light weight and easy manufacturing process is presented in this paper. A convex curve on the upper surface was adopted to increase the thickness of the airfoil at partial chord, and a stiffener in the airfoil was installed to improve the structural strength of rotor span-wise. The aerodynamic performance of the airfoil was numerically simulated by the two-dimensional steady and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The in-hover performance of the rotor for small-scale vehicles was predicted by an improved version of the blade element momentum theory (BEMT). Finally, a carbon-fiber rotor with the presented airfoil was manufactured that had a diameter of 40 cm and a pitch of 6.2 inches. The analysis results were verified by experiments. It was shown that the maximum calculation errors were below 6%. The improved BEMT can be used in the analysis of in-hover micro-rotor aerodynamics at low Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid36984677, year = {2023}, author = {Park, JE and Kang, TG and Moon, H}, title = {The Effect of the Rotating Disk Geometry on the Flow and Flux Enhancement in a Dynamic Filtration System.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {13}, number = {3}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/membranes13030291}, pmid = {36984677}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effect of rotating patterned disks on the flow and permeate flux in a dynamic filtration (DF) system. The DF system consists of a rotating patterned disk and a stationary housing with a circular flat membrane. The feed flow is driven by the rotating disk with the angular velocity ranging from 200 to 1000 rpm and the applied pressure difference between inlet and outlet ports. Wheel-shaped patterns are engraved on the disk surfaces to add perturbation to the flow field and improve the permeate flux in the filtration system. Five disks with varying numbers of patterns were used in numerical simulations to examine the effects of the number of patterns and the angular velocity of the disk on the flow and permeate flux in the DF system. The flow characteristics are studied using the velocity profiles, the cross-sectional velocity vectors, the vortex structures, and the shear stress distribution. The wheel-shaped patterns shift the central core layer in the circumferential velocity profile towards the membrane, leading to higher shear stresses at the membrane and higher flux compared to a plain disk. When the number of patterns on the disk exceeded eight at a fixed Reynolds number, there were significant increases in wall shear stress and permeate flux compared to a plain disk filtration system with no pattern.}, } @article {pmid36967929, year = {2023}, author = {Sakib, MN and Shuvo, MS and Rahman, R and Saha, S}, title = {Particle deposition and fluid flow characteristics in turbulent corrugated pipe flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {e14603}, pmid = {36967929}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {A numerical simulation of aerosol particle deposition in a horizontal circular pipe with a corrugated wall under turbulent flow has been carried out in this research. This paper uses the RNG k-ε turbulence model with Enhanced Wall Treatment to simulate fluid flow. Furthermore, the Lagrangian particle tracking model simulates particle deposition in the corrugated pipe. Air-particle interaction is influenced by Stokes number, surface roughness, flow velocity, particle diameter, and pipe diameter. For the parametric simulation, particle diameter varies from 1 to 30 μm, whereas the Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 10,000. The effect of corrugation height and pipe diameter on deposition efficiency is also investigated. This study shows that corrugation height significantly increases particle deposition compared to the smooth wall pipe. As the pipe diameter decreases, keeping the corrugation ratio constant, deposition efficiency also increases. Moreover, high flow velocity enhances deposition efficiency for particle diameters lower than 5 μm.}, } @article {pmid36966222, year = {2023}, author = {Memon, AA and Memon, MA and Fenta, A}, title = {A laminar forced convection via transport of water-copper-aluminum hybrid nanofluid through heated deep and shallow cavity with Corcione model.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {4915}, pmid = {36966222}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The article explores how fluid flows and heat transfers in both deep and shallow cavities when using a nanofluid made of water, copper, and aluminum oxide. The study applies the Corcione model to hybrid nanofluids, which considers viscosity, conductivity, and the size of the nanoparticle, temperature, and Reynolds number. The cavity is connected to a rectangular channel, with the cavity's length being half the total length of the enclosure, and the aspect ratio (cavity height divided by height of the channel) is tested from 1 to 3. The study uses the Navier-Stokes equation and energy equation in two dimensions, along with finite element-based software, COMSOL 5.6, to simulate the combination of fluid flow and heat transmission. The results show a circular distribution of temperature in the cavity, and the average temperature drops as the volume fraction of copper upsurges. However, both the Reynolds number and volume fraction of copper improve the average Nusselt number, which shows how well the fluid transfers heat, along the cavity's middle line. The percentage change in the average Nusselt number decreases as the aspect ratio increases, indicating improved conduction.}, } @article {pmid36959904, year = {2023}, author = {Xiong, J and Zhang, J and Zhong, Y and Song, X and Wang, H and Cheang, UK}, title = {Magnetically-actuated hydrogel-based achiral planar microswimmers for SERS detection: In situ coprecipitation for continuous loading of iron oxide nanoparticles.}, journal = {Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology}, volume = {11}, number = {}, pages = {1086106}, pmid = {36959904}, issn = {2296-4185}, abstract = {Ultraviolet lithography is a very promising technology used for the batch fabrication of biomedical microswimmers. However, creating microswimmers that can swim at low Reynolds number using biocompatible materials while retaining strong magnetic properties and excellent biomedical functionality is a great challenge. Most of the previously reported biomedical microswimmers possess either strong magnetic properties by using non-biocompatible nickel coating or good biocompatibility by using iron oxide particle-embedded hydrogel with weak magnetism, but not both. Alternatively, iron oxide nanoparticles can be coated on the surface of microswimmers to improve magnetic properties; however, this method limited the usability of the microswimmers' surfaces. To address these shortcomings, this work utilized an in situ synthesis technique to generate high magnetic content inside hydrogel-based achiral planar microswimmers while leaving their surfaces free to be functionalized for SERS detection. The hydrogel matrices of the magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers were first prepared by ultraviolet lithography. Then, the high concentration of iron oxide was achieved through multiple continuous in situ coprecipitation cycles. Finally, the SERS detection capability of magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers was enabled by uniformly growing silver nanoparticles on the surface of the microswimmers. In the motion control tests, the microswimmers showed a high swimming efficiency, high step-out frequency, and consistent synchronized motion. Furthermore, the magnetically actuated hydrogel-based microswimmers were able to improve the detection efficiency of analytes under magnetic guidance.}, } @article {pmid36951265, year = {2023}, author = {Liu, D and Chen, S and Luo, X}, title = {Influence factors of channel geometry for separation of circulating tumor cells by four-ring inertial focusing microchannel.}, journal = {Cell biochemistry and function}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1002/cbf.3791}, pmid = {36951265}, issn = {1099-0844}, abstract = {Inertial microfluidics is a high-throughput and high-efficiency cell separation approach to which attention has been progressively paid in recent years. However, research on the influencing factors that compromise the efficiency of cell separation is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cell separation efficiency by changing the influencing factors. A four-ring inertial focusing spiral microchannel was designed to separate two kinds of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. Human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and human epithelial cervical cancer (HeLa) cells enter the four-ring inertial focusing spiral microchannel together with blood cells, and cancer cells and blood cells were separated from each other at the outlet of the channel by inertial force. The cell separation efficiency at the inlet flow rate in the Reynolds number range of 40-52 was studied by changing the influencing factors such as the cross-sectional shape of the microchannel, the average thickness of the cross-section, and the trapezoidal inclination angle. The results showed that the reduction of the channel thickness and the increase of a certain trapezoidal inclination enhanced the cell separation efficiency to a certain extent, the study showed that when the channel inclination was 6 ° and the average channel thickness was 160 μm. The two kinds of CTC cells could be completely separated from the blood and the efficiency could reached 100%.}, } @article {pmid36938115, year = {2023}, author = {Kitzinger, E and Leclercq, T and Marquet, O and Piot, E and Sipp, D}, title = {Attachment-line, crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities on swept ONERA-D and Joukowski airfoils.}, journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics}, volume = {957}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1017/jfm.2023.38}, pmid = {36938115}, issn = {0022-1120}, abstract = {Linear stability analyses are performed to investigate the boundary layer instabilities developing in an incompressible flow around the whole leading-edge of swept ONERA-D and Joukowski airfoils of infinite span. The stability analyses conducted in our study are global in the chordwise direction and local in the spanwise direction. A neutral curve is drawn at a given leading-edge Reynolds number ReR and several overlapping regions, called "lobes", are identified on a physical basis. A detailed study of the marginal modes reveals the presence of attachment-line and crossflow instabilities, as well as modes whose features do not fall within the standards of a specific type. Connected crossflow/Tollmien-Schlichting modes, that show a dominant spatial structure reminiscent of Tollmien-Schlichting waves but whose destabilization is linked to a crossflow mechanism, have been identified. The comparison of several neutral curves at different ReR values reveals the greater stabilizing effect of the increase of ReR on the crossflow instability compared to the attachment-line instability. The influence of the airfoil shape is also studied by comparing the neutral curves of the ONERA-D with the neutral curves of the Joukowski airfoil. These curves reveal similar characteristics with the presence of distinct lobes and their comparison at constant sweep angle shows that, under the conditions studied, the ONERA-D airfoil is more stable than the Joukowski airfoil, even for crossflow instabilities. The absolutely or convectively unstable nature of the flow in the spanwise direction is also tackled and our results suggest that the flow is only convectively unstable.}, } @article {pmid36936325, year = {2023}, author = {Rehman, S and Hashim, and Hassine, SBH and Tag Eldin, E and Shah, SO}, title = {Investigation of Entropy Production with Thermal Analysis under Soret and Dufour Effects in MHD Flow between Convergent and Divergent Channels.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {8}, number = {10}, pages = {9121-9136}, pmid = {36936325}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Hydromagnetic flow and heat transport have sustainable importance in conventional system design along with high-performance thermal equipment and geothermal energy structures. The current computational study investigates the energy transport and entropy production due to the pressure-driven flow of non-Newtonian fluid filled inside the wedge-shaped channel. The nonlinear radiation flux and uniform magnetic field are incorporated into the flow analysis. To be more precise, non-Newtonian fluid initiates from an inlet with the bound of the parabolic profile and leaves at outlet of a convergent/divergent channel. We assume that the channel flow is adiabatic and influenced by the wall friction. The leading flow equations are modeled via the Carreau fluid model using fundamental conservation laws. The thermodynamical aspect of the system is visualized using a two-phase model and analyses of the entropy equation due to fluid friction, ohmic heating, and diffusion of heat and mass fluxes. The modeled system of equations is normalized using a dimensionless variable mechanism. The system was elevated for the significant variation of controlling parameters. The outcomes obtained from the computational investigation are validated with the theoretical results that are available in the literature. An increasing semivertex angle and Reynolds number increase the converging channel flow. In the core flow zone, an increase in the divergent semiangle causes the flow to decelerate, while near and at the channel wall it causes a slight acceleration. Outcomes designate that the main contribution to the irreversibility is due to ohmic loss, frictional loss, and heat loss. The thermal performance and entropy production is dominant for a diverging flow. The outcomes of this research will assist in comprehending the process of entropy minimization in conjunction with the flow of nanomaterials in a nonuniform channel, which is essential in engineering processes such as the creation of micro machines, supersonic Jets, nozzles, and clean energy.}, } @article {pmid36932601, year = {2023}, author = {Fan, Y and Cadot, O}, title = {Reynolds number effect on the bistable dynamic of a blunt-base bluff body.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {2-2}, pages = {025103}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.025103}, pmid = {36932601}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A three-dimensional blunt-base bluff body in a uniform flow is subjected to long-time stochastic dynamics of switching between two opposite wake states. This dynamic is investigated experimentally within the Reynolds number range Re ≃10^{4}-10^{5}. Long-time statistics coupled to a sensitivity analysis to the body attitude (defined as the pitch angle of the body with respect to the incoming flow) show that the wake switching rate decreases as Re increases. Equipping the body with passive roughness elements (turbulators) modifies the boundary layers before separation, seen as the inlet condition for the wake dynamic. Depending on their location and Re, the viscous sublayer length scale and the turbulent layer thickness can be modified independently. This sensitivity analysis to the inlet condition shows that a decrease of the viscous sublayer length scale at a given turbulent layer thickness leads to a decrease in the switching rate, whereas the modification of the turbulent layer thickness has almost no effect on the switching rate.}, } @article {pmid36932550, year = {2023}, author = {Ginzburg, I and Silva, G and Marson, F and Chopard, B and Latt, J}, title = {Unified directional parabolic-accurate lattice Boltzmann boundary schemes for grid-rotated narrow gaps and curved walls in creeping and inertial fluid flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {107}, number = {2-2}, pages = {025303}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.107.025303}, pmid = {36932550}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The goal of this work is to advance the characteristics of existing lattice Boltzmann Dirichlet velocity boundary schemes in terms of the accuracy, locality, stability, and mass conservation for arbitrarily grid-inclined straight walls, curved surfaces, and narrow fluid gaps, for both creeping and inertial flow regimes. We reach this objective with two infinite-member boundary classes: (1) the single-node "Linear Plus" (LI^{+}) and (2) the two-node "Extended Multireflection" (EMR). The LI^{+} unifies all directional rules relying on the linear combinations of up to three pre- or postcollision populations, including their "ghost-node" interpolations and adjustable nonequilibrium approximations. On this basis, we propose three groups of LI^{+} nonequilibrium local corrections: (1) the LI_{1}^{+} is parametrized, meaning that its steady-state solution is physically consistent: the momentum accuracy is viscosity-independent in Stokes flow, and it is fixed by the Reynolds number (Re) in inertial flow; (2) the LI_{3}^{+} is parametrized, exact for arbitrary grid-rotated Poiseuille force-driven Stokes flow and thus most accurate in porous flow; and (3) the LI_{4}^{+} is parametrized, exact for pressure and inertial term gradients, and hence advantageous in very narrow porous gaps and at higher Reynolds range. The directional, two-relaxation-time collision operator plays a crucial role for all these features, but also for efficiency and robustness of the boundary schemes due to a proposed nonequilibrium linear stability criterion which reliably delineates their suitable coefficients and relaxation space. Our methodology allows one to improve any directional rule for Stokes or Navier-Stokes accuracy, but their parametrization is not guaranteed. In this context, the parametrized two-node EMR class enlarges the single-node schemes to match exactness in a grid-rotated linear Couette flow modeled with an equilibrium distribution designed for the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE). However, exactness of a grid-rotated Poiseuille NSE flow requires us to perform (1) the modification of the standard NSE term for exact bulk solvability and (2) the EMR extension towards the third neighbor node. A unique relaxation and equilibrium exact configuration for grid-rotated Poiseuille NSE flow allows us to classify the Galilean invariance characteristics of the boundary schemes without any bulk interference; in turn, its truncated solution suggests how, when increasing the Reynolds number, to avoid a deterioration of the mass-leakage rate and momentum accuracy due to a specific Reynolds scaling of the kinetic relaxation collision rate. The optimal schemes and strategies for creeping and inertial regimes are then singled out through a series of numerical tests, such as grid-rotated channels and rotated Couette flow with wall-normal injection, cylindrical porous array, and Couette flow between concentric cylinders, also comparing them against circular-shape fitted FEM solutions.}, } @article {pmid36930713, year = {2023}, author = {Hu, T and Wang, H and Gomez, H}, title = {Direct van der Waals simulation (DVS) of phase-transforming fluids.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {eadg3007}, doi = {10.1126/sciadv.adg3007}, pmid = {36930713}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {We present the method of direct van der Waals simulation (DVS) to study computationally flows with liquid-vapor phase transformations. Our approach is based on a discretization of the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations, which couple flow dynamics with van der Waals' nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory of phase transformations, and opens an opportunity for first-principles simulation of a wide range of boiling and cavitating flows. The proposed algorithm enables unprecedented simulations of the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations involving cavitating flows at strongly under-critical conditions and 𝒪(10[5]) Reynolds number. The proposed technique provides a pathway for a fundamental understanding of phase-transforming flows with multiple applications in science, engineering, and medicine.}, } @article {pmid36929245, year = {2023}, author = {Sheikhshoaei, A and Rajabi, M}, title = {Utilizing passive elements to break time reversibility at low Reynolds number: a swimmer with one activated element.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {46}, number = {3}, pages = {15}, pmid = {36929245}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {In the realm of low Reynolds number, the shape-changing biological and artificial matters need to break time reversibility in the course of their strokes to achieve motility. This necessity is well described in the so-called scallop theorem. In this work, considering low Reynolds number, a novel and versatile swimmer is proposed as an example of a new scheme to break time reversibility kinematically and, in turn, produce net motion. The swimmer consists of one sphere as a cargo or carried body, joined by one activated link with time-varying length, to another perpendicular rigid link, as the support of two passively flapping disks, at its end. The disks are free to rotate between their fixed minimum and maximum angles. The system's motion in two dimensions is simulated, and the maneuverability of the swimmer is discussed. The minimal operating parameters for steering of the swimmer are studied, and the limits of the swimmer are identified. The introduced swimming mechanism can be employed as a simple model system for biological living matters as well as artificial microswimmers.}, } @article {pmid36920868, year = {2023}, author = {Spatafora-Salazar, A and Kuei, S and Cunha, LHP and Biswal, SL}, title = {Coiling of semiflexible paramagnetic colloidal chains.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3sm00066d}, pmid = {36920868}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {Semiflexible filaments deform into a variety of configurations that dictate different phenomena manifesting at low Reynolds number. Harnessing the elasticity of these filaments to perform transport-related processes at the microfluidic scale requires structures that can be directly manipulated to attain controllable geometric features during their deformation. The configuration of semiflexible chains assembled from paramagnetic colloids can be readily controlled upon the application of external time-varying magnetic fields. In circularly rotating magnetic fields, these chains undergo coiling dynamics in which their ends close into loops that wrap inward, analogous to the curling of long nylon filaments under shear. The coiling is promising for the precise loading and targeted transport of small materials, however effective implementation requires an understanding of the role that field parameters and chain properties play on the coiling features. Here, we investigate the formation of coils in semiflexible paramagnetic chains using numerical simulations. We demonstrate that the size and shape of the initial coils are governed by the Mason and elastoviscous numbers, related to the field parameters and the chain bending stiffness. The size of the initial coil follows a nonmonotonic behavior with Mason number from which two regions are identified: (1) an elasticity-dependent nonlinear regime in which the coil size decreases with increasing field strength and for which loop shape tends to be circular, and (2) an elasticity-independent linear regime where the size increases with field strength and the shape become more elliptical. From the time scales associated to these regimes, we identify distinct coiling mechanisms for each case that relate the coiling dynamics to two other configurational dynamics of paramagnetic chains: wagging and folding behaviors.}, } @article {pmid36916641, year = {2023}, author = {Lim, S and Yadunandan, A and Khalid Jawed, M}, title = {Bacteria-inspired robotic propulsion from bundling of soft helical filaments at low Reynolds number.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d2sm01398c}, pmid = {36916641}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {The bundling of flagella is known to create a "run" phase, where the bacteria moves in a nearly straight line rather than making changes in direction. Historically, mechanical explanations for the bundling phenomenon intrigued many researchers, and significant advances were made in physical models and experimental methods. Contributing to the field of research, we present a bacteria-inspired centimeter-scale soft robotic hardware platform and a computational framework for a physically plausible simulation model of the multi-flagellated robot under low Reynolds number (∼10[-1]). The fluid-structure interaction simulation couples the discrete elastic rods algorithm with the method of regularized Stokeslet segments. Contact between two flagella is handled by a penalty-based method. We present a comparison between our experimental and simulation results and verify that the simulation tool can capture the essential physics of this problem. Preliminary findings on robustness to buckling provided by the bundling phenomenon and the efficiency of a multi-flagellated soft robot are compared with the single-flagellated counterparts. Observations were made on the coupling between geometry and elasticity, which manifests itself in the propulsion of the robot by nonlinear dependency on the rotational speed of the flagella.}, } @article {pmid36907215, year = {2023}, author = {Kang, C and Mirbod, P}, title = {Transitions in Taylor-Couette flow of concentrated non-colloidal suspensions.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2246}, pages = {20220126}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0126}, pmid = {36907215}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Taylor-Couette flow of concentrated non-colloidal suspensions with a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer one is numerically investigated. We consider suspensions of the bulk particle volume fraction ϕb = 0.2, 0.3 with the ratio of annular gap to the particle radius ε = 60 confined in a cylindrical annulus of the radius ratio (i.e. ratio of inner and outer radii) η = 0.877. Numerical simulations are performed by applying suspension-balance model and rheological constitutive laws. To observe flow patterns caused by suspended particles, the Reynolds number of the suspension, based on the bulk particle volume fraction and the rotating velocity of the inner cylinder, is varied up to 180. At high Reynolds number, modulated patterns undiscovered in the flow of a semi-dilute suspension emerge beyond a wavy vortex flow. Thus, a transition occurs from the circular Couette flow via ribbons, spiral vortex flow, wavy spiral vortex flow, wavy vortex flow and modulated wavy vortex flow for the concentrated suspensions. Moreover, friction and torque coefficients for suspensions are estimated. It turns out that suspended particles significantly enhance the torque on the inner cylinder while reducing friction coefficient and the pseudo-Nusselt number. In particular, the coefficients are reduced in the flow of more dense suspensions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid36907213, year = {2023}, author = {Nagata, M}, title = {Taylor-Couette flow in the narrow-gap limit.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2246}, pages = {20220134}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0134}, pmid = {36907213}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {A Cartesian representation of the Taylor-Couette system in the vanishing limit of the gap between coaxial cylinders is presented, where the ratio, [Formula: see text], of the angular velocities, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], of the inner and the outer cylinders, respectively, affects its axisymmetric flow structures. Our numerical stability study finds remarkable agreement with previous studies for the critical Taylor number, [Formula: see text], for the onset of axisymmetric instability. The Taylor number [Formula: see text] can be expressed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] (the rotation number) and [Formula: see text] (the Reynolds number) in the Cartesian system are related to the average and the difference of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The instability sets in the region [Formula: see text], while the product of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is kept finite. Furthermore, we developed a numerical code to calculate nonlinear axisymmetric flows. It is found that the mean flow distortion of the axisymmetric flow is antisymmetric across the gap when [Formula: see text], while a symmetric part of the mean flow distortion appears additionally when [Formula: see text]. Our analysis also shows that for a finite [Formula: see text] all flows with [Formula: see text] approach the [Formula: see text] axis, so that the plane Couette flow system is recovered in the vanishing gap limit. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid36907211, year = {2023}, author = {Moazzen, M and Lacassagne, T and Thomy, V and Bahrani, SA}, title = {Friction dynamics of elasto-inertial turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow of viscoelastic fluids.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2246}, pages = {20220300}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0300}, pmid = {36907211}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Dynamic properties of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) are studied in a Taylor-Couette geometry. EIT is a chaotic flow state that develops upon both non-negligible inertia and viscoelasticity. A combination of direct flow visualization and torque measurement allows to verify the earlier onset of EIT compared with purely inertial instabilities (and inertial turbulence). The scaling of the pseudo-Nusselt number with inertia and elasticity is discussed here for the first time. Variations in the friction coefficient, temporal frequency spectra and spatial power density spectra highlight that EIT undergoes an intermediate behaviour before transitioning to its fully developed chaotic state that requires both high inertia and elasticity. During this transition, the contribution of secondary flows to the overall friction dynamics is limited. This is expected to be of great interest in the aim of achieving efficiency mixing at low drag and low but finite Reynolds number. This article is part of the theme issue "Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical transactions paper (Part 2)".}, } @article {pmid36907210, year = {2023}, author = {Krivonosova, O and Gritsevich, M and Zhilenko, D and Read, P}, title = {Noise induced effects in the axisymmetric spherical Couette flow.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2246}, pages = {20220124}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0124}, pmid = {36907210}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {We study the axisymmetric, wide gap, spherical Couette flow in the presence of noise in numerical simulations and experiments. Such studies are important because most of the flows in nature are subjected to random fluctuations. Noise is introduced into the flow by adding fluctuations to the inner sphere rotation which are random in time with zero mean. Flows of a viscous incompressible fluid are induced either by rotation of the inner sphere only or by the co-rotation of the spheres. Mean flow generation was found to occur under the action of additive noise. A higher relative amplification of meridional kinetic energy compared to the azimuthal component was also observed under certain conditions. Calculated flow velocities were validated by laser Doppler anemometer measurements. A model is proposed to elucidate the rapid growth of meridional kinetic energy for flows induced by varying the co-rotation of the spheres. Our linear stability analysis for flows induced by the rotation of the inner sphere revealed a decrease in the critical Reynolds number, corresponding to the onset of the first instability. Also, in this case, a local minimum of the mean flow generation on approaching the critical Reynolds number was observed, which is consistent with the available theoretical predictions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (Part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid36903819, year = {2023}, author = {Akram, S and Athar, M and Saeed, K and Razia, A and Muhammad, T and Alghamdi, HA}, title = {Mechanism of Double-Diffusive Convection on Peristaltic Transport of Thermally Radiative Williamson Nanomaterials with Slip Boundaries and Induced Magnetic Field: A Bio-Nanoengineering Model.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {13}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano13050941}, pmid = {36903819}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The present work has mathematically modeled the peristaltic flow in nanofluid by using thermal radiation, induced a magnetic field, double-diffusive convection, and slip boundary conditions in an asymmetric channel. Peristalsis propagates the flow in an asymmetric channel. Using the linear mathematical link, the rheological equations are translated from fixed to wave frames. Next, the rheological equations are converted to nondimensional forms with the help of dimensionless variables. Further, the flow evaluation is determined under two scientific assumptions: a finite Reynolds number and a long wavelength. Mathematica software is used to solve the numerical value of rheological equations. Lastly, the impact of prominent hydromechanical parameters on trapping, velocity, concentration, magnetic force function, nanoparticle volume fraction, temperature, pressure gradient, and pressure rise are evaluated graphically.}, } @article {pmid36902954, year = {2023}, author = {Liu, C and Wang, W and Hu, X and Liu, F}, title = {Drag Reduction Technology of Water Flow on Microstructured Surfaces: A Novel Perspective from Vortex Distributions and Densities.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {16}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/ma16051838}, pmid = {36902954}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {Revealing the turbulent drag reduction mechanism of water flow on microstructured surfaces is beneficial to controlling and using this technology to reduce turbulence losses and save energy during water transportation. Two microstructured samples, including a superhydrophobic and a riblet surface, were fabricated near which the water flow velocity, and the Reynolds shear stress and vortex distribution were investigated using a particle image velocimetry. The dimensionless velocity was introduced to simplify the Ω vortex method. The definition of vortex density in water flow was proposed to quantify the distribution of different strength vortices. Results showed that the velocity of the superhydrophobic surface (SHS) was higher compared with the riblet surface (RS), while the Reynolds shear stress was small. The vortices on microstructured surfaces were weakened within 0.2 times that of water depth when identified by the improved ΩM method. Meanwhile, the vortex density of weak vortices on microstructured surfaces increased, while the vortex density of strong vortices decreased, proving that the reduction mechanism of turbulence resistance on microstructured surfaces was to suppress the development of vortices. When the Reynolds number ranged from 85,900 to 137,440, the drag reduction impact of the superhydrophobic surface was the best, and the drag reduction rate was 9.48%. The reduction mechanism of turbulence resistance on microstructured surfaces was revealed from a novel perspective of vortex distributions and densities. Research on the structure of water flow near the microstructured surface can promote the drag reduction application in the water field.}, } @article {pmid36899067, year = {2023}, author = {Suresh Kumar, Y and Hussain, S and Raghunath, K and Ali, F and Guedri, K and Eldin, SM and Khan, MI}, title = {Numerical analysis of magnetohydrodynamics Casson nanofluid flow with activation energy, Hall current and thermal radiation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {4021}, pmid = {36899067}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this study we analyzed the flow, heat and mass transfer behavior of Casson nanofluid past an exponentially stretching surface under the impact of activation energy, Hall current, thermal radiation, heat source/sink, Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Transverse magnetic field with the assumption of small Reynolds number is implemented vertically. The governing partial nonlinear differential equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c package. The impact of each of the Hall current parameter, thermal radiation parameter, heat source/sink parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, thermophoresis parameter and magnetic parameter on velocity, concentration and temperature, is discussed through graphs. The skin friction coefficient along the x-and z-directions, the local Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are calculated numerically to look into the inside behavior of the emerging parameters. It is witnessed that the flow velocity is a diminishing function of the thermal radiation parameter and the behavior has observed in the case of Hall parameter. Moreover, mounting values of Brownian motion parameter reduce the nanoparticle concentration profile.}, } @article {pmid36897856, year = {2023}, author = {Bae, AJ and Ahmad, R and Bodenschatz, E and Pumir, A and Gholami, A}, title = {Flagellum-driven cargoes: Influence of cargo size and the flagellum-cargo attachment geometry.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {18}, number = {3}, pages = {e0279940}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0279940}, pmid = {36897856}, issn = {1932-6203}, abstract = {The beating of cilia and flagella, which relies on an efficient conversion of energy from ATP-hydrolysis into mechanical work, offers a promising way to propel synthetic cargoes. Recent experimental realizations of such micro-swimmers, in which micron-sized beads are propelled by isolated and demembranated flagella from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii), revealed a variety of propulsion modes, depending in particular on the calcium concentration. Here, we investigate theoretically and numerically the propulsion of a bead as a function of the flagellar waveform and the attachment geometries between the bead and the flagellum. To this end, we take advantage of the low Reynolds number of the fluid flows generated by the micro-swimmer, which allows us to neglect fluid inertia. By describing the flagellar waveform as a superposition of a static component and a propagating wave, and using resistive-force theory, we show that the asymmetric sideways attachment of the flagellum to the bead makes a contribution to the rotational velocity of the micro-swimmer that is comparable to the contribution caused by the static component of the flagellar waveform. Remarkably, our analysis reveals the existence of a counter-intuitive propulsion regime in which an increase in the size of the cargo, and hence its drag, leads to an increase in some components of the velocity of the bead. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the uncovered mechanisms for the fabrication of synthetic, bio-actuated medical micro-robots for targeted drug delivery.}, } @article {pmid36895389, year = {2023}, author = {Lei, Y and Wang, X and Zhou, D and Qiu, T and Jin, W and Qin, C and Zhou, D}, title = {Experimental investigation on high-pressure methane jet characteristic single-hole injector.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {e13645}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13645}, pmid = {36895389}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {High-pressure gas direct injection (DI) technology benefits engines with high efficiency and clean emissions, and the gas jet process causes crucial effects especially inside an mm-size space. This study presents an investigation on the high-pressure methane jet characteristics from a single-hole injector by analysing jet performance parameters including jet impact force, gas jet impulse, and jet mass flow rate. The results show that the methane jet exhibited a two-zone behaviour along the jet direction in the spatial dimension induced by high-speed jet flow from the nozzle: zone 1 near the nozzle-the jet impact force and jet impulse increased consistently except for a fluctuation due to shock wave effects induced by the sonic jet and no entrainment occurs, and zone II farther away from the nozzle-the jet impact force and jet impulse became stable when the shock wave effects became weak and the jet impulse was conserved with a linear conservation boundary. The Mach disk height was exactly the turning point of two zones. Moreover, the methane jet parameters, such as the methane jet mass flow rate, jet initial jet impact force, jet impulse, and Reynolds number had a monotonous and linearly increasing correlation with injection pressure.}, } @article {pmid36890189, year = {2023}, author = {Vieira, GS and Allshouse, MR and Mahadevan, A}, title = {Seagrass deformation affects fluid instability and tracer exchange in canopy flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {3910}, pmid = {36890189}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Monami is the synchronous waving of a submerged seagrass bed in response to unidirectional fluid flow. Here we develop a multiphase model for the dynamical instabilities and flow-driven collective motions of buoyant, deformable seagrass. We show that the impedance to flow due to the seagrass results in an unstable velocity shear layer at the canopy interface, leading to a periodic array of vortices that propagate downstream. Our simplified model, configured for unidirectional flow in a channel, provides a better understanding of the interaction between these vortices and the seagrass bed. Each passing vortex locally weakens the along-stream velocity at the canopy top, reducing the drag and allowing the deformed grass to straighten up just beneath it. This causes the grass to oscillate periodically even in the absence of water waves. Crucially, the maximal grass deflection is out of phase with the vortices. A phase diagram for the onset of instability shows its dependence on the fluid Reynolds number and an effective buoyancy parameter. Less buoyant grass is more easily deformed by the flow and forms a weaker shear layer, with smaller vortices and less material exchange across the canopy top. While higher Reynolds number leads to stronger vortices and larger waving amplitudes of the seagrass, waving amplitude is maximized at intermediate grass buoyancy. All together, our theory and computations develop an updated schematic of the instability mechanism consistent with experimental observations.}, } @article {pmid36889000, year = {2023}, author = {Zhu, Q}, title = {Wall effect on the start maneuver of a jet swimmer.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/acc293}, pmid = {36889000}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Inspired by aquatic creatures such as squid, the novel propulsion method based on pulsed jetting is a promising way to achieve high speed and high maneuverability for soft-body robots. Since these robots are often designed to operate in confined space with complicated boundary conditions, it is critical to understand their dynamics in the vicinity of solid boundaries. In this study we numerically examine the start maneuver of an idealized jet swimmer near a wall. Our simulations illustrate three important mechanisms: 1) Due to the blocking effect of the wall the pressure inside the body is affected so that the forward acceleration is increased during deflation and decreased during inflation; 2) The wall affects the internal flow so that the momentum flux at the nozzle and subsequently the thrust generation during the jetting phase are slightly increased; 3) the wall affects the wake so that the refilling phase is influenced, leading to a scenario in which part of the energy expended during jetting is recovered during refilling to increase forward acceleration and reduce power expenditure. In general, the second mechanism is weaker than the other two. The exact effects of these mechanisms depend on physical parameters such as the initial phase of the body deformation, the distance between the swimming body and the wall, and the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid36888616, year = {2023}, author = {Gao, P and Wang, Q and Liu, T}, title = {Numerical method investigation on the aggregation characteristics of non-spherical particles.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {18}, number = {3}, pages = {e0282804}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0282804}, pmid = {36888616}, issn = {1932-6203}, abstract = {Under the background of the mechanical mechanism research of microfluidic technology for separating and screening pipeline particulate matter, this paper proposes an improved relative motion model by combining the multiple reference frame method and the relative motion model. Worked with a quasi-fixed constant method, this model can numerically calculate the aggregation features of non-spherical particles in the low Reynolds number channels. The results demonstrate that when Re = 40~80, ellipsoids exhibit an aggregation trend similar to circular particles with the same diameter as its largest circumscribed sphere. The aggregation position is affected by the ratio of long and short axes of particles, and the distribution trend is determined by the relative size of these particles. When the channel's Reynolds number is less than the critical Reynolds number, the aggregation position of elliptical particles will be closer to the pipe center with the increase in the Reynolds number, which is contrary to the aggregation tendency of circular particles more proximate to the pipe wall with the increase in the Reynolds number. This finding provides a novel idea and method for further exploring the aggregation rules of non-spherical particles and offers substantial guidance for separating and monitoring pipeline particulate matter via microfluidic technology and other related industrial applications.}, } @article {pmid36871543, year = {2023}, author = {Ram, D and Bhandari, DS and Sharma, K and Tripathi, D}, title = {Progression of blood-borne viruses through bloodstream: A comparative mathematical study.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {232}, number = {}, pages = {107425}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2023.107425}, pmid = {36871543}, issn = {1872-7565}, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood-borne pathogens are contagious microorganisms that can cause life-threatening illnesses, and are found in human blood. It is crucial to examine how these viruses spread through blood flow in the blood vessel. Keeping that in view, this study aims to determine how blood viscosity, and diameter of the viruses can affect the virus transmission through the blood flow in the blood vessel. A comparative study of bloodborne viruses (BBVs) such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and C, has been addressed in the present model. A couple stress fluid model is used to represent blood as a carrying medium for virus transmission. The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation is taken into account for the simulation of virus transmission.

METHODS: An analytical approach to derive the exact solutions under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations is employed. For the computation of the results, a segment (wavelength) of blood vessels about 120 mm with wave velocities in the range of 49 - 190 mm/sec are considered, where the diameter of BBVs ranges from 40-120 nm. The viscosity of the blood varies from 3.5-5.5 × 10[-3]Ns/m[2] which affect the virion motion having a density range 1.03 - 1. 25 g/m[3].

RESULTS: It shows that the Hepatitis B virus is more harmful than other blood-borne viruses considered in the analysis. Patients with high blood pressure are highly susceptible for transmission of BBVs.

CONCLUSIONS: The present fluid dynamics approach for virus spread through blood flow can be helpful in understanding the dynamics of virus propagation inside the human circulatory system.}, } @article {pmid36869078, year = {2023}, author = {Ashin, K and Girishkumar, MS and D'Asaro, E and Jofia, J and Sherin, VR and Sureshkumar, N and Rao, EPR}, title = {Observational evidence of salt finger in the diurnal thermocline.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {3627}, pmid = {36869078}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Due to strong turbulent mixing, the ocean surface boundary layer region is generally not conducive to double diffusion. However, vertical microstructure profiles observations in the northeastern Arabian Sea during May 2019 imply the formation of salt fingers in the diurnal thermocline (DT) region during the daytime. In the DT layer, conditions are favorable for salt fingering: Turner angle values are between 50 and 55° with both temperature and salinity decreasing with depth; shear-driven mixing is weak with a turbulent Reynolds number of about 30. The presence of salt fingering in the DT is confirmed by the presence of staircase-like structures with step sizes larger than the Ozmidov length and by the dissipation ratio that is larger than the mixing coefficient. The unusual daytime salinity maximum in the mixed layer that supports salt fingering is primarily due to a daytime reduction in vertical entrainment of fresh water along with minor contributions from evaporation and horizontal advection and a significant contribution from detrainment processes.}, } @article {pmid36858981, year = {2023}, author = {Arif, I and Leung, RCK and Naseer, MR}, title = {A computational study of trailing edge noise suppression with embedded structural compliance.}, journal = {JASA express letters}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {023602}, doi = {10.1121/10.0017321}, pmid = {36858981}, issn = {2691-1191}, abstract = {A unique concept for suppression of trailing edge noise scattering from a splitter plate in a low Reynolds number flow is proposed. The key idea of the concept is the adoption of a structural compliance system embedded with a finite number of elastic panels. Specific compliance system designs are devised for promotion of panel structural resonance that effectively absorbs broadband flow/acoustic fluctuation energy responsible for noise scattering. The concept is examined using high-fidelity direct aeroacoustic simulation together with spatiotemporal aeroacoustic-structural interaction analysis. The concept is confirmed feasible and outperforms many similar trailing edge noise reduction approaches reported in the literature.}, } @article {pmid36853773, year = {2023}, author = {Stricker, M and Littfinski, T and Pecher, KH and Lübken, M and Wichern, M}, title = {Hydraulic modeling of a compact stormwater treatment device applying concepts of dynamic similitude.}, journal = {Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research}, volume = {87}, number = {4}, pages = {954-968}, doi = {10.2166/wst.2023.025}, pmid = {36853773}, issn = {0273-1223}, abstract = {The development of compact treatment devices (CTDs) with high removal efficiencies and low space requirements is a key objective of urban stormwater treatment. Thus, many devices utilize a combination of sedimentation and upward-flow filtration in a single system. Here, sedimentation is used before filtration, which makes it difficult to evaluate the individual treatment stages separately. This study determines the removal efficiency by sedimentation and the expected filter load in a specific compact treatment device designed for a catchment area of up to 10,000 m[2]. In contrast to a full-scale investigation, small-scale physical hydraulic modeling is applied as a new cost-saving alternative. To validate upscaling laws, tracer signals and particle-size-specific removal efficiencies are determined for two geometrically similar models at different length scales. Thereby, Reynolds number similarity produces similar flow patterns, while the similarity of Hazen numbers allows to upscale removal efficiencies. Upscaling to the full-scale reveals that the filter in the device is only partly loaded by particulate matter that consists mostly of particles ≤63 μm. Thus, sedimentation upstream of a filter is of relevant importance in CTDs. The proposed dimensionless relationship may be used for particles from different catchments and helps to size the device accordingly.}, } @article {pmid36842977, year = {2023}, author = {Lyubimova, TP and Fomicheva, AA and Ivantsov, AO}, title = {Dynamics of a bubble in oscillating viscous liquid.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2245}, pages = {20220085}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0085}, pmid = {36842977}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {This article is devoted to the investigation of gaseous bubble dynamics in oscillating viscous liquids of different density values. The study is conducted numerically using the level-set method with a non-stationary approach. The bubble is initially located near the upper wall of the container. The effects of the inclusion and host liquid viscosities on interaction of the bubble with the wall are analysed. The calculations show that in the absence of gravity, for low-viscosity fluids the bubble is attracted to the nearest wall, which is consistent with previous analytical and experimental results. With increasing viscosity, the vibrational attraction to the wall becomes weaker and is then replaced by repulsion, which can be explained by the decelerative effect of viscosity in the boundary layer near the rigid surface, where the average flow becomes less intensive. The dependencies of the repulsion force on the parameter values are obtained by using the balance method (investigation of the gravity level needed to attain the quasi-equilibrium state at a certain distance between the bubble and the wall). The calculations show that the repulsion force grows with decreasing Reynolds number (increase of the viscosity). This article is part of the theme issue 'New trends in pattern formation and nonlinear dynamics of extended systems'.}, } @article {pmid36842115, year = {2023}, author = {Abe, K and Takabe, K and Nakamura, S}, title = {Force Measurement of Bacterial Swimming Using Optical Tweezers.}, journal = {Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)}, volume = {2646}, number = {}, pages = {169-179}, pmid = {36842115}, issn = {1940-6029}, abstract = {Velocity is a physical parameter most commonly used to quantify bacterial swimming. In the steady-state motion at a low Reynolds number, the swimming force can be estimated from the swimming velocity and the drag coefficient based on the assumption that the swimming force balances with the drag force exerted on the bacterium. Though the velocity-force relation provides a significant clue to understand the swimming mechanism, the odd configuration of bacteria could develop problems with the accuracy of the force estimation. This chapter describes the force measurement using optical tweezers. The method uses parameters obtained from the shape and movement of a microsphere attached to the bacteria, improving the quantitativeness of force measurement.}, } @article {pmid36828913, year = {2023}, author = {Omrani, V and Targhi, MZ and Rahbarizadeh, F and Nosrati, R}, title = {High-throughput isolation of cancer cells in spiral microchannel by changing the direction, magnitude and location of the maximum velocity.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {3213}, pmid = {36828913}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are scarce cancer cells that rarely spread from primary or metastatic tumors inside the patient's bloodstream. Determining the genetic characteristics of these paranormal cells provides significant data to guide cancer staging and treatment. Cell focusing using microfluidic chips has been implemented as an effective method for enriching CTCs. The distinct equilibrium positions of particles with different diameters across the microchannel width in the simulation showed that it was possible to isolate and concentrate breast cancer cells (BCCs) from WBCs at a moderate Reynolds number. Therefore we demonstrate high throughput isolation of BCCs using a passive, size-based, label-free microfluidic method based on hydrodynamic forces by an unconventional (combination of long loops and U-turn) spiral microfluidic device for isolating both CTCs and WBCs with high efficiency and purity (more than 90%) at a flow rate about 1.7 mL/min, which has a high throughput compared to similar ones. At this golden flow rate, up to 92% of CTCs were separated from the cell suspension. Its rapid processing time, simplicity, and potential ability to collect CTCs from large volumes of patient blood allow the practical use of this method in many applications.}, } @article {pmid36827557, year = {2023}, author = {Moore, CP and Husson, J and Boudaoud, A and Amselem, G and Baroud, CN}, title = {Clogging of a Rectangular Slit by a Spherical Soft Particle.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {130}, number = {6}, pages = {064001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.064001}, pmid = {36827557}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The capture of a soft spherical particle in a rectangular slit leads to a nonmonotonic pressure-flow rate relation at low Reynolds number. Simulations reveal that the flow induced deformations of the trapped particle focus the streamlines and pressure drop to a small region. This increases the resistance to flow by several orders of magnitude as the driving pressure is increased. As a result, two regimes are observed in experiments and simulations: a flow-dominated regime for small particle deformations, where flow rate increases with pressure, and an elastic-dominated regime in which solid deformations block the flow.}, } @article {pmid36820228, year = {2023}, author = {Baba, YD and Chiacchia, M and Patwardhan, SV}, title = {A Novel Method for Understanding the Mixing Mechanisms to Enable Sustainable Manufacturing of Bioinspired Silica.}, journal = {ACS engineering Au}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, pages = {17-27}, pmid = {36820228}, issn = {2694-2488}, abstract = {Bioinspired silica (BIS) has received unmatched attention in recent times owing to its green synthesis, which offers a scalable, sustainable, and economical method to produce high-value silica for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, environmental remediation, biomedical, and energy storage. To scale-up BIS synthesis, it is critically important to understand how mixing affects the reaction at different scales. In particular, successful scale-up can be achieved if mixing time is measured, modeled, and kept constant across different production scales. To this end, a new image analysis technique was developed using pH, as one of the key parameters, to monitor the reaction and the mixing. Specifically, the technique involved image analysis of color (pH) change using a custom-written algorithm to produce a detailed pH map. The degree of mixing and mixing time were determined from this analysis for different impeller speeds and feed injection locations. Cross validation of the mean pH of selected frames with measurements using a pH calibration demonstrated the reliability of the image processing technique. The results suggest that the bioinspired silica formation is controlled by meso- and, to a lesser extent, micromixing. Based on the new data from this investigation, a mixing time correlation is developed as a function of Reynolds number-the first of a kind for green nanomaterials. Further, we correlated the effects of mixing conditions on the reaction and the product. These results provide valuable insights into the scale-up to enable sustainable manufacturing of BIS and other nanomaterials.}, } @article {pmid36813941, year = {2023}, author = {Han, F and Zhao, Y and Liu, M and Hu, F and Peng, Y and Ma, L}, title = {Wetting behavior during impacting bituminous coal surface for dust suppression droplets of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36813941}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {The wetting behavior of droplets during impacting coal surface widely exists in the dust control process. Understanding the effect of surfactants on the diffusion of water droplets on coal surface is critical. To study the effect of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO) on the dynamic wetting behavior of droplets on bituminous coal surface, a high-speed camera is used to record the impact process of ultrapure water droplets and three different molecular weight AEO solution droplets. A dynamic evaluation index, dimensionless spreading coefficient ([Formula: see text]), is used to evaluate the dynamic wetting process. The research results show that maximum dimensionless spreading coefficient ([Formula: see text]) of AEO-3, AEO-6, and AEO-9 droplets is greater than that of ultrapure water droplets. With the increase of impact velocity, the [Formula: see text] increases, but the required time decreases. Moderately increasing the impact velocity is conducive to promoting the spreading of droplets on the coal surface. Below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the concentration of AEO droplets is positively correlated with the [Formula: see text] and the required time. When the polymerization degree increases, the Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) and Weber number ([Formula: see text]) of droplets decrease, and the [Formula: see text] decreases. AEO can effectively enhance the spreading of droplets on the coal surface, but the increase in polymerization degree can inhibit this process. Viscous force hinders droplet spreading during droplet interaction with the coal surface, and surface tension promotes droplet retraction. Under the experimental conditions of this paper ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), there is a power exponential relationship between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].}, } @article {pmid36813725, year = {2023}, author = {Rahimi, A and Shahsavari, A and Pakzad, H and Moosavi, A and Nouri-Borujerdi, A}, title = {Laminar drag reduction ability of liquid-infused microchannels by considering different infused lubricants.}, journal = {The Journal of chemical physics}, volume = {158}, number = {7}, pages = {074702}, doi = {10.1063/5.0137100}, pmid = {36813725}, issn = {1089-7690}, abstract = {We numerically investigate the pressure drop reduction (PDR) performance of microchannels equipped with liquid-infused surfaces, along with determining the shape of the interface between the working fluid and lubricant within the microgrooves. The effects of different parameters, such as the Reynolds number of working fluid, density and viscosity ratios between the lubricant and working fluid, the ratio of the thickness of the lubricant layer over the ridges to the depth of the groove, and the Ohnesorge number as a representative of the interfacial tension, on the PDR and interfacial meniscus within the microgrooves are comprehensively studied. The results reveal that the density ratio and Ohnesorge number do not significantly affect the PDR. On the other hand, the viscosity ratio considerably affects the PDR, and a maximum PDR of 62% compared to a smooth non-lubricated microchannel is achieved for a viscosity ratio of 0.01. Interestingly, the higher the Reynolds number of the working fluid, the higher the PDR. The meniscus shape within the microgrooves is strongly affected by the Reynolds number of the working fluid. Despite the insignificant effect of interfacial tension on the PDR, the interface shape within the microgrooves is appreciably influenced by this parameter.}, } @article {pmid36810678, year = {2023}, author = {O'Callaghan, F and Lehmann, FO}, title = {Flow development and leading edge vorticity in bristled insect wings.}, journal = {Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36810678}, issn = {1432-1351}, abstract = {Small flying insects such as the tiny thrip Gynaikothrips ficorum have wings with bristles attached to a solid shaft instead of solid membranes. Air passing through the bristle fringe, however, makes bristled insect wings less effective for aerodynamic force production. In this study, we quantified the ability of bristled wings to generate a leading edge vortex (LEV) for lift support during wing flapping, scored its circulation during wing translation, and investigated its behaviour at the stroke reversals. The data were measured in robotic model wings flapping with a generic kinematic pattern at Reynolds number of ~ 3.4, while applying two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. We found that aerodynamic performance due to LEV circulation linearly decreases with increasing bristle spacing. The wings of Gynaikothrips ficorum might thus produce approximately 9% less aerodynamic force for flight than a solid membranous wing. At the stroke reversals, leading and trailing edge vortices dissipate quickly within no more than ~ 2% of the stroke cycle duration. This elevated dissipation makes vortex shedding obsolete during the reversals and allows a quick build-up of counter-vorticity when the wing reverses flapping direction. In sum, our findings highlight the flow conditions associated with bristled wing design in insects and are thus significant for assessing biological fitness and dispersal of insects flying in a viscosity-dominated fluid regime.}, } @article {pmid36789875, year = {2023}, author = {Hamlet, CL and Strickland, WC and Battista, N and Miller, LA}, title = {Multiscale flow between the branches and polyps of gorgonians.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.244520}, pmid = {36789875}, issn = {1477-9145}, abstract = {Gorgonians, including sea fans, are soft corals well known for their elaborate branching structure and how they sway in the ocean. This branching structure can modify environmental flows to be beneficial for feeding in a particular range of velocities and, presumably, for a particular size of prey. As water moves through the elaborate branches, it is slowed, and recirculation zones can form downstream of the colony. At the smaller scale, individual polyps that emerge from the branches expand their tentacles, further slowing the flow. At the smallest scale, the tentacles are covered in tiny pinnules where exchange occurs. In this paper, we quantify the gap to diameter ratios for various gorgonians at the scale of the branches, the polyp tentacles, and the pinnules. We then use computational fluid dynamics to determine the flow patterns at all three levels of branching. We quantify the leakiness between the branches, tentacles, and pinnules over the biologically relevant range of Reynolds numbers and gap-to-diameter ratios. We find that the branches and tentacles can either act as leaky rakes or solid plates depending upon these dimensionless parameters. The pinnules, on the other hand, mostly impede the flow. Using an agent-based modeling framework, we quantify plankton capture as a function of the gap-to-diameter ratio of the branches and the Reynolds number. We find that the capture rate depends critically on both morphology and Reynolds number. The results of the study have implications for how gorgonians modify ambient flows for efficient feeding and exchange.}, } @article {pmid36785427, year = {2023}, author = {Liu, W and Yu, Z and Duan, F and Hu, H and Fu, X and Bao, R}, title = {Robust five-degree-of-freedom measurement system with self-compensation and air turbulence protection.}, journal = {Optics express}, volume = {31}, number = {3}, pages = {4652-4666}, doi = {10.1364/OE.480772}, pmid = {36785427}, issn = {1094-4087}, abstract = {A robust five-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF) measurement system is proposed in this paper. The compact optical configuration with high resolution is designed based on lens combination and multiple reflections. Beam drift and dual-beam parallelism are monitored and compensated by autocollimator units and a polarizer unit respectively. In addition, a protection method is proposed to reduce the intensity of air turbulence by reducing the Reynolds number of the beam path. The performance of the system is verified by experiments. The experimental results show that the self-compensation methods and air turbulence protection can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of the system under the long-term interference of external environments. The proposed system has high precision, desirable robustness, and convenient pre-calibration, which can be used for error measurement of precision machines.}, } @article {pmid36779398, year = {2023}, author = {Millett, PC}, title = {Rheology and structure of elastic capsule suspensions within rectangular channels.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d3sm00055a}, pmid = {36779398}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {Three-dimensional simulations of the pressure-driven flow dynamics of elastic capsule suspensions within both slit and rectangular cross-section channels are presented. The simulations utilize the Immersed Boundary Method and the Lattice-Boltzmann Method models. The capsule volume fraction is fixed at 0.1 (i.e., a semi-dilute suspension), while the channel Reynolds number (Re), the capillary number (Ca), and the cross-sectional channel dimensions are systematically varied. Comparing results for slit and rectangular channels, it is found that multi-directional confinement hinders inertial focusing due to the capsule-free layers that develop in the two transverse directions. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the capsule-free layers in the two transverse directions differ when the height and width of the channel are not equal. Both the size and aspect ratio of the channel impact the apparent viscosity. It is found that square channels exhibit maximal viscosity and that holding one dimension fixed while increasing or decreasing the other results in a decrease in viscosity. The results therefore represent an expansion of the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect from 1D cylindrical channels to 2D rectangular channels.}, } @article {pmid36736259, year = {2023}, author = {Yang, G and Yu, Z and Baki, ABM and Yao, W and Ross, M and Chi, W and Zhang, W}, title = {Settling behaviors of microplastic disks in water.}, journal = {Marine pollution bulletin}, volume = {188}, number = {}, pages = {114657}, doi = {10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114657}, pmid = {36736259}, issn = {1879-3363}, abstract = {Microplastic (MP) disks have not been studied for settling behaviors in aquatic environments, which affects the transport and fate of MPs. Therefore, settling experiments were conducted on MP disks of three shapes and four common-seen materials. Lighter MP disks (with density ρs = 1.038 g/cm[3] and length l ≤ 5 mm) followed rectilinear vertical trajectories, while heavier MP disks (ρs = 1.161-1.343 g/cm[3] and l = 5 mm) followed zigzag trajectories with oscillations and rotations. The mean terminal settling velocities of MP disks were 19.6-48.8 mm/s. Instantaneous settling velocities of heavier MP disks fluctuated. Existing formulas could not accurately predict the settling velocity of MP disks; thus, a new model was proposed with an error of 15.5 %. Finally, the Red - I* diagram (Red is the disk Reynolds number and I* is the dimensionless moment of inertia) was extended for MP disks to predict settling trajectories.}, } @article {pmid36733611, year = {2022}, author = {Fahim, T and Laouedj, S and Abderrahmane, A and Driss, Z and Tag-ElDin, ESM and Guedri, K and Younis, O}, title = {Numerical study of perforated obstacles effects on the performance of solar parabolic trough collector.}, journal = {Frontiers in chemistry}, volume = {10}, number = {}, pages = {1089080}, pmid = {36733611}, issn = {2296-2646}, abstract = {The current work presents and discusses a numerical analysis of improving heat transmission in the receiver of a parabolic trough solar collector by introducing perforated barriers. While the proposed approach to enhance the collector's performance is promising, the use of obstacles results in increased pressure loss. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model analysis is conducted based on the renormalization-group (RNG) k-ɛ turbulent model associated with standard wall function using thermal oil D12 as working fluid The thermo-hydraulic analysis of the receiver tube with perforated obstacles is taken for various configurations and Reynolds number ranging from 18,860 to 81,728. The results are compared with that of the receiver without perforated obstacles. The receiver tube with three holes (PO3) showed better heat transfer characteristics. In addition, the Nusselt number (Nu) increases about 115% with the increase of friction factor 5-6.5 times and the performance evaluation criteria (PEC) changes from 1.22 to 1.24. The temperature of thermal oil fluid attains its maximum value at the exit, and higher temperatures (462.1 K) are found in the absorber tube with perforated obstacles with three holes (PO3). Accordingly, using perforated obstacles receiver for parabolic trough concentrator is highly recommended where significant enhancement of system's performance is achieved.}, } @article {pmid36725545, year = {2023}, author = {Chen, X and Sun, S and Tian, X and Liu, L and Yang, J}, title = {A quasi-two-dimensional fluid experimental apparatus based on tank-in-tank configuration.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {94}, number = {1}, pages = {015115}, doi = {10.1063/5.0125679}, pmid = {36725545}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {The fluid tank is an essential facility for experimental research on fluid mechanics. However, owing to the hydrostatic fluid pressure, a fine uniformity of the narrow channel is difficult to be maintained in a tall narrow-channel tank. To address this issue, we proposed a quasi-two-dimensional fluid experimental apparatus based on a "tank-in-tank" configuration and built with an outer tank and an inner tank. The outer tank was cuboid-shaped and used to load the fluid medium, while the inner tank, consisting of two parallel glass plates, was embedded into the outer tank and served as the experimental channel. The hydrostatic pressure acting on the channel was balanced so that a high level of uniformity was maintained over the whole channel. The available height and width of the channel were 2800 and 1500 mm, respectively, while its gap distance could be adaptive from 0 to 120 mm. Experimental research on motion characteristics of circular disks falling in the quasi-2D channel was implemented to investigate the effects of the falling environment and disk geometry. Four distinct falling types were observed, and the wake flow fields of the falling disks were visualized. The Reynolds numbers of falling disks ranged from 400 to 63 000 presently. Chaotic motion and regular motion were demarcated at Re ≈ 30 000. An analytical model was established to predict the final average falling velocity and Reynolds number. Finally, potential directions for future research and improvements to the apparatus were suggested.}, } @article {pmid36718068, year = {2017}, author = {Niu, Z and Wang, R and Jiao, K and Du, Q and Yin, Y}, title = {Direct numerical simulation of low Reynolds number turbulent air-water transport in fuel cell flow channel.}, journal = {Science bulletin}, volume = {62}, number = {1}, pages = {31-39}, doi = {10.1016/j.scib.2016.11.010}, pmid = {36718068}, issn = {2095-9281}, abstract = {With performance improvement of low-temperature fuel cell (FC), high reactant supply and water generation rates may induce air-water turbulence in the FC flow channel. In this research, an air-water turbulent direct numerical simulation (DNS) model is developed to simulate different droplet sizes, locations and interactions in the air-water transport processes comprehensively. It is found that a larger droplet breaks up more easily in turbulence, and a smaller droplet tends to keep lumped. The droplet at corner does not break up because it is away from channel center. The droplet interaction simulations show that the small droplets merge to form slugs, but still keep lumped in turbulence. It is suggested that two conditions need to be satisfied for droplet break up in FC flow channel, one is turbulent flow, and another is that the droplet needs to be large enough and occupy the center region of flow channel to suffer sufficient turbulence fluctuations. The DNS results illustrate some unique phenomena in turbulent flow, and show that the turbulence has significant effect on the air-water flow behavior in FC flow channel.}, } @article {pmid36714791, year = {2023}, author = {Misiulia, D and Lidén, G and Antonyuk, S}, title = {Secondary Lip Flow in a Cyclone Separator.}, journal = {Flow, turbulence and combustion}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-20}, pmid = {36714791}, issn = {1573-1987}, abstract = {Three secondary flows, namely the inward radial flow along the cyclone lid, the downward axial flow along the external surface of the vortex finder, and the radial inward flow below the vortex finder (lip flow) have been studied at a wide range of flow rate 0.22-7.54 LPM using the LES simulations. To evaluate these flows the corresponding methods were originally proposed. The highly significant effect of the Reynolds number on these secondary flows has been described by equations. The main finding is that the magnitude of all secondary flows decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The secondary inward radial flow along the cyclone lid is not constant and reaches its maximum value at the central radial position between the vortex finder external wall and the cyclone wall. The secondary downward axial flow along the external surface of the vortex finder significantly increases at the lowest part of the vortex finder and it is much larger than the secondary flow along the cyclone lid. The lip flow is much larger than the secondary inward radial flow along the cyclone lid, which was assumed in cyclone models to be equal to the lip flow, and the ratio of these two secondary flows is practically independent of the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid36711805, year = {2023}, author = {Chang, R and Davydov, A and Jaroenlak, P and Budaitis, B and Ekiert, DC and Bhabha, G and Prakash, M}, title = {Energetics of the Microsporidian Polar Tube Invasion Machinery.}, journal = {bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1101/2023.01.17.524456}, pmid = {36711805}, abstract = {UNLABELLED: Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of hosts, leading to health and economic burdens worldwide. Microsporidia use an un-usual invasion organelle called the polar tube (PT), which is ejected from a dormant spore at ultra-fast speeds, to infect host cells. The mechanics of PT ejection are impressive. Anncaliia algerae microsporidia spores (3-4 μ m in size) shoot out a 100-nm-wide PT at a speed of 300 μ m/sec, creating a shear rate of 3000 sec [- 1] . The infectious cargo, which contains two nuclei, is shot through this narrow tube for a distance of ~60-140 μ m [1] and into the host cell. Considering the large hydraulic resistance in an extremely thin tube and the low-Reynolds-number nature of the process, it is not known how microsporidia can achieve this ultrafast event. In this study, we use Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to capture 3-dimensional snapshots of A. algerae spores in different states of the PT ejection process. Grounded in these data, we propose a theoretical framework starting with a systematic exploration of possible topological connectivity amongst organelles, and assess the energy requirements of the resulting models. We perform PT firing experiments in media of varying viscosity, and use the results to rank our proposed hypotheses based on their predicted energy requirement, pressure and power. We also present a possible mechanism for cargo translocation, and quantitatively compare our predictions to experimental observations. Our study provides a comprehensive biophysical analysis of the energy dissipation of microsporidian infection process and demonstrates the extreme limits of cellular hydraulics.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming, intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of hosts (including humans). Once triggered, microsporidian spores (3-4 μ m in size) shoot out a specialized organelle called the polar tube (PT) (60-140 μ m long, 100 nm wide) at ultrafast speed (300 μ m/sec), penetrating host cells and acting as a conduit for the transport of infectious cargo. Although this process has fascinated biologists for a century, the biophysical mechanisms underlying PT extrusion are not understood. We thus take a data-driven approach to generate models for the physical basis of PT firing and cargo transport through the PT. Our approach here demonstrates the extreme limits of cellular hydraulics and the potential applications of biophysical approaches to other cellular architectures.}, } @article {pmid36709783, year = {2023}, author = {Jeganathan, V and Alba, K and Ostilla-Mónico, R}, title = {Exploring the origin of turbulent Taylor rolls.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2243}, pages = {20220130}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0130}, pmid = {36709783}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Since Taylor's seminal paper, the existence of large-scale quasi-axisymmetric structures has been a matter of interest when studying Taylor-Couette flow. In this article, we probe their formation in the highly turbulent regime by conducting a series of numerical simulations at a fixed Reynolds number [Formula: see text] while varying the Coriolis parameter to analyse the flow characteristics as the structures arise and dissipate. We show how the Coriolis force induces a one-way coupling between the radial and azimuthal velocity fields inside the boundary layer, but in the bulk, there is a two-way coupling that causes competing effects. We discuss how this complicates the analogy of narrow-gap Taylor-Couette to other convective flows. We then compare these statistics with a similar shear flow without no-slip boundary layers, showing how this double coupling causes very different effects. We finish by reflecting on the possible origins of turbulent Taylor rolls. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (part 1)'.}, } @article {pmid36709780, year = {2023}, author = {Baroudi, L and Majji, MV and Peluso, S and Morris, JF}, title = {Taylor-Couette flow of hard-sphere suspensions: overview of current understanding.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {381}, number = {2243}, pages = {20220125}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2022.0125}, pmid = {36709780}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Although inertial particle-laden flows occur in a wide range of industrial and natural processes, there is both a lack of fundamental understanding of these flows and continuum-level governing equations needed to predict transport and particle distribution. Towards this effort, the Taylor-Couette flow (TCF) system has been used recently to study the flow behaviour of particle-laden fluids under inertia. This article provides an overview of experimental, theoretical and computational work related to the TCF of neutrally buoyant non-Brownian suspensions, with an emphasis on the effect of finite-sized particles on the series of flow transitions and flow structures. Particles, depending on their size and concentration, cause several significant deviations from Newtonian fluid behaviour, including shifting the Reynolds number corresponding to transitions in flow structure and changing the possible structures present in the flow. Furthermore, particles may also migrate depending on the flow structure, leading to hysteretic effects that further complicate the flow behaviour. The current state of theoretical and computational modelling efforts to describe the experimental observations is discussed, and suggestions for potential future directions to improve the fundamental understanding of inertial particle-laden flows are provided. This article is part of the theme issue 'Taylor-Couette and related flows on the centennial of Taylor's seminal Philosophical Transactions paper (part 1)'.}, } @article {pmid36688050, year = {2022}, author = {Hasan, HA and Sherza, JS and Abed, AM and Togun, H and Ben Khedher, N and Sopian, K and Mahdi, JM and Talebizadehsardari, P}, title = {Thermal and flow performance analysis of a concentrated linear Fresnel solar collector with transverse ribs.}, journal = {Frontiers in chemistry}, volume = {10}, number = {}, pages = {1074581}, pmid = {36688050}, issn = {2296-2646}, abstract = {This article deals with the impact of including transverse ribs within the absorber tube of the concentrated linear Fresnel collector (CLFRC) system with a secondary compound parabolic collector (CPC) on thermal and flow performance coefficients. The enhancement rates of heat transfer due to varying governing parameters were compared and analyzed parametrically at Reynolds numbers in the range 5,000-13,000, employing water as the heat transfer fluid. Simulations were performed to solve the governing equations using the finite volume method (FVM) under various boundary conditions. For all Reynolds numbers, the average Nusselt number in the circular tube in the CLFRC system with ribs was found to be larger than that of the plain absorber tube. Also, the inclusion of transverse ribs inside the absorber tube increases the average Nusselt number by approximately 115% at Re = 5,000 and 175% at Re = 13,000. For all Reynolds numbers, the skin friction coefficient of the circular tube with ribs in the CLFRC system is larger than that of the plain absorber tube. The coefficient of surface friction reduces as the Reynolds number increases. The performance assessment criterion was found to vary between 1.8 and 1.9 as the Reynolds number increases.}, } @article {pmid36673306, year = {2023}, author = {Fuchs, M and Lubos, N and Kabelac, S}, title = {Numerical Calculation of the Irreversible Entropy Production of Additively Manufacturable Off-Set Strip Fin Heat-Transferring Structures.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {25}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e25010162}, pmid = {36673306}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {In this manuscript, off-set strip fin structures are presented which are adapted to the possibilities of additive manufacturing. For this purpose, the geometric parameters, including fin height, fin spacing, fin length, and fin longitudinal displacement, are varied, and the Colburn j-factor and the Fanning friction factor are numerically calculated in the Reynolds number range of 80-920. The structures are classified with respect to their entropy production number according to Bejan. This method is compared with the results from partial differential equations for the calculation of the irreversible entropy production rate due to shear stresses and heat conduction. This study reveals that the chosen temperature difference leads to deviation in terms of entropy production due to heat conduction, whereas the dissipation by shear stresses shows only small deviations of less than 2%. It is further shown that the variation in fin height and fin spacing has only a small influence on heat transfer and pressure drop, while a variation in fin length and fin longitudinal displacement shows a larger influence. With respect to the entropy production number, short and long fins, as well as large fin spacing and fin longitudinal displacement, are shown to be beneficial. A detailed examination of a single structure shows that the entropy production rate due to heat conduction is dominated by the entropy production rate in the wall, while the fluid has only a minor influence.}, } @article {pmid36673217, year = {2022}, author = {Rajupillai, K and Alessa, N and Eswaramoorthi, S and Loganathan, K}, title = {Thermal Behavior of the Time-Dependent Radiative Flow of Water-Based CNTs/Au Nanoparticles Past a Riga Plate with Entropy Optimization and Multiple Slip Conditions.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {25}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e25010076}, pmid = {36673217}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {This communication deliberates the time-reliant and Darcy-Forchheimer flow of water-based CNTs/gold nanoparticles past a Riga plate. In addition, nonlinear radiation, heat consumption and multiple slip conditions are considered. Entropy generation is computed through various flow parameters. A suitable transformation with symmetry variables is invoked to remodel the governing mathematical flow models into the ODE equations. The homotopy analysis scheme and MATLAB bvp4c method are imposed to solve the reduced ODE equations analytically and numerically. The impact of sundry flow variables on nanofluid velocity, nanofluid temperature, skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, entropy profile and Bejan number are computed and analyzed through graphs and tables. It is found that the nanofluid velocity is reduced by greater porosity and slip factors. The thickness of the thermal boundary layer increases with increasing radiation, temperature ratio, and heat consumption/generation parameters. The surface drag force is reduced when there is a higher Forchheimer number, unsteadiness parameter and porosity parameter. The amount of entropy created is proportional to the radiation parameter, porosity parameter and Reynolds number. The Bejan number profile increases with radiation parameter, heat consumption/generation parameter and the Forchheimer number.}, } @article {pmid36658185, year = {2023}, author = {Méry, F and Sebbane, D}, title = {Aerodynamic characterisation of porous fairings: pressure drop and Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements.}, journal = {Scientific data}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {39}, pmid = {36658185}, issn = {2052-4463}, abstract = {Wind tunnel measurements of pressure drop and steady and unsteady velocity field of a flow through fairing samples are described. 10 samples have been tested in pressure drop among which the velocity fields of 3 samples have been characterized by means of laser Doppler velocimetry. The samples are perforated plates, wiremesh plates or complex 3D geometries resulting from additive manufacturing methods. The Reynolds number of the experiments ranges from 55 000 to 117 000.}, } @article {pmid36649407, year = {2023}, author = {Li, Y and Pahlavan, AA and Chen, Y and Liu, S and Li, Y and Stone, HA and Granick, S}, title = {Oil-on-water droplets faceted and stabilized by vortex halos in the subphase.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {120}, number = {4}, pages = {e2214657120}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2214657120}, pmid = {36649407}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {For almost 200 y, the dominant approach to understand oil-on-water droplet shape and stability has been the thermodynamic expectation of minimized energy, yet parallel literature shows the prominence of Marangoni flow, an adaptive gradient of interfacial tension that produces convection rolls in the water. Our experiments, scaling arguments, and linear stability analysis show that the resulting Marangoni-driven high-Reynolds-number flow in shallow water overcomes radial symmetry of droplet shape otherwise enforced by the Laplace pressure. As a consequence, oil-on-water droplets are sheared to become polygons with distinct edges and corners. Moreover, subphase flows beneath individual droplets can inhibit the coalescence of adjacent droplets, leading to rich many-body dynamics that makes them look alive. The phenomenon of a "vortex halo" in the liquid subphase emerges as a hidden variable.}, } @article {pmid36648820, year = {2023}, author = {Jo, BW and Majid, T}, title = {Enhanced Range and Endurance Evaluation of a Camber Morphing Wing Aircraft.}, journal = {Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {8}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/biomimetics8010034}, pmid = {36648820}, issn = {2313-7673}, abstract = {Flight range, endurance, maneuverability, and agility are the key elements that determine an aircraft's performance. Both conventional and morphing wing aircraft have been well studied and estimated in all aspects of performance. When considering the performance of morphing aircraft, most works address aspects of the aerodynamical performance such as L and D as well as flight envelopes for flight dynamics and control perspectives. However, the actual benefits of adopting morphing technologies in practical aspects such as aircraft operation, mission planning, and sustainability have not been addressed so far. Thus, this paper addresses the practical aspect of the benefits when adopting a camber morphing wing aircraft. Identical geometrical and computational conditions were applied to an already-existing aircraft: the RQ-7a Shadow. The wing structure was switched between a fixed wing and a camber morphing wing to generate conventional and morphing wing geometries. The fixed-wing cases had varying flap deflection angles, and the camber morphing wing cases had varying camber rates from 4% to 8%. Once the CL values of the fixed and morphing wing cases were matched up to two significant figures, the CD and CL/CD were analyzed for these matching cases to calculate the flight endurance, range, and improvement. When NACA 6410 is adopted, a 17% improvement in flight range and endurance average was expected. In the case of NACA 8410, an average 60% improvement was expected.}, } @article {pmid36648720, year = {2023}, author = {Jain, PK and Lanjewar, A and Chaurasiya, PK and Tiwari, D and Sharma, VK}, title = {Experimental testing of solar-based air heater roughed with discrete V-down rib and staggered element.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36648720}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {A rough rectangular channel of solar-based air heater (SBAH) is made and tested. The work consists of an effort to perceive the proportion of heat discharge and frictional behavior of air passing over a roughened rectangular channel. The absorber surface of SBAH is roughed with discrete V-down rib and staggered element roughness having different values of relative rib pitch (P/e) that ranged from 6 to 14. Fixed parameters such as relative gap size (g/e), relative staggered element pitch (P'/P), numeral of gaps (Ng), relative staggered element size (r/g), and relative rib height (e/D) are considered 4, 0.4, 3,1, and 0.0433, respectively, all throughout the study. The flow Reynolds number (Re) changes from 4000 to 14,000; consequently the Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) reach up to 2.16 and 2.73 times, respectively, with respect to plane surface. The optimum rise in terms of thermal-hydraulic performance (THP) is gained analogous to a P/e of 10. The correlation for heat transfer function, R(e[+]), and roughness function, G(e[+]), is given to anticipate the performance of roughness.}, } @article {pmid36643326, year = {2022}, author = {Voskoboinick, V and Onyshchenko, A and Voskoboinyk, O and Makarenkova, A and Voskobiinyk, A}, title = {Junction flow inside and around three-row cylindrical group on rigid flat surface.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {8}, number = {12}, pages = {e12595}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12595}, pmid = {36643326}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Groups of bluff bodies are widespread in nature and technology. These are the supports of bridge crossings, high-rise buildings in cities, offshore drilling and wind platforms, algae and vegetation in the seas and rivers, forests and other objects. The flow of air or water around such structures has a complex vortex and jet character and requires significant efforts in the process of scientific research to improve the environmental situation and reduce material and technical costs in the process of operating such structures. The purpose of the research is study the features of the generation and evolution of vortex and jet flows near and inside the three-row group of cylinders, which are installed on the rigid flat surface. The results of experimental studies showed that the flow around the group of cylinders had a complex unsteady nature, which is due to the interaction of vortex and jet flows typical flow elements with the three-row cylindrical group, which was located installed on the rigid flat surface. The three-row cylindrical group (31 piles with a diameter of 0.027 m) is a model of a bridge support, which was streamlined at a velocity of 0.06 m/s to 0.5 m/s (Reynolds number Red=(1600-6700) and Froude number Fr=(0.04-0.18)). Visual investigations and measurements of the velocity field were carried out inside and around the three-row structure. The features of the formation and evolution of vortex and jet flows inside and near the cylindrical group were established. Integral, spectral and correlation characteristics of the velocity fluctuation field were obtained. Mean, root-mean-square values of velocity and probability density functions of velocity fluctuations integrally displayed the changes in the velocity field in the spatial and temporal domain in the junction area of grillage and plate. The power spectral densities of velocity fluctuations and mutual correlation functions made it possible to study the features of the generation of the velocity fluctuation field in the frequency domain and its interrelationships in space. It was revealed that the velocity field inside the horseshoe vortex structures was multimodal. The spectral levels of velocity fluctuations at the periphery of the quasistable horseshoe vortex structures were higher than in the cores of these structures. The highest levels of the velocity fluctuation spectra were observed in front of the second lateral cylinder where the interaction of the vortex and jet flows took place. Discrete peaks in the spectral levels of velocity fluctuations are found at the frequencies of formation of large-scale wake vortices and the frequencies of formation of small-scale vortex structures of the shear layer, which are due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It has been established that the frequency of formation of shear layer vortices is (10-40) times higher than the frequency of formation of wake vortices.}, } @article {pmid36622597, year = {2023}, author = {Munusamy, A and Barik, D and Sharma, P and Medhi, BJ and Bora, BJ}, title = {Performance analysis of parabolic type solar water heater by using copper-dimpled tube with aluminum coating.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36622597}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {A solar water heater has been developed to convert solar radiation into heat for use in residential and commercial settings. The collector makes up the bulk of a solar water heating system. The solar energy is captured by the collector and transferred to the tube that delivers the working fluid, water. In addition to the collector's tube, which carries the working fluid, researchers have focused on the design of the collector's tube. This paper examines the performance of a parabolic plate solar water heater that uses a copper dimpled tube with aluminum-coated tube channels. During the test, the flow rate of base fluid was in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 kg/min in steps of 0.5. The performance of the solar water heater was also evaluated and verified using CFD. The test data such as friction factor, Reynolds number, uncertainty analysis, Nusselt number, solar collector efficiency, coefficient of convective heat transfer, linear dimpled tube velocity analysis, achieving maximum energy efficiency and thermal efficiency have been used to generate parametric values for parabolic plate solar water heaters. The results suggest that the best outcomes can be achieved with a mass flow rate of 2.5 kg/min and the overall thermal efficiency was raised to 31.85%, which is 11% greater than that of the plain tube with base fluid. At mass flow rates of 2.5 kg/min, the pressure drop was found to be 6.24% higher than that of 3.0 kg/min. The experimental results were analyzed and compared with the CFD results, and the overall deviation was ± 3.24% which is in the acceptable range.}, } @article {pmid36597964, year = {2023}, author = {Kanies, OS and Kremer, KR and Mason, BM and Dudley, MG and Hlavay, JM and Miller, CT and Spero, RC and Fisher, JK}, title = {A modular microfluidic device that uses magnetically actuatable microposts for enhanced magnetic bead-based workflows.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d2lc00859a}, pmid = {36597964}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Magnetic beads have been widely and successfully used for target enrichment in life science assays. There exists a large variety of commercially available magnetic beads functionalized for specific target capture, as well as options that enable simple surface modifications for custom applications. While magnetic beads are ideal for use in the macrofluidic context of typical laboratory workflows, their performance drops in microfluidic contexts, such as consumables for point-of-care diagnostics. A primary cause is the diffusion-limited analyte transport in these low Reynolds number environments. A new method, BeadPak, uses magnetically actuatable microposts to enhance analyte transport, improving yield of the desired targets. Critical parameters were defined for the operation of this technology and its performance characterized in canonical life-science assays. BeadPak achieved up to 1000× faster capture than a microfluidic chamber relying on diffusion alone, enabled a significant specimen concentration via volume reduction, and demonstrated compatibility with a range of biological specimens. The results shown in this work can be extended to other systems that utilize magnetic beads for target capture, concentration, and/or purification.}, } @article {pmid36597923, year = {2023}, author = {Tingting, Q and Jianzhong, L and Zhenyu, O and Jue, Z}, title = {Settling mode of a bottom-heavy squirmer in a narrow vessel.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d2sm01442d}, pmid = {36597923}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {The lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary (IB-LB) method is used to numerically simulate the sedimentation motion of a single two-dimensional, bottom-heavy squirmer in a narrow vessel. The effects of the swimming Reynolds number Res = 0.1-3, eccentricity distance l = 0.15d-0.75d, and density ratio of squirmer to fluid γ = 1.1-2.0 on the settlement motion characteristics are investigated and analyzed. The results showed that four settling modes exist: vertical motion, unilateral oscillation, oscillation, and tilt. The bottom-heavy neutral squirmer and puller settle in the vessel during vertical motion when Res is 0.1-1.5. By increasing Res and swimming strength |β|, the bottom-heavy squirmer becomes more self-driven, shifting its settling mode from vertical motion to unilateral oscillation or oscillation. Increasing l or |β| does not affect the bottom-heavy neutral squirmer and puller's vertical settling mode but shifts the bottom-heavy pusher's settling mode from unilateral oscillation to oscillation or oscillation to unilateral oscillation. Similarly, altering γ or |β| has no impact on the eccentric neutral squirmer and puller's settling mode; however, pushers will switch from oscillation mode to attraction mode or from oscillation mode to tilt mode. Additionally, it was found that after the squirmer collided with the bottom wall, the bottom-heavy squirmer settled at the bottom of the vessel in a different state of motion.}, } @article {pmid36583152, year = {2022}, author = {Abed, AM and Mouziraji, HR and Bakhshi, J and Dulaimi, A and Mohammed, HI and Ibrahem, RK and Ben Khedher, N and Yaïci, W and Mahdi, JM}, title = {Numerical analysis of the energy-storage performance of a PCM-based triplex-tube containment system equipped with arc-shaped fins.}, journal = {Frontiers in chemistry}, volume = {10}, number = {}, pages = {1057196}, pmid = {36583152}, issn = {2296-2646}, abstract = {This study numerically intends to evaluate the effects of arc-shaped fins on the melting capability of a triplex-tube confinement system filled with phase-change materials (PCMs). In contrast to situations with no fins, where PCM exhibits relatively poor heat response, in this study, the thermal performance is modified using novel arc-shaped fins with various circular angles and orientations compared with traditional rectangular fins. Several inline and staggered layouts are also assessed to maximize the fin's efficacy. The effect of the nearby natural convection is further investigated by adding a fin to the bottom of the heat-storage domain. Additionally, the Reynolds number and temperature of the heat-transfer fluid (HTF) are evaluated. The outcomes showed that the arc-shaped fins could greatly enhance the PCMs' melting rate and the associated heat-storage properties. The melting rate is 17% and 93.1% greater for the case fitted with an inline distribution of the fins with a circular angle of 90° and an upward direction, respectively, than the cases with uniform rectangular fins and no fins, which corresponded to the shorter melting time of 14.5% and 50.4%. For the case with arc-shaped fins with a 90° circular angle, the melting rate increases by 9% using a staggered distribution. Compared to the staggered fin distribution, adding an extra fin to the bottom of the domain indicates adverse effects. The charging time reduces by 5.8% and 9.2% when the Reynolds number (Re) rises from 500 to 1000 and 1500, respectively, while the heat-storage rate increases by 6.3% and 10.3%. When the fluid inlet temperature is 55°C or 50°C, compared with 45°C, the overall charging time increases by 98% and 47%, respectively.}, } @article {pmid36579881, year = {2022}, author = {Issa, M and Haupt, D and Muddemann, T and Kunz, U and Sievers, M}, title = {Investigation of an electrolysis system with boron-doped diamond anode and gas diffusion cathode to remove water micropollutants.}, journal = {Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research}, volume = {86}, number = {12}, pages = {3236-3247}, doi = {10.2166/wst.2022.390}, pmid = {36579881}, issn = {0273-1223}, abstract = {Using electrolysis systems to degrade organics in wastewater encourages this technique to remove micropollutants (MPs) in different types of water. In this work, a cell consisting of an anode as a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode combined with a gas diffusion (GDE) cathode without a separator showed that MPs degradation can be effectively achieved. Investigating different operating parameters, it was stated that applying a low current density (2 mA/cm[2]) and setting the Reynolds number of the electrolyte flow through the cell at the laminar range raised the treatment time by 3-fold at the same energy demand. This arrangement increased the MPs removal. Some substances like diclofenac were removed up to 84% at a longer treatment time of 180 min coupled with an increase in energy demand. The results at the mentioned parameters indicated an adequate generation rate of radicals needed to remove MPs and the oxidation reactions were promoted. The results show high potential to the investigated electrolysis system in removing MPs in wastewater under considering the need for further reduction of the energy demand.}, } @article {pmid36574794, year = {2022}, author = {Abbas Al-Amshawee, SK and Bin Mohd Yunus, MY}, title = {Electrodialysis desalination: The impact of solution flowrate (or Reynolds number) on fluid dynamics throughout membrane spacers.}, journal = {Environmental research}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {115115}, doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2022.115115}, pmid = {36574794}, issn = {1096-0953}, abstract = {The incorporation of a spacer among membranes has a major influence on fluid dynamics and performance metrics. Spacers create feed channels and operate as turbulence promoters to increase mixing and reduce concentration/temperature polarization effects. However, spacer geometry remains unoptimized, and studies continue to investigate a wide range of commercial and custom-made spacer designs. The in-depth discussion of the present systematic review seeks to discover the influence of Reynolds number or solution flowrate on flow hydrodynamics throughout a spacer-filled channel. A fast-flowing solution sweeping one membrane's surface first, then the neighboring membrane's surface produces good mixing action, which does not happen commonly at laminar solution flowrates. A sufficient flowrate can suppress the polarization layer, which may normally require the utilization of a simple feed channel rather than complex spacer configurations. When a recirculation eddy occurs, it disrupts the continuous flow and effectively curves the linear fluid courses. The higher the flowrate, the better the membrane performance, the higher the critical flux (or recovery rate), and the lower the inherent limitations of spacer design, spacer shadow effect, poor channel hydrodynamics, and high concentration polarization. In fact, critical flow achieves an acceptable balance between improving flow dynamics and reducing the related trade-offs, such as pressure losses and the occurrence of concentration polarization throughout the cell. If the necessary technical flowrate is not used, the real concentration potential for transport is relatively limited at low velocities than would be predicted based on bulk concentrations. Electrodialysis stack therefore may suffer from the dissociation of water molecules. Next studies should consider that applying a higher flowrate results in greater process efficiency, increased mass transfer potential at the membrane interface, and reduced stack thermal and electrical resistance, where pressure drop should always be indicated as a consequence of the spacer and circumstances used, rather than a problem.}, } @article {pmid36562423, year = {2022}, author = {de Timary, G and Rousseau, CJ and Van Melderen, L and Scheid, B}, title = {Shear-enhanced sorting of ovoid and filamentous bacterial cells using pinch flow fractionation.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d2lc00969b}, pmid = {36562423}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the flow rate on the trajectory of ovoid and filamentous bacterial cells of E. coli in a low aspect ratio pinch flow fractionation device. To that aim, we vary the Reynolds number over two orders of magnitude, while monitoring the dynamics of the cells across our device. At low flow rates, filamentous cells adopt several rotational motions in the pinched segment, which are induced both by the shear rate and by their close interactions with the nearest wall. As a result, the geometrical centre of the filamentous cells deviates towards the centre of the channel, which increases their effective sorting diameter depending on the length of their major axis as well as on the rotational mode they adopt in the pinch. As the flow rate increases, particles are forced to align vertically in the pinch, in the direction of the main shear gradient, which reduces the amplitude of the lateral deviation generated by their rotation. The trajectory of the particles in the expansion is directly determined by their position at the pinch outlet. As a consequence, the position of the filamentous cells at the outlet of the device strongly depends on the flow rate as well as on the length of their major axis. Based on these observations we optimized the flow conditions to successfully extract an ultra high purity sample of filamentous cells from a solution containing mainly ovoid cells.}, } @article {pmid36562333, year = {2022}, author = {Marnoto, S and Hashmi, SM}, title = {Application of droplet migration scaling behavior to microchannel flow measurements.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d2sm00980c}, pmid = {36562333}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {In confined channels in low Reynolds number flow, droplets drift perpendicular to the flow, moving across streamlines. The phenomenon has proven useful for understanding microfluidic droplet separation, drug delivery vehicle optimization, and single-cell genomic amplification. Particles or droplets undergo several migration mechanisms including wall migration, hydrodynamic diffusion, and migration down gradients of shear. In simple shear flow only wall migration and hydrodynamic diffusion are present. In parabolic flow, droplets also move down gradients of shear. The resulting separation depends on parameters including particle size and stiffness, concentration, and flow rate. Computational methods can incorporate these effects in an exact manner to predict margination phenomena for specific systems, but do not generate a descriptive parametric dependence. In this paper, we present a scaling model that elucidates the parametric dependence of margination on emulsion droplet size, volume fraction, shear rate and suspending fluid viscosity. We experimentally measure the droplet depletion layer of silicone oil droplets and compare the results to theoretical scaling behavior that includes hydrodynamic diffusion and wall migration with and without an added shear-gradient migration. Results demonstrate the viability and limitations of applying a simple scaling behavior to experimental systems to describe parametric dependence. Our conclusions open the possibility for parametric descriptions of migration with broad applicability to particle and droplet systems.}, } @article {pmid36559702, year = {2022}, author = {Ayas, M and Skočilas, J and Štípek, J and Gutiérrez, CA and Žitný, R and Jirout, T}, title = {An Approximate Method for Predicting the Friction Factor of Viscoplastic Shear-Thinning Fluids in Non-Circular Channels of Regular Cross-Sections.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {14}, number = {24}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/polym14245337}, pmid = {36559702}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {The objective of this study is to provide a straightforward generalized simple and quick method for the prediction of the friction factor for fully developed laminar flow of viscoplastic shear-thinning fluids in non-circular channels of regular cross-sections. The most frequently represented substances processed under these conditions are polymers in the processing and plastics industry. A generalized approximate method was proposed to express the relationship between the friction factor and the Reynolds number for the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. This method uses the generalized Reynolds number for power-law fluids. Moreover, an additional simplified method for rapid engineering calculations was obtained as well. The suggested method was verified by comparing experimental data for concentric annulus found in the literature and results from simulations for concentric annulus, rectangular, square duct with a central cylindrical core and elliptical cross-sections. The results showed that the suggested methods enable us to estimate the friction factor with high accuracy for the investigated geometries.}, } @article {pmid36559442, year = {2022}, author = {Moriconi, L and Pereira, RM}, title = {Statistics of extreme turbulent circulation events from multifractality breaking.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {106}, number = {5-1}, pages = {054121}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.106.054121}, pmid = {36559442}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Recent numerical explorations of extremely intense circulation fluctuations at high Reynolds number flows have brought to light novel aspects of turbulent intermittency. Vortex gas modeling ideas, which are related to a picture of turbulence as a dilute system of vortex tube structures, have been introduced alongside such developments, leading to accurate descriptions of the core and the intermediate tails of circulation probability distribution functions (cPDFs), as well as the scaling exponents associated to statistical moments of circulation. We extend the predictive reach of the vortex gas picture of turbulence by emphasizing that multifractality breaking, one of its salient phenomenological ingredients, is the key concept to disclose the asymptotic form of cPDF tails. A remarkable analytical agreement is found with previous results derived within the framework of the instanton approach to circulation intermittency, a functional formalism devised to single out the statistically dominant velocity configurations associated to extreme circulation events.}, } @article {pmid36559415, year = {2022}, author = {Maity, R and Burada, PS}, title = {Near- and far-field hydrodynamic interaction of two chiral squirmers.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {106}, number = {5-1}, pages = {054613}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.106.054613}, pmid = {36559415}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Hydrodynamic interaction strongly influences the collective behavior of microswimmers. With this work, we study the behavior of two hydrodynamically interacting self-propelled chiral swimmers in the low Reynolds number regime, considering both the near- and far-field interactions. We use the chiral squirmer model [see Burada et al., Phys. Rev. E 105, 024603 (2022)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.105.024603], a spherically shaped body with nonaxisymmetric surface slip velocity, which generalizes the well-known squirmer model. The previous work was restricted only to the case, while the far-field hydrodynamic interaction was influential among the swimmers. It did not approach the scenario while both the swimmers are very close and lubrication effects become dominant. We calculate the lubrication force between the swimmers when they are very close. By varying the slip coefficients and the initial configuration of the swimmers, we investigate their hydrodynamic behavior. In the presence of lubrication force, the swimmers either repel each other or exhibit bounded motion where the distance between the swimmers alters periodically. We identify the possible behaviors exhibited by the chiral squirmers, such as monotonic divergence, divergence, and bounded, as was found in the previous study. However, in the current study, we observe that both the monotonic convergence and the convergence states are converted into divergence states due to the arising lubrication effects. The lubrication force favors the bounded motion in some parameter regimes. This study helps to understand the collective behavior of dense suspension of ciliated microorganisms and artificial swimmers.}, } @article {pmid36559353, year = {2022}, author = {Lutz, T and Richter, SK and Menzel, AM}, title = {Effect of boundaries on displacements and motion in two-dimensional fluid or elastic films and membranes.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {106}, number = {5-1}, pages = {054609}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.106.054609}, pmid = {36559353}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Thin fluid or elastic films and membranes are found in nature and technology, for instance, as confinements of living cells or in loudspeakers. When applying a net force, the resulting flows in an unbounded two-dimensional incompressible low-Reynolds-number fluid or displacements in a two-dimensional linearly elastic solid seem to diverge logarithmically with the distance from the force center, which has led to some debate. Recently, we have demonstrated that such divergences cancel when the total (net) force vanishes. Here, we illustrate that if a net force is present, the boundaries play a prominent role. Already a single no-slip boundary regulates the flow and displacement fields and leads to their decay to leading order inversely in distance from a force center and the boundary. In other words, it is the boundary that stabilizes the system in this situation, unlike the three-dimensional case, where an unbounded medium by itself is able to absorb a net force. We quantify the mobility and displaceability of an inclusion as a function of the distance from the boundary, as well as interactions between different inclusions. In the case of free-slip boundary conditions, a kinked boundary is necessary to achieve stabilization.}, } @article {pmid36557435, year = {2022}, author = {Guan, X and Xie, Z and Nan, G and Xi, K and Lu, Z and Ge, Y}, title = {Thermal-Hydrodynamic Behavior and Design of a Microchannel Pin-Fin Hybrid Heat Sink.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {12}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi13122136}, pmid = {36557435}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A three-dimensional convective heat transfer model of a microchannel pin-fin hybrid heat sink was established. Considering the non-uniform heat generation of 3D stacked chips, the splitting distance of pin-fins was optimized by minimizing the maximum heat sink temperature under different heat fluxes in the hotspot, the Reynolds numbers at the entrance of the microchannel, and the proportions of the pin-fin volume. The average pressure drop and the performance evaluation criteria were considered to be the performance indexes to analyze the influence of each parameter on the flow performance and comprehensive performance, respectively. The results showed that the maximum temperature of the hybrid heat sink attained a minimum value with an increase in the splitting distance. The average pressure drop in the center passage of the microchannel first increased and then decreased. Furthermore, the optimal value could not be simultaneously obtained with the maximum temperature. Therefore, it should be comprehensively considered in the optimization design. The heat flux in the hotspot was positively correlated with the maximum heat sink temperature. However, it had no effect on the flow pressure drop. When the Reynolds number and the pin-fin diameter increased, the maximum heat sink temperature decreased and the average pressure drop of the microchannel increased. The comprehensive performance of the hybrid heat sink was not good at small Reynolds numbers, but it significantly improved as the Reynolds number gradually increased. Choosing a bigger pin-fin diameter and the corresponding optimal value of the splitting distance in a given Reynolds number would further improve the comprehensive performance of a hybrid heat sink.}, } @article {pmid36547837, year = {2022}, author = {Salman, M and Chauhan, R and Singh, T and Prabakaran, R and Kim, SC}, title = {Experimental investigation and optimization of dimple-roughened impinging jet solar air collector using a novel AHP-MABAC approach.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-17}, pmid = {36547837}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {The effect of the flow and geometric parameters of a dimple-roughened absorber plate on the enactment of solar air collectors (SACs) with air-impinged jets was investigated in this study. The performance-defining criteria (PDCs) of a jet-impinged dimple-roughened SAC (JIDRSAC)-forced convection airflow system are significantly affected by variations in the system's control factors (CFs), such as the arc angle (αaa) ranging from 30° to 75°, dimple pitch ratio (pd/Dh) ranging from 0.269 to 1.08, and dimple height ratio (ed/Dh) ranging from 0.016 to 0.0324. The constant parameters of the jet slot are a stream-wise pitch ratio (Xi/Dhd) is 1.079, a span-wise pitch ratio (Yi/Dhd) is 1.619, and a jet diameter(Di/Dhd) is 0.081. Based on the combined approach of the analytic hierarchy process and multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (AHP-MABAC), the Reynolds number (Re) = 15,000, αaa = 60°, pd/Dh = 0.27, and ed/Dh = 0.027 depicted the best alternative (A-9) set among 16 alternatives to deliver the optimal performance of the JIDRSAC. The jet impingement pass compared to the smooth pass, the Nusselt number increased by 2.16-2.81, and friction factor increased by 3.35-5.95, and JIDRSAC was compared to the jet impingement pass, exhibiting an enhancement in Nusselt number and friction factor in the range of 0.55-0.80 and 0.05-0.15, respectively. In addition, sensitivity analysis is used to examine the ranking's stability and reliability in relation to the PDC weights.}, } @article {pmid36547831, year = {2022}, author = {Raju, LB and Sastry, GR and Gugulothu, SK and Kumar, R and Balakrishnan, D}, title = {Computational analysis on solar air heater with combination of alternate dimple protrusions and intrusions on absorber plate with one rounded corner triangular duct.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36547831}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {This study focuses on improving heat transfer by converting one of the corners of the duct to a rounded structure. To study the effect of dimpled shaped protrusions and intrusions on the rounded corner triangular duct with a constant radius of curvature by varying relative streamwise distance (z/e) with a constant transverse distance x'/e = 10,14 and 18. Steady-state, turbulent flow heat transfer under thermal boundary conditions is to be analyzed by varying different Reynolds numbers (5600 to 21000). The duct with dimple-shaped protrusions and intrusions is compared with a simple triangular duct. Optimization of relative horizontal distance (z'/e) by keeping constant protrusion to protrusion distance as z/e = 28 and relative transverse distance as x/e = 10, 14, and 18. It was noted that there was a significant loss in friction and a rise in heat transfer. The relationship between friction factor and Nusselt number was formulated using operating and roughness parameters, using the data collected from the numerical investigation. The friction factor increases significantly with roughness elements, and it is maximum for x'/e = 20 at a low Reynolds number. Nusselt number increases with roughness elements, and it is maximum for x'/e = 14 for all Reynolds numbers and all the models. Enhancement of Nusselt number is due to increase of local heat transfer because of local vortex neat heat transfer zone. The maximum outlet temperature is obtained at a low Reynolds number. The maximum temperature of the heated surface is obtained for Rc = 0.67 h and the minimum for Rc = 0.33 h.}, } @article {pmid36533860, year = {2022}, author = {Lim, S and Du, Y and Lee, Y and Panda, SK and Tong, D and Khalid Jawed, M}, title = {Fabrication, control, and modeling of robots inspired by flagella and cilia.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {18}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aca63d}, pmid = {36533860}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Flagella and cilia are slender structures that serve important functionalities in the microscopic world through their locomotion induced by fluid and structure interaction. With recent developments in microscopy, fabrication, biology, and modeling capability, robots inspired by the locomotion of these organelles in low Reynolds number flow have been manufactured and tested on the micro-and macro-scale, ranging from medicalin vivomicrobots, microfluidics to macro prototypes. We present a collection of modeling theories, control principles, and fabrication methods for flagellated and ciliary robots.}, } @article {pmid36517549, year = {2022}, author = {Hafez, NM and Alsemiry, RD and Alharbi, SA and Abd-Alla, AM}, title = {Peristaltic transport characteristics of a second-grade dusty fluid flown with heat transfer through a tube revisited.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {21605}, pmid = {36517549}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This paper provides a rudimentary insight into the influence of heat transfer on the transport characteristics of a second-grade dusty fluid flown in a flexible tube with walls subjected to the peristaltic motion. Both dust particles and fluid movements were modeled using the coupled differential equations. The effects of different types of parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Grashof number, wave number, wave amplitude ratio, second grade parameter as well as nature of the heat source and sink are studies on the dust particles velocity, fluid velocity, temperature, pressure profiles of the fluid and streamline patterns of the fluid. The derived equations were solved analytically via the standard perturbation method to determine the fluid temperature, streamline pattern and velocity of the dust particles as well as fluid. The values in the increase of pressure and frictional forces were calculated numerically using DSolve of the Mathematica 11 software (https://www.wolfram.com/mathematica/new-in-11/). In addition, the trapping mechanisms were ascertained by computing the streamlines and various physical parameters. The obtained results were validated with the state-of-the-art literature reports. It was claimed that our systematic approach may constitute a basis for accurately examining the impact of heat transfer on the peristaltic transport of a complex fluid through narrow tubes, useful for diverse medical applications such as the gastric fluid flow through the small intestine during endoscopy. Numerical results are computed and discussed numerically and presented through graphs. The impacts of pertinent parameters on the aforementioned quantities are examined by plotting graphs on the basis of computational results. The results indicate that the effect of parameters is very pronounced. A suitable comparison has been made with the prior results in the literature as a limiting case of the considered problem.}, } @article {pmid36513785, year = {2022}, author = {Abd-Alla, AM and Abo-Dahab, SM and Thabet, EN and Abdelhafez, MA}, title = {Heat and mass transfer for MHD peristaltic flow in a micropolar nanofluid: mathematical model with thermophysical features.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {21540}, pmid = {36513785}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {According to a survey of the literature, nanofluids are superior to traditional fluids at transferring heat. A detailed analysis of the models mentioned above is crucial since there are large gaps in the illumination of current solutions for improving heat transfer in nanomaterials. The ongoing investigation's purpose is to ascertain the tiny size gold particles drift in free with the heat and mass transfer, buoyancy forces, thermophoresis, and Brownian motion of a micropolar nanofluid being transported through a porous medium in an asymmetric channel with a uniform magnetic field using a long-wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The resulting dimensionless nonlinear governing equations have been numerically solved using a MATLAB software and the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. Two comparisons with previously investigated problems are also made to confirm our findings, and an excellent concurrence is discovered. As a result, trustworthy results are being given. Numerical solutions are used to describe the effects of different thermal-fluidic parameters on velocity profiles, temperature, concentration, micropolar rotation, pressure gradient, shear stress, heat flux, and nanoparticle volume flux, etc. Tables, graphs, and bar charts are used to present and discuss numerical results that have been produced. A comparison of the resulting numerical solution to earlier literature also reveals a satisfactory level of agreement. Insight into real-world applications such nanofluidic, energy conservation, friction reduction, and power generation are provided by this work. Furthermore, the Brownian and thermophoresis parameters behave significantly differently in a concentration field. On the other hand, the study puts forward an important note that for peristaltic flow of a micropolar fluid with nanoparticles can be controlled by suitably adjusting the micropolar parameter, thermophoresis parameter, nanoparticle Grashof number, and Brownian motion parameter.}, } @article {pmid36506398, year = {2022}, author = {Shuvo, MS and Hasib, MH and Saha, S}, title = {Entropy generation and characteristics of mixed convection in lid-driven trapezoidal tilted enclosure filled with nanofluid.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {8}, number = {12}, pages = {e12079}, pmid = {36506398}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The investigation of steady, incompressible, laminar mixed convective fluid flow within two different types of tilted lid-driven trapezoidal enclosures filled with nanofluid composed of water and Al2O3 nanoparticles has been carried out in this paper. The upper wall of the enclosure is an isothermal cold surface that travels at a constant speed, while the bottom surface of the cavity maintains a constant high temperature. Non-dimensional governing equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved using Galerkin finite element technique. Parametric simulation has been conducted by varying tilt angle of the base wall from 0° to 45°, Reynolds number from 0.1 to 10[3], Grashof number from 10[-2] to 10[6], and Richardson number between 0.1 and 10 for three different cases. The streamlines and the isotherms are used to describe the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics within the enclosure. Besides, the quantitative evaluations of thermal enhancement in terms of the average Nusselt number, average fluid temperature, and Bejan number of the enclosure are presented. Effects of base wall tilt angle and the presence of nanofluid on convection heat transmission characteristics as well as Bejan number are also explored.}, } @article {pmid36506374, year = {2022}, author = {Hamza, NFA and Aljabair, S}, title = {Evaluation of thermal performance factor by hybrid nanofluid and twisted tape inserts in heat exchanger.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {8}, number = {12}, pages = {e11950}, pmid = {36506374}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {The thermal performance parameters of an improved heat exchanger tube fitted with various vortex generator inserts were investigated using numerical and experimental methods. The governing equations have been solved numerically by a Finite Volume approach employing the turbulence model (κ - ε). Two twisted tape types, which being inserted across a circular pipe (plain twisted tape) and (Double V-cut twisted tape), have been achieved. The hybrid nanofluid is prepared by using metal oxide [Al2O3+CuO] with distilled water at volume fraction range (0.6%, 1.2% and 1.8%), Reynolds number range (3560-8320) at twisted ratio (9.25). The experimental data for a plain tube, plain twisted tapes and double v-cut twisted tape are validated using the standard correlations available in the literature. The effect of such variables upon the average Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor have been investigated and compared with a plain tube at the same conditions. As compared to plain twisted tape, the tube equipped with a double V-cut twisted tape with hybrid nanofluid displayed increased thermal performance. The greater vortex flow induced by the V-cuts results in more active thermal boundary layer disturbance, resulting in a greater heat transfer rate. The results show that thermal performance factor for hybrid nanofluid in plain circular tube at (∅ = 1.8 %) and Reynolds number (8320) is about (1.068), when the plain twisted tape and double v-cut twisted tape inserted with hybrid nanofluid the thermal performance factor increased to (1.33) and (1.37), respectively. The results show a similar trend for both numerical and experimental cases. The comparison between the experimental and numerical results have maximum error was (9.7)%.}, } @article {pmid36500800, year = {2022}, author = {Arshad, M and Hassan, A and Haider, Q and Alharbi, FM and Alsubaie, N and Alhushaybari, A and Burduhos-Nergis, DP and Galal, AM}, title = {Rotating Hybrid Nanofluid Flow with Chemical Reaction and Thermal Radiation between Parallel Plates.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {23}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano12234177}, pmid = {36500800}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {This research investigates the two different hybrid nanofluid flows between two parallel plates placed at two different heights, y0 and yh, respectively. Water-based hybrid nanofluids are obtained by using Al2O3, TiO2 and Cu as nanoparticles, respectively. The upper-level plate is fixed, while the lower-level plate is stretchable. The fluid rotates along the y-axis. The governing equations of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into partial differential equations by using similarity transformations. These transformed equations are grasped numerically at MATLAB by using the boundary value problem technique. The influence of different parameters are presented through graphs. The numerical outcomes for rotation, Nusselt, Prandtl, and Schmidt numbers are obtained in the form of tables. The heat transfer rate increases by augmentation in the thermophoresis parameter, while it decays by increasing the Reynolds number. Oxide nanoparticles hybrid nanofluid proved more efficient as compared to mixed nanoparticles hybrid nanofluid. This research suggests using oxide nanoparticles for good heat transfer.}, } @article {pmid36475799, year = {2022}, author = {Dong, C and Wang, L and Huang, YM and Comisso, L and Sandstrom, TA and Bhattacharjee, A}, title = {Reconnection-driven energy cascade in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {8}, number = {49}, pages = {eabn7627}, doi = {10.1126/sciadv.abn7627}, pmid = {36475799}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence regulates the transfer of energy from large to small scales in many astrophysical systems, including the solar atmosphere. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with unprecedentedly large magnetic Reynolds number to reveal how rapid reconnection of magnetic field lines changes the classical paradigm of the turbulent energy cascade. By breaking elongated current sheets into chains of small magnetic flux ropes (or plasmoids), magnetic reconnection leads to a previously undiscovered range of energy cascade, where the rate of energy transfer is controlled by the growth rate of the plasmoids. As a consequence, the turbulent energy spectra steepen and attain a spectral index of -2.2 that is accompanied by changes in the anisotropy of turbulence eddies. The omnipresence of plasmoids and their consequences on, for example, solar coronal heating, can be further explored with current and future spacecraft and telescopes.}, } @article {pmid36464577, year = {2022}, author = {Song, F and Yan, Y and Sun, J}, title = {Review of insect-inspired wing micro air vehicle.}, journal = {Arthropod structure & development}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {101225}, doi = {10.1016/j.asd.2022.101225}, pmid = {36464577}, issn = {1873-5495}, abstract = {Micro air vehicles (MAVs) have wide application prospects in environmental monitoring, disaster rescue and other civil fields because of their flexibility and maneuverability. Compared with fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft, flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) have higher energy utilization efficiency and lower cost and have attracted extensive attention from scientists. Insects have become excellent bionic objects for the study of FWMAVs due to their characteristics of low Reynolds number, low noise, hoverability, small size and light weight. By mimicking flying insects, it may be possible to create highly efficient biomimetic FWMAVs. In this paper, insect flight aerodynamics are reviewed, and the mechanism designs of insect-inspired FWMAVs and their aerodynamics are summarized, including the wing type effect, vibration characteristics and aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping wing.}, } @article {pmid36462002, year = {2022}, author = {Jiang, H and Wang, D and Liu, S and Sun, C}, title = {Experimental Evidence for the Existence of the Ultimate Regime in Rapidly Rotating Turbulent Thermal Convection.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {129}, number = {20}, pages = {204502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.204502}, pmid = {36462002}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {What is the final state of turbulence when the driving parameter approaches infinity? For the traditional Rayleigh-Bénard convection, a possible ultimate scaling dependence of the heat transport (quantified by the Nusselt number Nu) on the Rayleigh number (Ra), which can be extrapolated to arbitrarily high Ra, is predicted by theories. The existence of the ultimate scaling has been intensively debated in the past decades. In this Letter, we adopt a novel supergravitational thermal convection experimental setup to study the possible transition to the ultimate regime. This system is characterized by the combined effects of radial-dependent centrifugal force, the Earth's gravity, and the Coriolis force. With an effective gravity up to 100 times the Earth's gravity, both Ra and shear Reynolds number can be boosted due to the increase of the buoyancy driving and the additional Coriolis forces. With over a decade of Ra range, we demonstrate the existence of ultimate regime with four direct evidences: the ultimate scaling dependence of Nu versus Ra; the appearance of the turbulent velocity boundary layer profile; the enhanced strength of the shear Reynolds number; and the new statistical properties of local temperature fluctuations. The present findings will greatly improve the understanding of the flow dynamics in geophysical and astrophysical flows.}, } @article {pmid36461968, year = {2022}, author = {Rorai, C and Toschi, F and Pagonabarraga, I}, title = {Coexistence of Active and Hydrodynamic Turbulence in Two-Dimensional Active Nematics.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {129}, number = {21}, pages = {218001}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.218001}, pmid = {36461968}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {In active nematic liquid crystals, activity is able to drive chaotic spatiotemporal flows referred to as active turbulence. Active turbulence has been characterized through theoretical and experimental work as a low Reynolds number phenomenon. We show that, in two dimensions, the active forcing alone is able to trigger hydrodynamic turbulence leading to the coexistence of active and inertial turbulence. This type of flow develops for sufficiently active and extensile flow-aligning nematics. We observe that the combined effect of an extensile nematic and large values of the flow-aligning parameter leads to a broadening of the elastic energy spectrum that promotes a growth of kinetic energy able to trigger an inverse energy cascade.}, } @article {pmid36437305, year = {2022}, author = {Robles, V and Gonzalez-Parra, JC and Cuando-Espitia, N and Aguilar, G}, title = {The effect of scalable PDMS gas-entrapping microstructures on the dynamics of a single cavitation bubble.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {20379}, pmid = {36437305}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The effect of gas-entrapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures on the dynamics of cavitation bubbles laser-induced next to the PDMS surface is investigated and compared against the cavitation dynamics next to a flat smooth boundary. Local pressure gradients produced by a cavitation bubble cause the air pockets entrapped in the PDMS microstructures to expand and oscillate, leading to a repulsion of the cavitation bubble. The microstructures were fabricated as boxed crevices via a simple and scalable laser ablation technique on cast acrylic, allowing for testing of variable structure sizes and reusable molds. The bubble dynamics were observed using high speed photography and the surrounding flows were visualized and quantified using particle tracking velocimetry. Smaller entrapped air pockets showed an enhanced ability to withstand deactivation at three stand-off distances and over 50 subsequent cavitation events. This investigation provides insight into the potential to direct the collapse of a cavitation bubble away from a surface to mitigate erosion or to enhance microfluidic mixing in low Reynolds number flows.}, } @article {pmid36429949, year = {2022}, author = {Luo, J and Ma, X and Wang, L and Zhang, B and Yang, X and Yue, T}, title = {The Influence of Short-Term Heavy Rainfall on Hydraulic Characteristics and Rill Formation in the Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley.}, journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health}, volume = {19}, number = {22}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/ijerph192215232}, pmid = {36429949}, issn = {1660-4601}, mesh = {*Water Movements ; *Rain ; Geologic Sediments ; Soil ; Rivers ; }, abstract = {Rill erosion is one of the major environmental problems in the world; it is an important factor with regard to land degradation and has a serious impact on production and daily life in the region. The widely distributed Yuanmou group stratum promotes the development of rill erosion, whereby the strong time-concentrated rainfall and the alternating arid-humid climate prepare the ground for the development of rills in soils. Therefore, a study of the processes of slope rill erosion was carried out, and a gravel-soil slope in the Yuanmou dry-hot valley was chosen to simulate short-term heavy rainfall (25 mm/h) (No. 1 plot) and moderate rainfall (15 mm/h) (No. 2 plot), to study the erosion processes of soil and the dynamic characteristics of runoff involved in erosion. The study results showed that the width of runoff was significantly different between the two plots, while the depth of runoff was not significantly different. During the rill formation process, the width of the two plots first decreased and then increased with increasing washout duration, while its depth did not change significantly. Flow was the key factor in determining the hydraulic characteristics of runoff, and it had a significant or extremely significant positive correlation with hydraulic characteristics parameters, except in the case of Fr (Froude number) (r = 0.039). The total sediment content (CS) of plot No. 1 (0.158 g/cm[3]) was significantly different from that of plot No. 2 (0.153 g/cm[3]), and both CSs in the two plots decreased with increasing washout duration. The CS had an extremely significant negative correlation with τ (runoff shear force) (r = -0.863 **) and DW-f (Darcy-Weisbach drag coefficient) (r = -0.863 **) and a significant negative correlation with Re (Reynolds number) (r = -0.735 *) in the short-term heavy rainfall experiment, while the CS had a significant positive correlation with V (velocity) (r = 0.814 *), R (hydraulic radius) (r = 0.811 *) and P (unit stream power) (r = 0.811 *) in the moderate rainfall experiment. The results of this study will help guide further examination of the processes involved in the dynamic mechanisms of rill erosion on slopes under short-term heavy rainfall conditions.}, } @article {pmid36422415, year = {2022}, author = {Kumari, N and Alam, T and Ali, MA and Yadav, AS and Gupta, NK and Siddiqui, MIH and Dobrotă, D and Rotaru, IM and Sharma, A}, title = {A Numerical Investigation on Hydrothermal Performance of Micro Channel Heat Sink with Periodic Spatial Modification on Sidewalls.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {36422415}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Electronic gadgets have been designed to incorporating very small components such as microcontrollers, electronic chips, transistors, microprocessors, etc. These components are exceptionally heat sensitive and can be wrecked if heat is not released. As a result, the thermal control of such components is critical to their optimum performance and extended life. The use of a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) has shown promising solutions to remove the excess heat. In this paper, we have proposed a novel design of MCHS and investigated it numerically. Four different surface modifications on the sidewall of the passage, namely, extended triangular surface (ETS), extended circular surface (ECS), triangular groove surface (TGS), and the circular groove surface (CGS) in the passage of the microchannel have been exploited in the Reynolds number of 100-900. In the presence of geometrical modification, the cooling capacities have been enhanced. The results show that the Nusselt numbers of ETS-MCHS, ECS-MCHS, TGS-MCHS, and CGS-MCHS are increased by 4.30, 3.61, 1.62, and 1.41 times in comparison to the Nusselt number of MCHS with smooth passage, while the friction factor values are increased by 7.33, 6.03, 2.74, and 1.68 times, respectively. In addition, the thermohydraulic performance parameter (THPP) has been evaluated and discussed. The fact that MCHS have THPP values greater than unity demonstrates that the passage's geometries are a practical means of achieving effective thermal management.}, } @article {pmid36411532, year = {2022}, author = {Toyama, K and Togi, F and Harada, S}, title = {Mass Transfer from Mobile to Immobile Regions in Irregularly Shaped Micro-Channels at Low Reynolds Number.}, journal = {Ground water}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1111/gwat.13276}, pmid = {36411532}, issn = {1745-6584}, abstract = {Transient mass transfer in rough-walled micro-channels was investigated experimentally. We conducted experiments using rough-walled channels with various irregularities at small Reynolds number conditions. Mass transfer in the mainstream (mobile region) and dead water region (immobile region) were quantified using an image analysis technique based on absorption photometry. The experimental results showed that the solute dispersion in the mobile region was influenced by the irregular shape of the channel wall complicatedly. In contrast, mass transfer in the immobile region occurred by molecular diffusion independently on the wall roughness in our experimental conditions. The irregular shape of channel wall may enhance the mass transfer in mobile region by distorting the velocity distribution (Togi et al., 2020), while the solute redistribution to immobile region may suppress it in streamwise direction, just on a longer time scale. We developed a mass transfer model analogous to Mobile-Immobile model (MIM model) proposed by previous studies. The concept of the model is the same as the previous study (Zhou et al., 2019) and the coefficients of the model describing mass transfer in each region were quantified from the experimental results as functions of geometric characteristics of the rough-walled channel. In addition, mass transfer coefficient from mobile to immobile regions were derived mathematically based on the experimental results. The MIM model with the coefficients derived in this study well describes solute dispersion in variously shaped irregular channels quantitatively.}, } @article {pmid36405040, year = {2022}, author = {Kaziz, S and Ben Mariem, I and Echouchene, F and Belkhiria, M and Belmabrouk, H}, title = {Taguchi optimization of integrated flow microfluidic biosensor for COVID-19 detection.}, journal = {European physical journal plus}, volume = {137}, number = {11}, pages = {1235}, pmid = {36405040}, issn = {2190-5444}, abstract = {In this research, Taguchi's method was employed to optimize the performance of a microfluidic biosensor with an integrated flow confinement for rapid detection of the SARS-CoV-2. The finite element method was used to solve the physical model which has been first validated by comparison with experimental results. The novelty of this study is the use of the Taguchi approach in the optimization analysis. An L 8 2 7 orthogonal array of seven critical parameters-Reynolds number (Re), Damköhler number (Da), relative adsorption capacity (σ), equilibrium dissociation constant (KD), Schmidt number (Sc), confinement coefficient (α) and dimensionless confinement position (X), with two levels was designed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods are also used to calculate the contribution of each parameter. The optimal combination of these key parameters was Re = 10[-2], Da = 1000, σ = 0.5, K D = 5, Sc = 10[5], α = 2 and X = 2 to achieve the lowest dimensionless response time (0.11). Among the all-optimization factors, the relative adsorption capacity (σ) has the highest contribution (37%) to the reduction of the response time, while the Schmidt number (Sc) has the lowest contribution (7%).}, } @article {pmid36399789, year = {2022}, author = {Jhun, CS and Xu, L and Siedlecki, C and Bartoli, CR and Yeager, E and Lukic, B and Scheib, CM and Newswanger, R and Cysyk, JP and Shen, C and Bohnenberger, K and Weiss, WJ and Rosenberg, G}, title = {Kinetic and Dynamic Effects on Degradation of von Willebrand Factor.}, journal = {ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992)}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1097/MAT.0000000000001848}, pmid = {36399789}, issn = {1538-943X}, abstract = {The loss of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in aortic stenosis (AS) and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) is believed to be associated with high turbulent blood shear. The objective of this study is to understand the degradation mechanism of HMWM in terms of exposure time (kinetic) and flow regime (dynamics) within clinically relevant pathophysiologic conditions. A custom high-shear rotary device capable of creating fully controlled exposure times and flows was used. The system was set so that human platelet-poor plasma flowed through at 1.75 ml/sec, 0.76 ml/sec, or 0.38 ml/sec resulting in the exposure time (texp) of 22, 50, or 100 ms, respectively. The flow was characterized by the Reynolds number (Re). The device was run under laminar (Re = 1,500), transitional (Re = 3,000; Re = 3,500), and turbulent (Re = 4,500) conditions at a given texp followed by multimer analysis. No degradation was observed at laminar flow at all given texp. Degradation of HMWM at a given texp increases with the Re. Re (p < 0.0001) and texp (p = 0.0034) are significant factors in the degradation of HMWM. Interaction between Re and texp, however, is not always significant (p = 0.73). http://links.lww.com/ASAIO/A920.}, } @article {pmid36399753, year = {2022}, author = {Bermudez, G and Alexakis, A}, title = {Saturation of Turbulent Helical Dynamos.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {129}, number = {19}, pages = {195101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.195101}, pmid = {36399753}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The presence of large scale magnetic fields in nature is often attributed to the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by turbulent helical dynamos. In this Letter, we show that in turbulent helical dynamos, the inverse flux of magnetic helicity toward the large scales Π_{H} is bounded by |Π_{H}|≤cεk_{η}^{-1}, where ε is the energy injection rate, k_{η} is the Kolmogorov magnetic dissipation wave number, and c an order one constant. Assuming the classical isotropic turbulence scaling, the inverse flux of magnetic helicity Π_{H} decreases at least as a -3/4 power law with the magnetic Reynolds number Rm: |Π_{H}|≤cεℓ_{f}Rm^{-3/4}max[Pm,1]^{1/4}, where Pm is the magnetic Prandtl number and ℓ_{f} the forcing length scale. We demonstrate this scaling with Rm using direct numerical simulations of turbulent dynamos forced at intermediate scales. The results further indicate that nonlinear saturation is achieved by a balance between the inverse cascade and dissipation at domain size scales L for which the saturation value of the magnetic energy is bounded by E_{m}≤cL(εℓ_{f})^{2/3}Rm^{1/4}max[1,Pm]^{1/4}. Numerical simulations also demonstrate this bound. These results are independent of the dynamo mechanism considered. In our setup, they imply that inviscid mechanisms cannot explain large scale magnetic fields and have critical implications for the modeling of astrophysical dynamos.}, } @article {pmid36397500, year = {2022}, author = {Budanur, NB and Kantz, H}, title = {Scale-dependent error growth in Navier-Stokes simulations.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {106}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045102}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.106.045102}, pmid = {36397500}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We estimate the maximal Lyapunov exponent at different resolutions and Reynolds numbers in large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations of sinusoidally driven Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions. Independent of the Reynolds number when nondimensionalized by Kolmogorov units, the LES Lyapunov exponent diverges as an inverse power of the effective grid spacing showing that the fine scale structures exhibit much faster error growth rates than the larger ones. Effectively, i.e., ignoring the cutoff of this phenomenon at the Kolmogorov scale, this behavior introduces an upper bound to the prediction horizon that can be achieved by improving the precision of initial conditions through refining of the measurement grid.}, } @article {pmid36388976, year = {2022}, author = {Yao, N and Wang, H and Wang, B and Wang, X and Huang, J}, title = {Convective thermal cloaks with homogeneous and isotropic parameters and drag-free characteristics for viscous potential flows.}, journal = {iScience}, volume = {25}, number = {11}, pages = {105461}, pmid = {36388976}, issn = {2589-0042}, abstract = {Although convective thermal cloaking has been advanced significantly, the majority of related researches have concentrated on creeping viscous potential flows. Here, we consider convective thermal cloaking works in non-creeping viscous potential flows, and propose a combination of the separation of variables method and the equivalent-medium integral method to analytically deduce the parameters of convective thermal cloaks with isotropic-homogeneous dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity. Through numerical simulation, we demonstrate the cloaks can hide the object from thermo-hydrodynamic fields. Besides, by comparing the drag force cloaks bear in cloak case and the objects bear in object-existent case, we find convective thermal cloaks can considerably reduce the drag force, which appears drag-free characteristics. Finally, it is our hope that these developed methods can reduce the difficulties of metadevices fabrications, promote the development of drag reduction technology under higher Reynolds number, and shed light on the control of other multi-physics systems.}, } @article {pmid36384832, year = {2022}, author = {Cao, BZ and Wang, J and Zhao, YJ and Liu, C}, title = {[Hydrodynamic characteristics of grass swale runoff in Guanzhong area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China.].}, journal = {Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology}, volume = {33}, number = {11}, pages = {2979-2986}, doi = {10.13287/j.1001-9332.202211.023}, pmid = {36384832}, issn = {1001-9332}, mesh = {*Poaceae ; *Water Movements ; Hydrodynamics ; Rain ; Soil ; China ; }, abstract = {Grass swale has been widely used in sponge city construction, which can effectively improve the urban ecological environment. To explore the regulation mechanism of runoff in grass swale, runoff scouring experiment was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of runoff and the distribution of cross-section velocity under the combined conditions of five slopes (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%) and five scour flows (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 L·min[-1]). With the increases of flow rate and slope, flow velocity, Reynolds number and Froude number all increased gradually, while the Manning roughness coefficient and Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient decreased gradually. The velocity (V) could be expressed as a power function V=0.3387Q[0.555]S[0.6601] of flow rate (Q) and slope (S). The variation ranges of Reynolds number and Froude number were 1160.95-6596.82 and 0.17-1.21, respectively. The runoff flow patterns were all turbulent. The flow pattern was greatly affected by the slope. When flow rate and slope were small, they had great influence on friction coefficient. Under the experimental conditions, the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient was negatively correlated with Reynolds number. The velocity distribution of cross-section showed symmetrical distribution on both sides of the center. The maximum velocity point was located at the center of water surface. With the increases of flow rate and slope, the velocity contours of cross section gradually became dense and the gradient of the velocity change increased. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the design, application and hydraulic calculation of grass swale in the construction of sponge cities in loess areas, and reveal the runoff regulation mechanism by analyzing the hydraulic characteristics of grass swale runoff.}, } @article {pmid36383261, year = {2022}, author = {Karami, A and Ranjbar, B and Rahimi, M and Mohammadi, F}, title = {Novel hybrid neuro-fuzzy model to anticipate the heat transfer in a heat exchanger equipped with a new type of self-rotating tube insert.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {45}, number = {11}, pages = {92}, pmid = {36383261}, issn = {1292-895X}, mesh = {*Hot Temperature ; *Algorithms ; Friction ; }, abstract = {In this investigation, a combination of the wingsuit flying search (WFS) and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithms is developed as a new combinatorial optimization algorithm. The proposed combinatorial algorithm is tested over some well-known benchmark functions and then integrated with the artificial neural network (ANN) to construct a novel hybrid model. After that, the obtained hybrid model is employed to anticipate the experimentally obtained values of the average Nusselt number (Nu), average friction coefficient (f) as well as thermal-hydraulic performance ratio (η), in a heat exchanger equipped with a new type of self-rotating tube insert, against governing parameters. The insert is placed in the tube side of the water heater to heat natural gas. The proposed insert consists of various numbers of self-rotating modules. Indeed, the rotating insert is introduced to create effective secondary sweeping flow on the inner side of the tube. Since this type of tube insert simultaneously provides heat transfer enhancement and undesired pressure drop, a thermal-hydraulic performance ratio is defined to consider both of them. The governing parameters are the number of inserts (0 ≤ N ≤ 30), reservoir's temperature (40 °C ≤ TR ≤ 50 °C) as well as Reynolds number (6 × 10[3] ≤ Re ≤ 18 × 10[3]). It was found that the WFS-TLBO enhances the effectiveness of the main ANN in anticipating the Nusselt number (Nu), average friction coefficient (f) as well as performance ratio (η). Moreover, introducing the WFS-TLBO algorithm into the neural network provides an enhancement in the effectiveness of the hybrid models based on the single WFS and TLBO algorithms in anticipating the same parameters.}, } @article {pmid36378533, year = {2022}, author = {Wei, SX and Yang, H and Au, CT and Xie, TL and Yin, SF}, title = {Mixing Characteristic and High-Throughput Synthesis of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Cubic Hexagonal Phase Junctions in a Chaotic Millireactor.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {38}, number = {47}, pages = {14439-14450}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c02087}, pmid = {36378533}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {A four-stage oscillating feedback millireactor with splitters (S-OFM) was designed to improve the mixing performance based on chaotic advection. Three-dimensional CFD simulations were used to investigate its flow characteristics and mixing performance, and the generation mechanisms of secondary flows were examined. The results show that the mixing index (MIcup) increased with the increase in the Reynolds number (Re), and MIcup could reach 99.8% at Re = 663. Poincaré mapping and Kolmogorov entropy were adopted to characterize the chaotic advection intensity, which indicates that there is a intensity increase with the increase in Re. In addition, the results of Villermaux-Dushman experiments demonstrate that S-OFM performs excellently, and the mixing time could reach 1.04 ms at Re = 2764. Finally, S-OFM was successfully used to synthesize CdS nanoparticles with cubic hexagonal phase junctions. At a flow rate of 180 mL/min, the average particle size was 10.5 nm and the particle size distribution was narrow (with a coefficient of variation of 0.14).}, } @article {pmid36374705, year = {2022}, author = {Antunes, GC and Malgaretti, P and Harting, J and Dietrich, S}, title = {Pumping and Mixing in Active Pores.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {129}, number = {18}, pages = {188003}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.188003}, pmid = {36374705}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We show both numerically and analytically that a chemically patterned active pore can act as a micro- or nanopump for fluids, even if it is fore-aft symmetric. This is possible due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking which occurs when advection rather than diffusion is the dominant mechanism of solute transport. We further demonstrate that, for pumping and tuning the flow rate, a combination of geometrical and chemical inhomogeneities is required. For certain parameter values, the flow is unsteady, and persistent oscillations with a tunable frequency appear. Finally, we find that the flow exhibits convection rolls and hence promotes mixing in the low Reynolds number regime.}, } @article {pmid36374283, year = {2022}, author = {Hopkins, CC and Shen, AQ and Haward, SJ}, title = {Effect of blockage ratio on flow of a viscoelastic wormlike micellar solution past a cylinder in a microchannel.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {18}, number = {46}, pages = {8856-8866}, doi = {10.1039/d2sm01162j}, pmid = {36374283}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {We present experiments on the flow of a viscoelastic wormlike micellar solution around cylinders (radius R) confined in straight microchannels (width W). Thirteen flow geometries are tested where the blockage ratio is varied over a wide range 0.055 ≤ BR = 2R/W ≤ 0.63. Experiments are performed at negligible Reynolds number, and for Weissenberg numbers Wi = λU/R up to 1000, where U is the average flow speed and λ is the relaxation time of the fluid. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to characterise the flow state at each BR and Wi. In all of the geometries, a first critical Weissenberg number marks a transition from symmetric flow to an asymmetric but time-steady flow state, while a second higher critical Weissenberg number marks the onset of time-dependent flows. However, we report a clear shift in behaviour over a narrow intermediate range of 0.33 ≲ BR ≲ 0.41. Channels with BR ≤ 0.33 fall in a 'low' BR regime, with instabilities that originate from the downstream stagnation point, while those with BR ≥ 0.44 fall in a 'high' BR regime, with instabilities developing at the upstream stagnation point. Behaviour within the newly-identified intermediate BR regime is complex due to the competing influence of the two stagnation points. We summarise all our results in a flow state diagram covering Wi-BR parameter space, clearly defining the different regimes of blockage ratio for the first time. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexities of viscoelastic flow in this benchmark geometry.}, } @article {pmid36369608, year = {2022}, author = {Chen, Y and Feng, X and Shi, X and Cai, W and Li, B and Zhao, Y}, title = {Evaluation of computational fluid dynamics models for predicting pediatric upper airway airflow characteristics.}, journal = {Medical & biological engineering & computing}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36369608}, issn = {1741-0444}, abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential for use as a clinical tool to predict the aerodynamics and respiratory function in the upper airway (UA) of children; however, careful selection of validated computational models is necessary. This study constructed a 3D model of the pediatric UA based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The pediatric UA was 3D printed for pressure and velocity experiments, which were used as reference standards to validate the CFD simulation models. Static wall pressure and velocity distribution inside of the UA under inhale airflow rates from 0 to 266.67 mL/s were studied by CFD simulations based on the large eddy simulation (LES) model and four Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. Our results showed that the LES performed best for pressure prediction; however, it was much more time-consuming than the four RANS models. Among the RANS models, the Low Reynolds number (LRN) SST k-ω model had the best overall performance at a series of airflow rates. Central flow velocity determined by particle image velocimetry was 3.617 m/s, while velocities predicted by the LES, LRN SST k-ω, and k-ω models were 3.681, 3.532, and 3.439 m/s, respectively. All models predicted jet flow in the oropharynx. These results suggest that the above CFD models have acceptable accuracy for predicting pediatric UA aerodynamics and that the LRN SST k-ω model has the most potential for clinical application in pediatric respiratory studies.}, } @article {pmid36365668, year = {2022}, author = {de Araujo, MT and Furlan, L and Brandi, A and Souza, L}, title = {A Semi-Analytical Method for Channel and Pipe Flows for the Linear Phan-Thien-Tanner Fluid Model with a Solvent Contribution.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {14}, number = {21}, pages = {}, pmid = {36365668}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {This work presents a semi-analytical method for laminar steady-state channel and pipe flows of viscoelastic fluids using the Linear Phan-Thien-Tanner (LPTT) constitutive equation, with solvent viscosity contribution. For the semi-analytical method validation, it compares its results and two analytical solutions: the Oldroyd-B model and the simplified LPTT model (without solvent viscosity contribution). The results adopted different values of the dimensionless parameters, showing their influence on the viscoelastic fluid flow. The results include the distribution of the streamwise velocity component and the extra-stress tensor components in the wall-normal direction. In order to investigate the proposed semi-analytical method, different solutions were obtained, both for channel and pipe flows, considering different values of Reynolds number, solvent viscosity contribution in the homogeneous mixture, elongational parameter, shear parameter, and Weissenberg number. The results show that the proposed semi-analytical method can find a laminar solution using the non-Newtonian LPTT model with solvent viscosity contribution and verify the effect of the parameters in the resulting flow field.}, } @article {pmid36364597, year = {2022}, author = {Baig, MF and Chen, GM and Tso, CP}, title = {The Thermal Performance Analysis of an Al2O3-Water Nanofluid Flow in a Composite Microchannel.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {21}, pages = {}, pmid = {36364597}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Partial filling of porous medium insert in a channel alleviates the tremendous pressure drop associated with a porous medium saturated channel, and enhances heat transfer at an optimum fraction of porous medium filling. This study pioneered an investigation into the viscous dissipative forced convective heat transfer in a parallel-plate channel, partially occupied with a porous medium at the core, under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. Solving the thermal energy equation along the Darcy-Brinkman equation, new exact temperature fields and Nusselt number are presented under symmetrical isoflux thermal boundary condition. Noteworthy is the heat flux bifurcation at the interface between the clear fluid and porous medium driven by viscous dissipation, in cases where the combined hydrodynamic resistance to fluid flow and thermal resistance to fluid conduction is considerable in low Darcy number porous medium insert. However, viscous dissipation does not affect the qualitative variation of the Nusselt number with the fraction of porous medium filling. By using Al2O3-Water nanofluid as the working fluid in a uniformly heated microchannel, partially filled with an optimum volume fraction of porous medium, the heat transfer coefficient improves as compared to utilizing water. The accompanied viscous dissipation however has a more adverse impact on the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids with an increasing Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid36363954, year = {2022}, author = {Chen, Z and Wang, Y and Zhou, S}, title = {Numerical Analysis of Mixing Performance in an Electroosmotic Micromixer with Cosine Channel Walls.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {36363954}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Micromixers have significant potential in the field of chemical synthesis and biological pharmaceuticals, etc. In this study, the design and numerical simulations of a passive micromixer and a novel active electroosmotic micromixer by assembling electrode pairs were both presented with a cosine channel wall. The finite element method (FEM) coupled with Multiphysics modeling was used. To propose an efficient micromixer structure, firstly, different geometrical parameters such as amplitude-to-wavelength ratio (a/c) and mixing units (N) in the steady state without an electric field were investigated. This paper aims to seek a high-quality mixing solution. Therefore, based on the optimization of the above parameters of the passive micromixer, a new type of electroosmotic micromixer with an AC electric field was proposed. The results show that the vortices generated by electroosmosis can effectively induce fluid mixing. The effects of key parameters such as the Reynolds number, the number of electrode pairs, phase shift, voltage, and electrode frequency on the mixing performance were specifically discussed through numerical analysis. The mixing efficiency of the electroosmotic micromixer is quantitatively analyzed, which can be achieved at 96%. The proposed micromixer has a simple structure that can obtain a fast response and high mixing index.}, } @article {pmid36363898, year = {2022}, author = {Dai, Y and Cha, H and Nguyen, NK and Ouyang, L and Galogahi, F and Yadav, AS and An, H and Zhang, J and Ooi, CH and Nguyen, NT}, title = {Dynamic Behaviours of Monodisperse Double Emulsion Formation in a Tri-Axial Capillary Device.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {36363898}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {We investigated experimentally, analytically, and numerically the formation process of double emulsion formations under a dripping regime in a tri-axial co-flow capillary device. The results show that mismatches of core and shell droplets under a given flow condition can be captured both experimentally and numerically. We propose a semi-analytical model using the match ratio between the pinch-off length of the shell droplet and the product of the core growth rate and its pinch-off time. The mismatch issue can be avoided if the match ratio is lower than unity. We considered a model with the wall effect to predict the size of the matched double emulsion. The model shows slight deviations with experimental data if the Reynolds number of the continuous phase is lower than 0.06 but asymptotically approaches good agreement if the Reynolds number increases from 0.06 to 0.14. The numerical simulation generally agrees with the experiments under various flow conditions.}, } @article {pmid36363842, year = {2022}, author = {Cao, M and Cao, S and Zhao, J and Zhu, J}, title = {Numerical Study of Thermal Enhancement in a Single- and Double-Layer Microchannel Heat Sink with Different Ribs.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {36363842}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In this paper, a microchannel heat sink model was proposed to realize single- and double- layer flow through built-in ribs. The finite element volume method was used to analyze the influence of the length, thickness and angle of the inner rib on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the microchannel heat sink. The pressure drop, temperature field, flow field, and thermal characteristics are given. The numerical simulation results show that the rectangular rib plate makes the fluid in the microchannel heat sink flow alternately in the upper and lower layers, which can effectively enhance heat transfer. However, with the increase in rib length, the comprehensive evaluation factor decreases. The change of the angle of the rectangular rib plate has little influence on the Nusselt number. The change rate of the comprehensive evaluation factor of the thickness of the rectangular rib plate is the largest. When the Reynolds number is 1724, the comprehensive evaluation factor of Case 9 is 4.7% higher than that of Case 2. According to the parameter study of the built-in rib plate, the optimal parameter combination is given, in which the angle is 0°, the length is 7.5 mm, and the thickness is 0.2-0.3 mm.}, } @article {pmid36363584, year = {2022}, author = {Cancilla, N and Tamburini, A and Tarantino, A and Visconti, S and Ciofalo, M}, title = {Friction and Heat Transfer in Membrane Distillation Channels: An Experimental Study on Conventional and Novel Spacers.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {12}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {36363584}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {The results of an experimental investigation on pressure drop and heat transfer in spacer-filled plane channels, which are representative of Membrane Distillation units, are presented and discussed. Local and mean heat transfer coefficients were obtained by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals and Digital Image Processing. The performances of a novel spacer geometry, consisting of spheres that are connected by cylindrical rods, and are hereafter named spheres spacers, were compared with those of more conventional woven and overlapped spacers at equal values of the Reynolds number Re (in the range ~150 to ~2500), the pitch-to-channel height ratio, the flow attack angle and the thermal boundary conditions (two-side heat transfer). For any flow rate, the novel spacer geometry provided the least friction coefficient and a mean Nusselt number intermediate between those of the overlapped and the woven spacers. For any pressure drop and for any pumping power, the novel spacer provided the highest mean Nusselt number over the whole Reynolds number range that was investigated. The influence of buoyancy was also assessed for the case of the horizontal channels. Under the experimental conditions (channel height H ≈ 1 cm, ΔT ≈ 10 °C), it was found to be large in empty (spacer-less) channels that were up to Re ≈ 1200 (corresponding to a Richardson number Ri of ~0.1), but it was much smaller and limited to the range Re < ~500 (Ri < ~0.5) in the spacer-filled channels.}, } @article {pmid36359756, year = {2022}, author = {Soulsbury, CD and Humphries, S}, title = {Biophysical Determinants and Constraints on Sperm Swimming Velocity.}, journal = {Cells}, volume = {11}, number = {21}, pages = {}, pmid = {36359756}, issn = {2073-4409}, mesh = {Animals ; Male ; *Sperm Motility ; *Semen ; Spermatozoa ; Biological Evolution ; Flagella ; }, abstract = {Over the last 50 years, sperm competition has become increasingly recognised as a potent evolutionary force shaping male ejaculate traits. One such trait is sperm swimming speed, with faster sperm associated with increased fertilisation success in some species. Consequently, sperm are often thought to have evolved to be longer in order to facilitate faster movement. However, despite the intrinsic appeal of this argument, sperm operate in a different biophysical environment than we are used to, and instead increasing length may not necessarily be associated with higher velocity. Here, we test four predictive models (ConstantPower Density, Constant Speed, Constant Power Transfer, Constant Force) of the relationship between sperm length and speed. We collated published data on sperm morphology and velocity from 141 animal species, tested for structural clustering of sperm morphology and then compared the model predictions across all morphologically similar sperm clusters. Within four of five morphological clusters of sperm, we did not find a significant positive relationship between total sperm length and velocity. Instead, in four morphological sperm clusters we found evidence for the Constant Speed model, which predicts that power output is determined by the flagellum and so is proportional to flagellum length. Our results show the relationship between sperm morphology (size, width) and swimming speed is complex and that traditional models do not capture the biophysical interactions involved. Future work therefore needs to incorporate not only a better understanding of how sperm operate in the microfluid environment, but also the importance of fertilising environment, i.e., internal and external fertilisers. The microenvironment in which sperm operate is of critical importance in shaping the relationship between sperm length and form and sperm swimming speed.}, } @article {pmid36351992, year = {2022}, author = {Abdizadeh, GR and Farokhinejad, M and Ghasemloo, S}, title = {Numerical investigation on the aerodynamic efficiency of bio-inspired corrugated and cambered airfoils in ground effect.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {19117}, pmid = {36351992}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Animals ; *Flight, Animal ; *Wings, Animal ; Models, Biological ; Computer Simulation ; }, abstract = {This research numerically investigates the flapping motion effect on the flow around two subsonic airfoils near a ground wall. Thus far, the aerodynamic efficiency of the dragonfly-inspired flapping airfoil has not been challenged by an asymmetric cambered airfoil considering the ground effect phenomenon, especially in the MAV flight range. The analysis is carried out on the basis of an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (URANS) simulation, whereby the Transition SST turbulence model simulates the flow characteristics. Dragonfly-inspired and NACA4412 airfoils are selected in this research to assess the geometry effect on aerodynamic efficiency. Moreover, the impacts of Reynolds number (Re), Strouhal number (St), and average ground clearance of the flapping airfoil are investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the airfoil's aerodynamic performance ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) and the ground effect. The [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] increases by reducing the airfoil and ground distance, especially at [Formula: see text]. At [Formula: see text], by increasing the St from 0.2 to 0.6, the values of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] decrease from 10.34 to 2.1 and 3.22 to 1.8 for NACA4412 and dragonfly airfoils, respectively. As a result, the [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] of the NACA4412 airfoil is better than that of the dragonfly airfoil, especially at low oscillation frequency. The efficiency difference between the two airfoils at St=0.6 is approximately 14%, indicating that the [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] difference decreases substantially with increasing frequency. For [Formula: see text], the results show the dragonfly airfoil to have better [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] in all frequencies than the NACA4412 airfoil.}, } @article {pmid36340085, year = {2022}, author = {Dang, J and Duan, X and Tian, S}, title = {Wall Effects for Spheroidal Particle in Confined Bingham Plastic Fluids.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {7}, number = {43}, pages = {38717-38727}, pmid = {36340085}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {The wall effects on the sedimentation motion of a single spheroidal particle in cylindrical tubes filled with Bingham plastic fluid are investigated with the fixed computational domain using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model in steady-state mode. The CFD model is validated with literature in both bounded and unbounded mediums. The rheological model of the Bingham plastic fluid is regularized with a smoothly varying viscosity. The retardation effects of the tube wall are presented in functions of Reynolds number Re, radius ratio λ (the radius of the tube to the semiaxis of the particle normal to the flow λ = R/r), aspect ratio E (the ratio of the semiaxis of the particle along the flow to r, E = b/r), and Bingham number Bn. The simulation results demonstrate that the drag coefficient C D declines with the rise in Reynolds number. The relative contribution to drag coefficient from the pressure force increases with larger Bingham number comparing with that from the friction force. The formation and size of the recirculation wake is suppressed by the yield stress. While Bn is approaching infinity, the limiting behavior is observed in the location of yield surface and the value of yield-gravity parameter. The values of critical yield-gravity parameter are explicitly given at different values of E, showing independence with Re and λ. For the flow with Bn ≥ 100, the influence of wall can be even ignored while λ is larger than 5.}, } @article {pmid36337262, year = {2022}, author = {Rutledge, KM}, title = {Sniffing out Stingray Noses: The Functional Morphology of Batoid Olfaction.}, journal = {Integrative organismal biology (Oxford, England)}, volume = {4}, number = {1}, pages = {obac043}, pmid = {36337262}, issn = {2517-4843}, abstract = {Batoid fishes (rays, skates, sawfishes, and guitarfishes) are macrosmatic, meaning they rely on their sense of smell as one of the primary senses for survival and reproduction. Olfaction is important for long-distance tracking and navigation, predator and prey recognition, and conspecific signaling. However, the mechanisms by which batoids harness odorants is unknown. Without a direct pump-like system, it is hypothesized that batoids irrigate their nostrils via one or a combination of the following: the motion pump, buccopharyngeal pump, pressure (ex. pitot-like mechanism), or a shearing force (ex. viscous entrainment). These mechanisms rely on the size, shape, and position of the nostrils with respect to the head and to each other. Batoids are united as a group by their dorsoventrally compressed body plans, with nostrils on the ventral side of their body. This position presents several challenges for odor capture and likely limits the effectivity of the motion pump. Batoid fishes display an expansive nasal morphology, with inlet nostrils ranging from thin, vertical slits to wide, horizontal ovals to protruding, tube-like funnels, and more. In this paper, a morphometric model is developed to quantify the vast diversity in batoid nose shapes, sizes, and positions on the head in an ecological and functional framework. Specifically, swimming mode, lifestyle, habitat, and diet are examined for correlations with observed nasal morphotypes. Morphometric measurements were taken on all 4 orders present in Batoidea to broadly encompass batoid nasal diversity (Rhinopristiformes 4/5 families; Rajiformes 2/4 families; Torpediniformes 4/4 families; Myliobatiformes 8/11 families). All batoid external nasal diversity was found to be categorized into 5 major morphological groups and were termed: flush nare [circle, comma, intermediate], open nare, and protruding nare. Several morphometric traits remained significant when accounting for shared ancestry, including the position and angle of the nostril on the head, the width of the inlet hole, and the spacing of the nostrils from each other. These measurements were found to be closely correlated and statistically significant with the swimming mode of the animal. This study provides the first crucial step in understanding batoid olfaction, by understanding the diversity of the morphology of the system. Because odor capture is a strictly hydrodynamic process, it may be that factors relating more directly to the fluid dynamics (i.e., swimming mode, velocity, Reynolds number) may be more important in shaping the evolution of the diversity of batoid noses than other ecological factors like habitat and diet.}, } @article {pmid36332888, year = {2022}, author = {Saleem, T and Powell, T and Walker, W and Raju, S}, title = {Assessment of flow mechanics in the lower extremity venous system.}, journal = {Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1016/j.jvsv.2022.10.009}, pmid = {36332888}, issn = {2213-3348}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: The Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless parameter that describes fluid flow mechanics. Veins are compliant and collapsible vascular conduits that can accommodate large volume changes in response to small pressure changes. However, only sparse information is available about flow parameters such as the Re in the venous system.

METHODS: Bilateral duplex ultrasound examination of 15 healthy volunteers (30 limbs) was performed before and after exercise (four flights of stairs) of the veins of the lower extremity (left and right sides) and inferior vena cava. These volunteers had been confirmed to not have any signs or symptoms of lower extremity venous disease via focused history and physical examination findings.

RESULTS: Most of the volunteers were women (73%). Their mean age was 37 ± 12.8 years. The Re was highest in the inferior vena cava among all the veins examined (470 ± 144 before exercise and 589 ± 205 after exercise; P = .04). The association between the change in Re before and after exercise and the specific vein examined was also significant for the right and left external iliac veins, right and left common femoral veins, right and left profunda femoris veins, right and left femoral veins, and right common iliac vein. Resistance and velocity maps for the lower extremity venous system were also created. The velocity increased and the resistance decreased as one moved up the venous tree toward the right atrium.

CONCLUSIONS: The Re increased for most of the lower extremity veins after exercise in our healthy volunteers. However, the critical value for turbulent flow was not reached despite the exercise.}, } @article {pmid36329077, year = {2022}, author = {Roósz, A and Rónaföldi, A and Svéda, M and Veres, Z}, title = {Effect of crucible wall roughness on the laminar/turbulent flow transition of the Ga75In25 alloy stirred by a rotating magnetic field.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {18592}, pmid = {36329077}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The critical magnetic induction (Bcr) values of a melt flow produced by a rotating magnetic field (RMF), remaining laminar or turbulent, are essential in different solidification processes. In an earlier paper (Metall Res Technol 100: 1043-1061, 2003), we showed that Bcr depends on the crucible radius (R) and frequency of the magnetic field (f). The effect of wall roughness (WR) on Bcr was investigated in this study. Using ten different wall materials, we determined the angular frequency (ω) and Reynolds number (Re) as a function of the magnetic induction (B) and f using two different measuring methods (pressure compensation method, PCM; height measuring method, HMM). The experiments were performed at room temperature; therefore, the Ga75wt%In25wt% alloy was chosen for the experiments. Based on the measured and calculated results, a simple relationship was determined between Bcr and Re*, f, R, and WR, where the constants K1, K2, K3, and K4 depended on the physical properties of the melt and wall material:[Formula: see text].}, } @article {pmid36319372, year = {2022}, author = {Datta, R and Russell, DR and Tang, I and Clayson, T and Suttle, LG and Chittenden, JP and Lebedev, SV and Hare, JD}, title = {Time-resolved velocity and ion sound speed measurements from simultaneous bow shock imaging and inductive probe measurements.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {93}, number = {10}, pages = {103530}, doi = {10.1063/5.0098823}, pmid = {36319372}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {We present a technique to measure the time-resolved velocity and ion sound speed in magnetized, supersonic high-energy-density plasmas. We place an inductive ("b-dot") probe in a supersonic pulsed-power-driven plasma flow and measure the magnetic field advected by the plasma. As the magnetic Reynolds number is large (RM > 10), the plasma flow advects a magnetic field proportional to the current at the load. This enables us to estimate the flow velocity as a function of time from the delay between the current at the load and the signal at the probe. The supersonic flow also generates a hydrodynamic bow shock around the probe, the structure of which depends on the upstream sonic Mach number. By imaging the shock around the probe with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we determine the upstream Mach number from the shock Mach angle, which we then use to determine the ion sound speed from the known upstream velocity. We use the sound speed to infer the value of Z̄Te, where Z̄ is the average ionization and Te is the electron temperature. We use this diagnostic to measure the time-resolved velocity and sound speed of a supersonic (MS ∼ 8), super-Alfvénic (MA ∼ 2) aluminum plasma generated during the ablation stage of an exploding wire array on the Magpie generator (1.4 MA, 250 ns). The velocity and Z̄Te measurements agree well with the optical Thompson scattering measurements reported in the literature and with 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations in GORGON.}, } @article {pmid36313190, year = {2022}, author = {Qiao, Y and Ma, Z and Onyango, C and Cheng, X and Dorfman, KD}, title = {DNA fragmentation in a steady shear flow.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {16}, number = {5}, pages = {054109}, pmid = {36313190}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {We have determined the susceptibility of T4 DNA (166 kilobase pairs, kbp) to fragmentation under steady shear in a cone-and-plate rheometer. After shearing for at least 30 min at a shear rate of 6000 s - 1 , corresponding to a Reynolds number of O (10 3) and a Weissenberg number of O (10 3) , 97.9 ± 1.3 % of the sample is broken into a polydisperse mixture with a number-averaged molecular weight of 62.6 ± 3.2 kbp and a polydispersity index of 1.29 ± 0.03 , as measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with a 95% confidence interval). The molecular weight distributions observed here from a shear flow are similar to those produced by a (dominantly extensional) sink flow of DNA and are qualitatively different than the midpoint scission observed in simple extensional flow. Given the inability of shear flow to produce a sharp coil-stretch transition, the data presented here support a model where polymers can be fragmented in flow without complete extension. These results further indicate that DNA fragmentation by shear is unlikely to be a significant issue in microfluidic devices, and anomalous molecular weight observations in experiments are due to DNA processing prior to observation in the device.}, } @article {pmid36301473, year = {2023}, author = {Bryan, MT}, title = {Assessing the Challenges of Nanotechnology-Driven Targeted Therapies: Development of Magnetically Directed Vectors for Targeted Cancer Therapies and Beyond.}, journal = {Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)}, volume = {2575}, number = {}, pages = {105-123}, pmid = {36301473}, issn = {1940-6029}, mesh = {Humans ; *Neoplasms/genetics/therapy ; Nanotechnology ; Magnetics ; Drug Delivery Systems/methods ; Motion ; }, abstract = {Targeted delivery, in which therapeutic agents are preferentially concentrated at the diseased site, has the potential to improve therapeutic outcomes by minimizing off-target interactions in healthy tissue. Both passive and active methods of targeting delivery have been proposed, often with particular emphasis on cancer treatment. Passive methods rely on the overexpression of a biomarker in diseased tissue that can then be used to target the therapy. Active techniques involve physically guiding therapeutic agents toward the target region. Since the motion of magnetic particles can be remotely controlled by external magnetic fields, magnetic technologies have the potential to drive and hold drugs or other cargo at the required therapeutic site, increasing the localized dose while minimizing overall exposure. Directed motion may be generated either by simple magnetic attraction or by causing the particles to perform swimming strokes to produce propulsion. This chapter will compare the different strategies using magnetic nanotechnology to produce directed motion compatible with that required for targeted cargo delivery and magnetically assisted therapies and assess their potential to meet the challenges of operating within the human body.}, } @article {pmid36296816, year = {2022}, author = {Beck, J and Palmer, M and Inman, K and Wohld, J and Cummings, M and Fulmer, R and Scherer, B and Vafaei, S}, title = {Heat Transfer Enhancement in the Microscale: Optimization of Fluid Flow.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {20}, pages = {}, pmid = {36296816}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The focus of this paper is to investigate the effects of the addition of a connector between two serial microchannels. The idea of adding connector at the inlet of microchannels to enhance the random motion of molecules or nanoparticles in low Reynolds numbers was developed in our research group for the first time. It was experimentally determined that the shape of a connector between two microchannels has a significant impact on the enhancement of the random motion of molecules or nanoparticles. Consequently, the heat transfer coefficient is improved inside the second microchannel. The connector is large enough to refresh the memory of the fluid before entering the second channel, causing a higher maximum heat transfer coefficient in the second channel. It was also observed that the heat transfer coefficient can be increased at the end of the channel when the outlet temperature is relatively high. This may be explained by the fact that as temperature increases, the fluid viscosity tends to decrease, which generally drives an increase in the local random motion of base fluid molecules and nanoparticles. This causes an increase in the microchannel heat transfer coefficient. It was found that the addition of nanoparticles significantly modified the impact of the connector on the microchannel heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the effects of changing the Reynolds number and the shape of the connector were investigated through use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. It was found that both factors have an important impact on the variation of velocity and enhancement of random motion of molecules and consequently significantly affect the heat transfer coefficient.}, } @article {pmid36296785, year = {2022}, author = {Chang, Q and Fu, Z and Zhang, S and Wang, M and Pan, X}, title = {Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number and Spring Stiffness Effects on Vortex-Induced Vibration Driven Wind Energy Harvesting Triboelectric Nanogenerator.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {20}, pages = {}, pmid = {36296785}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is a process that wind energy converts to the mechanical energy of the bluff body. Enhancing VIV to harvest wind energy is a promising method to power wireless sensor nodes in the Internet of Things. In this work, a VIV-driven square cylinder triboelectric nanogenerator (SC-TENG) is proposed to harvest broadband wind energy. The vibration characteristic and output performance are studied experimentally to investigate the effect of the natural frequency by using five different springs in a wide range of stiffnesses (27 N/m

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of baseline blood flow rates and injection conditions on the extent of contrast reflux. To estimate arterial flow rates based on measurement of contrast reflux length.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Iodinated contrast was injected into an idealized tube as well as a physiologically accurate model of the cervico-cerebral vasculature. A total of 194 high-speed angiograms were acquired under varying "blood" flow rates and injection conditions (catheter size, injection rate, and injection time). The length of contrast reflux was compared to the input variables and to dimensionless fluid dynamics parameters at the catheter-tip. Arterial blood flow rates were estimated using contrast reflux length as well as a traditional transit-time method and compared to measured flow rates.

RESULTS: Contrast reflux lengths were significantly affected by contrast injection rate (p < 0.0001), baseline blood flow rate (p = 0.0004), and catheter size (p = 0.04), but not by contrast injection time (p = 0.4). Reflux lengths were found to be correlated to dimensionless fluid dynamics parameters by an exponential function (R[2] = 0.6-0.99). When considering the entire dataset in unison, flow estimation errors with the reflux-length method (39% ± 33%) were significantly higher (p = 0.003) than the transit-time method (33% ± 36%). However, when subgrouped by catheter, the error with the reflux-length method was substantially reduced and was significantly lower (14% ± 14%, p < 0.0001) than the transit-time method.

CONCLUSION: Results show correlations between contrast reflux length and baseline hemodynamic parameters that have not been reported previously. Clinically relevant blood flow rate estimation is feasible by simple measurement of reflux length. In vivo and clinical studies are required to confirm these correlations and to refine the methodology of estimating blood flow by reflux.}, } @article {pmid36014668, year = {2022}, author = {Shi, R and Lin, J and Yang, H}, title = {Particle Distribution and Heat Transfer of SiO2/Water Nanofluid in the Turbulent Tube Flow.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {16}, pages = {}, pmid = {36014668}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {In order to clarify the effect of particle coagulation on the heat transfer properties, the governing equations of nanofluid together with the equation for nanoparticles in the SiO2/water nanofluid flowing through a turbulent tube are solved numerically in the range of Reynolds number 3000 ≤ Re ≤ 16,000 and particle volume fraction 0.005 ≤ φ ≤ 0.04. Some results are validated by comparing with the experimental results. The effect of particle convection, diffusion, and coagulation on the pressure drop ∆P, particle distribution, and heat transfer of nanofluid are analyzed. The main innovation is that it gives the effect of particle coagulation on the pressure drop, particle distribution, and heat transfer. The results showed that ∆P increases with the increase in Re and φ. When inlet velocity is small, the increase in ∆P caused by adding particles is relatively large, and ∆P increases most obviously compared with the case of pure water when the inlet velocity is 0.589 m/s and φ is 0.004. Particle number concentration M0 decreases along the flow direction, and M0 near the wall is decreased to the original 2% and decreased by about 90% in the central area. M0 increases with increasing Re but with decreasing φ, and basically presents a uniform distribution in the core area of the tube. The geometric mean diameter of particle GMD increases with increasing φ, but with decreasing Re. GMD is the minimum in the inlet area, and gradually increases along the flow direction. The geometric standard deviation of particle diameter GSD increases sharply at the inlet and decreases in the inlet area, remains almost unchanged in the whole tube, and finally decreases rapidly again at the outlet. The effects of Re and φ on the variation in GSD along the flow direction are insignificant. The values of convective heat transfer coefficient h and Nusselt number Nu are larger for nanofluids than that for pure water. h and Nu increase with the increase in Re and φ. Interestingly, the variation in φ from 0.005 to 0.04 has little effect on h and Nu.}, } @article {pmid36014601, year = {2022}, author = {Akram, S and Athar, M and Saeed, K and Razia, A and Alghamdi, M and Muhammad, T}, title = {Impact of Partial Slip on Double Diffusion Convection of Sisko Nanofluids in Asymmetric Channel with Peristaltic Propulsion and Inclined Magnetic Field.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {16}, pages = {}, pmid = {36014601}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The current article discusses the outcomes of the double diffusion convection of peristaltic transport in Sisko nanofluids along an asymmetric channel having an inclined magnetic field. Consideration is given to the Sisko fluid model, which can forecast both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid properties. Lubricating greases are the best examples of Sisko fluids. Experimental research shows that most realistic fluids, including human blood, paint, dirt, and other substances, correspond to Sisko's proposed definition of viscosity. Mathematical modelling is considered to explain the flow behavior. The simpler non-linear PEDs are deduced by using an elongated wavelength and a minimal Reynolds number. The expression is also numerically calculated. The impacts of the physical variables on the quantities of flow are plotted graphically as well as numerically. The results reveal that there is a remarkable increase in the concentration, temperature, and nanoparticle fraction with the rise in the Dufour and thermophoresis variables.}, } @article {pmid36001259, year = {2022}, author = {Canli, E and Kucuksariyildiz, H and Carman, K}, title = {Impact assessment of new generation high-speed agricultural tractor aerodynamics on transportation fuel consumption and related phenomena.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {36001259}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {New generation agricultural tractors contribute to transportation by increased travel speeds. There is not any available aerodynamic data on the authentic agricultural tractor form. On-road transportation by tractors is between 8 and 30% of their operational time. In this work, two agricultural tractors are modelled via computational fluid dynamics for nine different speeds to determine aerodynamic resistances. Constant speed travel scenarios are analyzed. Corresponding speeds are 5 and 10 to 80 km/h with 10 km/h increments. Reynolds number changes between 1.6 × 10[5] and 2.98 × 10[6]. The characteristic lengths are taken as the square root of the streamwise projected area of the tractor geometries. Aerodynamic forces exerted on the tractors change between 3 and 746 N. The calculated drag coefficients are found as independent from Reynolds number and are 0.6 and 0.78 for the two different types of driver compartments. The approximated aerodynamic related fuel consumptions for 1-h changes between 0.002 and 8.28 lt/s which correspond to 0.001 to 5.76 kg/s carbon emission. A potential improvement in decreasing aerodynamic resistance about 20% is discussed by spatial data. Since the conducted work is being regarded as the first instance in the literature, it is estimated that several consecutive reports will be triggered.}, } @article {pmid35999194, year = {2022}, author = {Nan, K and Shi, Y and Zhao, T and Tang, X and Zhu, Y and Wang, K and Bai, J and Zhao, W}, title = {Mixing and Flow Transition in an Optimized Electrokinetic Turbulent Micromixer.}, journal = {Analytical chemistry}, volume = {94}, number = {35}, pages = {12231-12239}, doi = {10.1021/acs.analchem.2c02960}, pmid = {35999194}, issn = {1520-6882}, abstract = {Micromixer is a key element in a lab on a chip for broad applications in the analysis and measurement of chemistry and engineering. Previous investigations reported that electrokinetic (EK) turbulence could be realized in a "Y" type micromixer with a cross-sectional dimension of 100 μm order. Although the ultrafast turbulent mixing can be generated at a bulk flow Reynolds number on the order of unity, the micromixer has not been optimized. In this investigation, we systematically investigated the influence of electric field intensity, AC frequency, electric conductivity ratio, and channel width at the entrance on the mixing effect and transition electric Rayleigh number in the "Y" type electrokinetic turbulent micromixer. It is found that the optimal mixing is realized in a 350 μm wide micromixer, under 100 kHz and 1.14 × 10[5] V/m AC electric field, with an electric conductivity ratio of 1:3000. Under these conditions, a degree of mixedness of 0.93 can be achieved at 84 μm from the entrance and 100 ms. A further investigation of the critical electric field and the critical electric Rayleigh number indicates that the most unstable condition of EK flow instability is inconsistent with that of the optimal mixing in EK turbulence. To predict the evolution of EK flow under high Raσ and guide the design of EK turbulent micromixers, it is necessary to apply a computational turbulence model instead of linear instability analysis.}, } @article {pmid35990482, year = {2022}, author = {Mondal, T and Hnaien, N and Ajmi, M and Ghachem, K and Kolsi, L}, title = {CFD Investigation of Thermal Characteristics for a Dual Jet with a Parallel Co-flow.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {7}, number = {32}, pages = {27864-27875}, pmid = {35990482}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {A combined turbulent wall jet and offset jet (also known as the dual jet) with and without the presence of a parallel co-flow stream is studied. The standard k-ω turbulence model is used to predict the turbulent flow. The study focuses on the effects of the co-flow velocity (CFV) on the heat-transfer characteristics of the dual jet flow with the bottom wall maintained at a constant wall temperature. The CFV is varied up to 40% of the jet inlet velocity, and the height of the offset jet is varied from 5 to 11 times the jet width with the inlet Reynolds number taken as 15,000. The heat-transfer results reveal that the local Nusselt number (Nu x) along the bottom wall exhibits a peak at the immediate downstream of the nozzle exit, followed by a continuous decay in the rest of the converging region before showing a small rise for a short streamwise distance in the merging region. Further downstream, in the combined region, Nu x gradually decreases with the downstream distance. Except the merging region, no influence of co-flow is observed in the other two flow zones (converging and combined regions). In the merging region, for a given offset ratio (OR), Nu x remains nearly constant for a certain axial distance, and it decreases as the CFV increases. As a result of the increase in the CFV, the average Nusselt number decreases, indicating a reduction in overall convective heat transfer for higher values of the CFV. A regression analysis among the average Nusselt number (), CFV, and OR results in a correlation function in the form of within the range OR = 5-11 and CFV = 0-40%.}, } @article {pmid35965667, year = {2022}, author = {Wüthrich, D and Shi, R and Chanson, H}, title = {Hydraulic jumps with low inflow Froude numbers: air-water surface patterns and transverse distributions of two-phase flow properties.}, journal = {Environmental fluid mechanics (Dordrecht, Netherlands : 2001)}, volume = {22}, number = {4}, pages = {789-818}, pmid = {35965667}, issn = {1567-7419}, abstract = {ABSTRACT: Hydraulic jumps are commonly employed as energy dissipators to guarantee long-term operation of hydraulic structures. A comprehensive and in-depth understanding of their main features is therefore fundamental. In this context, the current study focused on hydraulic jumps with low Froude numbers, i.e. Fr1 = 2.1 and 2.4, at relatively high Reynolds number: Re ~2 × 10[5]. Experimental tests employed a combination of dual-tip phase-detection probes and ultra-high-speed video camera to provide a comprehensive characterisation of the main air-water flow properties of the hydraulic jump, including surface flow features, void fraction, bubble count rate and interfacial velocities. The current research also focused on the transverse distributions of air-water flow properties, i.e. across the channel width, with the results revealing lower values of void fraction and bubble count rate next to the sidewalls compared to the channel centreline data. Such a spatial variability in the transverse direction questions whether data near the side walls may be truly representative of the behaviour in the bulk of the flow, raising the issue of sidewall effects in image-based techniques. Overall, these findings provide new information to both researchers and practitioners for a better understanding of the physical processes inside the hydraulic jump with low Froude numbers, leading to an optimised design of hydraulic structures.

ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS: Experimental investigation of air-water flow properties in hydraulic jumps with low Froude numbersDetailed description of the main air-water surface features on the breaking rollerTransversal distribution of the air-water flow properties across the channel width and comparison between centreline and sidewall.}, } @article {pmid35958096, year = {2022}, author = {Mohanty, RK and Setia, N and Khurana, G and Manchanda, G}, title = {High precision compact numerical approximation in exponential form for the system of 2D quasilinear elliptic BVPs on a discrete irrational region.}, journal = {MethodsX}, volume = {9}, number = {}, pages = {101790}, pmid = {35958096}, issn = {2215-0161}, abstract = {This article presents a new approximation of order four in exponential form for two-dimensional (2D) quasilinear partial differential equation (PDE) of elliptic form with solution domain being irrational. It is further extended for application to a system of quasilinear elliptic PDEs with Dirichlet boundary conditions (DBCs). The main highlights of the method framed in this article are as under:•It uses a 9-point stencil with unequal mesh to approach the solution. The error analysis is discussed to authenticate the order of convergence of the proposed numerical approximation.•Various validating problems, for instance the Burgers' equation, Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates, Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in rectangular and cylindrical coordinates are solved using the proposed techniques to depict their stability. The proposed approximation produces solution free of oscillations for large values of Reynolds Number in the vicinity of a singularity.•The results of the proposed method are superior in comparison to the existing methods of [49] and [56].}, } @article {pmid35957150, year = {2022}, author = {Togun, H and Homod, RZ and Yaseen, ZM and Abed, AM and Dhabab, JM and Ibrahem, RK and Dhahbi, S and Rashidi, MM and Ahmadi, G and Yaïci, W and Mahdi, JM}, title = {Efficient Heat Transfer Augmentation in Channels with Semicircle Ribs and Hybrid Al2O3-Cu/Water Nanofluids.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {15}, pages = {}, pmid = {35957150}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Global technological advancements drive daily energy consumption, generating additional carbon-induced climate challenges. Modifying process parameters, optimizing design, and employing high-performance working fluids are among the techniques offered by researchers for improving the thermal efficiency of heating and cooling systems. This study investigates the heat transfer enhancement of hybrid "Al2O3-Cu/water" nanofluids flowing in a two-dimensional channel with semicircle ribs. The novelty of this research is in employing semicircle ribs combined with hybrid nanofluids in turbulent flow regimes. A computer modeling approach using a finite volume approach with k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model was used in these simulations. Six cases with varying rib step heights and pitch gaps, with Re numbers ranging from 10,000 to 25,000, were explored for various volume concentrations of hybrid nanofluids Al2O3-Cu/water (0.33%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2%). The simulation results showed that the presence of ribs enhanced the heat transfer in the passage. The Nusselt number increased when the solid volume fraction of "Al2O3-Cu/water" hybrid nanofluids and the Re number increased. The Nu number reached its maximum value at a 2 percent solid volume fraction for a Reynolds number of 25,000. The local pressure coefficient also improved as the Re number and volume concentration of "Al2O3-Cu/water" hybrid nanofluids increased. The creation of recirculation zones after and before each rib was observed in the velocity and temperature contours. A higher number of ribs was also shown to result in a larger number of recirculation zones, increasing the thermal performance.}, } @article {pmid35926485, year = {2022}, author = {Bhattacharjee, A and Jabbarzadeh, M and Kararsiz, G and Fu, HC and Kim, MJ}, title = {Bacteria-inspired magnetically actuated rod-like soft robot in viscous fluids.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {17}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac870f}, pmid = {35926485}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Magnets ; Models, Biological ; *Robotics ; Swimming ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {This paper seeks to design, develop, and explore the locomotive dynamics and morphological adaptability of a bacteria-inspired rod-like soft robot propelled in highly viscous Newtonian fluids. The soft robots were fabricated as tapered, hollow rod-like soft scaffolds by applying a robust and economic molding technique to a polyacrylamide-based hydrogel polymer. Cylindrical micro-magnets were embedded in both ends of the soft scaffolds, which allowed bending (deformation) and actuation under a uniform rotating magnetic field. We demonstrated that the tapered rod-like soft robot in viscous Newtonian fluids could perform two types of propulsion; boundary rolling was displayed when the soft robot was located near a boundary, and swimming was displayed far away from the boundary. In addition, we performed numerical simulations to understand the swimming propulsion along the rotating axis and the way in which this propulsion is affected by the soft robot's design, rotation frequency, and fluid viscosity. Our results suggest that a simple geometrical asymmetry enables the rod-like soft robot to perform propulsion in the low Reynolds number (Re≪ 1) regime; these promising results provide essential insights into the improvements that must be made to integrate the soft robots into minimally invasivein vivoapplications.}, } @article {pmid35918493, year = {2022}, author = {Xiao, L and Liu, Q and Huang, W}, title = {Experimental research and analysis on the resistance characteristics of simulated ore bin in water.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {13211}, pmid = {35918493}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In order to research the variation law of the longitudinal resistance coefficient of the ore bin in the marine mining system under different length-diameter ratio, external shape, additional weight and Reynolds number, a set of experimental system for testing the resistance coefficient was designed and built independently. By analyzing the experimental results, it can be seen that under the same conditions, the resistance coefficient decreases gradually with the increase of Reynolds number and finally fluctuates around a certain value. Increasing the excitation displacement will reduce the overall resistance coefficient of the ore bin. The smaller the length-diameter ratio is, the larger the corresponding force value when the vibration acceleration of the ore bin is 0, and the larger the overall resistance coefficient is. The resistance coefficient of the cylindrical section is greater than that of the rectangular shape. In order to reduce the longitudinal vibration and the transverse towing offset, the shape of the ore bin should be cylindrical in actual design and production. At low Reynolds number, the increase of added weight will increase the resistance coefficient, while at high Reynolds number, the change of added weight will not cause the change of resistance coefficient.}, } @article {pmid35912042, year = {2022}, author = {Ram, D and Bhandari, DS and Tripathi, D and Sharma, K}, title = {Propagation of H1N1 virus through saliva movement in oesophagus: a mathematical model.}, journal = {European physical journal plus}, volume = {137}, number = {7}, pages = {866}, pmid = {35912042}, issn = {2190-5444}, abstract = {H1N1 (Swine flu) is caused by the influenza A virus which belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A is very harmful to the elderly, and people with chronic respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is essential to analyse the behaviour of virus transmission through the saliva movement in oesophagus. A mathematical paradigm is developed to study the saliva movement under the applications of transverse magnetic field. Jeffrey fluid model is considered for saliva to show the viscoelastic nature. The flow nature is considered creeping and assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number are adopted for analytical solutions. The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation is employed to understand the propagation of H1N1 virus through saliva under the effect of applicable forces such as gravity, virtual mass, basset force, and drag forces. The suitable data for saliva, oesophagus and H1N1 virus are taken from the existing literature for simulation of the results using MATLAB software. From the graphical results, it is observed that the susceptibility to viral infections is less because the magnetic field reduces the motion of the virus particle. Further, the chances of infections in males are more as compared to females and children due to variation in viscosity of saliva. Such findings provide an understanding of the mechanics of the virus floating through the saliva (viscoelastic fluids) in the oesophagus.}, } @article {pmid35912036, year = {2022}, author = {Strazzullo, M and Girfoglio, M and Ballarin, F and Iliescu, T and Rozza, G}, title = {Consistency of the full and reduced order models for evolve-filter-relax regularization of convection-dominated, marginally-resolved flows.}, journal = {International journal for numerical methods in engineering}, volume = {123}, number = {14}, pages = {3148-3178}, pmid = {35912036}, issn = {0029-5981}, abstract = {Numerical stabilization is often used to eliminate (alleviate) the spurious oscillations generally produced by full order models (FOMs) in under-resolved or marginally-resolved simulations of convection-dominated flows. In this article, we investigate the role of numerical stabilization in reduced order models (ROMs) of marginally-resolved, convection-dominated incompressible flows. Specifically, we investigate the FOM-ROM consistency, that is, whether the numerical stabilization is beneficial both at the FOM and the ROM level. As a numerical stabilization strategy, we focus on the evolve-filter-relax (EFR) regularization algorithm, which centers around spatial filtering. To investigate the FOM-ROM consistency, we consider two ROM strategies: (i) the EFR-noEFR, in which the EFR stabilization is used at the FOM level, but not at the ROM level; and (ii) the EFR-EFR, in which the EFR stabilization is used both at the FOM and at the ROM level. We compare the EFR-noEFR with the EFR-EFR in the numerical simulation of a 2D incompressible flow past a circular cylinder in the convection-dominated, marginally-resolved regime. We also perform model reduction with respect to both time and Reynolds number. Our numerical investigation shows that the EFR-EFR is more accurate than the EFR-noEFR, which suggests that FOM-ROM consistency is beneficial in convection-dominated, marginally-resolved flows.}, } @article {pmid35905362, year = {2022}, author = {Wang, X and Shih, HY and Goldenfeld, N}, title = {Stochastic Model for Quasi-One-Dimensional Transitional Turbulence with Streamwise Shear Interactions.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {129}, number = {3}, pages = {034501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.034501}, pmid = {35905362}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows is typically subcritical, with a poorly understood interplay between spatial fluctuations, pattern formation, and stochasticity near the critical Reynolds number. Here, we present a spatially extended stochastic minimal model for the energy budget in transitional pipe flow, which successfully recapitulates the way localized patches of turbulence (puffs) decay, split, and grow, respectively, as the Reynolds number increases through the laminar-turbulent transition. Our approach takes into account the flow geometry, as we demonstrate by extending the model to quasi-one-dimensional Taylor-Couette flow, reproducing the observed directed percolation pattern of turbulent patches in space and time.}, } @article {pmid35899947, year = {2022}, author = {Godeau, AL and Leoni, M and Comelles, J and Guyomar, T and Lieb, M and Delanoë-Ayari, H and Ott, A and Harlepp, S and Sens, P and Riveline, D}, title = {3D single cell migration driven by temporal correlation between oscillating force dipoles.}, journal = {eLife}, volume = {11}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {35899947}, issn = {2050-084X}, mesh = {*Actins/metabolism ; Cell Movement/physiology ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; *Cell Polarity/physiology ; Myosins/metabolism ; }, abstract = {Directional cell locomotion requires symmetry breaking between the front and rear of the cell. In some cells, symmetry breaking manifests itself in a directional flow of actin from the front to the rear of the cell. Many cells, especially in physiological 3D matrices, do not show such coherent actin dynamics and present seemingly competing protrusion/retraction dynamics at their front and back. How symmetry breaking manifests itself for such cells is therefore elusive. We take inspiration from the scallop theorem proposed by Purcell for micro-swimmers in Newtonian fluids: self-propelled objects undergoing persistent motion at low Reynolds number must follow a cycle of shape changes that breaks temporal symmetry. We report similar observations for cells crawling in 3D. We quantified cell motion using a combination of 3D live cell imaging, visualization of the matrix displacement, and a minimal model with multipolar expansion. We show that our cells embedded in a 3D matrix form myosin-driven force dipoles at both sides of the nucleus, that locally and periodically pinch the matrix. The existence of a phase shift between the two dipoles is required for directed cell motion which manifests itself as cycles with finite area in the dipole-quadrupole diagram, a formal equivalence to the Purcell cycle. We confirm this mechanism by triggering local dipolar contractions with a laser. This leads to directed motion. Our study reveals that these cells control their motility by synchronizing dipolar forces distributed at front and back. This result opens new strategies to externally control cell motion as well as for the design of micro-crawlers.}, } @article {pmid35896094, year = {2022}, author = {Zhang, JD and Sung, HJ and Huang, WX}, title = {Hydrodynamic interaction of dorsal fin and caudal fin in swimming tuna.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {17}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac84b8}, pmid = {35896094}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {*Animal Fins ; Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Hydrodynamics ; *Swimming ; Tuna ; }, abstract = {Tuna, which are known for high-performance swimming, possess a large crescent dorsal fin (DF) and a caudal fin (CF) that differ from those of other fishes. The hydrodynamic interaction between the DF and CF in tuna, which are represented by two tandem 3D flapping plates, is numerically explored in the present study. Hydrodynamic properties and wake structures of the models with and without a DF are compared to investigate the effects of the DF. The thrust on the CF is substantially enhanced by the DF, whereas the force on the DF is not affected by the CF. The constructive interaction between the leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the CF and the vortices shed from the dorsal fin (DFVs) is identified from 3D wake topology and 2D vorticity distributions. The circulation of spanwise vorticity quantitatively reveals that the LEV on the CF is strengthened by the same-signed DFV. The effect of the flapping phase of the CF is examined. The DF-CF interaction is sensitive to the flapping phase at a short spacing, whereas a long spacing between the two fins enables a robust constructive interaction in tuna swimming. A systematic study is carried out to explore the effects of the Strouhal number (St) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the interaction of the fins. The enhancement of thrust due to the DF is diminished at St = 0.63, whereas the Re does not substantially influence the constructive DF-CF interaction.}, } @article {pmid35892036, year = {2022}, author = {Mane, NS and Puri, DB and Mane, S and Hemadri, V and Banerjee, A and Tripathi, S}, title = {Separation of motile human sperms in a T-shaped sealed microchannel.}, journal = {Biomedical engineering letters}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {331-342}, pmid = {35892036}, issn = {2093-985X}, abstract = {UNLABELLED: Microfluidic methods act as an effective motile sperm separation technique used in infertility treatments. This work presents a standalone microfluidic device to separate motile sperm cells from non-motile sperm cells and debris. The separation mechanism is based on the centrifugal force acting on sperms and the ability of progressive motile sperms to swim upstream. The separation of motile sperm is carried out using a simple T-shaped microchannel which constitutes three reservoirs: one inlet and two outlets. Herein, one of the outlets is kept sealed. The sealed channel leads to a high-velocity gradient and a rheotaxis zone at the T junction resulting in the separation of motile sperms. Separated sperms are isolated in a sealed channel with a low Reynolds number flow so that sperms cannot have a net displacement, which ensures that the sperms do not re-enter the fluid flow. CFD simulation is conducted to study the flow fields inside the channel and experimental investigation is carried to observe the separation behaviour of sperms. The reported device provides 100% sperm separation efficiency and ensures the entrapment of sperm cells for a longer period. A modified colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium test conducted on separated sperm cells shows that there is only a marginal increase in superoxide (O2 [-]) production, proving normal sperm integrity. This device offers an effective and safe alternative to conventional sperm sorting methods.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13534-022-00229-9.}, } @article {pmid35889690, year = {2022}, author = {Ghachem, K and Selimefendigil, F and Alshammari, BM and Maatki, C and Kolsi, L}, title = {Coupled Effects of Using Magnetic Field, Rotation and Wavy Porous Layer on the Forced Convection of Hybrid Nanoliquid Flow over 3D-Backward Facing Step.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {14}, pages = {}, pmid = {35889690}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {In the present study, the effects of using a corrugated porous layer on the forced convection of a hybrid nanofluid flow over a 3D backward facing step are analyzed under the coupled effects of magnetic field and surface rotation. The thermal analysis is conducted for different values of the Reynolds number (Re between 100 and 500), the rotational Reynolds number (Rew between 0 and 2000), the Hartmann number (Ha between 0 and 15), the permeability of the porous layer (the Darcy number, Da between 10-5 and 10-2) and the amplitude (ax between 0.01 ap and 0.7 ap) and wave number (N between 1 and 16) of the porous layer corrugation. When rotations are activated, the average Nusselt number (Nu) and pressure coefficient values rise, while the increment of the latter is less. The increment in the average Nu is higher for the case with a higher permeability of the layer. When the corrugation amplitude and wave number are increased, favorable impacts of the average Nu are observed, but at the same time pressure coefficients are increased. Successful thermal performance estimations are made by using a neural-based modeling approach with a four input-two output system.}, } @article {pmid35889569, year = {2022}, author = {Minea, AA and El-Maghlany, WM and Massoud, EZ}, title = {Heat Transfer Analysis of Nanocolloids Based on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed in PEG 400.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {14}, pages = {}, pmid = {35889569}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Cooling and heating are extremely important in many industrial applications, while the thermal performance of these processes generally depends on many factors, such as fluid flow rate, inlet temperature, and many more. Hence, tremendous efforts are dedicated to the investigation of several parameters to reach an efficient cooling or heating process. The interest in adding nanoparticles in regular heat transfer fluids delivered new fluids to the market, the nanofluids. In this paper, a new nanoparticle-enhanced fluid based on polyethylene glycol with ZnO nanoparticles is considered and its hydrothermal performance is investigated for HVAC applications. The thermophysical properties of PEG 400-ZnO and their variation with temperature at different nanoparticle loading are previously determined on experimental bases and here implemented in a numerical application. The numerical results are completed at Reynolds number from 200 to 2000, while the nanoparticle concentration varies from 0.5 to 5%. Results are discussed in terms of Nusselt number, friction factor, and dimensionless pressure drop ratio at different temperatures and ZnO loading in the PEG 400 base fluid. Additionally, the evaluation performance criteria (EC) are calculated and discussed. Concluding, the newly developed fluid enhances the heat transfer up to 16% with a 13% pressure drop penalty, while the performance evaluation criteria are enhanced. Plus, several correlations are developed for both Nusselt number and friction factor as a function of relevant operating conditions.}, } @article {pmid35888927, year = {2022}, author = {Wang, Y and Yin, Z and Bao, F and Shen, J}, title = {CFD-DEM Coupling Model for Deposition Process Analysis of Ultrafine Particles in a Micro Impinging Flow Field.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35888927}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Gas with ultrafine particle impaction on a solid surface is a unique case of curvilinear motion that can be widely used for the devices of surface coatings or instruments for particle size measurement. In this work, the Eulerian-Lagrangian method was applied to calculate the motion of microparticles in a micro impinging flow field with consideration of the interactions between particle to particle, particle to wall, and particle to fluid. The coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the discrete element method (DEM) was employed to investigate the different deposition patterns of microparticles. The vortex structure and two types of particle deposits ("halo" and "ring") have been discussed. The particle deposition characteristics are affected both by the flow Reynolds number (Re) and Stokes number (stk). Moreover, two particle deposition patterns have been categorized in terms of Re and stk. Finally, the characteristics and mechanism of particle deposits have been analyzed using the particle inertia, the process of impinging (particle rebound or no rebound), vortical structures, and the kinetic energy conversion in two-phase flow, etc.}, } @article {pmid35888885, year = {2022}, author = {Zhou, Y and Dai, L and Jiao, N}, title = {Review of Bubble Applications in Microrobotics: Propulsion, Manipulation, and Assembly.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35888885}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In recent years, microbubbles have been widely used in the field of microrobots due to their unique properties. Microbubbles can be easily produced and used as power sources or tools of microrobots, and the bubbles can even serve as microrobots themselves. As a power source, bubbles can propel microrobots to swim in liquid under low-Reynolds-number conditions. As a manipulation tool, microbubbles can act as the micromanipulators of microrobots, allowing them to operate upon particles, cells, and organisms. As a microrobot, microbubbles can operate and assemble complex microparts in two- or three-dimensional spaces. This review provides a comprehensive overview of bubble applications in microrobotics including propulsion, micromanipulation, and microassembly. First, we introduce the diverse bubble generation and control methods. Then, we review and discuss how bubbles can play a role in microrobotics via three functions: propulsion, manipulation, and assembly. Finally, by highlighting the advantages and current challenges of this progress, we discuss the prospects of microbubbles in microrobotics.}, } @article {pmid35888870, year = {2022}, author = {Juraeva, M and Kang, DJ}, title = {Mixing Enhancement of a Passive Micromixer with Submerged Structures.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35888870}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A passive micromixer combined with two different mixing units was designed by submerging planar structures, and its mixing performance was simulated over a wider range of the Reynolds numbers from 0.1 to 80. The two submerged structures are a Norman window and rectangular baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of mixing (DOM) at the outlet and the required pressure load between inlet and outlet. The amount of submergence was varied from 30 μm to 70 μm, corresponding to 25% to 58% of the micromixer depth. The enhancement of mixing performance is noticeable over a wide range of the Reynolds numbers. When the Reynolds number is 10, the DOM is improved by 182% from that of no submergence case, and the required pressure load is reduced by 44%. The amount of submergence is shown to be optimized in terms of the DOM, and the optimum value is about 40 μm. This corresponds to a third of the micromixer depth. The effects of the submerged structure are most significant in the mixing regime of convection dominance from Re = 5 to 80. In a circular passage along the Norman window, one of the two Dean vortices burst into the submerged space, promoting mixing in the cross-flow direction. The submerged baffles in the semi-circular mixing units generate a vortex behind the baffles that contributes to the mixing enhancement as well as reducing the required pressure load.}, } @article {pmid35888205, year = {2022}, author = {Vatsa, A and Alam, T and Siddiqui, MIH and Ali, MA and Dobrotă, D}, title = {Performance of Microchannel Heat Sink Made of Silicon Material with the Two-Sided Wedge.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {14}, pages = {}, pmid = {35888205}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {New designs of the microchannel with a two-sided wedge shape at the base were studied numerically. Five different wedge angles ranging from 3° to 15° were incorporated into the microchannel design. Simulation of this novel microchannel was carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Three-dimensional models of the microchannel heat sink were created, discretized, and based on Navier-Stokes and energy equations; laminar numerical solutions were obtained for heat transfer and pressure drop. Flow characteristics of water as coolant in a microchannel were studied. It was observed that numerical results are in good agreement with experimental results. It was found that the Nusselt number and friction factor are significantly varied with the increase in Reynolds number. The Nusselt number varies in the following ranges of 5.963-8.521, 5.986-8.550, 6.009-8.568, 6.040-8.609, and 6.078-8.644 at 3°, 6°, 9°, 12°, and 15°, respectively. The microchannel with a wedge angle of 15° was found to be better in terms of Nusselt number and thermo-hydraulic performance. The enhancement in the Nusselt number is found as 1.017-1.036 for a wedge angle of 15°; however, friction factors do not show the perceptible values at distinct values of wedge angle. Moreover, the thermo-hydraulic performance parameters (THPP) were evaluated and found to be maximum in the range of 1.027-1.045 for a wedge angle of 15°. However, minimum THPP was found in the range of 1.005-1.0185 for a wedge angle of 3°.}, } @article {pmid35885078, year = {2022}, author = {Qi, T and Lin, J and Ouyang, Z}, title = {Hydrodynamic Behavior of Self-Propelled Particles in a Simple Shear Flow.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35885078}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The hydrodynamic properties of a squirmer type of self-propelled particle in a simple shear flow are investigated using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method in the range of swimming Reynolds number 0.05 ≤ Res ≤ 2.0, flow Reynolds number 40 ≤ Rep ≤ 160, blocking rate 0.2 ≤ κ ≤ 0.5. Some results are validated by comparing with available other results. The effects of Res, Rep and κ on the hydrodynamic properties of squirmer are discussed. The results show that there exist four distinct motion modes for the squirmer, i.e., horizontal mode, attractive oscillation mode, oscillation mode, and chaotic mode. Increasing Res causes the motion mode of the squirmer to change from a constant tumbling near the centerline to a stable horizontal mode, even an oscillatory or appealing oscillatory mode near the wall. Increasing the swimming intensity of squirmer under the definite Res will induce the squirmer to make periodic and stable motion at a specific distance from the wall. Increasing Rep will cause the squirmer to change from a stable swimming state to a spiral motion or continuous rotation. Increasing κ will strengthen the wall's attraction to the squirmer. Increasing swimming intensity of squirmer will modify the strength and direction of the wall's attraction to the squirmer if κ remains constant.}, } @article {pmid35879876, year = {2022}, author = {Punyaratabandhu, N and Dechadilok, P and Triampo, W and Katavetin, P}, title = {Hydrodynamic model for renal microvascular filtration: Effects of physiological and hemodynamic changes on glomerular size-selectivity.}, journal = {Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {29}, number = {8}, pages = {e12779}, doi = {10.1111/micc.12779}, pmid = {35879876}, issn = {1549-8719}, mesh = {Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; *Diabetic Nephropathies ; Models, Biological ; Hemodynamics/physiology ; *Hypertension ; Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology ; }, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The first step in renal urine formation is ultrafiltration across the glomerular barrier. The change in its nanostructure has been associated with nephrotic syndromes. Effects of physiological and hemodynamic factor alterations associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) on glomerular permselectivity are examined through a mathematical model employing low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics and hindered transport theory.

METHODS: Glomerular capillaries are represented as networks of cylindrical tubes with multilayered walls. Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a fibrous medium with bimodal fiber sizes. Epithelial slit fiber spacing follows a lognormal distribution based on reported electron micrographs with the highest resolution. Endothelial fenestrae are filled with fibers the size of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Effects of fiber-macromolecule steric and hydrodynamic interactions are included. Focusing on diabetic nephropathy, the physiological and hemodynamic factors employed in the computation are those reported for healthy humans and patients with early-but-overt diabetic nephropathy. The macromolecule concentration is obtained as a finite element solution of the convection-diffusion equation.

RESULTS: Computed sieving coefficients averaged along the capillary length agree well with ficoll sieving coefficients from studies in humans for most solute radii. GBM thickening and the loss of the slit diaphragm hardly affect glomerular permselectivity. GAG volume fraction reduction in the endothelial fenestrae, however, significantly increases macromolecule filtration. Increased renal plasma flow rate (RPF), glomerular hypertension, and reduction of lumen osmotic pressure cause a slight sieving coefficient decrease. These effects are amplified by an increased macromolecule size.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that glomerular hypertension and the reduction in the oncotic pressure decreases glomerular macromolecule filtration. Reduction of RPF and changes in the glomerular barrier structure associated with DN, however, increase the solute sieving. Damage to GAGs caused by hyperglycemia is likely to be the most prominent factor affecting glomerular size-selectivity.}, } @article {pmid35879342, year = {2022}, author = {Skotnicka-Siepsiak, A}, title = {Pressure distribution on a flat plate in the context of the phenomenon of the Coanda effect hysteresis.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {12687}, pmid = {35879342}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {As a result of the Coanda effect, a symmetrical free jet will flow as an asymmetrical wall jet. At the same time, at the obstacle along which the flow is observed, the wall jet generates pressure distribution. In this study, the obstacle located at the diffuser outlet is a flat plate with a variable inclination angle. The article presents results of the study on pressure distributions on a flat plate with a variable angle of inclination. In the experiment, the Reynolds number ranged from 16,192 to 42,240. A fixed geometry diffuser (Witoszyński nozzle) with a height of 0.60 m, width of 0.02 m and outlet velocity of 11.33-29.57 m/s was used. A plate with a length of 1.00 m and a variable inclination angle was installed at the diffuser outlet. What is new, however, is that the presented results of the experimental research include the influence of the Coanda effect hysteresis on the pressure distribution on the plate. The article shows how pressure distributions change on the plate depending on whether the initial angle of inclination was 0° and was increased gradually in the course of the experiment until a detachment of the jet flowing from the plate was observed, or the initial angle of inclination was close to 90° in the primal state and as the angle of the plate inclination was decreased, the jet flowing towards the plate reached the state of attachment to the plate surface. The study demonstrated that for a turbulent jet, pressure distribution on a flat plate is determined not only by the plate's inclination angle, but also by the direction of its rotation.}, } @article {pmid35863190, year = {2022}, author = {Hatte, S and Pitchumani, R}, title = {Novel nonwetting solid-infused surfaces for superior fouling mitigation.}, journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science}, volume = {627}, number = {}, pages = {308-319}, doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2022.06.155}, pmid = {35863190}, issn = {1095-7103}, mesh = {*Calcium Sulfate ; *Copper ; Lubricants ; }, abstract = {Fouling is a ubiquitous issue in several environmental and energy applications. Here we introduce novel nonwetting solid-infused surfaces (SIS) with superior anti-fouling characteristics that are durable than conventional nonwetting surfaces in a dynamic flow environment. A systematic study is presented to elucidate the fouling mitigation performance of SIS in comparison to lubricant-infused surface (LIS) and conventional smooth surface. Copper tubes with SIS, LIS or smooth inner walls are fabricated and subjected to accelerated calcium sulfate fouling in a flow fouling experimental setup. Fouling on the various surface types is quantified in terms of asymptotic fouling resistance, and the fundamental morphological differences in the interactions of the foulant and the various surface types are analyzed. Based on a systematic sweep of the parameter combinations using design of experiments and Taguchi analysis, an analytical dependence of asymptotic fouling resistance on the governing parameters namely, Reynolds number, foulant concentration and temperature is derived. The analytical model is shown to predict the asymptotic fouling resistance to within 20% accuracy with a 95% confidence. In addition, for the first time, the effects of shear durability on the fouling mitigation performance of LIS vis-à-vis SIS are studied. It is shown that the novel nonwetting SIS offers a robust option for superior fouling mitigation over LIS in the long run.}, } @article {pmid35859200, year = {2022}, author = {Pumm, AK and Engelen, W and Kopperger, E and Isensee, J and Vogt, M and Kozina, V and Kube, M and Honemann, MN and Bertosin, E and Langecker, M and Golestanian, R and Simmel, FC and Dietz, H}, title = {A DNA origami rotary ratchet motor.}, journal = {Nature}, volume = {607}, number = {7919}, pages = {492-498}, pmid = {35859200}, issn = {1476-4687}, support = {724261/ERC_/European Research Council/International ; }, mesh = {*DNA/chemistry ; *Facilitated Diffusion ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; *Molecular Motor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Motion ; Movement ; Osmolar Concentration ; Proton-Translocating ATPases/chemistry/metabolism ; Stochastic Processes ; Temperature ; Thermodynamics ; }, abstract = {To impart directionality to the motions of a molecular mechanism, one must overcome the random thermal forces that are ubiquitous on such small scales and in liquid solution at ambient temperature. In equilibrium without energy supply, directional motion cannot be sustained without violating the laws of thermodynamics. Under conditions away from thermodynamic equilibrium, directional motion may be achieved within the framework of Brownian ratchets, which are diffusive mechanisms that have broken inversion symmetry[1-5]. Ratcheting is thought to underpin the function of many natural biological motors, such as the F1F0-ATPase[6-8], and it has been demonstrated experimentally in synthetic microscale systems (for example, to our knowledge, first in ref. [3]) and also in artificial molecular motors created by organic chemical synthesis[9-12]. DNA nanotechnology[13] has yielded a variety of nanoscale mechanisms, including pivots, hinges, crank sliders and rotary systems[14-17], which can adopt different configurations, for example, triggered by strand-displacement reactions[18,19] or by changing environmental parameters such as pH, ionic strength, temperature, external fields and by coupling their motions to those of natural motor proteins[20-26]. This previous work and considering low-Reynolds-number dynamics and inherent stochasticity[27,28] led us to develop a nanoscale rotary motor built from DNA origami that is driven by ratcheting and whose mechanical capabilities approach those of biological motors such as F1F0-ATPase.}, } @article {pmid35854607, year = {2022}, author = {Bandak, D and Goldenfeld, N and Mailybaev, AA and Eyink, G}, title = {Dissipation-range fluid turbulence and thermal noise.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {6-2}, pages = {065113}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.065113}, pmid = {35854607}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We revisit the issue of whether thermal fluctuations are relevant for incompressible fluid turbulence and estimate the scale at which they become important. As anticipated by Betchov in a prescient series of works more than six decades ago, this scale is about equal to the Kolmogorov length, even though that is several orders of magnitude above the mean free path. This result implies that the deterministic version of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is inadequate to describe the dissipation range of turbulence in molecular fluids. Within this range, the fluctuating hydrodynamics equation of Landau and Lifschitz is more appropriate. In particular, our analysis implies that both the exponentially decaying energy spectrum and the far-dissipation-range intermittency predicted by Kraichnan for deterministic Navier-Stokes will be generally replaced by Gaussian thermal equipartition at scales just below the Kolmogorov length. Stochastic shell model simulations at high Reynolds numbers verify our theoretical predictions and reveal furthermore that inertial-range intermittency can propagate deep into the dissipation range, leading to large fluctuations in the equipartition length scale. We explain the failure of previous scaling arguments for the validity of deterministic Navier-Stokes equations at any Reynolds number and we provide a mathematical interpretation and physical justification of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equation as an "effective field theory" valid below some high-wave-number cutoff Λ, rather than as a continuum stochastic partial differential equation. At Reynolds number around a million, comparable to that in Earth's atmospheric boundary layer, the strongest turbulent excitations observed in our simulation penetrate down to a length scale of about eight microns, still two orders of magnitude greater than the mean free path of air. However, for longer observation times or for higher Reynolds numbers, more extreme turbulent events could lead to a local breakdown of fluctuating hydrodynamics.}, } @article {pmid35854520, year = {2022}, author = {Margazoglou, G and Biferale, L and Cencini, M and Gallavotti, G and Lucarini, V}, title = {Nonequilibrium ensembles for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {6-2}, pages = {065110}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.065110}, pmid = {35854520}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {At the molecular level fluid motions are, by first principles, described by time reversible laws. On the other hand, the coarse grained macroscopic evolution is suitably described by the Navier-Stokes equations, which are inherently irreversible, due to the dissipation term. Here, a reversible version of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes is studied, by introducing a fluctuating viscosity constructed in such a way that enstrophy is conserved, along the lines of the paradigm of microcanonical versus canonical treatment in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Through systematic simulations we attack two important questions: (a) What are the conditions that must be satisfied in order to have a statistical equivalence between the two nonequilibrium ensembles? (b) What is the empirical distribution of the fluctuating viscosity observed by changing the Reynolds number and the number of modes used in the discretization of the evolution equation? The latter point is important also to establish regularity conditions for the reversible equations. We find that the probability to observe negative values of the fluctuating viscosity becomes very quickly extremely small when increasing the effective Reynolds number of the flow in the fully resolved hydrodynamical regime, at difference from what was observed previously.}, } @article {pmid35854514, year = {2022}, author = {Choudhury, A and Samanta, A}, title = {Linear stability of a falling film over a heated slippery plane.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {6-2}, pages = {065112}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.065112}, pmid = {35854514}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A detailed parametric study on the linear stability analysis of a three-dimensional thin liquid film flowing down a uniformly heated slippery inclined plane is carried out for disturbances of arbitrary wavenumbers, where the liquid film satisfies Newton's law of cooling at the film surface. A coupled system of boundary value problems is formulated in terms of the amplitudes of perturbation normal velocity and perturbation temperature, respectively. Analytical solution of the boundary value problems demonstrates the existence of three dominant modes, the so-called H mode, S mode, and P mode, where the S mode and P mode emerge due to the thermocapillary effect. It is found that the onset of instabilities for the H mode, S mode, and P mode reduces in the presence of wall slip and leads to a destabilizing influence. Numerical solution based on the Chebyshev spectral collocation method unveils that the finite wavenumber H-mode instability can be stabilized, but the S-mode instability and the finite wavenumber P-mode instability can be destabilized by increasing the value of the Marangoni number. On the other hand, the Biot number shows a dual role in the H-mode and S-mode instabilities. But the P-mode instability can be made stable with the increasing value of the Biot number and the decreasing values of the Marangoni number and the Prandtl number. Furthermore, the H-mode and S-mode instabilities become weaker, but the P-mode instability becomes stronger, with the increasing value of the spanwise wavenumber. In addition, the shear mode emerges in the numerical simulation when the Reynolds number is large, which can be destabilized slightly with the increasing value of the Marangoni number; however, it can be stabilized with the increasing value of the slip length and introducing the spanwise wavenumber to the infinitesimal perturbation.}, } @article {pmid35854482, year = {2022}, author = {Ishimoto, K and Moreau, C and Yasuda, K}, title = {Self-organized swimming with odd elasticity.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {6-1}, pages = {064603}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.064603}, pmid = {35854482}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We theoretically investigate self-oscillating waves of an active material, which were recently introduced as a nonsymmetric part of the elastic moduli, termed odd elasticity. Using Purcell's three-link swimmer model, we reveal that an odd-elastic filament at low Reynolds number can swim in a self-organized manner and that the time-periodic dynamics are characterized by a stable limit cycle generated by elastohydrodynamic interactions. Also, we consider a noisy shape gait and derive a swimming formula for a general elastic material in the Stokes regime with its elasticity modulus being represented by a nonsymmetric matrix, demonstrating that the odd elasticity produces biased net locomotion from random noise.}, } @article {pmid35851297, year = {2022}, author = {Shahzad, H and Wang, X and Ghaffari, A and Iqbal, K and Hafeez, MB and Krawczuk, M and Wojnicz, W}, title = {Fluid structure interaction study of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a bifurcated channel having stenosis with elastic walls.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {12219}, pmid = {35851297}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Arteries ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; Constriction, Pathologic ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) gained a huge attention of scientists and researchers due to its applications in biomedical and mechanical engineering. One of the most important applications of FSI is to study the elastic wall behavior of stenotic arteries. Blood is the suspension of various cells characterized by shear thinning, yield stress, and viscoelastic qualities that can be assessed by using non-Newtonian models. In this study we explored non-Newtonian, incompressible Casson fluid flow in a bifurcated artery with a stenosis. The two-dimensional Casson model is used to study the hemodynamics of the flow. The walls of the artery are supposed to be elastic and the stenosis region is constructed in both walls. Suitable scales are used to transform the nonlinear differential equations into a dimensionless form. The problem is formulated and discretized using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. The finite element method (FEM) technique is used to solve the system of equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions. The analysis is carried out for the Bingham number, Hartmann number, and Reynolds number. The graphical results of pressure field, velocity profile, and load on the walls are assessed and used to study the influence of hemodynamic effects on stenotic arteries, bifurcation region, and elastic walls. This study shows that there is an increase in wall shear stresses (WSS) with increasing values of Bingham number and Hartmann number. Also, for different values of the Bingham number, the load on the upper wall is computed against the Hartmann number. The result indicate that load at the walls increases as the values of Bingham number and Hartmann number increase.}, } @article {pmid35820476, year = {2022}, author = {Zhao, X and Zuo, H and Jia, G}, title = {Effects of the continuous pulsation regeneration on the soot combustion in diesel particulate filter for heavy-duty truck.}, journal = {Chemosphere}, volume = {306}, number = {}, pages = {135651}, doi = {10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135651}, pmid = {35820476}, issn = {1879-1298}, mesh = {Dust ; Motor Vehicles ; *Soot/analysis ; Temperature ; *Vehicle Emissions/analysis ; }, abstract = {Continuous pulsation regeneration combustion of soot is employed for sine and cosine simulation study. Data showed that pressure uniformity of sine condition is better than that of cosine condition with the maximum pressure difference of 4353.5 Pa under the same simulation boundary conditions. The maximum regeneration temperature under cosine pressure is 46.12 K which is higher than that in sine form. Regeneration combustion reaction zone tends to be more stable laminar flow and Reynolds number of sine condition is 435.23 less than that of under cosine condition. The maximum Stanton number of cosine pressure condition is 3.67 and that of sine pressure condition is 5.15, which investigates heat transfer capacity of the sine pressure condition is better than that of the pressure of cosine form. The regeneration efficiency of inlet gradually increased from the minimum regeneration efficiency 74.18%-88.45% of sine and cosine. The soot under both pressure forms has achieved complete regeneration and the regeneration efficiency has exceeded 88% of porous medium filter body section. The soot regeneration combustion efficiency of the porous media filter section and outlet section is more sufficient under sine condition and the heat carried by the fluid can maintain the soot regeneration.}, } @article {pmid35811899, year = {2022}, author = {Sun, R and Chen, P and Li, L and Liu, Y and Zhai, X}, title = {Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Behavior of Transformer Oil Jet Flame.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {7}, number = {26}, pages = {22969-22976}, pmid = {35811899}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Transformer oil jet fire is one of the most dangerous types of fires in substations. The combustion behavior of transformer oil jet fire produces uncontrollable hazards to personnel and equipment and even triggers a domino effect. However, the jet fire combustion behavior of such materials as transformer oil has not been revealed before. Investigation of the combustion behavior of transformer oil jet fire has positive implications for the prevention and control of substation fires. In this paper, KI25X transformer oil was used as fuel. A series of transformer oil jet fire experiments were conducted with variable orifice diameters (5, 10, and 15 mm) with heat release rates ranging from 200 to 659.2 kW. The results showed that the entrainment coefficient of transformer oil jet fire was greater than that of pure gas phase jet fire. The entrainment coefficient of transformer oil jet fire was 0.029. Using dimensionless theory, it was proposed that the imaginary point source was proportional to the 0.317 power of Froude number. Based on the point source model, a dimensional analysis model with Reynolds number was developed. The radiation fraction of transformer oil jet fire was proportional to the -0.133 power of Reynolds number. This study played an important role in improving the jet combustion behavior of transformer oil.}, } @article {pmid35787191, year = {2022}, author = {Jamshed, W and Safdar, R and Rehman, Z and Lashin, MMA and Ehab, M and Moussa, M and Rehman, A}, title = {Computational technique of thermal comparative examination of Cu and Au nanoparticles suspended in sodium alginate as Sutterby nanofluid via extending PTSC surface.}, journal = {Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials}, volume = {20}, number = {}, pages = {22808000221104004}, doi = {10.1177/22808000221104004}, pmid = {35787191}, issn = {2280-8000}, mesh = {*Alginates ; Copper ; Gold ; Hot Temperature ; *Metal Nanoparticles ; }, abstract = {Current research underscores entropy investigation in an infiltrating mode of Sutterby nanofluid (SNF) stream past a dramatically expanding flat plate that highlights Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC). Satisfactory likeness factors are utilized to change halfway differential conditions (PDEs) to nonlinear conventional differential conditions (ODEs) along with relating limit requirements. A productive Keller-box system is locked in to achieve approximated arrangement of decreased conventional differential conditions. In the review, two sorts of nanofluids including Copper-sodium alginate (Cu-SA) and Gold-sodium alginate (Au-SA) are dissected. Results are graphically plotted as well as talked about in actual viewpoints. As indicated by key discoveries, an improvement in Brinkmann, as well as Reynolds number, brings about expanding the general framework entropy. Sutterby nanofluid boundary improves heat rate in PTSC. Additionally, Copper-sodium alginate nanofluid is detected as a superior thermal conductor than Gold-sodium alginate nanofluid. Further to that, the reported breakthroughs are beneficial to updating extremely bright lighting bulbs, heating and cooling machinery, ﬁber required to generate light, power production, numerous boilers, and other similar technologies.}, } @article {pmid35771996, year = {2022}, author = {Saro-Cortes, V and Cui, Y and Dufficy, T and Boctor, A and Flammang, BE and Wissa, AW}, title = {An Adaptable Flying Fish Robotic Model for Aero- and Hydrodynamic Experimentation.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icac101}, pmid = {35771996}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Flying fishes (family Exocoetidae) are known for achieving multi-modal locomotion through air and water. Previous work on understanding this animal's aerodynamic and hydrodynamic nature has been based on observations, numerical simulations, or experiments on preserved dead fish, and has focused primarily on flying pectoral fins. The first half of this paper details the design and validation of a modular flying fish inspired robotic model organism (RMO). The second half delves into a parametric aerodynamic study of flying fish pelvic fins, which to date have not been studied in-depth. Using wind tunnel experiments at a Reynolds number of 30,000, we investigated the effect of the pelvic fin geometric parameters on aerodynamic efficiency and longitudinal stability. The pelvic fin parameters investigated in this study include the pelvic fin pitch angle and its location along the body. Results show that the aerodynamic efficiency is maximized for pelvic fins located directly behind the pectoral fins and is higher for more positive pitch angles. In contrast, pitching stability is neither achievable for positive pitching angles nor pelvic fins located directly below the pectoral fin. Thus, there is a clear a trade-off between stability and lift generation, and an optimal pelvic fin configuration depends on the flying fish locomotion stage, be it gliding, taxiing, or taking off. The results garnered from the RMO experiments are insightful for understanding the physics principles governing flying fish locomotion and designing flying fish inspired aerial-aquatic vehicles.}, } @article {pmid35764779, year = {2022}, author = {Wu, YK and Liu, YP and Sun, M}, title = {Aerodynamics of two parallel bristled wings in low Reynolds number flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {10928}, pmid = {35764779}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Flight, Animal/physiology ; Insecta/physiology ; Models, Biological ; *Wings, Animal/physiology ; }, abstract = {Most of the smallest flying insects use bristled wings. It was observed that during the second half of their upstroke, the left and right wings become parallel and close to each other at the back, and move upward at zero angle of attack. In this period, the wings may produce drag (negative vertical force) and side forces which tend to push two wings apart. Here we study the aerodynamic forces and flows of two simplified bristled wings experiencing such a motion, compared with the case of membrane wings (flat-plate wings), to see if there is any advantage in using the bristled wings. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used in the study. The results are as follows. In the motion of two bristled wings, the drag acting on each wing is 40% smaller than the case of a single bristled wing conducting the same motion, and only a very small side force is produced. But in the case of the flat-plate wings, although there is similar drag reduction, the side force on each wing is larger than that of the bristled wing by an order of magnitude (the underlying physical reason is discussed in the paper). Thus, if the smallest insects use membrane wings, their flight muscles need to overcome large side forces in order to maintain the intended motion for less negative lift, whereas using bristled wings do not have this problem. Therefore, the adoption of bristled wings can be beneficial during upward movement of the wings near the end of the upstroke, which may be one reason why most of the smallest insects adopt them.}, } @article {pmid35755331, year = {2022}, author = {Huang, X and Wang, Y and Wang, L and Yu, G and Wang, F}, title = {Effect of Structural Optimization of Scrubbing Cooling Rings on Vertical Falling Film Flow Characteristics.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {7}, number = {24}, pages = {21291-21305}, pmid = {35755331}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {In order to study the influence of the structural optimization of the scrubbing cooling ring in the scrubbing cooling chamber on the flow characteristics of the vertical falling film, the flow characteristics of the turbulent falling film in the rising section of the development region at different internal platform heights of the scrubbing cooling ring and a high Reynolds number were studied by FLUENT software. First, the correctness of the model was verified by the maximum error of simulation and experimental results of no more than 9.836%. Then, the distribution of liquid film thickness (δ), velocity (V), and turbulence intensity (I z) at 0° of the tube in the axial direction x = 0-500 mm were calculated and obtained when the platform height (H) was 0-30 mm and the liquid film Reynolds number (Re l) = 1.1541 × 10[4]-3.4623 × 10[4]. The results showed that δ in the entrance region increased sharply due to the "jet" effect with solid wall constraints formed by the structure of the water inlet pipe and the scrubbing cooling ring. On the contrary, the liquid film in the fully developed region showed a stable fluctuation trend due to the weakening of the "jet" effect. When H = 30 mm, the change of δ was relatively stable and the change of I z was small, indicating that this platform height is conducive to the stable and uniform distribution of the liquid film. In addition, when Re l < 1.1541 × 10[4], the liquid film was unstable due to the low flow rate and insufficient cohesion of the liquid film, but V increased slightly. In addition, with the increase of Re l, δ did not change significantly along the axial direction, that is, the Plateau-Rayleigh hindered the growth of δ. Finally, the empirical formula for δ applicable to Re l = 1.1541 × 10[4]-3.4623 × 10[4] at the axial fixed position was fitted for the first time.}, } @article {pmid35751170, year = {2022}, author = {Ducos, S and Pugliese, S and Demolliens, M and Beraud, L and Boussard, A and Delmas, A and Agostini, S and Garcia, J and Aiello, A and Durieux, EDH}, title = {Ontogeny of swimming performance of hatchery-reared post-larvae and juvenile fish: a case of two threatened Mediterranean species.}, journal = {Journal of fish biology}, volume = {101}, number = {4}, pages = {846-856}, doi = {10.1111/jfb.15144}, pmid = {35751170}, issn = {1095-8649}, mesh = {Animals ; *Endangered Species ; Fishes/physiology ; Larva/physiology ; *Perciformes/physiology ; *Swimming/physiology ; }, abstract = {Swimming performance is a well-established key physiological parameter of fish that is highly linked to their fitness in the wild. In the context of fish restocking purposes, it therefore appears crucial to study this specific behaviour. Here, the authors investigated intra and interspecies differences in the swimming performance of hatchery-reared post-larvae and juveniles belonging to two Mediterranean candidate threatened species, the common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae), and the brown meagre, Sciaena umbra (Sciaenidae), with body sizes ranging from 8 to 37 mm total length (TL, from 24 to 58 days post-hatch). The swimming abilities were estimated through the calculation of their critical swimming speed (Ucrit), their relative Ucrit and their Reynolds number (Re). Two different patterns were observed between D. dentex and S. umbra, showing a different effect of ontogeny on the performance of both species. The relative Ucrit of S. umbra decreased linearly through ontogeny, whereas the relative Ucrit and Ucrit of D. dentex increased linearly through the range of sizes tested. The ontogenetic change in Ucrit of S. umbra occurred in two stages: a first stage of sharp improvement and a second stage of a slow decrease in performance. Both stages were separated by a breakpoint that coincided with the appearance of a refusal to swim behaviour that occurred shortly after the end of metamorphosis and can potentially be associated with the establishment of this species sedentary behaviour. The swimming performance of both species showed ontogenetic differences. Sciaena umbra had the highest relative performance when its body sizes were the smallest, whereas D. dentex showed the highest relative performance when its body sizes were the largest. These results will be linked to future research on both of these species concerning their escape, exploratory and predatory behaviours, and for restocking purposes to draw a more realistic overview of hatchery-reared juvenile performance. Knowledge of both species' behavioural and swimming performance through ontogeny is important to consider when using hatchery-reared fish juveniles for restocking, as size-at-release can have a large impact on fish survival and thus on restocking success.}, } @article {pmid35750772, year = {2022}, author = {Zhang, S and Ahmad, F and Khan, A and Ali, N and Badran, M}, title = {Performance improvement and thermodynamic assessment of microchannel heat sink with different types of ribs and cones.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {10802}, pmid = {35750772}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The present study aims to investigate the performance of microchannel heat sink via numerical simulations, based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. The heat transfer and flow characteristics of rectangular microchannel heat sinks have been improved by adding six different types of surface enhancers. The cross-sections include rectangular, triangular, and hexagonal-shaped ribs and cones. The cones have been created from the same cross-sections of ribs by drafting them at an angle of 45° orthogonal to the base, which is expected to decrease the pressure drop, dramatically. The performance of ribs and cones has been evaluated using different parameters such as friction factor, wall shear stress, entropy generation rate, augmentation entropy generation number, thermal resistance, and transport efficiency of thermal energy. The results of the present study revealed that the novel effect of coning at an angle of 45° reduces frictional losses (Maximum pressure drop reduced is 85%), however; a compromise on thermal behavior has been shown (Maximum Nusselt number reduced is 25%). Similarly, the application of coning has caused a significant reduction in wall shear stress and friction factor which can lead to reducing the pumping power requirements. Moreover, triangular ribs have more ability to transfer thermal energy than rectangular and hexagonal ribs. Furthermore, it has been examined in the present study that the trend of total entropy generation rate for triangular ribs decreases up to Re = 400 and then increases onwards which means that thermal losses are more significant than frictional losses at lower Reynolds number. However, frictional losses dominate over thermal losses at higher Reynolds numbers, where vortex generation takes place, especially in triangular ribs.}, } @article {pmid35749192, year = {2022}, author = {Buaria, D and Sreenivasan, KR}, title = {Scaling of Acceleration Statistics in High Reynolds Number Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {128}, number = {23}, pages = {234502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.234502}, pmid = {35749192}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The scaling of acceleration statistics in turbulence is examined by combining data from the literature with new data from well-resolved direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence, significantly extending the Reynolds number range. The acceleration variance at higher Reynolds numbers departs from previous predictions based on multifractal models, which characterize Lagrangian intermittency as an extension of Eulerian intermittency. The disagreement is even more prominent for higher-order moments of the acceleration. Instead, starting from a known exact relation, we relate the scaling of acceleration variance to that of Eulerian fourth-order velocity gradient and velocity increment statistics. This prediction is in excellent agreement with the variance data. Our Letter highlights the need for models that consider Lagrangian intermittency independent of the Eulerian counterpart.}, } @article {pmid35745944, year = {2022}, author = {Chen, D and Lin, J}, title = {Steady State of Motion of Two Particles in Poiseuille Flow of Power-Law Fluid.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {14}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {35745944}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {The steady state of motion of two particles in Poiseuille flow of power-law fluid is numerically studied using the lattice Boltzmann method in the range of Reynolds number 20 ≤ Re ≤ 60, diameter ratio of two particles 0.125 ≤ β ≤ 2.4, and power-law index of the fluid 0.4 ≤ n ≤ 1.2. Some results are validated by comparing with other available results. The effects of Re, β, and n on the steady state of motion of two particles are discussed. The results show that, for two particles of the same diameter, the particle spacing l in the steady state is independent of n. In shear-thinning fluid, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly, finally approaching a constant for different Re. In shear-thickening fluid, although l tends to be stable in the end, the values of l after stabilization are different. For two particles of different sizes, l does not always reach a stable state, and whether it reaches a stable state depends on n. When the small particle is downstream, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly in shear-thickening fluid, but increases rapidly at first and then decreases slowly, finally approaching a constant in a shear-thinning fluid. In shear-thinning fluid, the larger n is, the smaller l is. In shear-thickening fluid, β has no effect on l in steady-state. When the large particle is downstream, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly in shear-thinning fluid but increases rapidly at first and then decreases in a shear-thickening fluid. The effect of n on l in the steady state is obvious. In shear-thinning fluid, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly, the larger Re is, the smaller l is. In shear- thickening fluid, l will reach a stable state.}, } @article {pmid35745906, year = {2022}, author = {Bui, CM and Ho, AT and Nguyen, XB}, title = {Flow Behaviors of Polymer Solution in a Lid-Driven Cavity.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {14}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {35745906}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {In this work, a numerical study of polymer flow behaviors in a lid-driven cavity, which is inspired by the coating process, at a broad range of Oldroyd numbers (0≤Od≤50), is carried out. The Reynolds number is height-based and kept at Re=0.001. The fluid investigated is of Carbopol gel possessing yield stress and shear-thinning properties. To express rheological characteristics, the Herschel-Bulkley model cooperated with Papanastasiou's regularization scheme is utilized. Results show that the polymer flow characteristics, i.e., velocity, viscosity, and vortex distributions, are considerably influenced by viscoplastic behaviors. Additionally, there exist solid-like regions which can be of either moving rigid or static dead types in the flow patterns; they become greater and tend to merge together to construct larger ones when Od increases. Furthermore, various polymer flow aspects in different cavity configurations are discussed and analyzed; the cavity width/aspect ratio and skewed angle are found to have significant impacts on the vortex structures and the formation of solid-like regions. Moreover, results for the critical aspect ratio at which the static dead zone is broken into two parts and the characteristic height of this zone are also reported in detail.}, } @article {pmid35744569, year = {2022}, author = {Saghir, MZ and Rahman, MM}, title = {Thermo-Hydraulic Performance of Pin-Fins in Wavy and Straight Configurations.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {35744569}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Pin-fins configurations have been investigated recently for different engineering applications and, in particular, for a cooling turbine. In the present study, we investigated the performance of three different pin-fins configurations: pin-fins forming a wavy mini-channel, pin-fins forming a straight mini-channel, and a mini-channel without pin-fins considering water as the working fluid. The full Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation are solved numerically using the finite element technique. Different flow rates are studied, represented by the Reynolds number in the laminar flow regime. The thermo-hydraulic performance of the three configurations is determined by examining the Nusselt number, the pressure drop, and the performance evaluation criterion. Results revealed that pin-fins forming a wavy mini-channel exhibited the highest Nusselt number, the lowest pressure drop, and the highest performance evaluation criterion. This finding is valid for any Reynolds number under investigation.}, } @article {pmid35744548, year = {2022}, author = {Tayeb, NT and Hossain, S and Khan, AH and Mostefa, T and Kim, KY}, title = {Evaluation of Hydrodynamic and Thermal Behaviour of Non-Newtonian-Nanofluid Mixing in a Chaotic Micromixer.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {35744548}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Three-dimensional numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer were carried out to analyze the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of Nano-Non-Newtonian fluids. Mass and heat transfer characteristics of two heated fluids have been investigated to understand the quantitative and qualitative fluid faction distributions with temperature homogenization. The effect of fluid behavior and different Al2O3 nanoparticles concentrations on the pressure drop and thermal mixing performances were studied for different Reynolds number (from 0.1 to 25). The performance improvement simulation was conducted in intervals of various Nanoparticles concentrations (φ = 0 to 5%) with Power-law index (n) using CFD. The proposed micromixer displayed a mixing energy cost of 50-60 comparable to that achieved for a recent micromixer (2021y) in terms of fluid homogenization. The analysis exhibited that for high nanofluid concentrations, having a strong chaotic flow enhances significantly the hydrodynamic and thermal performances for all Reynolds numbers. The visualization of vortex core region of mass fraction and path lines presents that the proposed design exhibits a rapid thermal mixing rate that tends to 0.99%, and a mass fraction mixing rate of more than 0.93% with very low pressure losses, thus the proposed micromixer can be utilized to enhance homogenization in different Nano-Non-Newtonian mechanism with minimum energy.}, } @article {pmid35739213, year = {2022}, author = {Abd-Alla, AM and Abo-Dahab, SM and Thabet, EN and Abdelhafez, MA}, title = {Peristaltic pump with heat and mass transfer of a fractional second grade fluid through porous medium inside a tube.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {10608}, pmid = {35739213}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Friction ; *Hot Temperature ; Magnetic Fields ; *Peristalsis ; Porosity ; }, abstract = {In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this MRI is used for the diagnosis of the brain. The dynamic of these particles occurs under the action of the peristaltic waves generated on the flexible walls of the brain. Studying such fluid flow of a Fractional Second-Grade under this action is therefore useful in treating tissues of cancer. This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of the interaction of heat and mass transfer in the peristaltic flow of a magnetic field fractional second-grade fluid through a tube, under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long-wavelength. The analytical solution to a problem is obtained by using Caputo's definition. The effect of different physical parameters, the material constant, magnetic field, and fractional parameter on the temperature, concentration, axial velocity, pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction forces, and coefficient of heat and mass transfer are discussed with particular emphasis. The computed results are presented in graphical form. It is because the nature of heat and mass transfer coefficient is oscillatory which is following the physical expectation due to the oscillatory nature of the tube wall. It is perceived that with an increase in Hartmann number, the velocity decreases. A suitable comparison has been made with the prior results in the literature as a limiting case of the considered problem.}, } @article {pmid35736684, year = {2022}, author = {Zubairova, US and Kravtsova, AY and Romashchenko, AV and Pushkareva, AA and Doroshkov, AV}, title = {Particle-Based Imaging Tools Revealing Water Flows in Maize Nodal Vascular Plexus.}, journal = {Plants (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {35736684}, issn = {2223-7747}, abstract = {In plants, water flows are the major driving force behind growth and play a crucial role in the life cycle. To study hydrodynamics, methods based on tracking small particles inside water flows attend a special place. Thanks to these tools, it is possible to obtain information about the dynamics of the spatial distribution of the flux characteristics. In this paper, using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we show that gadolinium chelate, used as an MRI contrast agent, marks the structural characteristics of the xylem bundles of maize stem nodes and internodes. Supplementing MRI data, the high-precision visualization of xylem vessels by laser scanning microscopy was used to reveal the structural and dimensional characteristics of the stem vascular system. In addition, we propose the concept of using prototype "Y-type xylem vascular connection" as a model of the elementary connection of vessels within the vascular system. A Reynolds number could match the microchannel model with the real xylem vessels.}, } @article {pmid35699409, year = {2022}, author = {Martin, AR and Finlay, WH}, title = {Empirical Deposition Correlations.}, journal = {Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery}, volume = {35}, number = {3}, pages = {109-120}, doi = {10.1089/jamp.2022.29062.arm}, pmid = {35699409}, issn = {1941-2703}, mesh = {Administration, Inhalation ; Aerosols ; *Lung/diagnostic imaging ; Particle Size ; *Pharynx ; }, abstract = {Traditionally, empirical correlations for predicting respiratory tract deposition of inhaled aerosols have been developed using limited available in vivo data. More recently, advances in medical image segmentation and additive manufacturing processes have allowed researchers to conduct extensive in vitro deposition experiments in realistic replicas of the upper and central branching airways. This work has led to a collection of empirical equations for predicting regional aerosol deposition, especially in the upper, nasal and oral airways. The present section reviews empirical correlations based on both in vivo and in vitro data, which may be used to predict total and regional deposition. Equations are presented for predicting total respiratory deposition fraction, mouth-throat fraction, nasal, and nose-throat fractions for a large variety of aerosol sizes, subject age groups, and breathing maneuvers. Use of these correlations to estimate total lung deposition is also described.}, } @article {pmid35683052, year = {2022}, author = {George, GR and Bockelmann, M and Schmalhorst, L and Beton, D and Gerstle, A and Lindermeir, A and Wehinger, GD}, title = {Influence of Foam Morphology on Flow and Heat Transport in a Random Packed Bed with Metallic Foam Pellets-An Investigation Using CFD.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {35683052}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {Open-cell metallic foams used as catalyst supports exhibit excellent transport properties. In this work, a unique application of metallic foam, as pelletized catalyst in a packed bed reactor, is examined. By using a wall-segment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) setup, parametric analyses are carried out to investigate the influence of foam morphologies (cell size ϕ=0.45-3 mm and porosity ε=0.55-0.95) and intrinsic conductivity on flow and heat transport characteristics in a slender packed bed (N=D/dp=6.78) made of cylindrical metallic foam pellets. The transport processes have been modeled using an extended version of conventional particle-resolved CFD, i.e., flow and energy in inter-particle spaces are fully resolved, whereas the porous-media model is used for the effective transport processes inside highly-porous foam pellets. Simulation inputs include the processing parameters relevant to Steam Methane Reforming (SMR), analyzed for low (Rep~100) and high (Rep~5000) flow regimes. The effect of foam morphologies on packed beds has shown that the desired requirements contradict each other, i.e., an increase in cell size and porosity favors the reduction in pressure drop, but, it reduces the heat transfer efficiency. A design study is also conducted to find the optimum foam morphology of a cylindrical foam pellet at a higher Rep~5000, which yields ϕ = 0.45, ε = 0.8. Suitable correlations to predict the friction factor and the overall heat transfer coefficient in a foam-packed bed have been presented, which consider the effect of different foam morphologies over a range of particle Reynolds number, 100≤Rep≤5000.}, } @article {pmid35676272, year = {2022}, author = {Castro, JM and Feisel, Y}, title = {Eruption of ultralow-viscosity basanite magma at Cumbre Vieja, La Palma, Canary Islands.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {13}, number = {1}, pages = {3174}, pmid = {35676272}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {The viscosity of magma exerts control on all aspects of its migration through the crust to eruption. This was particularly true for the 2021 eruption of Cumbre Vieja (La Palma), which produced exceptionally fast and fluid lava at high discharge rates. We have performed concentric cylinder experiments to determine the effective viscosities of the Cumbre Vieja magma, while accounting for its chemistry, crystallinity, and temperature. Here we show that this event produced a nepheline-normative basanite with the lowest viscosity of historical basaltic eruptions, exhibiting values of less than 10 to about 160 Pa s within eruption temperatures of ~1200 to ~1150 °C. The magma's low viscosity was responsible for many eruptive phenomena that lead to particularly impactful events, including high-Reynolds number turbulent flow and supercritical states. Increases in viscosity due to crystallization-induced melt differentiation were subdued in this eruption, due in part to subtle degrees of silica enrichment in alkaline magma.}, } @article {pmid35662323, year = {2022}, author = {Ruszczyk, M and Webster, DR and Yen, J}, title = {Trends in Stroke Kinematics, Reynolds Number, and Swimming Mode in Shrimp-Like Organisms.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icac067}, pmid = {35662323}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Metachronal propulsion is commonly seen in organisms with the caridoid facies body plan, i.e. shrimp-like organisms, as they beat their pleopods in an adlocomotory sequence. These organisms exist across length scales ranging several orders of Reynolds number magnitude, from 10 to 104, during locomotion. Further, by altering their stroke kinematics, these organisms achieve three distinct swimming modes. To better understand the relationship between Reynolds number, stroke kinematics, and resulting swimming mode, Euphausia pacifica stroke kinematics were quantified using high-speed digital recordings and compared to the results for the larger E. superba. Euphausia pacifica consistently operate with a greater beat frequency and smaller stroke amplitude than E. superba for each swimming mode, suggesting that length scale may affect the kinematics needed to achieve similar swimming modes. To expand on this observation, these euphausiid data are used in combination with previously-published stroke kinematics from mysids and stomatopods to identify broad trends across swimming mode and length scale in metachrony. Principal component analysis (PCA) reveals trends in stroke kinematics and Reynolds number as well as the variation among taxonomic order. Overall, larger beat frequencies, stroke amplitudes, between-cycle phase lags, and Reynolds numbers are more representative of the fast forward swimming mode compared to the slower hovering mode. Additionally, each species has a unique combination of kinematics that result in metachrony, indicating that there are other factors, perhaps morphological, which affect the overall metachronal characteristics of an organism. Finally, uniform phase lag, in which the timing between power strokes of all pleopods is equal, in 5-paddle systems is achieved at different Reynolds numbers for different swimming modes, highlighting the importance of taking into consideration stroke kinematics, length scale, and the resulting swimming mode.}, } @article {pmid35642428, year = {2022}, author = {Broadley, P and Nabawy, MRA and Quinn, MK and Crowther, WJ}, title = {Dynamic experimental rigs for investigation of insect wing aerodynamics.}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface}, volume = {19}, number = {191}, pages = {20210909}, pmid = {35642428}, issn = {1742-5662}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Flight, Animal ; Insecta ; *Models, Biological ; Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {This paper provides a systematic and critical review of dynamic experimental rigs used for insect wing aerodynamics research. The goal is to facilitate meaningful comparison of data from existing rigs and provide insights for designers of new rigs. The scope extends from simple one degree of freedom rotary rigs to multi degrees of freedom rigs allowing various rotation and translation motions. Experimental methods are characterized using a consistent set of parameters that allows objective comparison of different approaches. A comprehensive catalogue is presented for the tested flow conditions (assessed through Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio), wing morphologies (assessed through aspect ratio, planform shape and thickness to mean chord ratio) and kinematics (assessed through motion degrees of freedom). Links are made between the type of aerodynamic characteristics being studied and the type of experimental set-up used. Rig mechanical design considerations are assessed, and the aerodynamic measurements obtained from these rigs are discussed.}, } @article {pmid35637889, year = {2022}, author = {Semenov, AP and Mendgaziev, RI and Stoporev, AS and Istomin, VA and Sergeeva, DV and Tulegenov, TB and Vinokurov, VA}, title = {Dataset for the dimethyl sulfoxide as a novel thermodynamic inhibitor of carbon dioxide hydrate formation.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {42}, number = {}, pages = {108289}, pmid = {35637889}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {The temperatures and pressures of the three-phase equilibrium V-Lw-H (gas - aqueous solution - gas hydrate) were measured in the CO2 - H2O - dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) system at concentrations of organic solute in the aqueous phase up to 50 mass%. Measurements of CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions were carried out using a constant volume autoclave by continuous heating at a rate of 0.1 K/h with simultaneous stirring of fluids by a four-blade agitator at 600 rpm. The equilibrium temperature and pressure of CO2 hydrate were determined for the endpoint of the hydrate dissociation in each experiment. The CO2 gas fugacity was calculated by the equation of state for carbon dioxide for the measured points. The flow regime in the autoclave during the operation of the stirring system was characterized by calculating the Reynolds number using literature data on the viscosity and density of water and DMSO aqueous solutions. We employed regression analysis to approximate the dependences of equilibrium pressure (CO2 gas fugacity) on temperature by two- and three-parameter equations. For each measured point, the value of CO2 hydrate equilibrium temperature suppression ΔTh was computed. The dependences of this quantity on CO2 gas fugacity are considered for all DMSO concentrations. The coefficients of empirical correlation describing ΔTh as a function of the DMSO mass fraction in solution and the equilibrium gas pressure are determined. This article is a co-submission with a paper [1].}, } @article {pmid35635664, year = {2022}, author = {Eldesoukey, A and Hassan, H}, title = {Study of the performance of thermoelectric generator for waste heat recovery from chimney: impact of nanofluid-microchannel cooling system.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {29}, number = {49}, pages = {74242-74263}, pmid = {35635664}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {A huge number of chimneys all over the world utilized in many industrial applications and applications like restaurants, homes, etc. contribute badly on the global warming and climate change due to their waste heat. So, in this paper, the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) cooled by microchannel heat spreader having nanofluid and used for waste heat recovery from vertical chimney is investigated. Using heat spreader with microchannel cooling system increases the output TEG power compared to natural convection cooling system. In this paper, the impact of microchannel sizes, using nanofluid and heat spreader with different sizes on the TEG performance and cooling, is considered. Three-dimensional mathematical models including TEG, microchannel, nanofluid, and heat spreader are presented and solved by Ansys Fluent software utilizing user-defined memory, user-defined function, and user-defined scalar. All TEG effects (Joule, Seebeck, and Thomson) are considered in TEG model. Results indicate that TEG power rises with increasing the heat spreader and microchannel sizes together. Increasing microchannel and heat spreader sizes four times of TEG size raises the TEG output power by 10%. This also achieves the maximum cooling system efficiency of 88.9% and the maximum net output power. Microchannel heat spreader cooling system raises the system (TEG power-pumping power) net power by 125.2% compared to the normal channel and decreases the required cooling fluid flow rate. Utilizing copper-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids rises maximally the TEG output power by 14% and 4%, respectively; however, it increases the pumping power. Moreover, using nanofluids increases the net output power at low Reynolds number and decreases it at higher Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid35630837, year = {2022}, author = {Souayeh, B and Ramesh, K and Hdhiri, N and Yasin, E and Alam, MW and Alfares, K and Yasin, A}, title = {Heat Transfer Attributes of Gold-Silver-Blood Hybrid Nanomaterial Flow in an EMHD Peristaltic Channel with Activation Energy.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {35630837}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The heat enhancement in hybrid nanofluid flow through the peristaltic mechanism has received great attention due to its occurrence in many engineering and biomedical systems, such as flow through canals, the cavity flow model and biomedicine. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to discuss the hybrid nanofluid flow in a symmetric peristaltic channel with diverse effects, such as electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD), activation energy, gyrotactic microorganisms and solar radiation. The equations governing this motion were simplified under the approximations of a low Reynolds number (LRN), a long wavelength (LWL) and Debye-Hückel linearization (DHL). The numerical solutions for the non-dimensional system of equations were tackled using the computational software Mathematica. The influences of diverse physical parameters on the flow and thermal characteristics were computed through pictorial interpretations. It was concluded from the results that the thermophoresis parameter and Grashof number increased the hybrid nanofluid velocity near the right wall. The nanoparticle temperature decreased with the radiation parameter and Schmidt number. The activation energy and radiation enhanced the nanoparticle volume fraction, and motile microorganisms decreased with an increase in the Peclet number and Schmidt number. The applications of the current investigation include chyme flow in the gastrointestinal tract, the control of blood flow during surgery by altering the magnetic field and novel drug delivery systems in pharmacological engineering.}, } @article {pmid35630375, year = {2022}, author = {Soares, A and Gomes, LC and Monteiro, GA and Mergulhão, FJ}, title = {Hydrodynamic Effects on Biofilm Development and Recombinant Protein Expression.}, journal = {Microorganisms}, volume = {10}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {35630375}, issn = {2076-2607}, abstract = {Hydrodynamics play an important role in the rate of cell attachment and nutrient and oxygen transfer, which can affect biofilm development and the level of recombinant protein production. In the present study, the effects of different flow conditions on the development of Escherichia coli biofilms and the expression of a model recombinant protein (enhanced green fluorescent protein, eGFP) were examined. Planktonic and biofilm cells were grown at two different flow rates in a recirculating flow cell system for 7 days: 255 and 128 L h[-1] (corresponding to a Reynolds number of 4600 and 2300, respectively). The fluorometric analysis showed that the specific eGFP production was higher in biofilms than in planktonic cells under both hydrodynamic conditions (3-fold higher for 255 L h[-1] and 2-fold higher for 128 L h[-1]). In the biofilm cells, the percentage of eGFP-expressing cells was on average 52% higher at a flow rate of 255 L h[-1]. Furthermore, a higher plasmid copy number (PCN) was obtained for the highest flow rate for both planktonic (244 PCN/cell versus 118 PCN/cell) and biofilm cells (43 PCN/cell versus 29 PCN/cell). The results suggested that higher flow velocities promoted eGFP expression in E. coli biofilms.}, } @article {pmid35626546, year = {2022}, author = {Alenezi, A and Almutairi, A and Alhajeri, H and Almekmesh, SF and Alzuwayer, BB}, title = {Impact of Surface Roughness on Flow Physics and Entropy Generation in Jet Impingement Applications.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {35626546}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {In this paper, a numerical investigation was performed of an air jet incident that normally occurs on a horizontal heated plane. Analysis of flow physics and entropy generation due to heat and friction is included using a simple easy-to-manufacture, surface roughening element: a circular rib concentric with the air jet. This study shows how varying the locations and dimensions of the rib can deliver a favorable trade-off between entropy generation and flow parameters, such as vortex generation and heat transfer. The performance of the roughness element was tested at three different radii; R/D = 1, 1.5 and 2, where D was the jet hydraulic diameter and R was the radial distance from the geometric center. At each location, the normalized rib height (e/D) was increased from 0.019 to 0.074 based on an increment of (e/D) = 0.019. The jet-to-target distance was H/D = 6 and the jet Reynolds number (Re) ranged from 10,000 to 50,000 Re, which was obtained from the jet hydraulic diameter (D), and the jet exit velocity (U). All results are presented in the form of entropy generation due to friction and heat exchange, as well as the total entropy generated. A detailed comparison of flow physics is presented for all ribs and compared with the baseline case of a smooth surface. The results show that at higher Reynolds numbers, adding a rib of a suitable height reduced the total entropy (St) by 31% compared to the no rib case. In addition, with ribs of heights 0.019, 0.037 and 0.054, respectively, the entropy generated by friction (Sf) was greater than that due to heat exchange (Sh) by about 42%, 26% and 4%, respectively. The rib of height e/D = 0.074 produced the minimum St at R/D = 1. As for varying R/D, varying rib location and Re values had a noticeable impact on Sh, Sf and (St). Placing the rib at R/D = 1 gave the highest total entropy generation (St) followed by R/D = 1.5 for all Re. Finally, the Bejan number increased as both rib height and rib location increased.}, } @article {pmid35626500, year = {2022}, author = {Dressler, L and Nicolai, H and Agrebi, S and Ries, F and Sadiki, A}, title = {Computation of Entropy Production in Stratified Flames Based on Chemistry Tabulation and an Eulerian Transported Probability Density Function Approach.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {35626500}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {This contribution presents a straightforward strategy to investigate the entropy production in stratified premixed flames. The modeling approach is grounded on a chemistry tabulation strategy, large eddy simulation, and the Eulerian stochastic field method. This enables a combination of a detailed representation of the chemistry with an advanced model for the turbulence chemistry interaction, which is crucial to compute the various sources of exergy losses in combustion systems. First, using detailed reaction kinetic reference simulations in a simplified laminar stratified premixed flame, it is demonstrated that the tabulated chemistry is a suitable approach to compute the various sources of irreversibilities. Thereafter, the effects of the operating conditions on the entropy production are investigated. For this purpose, two operating conditions of the Darmstadt stratified burner with varying levels of shear have been considered. The investigations reveal that the contribution to the entropy production through mixing emerging from the chemical reaction is much larger than the one caused by the stratification. Moreover, it is shown that a stronger shear, realized through a larger Reynolds number, yields higher entropy production through heat, mixing and viscous dissipation and reduces the share by chemical reaction to the total entropy generated.}, } @article {pmid35621794, year = {2022}, author = {Li, H and Nabawy, MRA}, title = {Wing Planform Effect on the Aerodynamics of Insect Wings.}, journal = {Insects}, volume = {13}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {35621794}, issn = {2075-4450}, abstract = {This study investigates the effect of wing planform shape on the aerodynamic performance of insect wings by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We define the wing planforms using a beta-function distribution and employ kinematics representative of normal hovering flight. In particular, we use three primary parameters to describe the planform geometry: aspect ratio, radial centroid location, and wing root offset. The force coefficients, flow structures, and aerodynamic efficiency for different wing planforms at a Reynolds number of 100 are evaluated. It is found that the wing with the lowest aspect ratio of 1.5 results in the highest peaks of lift and drag coefficients during stroke reversals, whereas the higher aspect ratio wings produce higher lift and drag coefficients during mid half-stroke translation. For the wings considered, the leading-edge vortex detachment is found to be approximately at a location that is 3.5-5 mean chord lengths from the wing center of rotation for all aspect ratios and root offsets investigated. Consequently, the detachment area increases with the increase of aspect ratio and root offset, resulting in reduced aerodynamic coefficients. The radial centroid location is found to influence the local flow evolution time, and this results in earlier formation/detachment of the leading-edge vortex for wings with a smaller radial centroid location. Overall, the best performance, when considering both average lift coefficient and efficiency, is found at the intermediate aspect ratios of 4.5-6; increasing the centroid location mainly increases efficiency; and increasing the root offset leads to a decreased average lift coefficient whilst leading to relatively small variations in aerodynamic efficiency for most aspect ratios.}, } @article {pmid35617810, year = {2022}, author = {Huang, F and Noël, R and Berg, P and Hosseini, SA}, title = {Simulation of the FDA nozzle benchmark: A lattice Boltzmann study.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {221}, number = {}, pages = {106863}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106863}, pmid = {35617810}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Benchmarking ; Computer Simulation ; *Hemodynamics ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Contrary to flows in small intracranial vessels, many blood flow configurations such as those found in aortic vessels and aneurysms involve larger Reynolds numbers and, therefore, transitional or turbulent conditions. Dealing with such systems require both robust and efficient numerical methods.

METHODS: We assess here the performance of a lattice Boltzmann solver with full Hermite expansion of the equilibrium and central Hermite moments collision operator at higher Reynolds numbers, especially for under-resolved simulations. To that end the food and drug administration's benchmark nozzle is considered at three different Reynolds numbers covering all regimes: (1) laminar at a Reynolds number of 500, (2) transitional at a Reynolds number of 3500, and (3) low-level turbulence at a Reynolds number of 6500.

RESULTS: The lattice Boltzmann results are compared with previously published inter-laboratory experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry. Our results show good agreement with the experimental measurements throughout the nozzle, demonstrating the good performance of the solver even in under-resolved simulations.

CONCLUSION: In this manner, fast but sufficiently accurate numerical predictions can be achieved for flow configurations of practical interest regarding medical applications.}, } @article {pmid35598483, year = {2022}, author = {Sharma, S and Jain, S and Saha, A and Basu, S}, title = {Evaporation dynamics of a surrogate respiratory droplet in a vortical environment.}, journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science}, volume = {623}, number = {}, pages = {541-551}, doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2022.05.061}, pmid = {35598483}, issn = {1095-7103}, mesh = {Crystallization ; Gases ; *Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets ; *Sodium Chloride/chemistry ; Water/chemistry ; }, abstract = {HYPOTHESIS: Vortex droplet interaction is crucial for understanding the route of disease transmission through expiratory jet where several such embedded droplets continuously interact with vortical structures of different strengths and sizes.

EXPERIMENTS: A train of vortex rings with different vortex strength, quantified with vortex Reynolds number (Re[']=0,53,221,297) are made to interact with an isolated levitated droplet, and the evolution dynamics is captured using shadowgraphy, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and backlight imaging technique. NaCl-DI water solution of 0, 1, 10 and 20 wt% concentrations are used as test fluids for the droplet.

FINDINGS: The results show the dependence of evaporation characteristics on vortex strength, while the crystallization dynamics was found to be independent of it. A reduction of 12.23% and 14.6% in evaporation time was seen in case of de-ionized (DI) water and 1% wt NaCl solution respectively in presence of vortex ring train at Re[']=221. In contrast to this, a minimal reduction in evaporation time (0.6% and 0.9% for DI water and 1% wt NaCl solution, respectively) is observed when Re['] is increased from 221 to 297. The mechanisms for evaporation time reduction due to enhancement of convective heat and mass transfer from the droplet and shearing away of vapor layer by vortex ring interaction are discussed in this work.}, } @article {pmid35591423, year = {2022}, author = {Karmveer, and Kumar Gupta, N and Siddiqui, MIH and Dobrotă, D and Alam, T and Ali, MA and Orfi, J}, title = {The Effect of Roughness in Absorbing Materials on Solar Air Heater Performance.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {35591423}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {Artificial roughness on the absorber of the solar air heater (SAH) is considered to be the best passive technology for performance improvement. The roughened SAHs perform better in comparison to conventional SAHs under the same operational conditions, with some penalty of higher pumping power requirements. Thermo-hydraulic performance, based on effective efficiency, is much more appropriate to design roughened SAH, as it considers both the requirement of pumping power and useful heat gain. The shape, size, and arrangement of artificial roughness are the most important factors for the performance optimization of SAHs. The parameters of artificial roughness and operating parameters, such as the Reynolds number (Re), temperature rise parameter (ΔT/I) and insolation (I) show a combined effect on the performance of SAH. In this case study, various performance parameters of SAH have been evaluated to show the effect of distinct artificial roughness, investigated previously. Therefore, thermal efficiency, thermal efficiency improvement factor (TEIF) and the effective efficiency of various roughened absorbers of SAH have been predicted. As a result, thermal and effective efficiencies strongly depend on the roughness parameter, Re and ΔT/I. Staggered, broken arc hybrid-rib roughness shows a higher value of TEIF, thermal and effective efficiencies consistently among all other distinct roughness geometries for the ascending values of ΔT/I. This roughness shows the maximum value of effective efficiency equals 74.63% at a ΔT/I = 0.01 K·m[2]/W. The unique combination of parameters p/e = 10, e/Dh = 0.043 and α = 60° are observed for best performance at a ΔT/I higher than 0.00789 K·m[2]/W.}, } @article {pmid35591154, year = {2022}, author = {Salem, S and Fraňa, K}, title = {A Wind Tunnel Study of the Flow-Induced Vibrations of a Cylindrical Piezoelectric Transducer.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {35591154}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {Piezoelectric transducers are used as a sensing device to study the fluids' motion. Moreover, they are used as a harvester of energy of Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV). The current FIV harvesters in the literature rely on piezoelectric cantilevers coupled with a bluff body that creates flow instabilities. This paper studies the use of piezoelectric cylinders as a novel transducer in the field of fluid mechanics, where the transducer makes use of its bluff geometry to create instability. The study was based on wind tunnel measurements performed on four piezoelectric cylinders of different sizes over a speed range of 1-7 m/s. The paper looks at the variation of the generated voltage across the Reynolds number. It also compares the spectra of the generated open-circuit voltage to the turbulence spectra features known from the literature.}, } @article {pmid35590864, year = {2022}, author = {Funatani, S and Tsukamoto, Y and Toriyama, K}, title = {Temperature Measurement of Hot Airflow Using Ultra-Fine Thermo-Sensitive Fluorescent Wires.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {35590864}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {In this paper, we propose a temperature measurement method that uses ultrafine fluorescent wires to reduce the wire diameter to a much lesser extent than a thermocouple. This is possible because its structure is simple and any material can be used for the wire. Hence, ultrafine wires with a Reynolds number of less than 1.0 can be selected. Ultra-fine wires less than 50 µm in diameter were set in the test volume. The wire surfaces were coated with fluorescent paint. The test volume was illuminated using an ultraviolet light-emitting diode. The paint emits very tiny, orange-colored fluorescent light with an intensity that changes with the temperature of the atmosphere. The experimental results showed that the heating/cooling layers were well visualized and the temperature field was well analyzed.}, } @article {pmid35590633, year = {2022}, author = {Wang, G and Fei, L and Luo, KH}, title = {Unified lattice Boltzmann method with improved schemes for multiphase flow simulation: Application to droplet dynamics under realistic conditions.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045314}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.045314}, pmid = {35590633}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {As a powerful mesoscale approach, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used for the numerical study of complex multiphase flows. Recently, Luo et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 379, 20200397 (2021)10.1098/rsta.2020.0397] proposed a unified lattice Boltzmann method (ULBM) to integrate the widely used lattice Boltzmann collision operators into a unified framework. In this study, we incorporate additional features into this ULBM in order to simulate multiphase flow under realistic conditions. A nonorthogonal moment set [Fei et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 053309 (2018)10.1103/PhysRevE.97.053309] and the entropic-multi-relaxation-time (KBC) lattice Boltzmann model are used to construct the collision operator. An extended combined pseudopotential model is proposed to realize multiphase flow simulation at high-density ratio with tunable surface tension over a wide range. The numerical results indicate that the improved ULBM can significantly decrease the spurious velocities and adjust the surface tension without appreciably changing the density ratio. The ULBM is validated through reproducing various droplet dynamics experiments, such as binary droplet collision and droplet impingement on superhydrophobic surfaces. Finally, the extended ULBM is applied to complex droplet dynamics, including droplet pancake bouncing and droplet splashing. The maximum Weber number and Reynolds number in the simulation reach 800 and 7200, respectively, at a density ratio of 1000. The study demonstrates the generality and versatility of ULBM for incorporating schemes to tackle challenging multiphase problems.}, } @article {pmid35590627, year = {2022}, author = {Verma, S and Hemmati, A}, title = {Route to transition in propulsive performance of oscillating foil.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045102}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.045102}, pmid = {35590627}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Transition in the propulsive performance and vortex synchronization of an oscillating foil in a combined heaving and pitching motion is numerically investigated at a range of reduced frequencies (0.16 ≤f^{*}≤ 0.64), phase offsets (0^{∘} ≤ϕ≤ 315^{∘}), and Reynolds number (1000≤Re≤16000). Focusing on the common case of Re=1000, the drag to thrust transition is identified on a ϕ-f^{*} phase map. Here, the range of 90^{∘} ≤ϕ≤ 225^{∘} depicted a drag-dominated regime for increasing reduced frequency. However, thrust-dominated regimes were observed for ϕ< 90^{∘} and ϕ> 225^{∘}, where increasing the reduced frequency led to an increased thrust production. The isoline-depicting drag-thrust boundary was further observed to coincide with transitions in the characteristic near-wake modes with increasing reduced frequency, which ranged from 2P+2S to 2P and reverse von Kármán modes. However, evaluation of the wake with changing phase offsets at individual reduced frequencies only depicted effects on the spatial configuration of the vortex structures, while the number of vortices shed in one oscillation period was unchanged. The existence of similar wake modes with significantly different propulsive performance clearly suggests that transitions of the wake topology may not always be a reliable tool for understanding propulsive mechanisms of fish swimming or development of underwater propulsion systems. We further assessed a possible route to drag production via investigation into the mean velocity fields at increasing phase offset and at intermediate reduced frequencies ranging from 0.24 to 0.40. This revealed bifurcation of a velocity jet behind the foil on account of the wake topology and dynamics of shed vortex structures. The changes posed by increasing ϕ on wake structure interactions further hints at potential mechanisms that limit the achievement of optimum efficiency in underwater locomotion.}, } @article {pmid35580542, year = {2022}, author = {Ge, M and Sun, C and Zhang, G and Coutier-Delgosha, O and Fan, D}, title = {Combined suppression effects on hydrodynamic cavitation performance in Venturi-type reactor for process intensification.}, journal = {Ultrasonics sonochemistry}, volume = {86}, number = {}, pages = {106035}, pmid = {35580542}, issn = {1873-2828}, abstract = {Hydrodynamic cavitation is an emerging intensification technology in water treatment or chemical processing, and Venturi-type cavitation reactors exhibit advantages for industrial-scale production. The effects of temperature on hydrodynamic cavitating flows are investigated to find the optimum reaction conditions enhancing cavitating treatment intensity. Results show that the cavitation performance, including the cavitation intensity and cavitation unsteady behavior, is influenced by (1) cavitation number σ (the pressure difference affecting the vaporization process), (2) Reynolds number Re (the inertial/viscous ratio affecting the bubble size and liquid-vapor interface area), and (3) thermodynamic parameter Σ (the thermal effect affecting the temperature drop). With increasing temperature, the cavitation length first increases and then decreases, with a cavitation intensity peak at the transition temperature of 58 °C. With the growth of cavitation extent, the cavity-shedding regimes tend to transition from the attached sheet cavity to the periodic cloud cavity, and the vapor volume fluctuating frequency decreases accordingly. A combined suppression parameter (CSP) is provided to predict that, with increasing CSP value, the cavitation intensity can be decreased. Recommendations are given that working under the low-CSP range (55-60 °C) could enhance the intensification of the cavitation process.}, } @article {pmid35567865, year = {2022}, author = {Cherkaoui, I and Bettaibi, S and Barkaoui, A and Kuznik, F}, title = {Magnetohydrodynamic blood flow study in stenotic coronary artery using lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {221}, number = {}, pages = {106850}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106850}, pmid = {35567865}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Atherosclerosis ; Blood Flow Velocity/physiology ; Computer Simulation ; Constriction, Pathologic ; *Coronary Vessels ; Hemodynamics/physiology ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Cardiovascular ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are the first engender of death in the world. The malfunctioning of cardiovascular system is attributed mainly to hemodynamics. However, blood magnetic properties are of major haemodynamic interest, with significant clinical applications. The aim of this work is to study numerically the effect of high magnetic field on blood flow in stenotic artery.

METHODS: In this paper, a double population D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model is proposed. Velocity and magnetic field are both solved using Lattice Boltzmann method with single relaxation time. Blood is considered homogeneous and Newtonian bio-magnetic fluid. The results of the proposed model are compared and validated by recent numerical and experimental studies in the literature and show good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for both hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics. For the magneto-hydrodynamic case, five values of Hartmann number of 10, 30, 50, 75 and 100 at Reynolds number of 400, 600 and 800 are investigated Results: The results show that velocity and recirculation zone increase with the increase of the degree of stenosis and Reynolds number. In addition, a considerable decrease in velocity, recirculation zones and pressure drop across the stenotic artery is noticed with the increase of Hartmann number.

CONCLUSION: The suggested model is found to be effective and accurate in the treatment of magneto-hydrodynamic blood flow in stenotic artery. The found results can be used by clinicians in the treatment of certain cardiovascular disorders and in regulating blood flow movement, especially during surgical procedures.}, } @article {pmid35551230, year = {2022}, author = {Chew, SH and Hoi, SM and Tran, MV and Foo, JJ}, title = {Partially-covered fractal induced turbulence on fins thermal dissipation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {7861}, pmid = {35551230}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The impacts of partially-covered fractal grids induced turbulence on the forced convective heat transfer across plate-fin heat sink at Reynolds number ReDh = 22.0 × 10[3] were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results showed that partially covered grids rendered a higher thermal dissipation performance, with partially-covered square fractal grid (PCSFG) registering an outstanding increase of 43% in Nusselt number relative to the no grid configuration. The analyzation via an in-house developed single particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV) system displayed the findings of unique "Turbulence Annulus" formation, which provided a small degree of predictivity in the periodic annulus oscillations. Further assessments on PCSFG revealed the preferred inter-fin flow dynamics of (i) high flow velocity, (ii) strong turbulence intensity, (iii) vigorous flow fluctuations, (iv) small turbulence length scale, and (v) heightened decelerated flow events. These features stemmed from the coupling effects of multilength-scale fractal bar thicknesses in generating a veracity of eddy sizes, and a vertical segmentation producing heightened mass flow rate while inducing favourable wake-flow structures to penetrate inter-fin regions. Teeming effects of such energetic eddies within plate-fin array unveiled a powerful vortex shedding effect, with PCSFG achieving fluctuation frequency f = 18.5 Hz close to an optimal magnitude. The coaction of such traits limits the growth of fin boundary layers, providing superior thermal transfer capabilities which benefits the community in developing for higher efficiency heat transfer systems.}, } @article {pmid35547578, year = {2022}, author = {Qiao, Y and Luo, K and Fan, J}, title = {Computational Prediction of Thrombosis in Food and Drug Administration's Benchmark Nozzle.}, journal = {Frontiers in physiology}, volume = {13}, number = {}, pages = {867613}, pmid = {35547578}, issn = {1664-042X}, abstract = {Thrombosis seriously threatens human cardiovascular health and the safe operation of medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) benchmark nozzle model was designed to include the typical structure of medical devices. However, the thrombosis in the FDA nozzle has yet not been investigated. The objective of this study is to predict the thrombus formation process in the idealized medical device by coupling computational fluid dynamics and a macroscopic hemodynamic-based thrombus model. We developed the hemodynamic-based thrombus model by considering the effect of platelet consumption. The thrombus model was quantitatively validated by referring to the latest thrombosis experiment, which was performed in a backward-facing step with human blood flow. The same setup was applied in the FDA nozzle to simulate the thrombus formation process. The thrombus shaped like a ring was firstly observed in the FDA benchmark nozzle. Subsequently, the accuracy of the shear-stress transport turbulence model was confirmed in different turbulent flow conditions. Five scenarios with different Reynolds numbers were carried out. We found that turbulence could change the shape of centrosymmetric thrombus to axisymmetric and high Reynolds number blood flow would delay or even prevent thrombosis. Overall, the present study reports the thrombosis process in the FDA benchmark nozzle using the numerical simulation method, and the primary findings may shed light on the effect of turbulence on thrombosis.}, } @article {pmid35546646, year = {2022}, author = {Gil, A and Navarro, R and Quintero, P and Mares, A and Pérez, M and Montero, JA}, title = {CFD analysis of the HVAD's hemodynamic performance and blood damage with insight into gap clearance.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {21}, number = {4}, pages = {1201-1215}, pmid = {35546646}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {Equipment Design ; *Heart Failure ; *Heart-Assist Devices ; Hemodynamics ; Hemolysis ; Humans ; }, abstract = {Mechanical circulatory support using ventricular assist devices has become commonplace in the treatment of patients suffering from advanced stages of heart failure. While blood damage generated by these devices has been evaluated in depth, their hemodynamic performance has been investigated much less. This work presents the analysis of the complete operating map of a left ventricular assist device, in terms of pressure head, power and efficiency. Further investigation into its hemocompatibility is included as well. To achieve these objectives, computational fluid dynamics simulations of a centrifugal blood pump with a wide-blade impeller were performed. Several conditions were considered by varying the rotational speed and volumetric flow rate. Regarding the device's hemocompatibility, blood damage was evaluated by means of the hemolysis index. By relating the hemocompatibility of the device to its hemodynamic performance, the results have demonstrated that the highest hemolysis occurs at low flow rates, corresponding to operating conditions of low efficiency. Both performance and hemocompatibility are affected by the gap clearance. An innovative investigation into the influence of this design parameter has yielded decreased efficiencies and increased hemolysis as the gap clearance is reduced. As a further novelty, pump operating maps were non-dimensionalized to highlight the influence of Reynolds number, which allows their application to any working condition. The pump's operating range places it in the transitional regime between laminar and turbulent, leading to enhanced efficiency for the highest Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid35544978, year = {2022}, author = {Sander, A and Petračić, A and Zokić, I and Vrsaljko, D}, title = {Scaling up extractive deacidification of waste cooking oil.}, journal = {Journal of environmental management}, volume = {316}, number = {}, pages = {115222}, doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115222}, pmid = {35544978}, issn = {1095-8630}, mesh = {*Biofuels/analysis ; Cooking ; *Fatty Acids, Nonesterified ; Plant Oils ; Solvents ; }, abstract = {Biodiesel produced from waste feedstocks can play a significant role in fighting climate change, improperly disposed waste and growing energy demand. Waste feedstocks such as used cooking oil have a great potential for energy production. However, they often have to be purified from free fatty acids prior to biodiesel production. Extractive deacidification with deep eutectic solvents is a promising alternative to conventional purification methods. To evaluate the process of extractive deacidification of waste cooking oil, a full set of physical, hydrodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined on a laboratory scale. Hydrodynamic and kinetic experiments were performed in three geometrically similar jacketed agitated vessels. Vessels were equipped with axial flow impeller (four pitched blade impeller). Physical properties (density, viscosity and surface tension) were experimentally determined. Preliminary hydrodynamic experiments involved several model systems without mass transfer. As a result, correlation between power number and Reynolds number as well as scale-up criterion was developed. Obtained dependencies were correlated with the physical properties. Mixing intensity for achieving complete dispersion was determined. Second stage of investigation involved two sets of experiments, hydrodynamic and kinetic, with interphase mass transfer (the extraction of free fatty acids from waste cooking oil with deep eutectic solvent, potassium carbonate:ethylene glycol, 1:10). Obtained results enabled understanding interphase mass transfer and prediction of mass transfer coefficient from the derived dimensionless correlations. The values of volumetric mass transfer coefficients were smaller for the dispersed phase, indicating that the prevailing mass transfer resistance was within the droplets. The working hypothesis was that the same process result should be achieved at the same dispersion rate, and that hypothesis was confirmed - at all scales extraction efficiency was 97.9 ± 0.1%.}, } @article {pmid35544559, year = {2022}, author = {Callaham, JL and Rigas, G and Loiseau, JC and Brunton, SL}, title = {An empirical mean-field model of symmetry-breaking in a turbulent wake.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {8}, number = {19}, pages = {eabm4786}, pmid = {35544559}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Improved turbulence modeling remains a major open problem in mathematical physics. Turbulence is notoriously challenging, in part due to its multiscale nature and the fact that large-scale coherent structures cannot be disentangled from small-scale fluctuations. This closure problem is emblematic of a greater challenge in complex systems, where coarse-graining and statistical mechanics descriptions break down. This work demonstrates an alternative data-driven modeling approach to learn nonlinear models of the coherent structures, approximating turbulent fluctuations as state-dependent stochastic forcing. We demonstrate this approach on a high-Reynolds number turbulent wake experiment, showing that our model reproduces empirical power spectra and probability distributions. The model is interpretable, providing insights into the physical mechanisms underlying the symmetry-breaking behavior in the wake. This work suggests a path toward low-dimensional models of globally unstable turbulent flows from experimental measurements, with broad implications for other multiscale systems.}, } @article {pmid35535750, year = {2022}, author = {Zhang, R and Toonder, JD and Onck, PR}, title = {Metachronal patterns by magnetically-programmable artificial cilia surfaces for low Reynolds number fluid transport and mixing.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {18}, number = {20}, pages = {3902-3909}, doi = {10.1039/d1sm01680f}, pmid = {35535750}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {Biological Transport ; *Cilia/metabolism ; *Magnetics ; Models, Biological ; Motion ; }, abstract = {Motile cilia can produce net fluid flows at low Reynolds number because of their asymmetric motion and metachrony of collective beating. Mimicking this with artificial cilia can find application in microfluidic devices for fluid transport and mixing. Here, we study the metachronal beating of nonidentical, magnetically-programmed artificial cilia whose individual non-reciprocal motion and collective metachronal beating pattern can be independently controlled. We use a finite element method that accounts for magnetic forces, cilia deformation and fluid flow in a fully coupled manner. Mimicking biological cilia, we study magnetic cilia subject to a full range of metachronal driving patterns, including antiplectic, symplectic, laeoplectic and diaplectic waves. We analyse the induced primary flow, secondary flow and mixing rate as a function of the phase lag between cilia and explore the underlying physical mechanism. Our results show that shielding effects between neighboring cilia lead to a primary flow that is larger for antiplectic than for symplectic metachronal waves. The secondary flow can be fully explained by the propagation direction of the metachronal wave. Finally, we show that the mixing rate can be strongly enhanced by laeoplectic and diaplectic metachrony resulting in large velocity gradients and vortex-like flow patterns.}, } @article {pmid35527637, year = {2022}, author = {Gomé, S and Tuckerman, LS and Barkley, D}, title = {Extreme events in transitional turbulence.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {380}, number = {2226}, pages = {20210036}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2021.0036}, pmid = {35527637}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Transitional localized turbulence in shear flows is known to either decay to an absorbing laminar state or to proliferate via splitting. The average passage times from one state to the other depend super-exponentially on the Reynolds number and lead to a crossing Reynolds number above which proliferation is more likely than decay. In this paper, we apply a rare-event algorithm, Adaptative Multilevel Splitting, to the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations to study transition paths and estimate large passage times in channel flow more efficiently than direct simulations. We establish a connection with extreme value distributions and show that transition between states is mediated by a regime that is self-similar with the Reynolds number. The super-exponential variation of the passage times is linked to the Reynolds number dependence of the parameters of the extreme value distribution. Finally, motivated by instantons from Large Deviation theory, we show that decay or splitting events approach a most-probable pathway. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid35527633, year = {2022}, author = {Drivas, TD}, title = {Self-regularization in turbulence from the Kolmogorov 4/5-law and alignment.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {380}, number = {2226}, pages = {20210033}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2021.0033}, pmid = {35527633}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {A defining feature of three-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence is that the rate of energy dissipation is bounded away from zero as viscosity is decreased (Reynolds number increased). This phenomenon-anomalous dissipation-is sometimes called the 'zeroth law of turbulence' as it underpins many celebrated theoretical predictions. Another robust feature observed in turbulence is that velocity structure functions [Formula: see text] exhibit persistent power-law scaling in the inertial range, namely [Formula: see text] for exponents [Formula: see text] over an ever increasing (with Reynolds) range of scales. This behaviour indicates that the velocity field retains some fractional differentiability uniformly in the Reynolds number. The Kolmogorov 1941 theory of turbulence predicts that [Formula: see text] for all [Formula: see text] and Onsager's 1949 theory establishes the requirement that [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] for consistency with the zeroth law. Empirically, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], suggesting that turbulent Navier-Stokes solutions approximate dissipative weak solutions of the Euler equations possessing (nearly) the minimal degree of singularity required to sustain anomalous dissipation. In this note, we adopt an experimentally supported hypothesis on the anti-alignment of velocity increments with their separation vectors and demonstrate that the inertial dissipation provides a regularization mechanism via the Kolmogorov 4/5-law. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid35527631, year = {2022}, author = {Parente, E and Farano, M and Robinet, JC and De Palma, P and Cherubini, S}, title = {Continuing invariant solutions towards the turbulent flow.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {380}, number = {2226}, pages = {20210031}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2021.0031}, pmid = {35527631}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {A new mathematical framework is proposed for characterizing the coherent motion of fluctuations around a mean turbulent channel flow. We search for statistically invariant coherent solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations written in a perturbative form with respect to the turbulent mean flow, using a suitable approximation of the Reynolds stress tensor. This is achieved by setting up a continuation procedure of known solutions of the perturbative Navier-Stokes equations, based on the continuous increase of the turbulent eddy viscosity towards its turbulent value. The recovered solutions, being sustained only in the presence of the Reynolds stress tensor, are representative of the statistically coherent motion of turbulent flows. For small friction Reynolds number and/or domain size, the statistically invariant motion is almost identical to the corresponding invariant solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Whereas, for sufficiently large friction number and/or domain size, it considerably departs from the starting invariant solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, presenting spatial structures, main wavelengths and scaling very close to those characterizing both large- and small-scale motion of turbulent channel flows. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid35523801, year = {2022}, author = {Tretola, G and Vogiatzaki, K}, title = {Unveiling the dynamics of ultra high velocity droplet impact on solid surfaces.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {7416}, pmid = {35523801}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The impact of a liquid droplet onto a solid surface is a phenomenon present in a wide range of natural processes and technological applications. In this study, we focus on impact conditions characterised by ultra high velocities (up to 500 m/s), to investigate-for the first time-how the impact dynamics change when the compressibility of the liquid in the droplet is no longer negligible. A water droplet impacting a dry substrate at four different velocities, from 50 to 500 m/s, is simulated. Such conditions are particularly relevant to aviation as well as industrial gas turbine engine risk management. Thus, numerical investigations as the one we present here provide a powerful tool to analyse the process. We find that increasing the impact velocity changes the flow field within and outside the droplet the moment that the compressibility can no longer be neglected, with the rise of pressure fronts in both regions. Increasing the impact velocity, the compressibility affects also the lamella formed and changes its ejection velocity observed over time (and thus the wetting behaviour) when the region shift from incompressible to compressible. Moreover, it is found that the maximum pressure observed at the wall during the impact is located at the corner of the impact, where the lamella is ejected, not in the centre, and it is influenced by the initial velocity. To predict the maximum pressure experienced by the surface during the high velocity impact, we propose a correlation based on the initial Weber and Reynolds number of the droplet. The complexity and the scales of the dynamics involved in the ultra-high velocity impact is limiting the experimental and analytical studies. To the best of our knowledge there are no experimental data currently available at such conditions. In this study, through numerical simulations, new insights about the impact dynamics at such conditions are provided.}, } @article {pmid35523157, year = {2022}, author = {D'Adamo, J and Collaud, M and Sosa, R and Godoy-Diana, R}, title = {Wake and aeroelasticity of a flexible pitching foil.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {17}, number = {4}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac6d96}, pmid = {35523157}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {A flexible foil undergoing pitching oscillations is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel with different imposed free stream velocities. The chord-based Reynolds number is in the range 1600-4000, such that the dynamics of the system is governed by inertial forces and the wake behind the foil exhibits the reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street characteristic of flapping-based propulsion. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed to examine the flow around the foil, whilst the deformation of the foil is also tracked. The first natural frequency of vibration of the foil is within the range of flapping frequencies explored, determining a strongly-coupled dynamics between the elastic foil deformation and the vortex shedding. Cluster-based reduced order modelling is applied on the PIV data in order to identify the coherent flow structures. Analysing the foil kinematics and using a control-volume calculation of the average drag forces from the corresponding velocity fields, we determine the optimal flapping configurations for thrust generation. We show that propulsive force peaks occur at dimensionless frequencies shifted with respect to the elastic resonances that are marked by maximum trailing edge oscillation amplitudes. The thrust peaks are better explained by a wake resonance, which we examine using the tools of classic hydrodynamic stability on the mean propulsive jet profiles.}, } @article {pmid35522515, year = {2022}, author = {Schindler, F and Eckert, S and Zürner, T and Schumacher, J and Vogt, T}, title = {Collapse of Coherent Large Scale Flow in Strongly Turbulent Liquid Metal Convection.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {128}, number = {16}, pages = {164501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.164501}, pmid = {35522515}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The large-scale flow structure and the turbulent transfer of heat and momentum are directly measured in highly turbulent liquid metal convection experiments for Rayleigh numbers varied between 4×10^{5} and ≤5×10^{9} and Prandtl numbers of 0.025≤Pr≤0.033. Our measurements are performed in two cylindrical samples of aspect ratios Γ=diameter/height=0.5 and 1 filled with the eutectic alloy GaInSn. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional flow pattern by 17 ultrasound Doppler velocimetry sensors detecting the velocity profiles along their beam lines in different planes reveals a clear breakdown of coherence of the large-scale circulation for Γ=0.5. As a consequence, the scaling laws for heat and momentum transfer inherit a dependence on the aspect ratio. We show that this breakdown of coherence is accompanied with a reduction of the Reynolds number Re. The scaling exponent β of the power law Nu∝Ra^{β} crosses eventually over from β=0.221 to 0.124 when the liquid metal flow at Γ=0.5 reaches Ra≳2×10^{8} and the coherent large-scale flow is completely collapsed.}, } @article {pmid35512019, year = {2022}, author = {Fei, L and Qin, F and Zhao, J and Derome, D and Carmeliet, J}, title = {Pore-Scale Study on Convective Drying of Porous Media.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {38}, number = {19}, pages = {6023-6035}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00267}, pmid = {35512019}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {In this work, a numerical model for isothermal liquid-vapor phase change (evaporation) of the two-component air-water system is proposed based on the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method. Through the Chapman-Enskog multiscale analysis, we show that the model can correctly recover the macroscopic governing equations of the multicomponent multiphase system with a built-in binary diffusion mechanism. The model is verified based on the two-component Stefan problem where the measured binary diffusivity is consistent with theoretical analysis. The model is then applied to convective drying of a dual-porosity porous medium at the pore scale. The simulation captures a classical transition in the drying process of porous media, from the constant rate period (CRP, first phase) showing significant capillary pumping from large to small pores, to the falling rate period (FRP, second phase) with the liquid front receding in small pores. It is found that, in the CRP, the evaporation rate increases with the inflow Reynolds number (Re), while in the FRP, the evaporation curves almost collapse at different Res. The underlying mechanism is elucidated by introducing an effective Péclet number (Pe). It is shown that convection is dominant in the CRP and diffusion in the FRP, as evidenced by Pe > 1 and Pe < 1, respectively. We also find a log-law dependence of the average evaporation rate on the inflow Re in the CRP regime. The present work provides new insights into the drying physics of porous media and its direct modeling at the pore scale.}, } @article {pmid35493567, year = {2021}, author = {Salari, A and Appak-Baskoy, S and Coe, IR and Tsai, SSH and Kolios, MC}, title = {An ultrafast enzyme-free acoustic technique for detaching adhered cells in microchannels.}, journal = {RSC advances}, volume = {11}, number = {52}, pages = {32824-32829}, pmid = {35493567}, issn = {2046-2069}, abstract = {Adherent cultured cells are widely used biological tools for a variety of biochemical and biotechnology applications, including drug screening and gene expression analysis. One critical step in culturing adherent cells is the dissociation of cell monolayers into single-cell suspensions. Different enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods have been proposed for this purpose. Trypsinization, the most common enzymatic method for dislodging adhered cells, can be detrimental to cells, as it can damage cell membranes and ultimately cause cell death. Additionally, all available techniques require a prolonged treatment duration, typically on the order of minutes (5-10 min). Dissociation of cells becomes even more challenging in microfluidic devices, where, due to the nature of low Reynolds number flow and reduced mixing efficiency, multiple washing steps and prolonged trypsinization may be necessary to treat all cells. Here, we report a novel acoustofluidic method for the detachment of cells adhered onto a microchannel surface without exposing the cells to any enzymatic or non-enzymatic chemicals. This method enables a rapid (i.e., on the order of seconds), cost-effective, and easy-to-operate cell detachment strategy, yielding a detachment efficiency of ∼99% and cellular viability similar to that of the conventional trypsinization method. Also, as opposed to biochemical-based techniques (e.g., enzymatic), in our approach, cells are exposed to the dissociating agent (i.e., substrate-mediated acoustic excitation and microstreaming flow) only for as long as they remain attached to the substrate. After dissociation, the effect of acoustic excitation is reduced to microstreaming flow, therefore, minimizing unwanted effects of the dissociating agent on the cell phenotype. Additionally, our results suggest that cell excitation at acoustic powers lower than that required for complete cell detachment can potentially be employed for probing the adhesion strength of cell-substrate attachment. This novel approach can, therefore, be used for a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications.}, } @article {pmid35489898, year = {2022}, author = {Das, A and Styslinger, M and Harris, DM and Zenit, R}, title = {Force and torque-free helical tail robot to study low Reynolds number micro-organism swimming.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {93}, number = {4}, pages = {044103}, doi = {10.1063/5.0079815}, pmid = {35489898}, issn = {1089-7623}, mesh = {Models, Biological ; *Robotics ; *Swimming/physiology ; Torque ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Helical propulsion is used by many micro-organisms to swim in viscous-dominated environments. Their swimming dynamics are relatively well understood, but a detailed study of the flow fields is still needed to understand wall effects and hydrodynamic interactions among swimmers. In this letter, we describe the development of an autonomous swimming robot with a helical tail that operates in the Stokes regime. The device uses a battery-based power system with a miniature motor that imposes a rotational speed on a helical tail. The speed, direction, and activation are controlled electronically using an infrared remote control. Since the robot is about 5 cm long, we use highly viscous fluids to match the Reynolds number, Re, to be less than 0.1. Measurements of swimming speeds are conducted for a range of helical wavelengths, λ, head geometries, and rotation rates, ω. We provide comparisons of the experimental measurements with analytical predictions derived from resistive force theory. This force and torque-free neutrally buoyant swimmer mimics the swimming strategy of bacteria more closely than previously used designs and offers a lot of potential for future applications.}, } @article {pmid35489862, year = {2022}, author = {Prasad, V and Kulkarni, SS and Sharma, A}, title = {Chaotic advection in a recirculating flow: Effect of a fluid-flexible-solid interaction.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {32}, number = {4}, pages = {043122}, doi = {10.1063/5.0079141}, pmid = {35489862}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {The present work is on laminar recirculating flow-induced deformation as well as motion of a neutrally buoyant flexible elliptical solid, resulting in Lagrangian chaos in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow. Using a fully Eulerian and monolithic approach-based single-solver for the fluid flow and flexible-solid deformation, a chaotic advection study is presented for various aspect ratios β (=0.5-1.0) and a constant volume fraction Φ=10% of an elliptical solid at a constant Ericksen number Er=0.05 and Reynolds number Re=100. Our initial analysis reveals maximum chaotic advection at β=0.5 for which a comprehensive nonlinear dynamical analysis is presented. The Poincaré map revealed elliptic islands and chaotic sea in the fluid flow. Three large elliptic islands, apart from certain smaller islands, were identified near the solid. Periodic point analysis revealed the lowest order hyperbolic/elliptic periodic points to be three. Adaptive material tracking gave a physical picture of a deforming material blob revealing its exponential stretch along with steep folds and demonstrated unstable/stable manifolds corresponding to lowest order hyperbolic points. Furthermore, adaptive material tracking demonstrates heteroclinic connections and tangles in the system that confirm the existence of chaos. For the transient as compared to the periodic flow, adaptive material tracking demonstrates a larger exponential increase of the blob's interfacial area. The finite-time Lyapunov exponent field revealed attracting/repelling Lagrangian coherent structures and entrapped fluid zones. Our work demonstrates an immersed deformable solid-based onset of chaotic advection, for the first time in the literature, which is relevant to a wide range of applications.}, } @article {pmid35487201, year = {2022}, author = {Akanyeti, O and Di Santo, V and Goerig, E and Wainwright, DK and Liao, JC and Castro-Santos, T and Lauder, GV}, title = {Fish-inspired segment models for undulatory steady swimming.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {17}, number = {4}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac6bd6}, pmid = {35487201}, issn = {1748-3190}, support = {R01 DC010809/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United States ; }, mesh = {Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology ; *Fishes/physiology ; Hydrodynamics ; *Swimming/physiology ; }, abstract = {Many aquatic animals swim by undulatory body movements and understanding the diversity of these movements could unlock the potential for designing better underwater robots. Here, we analyzed the steady swimming kinematics of a diverse group of fish species to investigate whether their undulatory movements can be represented using a series of interconnected multi-segment models, and if so, to identify the key factors driving the segment configuration of the models. Our results show that the steady swimming kinematics of fishes can be described successfully using parsimonious models, 83% of which had fewer than five segments. In these models, the anterior segments were significantly longer than the posterior segments, and there was a direct link between segment configuration and swimming kinematics, body shape, and Reynolds number. The models representing eel-like fishes with elongated bodies and fishes swimming at high Reynolds numbers had more segments and less segment length variability along the body than the models representing other fishes. These fishes recruited their anterior bodies to a greater extent, initiating the undulatory wave more anteriorly. Two shape parameters, related to axial and overall body thickness, predicted segment configuration with moderate to high success rate. We found that head morphology was a good predictor of its segment length. While there was a large variation in head segments, the length of tail segments was similar across all models. Given that fishes exhibited variable caudal fin shapes, the consistency of tail segments could be a result of an evolutionary constraint tuned for high propulsive efficiency. The bio-inspired multi-segment models presented in this study highlight the key bending points along the body and can be used to decide on the placement of actuators in fish-inspired robots, to model hydrodynamic forces in theoretical and computational studies, or for predicting muscle activation patterns during swimming.}, } @article {pmid35481832, year = {2022}, author = {Hu, S and Zhang, J and Shelley, MJ}, title = {Enhanced clamshell swimming with asymmetric beating at low Reynolds number.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {18}, number = {18}, pages = {3605-3612}, doi = {10.1039/d2sm00292b}, pmid = {35481832}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {A single flexible filament can be actuated to escape from the scallop theorem and generate net propulsion at low Reynolds number. In this work, we study the dynamics of a simple boundary-driven multi-filament swimmer, a two-arm clamshell actuated at the hinged point, using a nonlocal slender body approximation with hydrodynamic interactions. We first consider an elastic clamshell consisted of flexible filaments with intrinsic curvature, and then build segmental models consisted of rigid segments connected by different mechanical joints with different forms of response torques. The simplicity of the system allows us to fully explore the effect of various parameters on the swimming performance. Optimal included angles and elastoviscous numbers are identified. The segmental models capture the characteristic dynamics of the elastic clamshell. We further demonstrate how the swimming performance can be significantly enhanced by the asymmetric beating patterns induced by biased torques.}, } @article {pmid35478056, year = {2022}, author = {Kotnurkar, A and Kallolikar, N}, title = {Effect of Joule heating and entropy generation on multi-slip condition of peristaltic flow of Casson nanofluid in an asymmetric channel.}, journal = {Journal of biological physics}, volume = {48}, number = {3}, pages = {273-293}, pmid = {35478056}, issn = {1573-0689}, mesh = {Entropy ; *Heating ; Hot Temperature ; *Nanoparticles ; Peristalsis/physiology ; }, abstract = {In the present investigation, the effect of multi-slip condition on peristaltic flow through asymmetric channel with Joule heating effect is considered. We also considered the incompressible non-Newtonian Casson nanofluid model for blood, which is electrically conducting. Second law of thermodynamics is used to examine the entropy generation. Multi-slip condition is used at the boundary of the wall and the analysis is also restricted under the low Reynolds number and long wavelength assumption. The governing equations were transformed into a non-dimensional form by using suitable terms. The reduced non-dimensional highly nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by using the Homotopy Perturbation Sumudu transformation method (HPSTM). The influence of different physical parameters on dimensionless velocity, pressure gradient, temperature, concentration and nanoparticle is graphically presented. From the results, one can understand that the Joule heating effect controls the heat transfer in the system and as the magnetic parameter is increased, there will be decay in the velocity of fluid. The outcomes of the present investigation can be applicable in examining the chyme motion in the gastrointestinal tract and controlling the blood flow during surgery. Present study shows an excellent agreement with the previously available studies in the limiting case.}, } @article {pmid35460986, year = {2022}, author = {Liu, J and Yang, Z and Li, M and Lu, K and Li, D}, title = {Evaluating the concrete grade-control structures built by modified fish-nest bricks in the river restoration: A lab-based case study.}, journal = {Journal of environmental management}, volume = {314}, number = {}, pages = {115056}, doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115056}, pmid = {35460986}, issn = {1095-8630}, mesh = {Animals ; Ecosystem ; *Fishes ; *Rivers ; Water ; }, abstract = {Concrete grade-control structures (CGCSs) have broad application prospects in the restoration of large rivers. But there is a lack of indicators to evaluate CGCSs at laboratory study. In this study, we proposed two evaluation indicators from the perspective of the impact of CGCSs on geomorphology change and fish habitat, namely the spatial-averaged occurrence probability of sweep events near the bed and flow diversity. To verify the reasonableness of these indicators, flume experiments were conducted with CGCSs built by modified fish-nest bricks in different Reynolds number and layout condition. Data of the flow field around structures in streamwise, transverse and vertical direction was obtained and analyzed. Results of mean flow field show that large recirculation zones are found in the cavity and behind the element. The mechanism of suspended sediment deposition around CGCSs in the flow can be further clarified by combining sweep and ejection according to quadrant analysis. In the vertical direction, the ratio of sweep to total events near bed after spatial-averaged processing is found to be higher for the staggered array. According to the Shannon's entropy, water flow diversity was calculated to quantify the fish habitat. The water flow diversity index around the CGCSs is higher for the staggered. It can be concluded that the elements of CGCSs in staggered manners have a better protection for riverbed and can provide a more stable fish habitat suitability. The results anticipated by the spatial-averaged occurrence probability of sweep events near bed and flow diversity in the experiment are consistent with the result of previous research on landform change and fish habitat. The research could provide a theoretical basis for the application of CGCSs for river restoration.}, } @article {pmid35457904, year = {2022}, author = {Martin, E and Valeije, A and Sastre, F and Velazquez, A}, title = {Impact of Channels Aspect Ratio on the Heat Transfer in Finned Heat Sinks with Tip Clearance.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {35457904}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A 3D numerical study is used to analyze the flow topology and performance, in terms of heat transfer efficiency and required pumping power, of heat sink devices with different channel aspect-ratio in the presence of tip-clearance. Seven different channel aspect ratios AR, from 0.25 to 1.75, were analyzed. The flow Reynolds numbers Re, based on the average velocity evaluated in the device channels region, were in the range of 200 to 1000. Two different behaviors of the global Nusselt were obtained depending on the flow Reynolds number: for Re<600, the heat transfer increased with the channels aspect ratio, e.g., for Re=400, the global Nusselt number increased by 14% for configuration AR=1.75 when compared to configuration AR=0.25. For Re>600, the maximum Nusselt is obtained for the squared-channel configuration, and, for some configurations, flow destabilization to a unsteady regime appeared. For Re=700, Nusselt number reduced when compared with the squared-channel device, 11% and 2% for configurations with AR=0.25 and 1.75, respectively. Dimensionless pressure drop decreased with the aspect ratio for all cases. In the context of micro-devices, where the Reynolds number is small, these results indicate that the use of channels with high aspect-ratios is more beneficial, both in terms of thermal and dynamic efficiency.}, } @article {pmid35454454, year = {2022}, author = {Ayub, R and Ahmad, S and Ahmad, S and Akhtar, Y and Alam, MM and Mahmoud, O}, title = {Numerical Assessment of Dipole Interaction with the Single-Phase Nanofluid Flow in an Enclosure: A Pseudo-Transient Approach.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {35454454}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {Nanofluids substantially enhance the physical and thermal characteristics of the base or conducting fluids specifically when interacting with the magnetic field. Several engineering processes like geothermal energy extraction, metal casting, nuclear reactor coolers, nuclear fusion, magnetohydrodynamics flow meters, petrochemicals, and pumps incorporate magnetic field interaction with the nanofluids. On the other hand, an enhancement in heat transfer due to nanofluids is essentially required in various thermal systems. The goal of this study is to figure out that how much a magnetic field affects nanofluid flow in an enclosure because of a dipole. The nanofluid is characterized using a single-phase model, and the governing partial differential equations are computed numerically. A Pseudo time based numerical algorithm is developed to numerically solve the problem. It can be deduced that the Reynolds number and the magnetic parameter have a low effect on the Nusselt number and skin friction. The Nusselt number rises near the dipole location because of an increase in the magnetic parameter Mn and the Reynolds number Re. The imposed magnetic field alters the region of high temperature nearby the dipole, while newly generated vortices rotate in alternate directions. Furthermore, nanoparticle volume fraction causes a slight change in the skin friction while it marginally reduces the Nusselt number.}, } @article {pmid35448318, year = {2022}, author = {Chandrasekaran, AS and Fix, AJ and Warsinger, DM}, title = {Combined Membrane Dehumidification with Heat Exchangers Optimized Using CFD for High Efficiency HVAC Systems.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {35448318}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {Traditional air conditioning systems use a significant amount of energy on dehumidification by condensing water vapor out from the air. Membrane-based air conditioning systems help overcome this problem by avoiding condensation and treating the sensible and latent loads separately, using membranes that allow water vapor transport, but not air (nitrogen and oxygen). In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to predict the heat and mass transfer and concentration polarization performance of a novel active membrane-based energy exchanger (AMX). The novel design is the first of its kind to integrate both vapor removal via membranes and air cooling into one device. The heat transfer results from the CFD simulations are compared with common empirical correlations for similar geometries. The performance of the AMX is studied over a broad range of operating conditions using the compared CFD model. The results show that strong tradeoffs result in optimal values for the channel length (0.6-0.8 m) and the ratio of coil diameter to channel height (~0.5). Water vapor transport is best if the flow is just past the turbulence transition around 3000-5000 Reynolds number. These trends hold over a range of conditions and dimensions.}, } @article {pmid35446443, year = {2022}, author = {Torres-Saucedo, OL and Morales-Cruzado, B and Pérez-Gutiérrez, FG}, title = {Experimental determination of shear stresses on an artificial transcoelomic metastasis model using optical tweezers: A comparison with numerical simulation.}, journal = {Lasers in surgery and medicine}, volume = {54}, number = {7}, pages = {1027-1037}, doi = {10.1002/lsm.23554}, pmid = {35446443}, issn = {1096-9101}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; Humans ; *Neoplasms ; *Optical Tweezers ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: One of the reported pathways of cancer spread is the transcoelomic pathway, which is understood as the spread of cancer cells in the abdominal and thoracic cavities through interstitial fluid. It has been proven that the shear stresses caused by microfluidic currents on cancer tumors in the abdominal and thoracic cavities cause the detachment of cancer cells triggering transcoelomic metastasis; however, the magnitude of shear stresses has not yet been measured experimentally.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to develop an experimental methodology using optical tweezers to approximate the shear stresses suffered by a nonporous, rigid artificial cancerous nodule model.

METHODS: Artificial cancerous nodule model was made by the agglomeration of 2 μm diameter polystyrene particles in a microfluidic platform. Optical tweezers were used as a velocimetry tool and shear stresses on the surface of the nodule model were approximated with the viscous shear stress equation. The results were verified with a numerical simulation performed in Ansys Fluent.

RESULTS: Shear stress originated by microflow over artificial cancerous nodule model were quantified both experimentally and numerically, showing good agreement between both methods. Such stress on the nodules' surface was much greater than that suffered by the wall on which the nodule model was located and dependent of the nodule model geometry. Although the experiment and simulation of this study were performed using a rigid and nonporous nodule model, the conclusion obtained about the increase of shear stresses applies to permeable, porous, and soft nodules as well, because the shear stresses are associated to the acceleration of the fluid originated by the reduction of the cross-sectional area.

CONCLUSIONS: Shear stress over artificial nodule model were successfully quantified using optical tweezer-based velocimetry technique and verified through numerical calculation. Advantages of experimental technique are: (1) it allows to control the position in a three-dimensional plane, allowing measurements in the vicinity of the analyzed surfaces, and (2) it is applicable for very low Reynolds number (Re « 1). On the other hand, as disadvantages: (1) it tends to be complicated to perform velocity measurements over obstacles and (2) it is limited in trapping distance.}, } @article {pmid35436159, year = {2022}, author = {Ibrahim, MG}, title = {Numerical simulation to the activation energy study on blood flow of seminal nanofluid with mixed convection effects.}, journal = {Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-11}, doi = {10.1080/10255842.2022.2063018}, pmid = {35436159}, issn = {1476-8259}, abstract = {This study sheds light on the influences of Arrhenius activation energy and variable velocity slip on MHD blood motion of Seminal nanofluid in a vertical symmetric channel. In addition, mixed convection, hall current and thermal jump are taken into consideration. The governing system of differential equations with highly nonlinear terms is simplified with facts of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Pade' approximant and differential transform techniques are combined mathematically to obtain the semi-numerical solutions for the governing system of PDEs. The results are computed and verified graphically with aid of Mathematica 12.3. Physical parameters considered are studied in detail sketchily for the proposed model. Verification/signification of results is approved semi-numerically by comparing the prior results by the newest existing published results by Ahmad et al 2021. Results show that, Velocity of seminal fluid is diminishes with a rise in viscosity-dependent parameter that is a significant feature which can be utilized in controlling the transport of spermatozoa into the cervical canal.}, } @article {pmid35428793, year = {2022}, author = {Koo, D and So, H}, title = {Facile microfabrication of three dimensional-patterned micromixers using additive manufacturing technology.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {6346}, pmid = {35428793}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; Equipment Design ; *Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; *Microtechnology ; Printing, Three-Dimensional ; }, abstract = {This study investigates the manufacturing method of oblique patterns in microchannels and the effect of these patterns on mixing performance in microchannels. To fabricate three-dimensional (3D) and oblique patterns in microchannels, 3D printing and replica methods were utilized to mold patterns and microchannels, respectively. The angle and size of the patterns were controlled by the printing angle and resolution, respectively. The mixing efficiency was experimentally characterized, and the mixing principle was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics simulation. The analysis showed that the mixing channel cast from the mold printed with a printing angle of 30° and resolution of 300 μm exhibited the best mixing efficiency with a segregation index of approximately 0.05 at a Reynolds number of 5.4. This was because, as the patterns inside the microchannel were more oblique, "split" and "recombine" behaviors between two fluids were enhanced owing to the geometrical effect. This study supports the use of the 3D printing method to create unique patterns inside microchannels and improve the mixing performance of two laminar flows for various applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, lab-on-a-chip, and chemical synthesis.}, } @article {pmid35428381, year = {2022}, author = {Ilg, P}, title = {Multiparticle collision dynamics for ferrofluids.}, journal = {The Journal of chemical physics}, volume = {156}, number = {14}, pages = {144905}, doi = {10.1063/5.0087981}, pmid = {35428381}, issn = {1089-7690}, abstract = {Detailed studies of the intriguing field-dependent dynamics and transport properties of confined flowing ferrofluids require efficient mesoscopic simulation methods that account for fluctuating ferrohydrodynamics. Here, we propose such a new mesoscopic model for the dynamics and flow of ferrofluids, where we couple the multi-particle collision dynamics method as a solver for the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations to the stochastic magnetization dynamics of suspended magnetic nanoparticles. This hybrid model is validated by reproducing the magnetoviscous effect in Poiseuille flow, obtaining the rotational viscosity in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions. We also illustrate the new method for the benchmark problem of flow around a square cylinder. Interestingly, we observe that the length of the recirculation region is increased, whereas the drag coefficient is decreased in ferrofluids when an external magnetic field is applied compared with the field-free case at the same effective Reynolds number. The presence of thermal fluctuations and the flexibility of this particle-based mesoscopic method provide a promising tool to investigate a broad range of flow phenomena of magnetic fluids, and the method could also serve as an efficient way to simulate solvent effects when colloidal particles are immersed in ferrofluids.}, } @article {pmid35428147, year = {2022}, author = {Nagy, PT}, title = {Enstrophy change of the Reynolds-Orr solution in channel flow.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {3-2}, pages = {035108}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.035108}, pmid = {35428147}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The plane Poiseuille flow is one of the elementary flow configurations. Although its laminar-turbulent transition mechanism has been investigated intensively in the last century, the significant difference in the critical Reynolds number between the experiments and the theory lacks a clear explanation. In this paper, an attempt is made to reduce this gap by analyzing the solution of the Reynolds-Orr equation. Recent published results have shown that the usage of enstrophy (the volume integral of the squared vorticity) instead of the kinetic energy as the norm of perturbations predicts higher Reynolds numbers in the two-dimensional case. In addition, other research show has shown an improvement of the original Reynolds-Orr energy equation using the weighted norm in a tilted coordinate system. In this paper the enstrophy is used in three dimensions combined with the tilted coordinate system approach. The zero-enstrophy-growth constraint is applied to the classical Reynolds-Orr equation, and then the solution is further refined in the tilted coordinate system. The results are compared to direct numerical simulations published previously.}, } @article {pmid35428113, year = {2022}, author = {Steiros, K}, title = {Balanced nonstationary turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {3-2}, pages = {035109}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.035109}, pmid = {35428113}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Kolmogorov's 1941 (K41) framework remains central to the understanding of turbulent flows. However, in unsteady turbulence, K41's critical equilibrium assumption is expected to hold in an asymptotic manner, as the Reynolds number and wave numbers tend to infinity, rendering K41 not strictly valid at finite wave numbers. This work proposes a generalization of K41 for out-of-equilibrium effects and cascades far from initial conditions. The main result is a correction to the -5/3 law for out-of-equilibrium eddies, unrelated to intermittency effects. Experimental and numerical evidence is provided in support of the theoretical results.}, } @article {pmid35428103, year = {2022}, author = {Rana, N and Perlekar, P}, title = {Phase ordering, topological defects, and turbulence in the three-dimensional incompressible Toner-Tu equation.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {3}, pages = {L032603}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.L032603}, pmid = {35428103}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We investigate the phase-ordering dynamics of the incompressible Toner-Tu equation in three dimensions. We show that the phase ordering proceeds via defect merger events and the dynamics is controlled by the Reynolds number Re. At low Re, the dynamics is similar to that of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. At high Re, turbulence controls phase ordering. In particular, we observe a forward energy cascade from the coarsening length scale to the dissipation scale, clustering of defects, and multiscaling in velocity correlations.}, } @article {pmid35420623, year = {2022}, author = {Thurgood, P and Chheang, C and Needham, S and Pirogova, E and Peter, K and Baratchi, S and Khoshmanesh, K}, title = {Generation of dynamic vortices in a microfluidic system incorporating stenosis barrier by tube oscillation.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {22}, number = {10}, pages = {1917-1928}, doi = {10.1039/d2lc00135g}, pmid = {35420623}, issn = {1473-0189}, mesh = {Constriction, Pathologic ; Humans ; *Microfluidics/methods ; }, abstract = {Microfluidic systems incorporating sudden expansions are widely used for generation of vortex flow patterns. However, the formation of vortices requires high flow rates to induce inertial effects. Here, we introduce a new method for generating dynamic vortices in microfluidics at low static flow rates. Human blood is driven through a microfluidic channel incorporating a semi-circular stenosis barrier. The inlet tube of the channel is axially oscillated using a computer-controlled audio-speaker. The tube oscillation induces high transient flow rates in the channel, which generates dynamic vortices across the stenosis barrier. The size of the vortices can be modulated by varying the frequency and amplitude of tube oscillation. Various vortex flow patterns can be generated by varying the flow rate. The formation and size of the vortices can be predicted using the Reynolds number of the oscillating tube. We demonstrate the potential application of the system for investigating the adhesion and phagocytosis of circulating immune cells under pathologically high shear rates induced at the stenosis. This approach facilitates the development of versatile and controllable inertial microfluidic systems for performing various cellular assays while operating at low static flow rates and low sample volumes.}, } @article {pmid35407874, year = {2022}, author = {Behura, AK and Mohanty, CP and Singh, MR and Kumar, A and Linul, E and Rajak, DK}, title = {Performance Analysis of Three Side Roughened Solar Air Heater: A Preliminary Investigation.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35407874}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {In recent years, sunlight has been used in several fields such as photovoltaic cells, flat plate collectors, solar cookers, green buildings, and agricultural applications. Improved thermal performance has been seen which comes of three sides absorber plate with glass cover compared to the traditional one. This paper presents the Nusselt (Nu) number, collector efficiency factor (CEF), and collector heat removal factor (CHRF) for the optimal solution of three sides artificially roughened solar air heater. Five input variables such as Reynolds (Re) number, relative roughness pitch, relative roughness height, mass flow rate, and air temperature of the duct are taken into account for improved efficiency optimization of collector, collector heat removal factor, and Nu number. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) technique is used to identify the best alternative amongst a number of performance measures by converting them into an equivalent single variable. Moreover, the results revealed the high accuracy of the CEF, CHRF, and Nu number of 75-80%, 74-78%, and 63-71%, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been also observed that roughness Re number varies between 12,500 and 13,500, and height of relative roughness is 0.0245, including pitch of relative roughness 10 along with the rate of mass flow is 0.041 kg/s.}, } @article {pmid35407169, year = {2022}, author = {Bhatti, MM and Bég, OA and Abdelsalam, SI}, title = {Computational Framework of Magnetized MgO-Ni/Water-Based Stagnation Nanoflow Past an Elastic Stretching Surface: Application in Solar Energy Coatings.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {35407169}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {In this article, motivated by novel nanofluid solar energy coating systems, a mathematical model of hybrid magnesium oxide (MgO) and nickel (Ni) nanofluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow impinging on a porous elastic stretching surface in a porous medium is developed. The hybrid nanofluid is electrically conducted, and a magnetic Reynolds number is sufficiently large enough to invoke an induced magnetic field. A Darcy model is adopted for the isotropic, homogenous porous medium. The boundary conditions account for the impacts of the velocity slip and thermal slip. Heat generation (source)/absorption (sink) and also viscous dissipation effects are included. The mathematical formulation has been performed with the help of similarity variables, and the resulting coupled nonlinear dimensionless ordinary differential equations have been solved numerically with the help of the shooting method. In order to test the validity of the current results and the convergence of the solutions, a numerical comparison with previously published results is included. Numerical results are plotted for the effect of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature, magnetic induction, skin friction, and Nusselt number. With an increment in nanoparticle volume fraction of both MgO and Ni nanoparticles, the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness of the nanofluid are elevated. An increase in the porous medium parameter (Darcy number), velocity slip, and thermal Grashof number all enhance the induced magnetic field. Initial increments in the nanoparticle volume fraction for both MgO and Ni suppress the magnetic induction near the wall, although, subsequently, when further from the wall, this effect is reversed. Temperature is enhanced with heat generation, whereas it is depleted with heat absorption and thermal slip effects. Overall, excellent thermal enhancement is achieved by the hybrid nanofluid.}, } @article {pmid35401713, year = {2022}, author = {Fang, L and Li, H and Li, B}, title = {Dynamic Analysis of Deep Water Highway Tunnel under Ocean Current.}, journal = {Computational intelligence and neuroscience}, volume = {2022}, number = {}, pages = {9551792}, pmid = {35401713}, issn = {1687-5273}, abstract = {Comprehensively comparing the merits and demerits of the existing means of transportation across the water, a new underwater transportation structure for crossing the wide water area, named as "deep water highway tunnel" (hereinafter called "DWHT"), is proposed. The characteristics of flow field around the typical section of DWHT at different flow velocities are investigated, which can provide reference for the values of hydrodynamic coefficient at high Reynolds number. The vibration modes and natural by the sound-solid coupling method. In addition, considering the factors of fluid-structure coupling, the dynamic response of displacement and internal force is analyzed based on CFD for the weak parts of the structure. The results show that the deepening of water and the increase of flow will significantly increase the flow field pressure and structure stress, and when the span (or width-span ratio) of the tunnel body extends beyond a certain range, the dynamic characteristics and dynamic response rules of the structure will change.}, } @article {pmid35393485, year = {2022}, author = {Ghorbani, N and Targhi, MZ and Heyhat, MM and Alihosseini, Y}, title = {Investigation of wavy microchannel ability on electronic devices cooling with the case study of choosing the most efficient microchannel pattern.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {5882}, pmid = {35393485}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {A numerical study was conducted to investigate the ability of wavy microchannels to damp the temperature fluctuations generates in electronic devices. Five wavy patterns are considered with the amplitude and wavelength in the ranges of 62.5 to 250 μm and 1250 to 5000 μm, respectively to study the effect of governing phenomena of flow within wavy patterns on thermal-hydraulic performance. The flow regime is laminar and the Reynolds number is in the range of 300 to 900, and a relatively high heat flux of 80 W/cm[2] is applied to the microchannels substrate. Also, variable flux condition is studied for heat fluxes of 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 W/cm[2] and for the most efficient wavy and straight microchannels. Results showed that the geometries with larger amplitude to wavelength ratio have a lower radius of curvature and larger Dean number, and as a result of transverse flow (secondary flow) amplification, they have enhanced heat transfer. Also, by comparing the ratio of the transverse velocity components to the axial component, it was found that by decreasing the radius of curvature and increasing the Dean number, transverse velocity increases, which intensifies the heat transfer between the wall and the fluid. The appraisement of the performance evaluation criterion (PEC) illustrates that the wavy case with an amplitude of 250 μm and wavelength of 2500 μm is the best geometry from the thermal-hydraulic point of view in the studied range. Finally, with variable flux condition, the wavy microchannel has responded well to the temperature increase and has created a much more uniform surface temperature compared to straight pattern. The proposed wavy pattern ensures that there are no hotspots which could damage the electronic chip. Presented wavy patterns can be used in heat sinks heat transfer enhancement to allow the chip to run in higher heat fluxes.}, } @article {pmid35390073, year = {2022}, author = {Almerol, JLO and Liponhay, MP}, title = {Clustering of fast gyrotactic particles in low-Reynolds-number flow.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {17}, number = {4}, pages = {e0266611}, pmid = {35390073}, issn = {1932-6203}, mesh = {Cluster Analysis ; Computer Simulation ; *Hydrodynamics ; Physical Phenomena ; *Swimming ; }, abstract = {Systems of particles in turbulent flows exhibit clustering where particles form patches in certain regions of space. Previous studies have shown that motile particles accumulate inside the vortices and in downwelling regions, while light and heavy non-motile particles accumulate inside and outside the vortices, respectively. While strong clustering is generated in regions of high vorticity, clustering of motile particles is still observed in fluid flows where vortices are short-lived. In this study, we investigate the clustering of fast swimming particles in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent flow and characterize the probability distributions of particle speed and acceleration and their influence on particle clustering. We simulate gyrotactic swimming particles in a cubic system with homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. Here, the swimming velocity explored is relatively faster than what has been explored in other reports. The fluid flow is produced by conducting a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast with the previous results, our results show that swimming particles can accumulate outside the vortices, and clustering is dictated by the swimming number and is invariant with the stability number. We have also found that highly clustered particles are sufficiently characterized by their acceleration, where the increase in the acceleration frequency distribution of the most clustered particles suggests a direct influence of acceleration on clustering. Furthermore, the acceleration of the most clustered particles resides in acceleration values where a cross-over in the acceleration PDFs are observed, an indicator that particle acceleration generates clustering. Our findings on motile particles clustering can be applied to understanding the behavior of faster natural or artificial swimmers.}, } @article {pmid35389496, year = {2022}, author = {Letendre, F and Cameron, CB}, title = {The capture of crude oil droplets by filter feeders at high and low Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {225}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.243819}, pmid = {35389496}, issn = {1477-9145}, mesh = {Animals ; Daphnia ; Food Chain ; *Petroleum ; *Petroleum Pollution ; *Thoracica ; }, abstract = {Crustacean filter feeders capture oil droplets with the use of their ramified appendages. These appendages behave as paddles or sieves, based on the system's Reynolds number. Here, we used high-speed videography, scanning electron microscopy and fluid mechanics to study the capturing mechanisms of crude oil droplets and the filtering appendage's wettability by two species of barnacles (Balanus glandula and Balanus crenatus) and of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Our results show that barnacle appendages behave as paddles and capture droplets in their boundary layers at low Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, droplets are most likely to be captured via direct interception. There is an intermediate range of Reynolds number where droplets can be captured by both mechanisms at the same time. Daphnia magna captures droplets in the boundary layers of the third and fourth pair of thoracic legs with a metachronal motion of the appendages. All studied surfaces were revealed to be highly lipophobic, demonstrating captured oil droplets with high contact angles. We also discuss implications of such capture mechanisms and wettability on potential ingestion of crude oil by filter feeders. These results further our understanding of the capture of crude oil by filter feeders, shedding light on the main entry point of oil in marine food webs.}, } @article {pmid35385160, year = {2022}, author = {Wang, J and Dong, Y and Ma, P and Wang, Y and Zhang, F and Cai, B and Chen, P and Liu, BF}, title = {Intelligent Micro-/Nanorobots for Cancer Theragnostic.}, journal = {Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {e2201051}, doi = {10.1002/adma.202201051}, pmid = {35385160}, issn = {1521-4095}, abstract = {Cancer is one of the most intractable diseases owing to its high mortality rate and lack of effective diagnostic and treatment tools. Advancements in micro-/nanorobot (MNR)-assisted sensing, imaging, and therapeutics offer unprecedented opportunities to develop MNR-based cancer theragnostic platforms. Unlike ordinary nanoparticles, which exhibit Brownian motion in biofluids, MNRs overcome viscous resistance in an ultralow Reynolds number (Re << 1) environment by effective self-propulsion. This unique locomotion property has motivated the advanced design and functionalization of MNRs as a basis for next-generation cancer-therapy platforms, which offer the potential for precise distribution and improved permeation of therapeutic agents. Enhanced barrier penetration, imaging-guided operation, and biosensing are additionally studied to enable the promising cancer-related applications of MNRs. Herein, the recent advances in MNR-based cancer therapy are comprehensively addresses, including actuation engines, diagnostics, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery; promising research opportunities that can have a profound impact on cancer therapy over the next decade is highlighted.}, } @article {pmid35379035, year = {2022}, author = {Saeed Khan, MW and Ali, N and Bég, OA}, title = {Thermal entrance problem for blood flow inside an axisymmetric tube: The classical Graetz problem extended for Quemada's bio-rheological fluid with axial conduction.}, journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine}, volume = {236}, number = {6}, pages = {848-859}, doi = {10.1177/09544119221086479}, pmid = {35379035}, issn = {2041-3033}, mesh = {*Algorithms ; *Hemodynamics ; Hot Temperature ; Humans ; Rheology ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {The heat-conducting nature of blood is critical in the human circulatory system and features also in important thermal regulation and blood processing systems in biomedicine. Motivated by these applications, in the present investigation, the classical Graetz problem in heat transfer is extended to the case of a bio-rheological fluid model. The Quemada bio-rheological fluid model is selected since it has been shown to be accurate in mimicking physiological flows (blood) at different shear rates and hematocrits. The steady two-dimensional energy equation without viscous dissipation in stationary regime is tackled via a separation of variables approach for the isothermal wall temperature case. Following the introduction of transformation variables, the ensuing dimensionless boundary value problem is solved numerically via MATLAB based algorithm known as bvp5c (a finite difference code that implements the four-stage Lobatto IIIa collocation formula). Numerical validation is also presented against two analytical approaches namely, series solutions and Kummer function techniques. Axial conduction in terms of Péclet number is also considered. Typical values of Reynolds number and Prandtl number are used to categorize the vascular regions. The graphical representation of mean temperature, temperature gradient, and Nusselt numbers along with detail discussions are presented for the effects of Quemada non-Newtonian parameters and Péclet number. The current analysis may also have potential applications for the development of microfluidic and biofluidic devices particularly which are used in the diagnosis of diseases in addition to blood oxygenation technologies.}, } @article {pmid35363001, year = {2022}, author = {Tan, S and Ni, R}, title = {Universality and Intermittency of Pair Dispersion in Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {128}, number = {11}, pages = {114502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.114502}, pmid = {35363001}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Turbulence can disperse a concentrated parcel of pollutants at a rate over nine orders of magnitude higher than its purely diffusive counterpart. One intriguing signature of turbulent dispersion is its superdiffusive scaling. However, the universality of this scaling law is still in question. By leveraging a new laboratory facility, particle pairs with small initial separations can be tracked over four decades of separation in time and five decades of separation in squared displacement, thereby observing the full range of dispersion scaling laws. The results show that the classical Richardson cubic scaling will be reached not for an initial separation asymptotically close to zero but at a critical value, and this value does not appear to depend on the Reynolds number, providing an effective way to study universal dispersion dynamics. Additionally, the results agree well with the prediction based on the multifractal model and may help reconcile different reported scaling laws from laboratory experiments and field studies.}, } @article {pmid35355005, year = {2022}, author = {Kamdar, S and Shin, S and Leishangthem, P and Francis, LF and Xu, X and Cheng, X}, title = {The colloidal nature of complex fluids enhances bacterial motility.}, journal = {Nature}, volume = {603}, number = {7903}, pages = {819-823}, pmid = {35355005}, issn = {1476-4687}, mesh = {Bacteria ; *Colloids ; *Ecosystem ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Polymers ; }, abstract = {The natural habitats of microorganisms in the human microbiome, ocean and soil ecosystems are full of colloids and macromolecules. Such environments exhibit non-Newtonian flow properties, drastically affecting the locomotion of microorganisms[1-5]. Although the low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics of swimming flagellated bacteria in simple Newtonian fluids has been well developed[6-9], our understanding of bacterial motility in complex non-Newtonian fluids is less mature[10,11]. Even after six decades of research, fundamental questions about the nature and origin of bacterial motility enhancement in polymer solutions are still under debate[12-23]. Here we show that flagellated bacteria in dilute colloidal suspensions display quantitatively similar motile behaviours to those in dilute polymer solutions, in particular a universal particle-size-dependent motility enhancement up to 80% accompanied by a strong suppression of bacterial wobbling[18,24]. By virtue of the hard-sphere nature of colloids, whose size and volume fraction we vary across experiments, our results shed light on the long-standing controversy over bacterial motility enhancement in complex fluids and suggest that polymer dynamics may not be essential for capturing the phenomenon[12-23]. A physical model that incorporates the colloidal nature of complex fluids quantitatively explains bacterial wobbling dynamics and mobility enhancement in both colloidal and polymeric fluids. Our findings contribute to the understanding of motile behaviours of bacteria in complex fluids, which are relevant for a wide range of microbiological processes[25] and for engineering bacterial swimming in complex environments[26,27].}, } @article {pmid35338884, year = {2022}, author = {Mezali, F and Benmamar, S and Naima, K and Ameur, H and Rafik, O}, title = {Evaluation of stent effect and thrombosis generation with different blood rheology on an intracranial aneurysm by the Lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {219}, number = {}, pages = {106757}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106757}, pmid = {35338884}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Hemodynamics/physiology ; Humans ; *Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery ; Rheology ; Stents ; *Thrombosis/prevention & control ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents prevents rupture by reducing blood flow and creating thrombosis within the aneurysm. This paper aims to assess the hemodynamic effect of placing stents with different struts (0, 3, 5, 7 struts) on intracranial aneurysms and to propose a simple prediction model of thrombosis zone without any further computational cost.

METHOD: Lattice Boltzmann method with different rheological models (Newtonian, Carreau-Yasuda, KL) of blood are used to study the hemodynamic effect of flow-diverting stents in the aneurysm. Pulsatile flow boundary conditions were applied in the inlet of the artery. The average Reynolds number was resulting Re = 111. The Lagrangian tracking of the particle was developed to assess the intra-aneurysmal blood stagnation. To predict the probable thrombose zone induced by flow-diverting stents, the shear rate threshold is utilized to determine the nodes of fluid to clot.

RESULTS: The results show that the flow patterns into the aneurysmal sac develop a vortex, decreasing after stent placement until disappearance for the stent with seven struts (porosity 71.4%). Velocity, shear rate, shear stress, trajectory, path length, and occlusion rate are compared before and after stent placement. These parameters decrease inversely with the porosity of the stent. The three models yield a closes result of the (velocity, shear rate, occlusion rate). Tracking the fluid-particle trajectory shows that the length of the particle paths decreases with the number of struts causing fluid to slow down and increase, consequently, the residence time into the sac.

CONCLUSION: The flow-diverting stents placement cause the reduction of dynamic flow within aneurysm. The reduction effect is almost the same below five struts (80% of porosity). The results show that, if our objective is restricted to estimating the hemodynamic effect, measured by (velocity, shear rate, occlusion rate), the differences between rheological behavior models are, practically, not significant, and the models can be used indifferently.}, } @article {pmid35334666, year = {2022}, author = {Nuwairan, MA and Souayeh, B}, title = {Simulation of Gold Nanoparticle Transport during MHD Electroosmotic Flow in a Peristaltic Micro-Channel for Biomedical Treatment.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {35334666}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The study of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the blood flow has emerged as an area of interest for numerous researchers, due to its many biomedical applications, such as cancer radiotherapy, DNA and antigens, drug and gene delivery, in vitro evaluation, optical bioimaging, radio sensitization and laser phototherapy of cancer cells and tumors. Gold nanoparticles can be amalgamated in various shapes and sizes. Due to this reason, gold nanoparticles can be diffused efficiently, target the diseased cells and destroy them. The current work studies the effect of gold nanoparticles of different shapes on the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic (EMHD) peristaltic propulsion of blood in a micro-channel under various effects, such as activation energy, bioconvection, radiation and gyrotactic microorganisms. Four kinds of nanoparticle shapes, namely bricks, cylinders and platelets, are considered. The governing equations are simplified under the approximations of low Reynolds number (LRN), long wavelength (LWL) and Debye-Hückel linearization (DHL). The numerical solutions for the non-dimensional equations are solved using the computational software MATLAB with the help of the bvp4c function. The influences of different physical parameters on the flow and thermal characteristics are computed through pictorial interpretations.}, } @article {pmid35329572, year = {2022}, author = {Sawka, A}, title = {Chemical Vapour Deposition of Scandia-Stabilised Zirconia Layers on Tubular Substrates at Low Temperatures.}, journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {15}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {35329572}, issn = {1996-1944}, abstract = {The paper presents results of investigation on synthesis of non-porous ZrO2-Sc2O2 layers on tubular substrates by MOCVD (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition) method using Sc(tmhd)3 (Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)scandium(III), 99%) and Zr(tmhd)4 (Tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zirconium)(IV), 99.9+%) as basic reactants. The molar content of Sc(tmhd)3 in the gas mixture was as follows: 14, 28%. The synthesis temperature was in the range of 600-700 °C. The value of extended Grx/Rex[2] expression (Gr-Grashof number, Re-Reynolds number and x-the distance from the gas inflow point) was less than 0.01. The layers were deposited under reduced pressure or close to atmospheric pressure. The layers obtained were tested using scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) microanalyzer, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The layers deposited were non-porous, amorphous or nanocrystalline with controlled chemical composition. The layers synthesized at 700 °C were nanocrystalline. ZrO2-Sc2O3 layers with 14 mol.% Sc2O3 content had a rhombohedral structure.}, } @article {pmid35327926, year = {2022}, author = {Lin, W and Shi, R and Lin, J}, title = {Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Nanofluid with Rod-like Particles in Turbulent Flows through a Curved Pipe.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {35327926}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {Pressure drop, heat transfer, and energy performance of ZnO/water nanofluid with rodlike particles flowing through a curved pipe are studied in the range of Reynolds number 5000 ≤ Re ≤ 30,000, particle volume concentration 0.1% ≤ Φ ≤ 5%, Schmidt number 10[4] ≤ Sc ≤ 3 × 10[5], particle aspect ratio 2 ≤ λ ≤ 14, and Dean number 5 × 10[3] ≤ De ≤ 1.5 × 10[4]. The momentum and energy equations of nanofluid, together with the equation of particle number density for particles, are solved numerically. Some results are validated by comparing with the experimental results. The effect of Re, Φ, Sc, λ, and De on the friction factor f and Nusselt number Nu is analyzed. The results showed that the values of f are increased with increases in Φ, Sc, and De, and with decreases in Re and λ. The heat transfer performance is enhanced with increases in Re, Φ, λ, and De, and with decreases in Sc. The ratio of energy PEC for nanofluid to base fluid is increased with increases in Re, Φ, λ, and De, and with decreases in Sc. Finally, the formula of ratio of energy PEC for nanofluid to base fluid as a function of Re, Φ, Sc, λ, and De is derived based on the numerical data.}, } @article {pmid35327850, year = {2022}, author = {Dou, HS}, title = {No Existence and Smoothness of Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equation.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {35327850}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The Navier-Stokes equation can be written in a form of Poisson equation. For laminar flow in a channel (plane Poiseuille flow), the Navier-Stokes equation has a non-zero source term (∇[2]u(x, y, z) = Fx (x, y, z, t) and a non-zero solution within the domain. For transitional flow, the velocity profile is distorted, and an inflection point or kink appears on the velocity profile, at a sufficiently high Reynolds number and large disturbance. In the vicinity of the inflection point or kink on the distorted velocity profile, we can always find a point where ∇[2]u(x, y, z) = 0. At this point, the Poisson equation is singular, due to the zero source term, and has no solution at this point due to singularity. It is concluded that there exists no smooth orphysically reasonable solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for transitional flow and turbulence in the global domain due to singularity.}, } @article {pmid35299996, year = {2022}, author = {Marchello, R and Morandotti, M and Shum, H and Zoppello, M}, title = {The N -Link Swimmer in Three Dimensions: Controllability and Optimality Results.}, journal = {Acta applicandae mathematicae}, volume = {178}, number = {1}, pages = {6}, pmid = {35299996}, issn = {0167-8019}, abstract = {The controllability of a fully three-dimensional N -link swimmer is studied. After deriving the equations of motion in a low Reynolds number fluid by means of Resistive Force Theory, the controllability of the minimal 2-link swimmer is tackled using techniques from Geometric Control Theory. The shape of the 2-link swimmer is described by two angle parameters. It is shown that the associated vector fields that govern the dynamics generate, via taking their Lie brackets, all eight linearly independent directions in the combined configuration and shape space, leading to controllability; the swimmer can move from any starting configuration and shape to any target configuration and shape by operating on the two shape variables. The result is subsequently extended to the N -link swimmer. Finally, the minimal time optimal control problem and the minimization of the power expended are addressed and a qualitative description of the optimal strategies is provided.}, } @article {pmid35297830, year = {2022}, author = {Wang, Y and Zhao, W and Wang, B and Wang, Y}, title = {Prediction model of combustion characteristics of methane-air using hyperspectral imaging.}, journal = {Applied optics}, volume = {61}, number = {7}, pages = {D75-D84}, doi = {10.1364/AO.444118}, pmid = {35297830}, issn = {1539-4522}, abstract = {Hyperspectral imaging can obtain considerable flame information, which can improve the prediction accuracy of combustion characteristics. This paper studies the hyperspectral characteristics of methane flames and proposes several prediction models. The experimental results show that the radiation intensity and radiation types of free radicals are related to the equivalent ratio, and the radiation region of free radicals becomes larger with the increase of the Reynolds number. The polynomial regression prediction models include the linear model and quadratic model. It takes C2∗/CH[∗] as input parameters, and results can be available immediately. The three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) prediction model takes all spectral and spatial information in the flame hyperspectral image as input parameters. By improving the structural parameters of the convolution network, the final prediction errors of the equivalent ratio and Reynolds number are 2.84% and 3.11%, respectively. The method of combining the 3D-CNN model with hyperspectral imaging significantly improves the prediction accuracy, and it can be used to predict other combustion characteristics such as pollutant emissions and combustion efficiency.}, } @article {pmid35291149, year = {2022}, author = {Ma, X and Gong, X and Tang, Z and Jiang, N}, title = {Control of leading-edge separation on bioinspired airfoil with fluttering coverts.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {2-2}, pages = {025107}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.025107}, pmid = {35291149}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {In this work, the aerodynamic role of the artificial covert feathers (i.e., coverts) on an airfoil is experimentally studied in a wind tunnel to investigate the flow control effect on the leading-edge separation. We apply flexible featherlike devices on a high-angle-of-attack airfoil. We use a hot-wire anemometer to measure the velocity profiles and turbulent fluctuations in the downstream wake flow. As a baseline of flow separation, a two-dimensional NACA 0018 airfoil model is set at the angle of attack of 15 ° at the chord-based Reynolds number of 1.0×10^{5}, causing strong leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers and a low-speed wake flow area in between as large as 0.35 chord length. When deployed on the upper wing surface, the flexible coverts adaptively flutter under the influence of the local unsteady airflow. Hot-wire measurement results show that the leading-edge coverts effectively suppress the flow separation and reduce the size of the wake flow area. The change of power spectral density shows that the predominant peaks as the fundamental and harmonic frequencies are both attenuated due to the suppression of unsteady motions of the shear layers. On the other hand, the fluttering coverts at the trailing edge modify the trailing-edge shear layer by redistributing the turbulent kinetic energy to the high-frequency components. By simultaneous double-point measurement, we find that the leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers are drawn closer to each other, and the two shear layers show an increased peak in the coherence spectrum. Further multiscale wavelet analysis shows that the perturbations at the 60% chord length increase the large-scale amplitude modulation of small-scale turbulence and therefore they stabilize the leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers. Meanwhile, the flow intermittency outside of the wake flow area is attenuated as well. The effective flow control effects in the present work are in good agreement with the previous direct observations of bird flight in literature that the coverts on the upper wing surface play an important role in flow separation control during high-angle-of-attack flight. These findings advance the understanding of aerodynamic contribution of the covers on bird wings and reveal the engineering potential of bioinspired coverts for flow separation control of aircrafts and unmanned air vehicles.}, } @article {pmid35270649, year = {2022}, author = {Ovando-Chacon, GE and Rodríguez-León, A and Ovando-Chacon, SL and Hernández-Ordoñez, M and Díaz-González, M and Pozos-Texon, FJ}, title = {Computational Study of Thermal Comfort and Reduction of CO2 Levels inside a Classroom.}, journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health}, volume = {19}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {35270649}, issn = {1660-4601}, mesh = {*Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis/prevention & control ; *COVID-19/epidemiology ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis ; Humans ; Pandemics ; SARS-CoV-2 ; }, abstract = {Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, guaranteeing thermal comfort and low CO2 levels in classrooms through efficient ventilation has become vitally important. This study presents three-dimensional simulations based on computational fluid dynamics of airflow inside an air-conditioned classroom located in Veracruz, Mexico. The analysis included various positions of an air extractor, Reynolds numbers up to 3.5 × 10[4], four different concentrations of pollutant sources, and three different times of the day. The simulations produced velocity, air temperature, and CO2 concentrations fields, and we calculated average air temperatures, average CO2 concentrations, and overall ventilation effectiveness. Our results revealed an optimal extractor position and Reynolds number conducive to thermal comfort and low CO2 levels due to an adequate ventilation configuration. At high pollutant concentrations, it is necessary to reduce the number of students in the classroom to achieve safe CO2 levels.}, } @article {pmid35264611, year = {2022}, author = {Memon, AA and Memon, MA and Bhatti, K and Khan, I and Alshammari, N and Al-Johani, AS and Hamadneh, NN and Andualem, M}, title = {Thermal decomposition of propylene oxide with different activation energy and Reynolds number in a multicomponent tubular reactor containing a cooling jacket.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {4169}, pmid = {35264611}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this article, we are focusing on heat and mass transfer through a Multicomponent tubular reactor containing a cooling jacket by thermal decomposition of propylene oxide in water. The chemical reaction is an irreversible, 1st order reaction and an exothermic reaction that yields propylene glycol with enthalpy = -84,666 J/mol. The constant rate of the reaction is followed by the Arrhenius equation in which the activation energy is taken on a trial basis in the range from 75,000 to 80,000 J/mol with a fixed frequency factor. For the fluid to flow, the Reynolds number is kept in the range from 100 to 1000. The three partial differential equations of mass, momentum, and energy are coupled to study heat and mass transfer in a tubular reactor by using the chemistry interface in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The initial concentration of propylene oxide is tested in the range from 2 to 3% and the thermal conductivity of the mixture is tested in the range 0.599-0.799. It was found that the amount deactivated of the compound decreases with an increase in Reynolds number. Propylene oxide is decomposed at about 99.8% at Re = 100 at lower activation energy and gives the total maximum enthalpy change in the tubular reactor. Observing the relationship between Sherwood numbers to Nusselt numbers, it was deducted that the convective heat transfer is opposite to convective mass transfer for high Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid35236870, year = {2022}, author = {Khan, Z and Ul Haq, S and Ali, F and Andualem, M}, title = {Free convection flow of second grade dusty fluid between two parallel plates using Fick's and Fourier's laws: a fractional model.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {3448}, pmid = {35236870}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The paper aims to investigate the channel flow of second grade visco-elastic fluid generated due to an oscillating wall. The effect of heat and mass transfer has been taken into account. The phenomenon has been modelled in terms of PDEs. The constitutive equations are fractionalized by using the definition of the Caputo fractional operator with Fick's and Fourier's Laws. The system of fractional PDEs is non-dimensionalized by using appropriate dimensionless variables. The closed-form solutions of thermal and concentration boundary layers are obtained by using the Laplace and finite Fourier-Sine transforms, while the momentum equation is solved by a numerical approach by Zakian using [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, the parametric influence of various embedded physical parameters on momentum, temperature, and concentration distributions is depicted through various graphs. It is observed that the fractional approach is more convenient and realistic as compared to the classical approach. It is worth noting that the increasing values of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] retard the boundary layer profile. For instance, this behaviour of [Formula: see text] is significant where boundary control is necessary. That is, in the case of resonance, the physical solution may be obtained by adding the effect of MHD. The Reynolds number is useful in characterising the transport properties of a fluid or a particle travelling through a fluid. The Reynolds number is one of the main controlling parameters in all viscous flow. It determines whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent. The evolution of the rate of heat, mass transfer, and skin friction on the left plate with various physical parameters are presented in tables. These quantities are of high interest for engineers. Keeping in mind the effect of various parameters on these engineering quantities, they make their feasibility reports.}, } @article {pmid35233704, year = {2022}, author = {Cai, C and Wen, C and Guan, L and Huang, Y and Jiang, Q}, title = {Influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration on cavitation effect and fluid dynamics induced by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS): A visualization study.}, journal = {Lasers in medical science}, volume = {37}, number = {5}, pages = {2537-2544}, pmid = {35233704}, issn = {1435-604X}, mesh = {Dental Pulp Cavity ; Hydrodynamics ; Photons/therapeutic use ; *Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology ; Root Canal Preparation ; *Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology ; }, abstract = {PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to visualize and compare the cavitation effect and fluid dynamics induced by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with different concentrations as irrigant.

METHODS: Forty artificial root canals were prepared using MTWO Niti file up to size #25/.06. The canals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group). High-speed camera was used to visualize and compare the cavitation effect induced by PIPS in the artificial root canals containing saline or NaOCl. Fluid velocity and Reynolds number of saline, 1%-, 2.5%- and 5.25% NaOCl irrigants induced by PIPS in the apical region were calculated using TEMA 2D software while the fluid motions were recorded.

RESULTS: Visualization profile revealed that NaOCl presented a stronger cavitation effect and fluid dynamics than saline during PIPS activation. In the apical region, 1% NaOCl group presented the highest average velocity of 3.868 m/s, followed by 2.5% NaOCl group (3.685 m/s), 5.25% NaOCl group (2.353 m/s) and saline group (1.268 m/s), corresponding to Reynolds number of 1653.173, 1572.196, 995.503 and 477.692. Statistically higher fluid velocity was calculated in 1% and 2.5% NaOCl groups compared to saline group, respectively (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The application of NaOCl and its concentration significantly influence the cavitation effect and fluid dynamics during PIPS activation. 1% and 2.5% NaOCl groups presented a more violent fluid motion in the apical region when activated by PIPS.}, } @article {pmid35232981, year = {2022}, author = {Abd-Alla, AM and Thabet, EN and Bayones, FS}, title = {Numerical solution for MHD peristaltic transport in an inclined nanofluid symmetric channel with porous medium.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {3348}, pmid = {35232981}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The significance of the study is to determine of transferred heat and mass impact on the magneto-hydrodynamic peristalsis of Jeffery nanofluid through porous media with inclined symmetric channels whose walls are induced by peristaltic motion within porous media. The aim of this investagtion is to study the influence of various types of parameters such as Brownian motion, thermophoresis, buoyancy forces, and magnetic fields are studies on concentration, temperature, and axial velocity. The numerical solution has been achieved according to the long-wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation utilizing the MATLAB bvp4c function. The resultant dimensions of nonlinear governing equations were approached numerically through the Runge-Kutta- Fehlberg integration scheme, a MATLAB program. The influence of different factors such as the ratio of relaxation to retardation times, nanoparticle Grashof number, and magnetic field was discussed on concentration, temperature, and velocity profiles. tables and graphs were used to demonstrate the numerically computed numerical results. Plotting graphs were utilized for evaluating the pertinent parameters impacts on the aforementioned quantities based on computational results. According to the findings, the effect of the parameters are significant.}, } @article {pmid35214965, year = {2022}, author = {Khan, NA and Sulaiman, M and Tavera Romero, CA and Alshammari, FS}, title = {Analysis of Nanofluid Particles in a Duct with Thermal Radiation by Using an Efficient Metaheuristic-Driven Approach.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {35214965}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {This study investigated the steady two-phase flow of a nanofluid in a permeable duct with thermal radiation, a magnetic field, and external forces. The basic continuity and momentum equations were considered along with the Buongiorno model to formulate the governing mathematical model of the problem. Furthermore, the intelligent computational strength of artificial neural networks (ANNs) was utilized to construct the approximate solution for the problem. The unsupervised objective functions of the governing equations in terms of mean square error were optimized by hybridizing the global search ability of an arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA) with the local search capability of an interior point algorithm (IPA). The proposed ANN-AOA-IPA technique was implemented to study the effect of variations in the thermophoretic parameter (Nt), Hartmann number (Ha), Brownian (Nb) and radiation (Rd) motion parameters, Eckert number (Ec), Reynolds number (Re) and Schmidt number (Sc) on the velocity profile, thermal profile, Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient of the nanofluid. The results obtained by the designed metaheuristic algorithm were compared with the numerical solutions obtained by the Runge-Kutta method of order 4 (RK-4) and machine learning algorithms based on a nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) and backpropagated Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The mean percentage errors in approximate solutions obtained by ANN-AOA-IPA are around 10-6 to 10-7. The graphical analysis illustrates that the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles of the nanofluid increase with an increase in the suction parameter, Eckert number and Schmidt number, respectively. Solutions and the results of performance indicators such as mean absolute deviation, Theil's inequality coefficient and error in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency further validate the proposed algorithm's utility and efficiency.}, } @article {pmid35214944, year = {2022}, author = {Apmann, K and Fulmer, R and Scherer, B and Good, S and Wohld, J and Vafaei, S}, title = {Nanofluid Heat Transfer: Enhancement of the Heat Transfer Coefficient inside Microchannels.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {35214944}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of a connector between two microchannels, for the first time. A brief literature review is provided to offer a better understanding on the impacts of concentration and the characteristics of nanoparticles on thermal conductivity, viscosity, and, consequently, the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels. The given literature review aims to help engineer nanofluids to enhance the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels. In this research, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were introduced into the base liquid to enhance the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels and to provide a better understanding of the impact of the connector between two microchannels. It was observed that the connector has a significant impact on enhancing the heat transfer coefficient inside the second microchannel, by increasing the level of randomness of molecules and particles prior to entering the second channel. The connector would act to refresh the memory of the fluid before entering the second channel, and as a result, the heat transfer coefficient in the second channel would start at a maximum value. Therefore, the overall heat transfer coefficient in both microchannels would increase for given conditions. The impacts of the Reynolds number and introducing nanoparticles in the base liquid on effects induced by the connector were investigated, suggesting that both factors play a significant role on the connector's impact on the heat transfer coefficient.}, } @article {pmid35209192, year = {2022}, author = {Kim, GB and Park, KH and Kim, SJ}, title = {Hemodynamics and Wall Shear Stress of Blood Vessels in Aortic Coarctation with Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation.}, journal = {Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {27}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {35209192}, issn = {1420-3049}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Aorta/abnormalities/diagnostic imaging/physiopathology ; Aortic Coarctation/*diagnosis/*physiopathology ; Blood Flow Velocity ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; *Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of blood flow in aortic coarctation based on stenotic shape structure, stenosis rate, and the distribution of the wall load delivered into the blood vessels and to predict the impact on aneurysm formation and rupture of blood vessels by using a computational fluid dynamics modeling method. It was applied on the blood flow in abdominal aortic blood vessels in which stenosis occurred by using the commercial finite element software ADINA on fluid-solid interactions. The results of modeling, with an increasing stenosis rate and Reynolds number, showed the pressure drop was increased and the velocity was greatly changed. When the stenosis rate was the same, the pressure drop and the velocity change were larger in the stenosis with a symmetric structure than in the stenosis with an asymmetric one. Maximal changes in wall shear stress were observed in the area before stenosis and minimal changes were shown in stenosis areas. The minimal shear stress occurred at different locations depending on the stenosis shape models. With an increasing stenosis rate and Reynolds number, the maximal wall shear stress was increased and the minimal wall shear stress was decreased. Through such studies, it is thought that the characteristics of blood flow in the abdominal aorta where a stenosis is formed will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of growth of atherosclerosis and the occurrence and rupture of the abdominal aortic flow.}, } @article {pmid35208284, year = {2022}, author = {Antognoli, M and Tomasi Masoni, S and Mariotti, A and Mauri, R and Salvetti, MV and Brunazzi, E and Galletti, C}, title = {Mixing Improvement in a T-Shaped Micro-Junction through Small Rectangular Cavities.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {13}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {35208284}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The T-shaped micro-junction is among the most used geometry in microfluidic applications, and many design modifications of the channel walls have been proposed to enhance mixing. In this work, we investigate through numerical simulations the introduction of one pair of small rectangular cavities in the lateral walls of the mixing channel just downstream of the confluence region. The aim is to preserve the simple geometry that has contributed to spread the practical use of the T-shaped micro-junction while suggesting a modification that should, in principle, work jointly with the vortical structures present in the mixing channel, further enhancing their efficiency in mixing without significant additional pressure drops. The performance is analyzed in the different flow regimes occurring by increasing the Reynolds number. The cavities are effective in the two highly-mixed flow regimes, viz., the steady engulfment and the periodic asymmetric regimes. This presence does not interfere with the formation of the vortical structures that promote mixing by convection in these two regimes, but it further enhances the mixing of the inlet streams in the near-wall region of the mixing channel without any additional cost, leading to better performance than the classical configuration.}, } @article {pmid35207114, year = {2022}, author = {Nichka, V and Mareev, S and Pismenskaya, N and Nikonenko, V and Bazinet, L}, title = {Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Pulsed Electric Field Mode and Solution Flow Rate on Protein Fouling during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidificaiton of Caseinate Solution.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {12}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {35207114}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {A one-dimensional non-stationary model was developed for a better understanding of the protein fouling formation mechanism during electroacidification of caseinate solution using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) in pulsed electric field (PEF) mode. Four different PEF modes were investigated with pulse-pause durations of 10-10 s, 10-20 s, 10-33 s, 10-50 s. For each current mode 3 different flow rates were considered, corresponding to Reynolds numbers, Re, equal to 187, 374 and 560. The processes are considered in the diffusion boundary layer between the surface of the cation-exchange layer of bipolar membrane and bulk solution of the desalination compartment. The Nernst-Planck and material balance equation systems describe the ion transport. The electroneutrality condition and equilibrium chemical reactions are taken into account. The calculation results using the developed model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data obtained during the previous experimental part of the study. It is confirmed that both the electrical PEF mode and the flow rate have a significant effect on the thickness (and mass) of the protein fouling during EDBM. Moreover, the choice of the electric current mode has the main impact on the fouling formation rate; an increase in the PEF pause duration leads to a decrease in the amount of fouling. It was shown that an increase in the PEF pause duration from 10 s to 50 s, in combination with an increase in Reynolds number (the flow rate) from 187 to 560, makes it possible to reduce synergistically the mass of protein deposits from 6 to 1.3 mg/cm[2], which corresponds to a 78% decrease.}, } @article {pmid35205589, year = {2022}, author = {Yang, X and Yang, L}, title = {Numerical Study of Entropy Generation in Fully Developed Turbulent Circular Tube Flow Using an Elliptic Blending Turbulence Model.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {24}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {35205589}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {As computational fluid dynamics (CFD) advances, entropy generation minimization based on CFD becomes attractive for optimizing complex heat-transfer systems. This optimization depends on the accuracy of CFD results, such that accurate turbulence models, such as elliptic relaxation or elliptic blending turbulence models, become important. The performance of a previously developed elliptic blending turbulence model (the SST k-ω-φ-α model) to predict the rate of entropy generation in the fully developed turbulent circular tube flow with constant heat flux was studied to provide some guidelines for using this class of turbulence model to calculate entropy generation in complex systems. The flow and temperature fields were simulated by using a CFD package, and then the rate of entropy generation was calculated in post-processing. The analytical correlations and results of two popular turbulence models (the realizable k-ε and the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω models) were used as references to demonstrate the accuracy of the SST k-ω-φ-α model. The findings indicate that the turbulent Prandtl number (Prt) influences the entropy generation rate due to heat-transfer irreversibility. Prt = 0.85 produces the best results for the SST k-ω-φ-α model. For the realizable k-ε and SST k-ω models, Prt = 0.85 and Prt = 0.92 produce the best results, respectively. For the realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models, the two methods used to predict the rate of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility produce the same results. However, for the SST k-ω-φ-α model, the rates of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility predicted by the two methods are different. The difference at a Reynolds number of 100,000 is about 14%. The method that incorporates the effective turbulent viscosity should be used to predict the rate of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility for the SST k-ω-φ-α model. Furthermore, when the temperature in the flow field changes dramatically, the temperature-dependent fluid properties must be considered.}, } @article {pmid35196405, year = {2022}, author = {Xia, N and Jin, B and Jin, D and Yang, Z and Pan, C and Wang, Q and Ji, F and Iacovacci, V and Majidi, C and Ding, Y and Zhang, L}, title = {Decoupling and Reprogramming the Wiggling Motion of Midge Larvae Using a Soft Robotic Platform.}, journal = {Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)}, volume = {34}, number = {17}, pages = {e2109126}, doi = {10.1002/adma.202109126}, pmid = {35196405}, issn = {1521-4095}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomimetics ; Larva ; Locomotion ; *Robotics ; Swimming ; }, abstract = {The efficient motility of invertebrates helps them survive under evolutionary pressures. Reconstructing the locomotion of invertebrates and decoupling the influence of individual basic motion are crucial for understanding their underlying mechanisms, which, however, generally remain a challenge due to the complexity of locomotion gaits. Herein, a magnetic soft robot to reproduce midge larva's key natural swimming gaits is developed, and the coupling effect between body curling and rotation on motility is investigated. Through the authors' systematically decoupling studies using programmed magnetic field inputs, the soft robot (named LarvaBot) experiences various coupled gaits, including biomimetic side-to-side flexures, and unveils that the optimal rotation amplitude and the synchronization of curling and rotation greatly enhance its motility. The LarvaBot achieves fast locomotion and upstream capability at the moderate Reynolds number regime. The soft robotics-based platform provides new insight to decouple complex biological locomotion, and design programmed swimming gaits for the fast locomotion of soft-bodied swimmers.}, } @article {pmid35193246, year = {2022}, author = {Czelusniak, LE and Mapelli, VP and Wagner, AJ and Cabezas-Gómez, L}, title = {Shaping the equation of state to improve numerical accuracy and stability of the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {1-2}, pages = {015303}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.015303}, pmid = {35193246}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {It has recently been shown that altering the shape of the metastable and unstable branches of an equation of state (EOS) can substantially improve the numerical accuracy of liquid and vapor densities in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method [Peng et al., Phys. Rev. E 101, 063309 (2020)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.101.063309]. We found that this approach reduces stability of the method in nonequilibrium conditions and is unstable for bubbles at low reduced temperatures. Here we present an improved method for altering the shape of the metastable and unstable branches of the EOS which remains stable for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium situations and has no issues with bubbles. We also performed a detailed study of the stability of the methods for a droplet impact on a liquid film for reduced temperatures down to 0.35 with Reynolds number of 300. Our approach remained stable for a density ratio of up to 3.38×10^{4}.}, } @article {pmid35193206, year = {2022}, author = {Richter, SK and Menzel, AM}, title = {Mediated interactions between rigid inclusions in two-dimensional elastic or fluid films.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {105}, number = {1-1}, pages = {014609}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.105.014609}, pmid = {35193206}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Interactions between rigid inclusions in continuous three-dimensional linearly elastic solids and low-Reynolds-number viscous fluids have largely been quantified in the past. Prime example systems are given by functionalized elastic composite materials or fluid colloidal suspensions. Here, we address the significantly less frequently studied situation of rigid inclusions in two-dimensional elastic or low-Reynolds-number fluid films. We concentrate on the situation in which disklike inclusions remain well separated from each other and do not get into contact. Specifically, we demonstrate and explain that the logarithmic divergence of the associated Green's function is removed in the absence of net external forces on the inclusions, in line with physical intuition. For instance, this situation applies when only pairwise mutual interactions between the inclusions prevail. Our results will support, for example, investigations on membranes functionalized by appropriate inclusions, both of technical or biological origin, or the dynamics of active microswimmers in appropriately prepared thin films.}, } @article {pmid35190663, year = {2022}, author = {Hamzah, HK and Ali, FH and Hatami, M}, title = {MHD mixed convection and entropy generation of CNT-water nanofluid in a wavy lid-driven porous enclosure at different boundary conditions.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {2881}, pmid = {35190663}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this study, Galerkin Finite Element Method or GFEM is used for the modeling of mixed convection with the entropy generation in wavy lid-driven porous enclosure filled by the CNT-water nanofluid under the magnetic field. Two different cases of boundary conditions for hot and cold walls are considered to study the fluid flow (streamlines) and heat transfer (local and average Nusselt numbers) as well as the entropy generation parameters. Richardson (Ri), Darcy (Da), Hartmann angle (γ), Amplitude (A), Number of peaks (N), Volume fraction (φ), Heat generation factor (λ), Hartmann number (Ha) and Reynolds number (Re) are studied parameters in this study which results indicated that at low Richardson numbers (< 1) increasing the inclined angle of magnetic field, decreases the Nu numbers, but at larger Richardson numbers (> 1) it improves the Nu numbers.}, } @article {pmid35184017, year = {2022}, author = {Bakos, V and Gyarmati, B and Csizmadia, P and Till, S and Vachoud, L and Nagy Göde, P and Tardy, GM and Szilágyi, A and Jobbágy, A and Wisniewski, C}, title = {Viscous and filamentous bulking in activated sludge: Rheological and hydrodynamic modelling based on experimental data.}, journal = {Water research}, volume = {214}, number = {}, pages = {118155}, doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2022.118155}, pmid = {35184017}, issn = {1879-2448}, abstract = {Although achieving good activated sludge settleability is a key requirement for meeting effluent quality criteria, wastewater treatment plants often face undesired floc structure changes. Filamentous bulking has widely been studied, however, viscous sludge formation much less investigated so far. Our main goal was to find relationship between sludge floc structure and related rheological properties, moreover, to estimate pressure loss in pipe networks through hydrodynamic modelling of the non-Newtonian flows in case of well settling (ideal-like), viscous and filamentous sludge. Severe viscous and filamentous kinds of bulking were generated separately in continuous-flow lab-scale systems initially seeded with the same reference (ideal-like) biomass and the entire evolution of viscous and filamentous bulking was monitored. The results suggested correlation between the rheological properties and the floc structure transformations, and showed the most appropriate fit for the Herschel-Bulkley model (vs. Power-law and Bingham). Validated computational fluid dynamics studies estimated the pipe pressure loss in a wide Reynolds number range for the initial well settling (reference) and the final viscous and filamentous sludge as well. A practical standard modelling protocol was developed for improving energy efficiency of sludge pumping in different floc structure scenarios.}, } @article {pmid35183949, year = {2022}, author = {Yu, Z and Yang, G and Zhang, W}, title = {A new model for the terminal settling velocity of microplastics.}, journal = {Marine pollution bulletin}, volume = {176}, number = {}, pages = {113449}, doi = {10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113449}, pmid = {35183949}, issn = {1879-3363}, mesh = {Environmental Monitoring ; *Microplastics ; Plastics ; *Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis ; }, abstract = {Microplastic (MP) settling process is important for the transport of microplastic particles (MPs, <5 mm) in water bodies. However, for the control parameter of the drag coefficient (Cd), no generalized formula has been proposed for MPs of different shapes and materials. In this study, a total of 1343 MP settling data were collected from the literature. It was found that the drag law for perfect spheres cannot reasonably predict Cd for MPs with particle Reynolds number of 1-10[3]. A new formula for Cd was developed by introducing the dimensionless particle diameter (d⁎) and two shape descriptors. The absolute error of the new formula is 15.2%, smaller than those (42.5-72.8%) of other existing formulas. Moreover, an explicit model was developed for MP settling velocity by correlating Cd, d⁎, and shape descriptors, with lower absolute error (8.8%) than those (15.4-77.2%) of existing models.}, } @article {pmid35160419, year = {2022}, author = {Faroughi, SA and Roriz, AI and Fernandes, C}, title = {A Meta-Model to Predict the Drag Coefficient of a Particle Translating in Viscoelastic Fluids: A Machine Learning Approach.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {14}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {35160419}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {This study presents a framework based on Machine Learning (ML) models to predict the drag coefficient of a spherical particle translating in viscoelastic fluids. For the purpose of training and testing the ML models, two datasets were generated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) for the viscoelastic unbounded flow of Oldroyd-B (OB-set containing 12,120 data points) and Giesekus (GI-set containing 4950 data points) fluids past a spherical particle. The kinematic input features were selected to be Reynolds number, 0

METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.

RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.

CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.}, } @article {pmid34846896, year = {2021}, author = {Kim, AR and Mitra, SK and Zhao, B}, title = {Reduced Pressure Drop in Viscoelastic Polydimethylsiloxane Wall Channels.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {37}, number = {49}, pages = {14292-14301}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c02087}, pmid = {34846896}, issn = {1520-5827}, mesh = {Biological Transport ; *Dimethylpolysiloxanes ; *Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an important viscoelastic material that finds applications in a large number of engineering systems, particularly lab-on-chip microfluidic devices built with a flexible substrate. Channels made of PDMS, used for transporting analytes, are integral to these applications. The PDMS viscoelastic nature can induce additional hydrodynamic contributions at the soft wall/fluid interface compared to rigid walls. In this research, we investigated the pressure drop within PDMS channels bounded by rigid tubes (cellulose tubes). The bulging effect of the PDMS was limited by the rigid tubes under flowing fluids. The PDMS viscoelasticity was modulated by changing the ratio of the base to the cross-linker from 10:1 to 35:1. We observed that the pressure drop of the flowing fluids within the channel decreased with the increased loss tangent of the PDMS in the examined laminar regime [Reynolds number (Re) ∼ 23-58.6 for water and Re ∼ 0.69-8.69 for glycerol solution]. The elastic PDMS 10:1 wall channels followed the classical Hagen Poiseuille's equation, but the PDMS walls with lower cross-linker concentrations and thicker walls decreased pressure drops. The friction factor (f) for the PDMS channels with the two working fluids could be approximated as f = 47/Re. We provide a correlation between the pressure drop and PDMS viscoelasticity based on experimental findings. In the correlation, the loss tangent predominates; the larger the loss tangent, the smaller is the pressure drop. The research findings appear to be unexpected if only considering the energy dissipation of viscoelastic PDMS walls. We attributed the reduction in the pressure drop to a lubricating effect of the viscoelastic PDMS walls in the presence of the working fluids. Our results reveal the importance of the subtle diffusion of the residual oligomers and water from the bulk to the soft wall/fluid interface for the observed pressure drop in soft wall channels.}, } @article {pmid34846030, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, X and Zhan, Y and Fu, YI and Lin, J and Ji, Y and Zhao, C and Fang, Y and Wu, J}, title = {The effect of stenosis rate and Reynolds number on local flow characteristics and plaque formation around the atherosclerotic stenosis.}, journal = {Acta of bioengineering and biomechanics}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {135-147}, pmid = {34846030}, issn = {1509-409X}, mesh = {*Atherosclerosis ; Constriction, Pathologic ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis causes plaque to build-up in arteries. Effect of the specific local hemodynamic environment around an atherosclerotic plaque on the thrombosis formation does not remain quite clear but is believed to be crucial. The aim of this study is to uncover the flow effects on plaques formation.

METHODS: To study the mechanically regulated plaque formation, the flow fields in artery blood vessels with different stenosis rates at various Reynolds numbers were simulated numerically with the two-dimensional axisymmetric models, and the hemodynamic characteristics around the plaque were scaled with stenosis rate and Reynolds number.

RESULTS: The results showed that increases of both Reynolds number and stenosis rate facilitated the occurrence of flow separation phenomenon, extended recirculation zone, and upregulated the maximum normalized wall shear stress near the plaque throat section while downregulated the minimal normalized wall shear stress at the front shoulder of plaque, as it should be; in the atherosclerotic plaque leeside of the recirculation zone, an obvious catch bond region of wall shear stress might exist especially under low Reynolds number with stenosis rate smaller than 30%. This catch bond region in the plaque leeside might be responsible for the LBF (low blood flow)-enhanced formation of the atherosclerotic plaque.

CONCLUSIONS: This work may provide a novel insight into understanding the biomechanical effects behind the formation and damage of atherosclerotic plaques and propose a new strategy for preventing atherosclerotic diseases.}, } @article {pmid34845537, year = {2021}, author = {Patel, K and Stark, H}, title = {Instability of a liquid sheet with viscosity contrast in inertial microfluidics.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {11}, pages = {144}, pmid = {34845537}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {Flows at moderate Reynolds numbers in inertial microfluidics enable high throughput and inertial focusing of particles and cells with relevance in biomedical applications. In the present work, we consider a viscosity-stratified three-layer flow in the inertial regime. We investigate the interfacial instability of a liquid sheet surrounded by a density-matched but more viscous fluid in a channel flow. We use linear stability analysis based on the Orr-Sommerfeld equation and direct numerical simulations with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to perform an extensive parameter study. Our aim is to contribute to a controlled droplet production in inertial microfluidics. In the first part, on the linear stability analysis we show that the growth rate of the fastest growing mode [Formula: see text] increases with the Reynolds number [Formula: see text] and that its wavelength [Formula: see text] is always smaller than the channel width w for sufficiently small interfacial tension [Formula: see text]. For thin sheets we find the scaling relation [Formula: see text], where m is viscosity ratio and [Formula: see text] the sheet thickness. In contrast, for thicker sheets [Formula: see text] decreases with increasing [Formula: see text] or m due to the nearby channel walls. Examining the eigenvalue spectra, we identify Yih modes at the interface. In the second part on the LBM simulations, the thin liquid sheet develops two distinct dynamic states: waves traveling along the interface and breakup into droplets with bullet shape. For smaller flow rates and larger sheet thicknesses, we also observe ligament formation and the sheet eventually evolves irregularly. Our work gives some indication how droplet formation can be controlled with a suitable parameter set [Formula: see text].}, } @article {pmid34845318, year = {2021}, author = {Pang, M and Zhang, T and Meng, Y and Ling, Z}, title = {Experimental study on the permeability of crushed coal medium based on the Ergun equation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {23030}, pmid = {34845318}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Accurate determination of the permeability of crushed coal medium is the basis for the study of their permeability characteristics. To investigate the permeability characteristics of this special porous medium composed of crushed coal particles, the permeability parameters of crushed coal specimens of different initial porosities were measured by designing a lateral-limit compression seepage test system. Parameters were determined separately for specimens of different initial porosities. (1) the Reynolds number distribution region characterising the seepage state was determined and obtained. Specimens with initial porosity distribution between 0.02 and 0.08, and seepage Reynolds number distribution in the low-permeability zone, under Darcy flow; (2) the intrinsic permeability of the crushed coal medium was obtained by using the Ergun equation. The complex inverse proportional relationship between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number was derived; (3) Through the determination of the permeability of the crushed coal medium, the mean value of βK value was obtained to be about 45.7, and the analysis of the permeability of porous medium can determine its critical permeability. The relationship between the Forchheimer number Fo and critical Reynolds number was measured. The results indicate that it conforms to a linear distribution. In-depth analysis of these two parameters can be used to explore the flow transition process between laminar, transition, and turbulent flow. This study provides insight into the permeability characteristics of the media in fractured coal bodies.}, } @article {pmid34840965, year = {2021}, author = {Krane, M}, title = {Vortex Formation Times in the Glottal Jet, Measured in a Scaled-Up Model.}, journal = {Fluids (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {6}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {34840965}, issn = {2311-5521}, support = {R01 DC005642/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {In this paper, the timing of vortex formation on the glottal jet is studied using previously published velocity measurements of flow through a scaled-up model of the human vocal folds. The relative timing of the pulsatile glottal jet and the instability vortices are acoustically important since they determine the harmonic and broadband content of the voice signal. Glottis exit jet velocity time series were extracted from time-resolved planar DPIV measurements. These measurements were acquired at four glottal flow speeds (u SS = 16.1-38 cm/s) and four glottis open times (T o = 5.67-23.7 s), providing a Reynolds number range Re = 4100-9700 and reduced vibration frequency f* = 0.01-0.06. Exit velocity waveforms showed temporal behavior on two time scales, one that correlates to the period of vibration and another characterized by short, sharp velocity peaks (which correlate to the passage of instability vortices through the glottis exit plane). The vortex formation time, estimated by computing the time difference between subsequent peaks, was shown to be not well-correlated from one vibration cycle to the next. The principal finding is that vortex formation time depends not only on cycle phase, but varies strongly with reduced frequency of vibration. In all cases, a strong high-frequency burst of vortex motion occurs near the end of the cycle, consistent with perceptual studies using synthesized speech.}, } @article {pmid34832781, year = {2021}, author = {Jbeili, M and Zhang, J}, title = {Effects of Microscopic Properties on Macroscopic Thermal Conductivity for Convective Heat Transfer in Porous Materials.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {34832781}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Porous materials are widely used in many heat transfer applications. Modeling porous materials at the microscopic level can accurately incorporate the detailed structure and substance parameters and thus provides valuable information for the complex heat transfer processes in such media. In this study, we use the generalized periodic boundary condition for pore-scale simulations of thermal flows in porous materials. A two-dimensional porous model consisting of circular solid domains is considered, and comprehensive simulations are performed to study the influences on macroscopic thermal conductivity from several microscopic system parameters, including the porosity, Reynolds number, and periodic unit aspect ratio and the thermal conductance at the solid-fluid interface. Our results show that, even at the same porosity and Reynolds number, the aspect ratio of the periodic unit and the interfacial thermal conductance can significantly affect the macroscopic thermal behaviors of porous materials. Qualitative analysis is also provided to relate the apparent thermal conductivity to the complex flow and temperature distributions in the microscopic porous structure. The method, findings and discussions presented in this paper could be useful for fundamental studies, material development, and engineering applications of porous thermal flow systems.}, } @article {pmid34828226, year = {2021}, author = {Li, W and Xie, Z and Xi, K and Xia, S and Ge, Y}, title = {Constructal Optimization of Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink with Porous Medium for Entropy Generation Minimization.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {34828226}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {A model of rectangular microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with porous medium (PM) is developed. Aspect ratio of heat sink (HS) cell and length-width ratio of HS are optimized by numerical simulation method for entropy generation minimization (EGM) according to constructal theory. The effects of inlet Reynolds number (Re) of coolant, heat flux on bottom, porosity and volume proportion of PM on dimensionless entropy generation rate (DEGR) are analyzed. From the results, there are optimal aspect ratios to minimize DEGR. Given the initial condition, DEGR is 33.10% lower than its initial value after the aspect ratio is optimized. With the increase of Re, the optimal aspect ratio declines, and the minimum DEGR drops as well. DEGR gets larger and the optimal aspect ratio remains constant with the increasing of heat flux on bottom. For the different volume proportion of PM, the optimal aspect ratios are diverse, but the minimum DEGR almost stays unchanged. The twice minimized DEGR, which results from aspect ratio and length-width ratio optimized simultaneously, is 10.70% lower than the once minimized DEGR. For a rectangular bottom, a lower DEGR can be reached by choosing the proper direction of fluid flow.}, } @article {pmid34828211, year = {2021}, author = {Khan, MF and Sulaiman, M and Tavera Romero, CA and Alkhathlan, A}, title = {A Hybrid Metaheuristic Based on Neurocomputing for Analysis of Unipolar Electrohydrodynamic Pump Flow.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {34828211}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {A unipolar electrohydrodynamic (UP-EHD) pump flow is studied with known electric potential at the emitter and zero electric potential at the collector. The model is designed for electric potential, charge density, and electric field. The dimensionless parameters, namely the electrical source number (Es), the electrical Reynolds number (ReE), and electrical slip number (Esl), are considered with wide ranges of variation to analyze the UP-EHD pump flow. To interpret the pump flow of the UP-EHD model, a hybrid metaheuristic solver is designed, consisting of the recently developed technique sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) under the influence of an artificial neural network. The method is abbreviated as ANN-SCA-SQP. The superiority of the technique is shown by comparing the solution with reference solutions. For a large data set, the technique is executed for one hundred independent experiments. The performance is evaluated through performance operators and convergence plots.}, } @article {pmid34828180, year = {2021}, author = {Jia, Y and Huang, J and Wang, J and Li, H}, title = {Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Microchannel with Oval-Shaped Micro Pin Fins.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {34828180}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {A novel microchannel heat sink with oval-shaped micro pin fins (MOPF) is proposed and the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer are studied numerically for Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 157 to 668. In order to study the influence of geometry on flow and heat transfer characteristics, three non-dimensional variables are defined, such as the fin axial length ratio (α), width ratio (β), and height ratio (γ). The thermal enhancement factor (η) is adopted as an evaluation criterion to evaluate the best comprehensive thermal-hydraulic performance of MOPF. Results indicate that the oval-shaped pin fins in the microchannel can effectively prevent the rise of heat surface temperature along the flow direction, which improves the temperature distribution uniformity. In addition, results show that for the studied Reynolds number range and microchannel geometries in this paper, the thermal enhancement factor η increases firstly and then decreases with the increase of α and β. In addition, except for Re = 157, η decreases first and then increases with the increase of the fin height ratio γ. The thermal enhancement factor for MOPF with α = 4, β = 0.3, and γ = 0.5 achieves 1.56 at Re = 668. The results can provide a theoretical basis for the design of a microchannel heat exchanger.}, } @article {pmid34818642, year = {2021}, author = {Hernández Meza, JM and Vélez-Cordero, JR and Ramírez Saito, A and Aranda-Espinoza, S and Arauz-Lara, JL and Yáñez Soto, B}, title = {Particle/wall electroviscous effects at the micron scale: comparison between experiments, analytical and numerical models.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {34}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ac3cef}, pmid = {34818642}, issn = {1361-648X}, abstract = {We report a experimental study of the motion of 1 μm single particles interacting with functionalized walls at low and moderate ionic strengths conditions. The 3D particle's trajectories were obtained by analyzing the diffracted particle images (point spread function). The studied particle/wall systems include negatively charged particles interacting with bare glass, glass covered with polyelectrolytes and glass covered with a lipid monolayer. In the low salt regime (pure water) we observed a retardation effect of the short-time diffusion coefficients when the particle interacts with a negatively charged wall; this effect is more severe in the perpendicular than in the lateral component. The decrease of the diffusion as a function of the particle-wall distancehwas similar regardless the origin of the negative charge at the wall. When surface charge was screened or salt was added to the medium (10 mM), the diffusivity curves recover the classical hydrodynamic behavior. Electroviscous theory based on the thin electrical double layer (EDL) approximation reproduces the experimental data except for smallh. On the other hand, 2D numerical solutions of the electrokinetic equations showed good qualitative agreement with experiments. The numerical model also showed that the hydrodynamic and Maxwellian part of the electroviscous total drag tend to zero ash→ 0 and how this is linked with the merging of both EDL's at close proximity.}, } @article {pmid34816334, year = {2021}, author = {Díaz, MV}, title = {On the long-time persistence of hydrodynamic memory.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {11}, pages = {141}, pmid = {34816334}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (BBO) equation correctly describes the nonuniform motion of a spherical particle at a low Reynolds number. It contains an integral term with a singular kernel which accounts for the diffusion of vorticity around the particle throughout its entire history. However, if there are any departures in either rigidity or shape from a solid sphere, besides the integral force with a singular kernel, the Basset history force, we should add a second history force with a non-singular kernel, related to the shape or composition of the particle. In this work, we introduce a fractional generalized Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation which includes both history terms as fractional derivatives. Using the Laplace transform, an integral representation of the solution is obtained. For a driven single particle, the solution shows that memory effects persist indefinitely under rather general driving conditions.}, } @article {pmid34805706, year = {2021}, author = {Yin, B and Yue, W and Sohan, ASMMF and Zhou, T and Qian, C and Wan, X}, title = {Micromixer with Fine-Tuned Mathematical Spiral Structures.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {45}, pages = {30779-30789}, pmid = {34805706}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Micromixers with the microchannel structure can enable rapid and efficient mixing of multiple types of fluids on a microfluidic chip. Herein, we report the mixing performance of three passive micromixers based on the different mathematical spiral structures. We study the fluid flow characteristics of Archimedes spiral, Fermat spiral, and hyperbolic spiral structures with various channel widths and Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 0 to 10 via numerical simulation and visualization experiments. In addition, we analyze the mechanism of streamlines and Dean vortices at different cross sections during fluid flows. As the fluid flows in the Fermat spiral channel, the centrifugal force induces the Dean vortex to form a chaotic advection, enhancing the fluid mixing performance. By integrating the Fermat spiral channel into a microfluidic chip, we successfully detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI) marker with the double-antibody sandwich method and reduce the detection time to 10 min. This method has a low reagent consumption and a high reaction efficiency and demonstrates great potential in point-of-care testing (POCT).}, } @article {pmid34797128, year = {2021}, author = {Jaccod, A and Chibbaro, S}, title = {Constrained Reversible System for Navier-Stokes Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {19}, pages = {194501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.194501}, pmid = {34797128}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Following a Gallavotti's conjecture, stationary states of Navier-Stokes fluids are proposed to be described equivalently by alternative equations besides the Navier-Stokes equation itself. We discuss a model system symmetric under time reversal based on the Navier-Stokes equations constrained to keep the enstrophy constant. It is demonstrated through highly resolved numerical experiments that the reversible model evolves to a stationary state which reproduces quite accurately all statistical observables relevant for the physics of turbulence extracted by direct numerical simulations (DNS) at different Reynolds numbers. The possibility of using reversible models to mimic turbulence dynamics is of practical importance for the coarse-grained version of Navier-Stokes equations, as used in large-eddy simulations. Furthermore, the reversible model appears mathematically simpler, since enstrophy is bounded to be constant for every Reynolds number. Finally, the theoretical interest in the context of statistical mechanics is briefly discussed.}, } @article {pmid34781498, year = {2021}, author = {An, X and Dong, B and Wang, Y and Zhang, Y and Zhou, X and Li, W}, title = {Coupled lattice Boltzmann-large eddy simulation model for three-dimensional multiphase flows at large density ratio and high Reynolds number.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {104}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045305}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.104.045305}, pmid = {34781498}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A coupled lattice Boltzmann-large eddy simulation model is developed for modeling three-dimensional multiphase flows at large density ratios and high Reynolds numbers. In the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method, the model is proposed based on the standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale approach, and a reconstructed multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted. The conservative Allen-Cahn equation and Navier-Stokes equations are solved through the lattice Boltzmann discretization scheme for the interface tracking and velocity field evolution, respectively. Relevant benchmark cases are carried out to validate the performance of this model in simulating multiphase flows at a large density ratio and a high Reynolds number, including a stationary droplet, the process of spinodal decomposition, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the phenomenon of a droplet splashing on a thin liquid film, and the liquid jet breakup process. The maximum values of density ratio and Re number are 1000 and 10 240, respectively. The capability and reliability of the proposed model have been demonstrated by the good agreement between simulation results and the analytical solutions or the previously available results.}, } @article {pmid34776531, year = {2021}, author = {Braun, S and Scheichl, S and Kuzdas, D}, title = {The triple-deck stage of marginal separation.}, journal = {Journal of engineering mathematics}, volume = {128}, number = {1}, pages = {16}, pmid = {34776531}, issn = {0022-0833}, abstract = {UNLABELLED: The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the investigation of transitional separation bubbles. The problem-specific Reynolds number is assumed to be large and acts as the primary perturbation parameter. Four subsequent stages can be identified as playing key roles in the characterization of the incipient laminar-turbulent transition process: due to the action of an adverse pressure gradient, a classical laminar boundary layer is forced to separate marginally (I). Taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction then enables the description of localized, predominantly steady, reverse flow regions (II). However, certain conditions (e.g. imposed perturbations) may lead to a finite-time breakdown of the underlying reduced set of equations. The ensuing consideration of even shorter spatio-temporal scales results in the flow being governed by another triple-deck interaction. This model is capable of both resolving the finite-time singularity and reproducing the spike formation (III) that, as known from experimental observations and direct numerical simulations, sets in prior to vortex shedding at the rear of the bubble. Usually, the triple-deck stage again terminates in the form of a finite-time blow-up. The study of this event gives rise to a noninteracting Euler-Prandtl stage (IV) associated with unsteady separation, where the vortex wind-up and shedding process takes place. The focus of the present paper lies on the triple-deck stage III and is twofold: firstly, a comprehensive numerical investigation based on a Chebyshev collocation method is presented. Secondly, a composite asymptotic model for the regularization of the ill-posed Cauchy problem is developed.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10665-021-10125-3.}, } @article {pmid34766181, year = {2022}, author = {Yu, P and Durgesh, V}, title = {Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Study Temporal Flow Behavior in a Saccular Aneurysm.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {144}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4052999}, pmid = {34766181}, issn = {1528-8951}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Intracranial Aneurysm ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {Aneurysms are abnormal expansion of weakened blood vessels which can cause mortality or long-term disability upon rupture. Several studies have shown that inflow conditions spatially and temporally influence aneurysm flow behavior. The objective of this investigation is to identify impact of inflow conditions on spatio-temporal flow behavior in an aneurysm using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). For this purpose, low-frame rate velocity field measurements are performed in an idealized aneurysm model using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The inflow conditions are precisely controlled using a ViVitro SuperPump system where nondimensional fluid parameters such as peak Reynolds number (Rep) and Womersely number (α) are varied from 50-270 and 2-5, respectively. The results show the ability of DMD to identify the spatial flow structures and their frequency content. Furthermore, DMD captured the impact of inflow conditions, and change in mode shapes, amplitudes, frequency, and growth rate information is observed. The DMD low-order flow reconstruction also showed the complex interplay of flow features for each inflow scenario. Furthermore, the low-order reconstruction results provided a mathematical description of the flow behavior in the aneurysm which captured the vortex formation, evolution, and convection in detail. These results indicated that the vortical structure behavior varied with the change in α while its strength and presence of secondary structures are influenced by the change in Rep.}, } @article {pmid34756978, year = {2022}, author = {Hu, F and Zhang, S and Wang, X and Wang, C and Wu, J and Poncin, S and Xu, L and Xu, G and Hu, Y and Li, HZ}, title = {Quantitative hydrodynamic characterization of high solid anaerobic digestion: Correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" and scale-up effect.}, journal = {Bioresource technology}, volume = {344}, number = {Pt B}, pages = {126237}, doi = {10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126237}, pmid = {34756978}, issn = {1873-2976}, mesh = {Anaerobiosis ; *Bioreactors ; *Hydrodynamics ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD)'s complex rheological behavior exhibits short-circuiting and dead zone. Mixing optimization is potential to enhance HSAD hydrodynamics. Besides, scale-up effect is quite essential for HSAD's applications, but remains rarely studied yet. Effect of impeller with different width on the correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" at different rotating speeds was first investigated at pilot-scale in present work. Then, scale-up effect based on rotating speed and a generalized Reynolds number was revealed from the aspects of fluidity and energy consumption. Results show that impeller width of 100 mm (10 rpm), 200 mm and 300 mm (5 and 10 rpm) are preferred for hydrodynamics and energy economics. Furthermore, Re similarity has better referential significance for the scale-up. In this study, new insight is gained into the correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" within a pilot-scale digester. Scale-up effect based Re similarity could potentially offer guidance for HSAD's application in the practical engineering.}, } @article {pmid34746583, year = {2021}, author = {Lian, SJ and Hu, ZX and Lan, Z and Wen, RF and Ma, XH}, title = {Optimal Operation of an Oscillatory Flow Crystallizer: Coupling Disturbance and Stability.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {43}, pages = {28912-28922}, pmid = {34746583}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {In the process of industrial crystallization, it is always difficult to balance the secondary nucleation rate and metastable zone width (MSZW). Herein, we report an experimental and numerical study for the cooling crystallization of paracetamol in an oscillatory flow crystallizer (OFC), finding the optimal operating conditions for balancing the secondary nucleation rate and MSZW. The results show that the MSZW decreases with the increase of oscillation Reynolds number (Re o). Compared to the traditional stirring system, the OFC has an MSZW three times larger than that of the stirring system under a similar power density of consumption. With the numerical simulation, the OFC can produce a stable space environment and instantaneous strong disturbance, which is conducive to the crystallization process. Above all, a high Re o is favorable to produce a sufficient nucleation rate, which may inevitably constrict the MSZW to a certain degree. Then, the optimization strategy of the operating parameter (Re o) in the OFC is proposed.}, } @article {pmid34739321, year = {2021}, author = {Browne, CA and Datta, SS}, title = {Elastic turbulence generates anomalous flow resistance in porous media.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {7}, number = {45}, pages = {eabj2619}, pmid = {34739321}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Many energy, environmental, industrial, and microfluidic processes rely on the flow of polymer solutions through porous media. Unexpectedly, the macroscopic flow resistance often increases above a threshold flow rate in a porous medium, but not in bulk solution. The reason why has been a puzzle for over half a century. Here, by directly visualizing flow in a transparent 3D porous medium, we demonstrate that this anomalous increase is due to the onset of an elastic instability in which the flow exhibits strong spatiotemporal fluctuations reminiscent of inertial turbulence, despite the small Reynolds number. Our measurements enable us to quantitatively establish that the energy dissipated by pore-scale fluctuations generates the anomalous increase in the overall flow resistance. Because the macroscopic resistance is one of the most fundamental descriptors of fluid flow, our results both help deepen understanding of complex fluid flows and provide guidelines to inform a broad range of applications.}, } @article {pmid34739267, year = {2021}, author = {Bott, AFA and Chen, L and Boutoux, G and Caillaud, T and Duval, A and Koenig, M and Khiar, B and Lantuéjoul, I and Le-Deroff, L and Reville, B and Rosch, R and Ryu, D and Spindloe, C and Vauzour, B and Villette, B and Schekochihin, AA and Lamb, DQ and Tzeferacos, P and Gregori, G and Casner, A}, title = {Inefficient Magnetic-Field Amplification in Supersonic Laser-Plasma Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {17}, pages = {175002}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.175002}, pmid = {34739267}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We report a laser-plasma experiment that was carried out at the LMJ-PETAL facility and realized the first magnetized, turbulent, supersonic (Ma_{turb}≈2.5) plasma with a large magnetic Reynolds number (Rm≈45) in the laboratory. Initial seed magnetic fields were amplified, but only moderately so, and did not become dynamically significant. A notable absence of magnetic energy at scales smaller than the outer scale of the turbulent cascade was also observed. Our results support the notion that moderately supersonic, low-magnetic-Prandtl-number plasma turbulence is inefficient at amplifying magnetic fields compared to its subsonic, incompressible counterpart.}, } @article {pmid34737529, year = {2021}, author = {Behera, S and Bhardwaj, R and Agrawal, A}, title = {Effect of co-flow on fluid dynamics of a cough jet with implications in spread of COVID-19.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {33}, number = {10}, pages = {101701}, pmid = {34737529}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {We discuss the temporal evolution of a cough jet of an infected subject in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Computations were carried out using large eddy simulation, and, in particular, the effect of the co-flow (5% and 10% of maximum cough velocity) on the evolution of the jet was quantified. The Reynolds number (Re) of the cough jet, based on the mouth opening diameter (D) and the average cough velocity, is 13 002. The time-varying inlet velocity profile of the cough jet is represented as a combination of gamma-probability-distribution functions. Simulations reveal the detailed structure of cough jet with and without a co-flow for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The cough jet temporal evolution is similar to that of a continuous free-jet and follows the same routes of instability, as documented for a free-jet. The convection velocity of the cough jet decays with time and distance, following a power-law variation. The cough jet is observed to travel a distance of approximately 1.1 m in half a second. However, in the presence of 10% co-flow, the cough jet travels faster and covers the similar distance in just 0.33 s. Therefore, in the presence of a co-flow, the probability of transmission of COVID-19 by airborne droplets and droplet nuclei increases, since they can travel a larger distance. The cough jet without the co-flow corresponds to a larger volume content compared to that with the co-flow and spreads more within the same range of distance. These simulations are significant as they help to reveal the intricate structure of the cough jet and show that the presence of a co-flow can significantly augment the risk of infection of COVID-19.}, } @article {pmid34732570, year = {2021}, author = {Choueiri, GH and Lopez, JM and Varshney, A and Sankar, S and Hof, B}, title = {Experimental observation of the origin and structure of elastoinertial turbulence.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {45}, pages = {}, pmid = {34732570}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Turbulence generally arises in shear flows if velocities and hence, inertial forces are sufficiently large. In striking contrast, viscoelastic fluids can exhibit disordered motion even at vanishing inertia. Intermediate between these cases, a state of chaotic motion, "elastoinertial turbulence" (EIT), has been observed in a narrow Reynolds number interval. We here determine the origin of EIT in experiments and show that characteristic EIT structures can be detected across an unexpectedly wide range of parameters. Close to onset, a pattern of chevron-shaped streaks emerges in qualitative agreement with linear and weakly nonlinear theory. However, in experiments, the dynamics remain weakly chaotic, and the instability can be traced to far lower Reynolds numbers than permitted by theory. For increasing inertia, the flow undergoes a transformation to a wall mode composed of inclined near-wall streaks and shear layers. This mode persists to what is known as the "maximum drag reduction limit," and overall EIT is found to dominate viscoelastic flows across more than three orders of magnitude in Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid34732141, year = {2021}, author = {Zhou, Y and Wang, DM and Liu, L and Huang, P}, title = {The morphometric of lycopsid sporophylls and the evaluation of their dispersal potential: an example from the Upper Devonian of Zhejiang Province, China.}, journal = {BMC ecology and evolution}, volume = {21}, number = {1}, pages = {198}, pmid = {34732141}, issn = {2730-7182}, mesh = {China ; *Fossils ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Previous studies have discussed the special structural adaptations of Late Palaeozoic lycopsids, for example, the dispersal potential of reproductive organs. Based on materials from the Upper Devonian Wutong Formation in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China, we now analyze the morphometric and perform some calculation to evaluate the dispersal of sporophyll units of lycopsids.

RESULTS: The fossil sporophyll units are divided into two types in view of obvious difference in shape and we name two new (form) species for them. We also analyze the falling process and give the calculation method of dispersal distance.

CONCLUSIONS: The fossil sporophyll units show relatively poor potential of wind dispersal compared with modern samaras, and show potential adaptation to the turbulent environment.}, } @article {pmid34731319, year = {2021}, author = {Miles, JG and Battista, NA}, title = {Exploring the sensitivity in jellyfish locomotion under variations in scale, frequency, and duty cycle.}, journal = {Journal of mathematical biology}, volume = {83}, number = {5}, pages = {56}, pmid = {34731319}, issn = {1432-1416}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Locomotion ; *Models, Biological ; *Scyphozoa ; Swimming ; }, abstract = {Jellyfish have been called one of the most energy-efficient animals in the world due to the ease in which they move through their fluid environment, by product of their bell kinematics coupled with their morphological, muscular, material properties. We investigated jellyfish locomotion by conducting in silico comparative studies and explored swimming performance across different fluid scales (i.e., Reynolds Number), bell contraction frequencies, and contraction phase kinematics (duty cycle) for a jellyfish with a fineness ratio of 1 (ratio of bell height to bell diameter). To study these relationships, an open source implementation of the immersed boundary method was used (IB2d) to solve the fully coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible jellyfish bell in a viscous fluid. Thorough 2D parameter subspace explorations illustrated optimal parameter combinations in which give rise to enhanced swimming performance. All performance metrics indicated a higher sensitivity to bell actuation frequency than fluid scale or duty cycle, via Sobol sensitivity analysis, on a higher performance parameter subspace. Moreover, Pareto-like fronts were identified in the overall performance space involving the cost of transport and forward swimming speed. Patterns emerged within these performance spaces when highlighting different parameter regions, which complemented the global sensitivity results. Lastly, an open source computational model for jellyfish locomotion is offered to the science community that can be used as a starting place for future numerical experimentation.}, } @article {pmid34693101, year = {2021}, author = {Grande Gutiérrez, N and Shankar, KN and Sinno, T and Diamond, SL}, title = {Thrombosis and Hemodynamics: external and intrathrombus gradients.}, journal = {Current opinion in biomedical engineering}, volume = {19}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {34693101}, issn = {2468-4511}, support = {R01 HL103419/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; U01 HL131053/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Distinct from dilute, isotropic, and homogeneous reaction systems typically used in laboratory kinetic assays, blood is concentrated, two-phase, flowing, and highly anisotropic when clotting on a surface. This review focuses on spatial gradients that are generated and can dictate thrombus structure and function. Novel experimental and computational tools have recently emerged to explore reaction-transport coupling during clotting. Multiscale simulations help bridge tissue length scales (the coronary arteries) to millimeter scales of a growing clot to the microscopic scale of single-cell signaling and adhesion. Microfluidic devices help create and control pathological velocity profiles, albeit at a low Reynolds number. Since rate processes and force loading are often coupled, this review highlights prevailing convective-diffusive transport physics that modulate cellular and molecular processes during thrombus formation.}, } @article {pmid34685088, year = {2021}, author = {Sun, X and Mohammed, HI and Tiji, ME and Mahdi, JM and Majdi, HS and Wang, Z and Talebizadehsardari, P and Yaïci, W}, title = {Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Triple Tube Latent Heat Storage System Using Circular Fins with Inline and Staggered Arrangements.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {34685088}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Inherent fluctuations in the availability of energy from renewables, particularly solar, remain a substantial impediment to their widespread deployment worldwide. Employing phase-change materials (PCMs) as media, saving energy for later consumption, offers a promising solution for overcoming the problem. However, the heat conductivities of most PCMs are limited, which severely limits the energy storage potential of these materials. This study suggests employing circular fins with staggered distribution to achieve improved thermal response rates of PCM in a vertical triple-tube heat exchanger involving two opposite flow streams of the heat-transfer fluid (HTF). Since heat diffusion is not the same at various portions of the PCM unit, different fin configurations, fin dimensions and HTF flow boundary conditions were explored using computational studies of melting in the PCM triple-tube system. Staggered configuration of fin distribution resulted in significant increases in the rates of PCM melting. The results indicate that the melting rate and heat charging rate could be increased by 37.2 and 59.1%, respectively, in the case of staggered distribution. Furthermore, the use of lengthy fins with smaller thickness in the vertical direction of the storage unit resulted in a better positive role of natural convection; thus, faster melting rates were achieved. With fin dimensions of 0.666 mm × 15 mm, the melting rate was found to be increased by 23.6%, when compared to the base case of 2 mm × 5 mm. Finally, it was confirmed that the values of the Reynolds number and inlet temperatures of the HTF had a significant impact on melting time savings when circular fins of staggered distribution were included.}, } @article {pmid34683293, year = {2021}, author = {Yamashita, H and Akinaga, T and Sugihara-Seki, M}, title = {Pattern Transition on Inertial Focusing of Neutrally Buoyant Particles Suspended in Rectangular Duct Flows.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {34683293}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The continuous separation and filtration of particles immersed in fluid flows are important interests in various applications. Although the inertial focusing of particles suspended in a duct flow is promising in microfluidics, predicting the focusing positions depending on the parameters, such as the shape of the duct cross-section and the Reynolds number (Re) has not been achieved owing to the diversity of the inertial-focusing phenomena. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the variation of the inertial focusing depending on Re in rectangular duct flows. We performed a numerical simulation of the lift force exerted on a spherical particle flowing in a rectangular duct and determined the lift-force map within the duct cross-section over a wide range of Re. We estimated the particle trajectories based on the lift map and Stokes drag, and identified the particle-focusing points appeared in the cross-section. For an aspect ratio of the duct cross-section of 2, we found that the blockage ratio changes transition structure of particle focusing. For blockage ratios smaller than 0.3, particles focus near the centres of the long sides of the cross-section at low Re and near the centres of both the long and short sides at relatively higher Re. This transition is expressed as a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. For blockage ratio larger than 0.3, another focusing pattern appears between these two focusing regimes, where particles are focused on the centres of the long sides and at intermediate positions near the corners. Thus, there are three regimes; the transition between adjacent regimes at lower Re is found to be expressed as a saddle-node bifurcation and the other transition as a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation.}, } @article {pmid34678790, year = {2021}, author = {Christov, IC}, title = {Soft hydraulics: from Newtonian to complex fluid flows through compliant conduits.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {34}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ac327d}, pmid = {34678790}, issn = {1361-648X}, mesh = {Cross-Sectional Studies ; *Hydrodynamics ; Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; *Microfluidics/methods ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Microfluidic devices manufactured from soft polymeric materials have emerged as a paradigm for cheap, disposable and easy-to-prototype fluidic platforms for integrating chemical and biological assays and analyses. The interplay between the flow forces and the inherently compliant conduits of such microfluidic devices requires careful consideration. While mechanical compliance was initially a side-effect of the manufacturing process and materials used, compliance has now become a paradigm, enabling new approaches to microrheological measurements, new modalities of micromixing, and improved sieving of micro- and nano-particles, to name a few applications. This topical review provides an introduction to the physics of these systems. Specifically, the goal of this review is to summarize the recent progress towards a mechanistic understanding of the interaction between non-Newtonian (complex) fluid flows and their deformable confining boundaries. In this context, key experimental results and relevant applications are also explored, hand-in-hand with the fundamental principles for their physics-based modeling. The key topics covered include shear-dependent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids, hydrodynamic pressure gradients during flow, the elastic response (deformation and bulging) of soft conduits due to flow within, the effect of cross-sectional conduit geometry on the resulting fluid-structure interaction, and key dimensionless groups describing the coupled physics. Open problems and future directions in this nascent field of soft hydraulics, at the intersection of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, soft matter physics, and microfluidics, are noted.}, } @article {pmid34677517, year = {2021}, author = {Park, NS and Yoon, S and Jeong, W and Jeong, YW}, title = {A Study on the Evaluation of Flow Distribution Evenness in Parallel-Arrayed-Type Low-Pressure Membrane Module Piping.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {34677517}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {The objectives of this study were to measure the flow rate distribution from a header pipe to each module installed in parallel for a water treatment membrane filtration process in operation and to investigate the reason for an uneven distribution of the flow rate via the CFD technique. In addition, this study attempted to propose the ratio of the branch pipe to the header pipe required to equalize the flow distribution for the same membrane filtration process. Finally, the relationship between the Reynolds number in the header pipe and the degree of the manifold flow distribution evenness was investigated. Mobile ultrasonic flow meter was used to measure the flow rate flowing from the membrane module pipe to each module, and the CFD technique was used to verify this. From the results of the actual measurement using ultrasonic flow meter and CFD simulation, it was confirmed that the outflow flow rate from the branch pipe located at the end of the header pipe was three times higher than that of the branch pipe near the inlet. The reason was that the differential pressure generated between each membrane module was higher toward the end of the header pipe. When the ratio of the sum of the cross-sectional area of the branch pipe and the cross-sectional area of the header pipe was reduced by about 30 times, it was confirmed that the flow rate flowing from each branch pipe to the membrane module was almost equal. Also, if the flow in the header pipe is transitional or laminar (Reynolds No. is approximately 4000 or less), the flow rate flowing from each branch pipe to the membrane module can be more even.}, } @article {pmid34677490, year = {2021}, author = {Kim, KT and Park, JE and Jung, SY and Kang, TG}, title = {Fouling Mitigation via Chaotic Advection in a Flat Membrane Module with a Patterned Surface.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {34677490}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {Fouling mitigation using chaotic advection caused by herringbone-shaped grooves in a flat membrane module is numerically investigated. The feed flow is laminar with the Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 50 to 500. In addition, we assume a constant permeate flux on the membrane surface. Typical flow characteristics include two counter-rotating flows and downwelling flows, which are highly influenced by the groove depth at each Re. Poincaré sections are plotted to represent the dynamical systems of the flows and to analyze mixing. The flow systems become globally chaotic as the groove depth increases above a threshold value. Fouling mitigation via chaotic advection is demonstrated using the dimensionless average concentration (c¯w*) on the membrane and its growth rate. When the flow system is chaotic, the growth rate of c¯w* drops significantly compared to that predicted from the film theory, demonstrating that chaotic advection is an attractive hydrodynamic technique that mitigates membrane fouling. At each Re, there exists an optimal groove depth minimizing c¯w* and the growth rate of c¯w*. Under the optimum groove geometry, foulants near the membrane are transported back to the bulk flow via the downwelling flows, distributed uniformly in the entire channel via chaotic advection.}, } @article {pmid34663851, year = {2021}, author = {Khan, WU and Imran, A and Raja, MAZ and Shoaib, M and Awan, SE and Kausar, K and He, Y}, title = {A novel mathematical modeling with solution for movement of fluid through ciliary caused metachronal waves in a channel.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20601}, pmid = {34663851}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In the present research, a novel mathematical model for the motion of cilia using non-linear rheological fluid in a symmetric channel is developed. The strength of analytical perturbation technique is employed for the solution of proposed physical process using mectachoronal rhythm based on Cilia induced flow for pseudo plastic nano fluid model by considering the low Reynolds number and long wave length approximation phenomena. The role of ciliary motion for the fluid transport in various animals is explained. Analytical expressions are gathered for stream function, concentration, temperature profiles, axial velocity, and pressure gradient. Whereas, transverse velocity, pressure rise per wave length, and frictional force on the wall of the tubule are investigated with aid of numerical computations and their outcomes are demonstrated graphically. A comprehensive analysis for comparison of Perturb and numerical solution is done. This analysis validates the analytical solution.}, } @article {pmid34659649, year = {2022}, author = {Cui, PY and Chen, WQ and Wang, JQ and Zhang, JH and Huang, YD and Tao, WQ}, title = {Numerical studies on issues of Re-independence for indoor airflow and pollutant dispersion within an isolated building.}, journal = {Building simulation}, volume = {15}, number = {7}, pages = {1259-1276}, pmid = {34659649}, issn = {1996-3599}, abstract = {This study conducted the numerical models validated by wind-tunnel experiments to investigate the issues of Re-independence of indoor airflow and pollutant dispersion within an isolated building. The window Reynolds number (Re w) was specified to characterize the indoor flow and dispersion. The indicators of RRC (ratio of relative change) or DR (K_DR) (difference ratio of dimensionless concentration) ≤ 5% were applied to quantitatively determine the critical Re w for indoor flow and turbulent diffusion. The results show that the critical Re (Re crit) value is position-dependent, and Re crit at the most unfavorable position should be suggested as the optimal value within the whole areas of interest. Thus Re H,crit = 27,000 is recommended for the outdoor flows; while Re w,crit = 15,000 is determined for the indoor flows due to the lower part below the window showing the most unfavorable. The suggested Re w,crit (=15,000) for indoor airflow and cross ventilation is independence of the window size. Moreover, taking K_DR ≤ 5% as the indicator, the suggested Re w,crit for ensuring indoor pollutant diffusion enter the Re-independence regime should also be 15,000, indicating that indoor passive diffusion is completely determined by the flow structures. The contours of dimensionless velocity (U/U 0) and concentration (K) against the increasing Re w further confirmed this critical value. This study further reveals the Re-independence issues for indoor flow and dispersion to ensure the reliability of the data obtained by reduced-scale numerical or wind-tunnel models.}, } @article {pmid34656560, year = {2022}, author = {Moitoi, AJ and Shaw, S}, title = {Magnetic drug targeting during Caputo-Fabrizio fractionalized blood flow through a permeable vessel.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {139}, number = {}, pages = {104262}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104262}, pmid = {34656560}, issn = {1095-9319}, mesh = {Antineoplastic Agents/*blood/chemistry/therapeutic use ; Blood Vessels/*metabolism ; Computer Simulation ; *Drug Carriers ; Drug Compounding ; *Magnetic Fields ; *Metal Nanoparticles ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Nanotechnology ; Neoplasms/*blood supply/drug therapy/metabolism ; Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted ; Permeability ; Regional Blood Flow ; }, abstract = {Nanoparticle-based drug targeting is an important platform for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Magnetic drug targeting is more significant as it is a noninvasive procedure and biocompatible. The present problem aims to understand magnetic drug delivery to a specific location in a permeable blood vessel under the vibration and magnetic environment. Caputo-Fabrizio fractional-order time derivatives are used in the governing equations. The momentum equations are solved analytically and presented in the form of Lorenzo-Hartley and Robotonov-Hartley functions and convolution of the Laplace transform. Convolution integrations are solved by using the numerical integration technique. The Fourth order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) is used to solve the force balance equation. The influence of pertinent parameters such as Reynolds number, pulsatile frequency, magnetic field strength, Darcy number and fractional-order parameters are presented through graphs. It is observed that increasing Reynolds number results in decreasing the tendency of the drug to capture near the tumor site, whereas the pulsatile frequency presents an opposite phenomenon. Increasing the magnetic field strength and Darcy number boosts the capture efficiency of drug particles near the tumor site. The short memory effect efficiently captures the magnetic drug carriers to a specific location under the action of suitable magnetic field strength.}, } @article {pmid34654198, year = {2021}, author = {Calderer, MC and Golovaty, D and Yao, L and Zhao, L}, title = {Shear flow of active matter in thin channels.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {104}, number = {3-1}, pages = {034607}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.104.034607}, pmid = {34654198}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We study the shear flow of active filaments confined in a thin channel for extensile and contractile fibers. We apply the Ericksen-Leslie equations of liquid crystal flow with an activity source term. The dimensionless form of this system includes the Ericksen, activity, and Reynolds numbers, together with the aspect ratio of the channel, as the main driving parameters. We perform a normal mode stability analysis of the base shear flow. For both types of fibers, we arrive at a comprehensive description of the stability properties and their dependence on the parameters of the system. The transition to unstable frequencies in extensile fibers occurs at a positive threshold value of the activity parameter, whereas for contractile ones a complex behavior is found at low absolute value of the activity number. The latter might be an indication of the biologically relevant plasticity and phase transition issues. In contrast with extensile fibers, flows of contractile ones are also found to be highly sensitive to the Reynolds number. The work on extensile fibers is guided by experiments on active filaments in confined channels and aims at quantifying their findings in the prechaotic regime.}, } @article {pmid34651149, year = {2021}, author = {Gallen, AF and Castro, M and Hernandez-Machado, A}, title = {Red blood cells in low Reynolds number flow: A vorticity-based characterization of shapes in two dimensions.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {17}, number = {42}, pages = {9587-9594}, doi = {10.1039/d1sm00559f}, pmid = {34651149}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {Cell Movement ; Cell Shape ; *Erythrocytes ; *Hydrodynamics ; Physical Phenomena ; }, abstract = {Studies on the mechanical properties of red blood cells improve the diagnosis of some blood-related diseases. Some existing numerical methods have successfully simulated the coupling between a fluid and red blood cells. This paper introduces an alternative phase-field model formulation of two-dimensional cells that solves the vorticity and stream function that simplifies the numerical implementation. We integrate red blood cell dynamics immersed in a Poiseuille flow and reproduce previously reported morphologies (slippers or parachutes). In the case of flow in a very wide channel, we discover a new metastable shape referred to as 'anti-parachute' that evolves into a horizontal slipper centered on the channel. This sort of metastable morphology may contribute to the dynamical response of the blood.}, } @article {pmid34644682, year = {2022}, author = {Truong, H and Engels, T and Wehmann, H and Kolomenskiy, D and Lehmann, FO and Schneider, K}, title = {An experimental data-driven mass-spring model of flexibleCalliphorawings.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {17}, number = {2}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac2f56}, pmid = {34644682}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Elasticity ; *Flight, Animal ; Humans ; Insecta ; Models, Biological ; *Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {Insect wings can undergo significant deformation during flapping motion owing to inertial, elastic and aerodynamic forces. Changes in shape then alter aerodynamic forces, resulting in a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem. Here, we present detailed three-dimensional FSI simulations of deformable blowfly (Calliphora vomitoria) wings in flapping flight. A wing model is proposed using a multi-parameter mass-spring approach, chosen for its implementation simplicity and computational efficiency. We train the model to reproduce static elasticity measurements by optimizing its parameters using a genetic algorithm with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES). Wing models trained with experimental data are then coupled to a high-performance flow solver run on massively parallel supercomputers. Different features of the modeling approach and the intra-species variability of elastic properties are discussed. We found that individuals with different wing stiffness exhibit similar aerodynamic properties characterized by dimensionless forces and power at the same Reynolds number. We further study the influence of wing flexibility by comparing between the flexible wings and their rigid counterparts. Under equal prescribed kinematic conditions for rigid and flexible wings, wing flexibility improves lift-to-drag ratio as well as lift-to-power ratio and reduces peak force observed during wing rotation.}, } @article {pmid34642447, year = {2021}, author = {Ali, A and Kanwal, T and Awais, M and Shah, Z and Kumam, P and Thounthong, P}, title = {Impact of thermal radiation and non-uniform heat flux on MHD hybrid nanofluid along a stretching cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20262}, pmid = {34642447}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The current research investigates the thermal radiations and non-uniform heat flux impacts on magnetohydrodynamic hybrid nanofluid (CuO-Fe2O3/H2O) flow along a stretching cylinder, which is the main aim of this study. The velocity slip conditions have been invoked to investigate the slippage phenomenon on the flow. The impact of induced magnetic field with the assumption of low Reynolds number is imperceptible. Through the use of appropriate non-dimensional parameters and similarity transformations, the ruling PDE's (partial differential equations) are reduced to set of ODE's (ordinary differential equations), which are then numerically solved using Adams-Bashforth Predictor-Corrector method. Velocity and temperature fields with distinct physical parameters are investigated and explored graphically. The main observations about the hybrid nanofluid and non-uniform heat flux are analyzed graphically. A decrease in the velocity of the fluid is noted with addition of Hybrid nanofluid particles while temperature of the fluid increases by adding the CuO-Fe2O3 particles to the base fluid. Also, velocity of the fluid decreases when we incorporate the effects of magnetic field and slip. Raise in curvature parameter γ caused enhancement of velocity and temperature fields at a distance from the cylinder but displays opposite behavior nearby the surface of cylinder. The existence of heat generation and absorption for both mass dependent and time dependent parameters increases the temperature of the fluid.}, } @article {pmid34636830, year = {2021}, author = {Ho, TM and Yang, J and Tsai, PA}, title = {Microfluidic mass transfer of CO2 at elevated pressures: implications for carbon storage in deep saline aquifers.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {21}, number = {20}, pages = {3942-3951}, doi = {10.1039/d1lc00106j}, pmid = {34636830}, issn = {1473-0189}, mesh = {*Carbon Dioxide ; *Groundwater ; Microfluidics ; Water ; }, abstract = {Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in a deep saline aquifer is one of the most promising technologies to mitigate anthropologically emitted carbon dioxide. Accurately quantifying the mass transport of CO2 at pore-scales is crucial but challenging for successful CCS deployment. Here, we conduct high-pressure microfluidic experiments, mimicking reservoir conditions up to 9.5 MPa and 35 °C, to elucidate the microfluidic mass transfer process of CO2 at three different states (i.e., gas, liquid, and supercritical phase) into water. We measure the size change of CO2 micro-bubbles/droplets generated using a microfluidic T-junction to estimate the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa), quantifying the rate change of CO2 concentration under the driving force of concentration gradient. The results show that bubbles/droplets under high-pressure conditions reach a steady state faster than low pressure. The measured volumetric mass transfer coefficient increases with the Reynolds number (based on the liquid slug) and is nearly independent of the injection pressure for both the gas and liquid phases. In addition, kLa significantly enlarges with increasing high pressure at the supercritical state. Compared with various chemical engineering applications using millimeter-sized capillaries (with typical kLa measured ranging from ≈0.005 to 0.8 s[-1]), the microfluidic results show a significant increase in the volumetric mass transfer of CO2 into water by two to three orders of magnitude, O (10[2]-10[3]), with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter (of ≈50 μm).}, } @article {pmid34635693, year = {2021}, author = {Liao, Y and Mechulam, Y and Lassalle-Kaiser, B}, title = {A millisecond passive micromixer with low flow rate, low sample consumption and easy fabrication.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20119}, pmid = {34635693}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Complex Mixtures/*analysis ; *Computer Simulation ; Equipment Design ; Humans ; Lab-On-A-Chip Devices/*standards ; Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/*instrumentation/*methods ; }, abstract = {Fast mixing of small volumes of solutions in microfluidic devices is essential for an accurate control and observation of the dynamics of a reaction in biological or chemical studies. It is often, however, a challenging task, as the Reynolds number (Re) in microscopic devices is typically < 100. In this report, we detail a novel mixer based on the "staggered herring bone" (SHB) pattern and "split-recombination" strategies with an optimized geometry, the periodic rotation of the flow structure can be controlled and recombined in a way that the vortices and phase shifts of the flow induce intertwined lamellar structures, thus increasing the contact surface and enhancing mixing. The optimization improves the mixing while using a low flow rate, hence a small volume for mixing and moderate pressure drops. The performances of the patterns were first simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics under different operating conditions. The simulation indicates that at very low flow rate (1-12 µL·min[-1]) and Re (3.3-40), as well as a very small working volume (~ 3 nL), a very good mixing (~ 98%) can be achieved in the ms time range (4.5-78 ms). The most promising design was then visualized experimentally, showing results that are consistent with the outcomes of the simulations. Importantly, the devices were fabricated using a classical soft-lithography method, as opposed to additive manufacturing often used to generate complex mixing structures. This new device minimizes the sample consumption and could therefore be applied for studies using precious samples.}, } @article {pmid34625588, year = {2021}, author = {Hussain, A and Hassan, A and Mdallal, QA and Ahmad, H and Sherif, EM and Rehman, A and Arshad, M}, title = {Comsolic solution of an elliptic cylindrical compressible fluid flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20030}, pmid = {34625588}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this article, the primary focus is to investigate the heat transfer effects with viscous compressible laminar flow in the permeable elliptic cylinder. The Reynolds number is kept 100 for flow to be laminar. The physics of heat transfer is selected to be coupled with the laminar flow. The results for particular step-size time for Velocity distribution, pressure profile, temperature profile, isothermal temperature contours, and drag coefficient have been analyzed. Mesh has been generated through COMSOL, mesh entities have been elaborated statistically. The maximum and minimum velocity profile is observed at the elliptical cylinder's walls and upper, lower boundary respectively. The maximum velocity observed is 2.22 m/s. Pressure profile around elliptic corners is found maximum, distinct patterns are observed even under the influence of applied heat. Temperature is observed maximum at walls but it gradually increases as moving from the upper boundary towards the lower boundary. The isothermal contour patterns are observed maximum near the walls, drag coefficient of gradual decrease is observed. COMSOL multi-physics is utilized for mathematical modeling of problems and the Backward-Differentiation-Formula has been exploited to handle problems numerically. The results will help greatly to understand the characterizations of viscous fluids and in industries like air furnaces and automobile cooling systems.}, } @article {pmid34623848, year = {2021}, author = {Khalid, M and Shankar, V and Subramanian, G}, title = {Continuous Pathway between the Elasto-Inertial and Elastic Turbulent States in Viscoelastic Channel Flow.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {13}, pages = {134502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.134502}, pmid = {34623848}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Viscoelastic plane Poiseuille flow is shown to become linearly unstable in the absence of inertia, in the limit of high elasticities, for ultradilute polymer solutions. While inertialess elastic instabilities have been predicted for curvilinear shear flows, this is the first ever report of a purely elastic linear instability in a rectilinear shear flow. The novel instability continues up to a Reynolds number (Re) of O(1000), corresponding to the recently identified elasto-inertial turbulent state believed to underlie the maximum-drag-reduced regime. Thus, for highly elastic ultradilute polymer solutions, a single linearly unstable modal branch may underlie transition to elastic turbulence at zero Re and to elasto-inertial turbulence at moderate Re, implying the existence of continuous pathways connecting the turbulent states to each other and to the laminar base state.}, } @article {pmid34608161, year = {2021}, author = {Marusic, I and Chandran, D and Rouhi, A and Fu, MK and Wine, D and Holloway, B and Chung, D and Smits, AJ}, title = {An energy-efficient pathway to turbulent drag reduction.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {5805}, pmid = {34608161}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {Simulations and experiments at low Reynolds numbers have suggested that skin-friction drag generated by turbulent fluid flow over a surface can be decreased by oscillatory motion in the surface, with the amount of drag reduction predicted to decline with increasing Reynolds number. Here, we report direct measurements of substantial drag reduction achieved by using spanwise surface oscillations at high friction Reynolds numbers ([Formula: see text]) up to 12,800. The drag reduction occurs via two distinct physical pathways. The first pathway, as studied previously, involves actuating the surface at frequencies comparable to those of the small-scale eddies that dominate turbulence near the surface. We show that this strategy leads to drag reduction levels up to 25% at [Formula: see text] = 6,000, but with a power cost that exceeds any drag-reduction savings. The second pathway is new, and it involves actuation at frequencies comparable to those of the large-scale eddies farther from the surface. This alternate pathway produces drag reduction of 13% at [Formula: see text] = 12,800. It requires significantly less power and the drag reduction grows with Reynolds number, thereby opening up potential new avenues for reducing fuel consumption by transport vehicles and increasing power generation by wind turbines.}, } @article {pmid34607142, year = {2022}, author = {Yogarathinam, LT and Velswamy, K and Gangasalam, A and Ismail, AF and Goh, PS and Narayanan, A and Abdullah, MS}, title = {Performance evaluation of whey flux in dead-end and cross-flow modes via convolutional neural networks.}, journal = {Journal of environmental management}, volume = {301}, number = {}, pages = {113872}, doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113872}, pmid = {34607142}, issn = {1095-8630}, mesh = {*Cheese/analysis ; Filtration ; Membranes, Artificial ; Neural Networks, Computer ; *Whey ; Whey Proteins ; }, abstract = {Effluent originating from cheese production puts pressure onto environment due to its high organic load. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to compare the influence of different process variables (transmembrane pressure (TMP), Reynolds number and feed pH) on whey protein recovery from synthetic and industrial cheese whey using polyethersulfone (PES 30 kDa) membrane in dead-end and cross-flow modes. Analysis on the fouling mechanistic model indicates that cake layer formation is dominant as compared to other pore blocking phenomena evaluated. Among the input variables, pH of whey protein solution has the biggest influence towards membrane flux and protein rejection performances. At pH 4, electrostatic attraction experienced by whey protein molecules prompted a decline in flux. Cross-flow filtration system exhibited a whey rejection value of 0.97 with an average flux of 69.40 L/m[2]h and at an experimental condition of 250 kPa and 8 for TMP and pH, respectively. The dynamic behavior of whey effluent flux was modeled using machine learning (ML) tool convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recursive one-step prediction scheme was utilized. Linear and non-linear correlation indicated that CNN model (R[2] - 0.99) correlated well with the dynamic flux experimental data. PES 30 kDa membrane displayed a total protein rejection coefficient of 0.96 with 55% of water recovery for the industrial cheese whey effluent. Overall, these filtration studies revealed that this dynamic whey flux data studies using the CNN modeling also has a wider scope as it can be applied in sensor tuning to monitor flux online by means of enhancing whey recovery efficiency.}, } @article {pmid34599248, year = {2021}, author = {Almalki, MM and Alaidarous, ES and Maturi, DA and Raja, MAZ and Shoaib, M}, title = {Intelligent computing technique based supervised learning for squeezing flow model.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {19597}, pmid = {34599248}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this study, the unsteady squeezing flow between circular parallel plates (USF-CPP) is investigated through the intelligent computing paradigm of Levenberg-Marquard backpropagation neural networks (LMBNN). Similarity transformation introduces the fluidic system of the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. A dataset is generated based on squeezing fluid flow system USF-CPP for the LMBNN through the Runge-Kutta method by the suitable variations of Reynolds number and volume flow rate. To attain approximation solutions for USF-CPP to different scenarios and cases of LMBNN, the operations of training, testing, and validation are prepared and then the outcomes are compared with the reference data set to ensure the suggested model's accuracy. The output of LMBNN is discussed by the mean square error, dynamics of state transition, analysis of error histograms, and regression illustrations.}, } @article {pmid34588473, year = {2021}, author = {Ramzan, M and Khan, NS and Kumam, P}, title = {Mechanical analysis of non-Newtonian nanofluid past a thin needle with dipole effect and entropic characteristics.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {19378}, pmid = {34588473}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The study concerns with the mechanical characteristics of heat and mass transfer flow of a second grade nanofluid as well as gyrotatic microorganism motion past a thin needle with dipole effect, entropy generation, thermal radiation, Arrhenius activation energy and binar chemical reaction. The governing equations and boundary conditions are simplified by the use of suitable similarity transformations. Homotopy analysis method is implemented to obtain the series solution of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Physical behaviors of heat and mass transfer flow with gyrotatic microorganisms and entropy generation are investigated through the embedded parameters. The nanofluid velocity is enhanced for higher values of the ferromagnetic parameter, local Grashof number, bioconvection Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. The Reynolds number, radiation parameter and Eckert number decrease the nanofluid temperature. The entropy generation is increased with the enhancement of radiation parameter, Eckert number, Lewis number, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless constant parameter, Curie temperature, Prandtl number and concentration difference parameter.}, } @article {pmid34586089, year = {2021}, author = {Treiser, MD and Miles, MR and Albino, FP and Giladi, AM and Katz, RD and Higgins, JP}, title = {Long-Term Patency and Fluid Dynamics of Recipient Artery after End-to-Side Anastomosis for Free Tissue Transfer.}, journal = {Plastic and reconstructive surgery}, volume = {148}, number = {5}, pages = {800e-803e}, doi = {10.1097/PRS.0000000000008439}, pmid = {34586089}, issn = {1529-4242}, mesh = {Adolescent ; Adult ; Anastomosis, Surgical/methods ; Arteries/diagnostic imaging/physiology/*surgery ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Collateral Circulation ; Extremities/blood supply/*injuries/surgery ; Follow-Up Studies ; Free Tissue Flaps/blood supply/*transplantation ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/*methods ; Treatment Outcome ; Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex ; *Vascular Patency ; Young Adult ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: End-to-end microvascular anastomoses sacrifice downstream inline perfusion of the recipient vessels. End-to-side anastomoses, in theory, maintain distal inline flow of the recipient vessel. The proposed benefit of the end-to-side technique depends on patency of the distal vessels and subsequent flow parameters, but maintenance of distal perfusion has not been conclusively demonstrated.

METHODS: Fifteen patients who underwent a successful extremity free flap procedure via end-to-side anastomoses to a noncritical vessel between 2003 and 2017 were enrolled. Recipient artery patency distal to the anastomosis was assessed using pulse volume recordings and duplex ultrasound imaging. Resistance indices, flow velocities, vessel diameters, volumetric flow, and turbulent flow dimensionless number (Reynolds number) were measured. Comparisons were made to the ipsilateral collateral vessel as well as to the vessels on the nonoperative contralateral limb using paired t tests.

RESULTS: Downstream flow was identified in 14 of 15 patients (93 percent patency). There was no statistical difference in resistive indices comparing the anastomotic vessel (0.859 ± 0.300) and the collateral vessel (0.853 ± 0.179) of the ipsilateral extremity. Ultrasound flows were similar; the anastomotic vessel demonstrated downstream volumetric flows of 139 ± 92.0 cm3/min versus 137 ± 41.6 cm3/min within the same vessel of the nonoperative contralateral limb. The anastomotic vessel had Reynolds numbers well below the turbulent threshold (448 ± 202 and 493 ± 127 for the anastomotic and nonoperative contralateral limb, respectively).

CONCLUSION: End-to-side anastomosis to noncritical vessels resulted in a 93 percent long-term recipient vessel patency rate, with no statistically significant changes in volumetric flows, resistive indices, or fluid dynamics in the vessels that remained patent.}, } @article {pmid34577719, year = {2021}, author = {Huang, L and Du, J and Zhu, Z}, title = {Neutrally Buoyant Particle Migration in Poiseuille Flow Driven by Pulsatile Velocity.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {34577719}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A neutrally buoyant circular particle migration in two-dimensional (2D) Poiseuille channel flow driven by pulsatile velocity is numerical studied by using immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The effects of Reynolds number (25≤Re≤200) and blockage ratio (0.15≤k≤0.40) on particle migration driven by pulsatile and non-pulsatile velocity are all numerically investigated for comparison. The results show that, different from non-pulsatile cases, the particle will migrate back to channel centerline with underdamped oscillation during the time period with zero-velocity in pulsatile cases. The maximum lateral travel distance of the particle in one cycle of periodic motion will increase with increasing Re, while k has little impact. The quasi frequency of such oscillation has almost no business with Re and k. Moreover, Re plays an essential role in the damping ratio. Pulsatile flow field is ubiquitous in aorta and other arteries. This article is conducive to understanding nanoparticle migration in those arteries.}, } @article {pmid34577699, year = {2021}, author = {Farahinia, A and Jamaati, J and Niazmand, H and Zhang, W}, title = {Numerical Analysis of the Heterogeneity Effect on Electroosmotic Micromixers Based on the Standard Deviation of Concentration and Mixing Entropy Index.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {34577699}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {One approach to achieve a homogeneous mixture in microfluidic systems in the quickest time and shortest possible length is to employ electroosmotic flow characteristics with heterogeneous surface properties. Mixing using electroosmotic flow inside microchannels with homogeneous walls is done primarily under the influence of molecular diffusion, which is not strong enough to mix the fluids thoroughly. However, surface chemistry technology can help create desired patterns on microchannel walls to generate significant rotational currents and improve mixing efficiency remarkably. This study analyzes the function of a heterogeneous zeta-potential patch located on a microchannel wall in creating mixing inside a microchannel affected by electroosmotic flow and determines the optimal length to achieve the desired mixing rate. The approximate Helmholtz-Smoluchowski model is suggested to reduce computational costs and simplify the solving process. The results show that the heterogeneity length and location of the zeta-potential patch affect the final mixing proficiency. It was also observed that the slip coefficient on the wall has a more significant effect than the Reynolds number change on improving the mixing efficiency of electroosmotic micromixers, benefiting the heterogeneous distribution of zeta-potential. In addition, using a channel with a heterogeneous zeta-potential patch covered by a slip surface did not lead to an adequate mixing in low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, a homogeneous channel without any heterogeneity would be a priority in such a range of Reynolds numbers. However, increasing the Reynolds number and the presence of a slip coefficient on the heterogeneous channel wall enhances the mixing efficiency relative to the homogeneous one. It should be noted, though, that increasing the slip coefficient will make the mixing efficiency decrease sharply in any situation, especially in high Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid34575038, year = {2021}, author = {Gimsa, J and Gimsa, U}, title = {Contributions to a Discussion of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus as a Capable Swimmer and Deep-Water Predator.}, journal = {Life (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {34575038}, issn = {2075-1729}, abstract = {The new findings on Spinosaurus' swim tail strongly suggest that Spinosaurus was a specialized deep-water predator. However, the tail must be seen in the context of the propelled body. The comparison of the flow characteristics of Spinosaurus with geometrically similar animals and their swimming abilities under water must take their Reynolds numbers into account and provide a common context for the properties of Spinosaurus' tail and dorsal sail. Head shape adaptations such as the head crest reduced hydrodynamic disturbance and facilitated stealthy advance, especially when hunting without visual contact, when Spinosaurus could have used its rostral integumentary mechanoreceptors for prey detection. The muscular neck permitted 'pivot' feeding, where the prey's escape abilities were overcome by rapid dorsoventral head movement, facilitated by crest-mediated lower friction.}, } @article {pmid34549120, year = {2021}, author = {Wu, R and Xie, F and Wei, J and Song, X and Yang, H and Lv, P and Yu, G}, title = {Study on Soot Emission Characteristics of Methane/Oxygen Inverse Diffusion Flame.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {36}, pages = {23191-23202}, pmid = {34549120}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Inverse diffusion flame (IDF) is an effective and widely used reaction form in the process of noncatalytic partial oxidation (NC-POX) of gaseous hydrocarbons (such as natural gas and coke oven gas). However, soot is generated in the combustion chamber in the case of unreasonable feeding conditions, and thus causes serious damage to the wall and nozzle. In this study, the effects of the equivalence ratio ([O/C]e), the oxygen flow rate, and the Reynolds number on the soot and CH* emission characteristics of CH4/O2 inverse diffusion flame were comprehensively analyzed based on a hyperspectral imaging system. In addition, the relationship between CH* and soot is explored using Ansys Fluent simulation. The experimental results show that the soot radiation core generation area is located in the outer ring of the flame, and the radial distribution of the radiation intensity is bimodal. With the increase in [O/C]e, the initial position for soot radiation and the overall radiation intensity of soot decrease. In addition, the CH* radiation intensity decreases as [O/C]e increases, and CH* exists in the whole flame. The simulation results clearly show that the existence of CH* is conducive to soot production. The emission intensity and the core area of soot formation increase with the increase in the oxygen velocity. Additionally, the soot emission region increases and the flame tip changes from a round blunt to symmetrical tip with the increase in the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid34547732, year = {2021}, author = {Haider, N and Shahzad, A and Qadri, MNM and Shams, TA}, title = {Aerodynamic analysis of hummingbird-like hovering flight.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {16}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac28eb}, pmid = {34547732}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Birds ; Computer Simulation ; *Flight, Animal ; Insecta ; Models, Biological ; *Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {Flapping wing micro aerial vehicles are studied as the substitute for fixed and rotary wing micro aerial vehicles because of the advantages such as agility, maneuverability, and employability in confined environments. Hummingbird's sustainable hovering capability inspires many researchers to develop micro aerial vehicles with similar dynamics. In this research, a wing of a ruby-throated hummingbird is modeled as an insect wing using membrane and stiffeners. The effect of flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of a wing in hovering flight has been studied numerically by using a fluid-structure interaction scheme at a Reynolds number of 3000. Different wings have been developed by using different positions and thicknesses of the stiffeners. The chordwise and spanwise flexural stiffnesses of all the wings modeled in this work are comparable to insects of similar span and chord length. When the position of the stiffener is varied, the best-performing wing has an average lift coefficient of 0.51. Subsequently, the average lift coefficient is increased to 0.56 when the appropriate thickness of the stiffeners is chosen. The best flexible wing outperforms its rigid counterpart and produces lift and power economy comparable to a real hummingbird's wing. That is, the average lift coefficient and power economy of 0.56 and 0.88 for the best flexible wing as compared to 0.61 and 1.07 for the hummingbird's wing. It can be concluded that a simple manufacturable flexible wing design based on appropriate positioning and thickness of stiffeners can serve as a potential candidate for bio-inspired flapping-wing micro aerial vehicles.}, } @article {pmid34528156, year = {2021}, author = {Javid, K and Hassan, M and Tripathi, D and Khan, S and Bobescu, E and Bhatti, MM}, title = {Double-diffusion convective biomimetic flow of nanofluid in a complex divergent porous wavy medium under magnetic effects.}, journal = {Journal of biological physics}, volume = {47}, number = {4}, pages = {477-498}, pmid = {34528156}, issn = {1573-0689}, mesh = {*Biomimetics ; Diffusion ; *Magnetic Fields ; *Nanotechnology ; Porosity ; }, abstract = {We explore the physical influence of magnetic field on double-diffusive convection in complex biomimetic (peristaltic) propulsion of nanofluid through a two-dimensional divergent channel. Additionally, porosity effects along with rheological properties of the fluid are also retained in the analysis. The mathematical model is developed by equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and mass concentration. First, scaling analysis is introduced to simplify the rheological equations in the wave frame of reference and then get the final form of equations after applying the low Reynolds number and lubrication approach. The obtained equations are solved analytically by using integration method. Physical interpretation of velocity, pressure gradient, pumping phenomena, trapping phenomena, heat, and mass transfer mechanisms are discussed in detail under magnetic and porous environment. The magnitude of velocity profile is reduced by increasing Grashof parameter. The bolus circulations disappeared from trapping phenomena for larger strength of magnetic and porosity medium. The magnitude of temperature profile and mass concentration are increasing by enhancing the Brownian motion parameter. This study can be productive in manufacturing non-uniform and divergent shapes of micro-lab-chip devices for thermal engineering, industrial, and medical technologies.}, } @article {pmid34505131, year = {2022}, author = {Costa, RP and Simplice Talla Nwotchouang, B and Yao, J and Biswas, D and Casey, D and McKenzie, R and Steinman, DA and Loth, F}, title = {Transition to Turbulence Downstream of a Stenosis for Whole Blood and a Newtonian Analog Under Steady Flow Conditions.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {144}, number = {3}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4052370}, pmid = {34505131}, issn = {1528-8951}, mesh = {Animals ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Constriction, Pathologic ; *Glycerol ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Rheology ; Stress, Mechanical ; Swine ; Water ; }, abstract = {Blood, a multiphase fluid comprised of plasma, blood cells, and platelets, is known to exhibit a shear-thinning behavior at low shear rates and near-Newtonian behavior at higher shear rates. However, less is known about the impact of its multiphase nature on the transition to turbulence. In this study, we experimentally determined the critical Reynolds number at which the flow began to transition to turbulence downstream of eccentric stenosis for whole porcine blood and a Newtonian blood analog (water-glycerin mixture). Velocity profiles for both fluids were measured under steady-state flow conditions using an ultrasound Doppler probe placed 12 diameters downstream of eccentric stenosis. Velocity was recorded at 21 locations along the diameter at 11 different flow rates. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy was used to determine the critical Reynolds number for each fluid. Blood rheology was measured before and after each experiment. Tests were conducted on five samples of each fluid inside a temperature-controlled in vitro flow system. The viscosity at a shear rate of 1000 s-1 was used to define the Reynolds number for each fluid. The mean critical Reynolds numbers for blood and water-glycerin were 470 ± 27.5 and 395 ± 10, respectively, indicating a ∼19% delay in transition to turbulence for whole blood compared to the Newtonian fluid. This finding is consistent with a previous report for steady flow in a straight pipe, suggesting some aspect of blood rheology may serve to suppress, or at least delay, the onset of turbulence in vivo.}, } @article {pmid34497885, year = {2021}, author = {Bu, X and Zhou, S and Sun, M and Alheshibri, M and Khan, MS and Xie, G and Chelgani, SC}, title = {Exploring the Relationships between Gas Dispersion Parameters and Differential Pressure Fluctuations in a Column Flotation.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {34}, pages = {21900-21908}, pmid = {34497885}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Flotation separation, which is the most important mineral beneficiation technique, is dependent on gas dispersion (hydrodynamic conditions). Thus, many investigations have focused on the precise determination of hydrodynamic conditions such as Reynolds number of the bubbles, bubble velocity, and bubble diameter. However, few studies have examined their relationships with pressure fluctuations in a column flotation. This study introduced the differential pressure fluctuations as an actual variable that could be considered to determine the collection zone's hydrodynamic conditions in a cyclonic microbubble flotation column. In general, the outcomes indicated that superficial gas velocity had the most substantial relationship with the differential pressure fluctuations among other flotation factors (such as pump speed, superficial gas velocity, superficial water velocity, and frother dosage). Furthermore, a high coefficient of determination (R [2] > 0.77) for the equation generated to assess the relationships demonstrated that differential pressure fluctuations could be used as a promising tool to determine the hydrodynamic parameters' characteristics in the flotation columns.}, } @article {pmid34497293, year = {2021}, author = {Aghamiri, H and Niknejadi, M and Toghraie, D}, title = {Analysis of the forced convection of two-phase Ferro-nanofluid flow in a completely porous microchannel containing rotating cylinders.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {17811}, pmid = {34497293}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In the present work, the forced convection of nanofluid flow in a microchannel containing rotating cylinders is investigated in different geometries. The heat flux applied to the microchannel wall is 10,000 W m[-2]. The effects of Reynolds number, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, and the porosity percentage of the porous medium are investigated on the flow fields, temperature, and heat transfer rate. Reynolds number values vary from Re = 250-1000, non-dimensional rotational velocities 1 and 2, respectively, and volume fraction of nanoparticles 0-2%. The results show that increasing the velocity of rotating cylinders increases the heat transfer; also, increasing the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the heat transfer, pressure drop, and Cf,ave. By comparing the porosity percentages with each other, it is concluded that due to the greater contact of the nanofluid with the porous medium and the creation of higher velocity gradients, the porosity percentage is 45% and the values of are 90% higher than the porosity percentage. Comparing porosity percentages with each other, at porosity percentage 90% is greater than at porosity percentage 45%. On the other hand, increasing the Reynolds number reduces the entropy generation due to heat transfer and increases the entropy generation due to friction. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the entropy generations due to heat transfer and friction.}, } @article {pmid34482836, year = {2021}, author = {Mandell, JG and Loke, YH and Mass, PN and Cleveland, V and Delaney, M and Opfermann, J and Aslan, S and Krieger, A and Hibino, N and Olivieri, LJ}, title = {Altered hemodynamics by 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance predict exercise intolerance in repaired coarctation of the aorta: an in vitro study.}, journal = {Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {99}, pmid = {34482836}, issn = {1532-429X}, support = {R01 HL143468/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; R38 AI140298/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ; R38AI140298/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ; R01HL143468-0/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, mesh = {Aorta ; Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging/surgery ; *Aortic Coarctation/diagnostic imaging/surgery ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Predictive Value of Tests ; Retrospective Studies ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is associated with decreased exercise capacity despite successful repair. Altered flow patterns have been identified due to abnormal aortic arch geometry. Our previous work demonstrated aorta size mismatch to be associated with exercise intolerance in this population. In this study, we studied aortic flow patterns during simulations of exercise in repaired CoA using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using aortic replicas connected to an in vitro flow pump and correlated findings with exercise stress test results to identify biomarkers of exercise intolerance.

METHODS: Patients with CoA repair were retrospectively analyzed after CMR and exercise stress test. Each aorta was manually segmented and 3D printed. Pressure gradient measurements from ascending aorta (AAo) to descending aorta (DAo) and 4D flow CMR were performed during simulations of rest and exercise using a mock circulatory flow loop. Changes in wall shear stress (WSS) and secondary flow formation (vorticity and helicity) from rest to exercise were quantified, as well as estimated DAo Reynolds number. Parameters were correlated with percent predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2max) and aorta size mismatch (DAAo/DDAo).

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified (VO2max 47 to 126% predicted). Pressure gradient did not correlate with VO2max at rest or exercise. VO2max correlated positively with the change in peak vorticity (R = 0.55, p = 0.03), peak helicity (R = 0.54, p = 0.04), peak WSS in the AAo (R = 0.68, p = 0.005) and negatively with peak WSS in the DAo (R = - 0.57, p = 0.03) from rest to exercise. DAAo/DDAo correlated strongly with change in vorticity (R = - 0.38, p = 0.01), helicity (R = - 0.66, p = 0.007), and WSS in the AAo (R = - 0.73, p = 0.002) and DAo (R = 0.58, p = 0.02). Estimated DAo Reynolds number negatively correlated with VO2max for exercise (R = - 0.59, p = 0.02), but not rest (R = - 0.28, p = 0.31). Visualization of streamline patterns demonstrated more secondary flow formation in aortic arches with better exercise capacity, larger DAo, and lower Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: There are important associations between secondary flow characteristics and exercise capacity in repaired CoA that are not captured by traditional pressure gradient, likely due to increased turbulence and inefficient flow. These 4D flow CMR parameters are a target of investigation to identify optimal aortic arch geometry and improve long term clinical outcomes after CoA repair.}, } @article {pmid34455847, year = {2021}, author = {Simonis, S and Haussmann, M and Kronberg, L and Dörfler, W and Krause, MJ}, title = {Linear and brute force stability of orthogonal moment multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {379}, number = {2208}, pages = {20200405}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2020.0405}, pmid = {34455847}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) based on orthogonal moments exhibit lattice Mach number dependent instabilities in diffusive scaling. The present work renders an explicit formulation of stability sets for orthogonal moment MRT LBM. The stability sets are defined via the spectral radius of linearized amplification matrices of the MRT collision operator with variable relaxation frequencies. Numerical investigations are carried out for the three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex benchmark at Reynolds number 1600. Extensive brute force computations of specific relaxation frequency ranges for the full test case are opposed to the von Neumann stability set prediction. Based on that, we prove numerically that a scan over the full wave space, including scaled mean flow variations, is required to draw conclusions on the overall stability of LBM in turbulent flow simulations. Furthermore, the von Neumann results show that a grid dependence is hardly possible to include in the notion of linear stability for LBM. Lastly, via brute force stability investigations based on empirical data from a total number of 22 696 simulations, the existence of a deterministic influence of the grid resolution is deduced. This article is part of the theme issue 'Progress in mesoscale methods for fluid dynamics simulation'.}, } @article {pmid34455509, year = {2021}, author = {Ali, A and Jana, RN and Das, S}, title = {Significance of entropy generation and heat source: the case of peristaltic blood flow through a ciliated tube conveying Cu-Ag nanoparticles using Phan-Thien-Tanner model.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {20}, number = {6}, pages = {2393-2412}, pmid = {34455509}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {Copper/*chemistry ; *Entropy ; *Hot Temperature ; Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; *Models, Biological ; Peristalsis/*physiology ; Pressure ; Reproducibility of Results ; Silver/*chemistry ; }, abstract = {The present speculative investigation is concentrated to analyze the entropy generation and heat transfer phenomena in ciliary induced peristalsis of blood with the suspension of hybrid nanoparticles in a tube with heat source impact. The blood is assumed to contain copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The ciliary inner wall of the tube has been considered with small hair-like structures. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model is employed to describe the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics of blood. The conservative equations are normalized and simplified by utilizing scaling analysis with the assumption of low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations. The analytical inspection exposes that the total entropy generation gets a decrement for mounting values of cilia length, while reversed impact is detected for an increment in heat source parameter. Hybrid nano-blood exhibits a greater total entropy number than mono nano-blood. This research study may be beneficial to medical experts and researchers in the field of embryology. Cysts in the ciliated fallopian tube, where embryos develop, are removed by using nanoparticles (nano-drug delivery).}, } @article {pmid34442509, year = {2021}, author = {Parveen, N and Awais, M and Awan, SE and Khan, WU and He, Y and Malik, MY}, title = {Entropy Generation Analysis and Radiated Heat Transfer in MHD (Al2O3-Cu/Water) Hybrid Nanofluid Flow.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {34442509}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {This research concerns the heat transfer and entropy generation analysis in the MHD axisymmetric flow of Al2O3-Cu/H2O hybrid nanofluid. The magnetic induction effect is considered for large magnetic Reynolds number. The influences of thermal radiations, viscous dissipation and convective temperature conditions over flow are studied. The problem is modeled using boundary layer theory, Maxwell's equations and Fourier's conduction law along with defined physical factors. Similarity transformations are utilized for model simplification which is analytically solved with the homotopy analysis method. The h-curves up to 20th order for solutions establishes the stability and convergence of the adopted computational method. Rheological impacts of involved parameters on flow variables and entropy generation number are demonstrated via graphs and tables. The study reveals that entropy in system of hybrid nanofluid affected by magnetic induction declines for β while it enhances for Bi, R and λ. Moreover, heat transfer rate elevates for large Bi with convective conditions at surface.}, } @article {pmid34441209, year = {2021}, author = {Ahammad, NA and Badruddin, IA and Kamangar, S and Khaleed, HMT and Saleel, CA and Mahlia, TMI}, title = {Heat Transfer and Entropy in a Vertical Porous Plate Subjected to Suction Velocity and MHD.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {34441209}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {This article presents an investigation of heat transfer in a porous medium adjacent to a vertical plate. The porous medium is subjected to a magnetohydrodynamic effect and suction velocity. The governing equations are nondepersonalized and converted into ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved with the help of the finite difference method. The impact of various parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter, radiation parameter, Eckert number, viscous dissipation parameter, and magnetic parameter, on fluid flow characteristics inside the porous medium is discussed. Entropy generation in the medium is analyzed with respect to various parameters, including the Brinkman number and Reynolds number. It is noted that the velocity profile decreases in magnitude with respect to the Prandtl number, but increases with the radiation parameter. The Eckert number has a marginal effect on the velocity profile. An increased radiation effect leads to a reduced thermal gradient at the hot surface.}, } @article {pmid34432464, year = {2021}, author = {Gu, R and Lehn, JM}, title = {Constitutional Dynamic Selection at Low Reynolds Number in a Triple Dynamic System: Covalent Dynamic Adaptation Driven by Double Supramolecular Self-Assembly.}, journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society}, volume = {143}, number = {35}, pages = {14136-14146}, doi = {10.1021/jacs.1c04446}, pmid = {34432464}, issn = {1520-5126}, abstract = {A triple dynamic complex system has been designed, implementing a dynamic covalent process coupled to two supramolecular self-assembly steps. To this end, two dynamic covalent libraries (DCLs), DCL-1 and DCL-2, have been established on the basis of dynamic covalent C═C/C═N organo-metathesis between two Knoevenagel derivatives and two imines. Each DCL contains a barbituric acid-based Knoevenagel constituent that may undergo a sequential double self-organization process involving first the formation of hydrogen-bonded hexameric supramolecular macrocycles that subsequently undergo stacking to generate a supramolecular polymer SP yielding a viscous gel state. Both DCLs display selective self-organization-driven amplification of the constituent that leads to the SP. Dissociation of the SP on heating causes reversible randomization of the constituent distributions of the DCLs as a function of temperature. Furthermore, diverse distribution patterns of DCL-2 were induced by modulation of temperature and solvent composition. The present dynamic systems display remarkable self-organization-driven constitutional adaption and tunable composition by coupling between dynamic covalent component selection and two-stage supramolecular organization. In more general terms, they reveal dynamic adaptation by component selection in low Reynolds number conditions of living systems where frictional effects dominate inertial behavior.}, } @article {pmid34410363, year = {2021}, author = {Herrera-Amaya, A and Seber, EK and Murphy, DW and Patry, WL and Knowles, TS and Bubel, MM and Maas, AE and Byron, ML}, title = {Spatiotemporal Asymmetry in Metachronal Rowing at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {61}, number = {5}, pages = {1579-1593}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icab179}, pmid = {34410363}, issn = {1557-7023}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Body Size ; *Extremities ; Models, Theoretical ; *Swimming ; }, abstract = {In drag-based swimming, individual propulsors operating at low Reynolds numbers (where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces) must execute a spatially asymmetric stroke to produce net fluid displacement. Temporal asymmetry (that is, differing duration between the power vs. recovery stroke) does not affect the overall generated thrust in this time-reversible regime. Metachronal rowing, in which multiple appendages beat sequentially, is used by a wide variety of organisms from low to intermediate Reynolds numbers. At the upper end of this range, inertia becomes important, and increasing temporal asymmetry can be an effective way to increase thrust. However, the combined effects of spatial and temporal asymmetry are not fully understood in the context of metachronal rowing. To explore the role of spatiotemporal asymmetry in metachronal rowing, we combine laboratory experiments and reduced-order analytical modeling. We measure beat kinematics and generated flows in two species of lobate ctenophores across a range of body sizes, from 7 to 40 mm in length. We observe characteristically different flows in ctenophores of differing body size and Reynolds number, and a general decrease in spatial asymmetry and increase in temporal asymmetry with increasing Reynolds number. We also construct a one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a row of oscillating flat plates whose flow-normal areas change with time, and use it to explore the propulsive forces generated across a range of Reynolds numbers and kinematic parameters. The model results show that while both types of asymmetry increase force production, they have different effects in different regions of the parameter space. These results may have strong biological implications, as temporal asymmetry can be actively controlled while spatial asymmetry is likely to be partially or entirely driven by passive fluid-structure interaction.}, } @article {pmid34391375, year = {2022}, author = {Pattnaik, PK and Abbas, MA and Mishra, S and Khan, SU and Bhatti, MM}, title = {Free Convective Flow of Hamilton-Crosser Model Gold-water Nanofluid Through a Channel with Permeable Moving Walls.}, journal = {Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening}, volume = {25}, number = {7}, pages = {1103-1114}, doi = {10.2174/1386207324666210813112323}, pmid = {34391375}, issn = {1875-5402}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; Gold ; Hot Temperature ; *Metal Nanoparticles ; *Water ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: The present manuscript analyzes the influence of buoyant forces of a conducting time-dependent nanofluid flow through porous moving walls. The medium is also filled with porous materials. In addition to that, uniform heat source and absorption parameters are considered that affect the nanofluid model.

INTRODUCTION: The model is based on the thermophysical properties of Hamilton-Crosser's nanofluid model, in which a gold nanoparticle is submerged into the base fluid water. Before simulation is obtained by a numerical method, suitable transformation is used to convert nonlinear coupled PDEs to ODEs.

METHOD: Runge-Kutta's fourth-order scheme is applied successfully for the first-order ODEs in conjunction with the shooting technique.

RESULT: Computations for the coefficients of rate constants are presented through graphs, along with the behavior of several physical parameters augmented by the flow phenomena.

CONCLUSION: The present investigation may be compatible with the applications of biotechnology. It is seen that the inclusion of volume concentration and the fluid velocity enhances near the middle layer of the channel and retards near the permeable walls. Also, augmented values of the Reynolds number and both cooling and heating of the wall increase the rate of shear stress.}, } @article {pmid34384065, year = {2021}, author = {Luo, Y and Wright, M and Xiao, Q and Yue, H and Pan, G}, title = {Fluid-structure interaction analysis on motion control of a self-propelled flexible plate near a rigid body utilizing PD control.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {16}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1cee}, pmid = {34384065}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Fishes ; *Models, Biological ; Motion ; *Swimming ; }, abstract = {Inspired by a previous experimental study of fish swimming near a cylinder, we numerically investigate the swimming and station-holding behavior of a flexible plate ahead of a circular cylinder whose motion is controlled by a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Specifically, the deformation of this two-dimensional plate is actuated by a periodically varying external force applied on the body surface, which mimics the fish muscle force to produce propulsive thrust. The actuation force amplitude is dynamically adjusted by a feedback controller to instruct the plate to swim the desired distance from an initial position to a target location and then hold the station there. Instead of directly using the instantaneous position signal, an average speed measured over one force actuation period is proposed with the inclusion of instantaneous position information to form the tracking error for the PD control. Our results show that the motion control of swimming and station holding has been achieved by this simple but effective feedback control without large overshoot when approaching the target at different flow conditions and actuation force formulas. Although the swimming distance remains the same, a plate whose initial position is closer to the cylinder requires less energy expenditure to swim to the target location and hold the station there. This is because the low-pressure zone near the trailing edge of the plate is reduced in size, which provides drag reduction, contributing to reduced swimming energy. A higher Reynolds number also leads to energy savings. Under the same control strategy, the swimming performance is more affected by the force-frequency while the phase shift of the actuation force has a less significant impact.}, } @article {pmid34381068, year = {2021}, author = {Lin, P and Liu, X and Xiong, N and Wang, X and Shang, M and Liu, G and Tao, Y}, title = {Numerical study on the influence of wall temperature gradient on aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect ratio flying wing configuration.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16295}, pmid = {34381068}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {With the aim for a low-aspect-ratio flying wing configuration, this study explores the influence of wall temperature gradient on the laminar and turbulent boundary layers of aircraft surface and determines the effect on the transition Reynolds number and wall friction drag. A four-equation turbulence model with transition mode is used to numerically simulate the flow around the model. The variation of wall friction coefficient, transition Reynolds number, and turbulent boundary layer flow with wall temperature are emphatically investigated. Results show that when the wall temperature increases from 288 to 500 K, the boundary layer transition Reynolds number for the wing section increased by approximately 28% and the surface friction drags decreases by approximately 10.7%. The hot wall enhances the viscous effects of the laminar temperature boundary layer, reduces the Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy, and increases the flow stability. However, the velocity gradient and shear stress in the bottom of the turbulent boundary layer decreases, which leads to reduced friction shear stress on the wall surface. Therefore, for the low-aspect-ratio flying wing model, the hot wall can delay the boundary layer transition and reduce the friction drag coefficient in the turbulent region.}, } @article {pmid34373556, year = {2021}, author = {Xia, WF and Hafeez, MU and Khan, MI and Shah, NA and Chung, JD}, title = {Entropy optimized dissipative flow of hybrid nanofluid in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation and Joule heating.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16067}, pmid = {34373556}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Present article reads three dimensional flow analysis of incompressible viscous hybrid nanofluid in a rotating frame. Ethylene glycol is used as a base liquid while nanoparticles are of copper and silver. Fluid is bounded between two parallel surfaces in which the lower surface stretches linearly. Fluid is conducting hence uniform magnetic field is applied. Effects of non-linear thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are entertained. Interesting quantities namely surface drag force and Nusselt number are discussed. Rate of entropy generation is examined. Bvp4c numerical scheme is used for the solution of transformed O.D.Es. Results regarding various flow parameters are obtained via bvp4c technique in MATLAB Software version 2019, and displayed through different plots. Our obtained results presents that velocity field decreases with respect to higher values of magnetic parameter, Reynolds number and rotation parameter. It is also observed that the temperature field boots subject to radiation parameter. Results are compared with Ishak et al. (Nonlinear Anal R World Appl 10:2909-2913, 2009) and found very good agreement with them. This agreement shows that the results are 99.99% match with each other.}, } @article {pmid34373493, year = {2021}, author = {Alihosseini, Y and Azaddel, MR and Moslemi, S and Mohammadi, M and Pormohammad, A and Targhi, MZ and Heyhat, MM}, title = {Effect of liquid cooling on PCR performance with the parametric study of cross-section shapes of microchannels.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16072}, pmid = {34373493}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In recent years, PCR-based methods as a rapid and high accurate technique in the industry and medical fields have been expanded rapidly. Where we are faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity of a rapid diagnosis has felt more than ever. In the current interdisciplinary study, we have proposed, developed, and characterized a state-of-the-art liquid cooling design to accelerate the PCR procedure. A numerical simulation approach is utilized to evaluate 15 different cross-sections of the microchannel heat sink and select the best shape to achieve this goal. Also, crucial heat sink parameters are characterized, e.g., heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, performance evaluation criteria, and fluid flow. The achieved result showed that the circular cross-section is the most efficient shape for the microchannel heat sink, which has a maximum heat transfer enhancement of 25% compared to the square shape at the Reynolds number of 1150. In the next phase of the study, the circular cross-section microchannel is located below the PCR device to evaluate the cooling rate of the PCR. Also, the results demonstrate that it takes 16.5 s to cool saliva samples in the PCR well, which saves up to 157.5 s for the whole amplification procedure compared to the conventional air fans. Another advantage of using the microchannel heat sink is that it takes up a little space compared to other common cooling methods.}, } @article {pmid34372345, year = {2021}, author = {Costantini, M and Henne, U and Klein, C and Miozzi, M}, title = {Skin-Friction-Based Identification of the Critical Lines in a Transonic, High Reynolds Number Flow via Temperature-Sensitive Paint.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {15}, pages = {}, pmid = {34372345}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {In this contribution, three methodologies based on temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) data were further developed and applied for the optical determination of the critical locations of flow separation and reattachment in compressible, high Reynolds number flows. The methodologies rely on skin-friction extraction approaches developed for low-speed flows, which were adapted in this work to study flow separation and reattachment in the presence of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In a first approach, skin-friction topological maps were obtained from time-averaged surface temperature distributions, thus enabling the identification of the critical lines as converging and diverging skin-friction lines. In the other two approaches, the critical lines were identified from the maps of the propagation celerity of temperature perturbations, which were determined from time-resolved TSP data. The experiments were conducted at a freestream Mach number of 0.72 and a chord Reynolds number of 9.7 million in the Transonic Wind Tunnel Göttingen on a VA-2 supercritical airfoil model, which was equipped with two exchangeable TSP modules specifically designed for transonic, high Reynolds number tests. The separation and reattachment lines identified via the three different TSP-based approaches were shown to be in mutual agreement, and were also found to be in agreement with reference experimental and numerical data.}, } @article {pmid34359055, year = {2021}, author = {Diaz, K and Robinson, TL and Aydin, YO and Aydin, E and Goldman, DI and Wan, KY}, title = {A minimal robophysical model of quadriflagellate self-propulsion.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {16}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1b6e}, pmid = {34359055}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Flagella ; Gait ; Locomotion ; *Robotics ; *Swimming ; }, abstract = {Locomotion at the microscale is remarkably sophisticated. Microorganisms have evolved diverse strategies to move within highly viscous environments, using deformable, propulsion-generating appendages such as cilia and flagella to drive helical or undulatory motion. In single-celled algae, these appendages can be arranged in different ways around an approximately 10 μm long cell body, and coordinated in distinct temporal patterns. Inspired by the observation that some quadriflagellates (bearing four flagella) have an outwardly similar morphology and flagellar beat pattern, yet swim at different speeds, this study seeks to determine whether variations in swimming performance could arise solely from differences in swimming gait. Robotics approaches are particularly suited to such investigations, where the phase relationships between appendages can be readily manipulated. Here, we developed autonomous, algae-inspired robophysical models that can self-propel in a viscous fluid. These macroscopic robots (length and width = 8.5 cm, height = 2 cm) have four independently actuated 'flagella' (length = 13 cm) that oscillate under low-Reynolds number conditions (Re∼O(10-1)). We tested the swimming performance of these robot models with appendages arranged two distinct configurations, and coordinated in three distinct gaits. The gaits, namely the pronk, the trot, and the gallop, correspond to gaits adopted by distinct microalgal species. When the appendages are inserted perpendicularly around a central 'body', the robot achieved a net performance of 0.15-0.63 body lengths per cycle, with the trot gait being the fastest. Robotic swimming performance was found to be comparable to that of the algal microswimmers across all gaits. By creating a minimal robot that can successfully reproduce cilia-inspired drag-based swimming, our work paves the way for the design of next-generation devices that have the capacity to autonomously navigate aqueous environments.}, } @article {pmid34357216, year = {2021}, author = {Li, L and Chen, Q and Sui, G and Qian, J and Tsai, CT and Cheng, X and Jing, W}, title = {A Three-Dimensional Micromixer Using Oblique Embedded Ridges.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {34357216}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A micromixer is one of the most significant components in a microfluidic system. A three-dimensional micromixer was developed with advantages of high efficiency, simple fabrication, easy integration, and ease of mass production. The designed principle is based on the concepts of splitting-recombination and chaotic advection. A numerical model of this micromixer was established to characterize the mixing performance for different parameters. A critical Reynolds number (Re) was obtained from the simulation results. When the Re number is smaller than the critical value, the fluid mixing is mainly dependent on the mechanism of splitting-recombination, therefore, the length of the channel capable of complete mixing (complete mixing length) increases as the Re number increases. When the Re number is larger than the critical value, the fluid mixing is dominated by chaotic advection, and the complete mixing length decreases as the Re number increases. For normal fluids, a complete mixing length of 500 µm can be achieved at a very small Re number of 0.007 and increases to 2400 µm as the Re number increases to the critical value of 4.7. As the Re number keep increasing and passes the critical Re number, the complete mixing length continues to descend to 650 µm at the Re number of 66.7. For hard-to-mix fluids (generally referring to fluids with high viscosity and low diffusion coefficient, which are difficult to mix), even though no evidence of strong chaotic advection is presented in the simulation, the micromixer can still achieve a complete mixing length of 2550 µm. The mixing performance of the micromixer was also verified by experiments. The experimental results showed a consistent trend with the numerical simulation results, which both climb upward when the Re number is around 0.007 (flow rate of 0.03 μm/min) to around 10 (flow rate of 50 μm/min), then descend when the Re number is around 13.3 (flow rate of 60 µm/min).}, } @article {pmid34357184, year = {2021}, author = {Nichka, VS and Nikonenko, VV and Bazinet, L}, title = {Fouling Mitigation by Optimizing Flow Rate and Pulsed Electric Field during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidification of Caseinate Solution.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {34357184}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {The efficiency of separation processes using ion exchange membranes (IEMs), especially in the food industry, is significantly limited by the fouling phenomenon, which is the process of the attachment and growth of certain species on the surface and inside the membrane. Pulsed electric field (PEF) mode, which consists in the application of constant current density pulses during a fixed time (Ton) alternated with pause lapses (Toff), has a positive antifouling impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of three different relatively high flow rates of feed solution (corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 187, 374 and 560) and various pulse-pause ratios of PEF current regime on protein fouling kinetics during electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) of a model caseinate solution. Four different pulse/pause regimes (with Ton/Toff ratios equal to 10 s/10 s, 10 s/20 s, 10 s/33 s and 10 s/50 s) during electrodialysis (ED) treatment were evaluated at a current density of 5 mA/cm[2]. It was found that increasing the pause duration and caseinate solution flow rate had a positive impact on the minimization of protein fouling occurring on the cationic surface of the bipolar membrane (BPM) during the EDBM. Both a long pause and high flow rate contribute to a more effective decrease in the concentration of protons and caseinate anions at the BPM surface: a very good membrane performance was achieved with 50 s of pause duration of PEF and a flow rate corresponding to Re = 374. A further increase in PEF pause duration (above 50 s) or flow rate (above Re = 374) did not lead to a significant decrease in the amount of fouling.}, } @article {pmid34349343, year = {2021}, author = {Ferroni, C and Bracconi, M and Ambrosetti, M and Maestri, M and Groppi, G and Tronconi, E}, title = {A Fundamental Investigation of Gas/Solid Heat and Mass Transfer in Structured Catalysts Based on Periodic Open Cellular Structures (POCS).}, journal = {Industrial & engineering chemistry research}, volume = {60}, number = {29}, pages = {10522-10538}, pmid = {34349343}, issn = {0888-5885}, abstract = {In this work, we investigate the gas-solid heat and mass transfer in catalytically activated periodic open cellular structures, which are considered a promising solution for intensification of catalytic processes limited by external transport, aiming at the derivation of suitable correlations. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to investigate the Tetrakaidekahedral and Diamond lattice structures. The influence of the morphological features and flow conditions on the external transport properties is assessed. The strut diameter is an adequate characteristic length for the formulation of heat and mass transfer correlations; accordingly, a power-law dependence of the Sherwood number to the Reynolds number between 0.33 and 0.67 was found according to the flow regimes in the range 1-128 of the Reynolds number. An additional -1.5-order dependence on the porosity is found. The formulated correlations are in good agreement with the simulation results and allow for the accurate evaluation of the external transfer coefficients for POCS.}, } @article {pmid34335006, year = {2021}, author = {Liu, K and Allahyari, M and Salinas, J and Zgheib, N and Balachandar, S}, title = {Investigation of theoretical scaling laws using large eddy simulations for airborne spreading of viral contagion from sneezing and coughing.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {33}, number = {6}, pages = {063318}, pmid = {34335006}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {Using a set of large eddy point-particle simulations, we explore the fluid dynamics of an ejected puff resulting from a cough/sneeze. The ejection contains over 61 000 potentially virus-laden droplets at an injection Reynolds number of about 46 000, comparable to an actual cough/sneeze. We observe that global puff properties, such as centroid, puff volume, momentum, and buoyancy vary little across realizations. Other properties, such as maximum extent, shape, and edge velocity of the puff, may exhibit substantial variation. In many realizations, a portion of the puff splits off and advances along a random direction, while keeping airborne droplet nuclei afloat. This peeled-off portion provides a mechanism for virus-laden droplets to travel over large distances in a short amount of time. We also observe that the vast majority of droplets remain suspended within the puff after all liquid has evaporated. The main objectives of the study are to (i) evaluate assumptions of Balachandar's et al. theory [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 132, 103439 (2020)], which include buoyancy effects, shape of the puff, and droplet evaporation rate, (ii) obtain values of closure parameters, which include location and time of the virtual origin, and puff entrainment and drag coefficients, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of the theory in predicting the shape, size, and location of the puff, as well as droplet number density long after ejection. The theory adequately predicts global puff properties including size, velocity, and distance traveled, the largest size of droplets that exit the puff due to settling, and the droplet size distribution within the puff long after ejection.}, } @article {pmid34319753, year = {2021}, author = {Singh, RK and Mahato, LK and Mandal, DK}, title = {Airflow-Assisted Impact of Drops of Various Viscosities: The Role of Viscous Dissipation, Normal Imposed Pressure, and Shear Flow of Air.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {37}, number = {31}, pages = {9504-9517}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01367}, pmid = {34319753}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {The role of liquid viscosity on the spreading for an airflow-assisted impact of drops on a surface is investigated. The spreading diameter is found to increase with the Reynolds number of the airflow (Reair) for a given viscosity and impact Weber number (We) compared to the still air. The increment is higher at a low We for viscous drops, whereas the effect of Reair dominates at the intermediate We as the viscosity decreases. Two extra forces, the normal imposed pressure and shear force of air, act on the drop and influence the spreading along with the viscous dissipation. The drop's curvature decreases depending on the viscosity and impact velocity while spreading. Large-scale eddies near the drop-surface region are observed due to the separation of the incident airflow. The formation of eddies signifies low-pressure zones, which extract the trapped air, causing the spreading diameter of the viscous drop to increase at a low We. With the increase in the We, the lamella thickness of low-viscosity drops decreases and is pushed out by the air shear causing the spreading factor to increase. The boundary layer thickness is estimated using the energy balance method to predict the maximum spreading factor. The prediction compares well with the experimental one for higher viscosities. The accuracy improves when the effect of low pressure is incorporated. To confirm, the experimental spreading is compared with that obtained from three existing models, and one, which considers the influence, is observed to provide a better prediction.}, } @article {pmid34297252, year = {2021}, author = {Sharifi, A and Gendernalik, A and Garrity, D and Bark, D}, title = {Valveless pumping behavior of the simulated embryonic heart tube as a function of contractile patterns and myocardial stiffness.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {20}, number = {5}, pages = {2001-2012}, pmid = {34297252}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Cardiac Output ; Computer Simulation ; Electric Impedance ; Heart/*embryology/*physiology ; Heart Rate ; *Hemodynamics ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Models, Theoretical ; *Myocardial Contraction ; Myocardium/*pathology ; Peristalsis ; Pressure ; Stress, Mechanical ; Zebrafish/*embryology ; }, abstract = {During development, the heart begins pumping as a valveless multilayered tube capable of driving blood flow throughout the embryonic vasculature. The mechanical properties and how they interface with pumping function are not well-defined at this stage. Here, we evaluate pumping patterns using a fluid-structure interaction computational model, combined with experimental data and an energetic analysis to investigate myocardial mechanical properties. Through this work, we propose that a myocardium modeled as a Neo-Hookean material with a material constant on the order of 10 kPa is necessary for the heart tube to function with an optimal pressure and cardiac output.}, } @article {pmid34293964, year = {2021}, author = {Akram, S and Athar, M and Saeed, K and Razia, A}, title = {Crossbreed impact of double-diffusivity convection on peristaltic pumping of magneto Sisko nanofluids in non-uniform inclined channel: A bio-nanoengineering model.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {104}, number = {3}, pages = {368504211033677}, doi = {10.1177/00368504211033677}, pmid = {34293964}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {The consequences of double-diffusivity convection on the peristaltic transport of Sisko nanofluids in the non-uniform inclined channel and induced magnetic field are discussed in this article. The mathematical modeling of Sisko nanofluids with induced magnetic field and double-diffusivity convection is given. To simplify PDEs that are highly nonlinear in nature, the low but finite Reynolds number, and long wavelength estimation are used. The Numerical solution is calculated for the non-linear PDEs. The exact solution of concentration, temperature and nanoparticle are obtained. The effect of various physical parameters of flow quantities is shown in numerical and graphical data. The outcomes show that as the thermophoresis and Dufour parameters are raised, the profiles of temperature, concentration, and nanoparticle fraction all significantly increase.}, } @article {pmid34286832, year = {2021}, author = {Kasoju, VT and Moen, DS and Ford, MP and Ngo, TT and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {Interspecific variation in bristle number on forewings of tiny insects does not influence clap-and-fling aerodynamics.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {224}, number = {18}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.239798}, pmid = {34286832}, issn = {1477-9145}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Flight, Animal ; Insecta ; Models, Biological ; Phylogeny ; *Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {Miniature insects must overcome significant viscous resistance in order to fly. They typically possess wings with long bristles on the fringes and use a clap-and-fling mechanism to augment lift. These unique solutions to the extreme conditions of flight at tiny sizes (<2 mm body length) suggest that natural selection has optimized wing design for better aerodynamic performance. However, species vary in wingspan, number of bristles (n) and bristle gap (G) to diameter (D) ratio (G/D). How this variation relates to body length (BL) and its effects on aerodynamics remain unknown. We measured forewing images of 38 species of thrips and 21 species of fairyflies. Our phylogenetic comparative analyses showed that n and wingspan scaled positively and similarly with BL across both groups, whereas G/D decreased with BL, with a sharper decline in thrips. We next measured aerodynamic forces and visualized flow on physical models of bristled wings performing clap-and-fling kinematics at a chord-based Reynolds number of 10 using a dynamically scaled robotic platform. We examined the effects of dimensional (G, D, wingspan) and non-dimensional (n, G/D) geometric variables on dimensionless lift and drag. We found that: (1) increasing G reduced drag more than decreasing D; (2) changing n had minimal impact on lift generation; and (3) varying G/D minimally affected aerodynamic forces. These aerodynamic results suggest little pressure to functionally optimize n and G/D. Combined with the scaling relationships between wing variables and BL, much wing variation in tiny flying insects might be best explained by underlying shared growth factors.}, } @article {pmid34283850, year = {2021}, author = {Dvoriashyna, M and Lauga, E}, title = {Hydrodynamics and direction change of tumbling bacteria.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {16}, number = {7}, pages = {e0254551}, pmid = {34283850}, issn = {1932-6203}, mesh = {Biomechanical Phenomena ; Escherichia coli/chemistry/*physiology ; Flagella/*physiology ; *Hydrodynamics ; Models, Biological ; Movement/*physiology ; Rotation ; Swimming/physiology ; }, abstract = {The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) swims in viscous fluids by rotating several helical flagellar filaments, which are gathered in a bundle behind the cell during 'runs' wherein the cell moves steadily forward. In between runs, the cell undergoes quick 'tumble' events, during which at least one flagellum reverses its rotation direction and separates from the bundle, resulting in erratic motion in place and a random reorientation of the cell. Alternating between runs and tumbles allows cells to sample space by stochastically changing their propulsion direction after each tumble. The change of direction during a tumble is not uniformly distributed but is skewed towards smaller angles with an average of about 62°-68°, as first measured by Berg and Brown (1972). Here we develop a theoretical approach to model the angular distribution of swimming E. coli cells during tumbles. We first use past experimental imaging results to construct a kinematic description of the dynamics of the flagellar filaments during a tumble. We then employ low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics to compute the consequences of the kinematic model on the force and torque balance of the cell and to deduce the overall change in orientation. The results of our model are in good agreement with experimental observations. We find that the main change of direction occurs during the 'bundling' part of the process wherein, at the end of a tumble, the dispersed flagellar filaments are brought back together in the helical bundle, which we confirm using a simplified forced-sphere model.}, } @article {pmid34282226, year = {2021}, author = {Ishak, MS and Alsabery, AI and Hashim, I and Chamkha, AJ}, title = {Entropy production and mixed convection within trapezoidal cavity having nanofluids and localised solid cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14700}, pmid = {34282226}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The entropy production and mixed convection within a trapezoidal nanofluid-filled cavity having a localised solid cylinder is numerically examined using the finite element technique. The top horizontal surface moving at a uniform velocity is kept at a cold temperature, while the bottom horizontal surface is thermally activated. The remaining surfaces are maintained adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids ([Formula: see text] nanoparticles) are used in this study, and the Boussinesq approximation applies. The influence of the Reynolds number, Richardson number, nanoparticles volume fraction, dimensionless radius and location of the solid cylinder on the streamlines, isotherms and isentropic are examined. The results show that the solid cylinder's size and location are significant control parameters for optimising the heat transfer and the Bejan number inside the trapezoidal cavity. Furthermore, the maximum average Nusselt numbers are obtained for high R values, where the average Nusselt number is increased by 30% when R is raised from 0 to 0.25.}, } @article {pmid34275183, year = {2021}, author = {Gurovich, AN and Rodriguez, L and Morales-Acuna, F}, title = {There are no differences in brachial artery endothelial shear stress and blood flow patterns between males and females during exercise.}, journal = {Clinical physiology and functional imaging}, volume = {41}, number = {6}, pages = {471-479}, doi = {10.1111/cpf.12722}, pmid = {34275183}, issn = {1475-097X}, mesh = {*Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; *Endothelium, Vascular ; Exercise ; Female ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Male ; Regional Blood Flow ; Vasodilation ; }, abstract = {Premenopausal females have a lower cardiovascular risk than males. Sex differences on exercise-induced endothelial shear stress (ESS) and blood flow patterns may explain part of this risk reduction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in brachial artery exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females. Thirty subjects (13 females) were recruited to perform a three-workload steady-state exercise test based on blood lactate levels (i.e. <2.0, 2.0-4.0, >4.0 mmol/l). ESS and blood flow patterns were estimated at rest and during each workload using Womersley's approximation and Reynolds number, respectively. Both males and females showed an exercise intensity-dependent increase in antegrade and retrograde ESS. There was no significant sex effect or interaction for antegrade ESS (F(1, 30) = 0.715, p = 0.405 and F(1·672, 60) = 1.511, p = 0.232, respectively) or retrograde ESS (F(1, 30) = 0.794, p = 0.380 and F(1·810, 60) = 1.022, p = 0.361, respectively). Additionally, antegrade blood flow was turbulent during all bouts of exercise while retrograde blood flow became disturbed at moderate and high exercise intensities in both groups. There are no differences in exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females when the exercise load is equivalent. This suggests that the vascular benefits of exercise training are similar in both sexes from a haemodynamic standpoint.}, } @article {pmid34272432, year = {2021}, author = {Gul, H and Ramzan, M and Chung, JD and Chu, YM and Kadry, S}, title = {Multiple slips impact in the MHD hybrid nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and autocatalytic chemical reaction.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14625}, pmid = {34272432}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The present study deliberates the nanofluid flow containing multi and single-walled carbon nanotubes submerged into Ethylene glycol in a Darcy-Forchheimer permeable media over a stretching cylinder with multiple slips. The innovation of the envisaged mathematical model is enriched by considering the impacts of non-uniform source/sink and modified Fourier law in the energy equation and autocatalytic chemical reaction in the concentration equation. Entropy optimization analysis of the mathematical model is also performed in the present problem. Pertinent transformations procedure is implemented for the conversion of the non-linear system to the ordinary differential equations. The succor of the Shooting technique combined with the bvp4c MATLAB software is utilized for the solution of a highly nonlinear system of equations. The impacts of the leading parameters versus engaged fields are inspected through graphical sketches. The outcomes show that a strong magnetic field strengthens the temperature profile and decays the velocity profile. Also, the fluid velocity is lessened for growing estimates of the parameter of slip. Additionally, it is detected that entropy number augmented for higher thermal relaxation parameter and Reynolds number. To substantiate the existing mathematical model, a comparison table is also added. An excellent correlation is achieved here.}, } @article {pmid34272408, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, H and Enders, A and Preuss, JA and Bahnemann, J and Heisterkamp, A and Torres-Mapa, ML}, title = {3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14584}, pmid = {34272408}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {3D printing of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices enables rapid prototyping of robust and complex structures. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 3D printed lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation. The final 3D printed chip offers three key features, such as (1) an optimized fiber channel design for precise alignment of optical fibers, (2) an optically clear window to visualize the trapping region, and (3) a sample channel which facilitates hydrodynamic focusing of samples. A square zig-zag structure incorporated in the sample channel increases the number of particles at the trapping site and focuses the cells and particles during experiments when operating the chip at low Reynolds number. To evaluate the performance of the device for optical manipulation, we implemented on-chip, fiber-based optical trapping of different-sized microscopic particles and performed trap stiffness measurements. In addition, optical stretching of MCF-7 cells was successfully accomplished for the purpose of studying the effects of a cytochalasin metabolite, pyrichalasin H, on cell elasticity. We observed distinct changes in the deformability of single cells treated with pyrichalasin H compared to untreated cells. These results demonstrate that 3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices offer a cost-effective and customizable platform for applications in optical manipulation.}, } @article {pmid34271062, year = {2021}, author = {Dubey, A and B, V and Bég, OA and Gorla, RSR}, title = {Finite element computation of magneto-hemodynamic flow and heat transfer in a bifurcated artery with saccular aneurysm using the Carreau-Yasuda biorheological model.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {138}, number = {}, pages = {104221}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104221}, pmid = {34271062}, issn = {1095-9319}, mesh = {Aorta/*physiopathology ; Aortic Aneurysm/*physiopathology ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; Electric Conductivity ; Energy Transfer ; Finite Element Analysis ; *Hemorheology ; Hot Temperature ; Humans ; *Magnetic Fields ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Pulsatile Flow ; Regional Blood Flow ; Stress, Mechanical ; Time Factors ; }, abstract = {"Existing computational fluid dynamics studies of blood flows have demonstrated that the lower wall stress and higher oscillatory shear index might be the cause of acceleration in atherogenesis of vascular walls in hemodynamics. To prevent the chances of aneurysm wall rupture in the saccular aneurysm at distal aortic bifurcation, clinical biomagnetic studies have shown that extra-corporeal magnetic fields can be deployed to regulate the blood flow. Motivated by these developments, in the current study a finite element computational fluid dynamics simulation has been conducted of unsteady two-dimensional non-Newtonian magneto-hemodynamic heat transfer in electrically conducting blood flow in a bifurcated artery featuring a saccular aneurysm. The fluid flow is assumed to be pulsatile, non-Newtonian and incompressible. The Carreau-Yasuda model is adopted for blood to mimic non-Newtonian characteristics. The transformed equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically by employing the finite element method with the variational approach in the FreeFEM++ code. Hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics are elucidated in detail for the effects of key non-dimensional parameters i.e. Reynolds number (Re = 14, 21, 100, 200), Prandtl number (Pr = 14, 21) and magnetic body force parameter (Hartmann number) (M = 0.6, 1.2, 1.5) at the aneurysm and throughout the arterial domain. The influence of vessel geometry on blood flow characteristics i.e. velocity, pressure and temperature fields are also visualized through instantaneous contour patterns. It is found that an increase in the magnetic parameter reduces the pressure but increases the skin-friction coefficient in the domain. The temperature decreases at the parent artery (inlet) and both the distant and prior artery with the increment in the Prandtl number. A higher Reynolds number also causes a reduction in velocity as well as in pressure. The blood flow shows different characteristic contours with time variation at the aneurysm as well as in the arterial segment. The novelty of the current research is therefore to present a combined approach amalgamating the Carreau-Yasuda model, heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamics with complex geometric features in realistic arterial hemodynamics with extensive visualization and interpretation, in order to generalize and extend previous studies. In previous studies these features have been considered separately and not simultaneously as in the current study. The present simulations reveal some novel features of biomagnetic hemodynamics in bifurcated arterial transport featuring a saccular aneurysm which are envisaged to be of relevance in furnishing improved characterization of the rheological biomagnetic hemodynamics of realistic aneurysmic bifurcations in clinical assessment, diagnosis and magnetic-assisted treatment of cardiovascular disease."}, } @article {pmid34266946, year = {2021}, author = {Han, E and Zhu, L and Shaevitz, JW and Stone, HA}, title = {Low-Reynolds-number, biflagellated Quincke swimmers with multiple forms of motion.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {29}, pages = {}, pmid = {34266946}, issn = {1091-6490}, mesh = {Hydrodynamics ; Locomotion/*physiology ; *Models, Biological ; Motion ; Rheology ; Rotation ; }, abstract = {In the limit of zero Reynolds number (Re), swimmers propel themselves exploiting a series of nonreciprocal body motions. For an artificial swimmer, a proper selection of the power source is required to drive its motion, in cooperation with its geometric and mechanical properties. Although various external fields (magnetic, acoustic, optical, etc.) have been introduced, electric fields are rarely utilized to actuate such swimmers experimentally in unbounded space. Here we use uniform and static electric fields to demonstrate locomotion of a biflagellated sphere at low Re via Quincke rotation. These Quincke swimmers exhibit three different forms of motion, including a self-oscillatory state due to elastohydrodynamic-electrohydrodynamic interactions. Each form of motion follows a distinct trajectory in space. Our experiments and numerical results demonstrate a method to generate, and potentially control, the locomotion of artificial flagellated swimmers.}, } @article {pmid34260387, year = {2021}, author = {Zhang, B and Leishangthem, P and Ding, Y and Xu, X}, title = {An effective and efficient model of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions for active suspensions of bacteria.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {28}, pages = {}, pmid = {34260387}, issn = {1091-6490}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; Escherichia coli/*physiology ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Biological ; Suspensions ; }, abstract = {Near-field hydrodynamic interactions in active fluids are essential to determine many important emergent behaviors observed, but have not been successfully modeled so far. In this work, we propose an effective model capturing the essence of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions through a tensorial coefficient of resistance, validated numerically by a pedagogic model system consisting of an Escherichia coli bacterium and a passive sphere. In a critical test case that studies the scattering angle of the bacterium-sphere pair dynamics, we prove that the near-field hydrodynamics can make a qualitative difference even for this simple two-body system: Calculations based on the proposed model reveal a region in parameter space where the bacterium is trapped by the passive sphere, a phenomenon that is regularly observed in experiments but cannot be explained by any existing model. In the end, we demonstrate that our model also leads to efficient simulation of active fluids with tens of thousands of bacteria, sufficiently large for investigations of many emergent behaviors.}, } @article {pmid34251258, year = {2021}, author = {Charakopoulos, A and Karakasidis, T and Sarris, I}, title = {Analysis of magnetohydrodynamic channel flow through complex network analysis.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {31}, number = {4}, pages = {043123}, doi = {10.1063/5.0043817}, pmid = {34251258}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {Velocity time series of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flow are analyzed by means of complex network analysis in order to understand the mechanism of fluid patterns modification due to the external magnetic field. Direct numerical simulations of two cases are used, one for the plane hydrodynamic turbulent channel flow at the low Reynolds number of 180, based on the friction velocity, and the corresponding MHD flow with an external streamwise magnetic field with a magnetic interaction number of 0.1. By applying the visibility graph algorithm, we first transformed the time series into networks and then we evaluated the network topological properties. Results show that the proposed network analysis is not only able to identify and detect dynamical transitions in the system's behavior that identifies three distinct fluid areas in accordance with turbulent flow theory but also can quantify the effect of the magnetic field on the time series transitions. Moreover, we find that the topological measures of networks without a magnetic field and as compared to the one with a magnetic field are statistically different within a 95% confidence interval. These results provide a way to discriminate and characterize the influence of the magnetic field on the turbulent flows.}, } @article {pmid34247118, year = {2021}, author = {Tang, TQ and Hsu, SY and Dahiya, A and Soh, CH and Lin, KC}, title = {Numerical modeling of pulsatile blood flow through a mini-oxygenator in artificial lungs.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {208}, number = {}, pages = {106241}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106241}, pmid = {34247118}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Equipment Design ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Lung ; *Oxygen ; *Oxygenators, Membrane ; Pulsatile Flow ; }, abstract = {While previous in vitro studies showed divergent results concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on oxygen advection in oxygenators, no study was done to investigate the uncertainty affected by blood flow dynamics. The aim of this study is to utilize a computational fluid dynamics model to clarify the debate concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport. The computer model is based on a validated 2D finite volume approach that predicts oxygen transfer in pulsatile blood flow passing through a 300-micron hollow-fiber membrane bundle with a length of 254 mm, a building block for an artificial lung device. In this study, the flow parameters include the steady Reynolds number (Re = 2, 5, 10 and 20), Womersley parameter (Wo = 0.29, 0.38 and 0.53) and sinusoidal amplitude (A = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). Specifically, the computer model is extended to verify, for the first time, the previously measured O2 transport that was observed to be hindered by pulsating flow in the Biolung, developed by Michigan Critical Care Consultants. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on computed profiles and fields of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) as a function of Re, Wo and A. Based on the present results, we observe the positive and negative effects of pulsatile flow on PO2 at different blood flow rates. Besides, the SO2 variation is not much influenced by the pulsatile flow conditions investigated. While being consistent with a recent experimental study, the computed O2 volume flow rate is found to be increased at high blood flow rates operated with low frequency and high amplitude. Furthermore, the present study qualitatively explains that divergent outcomes reported in previous in vitro experimental studies could be owing to the different blood flow rates adopted. Finally, the contour analysis reveals how the spatial distributions of PO2 and SO2 vary over time.}, } @article {pmid34243174, year = {2021}, author = {Meng, X and Ghaffar, A and Zhang, Y and Deng, C}, title = {Very low Reynolds number causes a monotonic force enhancement trend for a three-dimensional hovering wing in ground effect.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {16}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1308}, pmid = {34243174}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Flight, Animal ; Insecta ; Models, Biological ; *Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {This research reports the numerical results of the ground effect trend for a three-dimensional flapping insect wing at a very low Reynolds number (Re = 10). It demonstrates that the ground effect trend at this Re has a 'single force regime,' i.e. the forces only enhance as the ground distance decreases. This phenomenon is unlike the widely expected non-monotonic trend publicized in previous studies for higher Reynolds numbers, that shows 'three force regimes,' i.e. the forces reduce, recover, and also enhance as the ground distance decreases. The force trend in the ground effect correlates to a similar trend in wing-wake interaction or the downwash strength on the wing's head. At very low Re (10), the very large viscosity causes diffused vortices and less advected vortex wake, while at relatively high Re, the vortices are easily separated from the wing and then advected downwards. This different development of the vortex wake caused different force trends for the flapping wing in the ground effect. Furthermore, by examining only the first stroke when there is no vortex wake, we found that the 'ramming effect' enhances the forces on the wing. This effect increases the pressure of the lower wing surface due to the squeezed air between the wing and the ground. The 'ramming effect', combined with the reduced downwash (or wing-wake interaction) effect, causes the force enhancement of the wing near the ground's vicinity. It is further comprehended that the trend is dependent on Re. As the Re is increased, the trend becomes non-monotonic. The effect of varying angles of attack, flapping amplitude and wing planform at very low Re does not change this trend. This ground effect might help insects by enhancing their lift while they hover above the surface. This finding might prove beneficial for developing micro air vehicles.}, } @article {pmid34241532, year = {2021}, author = {Iyer, KP and Bewley, GP and Biferale, L and Sreenivasan, KR and Yeung, PK}, title = {Oscillations Modulating Power Law Exponents in Isotropic Turbulence: Comparison of Experiments with Simulations.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {25}, pages = {254501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.254501}, pmid = {34241532}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Inertial-range features of turbulence are investigated using data from experimental measurements of grid turbulence and direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence simulated in a periodic box, both at the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R_{λ}∼1000. In particular, oscillations modulating the power-law scaling in the inertial range are examined for structure functions up to sixth-order moments. The oscillations in exponent ratios decrease with increasing sample size in simulations, although in experiments they survive at a low value of 4 parts in 1000 even after massive averaging. The two datasets are consistent in their intermittent character but differ in small but observable respects. Neither the scaling exponents themselves nor all the viscous effects are consistently reproduced by existing models of intermittency.}, } @article {pmid34241478, year = {2021}, author = {Gojon, R and Jardin, T and Parisot-Dupuis, H}, title = {Experimental investigation of low Reynolds number rotor noise.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {149}, number = {6}, pages = {3813}, doi = {10.1121/10.0005068}, pmid = {34241478}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {In this paper, an experimental characterisation of low Reynolds number rotors is performed in an anechoic room. Two commercially available two-bladed rotors as well as four three-dimensional (3D)-printed rotors with different numbers of blades (from two to five) are tested. The latter have canonical geometry, with an NACA0012 blade section profile, extruded in the radial direction with constant chord and constant 10° pitch. The experimental setup and the 3D printing strategy are first validated using results from the literature for the commercially available rotors. For all the tested rotors, four noise characteristics are analysed: the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the amplitude of the blade passing frequency (BPF), and the amplitude of its first harmonic and the high-frequency broadband noise. For all the rotors, an increase in all noise characteristics is observed with the rotational speed (rpm) for all directivity angles. Moreover, an interesting change of pattern is observed for the amplitudes of the BPF and of its first harmonic, with, in the vicinity of the rotor plane, a minimum value for low rpm and/or high number of blades, and a maximum value for high rpm and/or low number of blades. This change in directivity leads to a similar change of directivity of the OASPL. For the broadband noise, a dipole-like pattern is obtained with a minimum value at θ=-10°, i.e., aligned with the trailing edge and thus indicating the generation of trailing edge noise. Finally, scaling laws that characterise the amplitude of the different noise components with respect to the rpm are proposed.}, } @article {pmid34234957, year = {2021}, author = {Mazharmanesh, S and Stallard, J and Medina, A and Fisher, A and Ando, N and Tian, FB and Young, J and Ravi, S}, title = {Effects of uniform vertical inflow perturbations on the performance of flapping wings.}, journal = {Royal Society open science}, volume = {8}, number = {6}, pages = {210471}, pmid = {34234957}, issn = {2054-5703}, abstract = {Flapping wings have attracted significant interest for use in miniature unmanned flying vehicles. Although numerous studies have investigated the performance of flapping wings under quiescent conditions, effects of freestream disturbances on their performance remain under-explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of uniform vertical inflows on flapping wings using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. The overall lift and drag produced by a flapping wing were measured by varying the magnitude of inflow perturbation from J Vert = -1 (downward inflow) to J Vert = 1 (upward inflow), where J Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. The interaction between flapping wing and downward-oriented inflows resulted in a steady linear reduction in mean lift and drag coefficients, C ¯ L and C ¯ D , with increasing inflow magnitude. While a steady linear increase in C ¯ L and C ¯ D was noted for upward-oriented inflows between 0 < J Vert < 0.3 and J Vert > 0.7, a significant unsteady wing-wake interaction occurred when 0.3 ≤ J Vert < 0.7, which caused large variations in instantaneous forces over the wing and led to a reduction in mean performance. These findings highlight asymmetrical effects of vertically oriented perturbations on the performance of flapping wings and pave the way for development of suitable control strategies.}, } @article {pmid34234155, year = {2021}, author = {Connolly, S and Newport, D and McGourty, K}, title = {Cell specific variation in viability in suspension in in vitro Poiseuille flow conditions.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {1