METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.

RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.

CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.}, } @article {pmid34846896, year = {2021}, author = {Kim, AR and Mitra, SK and Zhao, B}, title = {Reduced Pressure Drop in Viscoelastic Polydimethylsiloxane Wall Channels.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c02087}, pmid = {34846896}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an important viscoelastic material that finds applications in a large number of engineering systems, particularly lab-on-chip microfluidic devices built with a flexible substrate. Channels made of PDMS, used for transporting analytes, are integral to these applications. The PDMS viscoelastic nature can induce additional hydrodynamic contributions at the soft wall/fluid interface compared to rigid walls. In this research, we investigated the pressure drop within PDMS channels bounded by rigid tubes (cellulose tubes). The bulging effect of the PDMS was limited by the rigid tubes under flowing fluids. The PDMS viscoelasticity was modulated by changing the ratio of the base to the cross-linker from 10:1 to 35:1. We observed that the pressure drop of the flowing fluids within the channel decreased with the increased loss tangent of the PDMS in the examined laminar regime [Reynolds number (Re) ∼ 23-58.6 for water and Re ∼ 0.69-8.69 for glycerol solution]. The elastic PDMS 10:1 wall channels followed the classical Hagen Poiseuille's equation, but the PDMS walls with lower cross-linker concentrations and thicker walls decreased pressure drops. The friction factor (f) for the PDMS channels with the two working fluids could be approximated as f = 47/Re. We provide a correlation between the pressure drop and PDMS viscoelasticity based on experimental findings. In the correlation, the loss tangent predominates; the larger the loss tangent, the smaller is the pressure drop. The research findings appear to be unexpected if only considering the energy dissipation of viscoelastic PDMS walls. We attributed the reduction in the pressure drop to a lubricating effect of the viscoelastic PDMS walls in the presence of the working fluids. Our results reveal the importance of the subtle diffusion of the residual oligomers and water from the bulk to the soft wall/fluid interface for the observed pressure drop in soft wall channels.}, } @article {pmid34846030, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, X and Zhan, Y and Fu, YI and Lin, J and Ji, Y and Zhao, C and Fang, Y and Wu, J}, title = {The effect of stenosis rate and Reynolds number on local flow characteristics and plaque formation around the atherosclerotic stenosis.}, journal = {Acta of bioengineering and biomechanics}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {135-147}, pmid = {34846030}, issn = {1509-409X}, abstract = {PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis causes plaque to build-up in arteries. Effect of the specific local hemodynamic environment around an atherosclerotic plaque on the thrombosis formation does not remain quite clear but is believed to be crucial. The aim of this study is to uncover the flow effects on plaques formation.

METHODS: To study the mechanically regulated plaque formation, the flow fields in artery blood vessels with different stenosis rates at various Reynolds numbers were simulated numerically with the two-dimensional axisymmetric models, and the hemodynamic characteristics around the plaque were scaled with stenosis rate and Reynolds number.

RESULTS: The results showed that increases of both Reynolds number and stenosis rate facilitated the occurrence of flow separation phenomenon, extended recirculation zone, and upregulated the maximum normalized wall shear stress near the plaque throat section while downregulated the minimal normalized wall shear stress at the front shoulder of plaque, as it should be; in the atherosclerotic plaque leeside of the recirculation zone, an obvious catch bond region of wall shear stress might exist especially under low Reynolds number with stenosis rate smaller than 30%. This catch bond region in the plaque leeside might be responsible for the LBF (low blood flow)-enhanced formation of the atherosclerotic plaque.

CONCLUSIONS: This work may provide a novel insight into understanding the biomechanical effects behind the formation and damage of atherosclerotic plaques and propose a new strategy for preventing atherosclerotic diseases.}, } @article {pmid34845537, year = {2021}, author = {Patel, K and Stark, H}, title = {Instability of a liquid sheet with viscosity contrast in inertial microfluidics.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {11}, pages = {144}, doi = {10.1140/epje/s10189-021-00147-1}, pmid = {34845537}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {Flows at moderate Reynolds numbers in inertial microfluidics enable high throughput and inertial focusing of particles and cells with relevance in biomedical applications. In the present work, we consider a viscosity-stratified three-layer flow in the inertial regime. We investigate the interfacial instability of a liquid sheet surrounded by a density-matched but more viscous fluid in a channel flow. We use linear stability analysis based on the Orr-Sommerfeld equation and direct numerical simulations with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to perform an extensive parameter study. Our aim is to contribute to a controlled droplet production in inertial microfluidics. In the first part, on the linear stability analysis we show that the growth rate of the fastest growing mode [Formula: see text] increases with the Reynolds number [Formula: see text] and that its wavelength [Formula: see text] is always smaller than the channel width w for sufficiently small interfacial tension [Formula: see text]. For thin sheets we find the scaling relation [Formula: see text], where m is viscosity ratio and [Formula: see text] the sheet thickness. In contrast, for thicker sheets [Formula: see text] decreases with increasing [Formula: see text] or m due to the nearby channel walls. Examining the eigenvalue spectra, we identify Yih modes at the interface. In the second part on the LBM simulations, the thin liquid sheet develops two distinct dynamic states: waves traveling along the interface and breakup into droplets with bullet shape. For smaller flow rates and larger sheet thicknesses, we also observe ligament formation and the sheet eventually evolves irregularly. Our work gives some indication how droplet formation can be controlled with a suitable parameter set [Formula: see text].}, } @article {pmid34845318, year = {2021}, author = {Pang, M and Zhang, T and Meng, Y and Ling, Z}, title = {Experimental study on the permeability of crushed coal medium based on the Ergun equation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {23030}, pmid = {34845318}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {51774234//the National Natural Science Foundations of China/ ; }, abstract = {Accurate determination of the permeability of crushed coal medium is the basis for the study of their permeability characteristics. To investigate the permeability characteristics of this special porous medium composed of crushed coal particles, the permeability parameters of crushed coal specimens of different initial porosities were measured by designing a lateral-limit compression seepage test system. Parameters were determined separately for specimens of different initial porosities. (1) the Reynolds number distribution region characterising the seepage state was determined and obtained. Specimens with initial porosity distribution between 0.02 and 0.08, and seepage Reynolds number distribution in the low-permeability zone, under Darcy flow; (2) the intrinsic permeability of the crushed coal medium was obtained by using the Ergun equation. The complex inverse proportional relationship between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number was derived; (3) Through the determination of the permeability of the crushed coal medium, the mean value of βK value was obtained to be about 45.7, and the analysis of the permeability of porous medium can determine its critical permeability. The relationship between the Forchheimer number Fo and critical Reynolds number was measured. The results indicate that it conforms to a linear distribution. In-depth analysis of these two parameters can be used to explore the flow transition process between laminar, transition, and turbulent flow. This study provides insight into the permeability characteristics of the media in fractured coal bodies.}, } @article {pmid34840965, year = {2021}, author = {Krane, M}, title = {Vortex Formation Times in the Glottal Jet, Measured in a Scaled-Up Model.}, journal = {Fluids (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {6}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/fluids6110412}, pmid = {34840965}, issn = {2311-5521}, abstract = {In this paper, the timing of vortex formation on the glottal jet is studied using previously published velocity measurements of flow through a scaled-up model of the human vocal folds. The relative timing of the pulsatile glottal jet and the instability vortices are acoustically important since they determine the harmonic and broadband content of the voice signal. Glottis exit jet velocity time series were extracted from time-resolved planar DPIV measurements. These measurements were acquired at four glottal flow speeds (u SS = 16.1-38 cm/s) and four glottis open times (T o = 5.67-23.7 s), providing a Reynolds number range Re = 4100-9700 and reduced vibration frequency f* = 0.01-0.06. Exit velocity waveforms showed temporal behavior on two time scales, one that correlates to the period of vibration and another characterized by short, sharp velocity peaks (which correlate to the passage of instability vortices through the glottis exit plane). The vortex formation time, estimated by computing the time difference between subsequent peaks, was shown to be not well-correlated from one vibration cycle to the next. The principal finding is that vortex formation time depends not only on cycle phase, but varies strongly with reduced frequency of vibration. In all cases, a strong high-frequency burst of vortex motion occurs near the end of the cycle, consistent with perceptual studies using synthesized speech.}, } @article {pmid34832781, year = {2021}, author = {Jbeili, M and Zhang, J}, title = {Effects of Microscopic Properties on Macroscopic Thermal Conductivity for Convective Heat Transfer in Porous Materials.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12111369}, pmid = {34832781}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {Discovery Grant - Individual//Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council/ ; }, abstract = {Porous materials are widely used in many heat transfer applications. Modeling porous materials at the microscopic level can accurately incorporate the detailed structure and substance parameters and thus provides valuable information for the complex heat transfer processes in such media. In this study, we use the generalized periodic boundary condition for pore-scale simulations of thermal flows in porous materials. A two-dimensional porous model consisting of circular solid domains is considered, and comprehensive simulations are performed to study the influences on macroscopic thermal conductivity from several microscopic system parameters, including the porosity, Reynolds number, and periodic unit aspect ratio and the thermal conductance at the solid-fluid interface. Our results show that, even at the same porosity and Reynolds number, the aspect ratio of the periodic unit and the interfacial thermal conductance can significantly affect the macroscopic thermal behaviors of porous materials. Qualitative analysis is also provided to relate the apparent thermal conductivity to the complex flow and temperature distributions in the microscopic porous structure. The method, findings and discussions presented in this paper could be useful for fundamental studies, material development, and engineering applications of porous thermal flow systems.}, } @article {pmid34828226, year = {2021}, author = {Li, W and Xie, Z and Xi, K and Xia, S and Ge, Y}, title = {Constructal Optimization of Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink with Porous Medium for Entropy Generation Minimization.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23111528}, pmid = {34828226}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {51979278//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 51579244//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {A model of rectangular microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with porous medium (PM) is developed. Aspect ratio of heat sink (HS) cell and length-width ratio of HS are optimized by numerical simulation method for entropy generation minimization (EGM) according to constructal theory. The effects of inlet Reynolds number (Re) of coolant, heat flux on bottom, porosity and volume proportion of PM on dimensionless entropy generation rate (DEGR) are analyzed. From the results, there are optimal aspect ratios to minimize DEGR. Given the initial condition, DEGR is 33.10% lower than its initial value after the aspect ratio is optimized. With the increase of Re, the optimal aspect ratio declines, and the minimum DEGR drops as well. DEGR gets larger and the optimal aspect ratio remains constant with the increasing of heat flux on bottom. For the different volume proportion of PM, the optimal aspect ratios are diverse, but the minimum DEGR almost stays unchanged. The twice minimized DEGR, which results from aspect ratio and length-width ratio optimized simultaneously, is 10.70% lower than the once minimized DEGR. For a rectangular bottom, a lower DEGR can be reached by choosing the proper direction of fluid flow.}, } @article {pmid34828211, year = {2021}, author = {Khan, MF and Sulaiman, M and Tavera Romero, CA and Alkhathlan, A}, title = {A Hybrid Metaheuristic Based on Neurocomputing for Analysis of Unipolar Electrohydrodynamic Pump Flow.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23111513}, pmid = {34828211}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {A unipolar electrohydrodynamic (UP-EHD) pump flow is studied with known electric potential at the emitter and zero electric potential at the collector. The model is designed for electric potential, charge density, and electric field. The dimensionless parameters, namely the electrical source number (Es), the electrical Reynolds number (ReE), and electrical slip number (Esl), are considered with wide ranges of variation to analyze the UP-EHD pump flow. To interpret the pump flow of the UP-EHD model, a hybrid metaheuristic solver is designed, consisting of the recently developed technique sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) under the influence of an artificial neural network. The method is abbreviated as ANN-SCA-SQP. The superiority of the technique is shown by comparing the solution with reference solutions. For a large data set, the technique is executed for one hundred independent experiments. The performance is evaluated through performance operators and convergence plots.}, } @article {pmid34828180, year = {2021}, author = {Jia, Y and Huang, J and Wang, J and Li, H}, title = {Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Microchannel with Oval-Shaped Micro Pin Fins.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {11}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23111482}, pmid = {34828180}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {5210060458//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; JJKH20210112KJ//The Scientific research project of Jilin Provincial Department of Education/ ; }, abstract = {A novel microchannel heat sink with oval-shaped micro pin fins (MOPF) is proposed and the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer are studied numerically for Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 157 to 668. In order to study the influence of geometry on flow and heat transfer characteristics, three non-dimensional variables are defined, such as the fin axial length ratio (α), width ratio (β), and height ratio (γ). The thermal enhancement factor (η) is adopted as an evaluation criterion to evaluate the best comprehensive thermal-hydraulic performance of MOPF. Results indicate that the oval-shaped pin fins in the microchannel can effectively prevent the rise of heat surface temperature along the flow direction, which improves the temperature distribution uniformity. In addition, results show that for the studied Reynolds number range and microchannel geometries in this paper, the thermal enhancement factor η increases firstly and then decreases with the increase of α and β. In addition, except for Re = 157, η decreases first and then increases with the increase of the fin height ratio γ. The thermal enhancement factor for MOPF with α = 4, β = 0.3, and γ = 0.5 achieves 1.56 at Re = 668. The results can provide a theoretical basis for the design of a microchannel heat exchanger.}, } @article {pmid34818642, year = {2021}, author = {Hernández Meza, JM and Cordero, JRV and Ramirez Saito, MLÁ and Aranda Espinoza, S and Arauz-Lara, JL and Yáñez Soto, B}, title = {Particle/wall electroviscous effects at the micron scale: comparison between experiments, analytical and numerical models.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ac3cef}, pmid = {34818642}, issn = {1361-648X}, abstract = {We report a experimental study of the motion of 1μm single particles interacting with functionalized walls at low and moderate ionic strengths conditions. The 3D particle's trajectories were obtained by analyzing the diffracted particle images (point spread function). The studied particle/wall systems include negatively charged particles interacting with bare glass, glass covered with polyelectrolytes and glass covered with a lipid monolayer. In the low salt regime (pure water) we observed a retardation effect of the short-time diffusion coefficients when the particle interacts with a negatively charged wall; this effect is more severe in the perpendicular than in the lateral component. The decrease of the diffusion as a function of the particle-wall distance h was similar regardless the origin of the negative charge at the wall. When surface charge was screened or salt was added to the medium (10mM), the diffusivity curves recover the classical hydrodynamic behavior. Electroviscous theory based on the thin electrical double layer (EDL) approximation reproduces the experimental data except for small h. On the other hand, 2D numerical solutions of the electrokinetic equations showed good qualitative agreement with experiments. The numerical model also showed that the hydrodynamic and Maxwellian part of the electroviscous total drag tend to zero as h → 0 and how this is linked with the merging of both EDL's at close proximity.}, } @article {pmid34816334, year = {2021}, author = {Díaz, MV}, title = {On the long-time persistence of hydrodynamic memory.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {11}, pages = {141}, pmid = {34816334}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (BBO) equation correctly describes the nonuniform motion of a spherical particle at a low Reynolds number. It contains an integral term with a singular kernel which accounts for the diffusion of vorticity around the particle throughout its entire history. However, if there are any departures in either rigidity or shape from a solid sphere, besides the integral force with a singular kernel, the Basset history force, we should add a second history force with a non-singular kernel, related to the shape or composition of the particle. In this work, we introduce a fractional generalized Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation which includes both history terms as fractional derivatives. Using the Laplace transform, an integral representation of the solution is obtained. For a driven single particle, the solution shows that memory effects persist indefinitely under rather general driving conditions.}, } @article {pmid34805706, year = {2021}, author = {Yin, B and Yue, W and Sohan, ASMMF and Zhou, T and Qian, C and Wan, X}, title = {Micromixer with Fine-Tuned Mathematical Spiral Structures.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {45}, pages = {30779-30789}, doi = {10.1021/acsomega.1c05024}, pmid = {34805706}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Micromixers with the microchannel structure can enable rapid and efficient mixing of multiple types of fluids on a microfluidic chip. Herein, we report the mixing performance of three passive micromixers based on the different mathematical spiral structures. We study the fluid flow characteristics of Archimedes spiral, Fermat spiral, and hyperbolic spiral structures with various channel widths and Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 0 to 10 via numerical simulation and visualization experiments. In addition, we analyze the mechanism of streamlines and Dean vortices at different cross sections during fluid flows. As the fluid flows in the Fermat spiral channel, the centrifugal force induces the Dean vortex to form a chaotic advection, enhancing the fluid mixing performance. By integrating the Fermat spiral channel into a microfluidic chip, we successfully detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI) marker with the double-antibody sandwich method and reduce the detection time to 10 min. This method has a low reagent consumption and a high reaction efficiency and demonstrates great potential in point-of-care testing (POCT).}, } @article {pmid34797128, year = {2021}, author = {Jaccod, A and Chibbaro, S}, title = {Constrained Reversible System for Navier-Stokes Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {19}, pages = {194501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.194501}, pmid = {34797128}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Following a Gallavotti's conjecture, stationary states of Navier-Stokes fluids are proposed to be described equivalently by alternative equations besides the Navier-Stokes equation itself. We discuss a model system symmetric under time reversal based on the Navier-Stokes equations constrained to keep the enstrophy constant. It is demonstrated through highly resolved numerical experiments that the reversible model evolves to a stationary state which reproduces quite accurately all statistical observables relevant for the physics of turbulence extracted by direct numerical simulations (DNS) at different Reynolds numbers. The possibility of using reversible models to mimic turbulence dynamics is of practical importance for the coarse-grained version of Navier-Stokes equations, as used in large-eddy simulations. Furthermore, the reversible model appears mathematically simpler, since enstrophy is bounded to be constant for every Reynolds number. Finally, the theoretical interest in the context of statistical mechanics is briefly discussed.}, } @article {pmid34781498, year = {2021}, author = {An, X and Dong, B and Wang, Y and Zhang, Y and Zhou, X and Li, W}, title = {Coupled lattice Boltzmann-large eddy simulation model for three-dimensional multiphase flows at large density ratio and high Reynolds number.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {104}, number = {4-2}, pages = {045305}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.104.045305}, pmid = {34781498}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A coupled lattice Boltzmann-large eddy simulation model is developed for modeling three-dimensional multiphase flows at large density ratios and high Reynolds numbers. In the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method, the model is proposed based on the standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale approach, and a reconstructed multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted. The conservative Allen-Cahn equation and Navier-Stokes equations are solved through the lattice Boltzmann discretization scheme for the interface tracking and velocity field evolution, respectively. Relevant benchmark cases are carried out to validate the performance of this model in simulating multiphase flows at a large density ratio and a high Reynolds number, including a stationary droplet, the process of spinodal decomposition, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the phenomenon of a droplet splashing on a thin liquid film, and the liquid jet breakup process. The maximum values of density ratio and Re number are 1000 and 10 240, respectively. The capability and reliability of the proposed model have been demonstrated by the good agreement between simulation results and the analytical solutions or the previously available results.}, } @article {pmid34776531, year = {2021}, author = {Braun, S and Scheichl, S and Kuzdas, D}, title = {The triple-deck stage of marginal separation.}, journal = {Journal of engineering mathematics}, volume = {128}, number = {1}, pages = {16}, doi = {10.1007/s10665-021-10125-3}, pmid = {34776531}, issn = {0022-0833}, abstract = {The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the investigation of transitional separation bubbles. The problem-specific Reynolds number is assumed to be large and acts as the primary perturbation parameter. Four subsequent stages can be identified as playing key roles in the characterization of the incipient laminar-turbulent transition process: due to the action of an adverse pressure gradient, a classical laminar boundary layer is forced to separate marginally (I). Taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction then enables the description of localized, predominantly steady, reverse flow regions (II). However, certain conditions (e.g. imposed perturbations) may lead to a finite-time breakdown of the underlying reduced set of equations. The ensuing consideration of even shorter spatio-temporal scales results in the flow being governed by another triple-deck interaction. This model is capable of both resolving the finite-time singularity and reproducing the spike formation (III) that, as known from experimental observations and direct numerical simulations, sets in prior to vortex shedding at the rear of the bubble. Usually, the triple-deck stage again terminates in the form of a finite-time blow-up. The study of this event gives rise to a noninteracting Euler-Prandtl stage (IV) associated with unsteady separation, where the vortex wind-up and shedding process takes place. The focus of the present paper lies on the triple-deck stage III and is twofold: firstly, a comprehensive numerical investigation based on a Chebyshev collocation method is presented. Secondly, a composite asymptotic model for the regularization of the ill-posed Cauchy problem is developed.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10665-021-10125-3.}, } @article {pmid34766181, year = {2021}, author = {Yu, P and Durgesh, V}, title = {Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Study Temporal Flow Behavior in a Saccular Aneurysm.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4052999}, pmid = {34766181}, issn = {1528-8951}, abstract = {Aneurysms are abnormal expansion of weakened blood vessels which can cause mortality or long-term disability upon rupture. Several studies have shown that inflow conditions spatially and temporally influence aneurysm flow behavior. The objective of this investigation is to identify impact of inflow conditions on spatio-temporal flow behavior in an aneurysm using Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). For this purpose, low-frame rate velocity field measurements are performed in an idealized aneurysm model using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The inflow conditions are precisely controlled using a ViVitro SuperPump system where non-dimensional fluid parameters such as peak Reynolds number (Rep) and Womersely number (α) are varied from 50-270 and 2-5, respectively. The results show the ability of DMD to identify the spatial flow structures and their frequency content. Furthermore, DMD captured the impact of inflow conditions, and change in mode shapes, amplitudes, frequency, and growth rate information is observed. The DMD low-order flow reconstruction also showed the complex interplay of flow features for each inflow scenario. Furthermore, the low-order reconstruction results provided a mathematical description of the flow behavior in the aneurysm which captured the vortex formation, evolution, and convection in detail. These results indicated that the vortical structure behavior varied with the change in α while its strength and presence of secondary structures is influenced by the change in Rep.}, } @article {pmid34756978, year = {2021}, author = {Hu, F and Zhang, S and Wang, X and Wang, C and Wu, J and Poncin, S and Xu, L and Xu, G and Hu, Y and Li, HZ}, title = {Quantitative hydrodynamic characterization of high solid anaerobic digestion: correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" and scale-up effect.}, journal = {Bioresource technology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {126237}, doi = {10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126237}, pmid = {34756978}, issn = {1873-2976}, abstract = {High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD)'s complex rheological behavior exhibits short-circuiting and dead zone. Mixing optimization is potential to enhance HSAD hydrodynamics. Besides, scale-up effect is quite essential for HSAD's applications, but remains rarely studied yet. Effect of impeller with different width on the correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" at different rotating speeds was first investigated at pilot-scale in present work. Then, scale-up effect based on rotating speed and a generalized Reynolds number was revealed from the aspects of fluidity and energy consumption. Results show that impeller width of 100 mm (10 rpm), 200 mm and 300 mm (5 and 10 rpm) are preferred for hydrodynamics and energy economics. Furthermore, Re similarity has better referential significance for the scale-up. In this study, new insight is gained into the correlation of "mixing-fluidity-energy" within a pilot-scale digester. Scale-up effect based Re similarity could potentially offer guidance for HSAD's application in the practical engineering.}, } @article {pmid34746583, year = {2021}, author = {Lian, SJ and Hu, ZX and Lan, Z and Wen, RF and Ma, XH}, title = {Optimal Operation of an Oscillatory Flow Crystallizer: Coupling Disturbance and Stability.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {43}, pages = {28912-28922}, doi = {10.1021/acsomega.1c03890}, pmid = {34746583}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {In the process of industrial crystallization, it is always difficult to balance the secondary nucleation rate and metastable zone width (MSZW). Herein, we report an experimental and numerical study for the cooling crystallization of paracetamol in an oscillatory flow crystallizer (OFC), finding the optimal operating conditions for balancing the secondary nucleation rate and MSZW. The results show that the MSZW decreases with the increase of oscillation Reynolds number (Re o). Compared to the traditional stirring system, the OFC has an MSZW three times larger than that of the stirring system under a similar power density of consumption. With the numerical simulation, the OFC can produce a stable space environment and instantaneous strong disturbance, which is conducive to the crystallization process. Above all, a high Re o is favorable to produce a sufficient nucleation rate, which may inevitably constrict the MSZW to a certain degree. Then, the optimization strategy of the operating parameter (Re o) in the OFC is proposed.}, } @article {pmid34739267, year = {2021}, author = {Bott, AFA and Chen, L and Boutoux, G and Caillaud, T and Duval, A and Koenig, M and Khiar, B and Lantuéjoul, I and Le-Deroff, L and Reville, B and Rosch, R and Ryu, D and Spindloe, C and Vauzour, B and Villette, B and Schekochihin, AA and Lamb, DQ and Tzeferacos, P and Gregori, G and Casner, A}, title = {Inefficient Magnetic-Field Amplification in Supersonic Laser-Plasma Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {17}, pages = {175002}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.175002}, pmid = {34739267}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We report a laser-plasma experiment that was carried out at the LMJ-PETAL facility and realized the first magnetized, turbulent, supersonic (Ma_{turb} ≈2.5) plasma with a large magnetic Reynolds number (Rm≈45) in the laboratory. Initial seed magnetic fields were amplified, but only moderately so, and did not become dynamically significant. A notable absence of magnetic energy at scales smaller than the outer scale of the turbulent cascade was also observed. Our results support the notion that moderately supersonic, low-magnetic-Prandtl-number plasma turbulence is inefficient at amplifying magnetic fields compared to its subsonic, incompressible counterpart.}, } @article {pmid34737529, year = {2021}, author = {Behera, S and Bhardwaj, R and Agrawal, A}, title = {Effect of co-flow on fluid dynamics of a cough jet with implications in spread of COVID-19.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {33}, number = {10}, pages = {101701}, doi = {10.1063/5.0064104}, pmid = {34737529}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {We discuss the temporal evolution of a cough jet of an infected subject in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Computations were carried out using large eddy simulation, and, in particular, the effect of the co-flow (5% and 10% of maximum cough velocity) on the evolution of the jet was quantified. The Reynolds number (Re) of the cough jet, based on the mouth opening diameter (D) and the average cough velocity, is 13 002. The time-varying inlet velocity profile of the cough jet is represented as a combination of gamma-probability-distribution functions. Simulations reveal the detailed structure of cough jet with and without a co-flow for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The cough jet temporal evolution is similar to that of a continuous free-jet and follows the same routes of instability, as documented for a free-jet. The convection velocity of the cough jet decays with time and distance, following a power-law variation. The cough jet is observed to travel a distance of approximately 1.1 m in half a second. However, in the presence of 10% co-flow, the cough jet travels faster and covers the similar distance in just 0.33 s. Therefore, in the presence of a co-flow, the probability of transmission of COVID-19 by airborne droplets and droplet nuclei increases, since they can travel a larger distance. The cough jet without the co-flow corresponds to a larger volume content compared to that with the co-flow and spreads more within the same range of distance. These simulations are significant as they help to reveal the intricate structure of the cough jet and show that the presence of a co-flow can significantly augment the risk of infection of COVID-19.}, } @article {pmid34732570, year = {2021}, author = {Choueiri, GH and Lopez, JM and Varshney, A and Sankar, S and Hof, B}, title = {Experimental observation of the origin and structure of elastoinertial turbulence.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {45}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2102350118}, pmid = {34732570}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Turbulence generally arises in shear flows if velocities and hence, inertial forces are sufficiently large. In striking contrast, viscoelastic fluids can exhibit disordered motion even at vanishing inertia. Intermediate between these cases, a state of chaotic motion, "elastoinertial turbulence" (EIT), has been observed in a narrow Reynolds number interval. We here determine the origin of EIT in experiments and show that characteristic EIT structures can be detected across an unexpectedly wide range of parameters. Close to onset, a pattern of chevron-shaped streaks emerges in qualitative agreement with linear and weakly nonlinear theory. However, in experiments, the dynamics remain weakly chaotic, and the instability can be traced to far lower Reynolds numbers than permitted by theory. For increasing inertia, the flow undergoes a transformation to a wall mode composed of inclined near-wall streaks and shear layers. This mode persists to what is known as the "maximum drag reduction limit," and overall EIT is found to dominate viscoelastic flows across more than three orders of magnitude in Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid34732141, year = {2021}, author = {Zhou, Y and Wang, DM and Liu, L and Huang, P}, title = {The morphometric of lycopsid sporophylls and the evaluation of their dispersal potential: an example from the Upper Devonian of Zhejiang Province, China.}, journal = {BMC ecology and evolution}, volume = {21}, number = {1}, pages = {198}, pmid = {34732141}, issn = {2730-7182}, support = {42072016//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 42072016//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 41802015//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Previous studies have discussed the special structural adaptations of Late Palaeozoic lycopsids, for example, the dispersal potential of reproductive organs. Based on materials from the Upper Devonian Wutong Formation in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China, we now analyze the morphometric and perform some calculation to evaluate the dispersal of sporophyll units of lycopsids.

RESULTS: The fossil sporophyll units are divided into two types in view of obvious difference in shape and we name two new (form) species for them. We also analyze the falling process and give the calculation method of dispersal distance.

CONCLUSIONS: The fossil sporophyll units show relatively poor potential of wind dispersal compared with modern samaras, and show potential adaptation to the turbulent environment.}, } @article {pmid34731319, year = {2021}, author = {Miles, JG and Battista, NA}, title = {Exploring the sensitivity in jellyfish locomotion under variations in scale, frequency, and duty cycle.}, journal = {Journal of mathematical biology}, volume = {83}, number = {5}, pages = {56}, pmid = {34731319}, issn = {1432-1416}, support = {1826915//Office of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure/ ; 1828163//Office of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure/ ; 1356235//Directorate for Education and Human Resources/ ; }, abstract = {Jellyfish have been called one of the most energy-efficient animals in the world due to the ease in which they move through their fluid environment, by product of their bell kinematics coupled with their morphological, muscular, material properties. We investigated jellyfish locomotion by conducting in silico comparative studies and explored swimming performance across different fluid scales (i.e., Reynolds Number), bell contraction frequencies, and contraction phase kinematics (duty cycle) for a jellyfish with a fineness ratio of 1 (ratio of bell height to bell diameter). To study these relationships, an open source implementation of the immersed boundary method was used (IB2d) to solve the fully coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible jellyfish bell in a viscous fluid. Thorough 2D parameter subspace explorations illustrated optimal parameter combinations in which give rise to enhanced swimming performance. All performance metrics indicated a higher sensitivity to bell actuation frequency than fluid scale or duty cycle, via Sobol sensitivity analysis, on a higher performance parameter subspace. Moreover, Pareto-like fronts were identified in the overall performance space involving the cost of transport and forward swimming speed. Patterns emerged within these performance spaces when highlighting different parameter regions, which complemented the global sensitivity results. Lastly, an open source computational model for jellyfish locomotion is offered to the science community that can be used as a starting place for future numerical experimentation.}, } @article {pmid34693101, year = {2021}, author = {Grande Gutiérrez, N and Shankar, KN and Sinno, T and Diamond, SL}, title = {Thrombosis and Hemodynamics: external and intrathrombus gradients.}, journal = {Current opinion in biomedical engineering}, volume = {19}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1016/j.cobme.2021.100316}, pmid = {34693101}, issn = {2468-4511}, abstract = {Distinct from dilute, isotropic, and homogeneous reaction systems typically used in laboratory kinetic assays, blood is concentrated, two-phase, flowing, and highly anisotropic when clotting on a surface. This review focuses on spatial gradients that are generated and can dictate thrombus structure and function. Novel experimental and computational tools have recently emerged to explore reaction-transport coupling during clotting. Multiscale simulations help bridge tissue length scales (the coronary arteries) to millimeter scales of a growing clot to the microscopic scale of single-cell signaling and adhesion. Microfluidic devices help create and control pathological velocity profiles, albeit at a low Reynolds number. Since rate processes and force loading are often coupled, this review highlights prevailing convective-diffusive transport physics that modulate cellular and molecular processes during thrombus formation.}, } @article {pmid34678790, year = {2021}, author = {Christov, IC}, title = {Soft hydraulics: from Newtonian to complex fluid flows through compliant conduits.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ac327d}, pmid = {34678790}, issn = {1361-648X}, abstract = {Microfluidic devices manufactured from soft polymeric materials have emerged as a paradigm for cheap, disposable and easy-to-prototype fluidic platforms for integrating chemical and biological assays and analyses. The interplay between the flow forces and the inherently compliant conduits of such microfluidic devices requires careful consideration. While mechanical compliance was initially a side-effect of the manufacturing process and materials used, compliance has now become a paradigm, enabling new approaches to microrheological measurements, new modalities of micromixing, and improved sieving of micro- and nano-particles, to name a few applications. This topical review provides an introduction to the physics of these systems. Specifically, the goal of this review is to summarize the recent progress towards a mechanistic understanding of the interaction between non-Newtonian (complex) fluid flows and their deformable confining boundaries. In this context, key experimental results and relevant applications are also explored, hand-in-hand with the fundamental principles for their physics-based modeling. The key topics covered include shear-dependent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids, hydrodynamic pressure gradients during flow, the elastic response (deformation and bulging) of soft conduits due to flow within, the effect of cross-sectional conduit geometry on the resulting fluid--structure interaction, and key dimensionless groups describing the coupled physics. Open problems and future directions in this nascent field of soft hydraulics, at the intersection of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, soft matter physics, and microfluidics, are noted.}, } @article {pmid34677517, year = {2021}, author = {Park, NS and Yoon, S and Jeong, W and Jeong, YW}, title = {A Study on the Evaluation of Flow Distribution Evenness in Parallel-Arrayed-Type Low-Pressure Membrane Module Piping.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/membranes11100751}, pmid = {34677517}, issn = {2077-0375}, support = {No. 2020R1A2C1006495//National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)/ ; }, abstract = {The objectives of this study were to measure the flow rate distribution from a header pipe to each module installed in parallel for a water treatment membrane filtration process in operation and to investigate the reason for an uneven distribution of the flow rate via the CFD technique. In addition, this study attempted to propose the ratio of the branch pipe to the header pipe required to equalize the flow distribution for the same membrane filtration process. Finally, the relationship between the Reynolds number in the header pipe and the degree of the manifold flow distribution evenness was investigated. Mobile ultrasonic flow meter was used to measure the flow rate flowing from the membrane module pipe to each module, and the CFD technique was used to verify this. From the results of the actual measurement using ultrasonic flow meter and CFD simulation, it was confirmed that the outflow flow rate from the branch pipe located at the end of the header pipe was three times higher than that of the branch pipe near the inlet. The reason was that the differential pressure generated between each membrane module was higher toward the end of the header pipe. When the ratio of the sum of the cross-sectional area of the branch pipe and the cross-sectional area of the header pipe was reduced by about 30 times, it was confirmed that the flow rate flowing from each branch pipe to the membrane module was almost equal. Also, if the flow in the header pipe is transitional or laminar (Reynolds No. is approximately 4000 or less), the flow rate flowing from each branch pipe to the membrane module can be more even.}, } @article {pmid34677490, year = {2021}, author = {Kim, KT and Park, JE and Jung, SY and Kang, TG}, title = {Fouling Mitigation via Chaotic Advection in a Flat Membrane Module with a Patterned Surface.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/membranes11100724}, pmid = {34677490}, issn = {2077-0375}, support = {2019R1F1A1058001//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; }, abstract = {Fouling mitigation using chaotic advection caused by herringbone-shaped grooves in a flat membrane module is numerically investigated. The feed flow is laminar with the Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 50 to 500. In addition, we assume a constant permeate flux on the membrane surface. Typical flow characteristics include two counter-rotating flows and downwelling flows, which are highly influenced by the groove depth at each Re. Poincaré sections are plotted to represent the dynamical systems of the flows and to analyze mixing. The flow systems become globally chaotic as the groove depth increases above a threshold value. Fouling mitigation via chaotic advection is demonstrated using the dimensionless average concentration (c¯w*) on the membrane and its growth rate. When the flow system is chaotic, the growth rate of c¯w* drops significantly compared to that predicted from the film theory, demonstrating that chaotic advection is an attractive hydrodynamic technique that mitigates membrane fouling. At each Re, there exists an optimal groove depth minimizing c¯w* and the growth rate of c¯w*. Under the optimum groove geometry, foulants near the membrane are transported back to the bulk flow via the downwelling flows, distributed uniformly in the entire channel via chaotic advection.}, } @article {pmid34685088, year = {2021}, author = {Sun, X and Mohammed, HI and Tiji, ME and Mahdi, JM and Majdi, HS and Wang, Z and Talebizadehsardari, P and Yaïci, W}, title = {Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Triple Tube Latent Heat Storage System Using Circular Fins with Inline and Staggered Arrangements.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano11102647}, pmid = {34685088}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Inherent fluctuations in the availability of energy from renewables, particularly solar, remain a substantial impediment to their widespread deployment worldwide. Employing phase-change materials (PCMs) as media, saving energy for later consumption, offers a promising solution for overcoming the problem. However, the heat conductivities of most PCMs are limited, which severely limits the energy storage potential of these materials. This study suggests employing circular fins with staggered distribution to achieve improved thermal response rates of PCM in a vertical triple-tube heat exchanger involving two opposite flow streams of the heat-transfer fluid (HTF). Since heat diffusion is not the same at various portions of the PCM unit, different fin configurations, fin dimensions and HTF flow boundary conditions were explored using computational studies of melting in the PCM triple-tube system. Staggered configuration of fin distribution resulted in significant increases in the rates of PCM melting. The results indicate that the melting rate and heat charging rate could be increased by 37.2 and 59.1%, respectively, in the case of staggered distribution. Furthermore, the use of lengthy fins with smaller thickness in the vertical direction of the storage unit resulted in a better positive role of natural convection; thus, faster melting rates were achieved. With fin dimensions of 0.666 mm × 15 mm, the melting rate was found to be increased by 23.6%, when compared to the base case of 2 mm × 5 mm. Finally, it was confirmed that the values of the Reynolds number and inlet temperatures of the HTF had a significant impact on melting time savings when circular fins of staggered distribution were included.}, } @article {pmid34683293, year = {2021}, author = {Yamashita, H and Akinaga, T and Sugihara-Seki, M}, title = {Pattern Transition on Inertial Focusing of Neutrally Buoyant Particles Suspended in Rectangular Duct Flows.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {10}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12101242}, pmid = {34683293}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {JP20H02072//JSPS KAKENHI/ ; }, abstract = {The continuous separation and filtration of particles immersed in fluid flows are important interests in various applications. Although the inertial focusing of particles suspended in a duct flow is promising in microfluidics, predicting the focusing positions depending on the parameters, such as the shape of the duct cross-section and the Reynolds number (Re) has not been achieved owing to the diversity of the inertial-focusing phenomena. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the variation of the inertial focusing depending on Re in rectangular duct flows. We performed a numerical simulation of the lift force exerted on a spherical particle flowing in a rectangular duct and determined the lift-force map within the duct cross-section over a wide range of Re. We estimated the particle trajectories based on the lift map and Stokes drag, and identified the particle-focusing points appeared in the cross-section. For an aspect ratio of the duct cross-section of 2, we found that the blockage ratio changes transition structure of particle focusing. For blockage ratios smaller than 0.3, particles focus near the centres of the long sides of the cross-section at low Re and near the centres of both the long and short sides at relatively higher Re. This transition is expressed as a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. For blockage ratio larger than 0.3, another focusing pattern appears between these two focusing regimes, where particles are focused on the centres of the long sides and at intermediate positions near the corners. Thus, there are three regimes; the transition between adjacent regimes at lower Re is found to be expressed as a saddle-node bifurcation and the other transition as a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation.}, } @article {pmid34663851, year = {2021}, author = {Khan, WU and Imran, A and Raja, MAZ and Shoaib, M and Awan, SE and Kausar, K and He, Y}, title = {A novel mathematical modeling with solution for movement of fluid through ciliary caused metachronal waves in a channel.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20601}, pmid = {34663851}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {51977153, 51977161, 51577046//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {In the present research, a novel mathematical model for the motion of cilia using non-linear rheological fluid in a symmetric channel is developed. The strength of analytical perturbation technique is employed for the solution of proposed physical process using mectachoronal rhythm based on Cilia induced flow for pseudo plastic nano fluid model by considering the low Reynolds number and long wave length approximation phenomena. The role of ciliary motion for the fluid transport in various animals is explained. Analytical expressions are gathered for stream function, concentration, temperature profiles, axial velocity, and pressure gradient. Whereas, transverse velocity, pressure rise per wave length, and frictional force on the wall of the tubule are investigated with aid of numerical computations and their outcomes are demonstrated graphically. A comprehensive analysis for comparison of Perturb and numerical solution is done. This analysis validates the analytical solution.}, } @article {pmid34659649, year = {2021}, author = {Cui, PY and Chen, WQ and Wang, JQ and Zhang, JH and Huang, YD and Tao, WQ}, title = {Numerical studies on issues of Re-independence for indoor airflow and pollutant dispersion within an isolated building.}, journal = {Building simulation}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-18}, doi = {10.1007/s12273-021-0846-z}, pmid = {34659649}, issn = {1996-3599}, abstract = {This study conducted the numerical models validated by wind-tunnel experiments to investigate the issues of Re-independence of indoor airflow and pollutant dispersion within an isolated building. The window Reynolds number (Re w) was specified to characterize the indoor flow and dispersion. The indicators of RRC (ratio of relative change) or DR (K_DR) (difference ratio of dimensionless concentration) ≤ 5% were applied to quantitatively determine the critical Re w for indoor flow and turbulent diffusion. The results show that the critical Re (Re crit) value is position-dependent, and Re crit at the most unfavorable position should be suggested as the optimal value within the whole areas of interest. Thus Re H,crit = 27,000 is recommended for the outdoor flows; while Re w,crit = 15,000 is determined for the indoor flows due to the lower part below the window showing the most unfavorable. The suggested Re w,crit (=15,000) for indoor airflow and cross ventilation is independence of the window size. Moreover, taking K_DR ≤ 5% as the indicator, the suggested Re w,crit for ensuring indoor pollutant diffusion enter the Re-independence regime should also be 15,000, indicating that indoor passive diffusion is completely determined by the flow structures. The contours of dimensionless velocity (U/U 0) and concentration (K) against the increasing Re w further confirmed this critical value. This study further reveals the Re-independence issues for indoor flow and dispersion to ensure the reliability of the data obtained by reduced-scale numerical or wind-tunnel models.}, } @article {pmid34656560, year = {2021}, author = {Moitoi, AJ and Shaw, S}, title = {Magnetic drug targeting during Caputo-Fabrizio fractionalized blood flow through a permeable vessel.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {104262}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104262}, pmid = {34656560}, issn = {1095-9319}, abstract = {Nanoparticle-based drug targeting is an important platform for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Magnetic drug targeting is more significant as it is a noninvasive procedure and biocompatible. The present problem aims to understand magnetic drug delivery to a specific location in a permeable blood vessel under the vibration and magnetic environment. Caputo-Fabrizio fractional-order time derivatives are used in the governing equations. The momentum equations are solved analytically and presented in the form of Lorenzo-Hartley and Robotonov-Hartley functions and convolution of the Laplace transform. Convolution integrations are solved by using the numerical integration technique. The Fourth order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) is used to solve the force balance equation. The influence of pertinent parameters such as Reynolds number, pulsatile frequency, magnetic field strength, Darcy number and fractional-order parameters are presented through graphs. It is observed that increasing Reynolds number results in decreasing the tendency of the drug to capture near the tumor site, whereas the pulsatile frequency presents an opposite phenomenon. Increasing the magnetic field strength and Darcy number boosts the capture efficiency of drug particles near the tumor site. The short memory effect efficiently captures the magnetic drug carriers to a specific location under the action of suitable magnetic field strength.}, } @article {pmid34654198, year = {2021}, author = {Calderer, MC and Golovaty, D and Yao, L and Zhao, L}, title = {Shear flow of active matter in thin channels.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {104}, number = {3-1}, pages = {034607}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.104.034607}, pmid = {34654198}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We study the shear flow of active filaments confined in a thin channel for extensile and contractile fibers. We apply the Ericksen-Leslie equations of liquid crystal flow with an activity source term. The dimensionless form of this system includes the Ericksen, activity, and Reynolds numbers, together with the aspect ratio of the channel, as the main driving parameters. We perform a normal mode stability analysis of the base shear flow. For both types of fibers, we arrive at a comprehensive description of the stability properties and their dependence on the parameters of the system. The transition to unstable frequencies in extensile fibers occurs at a positive threshold value of the activity parameter, whereas for contractile ones a complex behavior is found at low absolute value of the activity number. The latter might be an indication of the biologically relevant plasticity and phase transition issues. In contrast with extensile fibers, flows of contractile ones are also found to be highly sensitive to the Reynolds number. The work on extensile fibers is guided by experiments on active filaments in confined channels and aims at quantifying their findings in the prechaotic regime.}, } @article {pmid34651149, year = {2021}, author = {Gallen, AF and Castro, M and Hernandez-Machado, A}, title = {Red blood cells in low Reynolds number flow: A vorticity-based characterization of shapes in two dimensions.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1039/d1sm00559f}, pmid = {34651149}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {Studies on the mechanical properties of red blood cells improve the diagnosis of some blood-related diseases. Some existing numerical methods have successfully simulated the coupling between a fluid and red blood cells. This paper introduces an alternative phase-field model formulation of two-dimensional cells that solves the vorticity and stream function that simplifies the numerical implementation. We integrate red blood cell dynamics immersed in a Poiseuille flow and reproduce previously reported morphologies (slippers or parachutes). In the case of flow in a very wide channel, we discover a new metastable shape referred to as 'anti-parachute' that evolves into a horizontal slipper centered on the channel. This sort of metastable morphology may contribute to the dynamical response of the blood.}, } @article {pmid34644682, year = {2021}, author = {Truong, H and Engels, T and Wehmann, H and Kolomenskiy, D and Lehmann, FO and Schneider, K}, title = {An experimental data-driven mass-spring model of ﬂexibleCalliphorawings.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac2f56}, pmid = {34644682}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Insect wings can undergo signiﬁcant deformation during ﬂapping motion owing to inertial, elastic and aerodynamic forces. Changes in shape then alter aerodynamic forces, resulting in a fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problem. Here, we present detailed three-dimensional FSI simulations of deformable blowﬂy (Calliphora vomitoria) wings in ﬂapping ﬂight. A wing model is proposed using a multi-parameter mass-spring approach chosen for its implementation simplicity and computational eﬃciency. We train the model to reproduce static elasticity measurements by optimizing its parameters using a genetic algorithm with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES). Wing models trained with experimental data are then coupled to a high-performance ﬂow solver run on massively parallel supercomputers. Diﬀerent features of the modeling approach and the intra-species variability of elastic properties are discussed. We found that individuals with diﬀerent wing stiﬀness exhibit similar aerodynamic properties characterized by dimensionless forces and power at the same Reynolds number. We further study the inﬂuence of wing ﬂexibility by comparing between the ﬂexible wings and their rigid counterparts. Under equal prescribed kinematic conditions for rigid and ﬂexible wings, wing ﬂexibility improves lift-to-drag ratio as well as lift-to-power ratio and reduces peak force observed during wing rotation.}, } @article {pmid34642447, year = {2021}, author = {Ali, A and Kanwal, T and Awais, M and Shah, Z and Kumam, P and Thounthong, P}, title = {Impact of thermal radiation and non-uniform heat flux on MHD hybrid nanofluid along a stretching cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20262}, pmid = {34642447}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The current research investigates the thermal radiations and non-uniform heat flux impacts on magnetohydrodynamic hybrid nanofluid (CuO-Fe2O3/H2O) flow along a stretching cylinder, which is the main aim of this study. The velocity slip conditions have been invoked to investigate the slippage phenomenon on the flow. The impact of induced magnetic field with the assumption of low Reynolds number is imperceptible. Through the use of appropriate non-dimensional parameters and similarity transformations, the ruling PDE's (partial differential equations) are reduced to set of ODE's (ordinary differential equations), which are then numerically solved using Adams-Bashforth Predictor-Corrector method. Velocity and temperature fields with distinct physical parameters are investigated and explored graphically. The main observations about the hybrid nanofluid and non-uniform heat flux are analyzed graphically. A decrease in the velocity of the fluid is noted with addition of Hybrid nanofluid particles while temperature of the fluid increases by adding the CuO-Fe2O3 particles to the base fluid. Also, velocity of the fluid decreases when we incorporate the effects of magnetic field and slip. Raise in curvature parameter γ caused enhancement of velocity and temperature fields at a distance from the cylinder but displays opposite behavior nearby the surface of cylinder. The existence of heat generation and absorption for both mass dependent and time dependent parameters increases the temperature of the fluid.}, } @article {pmid34636830, year = {2021}, author = {Ho, TM and Yang, J and Tsai, PA}, title = {Microfluidic mass transfer of CO2 at elevated pressures: implications for carbon storage in deep saline aquifers.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {21}, number = {20}, pages = {3942-3951}, doi = {10.1039/d1lc00106j}, pmid = {34636830}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in a deep saline aquifer is one of the most promising technologies to mitigate anthropologically emitted carbon dioxide. Accurately quantifying the mass transport of CO2 at pore-scales is crucial but challenging for successful CCS deployment. Here, we conduct high-pressure microfluidic experiments, mimicking reservoir conditions up to 9.5 MPa and 35 °C, to elucidate the microfluidic mass transfer process of CO2 at three different states (i.e., gas, liquid, and supercritical phase) into water. We measure the size change of CO2 micro-bubbles/droplets generated using a microfluidic T-junction to estimate the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa), quantifying the rate change of CO2 concentration under the driving force of concentration gradient. The results show that bubbles/droplets under high-pressure conditions reach a steady state faster than low pressure. The measured volumetric mass transfer coefficient increases with the Reynolds number (based on the liquid slug) and is nearly independent of the injection pressure for both the gas and liquid phases. In addition, kLa significantly enlarges with increasing high pressure at the supercritical state. Compared with various chemical engineering applications using millimeter-sized capillaries (with typical kLa measured ranging from ≈0.005 to 0.8 s-1), the microfluidic results show a significant increase in the volumetric mass transfer of CO2 into water by two to three orders of magnitude, O (102-103), with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter (of ≈50 μm).}, } @article {pmid34635693, year = {2021}, author = {Liao, Y and Mechulam, Y and Lassalle-Kaiser, B}, title = {A millisecond passive micromixer with low flow rate, low sample consumption and easy fabrication.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20119}, pmid = {34635693}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {ANR-17-CE11-0037-02//Agence Nationale de la Recherche/ ; }, abstract = {Fast mixing of small volumes of solutions in microfluidic devices is essential for an accurate control and observation of the dynamics of a reaction in biological or chemical studies. It is often, however, a challenging task, as the Reynolds number (Re) in microscopic devices is typically < 100. In this report, we detail a novel mixer based on the "staggered herring bone" (SHB) pattern and "split-recombination" strategies with an optimized geometry, the periodic rotation of the flow structure can be controlled and recombined in a way that the vortices and phase shifts of the flow induce intertwined lamellar structures, thus increasing the contact surface and enhancing mixing. The optimization improves the mixing while using a low flow rate, hence a small volume for mixing and moderate pressure drops. The performances of the patterns were first simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics under different operating conditions. The simulation indicates that at very low flow rate (1-12 µL·min-1) and Re (3.3-40), as well as a very small working volume (~ 3 nL), a very good mixing (~ 98%) can be achieved in the ms time range (4.5-78 ms). The most promising design was then visualized experimentally, showing results that are consistent with the outcomes of the simulations. Importantly, the devices were fabricated using a classical soft-lithography method, as opposed to additive manufacturing often used to generate complex mixing structures. This new device minimizes the sample consumption and could therefore be applied for studies using precious samples.}, } @article {pmid34625588, year = {2021}, author = {Hussain, A and Hassan, A and Mdallal, QA and Ahmad, H and Sherif, EM and Rehman, A and Arshad, M}, title = {Comsolic solution of an elliptic cylindrical compressible fluid flow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {20030}, pmid = {34625588}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this article, the primary focus is to investigate the heat transfer effects with viscous compressible laminar flow in the permeable elliptic cylinder. The Reynolds number is kept 100 for flow to be laminar. The physics of heat transfer is selected to be coupled with the laminar flow. The results for particular step-size time for Velocity distribution, pressure profile, temperature profile, isothermal temperature contours, and drag coefficient have been analyzed. Mesh has been generated through COMSOL, mesh entities have been elaborated statistically. The maximum and minimum velocity profile is observed at the elliptical cylinder's walls and upper, lower boundary respectively. The maximum velocity observed is 2.22 m/s. Pressure profile around elliptic corners is found maximum, distinct patterns are observed even under the influence of applied heat. Temperature is observed maximum at walls but it gradually increases as moving from the upper boundary towards the lower boundary. The isothermal contour patterns are observed maximum near the walls, drag coefficient of gradual decrease is observed. COMSOL multi-physics is utilized for mathematical modeling of problems and the Backward-Differentiation-Formula has been exploited to handle problems numerically. The results will help greatly to understand the characterizations of viscous fluids and in industries like air furnaces and automobile cooling systems.}, } @article {pmid34623848, year = {2021}, author = {Khalid, M and Shankar, V and Subramanian, G}, title = {Continuous Pathway between the Elasto-Inertial and Elastic Turbulent States in Viscoelastic Channel Flow.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {127}, number = {13}, pages = {134502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.134502}, pmid = {34623848}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Viscoelastic plane Poiseuille flow is shown to become linearly unstable in the absence of inertia, in the limit of high elasticities, for ultradilute polymer solutions. While inertialess elastic instabilities have been predicted for curvilinear shear flows, this is the first ever report of a purely elastic linear instability in a rectilinear shear flow. The novel instability continues up to a Reynolds number (Re) of O(1000), corresponding to the recently identified elasto-inertial turbulent state believed to underlie the maximum-drag-reduced regime. Thus, for highly elastic ultradilute polymer solutions, a single linearly unstable modal branch may underlie transition to elastic turbulence at zero Re and to elasto-inertial turbulence at moderate Re, implying the existence of continuous pathways connecting the turbulent states to each other and to the laminar base state.}, } @article {pmid34608161, year = {2021}, author = {Marusic, I and Chandran, D and Rouhi, A and Fu, MK and Wine, D and Holloway, B and Chung, D and Smits, AJ}, title = {An energy-efficient pathway to turbulent drag reduction.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {5805}, pmid = {34608161}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {Simulations and experiments at low Reynolds numbers have suggested that skin-friction drag generated by turbulent fluid flow over a surface can be decreased by oscillatory motion in the surface, with the amount of drag reduction predicted to decline with increasing Reynolds number. Here, we report direct measurements of substantial drag reduction achieved by using spanwise surface oscillations at high friction Reynolds numbers ([Formula: see text]) up to 12,800. The drag reduction occurs via two distinct physical pathways. The first pathway, as studied previously, involves actuating the surface at frequencies comparable to those of the small-scale eddies that dominate turbulence near the surface. We show that this strategy leads to drag reduction levels up to 25% at [Formula: see text] = 6,000, but with a power cost that exceeds any drag-reduction savings. The second pathway is new, and it involves actuation at frequencies comparable to those of the large-scale eddies farther from the surface. This alternate pathway produces drag reduction of 13% at [Formula: see text] = 12,800. It requires significantly less power and the drag reduction grows with Reynolds number, thereby opening up potential new avenues for reducing fuel consumption by transport vehicles and increasing power generation by wind turbines.}, } @article {pmid34607142, year = {2021}, author = {Yogarathinam, LT and Velswamy, K and Gangasalam, A and Ismail, AF and Goh, PS and Narayanan, A and Abdullah, MS}, title = {Performance evaluation of whey flux in dead-end and cross-flow modes via convolutional neural networks.}, journal = {Journal of environmental management}, volume = {301}, number = {}, pages = {113872}, doi = {10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113872}, pmid = {34607142}, issn = {1095-8630}, abstract = {Effluent originating from cheese production puts pressure onto environment due to its high organic load. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to compare the influence of different process variables (transmembrane pressure (TMP), Reynolds number and feed pH) on whey protein recovery from synthetic and industrial cheese whey using polyethersulfone (PES 30 kDa) membrane in dead-end and cross-flow modes. Analysis on the fouling mechanistic model indicates that cake layer formation is dominant as compared to other pore blocking phenomena evaluated. Among the input variables, pH of whey protein solution has the biggest influence towards membrane flux and protein rejection performances. At pH 4, electrostatic attraction experienced by whey protein molecules prompted a decline in flux. Cross-flow filtration system exhibited a whey rejection value of 0.97 with an average flux of 69.40 L/m2h and at an experimental condition of 250 kPa and 8 for TMP and pH, respectively. The dynamic behavior of whey effluent flux was modeled using machine learning (ML) tool convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recursive one-step prediction scheme was utilized. Linear and non-linear correlation indicated that CNN model (R2 - 0.99) correlated well with the dynamic flux experimental data. PES 30 kDa membrane displayed a total protein rejection coefficient of 0.96 with 55% of water recovery for the industrial cheese whey effluent. Overall, these filtration studies revealed that this dynamic whey flux data studies using the CNN modeling also has a wider scope as it can be applied in sensor tuning to monitor flux online by means of enhancing whey recovery efficiency.}, } @article {pmid34599248, year = {2021}, author = {Almalki, MM and Alaidarous, ES and Maturi, DA and Raja, MAZ and Shoaib, M}, title = {Intelligent computing technique based supervised learning for squeezing flow model.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {19597}, pmid = {34599248}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this study, the unsteady squeezing flow between circular parallel plates (USF-CPP) is investigated through the intelligent computing paradigm of Levenberg-Marquard backpropagation neural networks (LMBNN). Similarity transformation introduces the fluidic system of the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. A dataset is generated based on squeezing fluid flow system USF-CPP for the LMBNN through the Runge-Kutta method by the suitable variations of Reynolds number and volume flow rate. To attain approximation solutions for USF-CPP to different scenarios and cases of LMBNN, the operations of training, testing, and validation are prepared and then the outcomes are compared with the reference data set to ensure the suggested model's accuracy. The output of LMBNN is discussed by the mean square error, dynamics of state transition, analysis of error histograms, and regression illustrations.}, } @article {pmid34588473, year = {2021}, author = {Ramzan, M and Khan, NS and Kumam, P}, title = {Mechanical analysis of non-Newtonian nanofluid past a thin needle with dipole effect and entropic characteristics.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {19378}, pmid = {34588473}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The study concerns with the mechanical characteristics of heat and mass transfer flow of a second grade nanofluid as well as gyrotatic microorganism motion past a thin needle with dipole effect, entropy generation, thermal radiation, Arrhenius activation energy and binar chemical reaction. The governing equations and boundary conditions are simplified by the use of suitable similarity transformations. Homotopy analysis method is implemented to obtain the series solution of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Physical behaviors of heat and mass transfer flow with gyrotatic microorganisms and entropy generation are investigated through the embedded parameters. The nanofluid velocity is enhanced for higher values of the ferromagnetic parameter, local Grashof number, bioconvection Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. The Reynolds number, radiation parameter and Eckert number decrease the nanofluid temperature. The entropy generation is increased with the enhancement of radiation parameter, Eckert number, Lewis number, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless constant parameter, Curie temperature, Prandtl number and concentration difference parameter.}, } @article {pmid34586089, year = {2021}, author = {Treiser, MD and Miles, MR and Albino, FP and Giladi, AM and Katz, RD and Higgins, JP}, title = {Long-Term Patency and Fluid Dynamics of Recipient Artery after End-to-Side Anastomosis for Free Tissue Transfer.}, journal = {Plastic and reconstructive surgery}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1097/PRS.0000000000008439}, pmid = {34586089}, issn = {1529-4242}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: End-to-end microvascular anastomoses sacrifice downstream inline perfusion of the recipient vessels. End-to-side anastomoses, in theory, maintain distal inline flow of the recipient vessel. The proposed benefit of the end-to-side technique depends on patency of the distal vessels and subsequent flow parameters, but maintenance of distal perfusion has not been conclusively demonstrated.

METHODS: Fifteen patients who underwent a successful extremity free flap procedure via end-to-side anastomoses to a noncritical vessel between 2003 and 2017 were enrolled. Recipient artery patency distal to the anastomosis was assessed using pulse volume recordings and duplex ultrasound imaging. Resistance indices, flow velocities, vessel diameters, volumetric flow, and turbulent flow dimensionless number (Reynolds number) were measured. Comparisons were made to the ipsilateral collateral vessel as well as to the vessels on the nonoperative contralateral limb using paired t tests.

RESULTS: Downstream flow was identified in 14 of 15 patients (93 percent patency). There was no statistical difference in resistive indices comparing the anastomotic vessel (0.859 ± 0.300) and the collateral vessel (0.853 ± 0.179) of the ipsilateral extremity. Ultrasound flows were similar; the anastomotic vessel demonstrated downstream volumetric flows of 139 ± 92.0 cm3/min versus 137 ± 41.6 cm3/min within the same vessel of the nonoperative contralateral limb. The anastomotic vessel had Reynolds numbers well below the turbulent threshold (448 ± 202 and 493 ± 127 for the anastomotic and nonoperative contralateral limb, respectively).

CONCLUSION: End-to-side anastomosis to noncritical vessels resulted in a 93 percent long-term recipient vessel patency rate, with no statistically significant changes in volumetric flows, resistive indices, or fluid dynamics in the vessels that remained patent.}, } @article {pmid34577719, year = {2021}, author = {Huang, L and Du, J and Zhu, Z}, title = {Neutrally Buoyant Particle Migration in Poiseuille Flow Driven by Pulsatile Velocity.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12091075}, pmid = {34577719}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {11572107//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; GK199900299012-026//the Fundamental Research Funds for the Provincial Universities of Zhejiang/ ; }, abstract = {A neutrally buoyant circular particle migration in two-dimensional (2D) Poiseuille channel flow driven by pulsatile velocity is numerical studied by using immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The effects of Reynolds number (25≤Re≤200) and blockage ratio (0.15≤k≤0.40) on particle migration driven by pulsatile and non-pulsatile velocity are all numerically investigated for comparison. The results show that, different from non-pulsatile cases, the particle will migrate back to channel centerline with underdamped oscillation during the time period with zero-velocity in pulsatile cases. The maximum lateral travel distance of the particle in one cycle of periodic motion will increase with increasing Re, while k has little impact. The quasi frequency of such oscillation has almost no business with Re and k. Moreover, Re plays an essential role in the damping ratio. Pulsatile flow field is ubiquitous in aorta and other arteries. This article is conducive to understanding nanoparticle migration in those arteries.}, } @article {pmid34577699, year = {2021}, author = {Farahinia, A and Jamaati, J and Niazmand, H and Zhang, W}, title = {Numerical Analysis of the Heterogeneity Effect on Electroosmotic Micromixers Based on the Standard Deviation of Concentration and Mixing Entropy Index.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12091055}, pmid = {34577699}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {One approach to achieve a homogeneous mixture in microfluidic systems in the quickest time and shortest possible length is to employ electroosmotic flow characteristics with heterogeneous surface properties. Mixing using electroosmotic flow inside microchannels with homogeneous walls is done primarily under the influence of molecular diffusion, which is not strong enough to mix the fluids thoroughly. However, surface chemistry technology can help create desired patterns on microchannel walls to generate significant rotational currents and improve mixing efficiency remarkably. This study analyzes the function of a heterogeneous zeta-potential patch located on a microchannel wall in creating mixing inside a microchannel affected by electroosmotic flow and determines the optimal length to achieve the desired mixing rate. The approximate Helmholtz-Smoluchowski model is suggested to reduce computational costs and simplify the solving process. The results show that the heterogeneity length and location of the zeta-potential patch affect the final mixing proficiency. It was also observed that the slip coefficient on the wall has a more significant effect than the Reynolds number change on improving the mixing efficiency of electroosmotic micromixers, benefiting the heterogeneous distribution of zeta-potential. In addition, using a channel with a heterogeneous zeta-potential patch covered by a slip surface did not lead to an adequate mixing in low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, a homogeneous channel without any heterogeneity would be a priority in such a range of Reynolds numbers. However, increasing the Reynolds number and the presence of a slip coefficient on the heterogeneous channel wall enhances the mixing efficiency relative to the homogeneous one. It should be noted, though, that increasing the slip coefficient will make the mixing efficiency decrease sharply in any situation, especially in high Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid34575038, year = {2021}, author = {Gimsa, J and Gimsa, U}, title = {Contributions to a Discussion of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus as a Capable Swimmer and Deep-Water Predator.}, journal = {Life (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/life11090889}, pmid = {34575038}, issn = {2075-1729}, abstract = {The new findings on Spinosaurus' swim tail strongly suggest that Spinosaurus was a specialized deep-water predator. However, the tail must be seen in the context of the propelled body. The comparison of the flow characteristics of Spinosaurus with geometrically similar animals and their swimming abilities under water must take their Reynolds numbers into account and provide a common context for the properties of Spinosaurus' tail and dorsal sail. Head shape adaptations such as the head crest reduced hydrodynamic disturbance and facilitated stealthy advance, especially when hunting without visual contact, when Spinosaurus could have used its rostral integumentary mechanoreceptors for prey detection. The muscular neck permitted 'pivot' feeding, where the prey's escape abilities were overcome by rapid dorsoventral head movement, facilitated by crest-mediated lower friction.}, } @article {pmid34549120, year = {2021}, author = {Wu, R and Xie, F and Wei, J and Song, X and Yang, H and Lv, P and Yu, G}, title = {Study on Soot Emission Characteristics of Methane/Oxygen Inverse Diffusion Flame.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {36}, pages = {23191-23202}, doi = {10.1021/acsomega.1c02789}, pmid = {34549120}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Inverse diffusion flame (IDF) is an effective and widely used reaction form in the process of noncatalytic partial oxidation (NC-POX) of gaseous hydrocarbons (such as natural gas and coke oven gas). However, soot is generated in the combustion chamber in the case of unreasonable feeding conditions, and thus causes serious damage to the wall and nozzle. In this study, the effects of the equivalence ratio ([O/C]e), the oxygen flow rate, and the Reynolds number on the soot and CH* emission characteristics of CH4/O2 inverse diffusion flame were comprehensively analyzed based on a hyperspectral imaging system. In addition, the relationship between CH* and soot is explored using Ansys Fluent simulation. The experimental results show that the soot radiation core generation area is located in the outer ring of the flame, and the radial distribution of the radiation intensity is bimodal. With the increase in [O/C]e, the initial position for soot radiation and the overall radiation intensity of soot decrease. In addition, the CH* radiation intensity decreases as [O/C]e increases, and CH* exists in the whole flame. The simulation results clearly show that the existence of CH* is conducive to soot production. The emission intensity and the core area of soot formation increase with the increase in the oxygen velocity. Additionally, the soot emission region increases and the flame tip changes from a round blunt to symmetrical tip with the increase in the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid34547732, year = {2021}, author = {Haider, N and Shahzad, A and Qadri, MNM and Shams, TA}, title = {Aerodynamic analysis of hummingbird-like hovering flight.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac28eb}, pmid = {34547732}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Flapping wing micro aerial vehicles are studied as the substitute for fixed and rotary wing micro aerial vehicles because of the advantages such as agility, maneuverability, and employability in confined environments. Hummingbird's sustainable hovering capability inspires many researchers to develop micro aerial vehicles with similar dynamics. In this research, a wing of a ruby-throated hummingbird is modeled as an insect wing using membrane and stiffeners. The effect of flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of a wing in hovering flight has been studied numerically by using a Fluid-Structure Interaction scheme at a Reynolds Number of 3000. Different wings have been developed by using different positions and thicknesses of the stiffeners. The chordwise and spanwise flexural stiffnesses of all the wings modeled in this work are comparable to insects of similar span and chord length. When the position of the stiffener is varied, the best-performing wing has an average lift coefficient of 0.51. Subsequently, the average lift coefficient is increased to 0.56 when the appropriate thickness of the stiffeners is chosen. The best flexible wing outperforms its rigid counterpart and produces lift and power economy comparable to a real hummingbird's wing. That is, the average lift coefficient and power economy of 0.56 and 0.88 for the best flexible wing as compared to 0.61 and 1.07 for the hummingbird's wing. It can be concluded that a simple manufacturable flexible wing design based on appropriate positioning and thickness of stiffeners can serve as a potential candidate for bio-inspired flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles.}, } @article {pmid34528156, year = {2021}, author = {Javid, K and Hassan, M and Tripathi, D and Khan, S and Bobescu, E and Bhatti, MM}, title = {Double-diffusion convective biomimetic flow of nanofluid in a complex divergent porous wavy medium under magnetic effects.}, journal = {Journal of biological physics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {34528156}, issn = {1573-0689}, abstract = {We explore the physical influence of magnetic field on double-diffusive convection in complex biomimetic (peristaltic) propulsion of nanofluid through a two-dimensional divergent channel. Additionally, porosity effects along with rheological properties of the fluid are also retained in the analysis. The mathematical model is developed by equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and mass concentration. First, scaling analysis is introduced to simplify the rheological equations in the wave frame of reference and then get the final form of equations after applying the low Reynolds number and lubrication approach. The obtained equations are solved analytically by using integration method. Physical interpretation of velocity, pressure gradient, pumping phenomena, trapping phenomena, heat, and mass transfer mechanisms are discussed in detail under magnetic and porous environment. The magnitude of velocity profile is reduced by increasing Grashof parameter. The bolus circulations disappeared from trapping phenomena for larger strength of magnetic and porosity medium. The magnitude of temperature profile and mass concentration are increasing by enhancing the Brownian motion parameter. This study can be productive in manufacturing non-uniform and divergent shapes of micro-lab-chip devices for thermal engineering, industrial, and medical technologies.}, } @article {pmid34505131, year = {2021}, author = {Pinto Costa, R and Simplice Talla Nwotchouang, B and Yao, J and Biswas, D and Casey, D and McKenzie, R and Steinman, DA and Loth, F}, title = {Transition to Turbulence Downstream of a Stenosis for Whole Blood and a Newtonian Analog Under Steady Flow Conditions.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4052370}, pmid = {34505131}, issn = {1528-8951}, abstract = {Blood, a multiphase fluid comprised of plasma, blood cells, and platelets, is known to exhibit a shear-thinning behavior at low shear rates and near-Newtonian behavior at higher shear rates. However, less is known about the impact of its multiphase nature on the transition to turbulence. In this study, we experimentally determined the critical Reynolds number at which the flow began to transition to turbulence downstream of an eccentric stenosis for whole porcine blood and a Newtonian blood analog (water-glycerin mixture). Velocity profiles for both fluids were measured under steady-state flow conditions using an ultrasound Doppler probe placed 12 diameters downstream of an eccentric stenosis. Velocity was recorded at 21 locations along the diameter at 11 different flow rates. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy was used to determine the critical Reynolds number for each fluid. Blood rheology was measured before and after each experiment. Tests were conducted on five samples of each fluid inside a temperature-controlled in-vitro flow system. The viscosity at shear rate 1000 s 1 was used to define the Reynolds number for each fluid. The mean critical Reynolds numbers for blood and water-glycerin were 470 ± 27.5 and 395 ± 10, respectively, indicating a ~19% delay in transition to turbulence for whole blood compared to the Newtonian fluid. This finding is consistent with a previous report for steady flow in a straight pipe, suggesting some aspect of blood rheology may serve to suppress, or at least delay, the onset of turbulence in vivo.}, } @article {pmid34497885, year = {2021}, author = {Bu, X and Zhou, S and Sun, M and Alheshibri, M and Khan, MS and Xie, G and Chelgani, SC}, title = {Exploring the Relationships between Gas Dispersion Parameters and Differential Pressure Fluctuations in a Column Flotation.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {34}, pages = {21900-21908}, doi = {10.1021/acsomega.1c01955}, pmid = {34497885}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Flotation separation, which is the most important mineral beneficiation technique, is dependent on gas dispersion (hydrodynamic conditions). Thus, many investigations have focused on the precise determination of hydrodynamic conditions such as Reynolds number of the bubbles, bubble velocity, and bubble diameter. However, few studies have examined their relationships with pressure fluctuations in a column flotation. This study introduced the differential pressure fluctuations as an actual variable that could be considered to determine the collection zone's hydrodynamic conditions in a cyclonic microbubble flotation column. In general, the outcomes indicated that superficial gas velocity had the most substantial relationship with the differential pressure fluctuations among other flotation factors (such as pump speed, superficial gas velocity, superficial water velocity, and frother dosage). Furthermore, a high coefficient of determination (R 2 > 0.77) for the equation generated to assess the relationships demonstrated that differential pressure fluctuations could be used as a promising tool to determine the hydrodynamic parameters' characteristics in the flotation columns.}, } @article {pmid34497293, year = {2021}, author = {Aghamiri, H and Niknejadi, M and Toghraie, D}, title = {Analysis of the forced convection of two-phase Ferro-nanofluid flow in a completely porous microchannel containing rotating cylinders.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {17811}, pmid = {34497293}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In the present work, the forced convection of nanofluid flow in a microchannel containing rotating cylinders is investigated in different geometries. The heat flux applied to the microchannel wall is 10,000 W m-2. The effects of Reynolds number, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, and the porosity percentage of the porous medium are investigated on the flow fields, temperature, and heat transfer rate. Reynolds number values vary from Re = 250-1000, non-dimensional rotational velocities 1 and 2, respectively, and volume fraction of nanoparticles 0-2%. The results show that increasing the velocity of rotating cylinders increases the heat transfer; also, increasing the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the heat transfer, pressure drop, and Cf,ave. By comparing the porosity percentages with each other, it is concluded that due to the greater contact of the nanofluid with the porous medium and the creation of higher velocity gradients, the porosity percentage is 45% and the values of are 90% higher than the porosity percentage. Comparing porosity percentages with each other, at porosity percentage 90% is greater than at porosity percentage 45%. On the other hand, increasing the Reynolds number reduces the entropy generation due to heat transfer and increases the entropy generation due to friction. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the entropy generations due to heat transfer and friction.}, } @article {pmid34482836, year = {2021}, author = {Mandell, JG and Loke, YH and Mass, PN and Cleveland, V and Delaney, M and Opfermann, J and Aslan, S and Krieger, A and Hibino, N and Olivieri, LJ}, title = {Altered hemodynamics by 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance predict exercise intolerance in repaired coarctation of the aorta: an in vitro study.}, journal = {Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {99}, pmid = {34482836}, issn = {1532-429X}, support = {R01HL143468-0/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; R38AI140298//National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/ ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is associated with decreased exercise capacity despite successful repair. Altered flow patterns have been identified due to abnormal aortic arch geometry. Our previous work demonstrated aorta size mismatch to be associated with exercise intolerance in this population. In this study, we studied aortic flow patterns during simulations of exercise in repaired CoA using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using aortic replicas connected to an in vitro flow pump and correlated findings with exercise stress test results to identify biomarkers of exercise intolerance.

METHODS: Patients with CoA repair were retrospectively analyzed after CMR and exercise stress test. Each aorta was manually segmented and 3D printed. Pressure gradient measurements from ascending aorta (AAo) to descending aorta (DAo) and 4D flow CMR were performed during simulations of rest and exercise using a mock circulatory flow loop. Changes in wall shear stress (WSS) and secondary flow formation (vorticity and helicity) from rest to exercise were quantified, as well as estimated DAo Reynolds number. Parameters were correlated with percent predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2max) and aorta size mismatch (DAAo/DDAo).

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified (VO2max 47 to 126% predicted). Pressure gradient did not correlate with VO2max at rest or exercise. VO2max correlated positively with the change in peak vorticity (R = 0.55, p = 0.03), peak helicity (R = 0.54, p = 0.04), peak WSS in the AAo (R = 0.68, p = 0.005) and negatively with peak WSS in the DAo (R = - 0.57, p = 0.03) from rest to exercise. DAAo/DDAo correlated strongly with change in vorticity (R = - 0.38, p = 0.01), helicity (R = - 0.66, p = 0.007), and WSS in the AAo (R = - 0.73, p = 0.002) and DAo (R = 0.58, p = 0.02). Estimated DAo Reynolds number negatively correlated with VO2max for exercise (R = - 0.59, p = 0.02), but not rest (R = - 0.28, p = 0.31). Visualization of streamline patterns demonstrated more secondary flow formation in aortic arches with better exercise capacity, larger DAo, and lower Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: There are important associations between secondary flow characteristics and exercise capacity in repaired CoA that are not captured by traditional pressure gradient, likely due to increased turbulence and inefficient flow. These 4D flow CMR parameters are a target of investigation to identify optimal aortic arch geometry and improve long term clinical outcomes after CoA repair.}, } @article {pmid34455847, year = {2021}, author = {Simonis, S and Haussmann, M and Kronberg, L and Dörfler, W and Krause, MJ}, title = {Linear and brute force stability of orthogonal moment multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {379}, number = {2208}, pages = {20200405}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2020.0405}, pmid = {34455847}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) based on orthogonal moments exhibit lattice Mach number dependent instabilities in diffusive scaling. The present work renders an explicit formulation of stability sets for orthogonal moment MRT LBM. The stability sets are defined via the spectral radius of linearized amplification matrices of the MRT collision operator with variable relaxation frequencies. Numerical investigations are carried out for the three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex benchmark at Reynolds number 1600. Extensive brute force computations of specific relaxation frequency ranges for the full test case are opposed to the von Neumann stability set prediction. Based on that, we prove numerically that a scan over the full wave space, including scaled mean flow variations, is required to draw conclusions on the overall stability of LBM in turbulent flow simulations. Furthermore, the von Neumann results show that a grid dependence is hardly possible to include in the notion of linear stability for LBM. Lastly, via brute force stability investigations based on empirical data from a total number of 22 696 simulations, the existence of a deterministic influence of the grid resolution is deduced. This article is part of the theme issue 'Progress in mesoscale methods for fluid dynamics simulation'.}, } @article {pmid34455509, year = {2021}, author = {Ali, A and Jana, RN and Das, S}, title = {Significance of entropy generation and heat source: the case of peristaltic blood flow through a ciliated tube conveying Cu-Ag nanoparticles using Phan-Thien-Tanner model.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {34455509}, issn = {1617-7940}, abstract = {The present speculative investigation is concentrated to analyze the entropy generation and heat transfer phenomena in ciliary induced peristalsis of blood with the suspension of hybrid nanoparticles in a tube with heat source impact. The blood is assumed to contain copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The ciliary inner wall of the tube has been considered with small hair-like structures. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model is employed to describe the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics of blood. The conservative equations are normalized and simplified by utilizing scaling analysis with the assumption of low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations. The analytical inspection exposes that the total entropy generation gets a decrement for mounting values of cilia length, while reversed impact is detected for an increment in heat source parameter. Hybrid nano-blood exhibits a greater total entropy number than mono nano-blood. This research study may be beneficial to medical experts and researchers in the field of embryology. Cysts in the ciliated fallopian tube, where embryos develop, are removed by using nanoparticles (nano-drug delivery).}, } @article {pmid34442509, year = {2021}, author = {Parveen, N and Awais, M and Awan, SE and Khan, WU and He, Y and Malik, MY}, title = {Entropy Generation Analysis and Radiated Heat Transfer in MHD (Al2O3-Cu/Water) Hybrid Nanofluid Flow.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12080887}, pmid = {34442509}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {This research concerns the heat transfer and entropy generation analysis in the MHD axisymmetric flow of Al2O3-Cu/H2O hybrid nanofluid. The magnetic induction effect is considered for large magnetic Reynolds number. The influences of thermal radiations, viscous dissipation and convective temperature conditions over flow are studied. The problem is modeled using boundary layer theory, Maxwell's equations and Fourier's conduction law along with defined physical factors. Similarity transformations are utilized for model simplification which is analytically solved with the homotopy analysis method. The h-curves up to 20th order for solutions establishes the stability and convergence of the adopted computational method. Rheological impacts of involved parameters on flow variables and entropy generation number are demonstrated via graphs and tables. The study reveals that entropy in system of hybrid nanofluid affected by magnetic induction declines for β while it enhances for Bi, R and λ. Moreover, heat transfer rate elevates for large Bi with convective conditions at surface.}, } @article {pmid34441209, year = {2021}, author = {Ahammad, NA and Badruddin, IA and Kamangar, S and Khaleed, HMT and Saleel, CA and Mahlia, TMI}, title = {Heat Transfer and Entropy in a Vertical Porous Plate Subjected to Suction Velocity and MHD.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {8}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23081069}, pmid = {34441209}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {RGP.1/327/42//Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University/ ; }, abstract = {This article presents an investigation of heat transfer in a porous medium adjacent to a vertical plate. The porous medium is subjected to a magnetohydrodynamic effect and suction velocity. The governing equations are nondepersonalized and converted into ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved with the help of the finite difference method. The impact of various parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter, radiation parameter, Eckert number, viscous dissipation parameter, and magnetic parameter, on fluid flow characteristics inside the porous medium is discussed. Entropy generation in the medium is analyzed with respect to various parameters, including the Brinkman number and Reynolds number. It is noted that the velocity profile decreases in magnitude with respect to the Prandtl number, but increases with the radiation parameter. The Eckert number has a marginal effect on the velocity profile. An increased radiation effect leads to a reduced thermal gradient at the hot surface.}, } @article {pmid34434625, year = {2016}, author = {Kedzierski, MA}, title = {Diesel Adsorption to Polyvinyl Chloride and Iron During Contaminated Water Flow and Flushing Tests.}, journal = {Journal of research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology}, volume = {121}, number = {}, pages = {314-341}, doi = {10.6028/jres.121.014}, pmid = {34434625}, issn = {1044-677X}, abstract = {This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of aqueous diesel contamination and decontamination of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface and an iron (Fe) surface. A test apparatus designed for the purpose of studying adsorption of diesel from a flowing dilute diesel/water mixture was used to measure the mass of diesel adsorbed per unit surface area (the excess surface density) and the bulk concentration of the diesel in the flow using a fluorescence based measurement technique. Both bulk composition and the excess surface density measurements were achieved via a traverse of the fluorescent measurement probe perpendicular to the test surface. The diesel adsorption to each test surface was examined for three different Reynolds numbers between zero and 7000. Measurements for a given condition were made over a period of approximately 200 h for a diesel mass fraction of approximately 0.15 % in tap water. For a Reynolds number of approximately 7000, the largest excess layer thickness was approximately 4.4 μm, which was measured on a PVC surface. Averaging over all contaminating flow rates and exposure times, the excess layer thickness on the PVC surface was approximately 2.0 μm. Reynolds number had little or no effect on the accumulation of diesel on an iron surface, which was approximately 0.71 μm. The adsorbed diesel on the PVC and iron surfaces was removed by flushing with tap water. Models to predict excess layer thickness during flushing and contamination were developed. The models predict flushing times to within 7 h and predict the influence of pipe surface on contamination level.}, } @article {pmid34432464, year = {2021}, author = {Gu, R and Lehn, JM}, title = {Constitutional Dynamic Selection at Low Reynolds Number in a Triple Dynamic System: Covalent Dynamic Adaptation Driven by Double Supramolecular Self-Assembly.}, journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/jacs.1c04446}, pmid = {34432464}, issn = {1520-5126}, abstract = {A triple dynamic complex system has been designed, implementing a dynamic covalent process coupled to two supramolecular self-assembly steps. To this end, two dynamic covalent libraries (DCLs), DCL-1 and DCL-2, have been established on the basis of dynamic covalent C═C/C═N organo-metathesis between two Knoevenagel derivatives and two imines. Each DCL contains a barbituric acid-based Knoevenagel constituent that may undergo a sequential double self-organization process involving first the formation of hydrogen-bonded hexameric supramolecular macrocycles that subsequently undergo stacking to generate a supramolecular polymer SP yielding a viscous gel state. Both DCLs display selective self-organization-driven amplification of the constituent that leads to the SP. Dissociation of the SP on heating causes reversible randomization of the constituent distributions of the DCLs as a function of temperature. Furthermore, diverse distribution patterns of DCL-2 were induced by modulation of temperature and solvent composition. The present dynamic systems display remarkable self-organization-driven constitutional adaption and tunable composition by coupling between dynamic covalent component selection and two-stage supramolecular organization. In more general terms, they reveal dynamic adaptation by component selection in low Reynolds number conditions of living systems where frictional effects dominate inertial behavior.}, } @article {pmid34410363, year = {2021}, author = {Herrera-Amaya, A and Seber, EK and Murphy, DW and Patry, WL and Knowles, TS and Bubel, MM and Maas, AE and Byron, ML}, title = {Spatiotemporal Asymmetry in Metachronal Rowing at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icab179}, pmid = {34410363}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {In drag-based swimming, individual propulsors operating at low Reynolds numbers (where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces) must execute a spatially asymmetric stroke to produce net fluid displacement. Temporal asymmetry (that is, differing duration between the power vs. recovery stroke) does not affect the overall generated thrust in this time-reversible regime. Metachronal rowing, in which multiple appendages beat sequentially, is used by a wide variety of organisms from low to intermediate Reynolds numbers. At the upper end of this range, inertia becomes important, and increasing temporal asymmetry can be an effective way to increase thrust. However, the combined effects of spatial and temporal asymmetry are not fully understood in the context of metachronal rowing. To explore the role of spatiotemporal asymmetry in metachronal rowing, we combine laboratory experiments and reduced-order analytical modeling. We measure beat kinematics and generated flows in two species of lobate ctenophores across a range of body sizes, from 7 mm to 40 mm in length. We observe characteristically different flows in ctenophores of differing body size and Reynolds number, and a general decrease in spatial asymmetry and increase in temporal asymmetry with increasing Reynolds number. We also construct a one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a row of oscillating flat plates whose flow-normal areas change with time, and use it to explore the propulsive forces generated across a range of Reynolds numbers and kinematic parameters. The model results show that while both types of asymmetry increase force production, they have different effects in different regions of the parameter space. These results may have strong biological implications, as temporal asymmetry can be actively controlled while spatial asymmetry is likely to be partially or entirely driven by passive fluid-structure interaction.}, } @article {pmid34391375, year = {2021}, author = {Pattnaik, PK and Abbas, MA and Mishra, S and Khan, SU and Bhatti, MM}, title = {Free convective flow of Hamilton-Crosser model gold-water nanofluid through a channel with permeable moving walls.}, journal = {Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.2174/1386207324666210813112323}, pmid = {34391375}, issn = {1875-5402}, abstract = {BACKGROUND: The present manuscript analyses the influence of buoyant forces of a conducting time-dependent nanofluid flow through porous moving walls. The medium is also filled with porous materials. In addition to that, uniform heat source and absorption parameters are considered that affect the nanofluid model.

INTRODUCTION: The model is based on the thermophysical properties of Hamilton-Crosser's nanofluid model, in which a gold nanoparticle is submerged into the base fluid water. Before simulation is obtained by a numerical method, suitable transformation is used to convert nonlinear coupled PDEs to ODEs.

METHOD: Runge-Kutta fourth-order scheme is applied successfully for the first-order ODEs in conjunction with the shooting technique.

RESULT: Computations for the coefficients of rate constants are presented through graphs, along with the behavior of several physical parameters augmented the flow phenomena.

CONCLUSION: The present investigation may be compatible with the applications of biotechnology. It is seen that, inclusion of volume concentration the fluid velocity enhances near the middle layer of the channel and retards near the permeable walls. Also, augmented values of the Reynolds number and both cooling and heating of the wall increases the rate of shear stress.}, } @article {pmid34384065, year = {2021}, author = {Luo, Y and Wright, M and Xiao, Q and Yue, H and Pan, G}, title = {Fluid-structure interaction analysis on motion control of a self-propelled flexible plate near a rigid body utilizing PD control.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1cee}, pmid = {34384065}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Inspired by a previous experimental study of fish swimming near a cylinder, we numerically investigate the swimming and station-holding behavior of a flexible plate ahead of a circular cylinder whose motion is controlled by a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Specifically, the deformation of this two-dimensional plate is actuated by a periodically varying external force applied on the body surface, which mimics the fish muscle force to produce propulsive thrust. The actuation force amplitude is dynamically adjusted by a feedback controller to instruct the plate to swim the desired distance from an initial position to a target location and then hold the station there. Instead of directly using the instantaneous position signal, an average speed measured over one force actuation period is proposed with the inclusion of instantaneous position information to form the tracking error for the PD control. Our results show that the motion control of swimming and station holding has been achieved by this simple but effective feedback control without large overshoot when approaching the target at different flow conditions and actuation force formulas. Although the swimming distance remains the same, a plate whose initial position is closer to the cylinder requires less energy expenditure to swim to the target location and hold the station there. This is because the low-pressure zone near the trailing edge of the plate is reduced in size, which provides drag reduction, contributing to reduced swimming energy. A higher Reynolds number also leads to energy savings. Under the same control strategy, the swimming performance is more affected by the force-frequency while the phase shift of the actuation force has a less significant impact.}, } @article {pmid34381068, year = {2021}, author = {Lin, P and Liu, X and Xiong, N and Wang, X and Shang, M and Liu, G and Tao, Y}, title = {Numerical study on the influence of wall temperature gradient on aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect ratio flying wing configuration.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16295}, pmid = {34381068}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {With the aim for a low-aspect-ratio flying wing configuration, this study explores the influence of wall temperature gradient on the laminar and turbulent boundary layers of aircraft surface and determines the effect on the transition Reynolds number and wall friction drag. A four-equation turbulence model with transition mode is used to numerically simulate the flow around the model. The variation of wall friction coefficient, transition Reynolds number, and turbulent boundary layer flow with wall temperature are emphatically investigated. Results show that when the wall temperature increases from 288 to 500 K, the boundary layer transition Reynolds number for the wing section increased by approximately 28% and the surface friction drags decreases by approximately 10.7%. The hot wall enhances the viscous effects of the laminar temperature boundary layer, reduces the Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy, and increases the flow stability. However, the velocity gradient and shear stress in the bottom of the turbulent boundary layer decreases, which leads to reduced friction shear stress on the wall surface. Therefore, for the low-aspect-ratio flying wing model, the hot wall can delay the boundary layer transition and reduce the friction drag coefficient in the turbulent region.}, } @article {pmid34373556, year = {2021}, author = {Xia, WF and Hafeez, MU and Khan, MI and Shah, NA and Chung, JD}, title = {Entropy optimized dissipative flow of hybrid nanofluid in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation and Joule heating.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16067}, pmid = {34373556}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Present article reads three dimensional flow analysis of incompressible viscous hybrid nanofluid in a rotating frame. Ethylene glycol is used as a base liquid while nanoparticles are of copper and silver. Fluid is bounded between two parallel surfaces in which the lower surface stretches linearly. Fluid is conducting hence uniform magnetic field is applied. Effects of non-linear thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are entertained. Interesting quantities namely surface drag force and Nusselt number are discussed. Rate of entropy generation is examined. Bvp4c numerical scheme is used for the solution of transformed O.D.Es. Results regarding various flow parameters are obtained via bvp4c technique in MATLAB Software version 2019, and displayed through different plots. Our obtained results presents that velocity field decreases with respect to higher values of magnetic parameter, Reynolds number and rotation parameter. It is also observed that the temperature field boots subject to radiation parameter. Results are compared with Ishak et al. (Nonlinear Anal R World Appl 10:2909-2913, 2009) and found very good agreement with them. This agreement shows that the results are 99.99% match with each other.}, } @article {pmid34373493, year = {2021}, author = {Alihosseini, Y and Azaddel, MR and Moslemi, S and Mohammadi, M and Pormohammad, A and Targhi, MZ and Heyhat, MM}, title = {Effect of liquid cooling on PCR performance with the parametric study of cross-section shapes of microchannels.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {16072}, pmid = {34373493}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In recent years, PCR-based methods as a rapid and high accurate technique in the industry and medical fields have been expanded rapidly. Where we are faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity of a rapid diagnosis has felt more than ever. In the current interdisciplinary study, we have proposed, developed, and characterized a state-of-the-art liquid cooling design to accelerate the PCR procedure. A numerical simulation approach is utilized to evaluate 15 different cross-sections of the microchannel heat sink and select the best shape to achieve this goal. Also, crucial heat sink parameters are characterized, e.g., heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, performance evaluation criteria, and fluid flow. The achieved result showed that the circular cross-section is the most efficient shape for the microchannel heat sink, which has a maximum heat transfer enhancement of 25% compared to the square shape at the Reynolds number of 1150. In the next phase of the study, the circular cross-section microchannel is located below the PCR device to evaluate the cooling rate of the PCR. Also, the results demonstrate that it takes 16.5 s to cool saliva samples in the PCR well, which saves up to 157.5 s for the whole amplification procedure compared to the conventional air fans. Another advantage of using the microchannel heat sink is that it takes up a little space compared to other common cooling methods.}, } @article {pmid34372345, year = {2021}, author = {Costantini, M and Henne, U and Klein, C and Miozzi, M}, title = {Skin-Friction-Based Identification of the Critical Lines in a Transonic, High Reynolds Number Flow via Temperature-Sensitive Paint.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {15}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/s21155106}, pmid = {34372345}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {In this contribution, three methodologies based on temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) data were further developed and applied for the optical determination of the critical locations of flow separation and reattachment in compressible, high Reynolds number flows. The methodologies rely on skin-friction extraction approaches developed for low-speed flows, which were adapted in this work to study flow separation and reattachment in the presence of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In a first approach, skin-friction topological maps were obtained from time-averaged surface temperature distributions, thus enabling the identification of the critical lines as converging and diverging skin-friction lines. In the other two approaches, the critical lines were identified from the maps of the propagation celerity of temperature perturbations, which were determined from time-resolved TSP data. The experiments were conducted at a freestream Mach number of 0.72 and a chord Reynolds number of 9.7 million in the Transonic Wind Tunnel Göttingen on a VA-2 supercritical airfoil model, which was equipped with two exchangeable TSP modules specifically designed for transonic, high Reynolds number tests. The separation and reattachment lines identified via the three different TSP-based approaches were shown to be in mutual agreement, and were also found to be in agreement with reference experimental and numerical data.}, } @article {pmid34359055, year = {2021}, author = {Diaz, K and Robinson, TL and Ozkan Aydin, Y and Aydin, E and Goldman, DI and Wan, KY}, title = {A minimal robophysical model of quadriflagellate self-propulsion.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1b6e}, pmid = {34359055}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Locomotion at the microscale is remarkably sophisticated. Microorganisms have evolved diverse strategies to move within highly viscous environments, using deformable, propulsion-generating appendages such as cilia and flagella to drive helical or undulatory motion. In single-celled algae, these appendages can be arranged in different ways around an approximately $10~\mu$m long cell body, and coordinated in distinct temporal patterns. Inspired by the observation that some quadriflagellates (bearing four flagella) have an outwardly similar morphology and flagellar beat pattern, yet swim at different speeds, this study seeks to determine whether variations in swimming performance could arise solely from differences in swimming gait. Robotics approaches are particularly suited to such investigations, where the phase relationships between appendages can be readily manipulated. Here, we developed autonomous, algae-inspired robophysical models that can self-propel in a viscous fluid. These macroscopic robots (length and width = $8.5$ cm, height = $2$ cm) have four independently actuated `flagella' (length = $13$ cm) that oscillate under low-Reynolds number conditions (Re $\sim{\cal O} (10^{-1} )$). We tested the swimming performance of these robot models with appendages arranged two distinct configurations, and coordinated in three distinct gaits. The gaits, namely the pronk, the trot, and the gallop, correspond to gaits adopted by distinct microalgal species. When the appendages are inserted perpendicularly around a central `body', the robot achieved a net performance of $0.15-0.63$ body lengths per cycle, with the trot gait being the fastest. Robotic swimming performance was found to be comparable to that of the algal microswimmers across all gaits.By creating a minimal robot that can successfully reproduce cilia-inspired drag-based swimming, our work paves the way for the design of next-generation devices that have the capacity to autonomously navigate aqueous environments.}, } @article {pmid34357216, year = {2021}, author = {Li, L and Chen, Q and Sui, G and Qian, J and Tsai, CT and Cheng, X and Jing, W}, title = {A Three-Dimensional Micromixer Using Oblique Embedded Ridges.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12070806}, pmid = {34357216}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A micromixer is one of the most significant components in a microfluidic system. A three-dimensional micromixer was developed with advantages of high efficiency, simple fabrication, easy integration, and ease of mass production. The designed principle is based on the concepts of splitting-recombination and chaotic advection. A numerical model of this micromixer was established to characterize the mixing performance for different parameters. A critical Reynolds number (Re) was obtained from the simulation results. When the Re number is smaller than the critical value, the fluid mixing is mainly dependent on the mechanism of splitting-recombination, therefore, the length of the channel capable of complete mixing (complete mixing length) increases as the Re number increases. When the Re number is larger than the critical value, the fluid mixing is dominated by chaotic advection, and the complete mixing length decreases as the Re number increases. For normal fluids, a complete mixing length of 500 µm can be achieved at a very small Re number of 0.007 and increases to 2400 µm as the Re number increases to the critical value of 4.7. As the Re number keep increasing and passes the critical Re number, the complete mixing length continues to descend to 650 µm at the Re number of 66.7. For hard-to-mix fluids (generally referring to fluids with high viscosity and low diffusion coefficient, which are difficult to mix), even though no evidence of strong chaotic advection is presented in the simulation, the micromixer can still achieve a complete mixing length of 2550 µm. The mixing performance of the micromixer was also verified by experiments. The experimental results showed a consistent trend with the numerical simulation results, which both climb upward when the Re number is around 0.007 (flow rate of 0.03 μm/min) to around 10 (flow rate of 50 μm/min), then descend when the Re number is around 13.3 (flow rate of 60 µm/min).}, } @article {pmid34357184, year = {2021}, author = {Nichka, VS and Nikonenko, VV and Bazinet, L}, title = {Fouling Mitigation by Optimizing Flow Rate and Pulsed Electric Field during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidification of Caseinate Solution.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/membranes11070534}, pmid = {34357184}, issn = {2077-0375}, support = {19-38-90256//Russian Foundation for Basic Research/ ; 210829409//Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada/ ; }, abstract = {The efficiency of separation processes using ion exchange membranes (IEMs), especially in the food industry, is significantly limited by the fouling phenomenon, which is the process of the attachment and growth of certain species on the surface and inside the membrane. Pulsed electric field (PEF) mode, which consists in the application of constant current density pulses during a fixed time (Ton) alternated with pause lapses (Toff), has a positive antifouling impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of three different relatively high flow rates of feed solution (corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 187, 374 and 560) and various pulse-pause ratios of PEF current regime on protein fouling kinetics during electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) of a model caseinate solution. Four different pulse/pause regimes (with Ton/Toff ratios equal to 10 s/10 s, 10 s/20 s, 10 s/33 s and 10 s/50 s) during electrodialysis (ED) treatment were evaluated at a current density of 5 mA/cm2. It was found that increasing the pause duration and caseinate solution flow rate had a positive impact on the minimization of protein fouling occurring on the cationic surface of the bipolar membrane (BPM) during the EDBM. Both a long pause and high flow rate contribute to a more effective decrease in the concentration of protons and caseinate anions at the BPM surface: a very good membrane performance was achieved with 50 s of pause duration of PEF and a flow rate corresponding to Re = 374. A further increase in PEF pause duration (above 50 s) or flow rate (above Re = 374) did not lead to a significant decrease in the amount of fouling.}, } @article {pmid34349343, year = {2021}, author = {Ferroni, C and Bracconi, M and Ambrosetti, M and Maestri, M and Groppi, G and Tronconi, E}, title = {A Fundamental Investigation of Gas/Solid Heat and Mass Transfer in Structured Catalysts Based on Periodic Open Cellular Structures (POCS).}, journal = {Industrial & engineering chemistry research}, volume = {60}, number = {29}, pages = {10522-10538}, doi = {10.1021/acs.iecr.1c00215}, pmid = {34349343}, issn = {0888-5885}, abstract = {In this work, we investigate the gas-solid heat and mass transfer in catalytically activated periodic open cellular structures, which are considered a promising solution for intensification of catalytic processes limited by external transport, aiming at the derivation of suitable correlations. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to investigate the Tetrakaidekahedral and Diamond lattice structures. The influence of the morphological features and flow conditions on the external transport properties is assessed. The strut diameter is an adequate characteristic length for the formulation of heat and mass transfer correlations; accordingly, a power-law dependence of the Sherwood number to the Reynolds number between 0.33 and 0.67 was found according to the flow regimes in the range 1-128 of the Reynolds number. An additional -1.5-order dependence on the porosity is found. The formulated correlations are in good agreement with the simulation results and allow for the accurate evaluation of the external transfer coefficients for POCS.}, } @article {pmid34335006, year = {2021}, author = {Liu, K and Allahyari, M and Salinas, J and Zgheib, N and Balachandar, S}, title = {Investigation of theoretical scaling laws using large eddy simulations for airborne spreading of viral contagion from sneezing and coughing.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {33}, number = {6}, pages = {063318}, doi = {10.1063/5.0054651}, pmid = {34335006}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {Using a set of large eddy point-particle simulations, we explore the fluid dynamics of an ejected puff resulting from a cough/sneeze. The ejection contains over 61 000 potentially virus-laden droplets at an injection Reynolds number of about 46 000, comparable to an actual cough/sneeze. We observe that global puff properties, such as centroid, puff volume, momentum, and buoyancy vary little across realizations. Other properties, such as maximum extent, shape, and edge velocity of the puff, may exhibit substantial variation. In many realizations, a portion of the puff splits off and advances along a random direction, while keeping airborne droplet nuclei afloat. This peeled-off portion provides a mechanism for virus-laden droplets to travel over large distances in a short amount of time. We also observe that the vast majority of droplets remain suspended within the puff after all liquid has evaporated. The main objectives of the study are to (i) evaluate assumptions of Balachandar's et al. theory [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 132, 103439 (2020)], which include buoyancy effects, shape of the puff, and droplet evaporation rate, (ii) obtain values of closure parameters, which include location and time of the virtual origin, and puff entrainment and drag coefficients, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of the theory in predicting the shape, size, and location of the puff, as well as droplet number density long after ejection. The theory adequately predicts global puff properties including size, velocity, and distance traveled, the largest size of droplets that exit the puff due to settling, and the droplet size distribution within the puff long after ejection.}, } @article {pmid34319753, year = {2021}, author = {Singh, RK and Mahato, LK and Mandal, DK}, title = {Airflow-Assisted Impact of Drops of Various Viscosities: The Role of Viscous Dissipation, Normal Imposed Pressure, and Shear Flow of Air.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01367}, pmid = {34319753}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {The role of liquid viscosity on the spreading for an airflow-assisted impact of drops on a surface is investigated. The spreading diameter is found to increase with the Reynolds number of the airflow (Reair) for a given viscosity and impact Weber number (We) compared to the still air. The increment is higher at a low We for viscous drops, whereas the effect of Reair dominates at the intermediate We as the viscosity decreases. Two extra forces, the normal imposed pressure and shear force of air, act on the drop and influence the spreading along with the viscous dissipation. The drop's curvature decreases depending on the viscosity and impact velocity while spreading. Large-scale eddies near the drop-surface region are observed due to the separation of the incident airflow. The formation of eddies signifies low-pressure zones, which extract the trapped air, causing the spreading diameter of the viscous drop to increase at a low We. With the increase in the We, the lamella thickness of low-viscosity drops decreases and is pushed out by the air shear causing the spreading factor to increase. The boundary layer thickness is estimated using the energy balance method to predict the maximum spreading factor. The prediction compares well with the experimental one for higher viscosities. The accuracy improves when the effect of low pressure is incorporated. To confirm, the experimental spreading is compared with that obtained from three existing models, and one, which considers the influence, is observed to provide a better prediction.}, } @article {pmid34297252, year = {2021}, author = {Sharifi, A and Gendernalik, A and Garrity, D and Bark, D}, title = {Valveless pumping behavior of the simulated embryonic heart tube as a function of contractile patterns and myocardial stiffness.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-021-01489-7}, pmid = {34297252}, issn = {1617-7940}, abstract = {During development, the heart begins pumping as a valveless multilayered tube capable of driving blood flow throughout the embryonic vasculature. The mechanical properties and how they interface with pumping function are not well-defined at this stage. Here, we evaluate pumping patterns using a fluid-structure interaction computational model, combined with experimental data and an energetic analysis to investigate myocardial mechanical properties. Through this work, we propose that a myocardium modeled as a Neo-Hookean material with a material constant on the order of 10 kPa is necessary for the heart tube to function with an optimal pressure and cardiac output.}, } @article {pmid34293964, year = {2021}, author = {Akram, S and Athar, M and Saeed, K and Razia, A}, title = {Crossbreed impact of double-diffusivity convection on peristaltic pumping of magneto Sisko nanofluids in non-uniform inclined channel: A bio-nanoengineering model.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {104}, number = {3}, pages = {368504211033677}, doi = {10.1177/00368504211033677}, pmid = {34293964}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {The consequences of double-diffusivity convection on the peristaltic transport of Sisko nanofluids in the non-uniform inclined channel and induced magnetic field are discussed in this article. The mathematical modeling of Sisko nanofluids with induced magnetic field and double-diffusivity convection is given. To simplify PDEs that are highly nonlinear in nature, the low but finite Reynolds number, and long wavelength estimation are used. The Numerical solution is calculated for the non-linear PDEs. The exact solution of concentration, temperature and nanoparticle are obtained. The effect of various physical parameters of flow quantities is shown in numerical and graphical data. The outcomes show that as the thermophoresis and Dufour parameters are raised, the profiles of temperature, concentration, and nanoparticle fraction all significantly increase.}, } @article {pmid34286832, year = {2021}, author = {Kasoju, VT and Moen, DS and Ford, MP and Ngo, TT and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {Interspecific variation in bristle number on forewings of tiny insects does not influence clap-and-fling aerodynamics.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.239798}, pmid = {34286832}, issn = {1477-9145}, support = {CBET 1512071//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {Miniature insects must overcome significant viscous resistance in order to fly. They typically possess wings with long bristles on the fringes and use clap-and-fling mechanism to augment lift. These unique solutions to the extreme conditions of flight at tiny sizes (< 2 mm body length) suggest that natural selection has optimized wing design for better aerodynamic performance. However, species vary in wingspan, number of bristles (n), and bristle gap (G) to diameter (D) ratio (G/D). How this variation relates to body length (BL) and its effects on aerodynamics remain unknown. We measured forewing images of 38 species of thrips and 21 species of fairyflies. Our phylogenetic comparative analyses showed that n and wingspan scaled positively and similarly with body length across both groups, whereas G/D decreased with BL, with a sharper decline in thrips. We next measured aerodynamic forces and visualized flow on physical models of bristled wings performing clap-and-fling kinematics at chord-based Reynolds number of 10 using a dynamically scaled robotic platform. We examined the effects of dimensional (G, D, wingspan) and non-dimensional (n, G/D) geometric variables on dimensionless lift and drag. We found that: (a) increasing G reduced drag more than decreasing D; (b) changing n had minimal impact on lift generation; and (c) varying G/D minimally affected aerodynamic forces. These aerodynamic results suggest little pressure to functionally optimize n and G/D. Combined with the scaling relationships between wing variables and BL, much wing variation in tiny flying insects might be best explained by underlying shared growth factors.}, } @article {pmid34283850, year = {2021}, author = {Dvoriashyna, M and Lauga, E}, title = {Hydrodynamics and direction change of tumbling bacteria.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {16}, number = {7}, pages = {e0254551}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0254551}, pmid = {34283850}, issn = {1932-6203}, abstract = {The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) swims in viscous fluids by rotating several helical flagellar filaments, which are gathered in a bundle behind the cell during 'runs' wherein the cell moves steadily forward. In between runs, the cell undergoes quick 'tumble' events, during which at least one flagellum reverses its rotation direction and separates from the bundle, resulting in erratic motion in place and a random reorientation of the cell. Alternating between runs and tumbles allows cells to sample space by stochastically changing their propulsion direction after each tumble. The change of direction during a tumble is not uniformly distributed but is skewed towards smaller angles with an average of about 62°-68°, as first measured by Berg and Brown (1972). Here we develop a theoretical approach to model the angular distribution of swimming E. coli cells during tumbles. We first use past experimental imaging results to construct a kinematic description of the dynamics of the flagellar filaments during a tumble. We then employ low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics to compute the consequences of the kinematic model on the force and torque balance of the cell and to deduce the overall change in orientation. The results of our model are in good agreement with experimental observations. We find that the main change of direction occurs during the 'bundling' part of the process wherein, at the end of a tumble, the dispersed flagellar filaments are brought back together in the helical bundle, which we confirm using a simplified forced-sphere model.}, } @article {pmid34282226, year = {2021}, author = {Ishak, MS and Alsabery, AI and Hashim, I and Chamkha, AJ}, title = {Entropy production and mixed convection within trapezoidal cavity having nanofluids and localised solid cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14700}, pmid = {34282226}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {FRGS/1/2019/STG06/UKM/01/2//Malaysian Ministry of Education/ ; FRGS/1/2019/STG06/UKM/01/2//Malaysian Ministry of Education/ ; }, abstract = {The entropy production and mixed convection within a trapezoidal nanofluid-filled cavity having a localised solid cylinder is numerically examined using the finite element technique. The top horizontal surface moving at a uniform velocity is kept at a cold temperature, while the bottom horizontal surface is thermally activated. The remaining surfaces are maintained adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids ([Formula: see text] nanoparticles) are used in this study, and the Boussinesq approximation applies. The influence of the Reynolds number, Richardson number, nanoparticles volume fraction, dimensionless radius and location of the solid cylinder on the streamlines, isotherms and isentropic are examined. The results show that the solid cylinder's size and location are significant control parameters for optimising the heat transfer and the Bejan number inside the trapezoidal cavity. Furthermore, the maximum average Nusselt numbers are obtained for high R values, where the average Nusselt number is increased by 30% when R is raised from 0 to 0.25.}, } @article {pmid34275183, year = {2021}, author = {Gurovich, AN and Rodriguez, L and Morales-Acuna, F}, title = {There are no differences in brachial artery endothelial shear stress and blood flow patterns between males and females during exercise.}, journal = {Clinical physiology and functional imaging}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1111/cpf.12722}, pmid = {34275183}, issn = {1475-097X}, abstract = {Premenopausal females have lower cardiovascular risk than males. Sex differences on exercise-induced endothelial shear stress (ESS) and blood flow patterns may explain part of this risk reduction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in brachial artery exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females. Thirty subjects (13 females) were recruited to perform a three-workload steady-state exercise test based on blood lactate levels (i.e., <2.0, 2.0-4.0, >4.0 mmol/l). ESS and blood flow patterns were estimated at rest and during each workload by Womersley's approximation and Reynolds number, respectively. Both males and females showed an exercise intensity-dependent increase in antegrade and retrograde ESS. There was no significant sex effect or interaction for antegrade ESS (F(1, 30) =0.715, p=0.405 and F(1.672, 60) =1.511, p=0.232, respectively) or retrograde ESS (F(1, 30) =0.794, p=0.380 and F(1.810, 60) =1.022, p=0.361, respectively). Additionally, antegrade blood flow was turbulent during all bouts of exercise while retrograde blood flow became disturbed at moderate and high exercise intensities in both groups. Exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns are no different between male and females when the exercise load is equivalent. This suggest that the vascular benefits of exercise training are similar in both sexes from a hemodynamic standpoint.}, } @article {pmid34272432, year = {2021}, author = {Gul, H and Ramzan, M and Chung, JD and Chu, YM and Kadry, S}, title = {Multiple slips impact in the MHD hybrid nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and autocatalytic chemical reaction.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14625}, pmid = {34272432}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {20202020900060//Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning/ ; }, abstract = {The present study deliberates the nanofluid flow containing multi and single-walled carbon nanotubes submerged into Ethylene glycol in a Darcy-Forchheimer permeable media over a stretching cylinder with multiple slips. The innovation of the envisaged mathematical model is enriched by considering the impacts of non-uniform source/sink and modified Fourier law in the energy equation and autocatalytic chemical reaction in the concentration equation. Entropy optimization analysis of the mathematical model is also performed in the present problem. Pertinent transformations procedure is implemented for the conversion of the non-linear system to the ordinary differential equations. The succor of the Shooting technique combined with the bvp4c MATLAB software is utilized for the solution of a highly nonlinear system of equations. The impacts of the leading parameters versus engaged fields are inspected through graphical sketches. The outcomes show that a strong magnetic field strengthens the temperature profile and decays the velocity profile. Also, the fluid velocity is lessened for growing estimates of the parameter of slip. Additionally, it is detected that entropy number augmented for higher thermal relaxation parameter and Reynolds number. To substantiate the existing mathematical model, a comparison table is also added. An excellent correlation is achieved here.}, } @article {pmid34272408, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, H and Enders, A and Preuss, JA and Bahnemann, J and Heisterkamp, A and Torres-Mapa, ML}, title = {3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {14584}, pmid = {34272408}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {346772917//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; 2177//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; }, abstract = {3D printing of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices enables rapid prototyping of robust and complex structures. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 3D printed lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation. The final 3D printed chip offers three key features, such as (1) an optimized fiber channel design for precise alignment of optical fibers, (2) an optically clear window to visualize the trapping region, and (3) a sample channel which facilitates hydrodynamic focusing of samples. A square zig-zag structure incorporated in the sample channel increases the number of particles at the trapping site and focuses the cells and particles during experiments when operating the chip at low Reynolds number. To evaluate the performance of the device for optical manipulation, we implemented on-chip, fiber-based optical trapping of different-sized microscopic particles and performed trap stiffness measurements. In addition, optical stretching of MCF-7 cells was successfully accomplished for the purpose of studying the effects of a cytochalasin metabolite, pyrichalasin H, on cell elasticity. We observed distinct changes in the deformability of single cells treated with pyrichalasin H compared to untreated cells. These results demonstrate that 3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices offer a cost-effective and customizable platform for applications in optical manipulation.}, } @article {pmid34271062, year = {2021}, author = {Dubey, A and Vasu, B and Bég, OA and Gorla, RSR}, title = {Finite element computation of magneto-hemodynamic flow and heat transfer in a bifurcated artery with saccular aneurysm using the Carreau-Yasuda biorheological model.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {104221}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104221}, pmid = {34271062}, issn = {1095-9319}, abstract = {"Existing computational fluid dynamics studies of blood flows have demonstrated that the lower wall stress and higher oscillatory shear index might be the cause of acceleration in atherogenesis of vascular walls in hemodynamics. To prevent the chances of aneurysm wall rupture in the saccular aneurysm at distal aortic bifurcation, clinical biomagnetic studies have shown that extra-corporeal magnetic fields can be deployed to regulate the blood flow. Motivated by these developments, in the current study a finite element computational fluid dynamics simulation has been conducted of unsteady two-dimensional non-Newtonian magneto-hemodynamic heat transfer in electrically conducting blood flow in a bifurcated artery featuring a saccular aneurysm. The fluid flow is assumed to be pulsatile, non-Newtonian and incompressible. The Carreau-Yasuda model is adopted for blood to mimic non-Newtonian characteristics. The transformed equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically by employing the finite element method with the variational approach in the FreeFEM++ code. Hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics are elucidated in detail for the effects of key non-dimensional parameters i.e. Reynolds number (Re = 14, 21, 100, 200), Prandtl number (Pr = 14, 21) and magnetic body force parameter (Hartmann number) (M = 0.6, 1.2, 1.5) at the aneurysm and throughout the arterial domain. The influence of vessel geometry on blood flow characteristics i.e. velocity, pressure and temperature fields are also visualized through instantaneous contour patterns. It is found that an increase in the magnetic parameter reduces the pressure but increases the skin-friction coefficient in the domain. The temperature decreases at the parent artery (inlet) and both the distant and prior artery with the increment in the Prandtl number. A higher Reynolds number also causes a reduction in velocity as well as in pressure. The blood flow shows different characteristic contours with time variation at the aneurysm as well as in the arterial segment. The novelty of the current research is therefore to present a combined approach amalgamating the Carreau-Yasuda model, heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamics with complex geometric features in realistic arterial hemodynamics with extensive visualization and interpretation, in order to generalize and extend previous studies. In previous studies these features have been considered separately and not simultaneously as in the current study. The present simulations reveal some novel features of biomagnetic hemodynamics in bifurcated arterial transport featuring a saccular aneurysm which are envisaged to be of relevance in furnishing improved characterization of the rheological biomagnetic hemodynamics of realistic aneurysmic bifurcations in clinical assessment, diagnosis and magnetic-assisted treatment of cardiovascular disease."}, } @article {pmid34266946, year = {2021}, author = {Han, E and Zhu, L and Shaevitz, JW and Stone, HA}, title = {Low-Reynolds-number, biflagellated Quincke swimmers with multiple forms of motion.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {29}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2022000118}, pmid = {34266946}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {In the limit of zero Reynolds number (Re), swimmers propel themselves exploiting a series of nonreciprocal body motions. For an artificial swimmer, a proper selection of the power source is required to drive its motion, in cooperation with its geometric and mechanical properties. Although various external fields (magnetic, acoustic, optical, etc.) have been introduced, electric fields are rarely utilized to actuate such swimmers experimentally in unbounded space. Here we use uniform and static electric fields to demonstrate locomotion of a biflagellated sphere at low Re via Quincke rotation. These Quincke swimmers exhibit three different forms of motion, including a self-oscillatory state due to elastohydrodynamic-electrohydrodynamic interactions. Each form of motion follows a distinct trajectory in space. Our experiments and numerical results demonstrate a method to generate, and potentially control, the locomotion of artificial flagellated swimmers.}, } @article {pmid34260387, year = {2021}, author = {Zhang, B and Leishangthem, P and Ding, Y and Xu, X}, title = {An effective and efficient model of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions for active suspensions of bacteria.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {28}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1073/pnas.2100145118}, pmid = {34260387}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Near-field hydrodynamic interactions in active fluids are essential to determine many important emergent behaviors observed, but have not been successfully modeled so far. In this work, we propose an effective model capturing the essence of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions through a tensorial coefficient of resistance, validated numerically by a pedagogic model system consisting of an Escherichia coli bacterium and a passive sphere. In a critical test case that studies the scattering angle of the bacterium-sphere pair dynamics, we prove that the near-field hydrodynamics can make a qualitative difference even for this simple two-body system: Calculations based on the proposed model reveal a region in parameter space where the bacterium is trapped by the passive sphere, a phenomenon that is regularly observed in experiments but cannot be explained by any existing model. In the end, we demonstrate that our model also leads to efficient simulation of active fluids with tens of thousands of bacteria, sufficiently large for investigations of many emergent behaviors.}, } @article {pmid34251258, year = {2021}, author = {Charakopoulos, A and Karakasidis, T and Sarris, I}, title = {Analysis of magnetohydrodynamic channel flow through complex network analysis.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {31}, number = {4}, pages = {043123}, doi = {10.1063/5.0043817}, pmid = {34251258}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {Velocity time series of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flow are analyzed by means of complex network analysis in order to understand the mechanism of fluid patterns modification due to the external magnetic field. Direct numerical simulations of two cases are used, one for the plane hydrodynamic turbulent channel flow at the low Reynolds number of 180, based on the friction velocity, and the corresponding MHD flow with an external streamwise magnetic field with a magnetic interaction number of 0.1. By applying the visibility graph algorithm, we first transformed the time series into networks and then we evaluated the network topological properties. Results show that the proposed network analysis is not only able to identify and detect dynamical transitions in the system's behavior that identifies three distinct fluid areas in accordance with turbulent flow theory but also can quantify the effect of the magnetic field on the time series transitions. Moreover, we find that the topological measures of networks without a magnetic field and as compared to the one with a magnetic field are statistically different within a 95% confidence interval. These results provide a way to discriminate and characterize the influence of the magnetic field on the turbulent flows.}, } @article {pmid34247118, year = {2021}, author = {Tang, TQ and Hsu, SY and Dahiya, A and Soh, CH and Lin, KC}, title = {Numerical modeling of pulsatile blood flow through a mini-oxygenator in artificial lungs.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {208}, number = {}, pages = {106241}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106241}, pmid = {34247118}, issn = {1872-7565}, abstract = {While previous in vitro studies showed divergent results concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on oxygen advection in oxygenators, no study was done to investigate the uncertainty affected by blood flow dynamics. The aim of this study is to utilize a computational fluid dynamics model to clarify the debate concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport. The computer model is based on a validated 2D finite volume approach that predicts oxygen transfer in pulsatile blood flow passing through a 300-micron hollow-fiber membrane bundle with a length of 254 mm, a building block for an artificial lung device. In this study, the flow parameters include the steady Reynolds number (Re = 2, 5, 10 and 20), Womersley parameter (Wo = 0.29, 0.38 and 0.53) and sinusoidal amplitude (A = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). Specifically, the computer model is extended to verify, for the first time, the previously measured O2 transport that was observed to be hindered by pulsating flow in the Biolung, developed by Michigan Critical Care Consultants. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on computed profiles and fields of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) as a function of Re, Wo and A. Based on the present results, we observe the positive and negative effects of pulsatile flow on PO2 at different blood flow rates. Besides, the SO2 variation is not much influenced by the pulsatile flow conditions investigated. While being consistent with a recent experimental study, the computed O2 volume flow rate is found to be increased at high blood flow rates operated with low frequency and high amplitude. Furthermore, the present study qualitatively explains that divergent outcomes reported in previous in vitro experimental studies could be owing to the different blood flow rates adopted. Finally, the contour analysis reveals how the spatial distributions of PO2 and SO2 vary over time.}, } @article {pmid34243174, year = {2021}, author = {Meng, X and Ghaffar, A and Zhang, Y and Deng, C}, title = {Very low Reynolds number causes a monotonic force enhancement trend for a three-dimensional hovering wing in ground effect.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac1308}, pmid = {34243174}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {This research reports the numerical results of the ground effect trend for a three-dimensional (3D) flapping insect wing at a very low Reynolds number (Re=10). It demonstrates that the ground effect trend at this Re has a "single force regime," i.e., the forces only enhance as the ground distance decreases. This phenomenon is unlike the widely expected non-monotonic trend publicized in previous studies for higher Reynolds numbers, that shows "three force regimes," i.e., the forces reduce, recover, and also enhance as the ground distance decreases. The force trend in the ground effect correlates to a similar trend in wing-wake interaction or the downwash strength on the wing's head. At very low Re (10), the very large viscosity causes diffused vortices and less advected vortex wake, while at relatively high Re, the vortices are easily separated from the wing and then advected downwards. This different development of the vortex wake caused different force trends for the flapping wing in the ground effect. Furthermore, by examining only the first stroke when there is no vortex wake, we found that the "ramming effect" enhances the forces on the wing. This effect increases the pressure of the lower wing surface due to the squeezed air between the wing and the ground. The "ramming effect", combined with the reduced downwash (or wing-wake interaction) effect, causes the force enhancement of the wing near the ground's vicinity. It is further comprehended that the trend is dependent on Re. As the Re is increased, the trend becomes non-monotonic. The effect of varying angles of attack, flapping amplitude and wing planform at very low Re does not change this trend. This ground effect might help insects by enhancing their lift while they hover above the surface. This finding might prove beneficial for developing Micro Air Vehicles.}, } @article {pmid34241532, year = {2021}, author = {Iyer, KP and Bewley, GP and Biferale, L and Sreenivasan, KR and Yeung, PK}, title = {Oscillations Modulating Power Law Exponents in Isotropic Turbulence: Comparison of Experiments with Simulations.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {25}, pages = {254501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.254501}, pmid = {34241532}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Inertial-range features of turbulence are investigated using data from experimental measurements of grid turbulence and direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence simulated in a periodic box, both at the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R_{λ} ∼1000. In particular, oscillations modulating the power-law scaling in the inertial range are examined for structure functions up to sixth-order moments. The oscillations in exponent ratios decrease with increasing sample size in simulations, although in experiments they survive at a low value of 4 parts in 1000 even after massive averaging. The two datasets are consistent in their intermittent character but differ in small but observable respects. Neither the scaling exponents themselves nor all the viscous effects are consistently reproduced by existing models of intermittency.}, } @article {pmid34241478, year = {2021}, author = {Gojon, R and Jardin, T and Parisot-Dupuis, H}, title = {Experimental investigation of low Reynolds number rotor noise.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {149}, number = {6}, pages = {3813}, doi = {10.1121/10.0005068}, pmid = {34241478}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {In this paper, an experimental characterisation of low Reynolds number rotors is performed in an anechoic room. Two commercially available two-bladed rotors as well as four three-dimensional (3D)-printed rotors with different numbers of blades (from two to five) are tested. The latter have canonical geometry, with an NACA0012 blade section profile, extruded in the radial direction with constant chord and constant 10° pitch. The experimental setup and the 3D printing strategy are first validated using results from the literature for the commercially available rotors. For all the tested rotors, four noise characteristics are analysed: the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the amplitude of the blade passing frequency (BPF), and the amplitude of its first harmonic and the high-frequency broadband noise. For all the rotors, an increase in all noise characteristics is observed with the rotational speed (rpm) for all directivity angles. Moreover, an interesting change of pattern is observed for the amplitudes of the BPF and of its first harmonic, with, in the vicinity of the rotor plane, a minimum value for low rpm and/or high number of blades, and a maximum value for high rpm and/or low number of blades. This change in directivity leads to a similar change of directivity of the OASPL. For the broadband noise, a dipole-like pattern is obtained with a minimum value at θ=-10°, i.e., aligned with the trailing edge and thus indicating the generation of trailing edge noise. Finally, scaling laws that characterise the amplitude of the different noise components with respect to the rpm are proposed.}, } @article {pmid34234957, year = {2021}, author = {Mazharmanesh, S and Stallard, J and Medina, A and Fisher, A and Ando, N and Tian, FB and Young, J and Ravi, S}, title = {Effects of uniform vertical inflow perturbations on the performance of flapping wings.}, journal = {Royal Society open science}, volume = {8}, number = {6}, pages = {210471}, doi = {10.1098/rsos.210471}, pmid = {34234957}, issn = {2054-5703}, abstract = {Flapping wings have attracted significant interest for use in miniature unmanned flying vehicles. Although numerous studies have investigated the performance of flapping wings under quiescent conditions, effects of freestream disturbances on their performance remain under-explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of uniform vertical inflows on flapping wings using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. The overall lift and drag produced by a flapping wing were measured by varying the magnitude of inflow perturbation from J Vert = -1 (downward inflow) to J Vert = 1 (upward inflow), where J Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. The interaction between flapping wing and downward-oriented inflows resulted in a steady linear reduction in mean lift and drag coefficients, C ¯ L and C ¯ D , with increasing inflow magnitude. While a steady linear increase in C ¯ L and C ¯ D was noted for upward-oriented inflows between 0 < J Vert < 0.3 and J Vert > 0.7, a significant unsteady wing-wake interaction occurred when 0.3 ≤ J Vert < 0.7, which caused large variations in instantaneous forces over the wing and led to a reduction in mean performance. These findings highlight asymmetrical effects of vertically oriented perturbations on the performance of flapping wings and pave the way for development of suitable control strategies.}, } @article {pmid34234155, year = {2021}, author = {Connolly, S and Newport, D and McGourty, K}, title = {Cell specific variation in viability in suspension in in vitro Poiseuille flow conditions.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {13997}, pmid = {34234155}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {GOIPG/2016/1265//Irish Research Council/ ; }, abstract = {The influence of Poiseuille flow on cell viability has applications in the areas of cancer metastasis, lab-on-a-chip devices and flow cytometry. Indeed, retaining cell viability is important in the emerging field of adoptive cell therapy, as cells need to be returned to patients' bodies, while the viability of other cells, which are perhaps less accustomed to suspension in a fluidic environment, is important to retain in flow cytometers and other such devices. Despite this, it is unclear how Poiseuille flow affects cell viability. Following on from previous studies which investigated the viability and inertial positions of circulating breast cancer cells in identical flow conditions, this study investigated the influence that varying flow rate, and the corresponding Reynolds number has on the viability of a range of different circulating cells in laminar pipe flow including primary T-cells, primary fibroblasts and neuroblastoma cells. It was found that Reynolds numbers as high as 9.13 had no effect on T-cells while the viabilities of neuroblastoma cells and intestinal fibroblasts were significantly reduced in comparison. This indicates that in vitro flow devices need to be tailored to cell-specific flow regimes.}, } @article {pmid34208685, year = {2021}, author = {Shanbrom, C and Balisacan, J and Wilkens, G and Chyba, M}, title = {Geometric Methods for Efficient Planar Swimming of Copepod Nauplii.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12060706}, pmid = {34208685}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {359510//Simons Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {Copepod nauplii are larval crustaceans with important ecological functions. Due to their small size, they experience an environment of low Reynolds number within their aquatic habitat. Here we provide a mathematical model of a swimming copepod nauplius with two legs moving in a plane. This model allows for both rotation and two-dimensional displacement by the periodic deformation of the swimmer's body. The system is studied from the framework of optimal control theory, with a simple cost function designed to approximate the mechanical energy expended by the copepod. We find that this model is sufficiently realistic to recreate behavior similar to those of observed copepod nauplii, yet much of the mathematical analysis is tractable. In particular, we show that the system is controllable, but there exist singular configurations where the degree of non-holonomy is non-generic. We also partially characterize the abnormal extremals and provide explicit examples of families of abnormal curves. Finally, we numerically simulate normal extremals and observe some interesting and surprising phenomena.}, } @article {pmid34204328, year = {2021}, author = {Ali, A and Bukhari, Z and Umar, M and Ismail, MA and Abbas, Z}, title = {Cu and Cu-SWCNT Nanoparticles' Suspension in Pulsatile Casson Fluid Flow via Darcy-Forchheimer Porous Channel with Compliant Walls: A Prospective Model for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries.}, journal = {International journal of molecular sciences}, volume = {22}, number = {12}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/ijms22126494}, pmid = {34204328}, issn = {1422-0067}, abstract = {The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and thermal radiation is a novelty of the current study. Heat and mass transfer analysis of the pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian Casson HNF via a Darcy-Forchheimer porous channel with compliant walls is presented. Such a problem offers a prospective model to study the blood flow via stenosed arteries. A finite-difference flow solver is used to numerically solve the system obtained using the vorticity stream function formulation on the time-dependent governing equations. The behavior of Cu-based NF and Cu-SWCNT-based HNF on the wall shear stress (WSS), velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are analyzed graphically. The influence of the Casson parameter, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Soret number, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and Peclet number on the flow profiles are analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the flow parameters on the non-dimensional numbers such as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number is also discussed. These quantities escalate as the Reynolds number is enhanced and reduce by escalating the porosity parameter. The Peclet number shows a high impact on the microorganism's density in a blood NF. The HNF has been shown to have superior thermal properties to the traditional one. These results could help in devising hydraulic treatments for blood flow in highly stenosed arteries, biomechanical system design, and industrial plants in which flow pulsation is essential.}, } @article {pmid34203635, year = {2021}, author = {Ju, Y and Zhu, T and Mashayekhi, R and Mohammed, HI and Khan, A and Talebizadehsardari, P and Yaïci, W}, title = {Evaluation of Multiple Semi-Twisted Tape Inserts in a Heat Exchanger Pipe Using Al2O3 Nanofluid.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano11061570}, pmid = {34203635}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The hydrothermal performance of multiple semi-twisted tape inserts inside a heat exchanger pipe is numerically examined in three-dimensions. This study aims to find the optimum case for having the highest heat transfer enhancement with the lowest friction factor using nanofluid (Al2O3/water). A performance evaluation criterion (PEC) is defined to characterize the performance based on both friction factor and heat transfer. It was found that increasing the number of semi-twisted tapes increases the number of swirl flow streams and leads to an enhancement in the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. The average Nusselt number increases from 15.13 to 28.42 and the average friction factor enhances from 0.022 to 0.052 by increasing the number of the semi-twisted tapes from 0 to 4 for the Reynolds number of 1000 for the base fluid. By using four semi-twisted tapes, the average Nusselt number increases from 12.5 to 28.5, while the friction factor reduces from 0.155 to 0.052 when the Reynolds number increases from 250 to 1000 for the base fluid. For the Reynolds number of 1000, the increase in nanofluid concentration from 0 to 3% improves the average Nusselt number and friction factor by 6.41% and 2.29%, respectively. The highest PEC is equal to 1.66 and belongs to the Reynolds number of 750 using four semi-twisted tape inserts with 3% nanoparticles. This work offers instructions to model an advanced design of twisted tape integrated with tubes using multiple semi-twisted tapes, which helps to provide a higher amount of energy demand for solar applications.}, } @article {pmid34199619, year = {2021}, author = {Elsafy, KM and Saghir, MZ}, title = {Forced Convection in Wavy Microchannels Porous Media Using TiO2 and Al2O3-Cu Nanoparticles in Water Base Fluids: Numerical Results.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12060654}, pmid = {34199619}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In the present work, an attempt is made to investigate the performance of three fluids with forced convection in a wavy channel. The fluids are water, a nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in a water solution and a hybrid fluid which consists of 1% Al2O3-Cu nanoparticles in a water solution. The wavy channel has a porous insert with a permeability of 10 PPI, 20 PPI and 40 PPI, respectively. Since Reynolds number is less than 1000, the flow is assumed laminar, Newtonian and steady state. Results revealed that wavy channel provides a better heat enhancement than a straight channel of the same dimension. Porous material increases heat extraction at the expenses of the pressure drop. The nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in water provided the highest performance evaluation criteria.}, } @article {pmid34185996, year = {2021}, author = {Ahmed, S and Perez-Mercader, J}, title = {Autonomous Low-Reynolds-Number Soft Robots with Structurally Encoded Motion and Their Thermodynamic Efficiency.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00765}, pmid = {34185996}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Soft low-Reynolds-number robotics hold the potential to significantly impact numerous fields including drug delivery, sensing, and diagnostics. Realizing this potential is predicated upon the ability to design soft robots tailored to their intended function. In this work, we identify the effect of different geometric and symmetry parameters on the motion of soft, autonomous robots that operate in the low-Reynolds-number regime and use organic fuel. The ability to power low-Reynolds-number soft robots using an organic fuel would provide a new avenue for their potential use in biomedical applications, as is the use of a polymeric biocompatible material as is done here. We introduce a simple and cost-effective 3D-printer-assisted method to fabricate robots of different shapes that is scalable and widely applicable for a variety of materials. The efficiency of chemical energy to mechanical energy conversion is measured in soft low-Reynolds-number robots for the first time, and their mechanism of motion is assessed. Motion is a result of a periodic and oscillatory change in the charge state of the gel. This work lays the groundwork for the structure-function design of soft, chemically operated, and autonomous low-Reynolds-number robots.}, } @article {pmid34184223, year = {2021}, author = {Yang, F and Zeng, YH and Huai, WX}, title = {A new model for settling velocity of non-spherical particles.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {34184223}, issn = {1614-7499}, support = {51879197//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 51622905//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 2016YFA0600901//National key research and development of China/ ; }, abstract = {The settlement of non-spherical particles, such as propagules of plants and natural sediments, is commonly observed in riverine ecosystems. The settling process is influenced by both particle properties (size, density, and shape) and fluid properties (density and viscosity). Therefore, the drag law of non-spherical particles is a function of both particle Reynolds number and particle shape. Herein, a total of 828 settling data are collected from the literatures, which cover a wide range of particle Reynolds number (0.008-10000). To characterize the influence of particle shapes, sphericity is adopted as the general shape factor, which varies from 0.421 to 1.0. By comparing the measured drag with the standard drag curve of spheres, we modify the spherical drag law with three shape-dependent functions to develop a new drag law for non-spherical particles. Combined with an iterative procedure, a new model is thus obtained to predict the settling velocity of non-spherical particles of various shapes and materials. Further applications in hydrochorous propagule dispersal and sediment transport are projected based on deeper understanding of the settling process.}, } @article {pmid34143104, year = {2021}, author = {Hill, JL and Hsu, PS and Jiang, N and Grib, SW and Roy, S and Borg, M and Thomas, L and Reeder, M and Schumaker, SA}, title = {Hypersonic N2 boundary layer flow velocity profile measurements using FLEET.}, journal = {Applied optics}, volume = {60}, number = {15}, pages = {C38-C46}, doi = {10.1364/AO.417470}, pmid = {34143104}, issn = {1539-4522}, abstract = {Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used in the boundary layer of an ogive-cylinder model in a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube. One-dimensional velocity profiles were extracted from the FLEET signal in laminar boundary layers from pure N2 flows at unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.4×106/m to3.9×106/m. The effects of model tip bluntness and the unit Reynolds number on the velocity profiles were investigated. The challenges and strategies of applying FLEET for direct boundary layer velocity measurement are discussed. The potential of utilizing FLEET velocimetry for understanding the dynamics of laminar and turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flows is demonstrated.}, } @article {pmid34139680, year = {2021}, author = {Mazharmanesh, S and Stallard, J and Medina, A and Fisher, AM and Ando, N and Tian, F and Young, J and Ravi, S}, title = {Performance of passively pitching flapping wings in the presence of vertical inflows.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac0c60}, pmid = {34139680}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {The successful implementation of passively pitching flapping wings strongly depends on their ability to operate efficiently in wind disturbances. In this study, we experimentally investigated the interaction between a uniform vertical inflow perturbation and a passive-pitching flapping wing using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. A parametric study was performed by systematically varying the Cauchy number (Ch) of the wings from 0.09 to 11.52. The overall lift and drag, and pitch angle of the wing were measured by varying the magnitude of perturbation from J_Vert=-0.6 (downward inflow) to J_Vert=0.6 (upward inflow) at each Ch, where J_Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. We found that the lift and drag had remarkably different characteristics in response to both Ch and J_Vert. Across all Ch, while mean lift tended to increase as the inflow perturbation varied from -0.6 to 0.6, drag was significantly less sensitive to the perturbation. However effect of the vertical inflow on drag was dependent on Ch, where it tended to vary from an increasing to a decreasing trend as Ch was changed from 0.09 to 11.52. The differences in the lift and drag with perturbation magnitude could be attributed to the reorientation of the net force over the wing as a result of the interaction with the perturbation. These results highlight the complex interactions between passively pitching flapping wings and freestream perturbations and will guide the design of miniature flying crafts with such architectures.}, } @article {pmid34134196, year = {2021}, author = {Li, H and Tian, B and He, Z and Zhang, Y}, title = {Growth mechanism of interfacial fluid-mixing width induced by successive nonlinear wave interactions.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {5-1}, pages = {053109}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.053109}, pmid = {34134196}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Interfacial fluid mixing induced by successive waves, such as shock, rarefaction, and compression waves, plays a fundamental role in engineering applications, e.g., inertial confinement fusion, and in natural phenomena, e.g., supernova explosion. These waves bring nonuniform, unsteady external forces into the mixing zone, which leads to a complex mixing process. The growth rate of the mixing width is analyzed by decomposing the turbulent flow field into the averaged field and the fluctuating counterpart. The growth rate is thus divided into three parts: (i) the stretching or compression (S(C)) effect induced by the averaged-velocity difference between two ends of the mixing zone, (ii) the penetration effect induced by the fluctuations which represent the penetration of the two species into each other, and (iii) the diffusive effect, which is induced by the molecular diffusion and is negligible in high-Reynolds-number flows at Schmidt number of order unity. The penetration effect is further divided into the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) effect, which is induced by fluctuations that were deposited by earlier wave interactions, and the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effect, which is caused by the fluctuations that arise in an overall acceleration of the mixing zone. During the passage of the rarefaction waves, the mixing zone is stretched, while during the passage of the compression waves or shock waves, the mixing zone is compressed. To illustrate these effects, a physical model of RM mixing with reshock is used. By combining the S(C), RM, and RT effects, the entire evolution of mixing width is restructured, which agrees well with numerical simulations for problems with a wide range of density ratios.}, } @article {pmid34129919, year = {2021}, author = {Ahookhosh, K and Saidi, M and Mohammadpourfard, M and Aminfar, H and Hamishehkar, H and Farnoud, A and Schmid, O}, title = {Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.}, journal = {European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences}, volume = {164}, number = {}, pages = {105911}, doi = {10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105911}, pmid = {34129919}, issn = {1879-0720}, abstract = {Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. The upper airway geometry, which includes the extrathoracic region, trachea, and bronchial airways up to the fourth generation in some branches, was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) images of an adult healthy female. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed using the k-ω model with low-Reynolds number (LRN) corrections to accomplish the objectives. The deposition results of the present study were verified with the in vitro deposition data of our previous investigation on pulmonary drug delivery using a hollow replica of the same airway geometry as used for CFD modeling. It was found that the flow structure inside the pMDI and extrathoracic region strongly depends on inhalation flow rate and geometry of the inhaler. In addition, regional aerosol deposition patterns were investigated at four inhalation flow rates between 30 and 120 L/min and for 60 L/min yielding highest deposition fractions of 24.4% and 3.1% for the extrathoracic region (EX) and the trachea, respectively. It was also revealed that particle deposition was larger in the right branches of the bronchial airways (right lung) than the left branches (left lung) for all of the considered cases. Also, optimization of spray characteristics showed that the optimum values for initial spray velocity, spray cone angle and spray duration were 100 m/s, 10° and 0.1 sec, respectively. Moreover, spray cone angle, more than any other of the investigated pMDI parameters can change the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the airway model. In conclusion, the present investigation provides a validated CFD model for particle deposition and new insights into the relevance of flow structure for deposition of pMDI-emitted pharmaceutical aerosols in the upper respiratory tract.}, } @article {pmid34127716, year = {2021}, author = {Shah, Z and Jafaryar, M and Sheikholeslami, M and Ikramullah, and Kumam, P}, title = {Heat transfer intensification of nanomaterial with involve of swirl flow device concerning entropy generation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {12504}, pmid = {34127716}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The thermal features of hybrid nano-powder turbulent motion through a pipe employing helical turbulator is numerically simulated via Finite Volume Method (FVM). The hybrid nanofluid (MWCNTs + Fe3O4 + H2O) is obtained by uniformly dispersing MWCNTs + Fe3O4 nanomaterials in H2O. The characteristics features of thermal energy transfer of hybrid nanofluid are investigated by varying the pitch ratio (P) of the helical turbulator and Reynolds number (Re) of the fluid. The outputs of the study are depicted in terms of contour plots of temperature, velocity, frictional irreversibility Sgen,f, and thermal irreversibility Sgen,th. The variation of Sgen,f, and Sgen,th with changing P and Re are also displayed by 3D plots. It is found that making the fluid more turbulent by increasing Re, the temperature of the fluid drops whereas the fluid velocity augments. The frictional irreversibility enhances, whereas the thermal irreversibility drops with the increasing turbulent motion. The decreasing P causes to drop the temperature of the higher turbulent fluid flow, while opposite effect is observed for smaller Re. The decreasing P causes to enhance the fluid mixing and thus augments the fluid velocity. Sgen,f and Sgen,th both augment with decreasing P. The comparison of current outputs with the older article shows an acceptable accuracy. The results of the present investigation will be useful in modelling of efficient thermal energy transfer systems.}, } @article {pmid34124445, year = {2021}, author = {Tian, G and Zhu, Y and Feng, X and Zhou, H and Zhang, Y}, title = {Investigation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure over a Sparsely Spaced Biomimetic Spine-Covered Protrusion Surface.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {22}, pages = {14220-14229}, pmid = {34124445}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Multiperspective particle image velocimetry was used to investigate the turbulent boundary layer structure over biomimetic spine-covered protrusion (BSCP) samples inspired by dorsal skin of pufferfish. The comparison of BSCP samples of two sparse "k-type" arrangements (aligned and staggered) with roughness height k + = 5-7 (nearly hydraulically smooth) and smooth case were manufactured in bulk Reynolds number Re b = 37,091, 44,510. The negative value of the roughness function ΔU + shows a downward shift of the mean velocity profile of BSCP samples, which shows a drag reduction effect. The results of turbulent statistics present strong fluctuation over the aligned case in the streamwise direction, while little influence is observed in the wall-normal and spanwise direction, which promotes turbulence stability. The same phenomenon was found based on the probability density function of fluctuation velocity that the suppression of turbulent flow is better over the staggered case. It is obvious that the shear stress induced is governed by the streamwise fluctuations. Furthermore, the Q-criterion and the λci-criterion improved with vorticity ω were introduced for vortex identification, which indicates less prograde vortex population and weaker swirling strength over BSCP samples than over the smooth one. Finally, the spatial coherent structure appeared similar and more orderly over the staggered case in the streamwise and wall-normal direction based on the analysis of two-point correlations R uu. These results provide further guidance to reveal the mechanism of drag reduction on the BSCP surface.}, } @article {pmid34111118, year = {2021}, author = {Velho Rodrigues, MF and Lisicki, M and Lauga, E}, title = {The bank of swimming organisms at the micron scale (BOSO-Micro).}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {16}, number = {6}, pages = {e0252291}, pmid = {34111118}, issn = {1932-6203}, abstract = {Unicellular microscopic organisms living in aqueous environments outnumber all other creatures on Earth. A large proportion of them are able to self-propel in fluids with a vast diversity of swimming gaits and motility patterns. In this paper we present a biophysical survey of the available experimental data produced to date on the characteristics of motile behaviour in unicellular microswimmers. We assemble from the available literature empirical data on the motility of four broad categories of organisms: bacteria (and archaea), flagellated eukaryotes, spermatozoa and ciliates. Whenever possible, we gather the following biological, morphological, kinematic and dynamical parameters: species, geometry and size of the organisms, swimming speeds, actuation frequencies, actuation amplitudes, number of flagella and properties of the surrounding fluid. We then organise the data using the established fluid mechanics principles for propulsion at low Reynolds number. Specifically, we use theoretical biophysical models for the locomotion of cells within the same taxonomic groups of organisms as a means of rationalising the raw material we have assembled, while demonstrating the variability for organisms of different species within the same group. The material gathered in our work is an attempt to summarise the available experimental data in the field, providing a convenient and practical reference point for future studies.}, } @article {pmid34091219, year = {2021}, author = {Amani, M and Amani, P and Bahiraei, M and Ghalambaz, M and Ahmadi, G and Wang, LP and Wongwises, S and Mahian, O}, title = {Latest developments in nanofluid flow and heat transfer between parallel surfaces: A critical review.}, journal = {Advances in colloid and interface science}, volume = {294}, number = {}, pages = {102450}, doi = {10.1016/j.cis.2021.102450}, pmid = {34091219}, issn = {1873-3727}, abstract = {The enhancement of heat transfer between parallel surfaces, including parallel plates, parallel disks, and two concentric pipes, is vital because of their wide applications ranging from lubrication systems to water purification processes. Various techniques can be utilized to enhance heat transfer in such systems. Adding nanoparticles to the conventional working fluids is an effective solution that could remarkably enhance the heat transfer rate. No published review article focuses on the recent advances in nanofluid flow between parallel surfaces; therefore, the present paper aims to review the latest experimental and numerical studies on the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids (mixtures of nanoparticles and conventional working fluids) in such configurations. For the performance analysis of thermal systems composed of parallel surfaces and operating with nanofluids, it is necessary to know the physical phenomena and parameters that influence the flow and heat transfer characteristics in these systems. Significant results obtained from this review indicate that, in most cases, the heat transfer rate between parallel surfaces is enhanced with an increase in the Rayleigh number, the Reynolds number, the magnetic number, and Brownian motion. On the other hand, an increase in thermophoresis parameter, as well as flow parameters, including the Eckert number, buoyancy ratio, Hartmann number, and Lewis number, leads to heat transfer rate reduction.}, } @article {pmid34081994, year = {2021}, author = {Das, S and Pal, TK and Jana, RN and Giri, B}, title = {Significance of Hall currents on hybrid nano-blood flow through an inclined artery having mild stenosis: Homotopy perturbation approach.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {137}, number = {}, pages = {104192}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104192}, pmid = {34081994}, issn = {1095-9319}, abstract = {The rheological perspective of blood flow with the suspension of metallic or non-metallic nanoparticles through arteries having cardiovascular diseases is getting more attention due to momentous applications in obstructed hemodynamics, nano-hemodynamics, nano-pharmacology, blood purification system, treatment of hemodynamic ailments, etc. Motivated by the novel significance and research in this direction, a mathematical hemodynamics model is developed to mimic the hemodynamic features of blood flow under the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles through an inclined artery with mild stenosis in the existence of dominating electromagnetic field force, Hall currents, heat source, and porous substance. Copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles are submerged into the blood to form hybrid nano-blood suspension (Cu-CuO/blood). The attribute of the medium porosity on the blood flow is featured by Darcy's law. The mathematical equations describing the flow are formulated and simplified under mild stenosis and small Reynolds number assumptions. To determine the analytical solution of the resulting nonlinear momentum equation, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is employed. Several figures are graphed to assess the hemodynamical contributions of various intricate physical parameters on blood flow phenomena through the inclined stenosed artery. Significant outcomes from graphical elucidation envisage that the hemodynamic resistance to the blood flow is reduced due to the dispersion of more hybrid nanoparticles in the blood. The hemodynamic resistance (impedance) increases approximately two times by dispersing 0.11% hybrid nanoparticles in the blood flow. The temperature of Cu-CuO/blood is found to be lower in comparison to Cu-blood and pure blood. Intensification of Hall parameter attenuates the wall shear stress at the arterial wall. The trapping phenomena are also outlined via streamline plots which exemplify the blood flow pattern in the stenosed artery under the variation of the emerging parameters. As anticipated, the addition of a large number of hybrid nanoparticles significantly modulates the blood flow pattern in the stenotic region. The novel feature of this model is the impressive impact of Hall currents on hybrid nanoparticle doped blood flow through the stenosed artery. There is another piece of significance is that HPM is the most suitable method to handle the nonlinear momentum equation under the aforementioned flow constraints. Outcomes of this simulation may be valuable for advanced study and research in biomedical engineering, bio-nanofluid mechanics, nano-pharmacodynamics.}, } @article {pmid34078976, year = {2021}, author = {Usman, AH and Khan, NS and Humphries, UW and Ullah, Z and Shah, Q and Kumam, P and Thounthong, P and Khan, W and Kaewkhao, A and Bhaumik, A}, title = {Computational optimization for the deposition of bioconvection thin Oldroyd-B nanofluid with entropy generation.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {11641}, pmid = {34078976}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The behavior of an Oldroyd-B nanoliquid film sprayed on a stretching cylinder is investigated. The system also contains gyrotactic microorganisms with heat and mass transfer flow. Similarity transformations are used to make the governing equations non-dimensional ordinary differential equations and subsequently are solved through an efficient and powerful analytic technique namely homotopy analysis method (HAM). The roles of all dimensionless profiles and spray rate have been investigated. Velocity decreases with the magnetic field strength and Oldroyd-B nanofluid parameter. Temperature is increased with increasing the Brownian motion parameter while it is decreased with the increasing values of Prandtl and Reynolds numbers. Nanoparticle's concentration is enhanced with the higher values of Reynolds number and activation energy parameter. Gyrotactic microorganism density increases with bioconvection Rayleigh number while it decreases with Peclet number. The film size naturally increases with the spray rate in a nonlinear way. A close agreement is achieved by comparing the present results with the published results.}, } @article {pmid34076781, year = {2021}, author = {Kadiri, VM and Günther, JP and Kottapalli, SN and Goyal, R and Peter, F and Alarcón-Correa, M and Son, K and Barad, HN and Börsch, M and Fischer, P}, title = {Light- and magnetically actuated FePt microswimmers.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {6}, pages = {74}, pmid = {34076781}, issn = {1292-895X}, support = {253407113//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; }, abstract = {Externally controlled microswimmers offer prospects for transport in biological research and medical applications. This requires biocompatibility of the swimmers and the possibility to tailor their propulsion mechanisms to the respective low Reynolds number environment. Here, we incorporate low amounts of the biocompatible alloy of iron and platinum (FePt) in its [Formula: see text] phase in microstructures by a versatile one-step physical vapor deposition process. We show that the hard magnetic properties of [Formula: see text] FePt are beneficial for the propulsion of helical micropropellers with rotating magnetic fields. Finally, we find that the FePt coatings are catalytically active and also make for Janus microswimmers that can be light-actuated and magnetically guided.}, } @article {pmid34069236, year = {2021}, author = {Choe, YW and Sim, SB and Choo, YM}, title = {New Equation for Predicting Pipe Friction Coefficients Using the Statistical Based Entropy Concepts.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23050611}, pmid = {34069236}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {In general, this new equation is significant for designing and operating a pipeline to predict flow discharge. In order to predict the flow discharge, accurate determination of the flow loss due to pipe friction is very important. However, existing pipe friction coefficient equations have difficulties in obtaining key variables or those only applicable to pipes with specific conditions. Thus, this study develops a new equation for predicting pipe friction coefficients using statistically based entropy concepts, which are currently being used in various fields. The parameters in the proposed equation can be easily obtained and are easy to estimate. Existing formulas for calculating pipe friction coefficient requires the friction head loss and Reynolds number. Unlike existing formulas, the proposed equation only requires pipe specifications, entropy value and average velocity. The developed equation can predict the friction coefficient by using the well-known entropy, the mean velocity and the pipe specifications. The comparison results with the Nikuradse's experimental data show that the R2 and RMSE values were 0.998 and 0.000366 in smooth pipe, and 0.979 to 0.994 or 0.000399 to 0.000436 in rough pipe, and the discrepancy ratio analysis results show that the accuracy of both results in smooth and rough pipes is very close to zero. The proposed equation will enable the easier estimation of flow rates.}, } @article {pmid34064079, year = {2021}, author = {Zhou, T and Chen, B and Liu, H}, title = {Study of the Performance of a Novel Radiator with Three Inlets and One Outlet Based on Topology Optimization.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/mi12060594}, pmid = {34064079}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In recent years, in order to obtain a radiator with strong heat exchange capacity, researchers have proposed a lot of heat exchangers to improve heat exchange capacity significantly. However, the cooling abilities of heat exchangers designed by traditional design methods is limited even if the geometric parameters are optimized at the same time. However, using topology optimization to design heat exchangers can overcome this design limitation. Furthermore, researchers have used topology optimization theory to designed one-to-one and many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers because it can effectively increase the heat dissipation rate. In particular, it can further decrease the hot-spot temperature for many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers. Therefore, this article proposes novel heat exchangers with three inlets and one outlet designed by topology optimization to decrease the fluid temperature at the outlet. Subsequently, the effect of the channel depth on the heat exchanger design is also studied. The results show that the type of exchanger varies with the channel depth, and there exists a critical depth value for obtaining the minimum substrate temperature difference. Then, the flow and heat transfer performance of the heat exchangers are numerically investigated. The numerical results show that the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization with the minimum temperature difference as the goal (Model-2) is the best design for flow and heat transfer performance compared to other heat sink designs, including the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization having the average temperature as the goal (Model-1) and conventional straight channels (Model-3). The temperature difference of Model-1 can be reduced by 37.5%, and that of Model-2 can be decreased by 62.5% compared to Model-3. Compared with Model-3, the thermal resistance of Model-1 can be reduced by 21.86%, while that of Model-2 can be decreased by 47.99%. At room temperature, we carried out the forced convention experimental test for Model-2 to measure its physical parameters (temperature, pressure drop) to verify the numerical results. The error of the average wall temperature between experimental results and simulation results is within 2.6 K, while that of the fluid temperature between the experimental and simulation results is within 1.4 K, and the maximum deviation of the measured Nu and simulated Nu was less than 5%. This indicated that the numerical results agreed well with the experimental results.}, } @article {pmid34062924, year = {2021}, author = {Gu, B and Adjiman, CS and Xu, XY}, title = {Correlations for Concentration Polarization and Pressure Drop in Spacer-Filled RO Membrane Modules Based on CFD Simulations.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {34062924}, issn = {2077-0375}, support = {na//BP International Centre for Advanced Materials (BP-ICAM)/ ; }, abstract = {Empirical correlations for mass transfer coefficient and friction factor are often used in process models for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. These usually involve four dimensionless groups, namely Reynolds number (Re), Sherwood number (Sh), friction factor (f), and Schmidt number (Sc), with the associated coefficients and exponents being obtained by fitting to experimental data. However, the range of geometric and operating conditions covered by the experiments is often limited. In this study, new dimensionless correlations for concentration polarization (CP) modulus and friction factor are presented, which are obtained by dimensional analysis and using simulation data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two-dimensional CFD simulations are performed on three configurations of spacer-filled channels with 76 combinations of operating and geometric conditions for each configuration, covering a broad range of conditions encountered in RO membrane systems. Results obtained with the new correlations are compared with those from existing correlations in the literature. There is good consistency in the predicted CP with mean discrepancies less than 6%, but larger discrepancies for pressure gradient are found among the various friction factor correlations. Furthermore, the new correlations are implemented in a process model with six spiral wound modules in series and the predicted recovery, pressure drop, and specific energy consumption are compared with a reference case obtained by ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis, The Dow Chemical Company). Differences in predicted recovery and pressure drop are up to 5% and 83%, respectively, highlighting the need for careful selection of correlations when using predictive models in process design. Compared to existing mass transfer correlations, a distinct advantage of our correlations for CP modulus is that they can be directly used to estimate the impact of permeate flux on CP at a membrane surface without having to resort to the film theory.}, } @article {pmid34059714, year = {2021}, author = {Pang, M and Zhang, T and Guo, Y and Zhang, L}, title = {Re-crushing process and non-Darcian seepage characteristics of broken coal medium in coal mine water inrush.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {11380}, pmid = {34059714}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {51774234//Study on the Mechanism of Water-Gas Coupling Fracture Expansion and Ultrasonic Characteristics of Coal Rock Mass in Drilling Holes/ ; 2021JM-390//Fracture Evolution and Water-Gas Coupled Permeability Mechanism of Coal Body Around Extraction Borehole/ ; }, abstract = {The initiation process of the mine water inrush accident, the essence of this process is the sudden change of the seepage state of the broken coal medium under pressure and the instability of the skeleton. In order to study the re-crushing mechanism and seepage characteristics of the broken coal medium under load, a set of three-axis seepage system was designed independently. Using the steady-state infiltration method, multiple flow factors under different particle size combinations and different stress conditions of the broken coal medium were obtained. The results of the study indicate: in one hand, the reduction of the porosity of the broken coal medium will cause the flow channel to be rebuilt, and the sudden change of flow rate will directly lead to the non-Darcian flow behavior. The early stage of compaction mainly affects the permeability k value, and the later stage of compaction mainly affects the non-Darcian β value; On the other hand, the seepage throat in the broken coal medium may have a sharp increase in its flow rate, leading to a sudden change in the flow pattern. The critical Reynolds number is also used to determine whether non-Darcian flow is formed, and its value in the water inrush system is about 40-133; at the same time, the non-Darcian flow in the broken coal medium conforms to the Forchheimer-type flow law. By analyzing the dependence relationship between factors, a seepage factor representation algebraic relationship suitable for Forchheimer type non-Darcian flow of broken coal medium is given, which can be used as a calculation basis in the prevention and treatment of mine water inrush accidents.}, } @article {pmid34056212, year = {2021}, author = {Agarwal, JR and Torres, CF and Shah, S}, title = {Development of Dimensionless Parameters and Groups of Heat and Mass Transfer to Predict Wax Deposition in Crude Oil Pipelines.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {16}, pages = {10578-10591}, doi = {10.1021/acsomega.0c05966}, pmid = {34056212}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {A new methodology has been developed for analyzing heat and mass transfer to predict wax deposition in crude oil pipelines using the law of the wall dimensionless parameters. A set of physically meaningful dimensionless groups and parameters has laid a strong foundation behind the proposed methodology. The paper presents a discussion regarding the development of scale-up correlations from laboratory scale to field scale, considering the combination of both analytical groups and empirical correlations. Data from previous literature studies were employed for determining realistic values for the developed parameters and scale-up correlations. The utilization of new dimensionless scale-up parameters indicated that the wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is independent of the Reynolds number and the inner diameter of the pipeline. It further indicates that wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is mainly dependent on the heat transfer process and not on the shear reduction process. The dimensionless technique developed here can be utilized for determining the optimum pipe size and pigging frequencies to reduce and mitigate the effect of the wax deposition process.}, } @article {pmid34050744, year = {2021}, author = {Ford, MP and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {Closer appendage spacing augments metachronal swimming speed by promoting tip vortex interactions.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icab112}, pmid = {34050744}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Numerous species of aquatic invertebrates, including crustaceans, swim by oscillating multiple closely spaced appendages. The coordinated, out-of-phase motion of these appendages, known as "metachronal paddling", has been well-established to improve swimming performance relative to synchronous paddling. Invertebrates employing this propulsion strategy cover a wide range of body sizes and shapes, but the ratio of appendage spacing (G) to the appendage length (L) has been reported to lie in a comparatively narrow range of 0.2 < G/L ≤ 0.65. The functional role of G/L on metachronal swimming performance is unknown. We hypothesized that for a given Reynolds number and stroke amplitude, hydrodynamic interactions promoted by metachronal stroke kinematics with small G/L can increase forward swimming speed. We used a dynamically scaled self-propelling robot to comparatively examine swimming performance and wake development of metachronal and synchronous paddling under varying G/L, phase lag, and stroke amplitude. G/L was varied from 0.4 to 1.5, with the expectation that when G/L is large, there should be no performance difference between metachronal and synchronous paddling due to a lack of interaction between vortices that form on the appendages. Metachronal stroking at non-zero phase lag with G/L in the biological range produced faster swimming speeds than synchronous stroking. As G/L increased and as stroke amplitude decreased, the influence of phase lag on the swimming speed of the robot was reduced. For smaller G/L, vortex interactions between adjacent appendages generated a horizontally-oriented wake and increased momentum fluxes relative to larger G/L, which contributed to increasing swimming speed. We find that while metachronal motion augments swimming performance for closely spaced appendages (G/L < 1), moderately spaced appendages (1.0 ≤ G/L ≤ 1.5) can benefit from metachronal motion only when the stroke amplitude is large.}, } @article {pmid34035439, year = {2021}, author = {Shankar, BM and Shivakumara, IS}, title = {Benchmark solution for the stability of plane Couette flow with net throughflow.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {10901}, pmid = {34035439}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This paper investigates the stability of an incompressible viscous fluid flow between relatively moving horizontal parallel plates in the presence of a uniform vertical throughflow. A linear stability analysis has been performed by employing the method of normal modes and the resulting stability equation is solved numerically using the Chebyshev collocation method. Contrary to the stability of plane Couette flow (PCF) to small disturbances for all values of the Reynolds number in the absence of vertical throughflow, it is found that PCF becomes unstable owing to the change in the sign of growth rate depending on the magnitude of throughflow. The critical Reynolds number triggering the instability is computed for different values of throughflow dependent Reynolds number and it is shown that throughflow instills both stabilizing and destabilizing effect on the base flow. It is seen that the direction of throughflow has no influence on the stability of fluid flow. A comparative study between plane Poiseuille flow and PCF has also been carried out and the similarities and differences are highlighted.}, } @article {pmid34034247, year = {2021}, author = {Kasoju, VT and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {Pausing after clap reduces power required to fling wings apart at low Reynolds number.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ac050a}, pmid = {34034247}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {The smallest flying insects such as thrips (body length < 2 mm) are challenged with needing to move in air at chord-based Reynolds number (Rec) on the order of 10. Pronounced viscous dissipation at such lowRecrequires considerable energetic expenditure for tiny insects to stay aloft. Thrips flap their densely bristled wings at large stroke amplitudes, bringing both wings in close proximity of each other at the end of upstroke ("clap") and moving their wings apart at the start of downstroke ("fling"). From high-speed videos of free take-off flight of thrips, we observed that their forewings remain clapped for approximately 10% of the wingbeat cycle before start of downstroke (fling stroke). We sought to examine if there are aerodynamic advantages associated with pausing wing motion after upstroke (clap stroke) and before downstroke (fling stroke) atRec=10. A dynamically scaled robotic clap and fling platform was used to measure lift and drag forces generated by physical models of solid (non-bristled) and bristled wings in single wing and wing pair configurations, for pause times ranging between 0% to 41% of the cycle. For solid and bristled wing pairs, pausing before the start of downstroke (fling stroke) dissipated vorticity generated at the end of upstroke (clap stroke). This resulted in decreasing the drag coefficient averaged across downstroke (fling stroke) and in turn reduced power requirements. Also, increasing the pause time resulted in a larger decrease of dimensionless power coefficient for the wing pair configurations as compared to the single wing configurations. Our findings show that wing-wing interaction observed in clap and fling motion of tiny insect wings is necessary to realize aerodynamic benefits of pausing before fling, via reducing the power required to clap and fling for a small compromise in lift.}, } @article {pmid34030500, year = {2021}, author = {Wanzheng, A and Pengfei, Z}, title = {Correction and laboratory investigation for energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {104}, number = {2}, pages = {368504211018571}, doi = {10.1177/00368504211018571}, pmid = {34030500}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {A lot of studies have shown that the hydraulic characteristics of orifice plate are mainly controlled by its contraction ratio, but the thickness of square-edged orifice plate also has many impacts on energy loss characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to investigated the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics. In this paper, the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics are investigated by numerical simulation using CFD. Orifice plate discharge tunnel is axial symmetric, two dimensional numerical simulations of orifice plate discharge tunnel flow was used. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed. The results of the present research demonstrate that energy loss coefficient decreases with increase of the orifice plate thickness. The results of model experiment are consistence with the results calculated by using rectified equation in present paper. The CFD simulations and Model experiment for the flow through an orifice plate are carried out. For square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater, the relative orifice plate thickness T/D has remarkable impacts on its energy loss coefficient ξ. The Traditional equation (8) is corrected by numerical results. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed and this equation is available in the condition of d/D = 0.4-0.8, T/D = 0.05-0.25, and Re > 105(Re is Reynolds number). Comparing with the physical model experimental data, the relative errors of equation (9) is smaller than 15%.}, } @article {pmid34026737, year = {2021}, author = {Murayama, Y and Nakata, T and Liu, H}, title = {Flexible Flaps Inspired by Avian Feathers Can Enhance Aerodynamic Robustness in low Reynolds Number Airfoils.}, journal = {Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology}, volume = {9}, number = {}, pages = {612182}, pmid = {34026737}, issn = {2296-4185}, abstract = {Unlike rigid rotors of drones, bird wings are composed of flexible feathers that can passively deform while achieving remarkable aerodynamic robustness in response to wind gusts. In this study, we conduct an experimental study on the effects of the flexible flaps inspired by the covert of bird wings on aerodynamic characteristics of fixed-wings in disturbances. Through force measurements and flow visualization in a low-speed wind tunnel, it is found that the flexible flaps can suppress the large-scale vortex shedding and hence reduce the fluctuations of aerodynamic forces in a disturbed flow behind an oscillating plate. Our results demonstrate that the stiffness of the flaps strongly affects the aerodynamic performance, and the force fluctuations are observed to be reduced when the deformation synchronizes with the strong vortex generation. The results point out that the simple attachment of the flexible flaps on the upper surface of the wing is an effective method, providing a novel biomimetic design to improve the aerodynamic robustness of small-scale drones with fixed-wings operating in unpredictable aerial environments.}, } @article {pmid34024939, year = {2021}, author = {Chassagne, F and Barbour, MC and Chivukula, VK and Machicoane, N and Kim, LJ and Levitt, MR and Aliseda, A}, title = {The effect of Dean, Reynolds, and Womersley number on the flow in a spherical cavity on a curved round pipe. Part 1. Fluid mechanics in the cavity as a canonical flow representing intracranial aneurysms.}, journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics}, volume = {915}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {34024939}, issn = {0022-1120}, support = {18CDA34110295/AHA/American Heart Association-American Stroke Association/United States ; R01 NS088072/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ; R01 NS105692/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ; R03 NS078539/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Flow in side-wall cerebral aneurysms can be ideally modelled as the combination of flow over a spherical cavity and flow in a curved circular pipe, two canonical flows. Flow in a curved pipe is known to depend on the Dean number De, combining the effects of Reynolds number, Re, and of the curvature along the pipe centreline, κ. Pulsatility in the flow introduces a dependency on the Womersley number Wo. Using stereo PIV measurements, this study investigated the effect of these three key non-dimensional parameters, by modifying pipe curvature (De), flow-rate (Re), and pulsatility frequency (Wo), on the flow patterns in a spherical cavity. A single counter-rotating vortex was observed in the cavity for all values of pipe curvature κ and Re, for both steady and pulsatile inflow conditions. Increasing the pipe curvature impacted both the flow patterns in the pipe and the cavity, by shifting the velocity profile towards the cavity opening and increasing the flow rate into the cavity. The circulation in the cavity was found to collapse well with only the Dean number, for both steady and pulsatile inflows. For pulsatile inflow, the counter-rotating vortex was unstable and the location of its centre over time was impacted by the curvature of the pipe, as well as the Re and the Wo in the freestream. The circulation in the cavity was higher for steady inflow than for the equivalent average Reynolds and Dean number pulsatile inflow, with very limited impact of the Womersley in the range studied.}, } @article {pmid34007926, year = {2021}, author = {Aljabair, S and Ekaid, AL and Ibrahim, SH and Alesbe, I}, title = {Mixed convection in sinusoidal lid driven cavity with non-uniform temperature distribution on the wall utilizing nanofluid.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {7}, number = {5}, pages = {e06907}, pmid = {34007926}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Mixed convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid in an arc cavity with non-uniform heating has been numerically studied. The top flat moving wall is isothermally cooled at Tc and moved with a constant velocity. While the heated arc stationary wall of the cavity is maintained at a hot temperature Th. FORTRAN code is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy equations in dimensionless form with suitable boundary conditions. In this study, the Reynolds number changed from 1 to 2000, and the Rayleigh number changed from 0 to 107. Also, the range of nanoparticles volume fraction extends from ϕ = 0 to 0.07. Stream vorticity method selected for the discretization of flow and energy equations. The present results are compared with the previous results for the validation part, where the results found a good agreement with the others works. The isotherms are regulated near the arc-shape wall causing a steep temperature gradient at these regions and the local and average heat transfer rate increases with increased volume fraction or Reynolds number or Rayleigh number. Finally, Correlation equations of the average Nusselt number from numerical results are presented.}, } @article {pmid34006011, year = {2021}, author = {Fouxon, I and Feinberg, J and Mond, M}, title = {Linear and nonlinear hydromagnetic stability in laminar and turbulent flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043104}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.043104}, pmid = {34006011}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We consider the evolution of arbitrarily large perturbations of a prescribed pure hydrodynamical flow of an electrically conducting fluid. We study whether the flow perturbations as well as the generated magnetic fields decay or grow with time and constitute a dynamo process. For that purpose we derive a generalized Reynolds-Orr equation for the sum of the kinetic energy of the hydrodynamic perturbation and the magnetic energy. The flow is confined in a finite volume so the normal component of the velocity at the boundary is zero. The tangential component is left arbitrary in contrast with previous works. For the magnetic field we mostly employ the classical boundary conditions where the field extends in the whole space. We establish critical values of hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers below which arbitrarily large initial perturbations of the hydrodynamic flow decay. This involves generalization of the Rayleigh-Faber-Krahn inequality for the smallest eigenvalue of an elliptic operator. For high Reynolds number turbulence we provide an estimate of critical magnetic Reynolds number below which arbitrarily large fluctuations of the magnetic field decay.}, } @article {pmid34005982, year = {2021}, author = {Gissinger, JR and Zinchenko, AZ and Davis, RH}, title = {Internal circulation and mixing within tight-squeezing deformable droplets.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.043106}, pmid = {34005982}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The internal flow and mixing properties inside deformable droplets, after reaching the steady state within two types of passive droplet traps, are visualized and analyzed as dynamical systems. The first droplet trap (constriction) is formed by three spheres arranged in an equilateral triangle, while the second consists of two parallel spherocylinders (capsules). The systems are assumed to be embedded in a uniform far-field flow at low Reynolds number, and the steady shapes and interfacial velocities on the drops are generated using the boundary-integral method. The internal velocity field is recovered by solving the internal Dirichlet problem, also via a desingularized boundary-integral method. Calculation of 2D streamlines within planes of symmetry reveals the internal equilibria of the flow. The type of each equilibrium is classified in 3D and their interactions probed using passive tracers and their Poincaré maps. For the two-capsule droplet, saddle points located on orthogonal symmetry planes influence the regular flow within the drop. For the three-sphere droplet, large regions of chaos are observed, embedded with simple periodic orbits. Flow is visualized via passive dyes, using material lines and surfaces. In 2D, solely the interface between two passive interior fluids is advected using an adaptive number of linked tracer particles. The reduction in dimension decreases the number of required tracer points, and also resolves arbitrarily thin filaments, in contrast to backward cell-mapping methods. In 3D, the advection of a material surface, bounded by the droplet interface, is enabled using an adaptive mesh scheme. Off-lattice 3D contour advection allows for highly resolved visualizations of the internal flow and quantification of the associated degree of mixing. Analysis of the time-dependent growth of material surfaces and 3D mixing numbers suggests the three-sphere droplet exhibits superior mixing properties compared to the two-capsule droplet.}, } @article {pmid34005876, year = {2021}, author = {Brahmachary, S and Natarajan, G and Kulkarni, V and Sahoo, N and Ashok, V and Kumar, V}, title = {Role of solution reconstruction in hypersonic viscous computations using a sharp interface immersed boundary method.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043302}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.043302}, pmid = {34005876}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {This work discusses the development of a sharp interface immersed boundary (IB) method for viscous compressible flows and its assessment for accurate computations of wall shear and heat fluxes in hypersonic flows. The IB method is implemented in an unstructured Cartesian finite-volume (FV) framework and resolves the geometric interface sharply on the nonconformal mesh through direct imposition of boundary conditions employing a local reconstruction approach. The efficacy of the IB-FV solver is investigated for canonical high-speed viscous flows over a range of Mach numbers. The numerical results indicate that the surface pressure and shear stress distributions are computed with reasonable accuracy, whereas surface heat fluxes for aerodynamically blunt configurations are underpredicted. Employing a set of carefully designed experiments and simple diagnostic tools, we probe the possible causes for the underprediction in heat flux. We show that there exist two sources of error-one due to grid resolution and the other due to solution reconstruction, with the latter being more prominent and responsible for the observed underprediction in heat fluxes. Studies reveal that the heat flux estimates are sensitive to the choice of temperature reconstruction and linear interpolations could lead to poor estimates of heat flux. Our investigations conclusively point out the fact that existing polynomial-based reconstruction approaches for sharp interface IB techniques are not necessarily adequate for heat transfer predictions in high Reynolds number hypersonic flows.}, } @article {pmid34001882, year = {2021}, author = {Nguyen, QM and Abouezzi, J and Ristroph, L}, title = {Early turbulence and pulsatile flows enhance diodicity of Tesla's macrofluidic valve.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {2884}, pmid = {34001882}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {Microfluidics has enabled a revolution in the manipulation of small volumes of fluids. Controlling flows at larger scales and faster rates, or macrofluidics, has broad applications but involves the unique complexities of inertial flow physics. We show how such effects are exploited in a device proposed by Nikola Tesla that acts as a diode or valve whose asymmetric internal geometry leads to direction-dependent fluidic resistance. Systematic tests for steady forcing conditions reveal that diodicity turns on abruptly at Reynolds number [Formula: see text] and is accompanied by nonlinear pressure-flux scaling and flow instabilities, suggesting a laminar-to-turbulent transition that is triggered at unusually low [Formula: see text]. To assess performance for unsteady forcing, we devise a circuit that functions as an AC-to-DC converter, rectifier, or pump in which diodes transform imposed oscillations into directed flow. Our results confirm Tesla's conjecture that diodic performance is boosted for pulsatile flows. The connections between diodicity, early turbulence and pulsatility uncovered here can inform applications in fluidic mixing and pumping.}, } @article {pmid33998932, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, X and Zhang, Y and Wang, J}, title = {Simulation analysis of mixing in passive microchannel with fractal obstacles based on Murray's law.}, journal = {Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-9}, doi = {10.1080/10255842.2021.1906867}, pmid = {33998932}, issn = {1476-8259}, abstract = {In this paper, we designed fractal obstacles according to Murray's law and set them in a microchannel. We study the influence of the numbers of fractal obstacles, channel widths, branch widths, and the distance between fractal obstacles on mixing efficiency. The optimized micromixer has a high mixing efficiency of more than 90% at all velocities. This paper focuses on the analysis of the variation of mixing efficiency and pressure drop in the range of Reynolds number (Re) 0.1-150. The simulation results show that when the fluid velocity is low, the mixing efficiency of the fluids is mainly improved by molecular diffusion, when the fluid velocity is high, the microchannel with fractal obstacles can promote chaotic convection of the fluids and improve the mixing efficiency. The fractal structure based on Murray's law can be widely used in the design of passive micromixer.}, } @article {pmid33998624, year = {2021}, author = {Su, J and Chen, X and Zhu, Y and Hu, G}, title = {Machine learning assisted fast prediction of inertial lift in microchannels.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {21}, number = {13}, pages = {2544-2556}, doi = {10.1039/d1lc00225b}, pmid = {33998624}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Inertial effect has been extensively used in manipulating both engineered particles and biocolloids in microfluidic platforms. The design of inertial microfluidic devices largely relies on precise prediction of particle migration that is determined by the inertial lift acting on the particle. In spite of being the only means to accurately obtain the lift forces, direct numerical simulation (DNS) often consumes high computational cost and even becomes impractical when applied to microchannels with complex geometries. Herein, we proposed a fast numerical algorithm in conjunction with machine learning techniques for the analysis and design of inertial microfluidic devices. A database of inertial lift forces was first generated by conducting DNS over a wide range of operating parameters in straight microchannels with three types of cross-sectional shapes, including rectangular, triangular and semicircular shapes. A machine learning assisted model was then developed to gain the inertial lift distribution, by simply specifying the cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and particle blockage ratio. The resultant inertial lift was integrated into the Lagrangian tracking method to quickly predict the particle trajectories in two types of microchannels in practical devices and yield good agreement with experimental observations. Our database and the associated codes allow researchers to expedite the development of the inertial microfluidic devices for particle manipulation.}, } @article {pmid33997904, year = {2021}, author = {Garayev, K and Murphy, DW}, title = {Metachronal swimming of mantis shrimp: kinematics and interpleopod vortex interactions.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icab052}, pmid = {33997904}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Mantis shrimp swim via metachronal rowing, a pattern in which the pleopods (swimming limbs) stroke sequentially, starting with the last pair and followed by anterior neighbors. A similar swimming pattern is used at various sizes, Reynolds numbers, and advance ratios by diverse organisms including ciliates, ctenophores, copepods, krill, and lobsters. Understanding this type of locomotion is important because it is widespread and may inspire the design of underwater vehicles where efficiency, robustness, and maneuverability are desired. However, detailed measurements of the flow around free-swimming, metachronally rowing organisms are scarce, especially for organisms swimming in a high Reynolds number regime (Re ≥ 104). In this study, we present time-resolved, planar PIV measurements of a swimming peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). Simultaneous kinematics measurements of the animal, which had body and pleopod lengths of 114 mm and 20 mm, respectively, reveal mean swimming speeds of 0.2-1.9 m s - 1 and pleopod beat frequencies of 3.6-13 Hz, corresponding to advance ratios of 0.75-1.84 and body-based Reynolds numbers of 23,000-217,000. Further, the animal's stroke is not purely metachronal, with a long phase lag between initiation of the first and fifth pleopod power strokes. Flow measurements in the sagittal plane show that each stroking pleopod pair creates a posteriorly moving tip vortex which evades destruction by the recovery strokes of other pleopod pairs. The vortex created by the anteriormost pleopod pair is the strongest and, owing to the animal's high advance ratio, is intercepted by the power stroke of the posteriormost pleopod pair. The vortex strength increases as a result of this interaction, which may increase swimming speed or efficiency. A relationship for vortex interception by the posterior pleopod is proposed that relates the phase lag between the interacting pleopods to the beat frequency, distance between those pleopods, and speed of the vortex relative to the animal. We describe this interaction with a novel parameter called the interpleopod vortex phase matching Strouhal number StIVPM which is equal to the phase lag between interacting pleopods. This new nondimensional parameter may be useful in predicting the conditions where a constructive interaction may occur in other species or in physical models. Finally, we relate the advance ratio to the Reynolds number ratio, the ratio between the body-based Reynolds number and the pleopod-based Reynolds number. The importance of these parameters in promoting the interpleopod vortex interactions identified here, in dynamically scaled experiments, and in wake signatures behind schooling metachronal swimmers is discussed.}, } @article {pmid33986400, year = {2021}, author = {Mehboudi, A and Yeom, J}, title = {A passive Stokes flow rectifier for Newtonian fluids.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {10182}, pmid = {33986400}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Non-linear effects of the Navier-Stokes equations disappear under the Stokes regime of Newtonian fluid flows disallowing a flow rectification behavior. Here we show that passive flow rectification of Newtonian fluids is obtainable under the Stokes regime of both compressible and incompressible flows by introducing nonlinearity into the otherwise linear Stokes equations. Asymmetric flow resistances arise in shallow nozzle/diffuser microchannels with deformable ceiling, in which the fluid flow is governed by a non-linear coupled fluid-solid mechanics equation. The proposed model captures the unequal deflection profile of the deformable ceiling depending on the flow direction under the identical applied pressure, permitting a larger flow rate in the nozzle configuration. Ultra-low aspect ratio microchannels sealed by a flexible membrane have been fabricated to demonstrate passive flow rectification for low-Reynolds-number flows (0.001 < Re < 10) of common Newtonian fluids such as water, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol. The proposed rectification mechanism is also extended to compressible flows, leading to the first demonstration of rectifying equilibrium gas flows under the Stokes flow regime. While the maximum rectification ratio experimentally obtained in this work is limited to 1.41, a higher value up to 1.76 can be achieved by optimizing the width profile of the asymmetric microchannels.}, } @article {pmid33976300, year = {2021}, author = {Kazemi, A and Castillo, L and Curet, OM}, title = {Mangrove roots model suggest an optimal porosity to prevent erosion.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {9969}, pmid = {33976300}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Mangrove swamps are extremely productive ecosystems providing many ecological services in coastal regions. The hydrodynamic interactions of mangrove roots and water flow have been proposed as a key element to mitigate erosion. Several studies reveal that precise prediction of the morphological evolution of coastal areas, in the face of global warming and the consequent sea-level rise, requires an understanding of interactions between root porosity (the fraction of the volume of void space over the total volume), water flows, and sediment transport. Water flows around the mangrove prop roots create a complex energetic process that mixes up sediments and generates a depositional region posterior to the roots. In this work, we investigated the boundary layer behind permeable arrays of cylinders (patch) that represent the mangrove roots to explore the impact of patch porosity on the onset of sediment transport. The flow measurements were performed in a vertical plane along the water depth downstream of the mangrove root models. A high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used in a flume to observe the impact of porosity on the mean flow, velocity derivatives, skin friction coefficient, and production of turbulent kinetic energy for Reynolds number of 2500 (based on patch diameter length-scale). Here, we proposed a predictive model for critical velocity for incipient motion that takes into account the mangrove roots porosity and the near-bed turbulence effect. It is found that the patch with the [Formula: see text] porosity, has the maximum critical velocity over which the sediment transport initiates. We found the optimum porosity has the minimum sediment erosion and creates negative vorticity sources near the bed that increases the critical velocity. This signifies an optimum porosity for the onset of sediment transport consistent with the porosity of mangroves in nature. The phenomenological model is elucidated based on an analysis of the vorticity evolution equation for viscous incompressible flows. For the optimum porous patch, a sink of vorticity was formed which yielded to lower the near-bed turbulence and vorticity. The minimum velocity fluctuations were sufficient to initiate the boundary layer transition, however, the viscous dissipation dominated the turbulence production to obstruct the sediment transport. This work identified the pivotal role of mangrove root porosity in sediment transport in terms of velocity and its derivatives in wall-bounded flows. Our work also provides insight into the sediment transport and erosion processes that govern the evolution of the shapes of shorelines.}, } @article {pmid33956314, year = {2021}, author = {Vasilopoulos, K and Lekakis, I and Sarris, IE and Tsoutsanis, P}, title = {Large eddy simulation of dispersion of hazardous materials released from a fire accident around a cubical building.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {33956314}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {The turbulent smoke dispersion from a pool fire around a cubical building is studied using large eddy simulation at a high Reynolds number, corresponding to existing experimental measurements both in laboratory and field test scales. Emphasis of this work is on the smoke dispersion due to two different fuel pool fire accident scenarios, initiated behind the building. For the setup of fire in the first case, crude oil was used with a heat release rate of 7.8 MW, and in the second, diesel oil with a heat release rate of 13.5 MW. It is found that in both fire scenarios, the downstream extent of the toxic zone is approximately the same. This is explained in terms of the fact that the smoke concentration and dispersion are influenced mainly by the convective buoyant forces and the strong turbulence mixing processes within the wake zone of the building. It is suggested that wind is the dominating factor in these accident scenarios, which represent the conditions resulting in the highest toxicity levels.}, } @article {pmid33953255, year = {2021}, author = {Asai, T and Hong, S}, title = {Aerodynamics of the newly approved football for the English Premier League 2020-21 season.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {9578}, pmid = {33953255}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {20H04066//JSPS KAKENHI of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese government/ ; }, abstract = {Footballs are typically constructed with 32 panels. Recently, the number of panels has been successively reduced to 14, 8, and 6 panels, and official balls have been adopted with complex panel shapes and aerodynamics that differ from those of 32-panel balls. The official ball for the 2020-21 season of the English Premier League comprises just four panels with a complex panel shape and surface groove design; however, its aerodynamics have not yet been clarified. This study aims to clarify the aerodynamic characteristics (drag, side force, lift force, their deviations, and critical Reynolds number) of the new 4-panel ball (Flight 2020, Nike) in comparison to a 6-panel ball (Tsubasa 2020, Adidas) and conventional 32-panel ball (Pelada 2020, Molten) using a wind tunnel test, surface design measurement, and a simple 2D flight simulation. The results showed that Flight 2020 has greater surface roughness and smaller critical Reynolds number than Pelada 2020 and Tsubasa 2020, resulting to its marginally greater drag force in the supercritical region, and slightly smaller fluctuations of the side and lift forces. Furthermore, Flight with a symmetrical orientation exhibits a significantly higher drag coefficient in the supercritical region, suggesting its greater air resistance during flight under this condition.}, } @article {pmid33949106, year = {2021}, author = {Sharan, P and Nsamela, A and Lesher-Pérez, SC and Simmchen, J}, title = {Microfluidics for Microswimmers: Engineering Novel Swimmers and Constructing Swimming Lanes on the Microscale, a Tutorial Review.}, journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)}, volume = {17}, number = {26}, pages = {e2007403}, doi = {10.1002/smll.202007403}, pmid = {33949106}, issn = {1613-6829}, abstract = {This paper provides an updated review of recent advances in microfluidics applied to artificial and biohybrid microswimmers. Sharing the common regime of low Reynolds number, the two fields have been brought together to take advantage of the fluid characteristics at the microscale, benefitting microswimmer research multifold. First, microfluidics offer simple and relatively low-cost devices for high-fidelity production of microswimmers made of organic and inorganic materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Microscale confinement and the corresponding fluid properties have demonstrated differential microswimmer behaviors in microchannels or in the presence of various types of physical or chemical stimuli. Custom environments to study these behaviors have been designed in large part with the help of microfluidics. Evaluating microswimmers in increasingly complex lab environments such as microfluidic systems can ensure more effective implementation for in-field applications. The benefits of microfluidics for the fabrication and evaluation of microswimmers are balanced by the potential use of microswimmers for sample manipulation and processing in microfluidic systems, a large obstacle in diagnostic and other testing platforms. In this review various ways in which these two complementary technology fields will enhance microswimmer development and implementation in various fields are introduced.}, } @article {pmid33947812, year = {2021}, author = {Hartl, B and Hübl, M and Kahl, G and Zöttl, A}, title = {Microswimmers learning chemotaxis with genetic algorithms.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {19}, pages = {}, pmid = {33947812}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Various microorganisms and some mammalian cells are able to swim in viscous fluids by performing nonreciprocal body deformations, such as rotating attached flagella or by distorting their entire body. In order to perform chemotaxis (i.e., to move toward and to stay at high concentrations of nutrients), they adapt their swimming gaits in a nontrivial manner. Here, we propose a computational model, which features autonomous shape adaptation of microswimmers moving in one dimension toward high field concentrations. As an internal decision-making machinery, we use artificial neural networks, which control the motion of the microswimmer. We present two methods to measure chemical gradients, spatial and temporal sensing, as known for swimming mammalian cells and bacteria, respectively. Using the genetic algorithm NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies, surprisingly simple neural networks evolve. These networks control the shape deformations of the microswimmers and allow them to navigate in static and complex time-dependent chemical environments. By introducing noisy signal transmission in the neural network, the well-known biased run-and-tumble motion emerges. Our work demonstrates that the evolution of a simple and interpretable internal decision-making machinery coupled to the environment allows navigation in diverse chemical landscapes. These findings are of relevance for intracellular biochemical sensing mechanisms of single cells or for the simple nervous system of small multicellular organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans.}, } @article {pmid33938005, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, S and Liu, Z and Wu, S and Sun, H and Zeng, W and Wei, J and Fan, Z and Sui, Z and Liu, L and Pan, X}, title = {Microalgae separation by inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation.}, journal = {Electrophoresis}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1002/elps.202000325}, pmid = {33938005}, issn = {1522-2683}, support = {2017YFC1404603//National Key Research and Development Program of China/ ; 51 909 019//Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 51 979 045//Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 3 132 019 336//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; 3 132 020 184//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; CXXM2019BS010//Innovative Researcher Training Projects of Dalian Maritime University/ ; }, abstract = {To improve the accuracy and efficiency of ships' ballast water detection, the separation of microalgae according to size is significant. In this article, a method to separate microalgae based on inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation (iPFF) was reported. The method utilized the inertial lift force induced by flow to separate microalgae according to size continuously. The experimental results show that, as the Reynolds number increases, the separation effect becomes better at first, but then stays unchanged. The best separation effect can be obtained when the Reynolds number is 12.3. In addition, with the increase of the flow rate ratio between sheath fluid and microalgae mixture, the separation effect becomes better and the best separation effect can be obtained when the flow rate ratio reaches 10. In this case, the recovery rate of Tetraselmis sp. is about 90%, and the purity is about 86%; the recovery rate of Chlorella sp. is as high as 99%, and the purity is about 99%. After that, the separation effect keeps getting better but very slowly. In general, this study provides a simple method for the separation of microalgae with different sizes, and lays a foundation for the accurate detection of microalgae in the ballast water.}, } @article {pmid33924044, year = {2021}, author = {Rao, Y and Li, L and Wang, S and Zhao, S and Zhou, S}, title = {Numerical Simulation Study on Flow Laws and Heat Transfer of Gas Hydrate in the Spiral Flow Pipeline with Long Twisted Band.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {4}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e23040489}, pmid = {33924044}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {51574045//National Nature Science Foundation of China/ ; 51974037//National Nature Science Foundation of China/ ; 2020D-5007-0211//CNPC Innovation Foundation/ ; CJ20200085//Changzhou Applied Basic Research Project/ ; }, abstract = {The natural gas hydrate plugging problems in the mixed pipeline are becoming more and more serious. The hydrate plugging has gradually become an important problem to ensure the safety of pipeline operation. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of natural gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline have been studied. The DPM model (discrete phase model) was used to simulate the motion of solid particles, which was used to simulate the complex spiral flow characteristics of hydrate in the pipeline with a long twisted band. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline were studied. The velocity distribution, pressure drop distribution, heat transfer characteristics, and particle settling characteristics in the pipeline were investigated. The numerical results showed that compared with the straight flow without a long twisted band, two obvious eddies are formed in the flow field with a long twisted band, and the velocities are maximum at the center of the vortices. Along the direction of the pipeline, the two vortices move toward the pipe wall from near the twisted band, which can effectively carry the hydrate particles deposited on the wall. With the same Reynolds number, the twisted rate was greater, the spiral strength was weaker, the tangential velocity was smaller, and the pressure drop was smaller. Therefore, the pressure loss can be reduced as much as possible with effect of the spiral flow. In a straight light flow, the Nusselt number is in a parabolic shape with the opening downwards. At the center of the pipe, the Nusselt number gradually decreased toward the pipe wall at the maximum, and at the near wall, the attenuation gradient of the Nu number was large. For spiral flow, the curve presented by the Nusselt number was a trough at the center of the pipe and a peak at 1/2 of the pipe diameter. With the reduction of twist rate, the Nusselt number becomes larger. Therefore, the spiral flow can make the temperature distribution more even and prevent the large temperature difference, resulting in the mass formation of hydrate particles in the pipeline wall. Spiral flow has a good carrying effect. Under the same condition, the spiral flow carried hydrate particles at a distance about 3-4 times farther than that of the straight flow.}, } @article {pmid33923993, year = {2021}, author = {Yuan, S and Jiang, B and Peng, T and Li, Q and Zhou, M}, title = {An Investigation of Flow Patterns and Mixing Characteristics in a Cross-Shaped Micromixer within the Laminar Regime.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {33923993}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {51920105008//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 2019SK2221//Key Research and Development Program of Hunan Province of China/ ; }, abstract = {A fast mixing is critical for subsequent practical development of microfluidic devices, which are often used for assays in the detection of reagents and samples. The present work sets up computational fluid dynamics simulations to explore the flow characteristic and mixing mechanism of fluids in cross-shaped mixers within the laminar regime. First, the effects of increasing an operating parameter on local mixing quality along the microchannels are investigated. It is found that sufficient diffusion cannot occur even though the concentration gradient is large at a high Reynolds number. Meanwhile, a method for calculating local mixing efficiency is also characterized. The mixing efficiency varies exponentially with the flow distance. Second, in order to optimize the cross-shaped mixer, the effects of design parameters, namely aspect ratio, mixing angle and blockage, on mixing quality are captured and the visualization of velocity and concentration distribution are demonstrated. The results show that the aspect ratio and the blockage play an important role in accelerating the mixing process. They can improve the mixing efficiency by increasing the mass transfer area and enhancing the chaotic advection, respectively. In contrast, the inflow angle that affects dispersion length is not an effective parameter. Besides, the surface roughness, which makes the disturbance of fluid flow by roughness more obvious, is considered. Three types of rough elements bring benefits for enhancing mixing quality due to the convection induced by the lateral velocity.}, } @article {pmid33922337, year = {2021}, author = {Ansari, A and Kavousi, S and Helfer, F and Millar, G and Thiel, DV}, title = {An Improved Modelling Approach for the Comprehensive Study of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {33922337}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) is a promising and feasible technology for water desalination. Most of the models used to simulate DCMD are one-dimensional and/or use a linear function of vapour pressure which relies on experimentally determined parameters. In this study, the model of DCMD using Nusselt correlations was improved by coupling the continuity, momentum, and energy equations to better capture the downstream alteration of flow field properties. A logarithmic function of vapour pressure, which is independent from experiments, was used. This allowed us to analyse DCMD with different membrane properties. The results of our developed model were in good agreement with the DCMD experimental results, with less than 7% deviation. System performance metrics, including water flux, temperature, and concentration polarisation coefficient and thermal efficiency, were analysed by varying inlet feed and permeate temperature, inlet velocity, inlet feed concentration, channel length. In addition, twenty-two commercial membranes were analysed to obtain a real vision on the influence of membrane characteristics on system performance metrics. The results showed that the feed temperature had the most significant effect on water flux and thermal efficiency. The increased feed temperature enhanced the water flux and thermal efficiency; however, it caused more concentration and temperature polarisation. On the other hand, the increased inlet velocity was found to provide increased water flux and reduced temperature and concertation polarisation as well. It was also found that the membrane properties, especially thickness and porosity, can affect the DCMD performance significantly. A two-fold increase of feed temperature increased the water flux and thermal efficiency, 10-fold and 27%, respectively; however, it caused an increase in temperature and concertation polarisation, at 48% and 34%, respectively. By increasing Reynolds number from 80 to 1600, the water flux, CPC, and TPC enhanced by 2.3-fold, 2%, and 21%, respectively. The increased feed concentration from 0 to 250 [g/L] caused a 26% reduction in water flux. To capture the downstream alteration of flow properties, it was shown that the ratio of inlet value to outlet value of system performance metrics decreased significantly throughout the module. Therefore, improvement over the conventional model is undeniable, as the new model can assist in achieving optimal operation conditions.}, } @article {pmid33922099, year = {2021}, author = {Yuan, C and Zhang, H and Li, X and Oishi, M and Oshima, M and Yao, Q and Li, F}, title = {Numerical Investigation of T-Shaped Microfluidic Oscillator with Viscoelastic Fluid.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {33922099}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {51776057, 51606054, 51911540073 and 11972384//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {Oscillatory flow has many applications in micro-scaled devices. The methods of realizing microfluidic oscillators reported so far are typically based on the impinging-jet and Coanda effect, which usually require the flow Reynolds number to be at least at the order of unity. Another approach is to introduce elastomeric membrane into the microfluidic units; however, the manufacturing process is relatively complex, and the membrane will become soft after long-time operation, which leads to deviation from the design condition. From the perspective of the core requirement of a microfluidic circuit, i.e., nonlinearity, the oscillatory microfluidic flow can be realized via the nonlinear characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow. In this paper, the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluid (Boger-type) in a T-shaped channel and its modified structures are studied by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). The main results obtained from the DNS study are as follows: (1) Both Weissenberg (Wi) number and viscosity ratio need to be within a certain range to achieve a periodic oscillating performance; (2) With the presence of the dynamic evolution of the pair of vortices in the upstream near the intersection, the oscillation intensity increases as the elasticity-dominated area in the junction enlarges; (3) Considering the simplicity of the T-type channel as a potential oscillator, the improved structure should have a groove carved toward the entrance near the upper wall. The maximum oscillation intensity measured by the standard deviation of flow rate at outlet is increased by 129% compared with that of the original standard T-shaped channel under the same condition. To sum up, with Wi number and viscosity ratio within a certain range, the regular periodic oscillation characteristics of Oldroyd-B type viscoelastic fluid flow in standard T-shaped and its modified channels can be obtained. This structure can serve as a passive microfluidic oscillator with great potential value at an extremely low Reynolds number, which has the advantages of simplicity, no moving parts and fan-out of two.}, } @article {pmid33920267, year = {2021}, author = {Abbasnezhad, N and Kebdani, M and Shirinbayan, M and Champmartin, S and Tcharkhtchi, A and Kouidri, S and Bakir, F}, title = {Development of a Model Based on Physical Mechanisms for the Explanation of Drug Release: Application to Diclofenac Release from Polyurethane Films.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {13}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {33920267}, issn = {2073-4360}, support = {9 bis, Avenue Iéna 75783 PARIS Cedex 16 France//Foundation Arts et Métiers/ ; }, abstract = {In this study, we present a method for prediction of the drug-release profile based on the physical mechanisms that can intervene in drug release from a drug-carrier. The application presented here incorporates the effects of drug concentration and Reynolds number defining the circulating flow in the testing vein. The experimental data used relate to the release of diclofenac from samples of non-degradable polyurethane subjected to static and continuous flow. This case includes simultaneously three mechanisms: burst-release, diffusion and osmotic pressure, identified beforehand here as being able to contribute to the drug liberation. For this purpose, authors coded the Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm to solve the problem of non-linear optimization. The experimental data used to develop the mathematical model obtained from release studies carried out in water solution at 37 °C, for three concentrations of diclofenac and two water flow rates. We discuss the contribution of mechanisms and kinetics by considering two aforementioned parameters and, following that, we obtain the specific-model and compare the calculated results with the experimental results for the reserved cases. The results showed that drug percentage mostly affect the burst release, however flow rate has affected the osmotic release. In addition, release kinetics of all the mechanisms have increased by increasing the values of two considered parameters.}, } @article {pmid33917762, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, R and Duan, R and Jia, H}, title = {Experimental Validation of Falling Liquid Film Models: Velocity Assumption and Velocity Field Comparison.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {13}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {33917762}, issn = {2073-4360}, support = {Grant No. 51779126//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {This publication focuses on the experimental validation of film models by comparing constructed and experimental velocity fields based on model and elementary experimental data. The film experiment covers Kapitza numbers Ka = 278.8 and Ka = 4538.6, a Reynolds number range of 1.6-52, and disturbance frequencies of 0, 2, 5, and 7 Hz. Compared to previous publications, the applied methodology has boundary identification procedures that are more refined and provide additional adaptive particle image velocimetry (PIV) method access to synthetic particle images. The experimental method was validated with a comparison with experimental particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence (PIV/PLIF) results, Nusselt's theoretical prediction, and experimental particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) results of flat steady cases, and a good continuity equation reproduction of transient cases proves the method's fidelity. The velocity fields are reconstructed based on different film flow model velocity profile assumptions such as experimental film thickness, flow rates, and their derivatives, providing a validation method of film model by comparison between reconstructed velocity experimental data and experimental velocity data. The comparison results show that the first-order weighted residual model (WRM) and regularized model (RM) are very similar, although they may fail to predict the velocity field in rapidly changing zones such as the front of the main hump and the first capillary wave troughs.}, } @article {pmid33915686, year = {2021}, author = {Rasool, G and Shafiq, A and Alqarni, MS and Wakif, A and Khan, I and Bhutta, MS}, title = {Numerical Scrutinization of Darcy-Forchheimer Relation in Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Nonlinear Stretching Surface in the Perspective of Heat and Mass Transfer.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {33915686}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The aim of this research is mainly concerned with the numerical examination of Darcy-Forchheimer relation in convective magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow bounded by non-linear stretching sheet. A visco-elastic and strictly incompressible liquid saturates the designated porous medium under the direct influence of the Darcy-Forchheimer model and convective boundary. The magnetic effect is taken uniformly normal to the flow direction. However, the model is bounded to a tiny magnetic Reynolds number for practical applications. Boundary layer formulations are taken into consideration. The so-formulated leading problems are converted into highly nonlinear ordinary problems using effectively modified transformations. The numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing problems. The outcomes stipulate that thermal layer receives significant modification in the incremental direction for augmented values of thermal radiation parameter Rd. Elevation in thermal Biot number γ1 apparently results a significant rise in thermal layer and associated boundary layer thickness. The solute Biot number is found to be an enhancing factor the concentration profile. Besides the three main profiles, the contour and density graphs are sketched for both the linear and non-linear cases. Furthermore, skin friction jumps for larger porosity and larger Forchheimer number. Both the heat and mass flux numbers receive a reduction for augmented values of the Forchheimer number. Heat flux enhances, while mass flux reduces, the strong effect of thermal Biot number. The considered problem could be helpful in any several industrial and engineering procedures, such as rolling, polymeric extrusion, continuously stretching done in plastic thin films, crystal growth, fiber production, and metallic extrusion, etc.}, } @article {pmid33905256, year = {2021}, author = {Sasaki, K and Okue, T and Nakai, T and Uchida, Y and Nishiyama, N}, title = {Lateral Growth of Uniformly Thin Gold Nanosheets Facilitated by Two-Dimensional Precursor Supply.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {37}, number = {19}, pages = {5872-5877}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00344}, pmid = {33905256}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {The nanosheets of highly symmetric materials with a face-centered cubic lattice such as gold have been synthesized by adsorbing the precursors on a flat surface, whose chemical specificity induces the anisotropy of growth rates. We have succeeded in the fabrication of gold nanosheets in a hydrophilic space inside highly separated bilayers, which work as two-dimensional hydrophilic reactors, in a hyperswollen lamellar liquid crystalline phase of an amphiphile solution. One of the physical properties, amphiphilicity, confines the ingredients therein. The nanosheets can only grow in the in-plane direction due to the inhibition of the out-of-plane growth rather than the anisotropy of growth rates probably. Thus, the synthesis can be accelerated; the particles can be completed within 15 min. As not relying on chemical specificity, silver nanosheets could also be synthesized in the same way. The suspension of gold and silver nanosheets without any amphiphiles could be obtained, and the solvent is replaceable. We found that the width of the obtained gold nanosheets is proportional to the Reynolds number of the solution because the area of the bilayer in the hyperswollen lamellar phase depends on shear stress. This implies that the areas of gold nanosheets depend on the areas of the bilayers, and it can be controlled by changing the Reynolds number. This method could be widely used to continuously obtain large-area nanosheets of various materials in a roll-to-roll manufacturing process.}, } @article {pmid33902681, year = {2021}, author = {Heyland, A and Roszell, J and Chau, J and Chai, K and Eaton, A and Nolan, K and Madden, K and Ahmed, WH}, title = {Mass transfer and flow characterization of novel algae-based nutrient removal system.}, journal = {Biotechnology for biofuels}, volume = {14}, number = {1}, pages = {104}, pmid = {33902681}, issn = {1754-6834}, support = {Seeding Food Innovation Grant//George Weston Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an essential component of sustainable inland seafood production. Still, nutrient removal from these systems can result in substantial environmental problems, or present a major cost factor with few added value options. In this study, an innovative and energy-efficient algae based nutrient removal system (NRS) was developed that has the potential to generate revenue through algal commercialization. We optimized mass transfer in our NRS design using novel aeration and mixing technology, using air lift pumps and developed an original membrane cartridge for the continuous operation of nutrient removal and algae production. Specifically, we designed, manufactured and tested a 60-L NRS prototype. Based on specific airlift mixing conditions as well as concentration gradients, we assessed NRS nutrient removal capacity. We then examined the effects of different internal bioreactor geometries and radial orientations on the mixing efficiency.

RESULTS: Using the start-up dynamic method, the overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be in the range of 0.00164-0.0074 [Formula: see text], depending on flow parameters and we confirmed a scaling relationship of mass transfer across concentration gradients. We found the optimal Reynolds number to be 500 for optimal mass transfer, as higher Reynolds numbers resulted in a relatively reduced increase of mass transfer. This relationship between mass transfer and Reynolds number is critical to assess scalability of our system. Our results demonstrate an even distribution of dissolved oxygen levels across the reactor core, demonstrating adequate mixing by the airlift pump, a critical consideration for optimal algal growth. Distribution of dissolved gases in the reactor was further assessed using flow visualization in order to relate the bubble distribution to the mass transfer capabilities of the reactor. We run a successful proof of principle trial using the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta to assess mass transfer of nutrients across the membrane and biomass production.

CONCLUSIONS: Manipulation of the concentration gradient across the membrane demonstrates a more prominent role of airlift mixing at higher concentration gradients. Specifically, the mass transfer rate increased threefold when the concentration gradient was increased 2.5-fold. We found that we can grow algae in the reactor chamber at rates comparable to those of other production systems and that the membrane scaffolds effectively remove nutrients form the wastewater. Our findings provide support for scalability of the design and support the use of this novel NRS for nutrient removal in aquaculture and potentially other applications.}, } @article {pmid33895456, year = {2021}, author = {Song, Z and Tong, J and Pfleging, W and Sun, J}, title = {A review: Learning from the flight of beetles.}, journal = {Computers in biology and medicine}, volume = {133}, number = {}, pages = {104397}, doi = {10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104397}, pmid = {33895456}, issn = {1879-0534}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Coleoptera ; Mechanical Phenomena ; Miniaturization ; Wings, Animal ; }, abstract = {Some Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) can fly at a low Reynolds number with their deployable hind wings, which directly enables a low body weight-a good bioinspiration strategy for miniaturization of micro-air vehicles (MAVs). The hind wing is a significant part of the body and has a folding/unfolding mechanism whose unique function benefits from different structures and materials. This review summarizes the actions, factors, and mechanisms of beetle flight and bioinspired MAVs with deployable wings. The elytron controlled by muscles is the protected part for the folded hind wing and influences flight performance. The resilin, the storage material for elasticity, is located in the folding parts. The hind wings' folding/unfolding mechanism and flight performance can be influenced by vein structures of hollow, solid and wrinkled veins, the hemolymph that flows in hollow veins and its hydraulic mechanism, and various mechanical properties of veins. The action of beetle flight includes flapping flight, hovering, gliding, and landing. The hind wing is passively deformed through force and hemolymph, and the attack angle of the hind wing and the nanomechanics of the veins, muscles and mass body determine the flight performance. Based these factors, bioinspired MAVs with a new deployable wing structure and new materials will be designed to be much more effective and miniaturized. The new fuels and energy supply are significant aspects of MAVs.}, } @article {pmid33889684, year = {2021}, author = {Sadeq, AM and Ahmed, SF and Sleiti, AK}, title = {Dataset for transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {36}, number = {}, pages = {106956}, doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2021.106956}, pmid = {33889684}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {A fan-stirred combustion vessel is used to study the premixed turbulent combustion of diesel, Gas to Liquids (GTL) and 50/50 diesel-GTL and to generate these datasets. A numerical simulation approach is implemented for modelling the premixed combustion of the three fuels under different thermodynamics and turbulence initial conditions, using Zimont Turbulent Flame Speed Closure (Zimont TFC) model. Different parameters are obtained from these simulation runs such as turbulent eddy viscosity (µ), turbulent kinetic energy (k), Damkohler number (Da), Reynolds number (ReT) and turbulent flame speed (St). The raw, filtered and pre-processed data are imported from ANSYS Fluent and then listed on filtered tables for the ease of accessibility. These datasets can be then used to perform research in different related areas such as chemical kinetic mechanisms, ignition delay time, flame ignition mechanisms and flame extinction and diffusion. Also, they can be employed to further understand trends, patterns, and anomalies in data. In addition, they can be compared with other numerical models to establish a robust knowledge about the modelling of premixed turbulent combustion. For more information and discussion of the dataset creation, the reader is directed to the full-length article, "Abdellatif M. Sadeq, Samer F. Ahmed, Ahmad K. Sleiti, Transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel in a fan-stirred combustion vessel, Fuel, Volume 291, 2021, 120,184, ISSN 0016 2361, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120184" [1].}, } @article {pmid33871634, year = {2021}, author = {Lamont, EI and Emlet, RB}, title = {Swimming kinematics of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus glandula.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icab028}, pmid = {33871634}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Larvae of barnacles typically pass through naupliar and cyprid planktonic stages before settlement and metamorphosis. As the final larval stage, cyprids swim much faster than nauplii and in turbulent fluid environments with high shears as they seek habitat. Cyprids swim with six pairs of reciprocating thoracic appendages and use two anterior antennules during settlement. Our understanding of how thoracic appendages generate movement is limited due to short stroke intervals (∼5 ms) that impede observations of the shape and trajectory of appendages. Here, we used high speed videography to observe both free-swimming and tethered cyprids of the intertidal acorn barnacle Balanus glandula to produce a comprehensive description of thoracic appendage swimming kinematics. Cyprids used a drag-based method of swimming: their six pairs of thoracic appendages moved through metachronal power strokes and synchronous recovery strokes similar to the thoracopod motions in calanoid copepods during escape swimming. During the power stroke, plumose setae on each appendage pair spread laterally into a high surface area and high drag paddle composed of a meshwork of fused setules. This interconnected setal array collapsed into a low surface area and low drag shape during the recovery stroke. These effective swimming appendages allowed cyprids to move upwards at an average speed of 1.4 cm s-1 (about 25 body lengths s-1) with an average beat frequency of 16 beats s-1, and reach an instantaneous velocity of up to 6 cm s-1. Beat frequency of the thoracic appendages was significantly associated with speed, with higher beat frequencies indicating faster swimming speed. At their average speed, cyprids moved at the intermediate Reynolds number of ∼10, in which both viscous and inertial forces affected movement. Cyprids could alter swimming direction by sweeping the posterior-most appendage pair to one side and beating the remaining thoracic appendages synchronously through the power stroke with greater motion on the outside of their turn. These results greatly enhance our understanding both of cyprid motility and how small planktonic organisms can use swimming appendages with fused setule arrays to reach high swimming speeds and affect directional changes.}, } @article {pmid33870835, year = {2021}, author = {Si, XA and Talaat, M and Su, WC and Xi, J}, title = {Inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled respiratory aerosols in the human respiratory tract with locally remodeled conducting lungs.}, journal = {Inhalation toxicology}, volume = {33}, number = {4}, pages = {143-159}, doi = {10.1080/08958378.2021.1912860}, pmid = {33870835}, issn = {1091-7691}, mesh = {*Administration, Inhalation ; Aerosols/*administration & dosage ; *Airway Remodeling ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Humans ; Lung/anatomy & histology/pathology ; Models, Biological ; Nanoparticles/*administration & dosage ; Nose/anatomy & histology ; }, abstract = {Objective: Respiratory diseases are often accompanied by alterations to airway morphology. However, inhalation dosimetry data in remodeled airways are scarce due to the challenges in reconstructing diseased respiratory morphologies. This study aims to study the airway remodeling effects on the inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled nanoparticles in a nose-lung geometry that extends to G9 (ninth generation).Materials and methods: Statistical shape modeling was used to develop four diseased lung models with varying levels of bronchiolar dilation/constriction in the left-lower (LL) lobe (i.e. M1-M4). Respiratory airflow and particle deposition were simulated using a low Reynolds number k-ω turbulence model and a Lagrangian tracking approach.Results: Significant discrepancies were observed in the flow partitions between the left and right lungs, as well as between the lower and upper lobes of the left lung, which changed by 10-fold between the most dilated and constricted models.Much lower doses were predicted on the surface of the constricted LL bronchioles G4-G9, as well as into the peripheral airways beyond G9 of the LL lung. However, the LL lobar remodeling had little effect on the dosimetry in the nasopharynx, as well as on the total dosimetry in the nose-lung geometry (up to G9).Conclusion: It is suggested that airway remodeling may pose a higher viral infection risk to the host by redistributing the inhaled viruses to healthy lung lobes. Airway remodeling effects should also be considered in the treatment planning of inhalation therapies, not only because of the dosimetry variation from altered lung morphology but also its evolution as the disease progresses.}, } @article {pmid33863724, year = {2021}, author = {Trkulja, CL and Jungholm, O and Davidson, M and Jardemark, K and Marcus, MM and Hägglund, J and Karlsson, A and Karlsson, R and Bruton, J and Ivarsson, N and Srinivasa, SP and Cavallin, A and Svensson, P and Jeffries, GDM and Christakopoulou, MN and Reymer, A and Ashok, A and Willman, G and Papadia, D and Johnsson, E and Orwar, O}, title = {Rational antibody design for undruggable targets using kinetically controlled biomolecular probes.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {7}, number = {16}, pages = {}, pmid = {33863724}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Several important drug targets, e.g., ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors, are extremely difficult to approach with current antibody technologies. To address these targets classes, we explored kinetically controlled proteases as structural dynamics-sensitive druggability probes in native-state and disease-relevant proteins. By using low-Reynolds number flows, such that a single or a few protease incisions are made, we could identify antibody binding sites (epitopes) that were translated into short-sequence antigens for antibody production. We obtained molecular-level information of the epitope-paratope region and could produce high-affinity antibodies with programmed pharmacological function against difficult-to-drug targets. We demonstrate the first stimulus-selective monoclonal antibodies targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, a clinically validated pain target widely considered undruggable with antibodies, and apoptosis-inducing antibodies selectively mediating cytotoxicity in KRAS-mutated cells. It is our hope that this platform will widen the scope of antibody therapeutics for the benefit of patients.}, } @article {pmid33862704, year = {2021}, author = {Fouxon, I and Feinberg, J and Käpylä, P and Mond, M}, title = {Reynolds number dependence of Lyapunov exponents of turbulence and fluid particles.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033110}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.033110}, pmid = {33862704}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The Navier-Stokes equations generate an infinite set of generalized Lyapunov exponents defined by different ways of measuring the distance between exponentially diverging perturbed and unperturbed solutions. This set is demonstrated to be similar, yet different, from the generalized Lyapunov exponent that provides moments of distance between two fluid particles below the Kolmogorov scale. We derive rigorous upper bounds on dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of the fluid particles that demonstrate the exponent's decay with Reynolds number Re in accord with previous studies. In contrast, terms of cumulant series for exponents of the moments have power-law growth with Re. We demonstrate as an application that the growth of small fluctuations of magnetic field in ideal conducting turbulence is hyperintermittent, being exponential in both time and Reynolds number. We resolve the existing contradiction between the theory, that predicts slow decrease of dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of turbulence with Re, and observations exhibiting quite fast growth. We demonstrate that it is highly plausible that a pointwise limit for the growth of small perturbations of the Navier-Stokes equations exists.}, } @article {pmid33854256, year = {2021}, author = {Waringer, J and Vitecek, S and Martini, J and Zittra, C and Handschuh, S and Vieira, A and Kuhlmann, HC}, title = {Hydraulic niche utilization by larvae of the three Drusinae clades (Insecta: Trichoptera).}, journal = {Biologia}, volume = {76}, number = {5}, pages = {1465-1473}, pmid = {33854256}, issn = {0006-3088}, support = {P 31258/FWF_/Austrian Science Fund FWF/Austria ; }, abstract = {Hydraulic niche descriptors of final instar larvae of nine Drusus species (Trichoptera) were studied in small, spring-fed, first-order headwaters located in the Mühlviertel (Upper Austria), Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria), and in the Austrian and Italian Alps. The species investigated covered all three clades of Drusinae: the shredder clade (Drusus franzi, D. alpinus), the grazer clade (D. biguttatus, D. chauvinianus, D. dudor, D. monticola), and the filtering carnivore clade (D. chrysotus, D. katagelastos, D. muelleri). Flow velocity was measured at front center of 68 larvae, head upstream, on the top of mineral substrate particles at water depths of 10-30 mm, using a tripod-stabilized Micro propeller meter (propeller diameter = 10 mm). Each data series consisted of a sampled measurement lasting 30 s (measuring interval = 1 s). In total, 2040 single velocity measurements were taken. Instantaneous flow velocities and drag at the sites of the 68 larvae varied from 0 to 0.93 m s-1 and 0 to 8346 *10-6 N, respectively. Flow velocities and drag between the three clades were highly significantly different (p < 0.001); mean velocity (± 95% confidence limits) for the three clades were 0.09 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the shredder, 0.25 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the grazer, and 0.31 ± 0.01ms-1 for the filtering carnivore clade; the corresponding data for drag were (85 ± 18)*10-6 N, (422 ± 61)*10-6 N and (1125 ± 83)*10-6 N, respectively. Adhesive friction ranged from (41.07 ± 53.03)*10-6 N in D. franzi to (255.24 ± 216.87)*10-6 N in D. chrysotus. Except in D. franzi and D. dudor adhesive friction was always well below drag force, indicating that submerged weight alone was not sufficient to stabilize the larvae in their hydraulic environment. Reynolds numbers varied between 0 in D. franzi and D. alpinus, and 12,634 in D. katagelastos, with 7% of the total in the laminar (R < 500), 30%in the transitional (R = 500-2000), and 61%in the fully turbulent stage (R > 2000). Froude numbers (Fr) varied from 0 to 2.97. The two Drusus species of the shredder clade and three out of four species of the grazer clade were exposed to subcritical Fr < 1, one species of the grazer clade and two out of three species of the filtering clade to supercritical Froude numbers >1.}, } @article {pmid33853049, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, Q and Wu, H}, title = {Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis guided amoeboid cell swimming.}, journal = {Physical biology}, volume = {18}, number = {4}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1478-3975/abf7d8}, pmid = {33853049}, issn = {1478-3975}, abstract = {Cells and microorganisms adopt various strategies to migrate in response to different environmental stimuli. To date, many modeling research has focused on the crawling-basedDictyostelium discoideum(Dd) cells migration induced by chemotaxis, yet recent experimental results reveal that even without adhesion or contact to a substrate, Dd cells can still swim to follow chemoattractant signals. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework to investigate the chemotaxis induced amoeboid cell swimming dynamics. A minimal swimming system consists of one deformable Dd amoeboid cell and a dilute suspension of bacteria, and the bacteria produce chemoattractant signals that attract the Dd cell. We use themathematical amoeba modelto generate Dd cell deformation and solve the resulting low Reynolds number flows, and use a moving mesh based finite volume method to solve the reaction-diffusion-convection equation. Using the computational model, we show that chemotaxis guides a swimming Dd cell to follow and catch bacteria, while on the other hand, bacterial rheotaxis may help the bacteria to escape from the predator Dd cell.}, } @article {pmid33834308, year = {2021}, author = {Solovev, A and Friedrich, BM}, title = {Lagrangian mechanics of active systems.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {4}, pages = {49}, pmid = {33834308}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {We present a multi-scale modeling and simulation framework for low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics of shape-changing immersed objects, e.g., biological microswimmers and active surfaces. The key idea is to consider principal shape changes as generalized coordinates and define conjugate generalized hydrodynamic friction forces. Conveniently, the corresponding generalized friction coefficients can be pre-computed and subsequently reused to solve dynamic equations of motion fast. This framework extends Lagrangian mechanics of dissipative systems to active surfaces and active microswimmers, whose shape dynamics is driven by internal forces. As an application case, we predict in-phase and anti-phase synchronization in pairs of cilia for an experimentally measured cilia beat pattern.}, } @article {pmid33833251, year = {2021}, author = {Abdal, S and Hussain, S and Siddique, I and Ahmadian, A and Ferrara, M}, title = {On solution existence of MHD Casson nanofluid transportation across an extending cylinder through porous media and evaluation of priori bounds.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {7799}, pmid = {33833251}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transportation of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of uniform strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter [Formula: see text], magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter [Formula: see text] and Reynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). The core interest for this study aroused to address some analytical aspects. Therefore, existence of solution is proved and uniqueness of this results is discussed with evaluation of bounds for existence of solution. Results for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique. The flow speed retards against M, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for both situations of mass injection and suction. The thermal boundary layer improves with Brownian and thermopherotic diffusions.}, } @article {pmid33809995, year = {2021}, author = {Abramowicz-Gerigk, T and Burciu, Z and Jachowski, J and Kreft, O and Majewski, D and Stachurska, B and Sulisz, W and Szmytkiewicz, P}, title = {Experimental Method for the Measurements and Numerical Investigations of Force Generated on the Rotating Cylinder under Water Flow.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/s21062216}, pmid = {33809995}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {WN/2020/PZ/01 and WN/2020/PZ/03//Gdynia Maritime University/ ; }, abstract = {The paper presents the experimental test setup and measurement method of hydrodynamic force generated on the rotating cylinder (rotor) under uniform flow including the free surface effect. The experimental test setup was a unique construction installed in the flume tank equipped with advanced flow generating and measuring systems. The test setup consisted of a bearing mounted platform with rotor drive and sensors measuring the hydrodynamic force. The low length to diameter ratio cylinders were selected as models of bow rotor rudders of a shallow draft river barge. The rotor dynamics was tested for the rotational speeds up to 550 rpm and water current velocity up to 0.85 m/s. The low aspect ratio of the cylinder and free surface effect had significant impacts on the phenomena influencing the generated hydrodynamic force. The effects of the rotor length to diameter ratio, rotational velocity to flow velocity ratio, and the Reynolds number on the lift force were analyzed. The validation of the computational model against experimental results is presented. The results show a similar trend of results for the simulation and experiment.}, } @article {pmid33808487, year = {2021}, author = {Okuducu, MB and Aral, MM}, title = {Toward the Next Generation of Passive Micromixers: A Novel 3-D Design Approach.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {33808487}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Passive micromixers are miniaturized instruments that are used to mix fluids in microfluidic systems. In microchannels, combination of laminar flows and small diffusion constants of mixing liquids produce a difficult mixing environment. In particular, in very low Reynolds number flows, e.g., Re < 10, diffusive mixing cannot be promoted unless a large interfacial area is formed between the fluids to be mixed. Therefore, the mixing distance increases substantially due to a slow diffusion process that governs fluid mixing. In this article, a novel 3-D passive micromixer design is developed to improve fluid mixing over a short distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate the performance of the micromixer numerically. The circular-shaped fluid overlapping (CSFO) micromixer design proposed is examined in several fluid flow, diffusivity, and injection conditions. The outcomes show that the CSFO geometry develops a large interfacial area between the fluid bodies. Thus, fluid mixing is accelerated in vertical and/or horizontal directions depending on the injection type applied. For the smallest molecular diffusion constant tested, the CSFO micromixer design provides more than 90% mixing efficiency in a distance between 260 and 470 µm. The maximum pressure drop in the micromixer is found to be less than 1.4 kPa in the highest flow conditioned examined.}, } @article {pmid33807063, year = {2021}, author = {Rudl, J and Hanzelmann, C and Feja, S and Meyer, A and Potthoff, A and Buschmann, MH}, title = {Laminar Pipe Flow with Mixed Convection under the Influence of Magnetic Field.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {3}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano11030824}, pmid = {33807063}, issn = {2079-4991}, support = {49VF180041//Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie/ ; }, abstract = {Magnetic influence on ferronanofluid flow is gaining increasing interest from not only the scientific community but also industry. The aim of this study is the examination of the potentials of magnetic forces to control heat transfer. Experiments are conducted to investigate the interaction between four different configurations of permanent magnets and laminar pipe flow with mixed convection. For that purpose a pipe flow test rig is operated with a water-magnetite ferronanofluid. The Reynolds number is varied over one order of magnitude (120-1200). To characterise this suspension, density, solid content, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity are measured. It is found that, depending on the positioning of the magnet(s) and the Reynolds number, heat transfer is either increased or decreased. The experiments indicate that this is a local effect. After relaxation lengths ranging between 2 and 3.5 lengths of a magnet, all changes disappeared. The conclusion from these findings is that magnetic forces are rather a tool to control heat transfer locally than to enhance the overall heat transfer of heat exchangers or the like. Magnetically caused disturbances decay due to viscous dissipation and the flow approaches the basic state again.}, } @article {pmid33800534, year = {2021}, author = {Naas, TT and Hossain, S and Aslam, M and Rahman, A and Hoque, ASM and Kim, KY and Islam, SMR}, title = {Kinematic Measurements of Novel Chaotic Micromixers to Enhance Mixing Performances at Low Reynolds Numbers: Comparative Study.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {33800534}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {In this work, a comparative investigation of chaotic flow behavior inside multi-layer crossing channels was numerically carried out to select suitable micromixers. New micromixers were proposed and compared with an efficient passive mixer called a Two-Layer Crossing Channel Micromixer (TLCCM), which was investigated recently. The computational evaluation was a concern to the mixing enhancement and kinematic measurements, such as vorticity, deformation, stretching, and folding rates for various low Reynolds number regimes. The 3D continuity, momentum, and species transport equations were solved by a Fluent ANSYS CFD code. For various cases of fluid regimes (0.1 to 25 values of Reynolds number), the new configuration displayed a mixing enhancement of 40%-60% relative to that obtained in the older TLCCM in terms of kinematic measurement, which was studied recently. The results revealed that all proposed micromixers have a strong secondary flow, which significantly enhances the fluid kinematic performances at low Reynolds numbers. The visualization of mass fraction and path-lines presents that the TLCCM configuration is inefficient at low Reynolds numbers, while the new designs exhibit rapid mixing with lower pressure losses. Thus, it can be used to enhance the homogenization in several microfluidic systems.}, } @article {pmid33800140, year = {2021}, author = {De Bartolo, S and Vittorio, M and Francone, A and Guido, F and Leone, E and Mastronardi, VM and Notaro, A and Tomasicchio, GR}, title = {Direct Scaling of Measure on Vortex Shedding through a Flapping Flag Device in the Open Channel around a Cylinder at Re∼103: Taylor's Law Approach.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {33800140}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {The problem of vortex shedding, which occurs when an obstacle is placed in a regular flow, is governed by Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, known by dimensional analysis. The present work aims to propose a thin films-based device, consisting of an elastic piezoelectric flapping flag clamped at one end, in order to determine the frequency of vortex shedding downstream an obstacle for a flow field at Reynolds number Re∼103 in the open channel. For these values, Strouhal number obtained in such way is in accordance with the results known in literature. Moreover, the development of the voltage over time, generated by the flapping flag under the load due to flow field, shows a highly fluctuating behavior and satisfies Taylor's law, observed in several complex systems. This provided useful information about the flow field through the constitutive law of the device.}, } @article {pmid33794172, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, WH and Mutuku, JK and Yang, ZW and Hwang, CJ and Lee, WJ and Ashokkumar, V}, title = {An investigation for airflow and deposition of PM2.5 contaminated with SAR-CoV-2 virus in healthy and diseased human airway.}, journal = {Environmental research}, volume = {197}, number = {}, pages = {111096}, doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2021.111096}, pmid = {33794172}, issn = {1096-0953}, mesh = {*Asthma ; Computer Simulation ; Humans ; Italy ; *Lung ; Mexico ; Models, Biological ; Particulate Matter/toxicity ; }, abstract = {This study is motivated by the amplified transmission rates of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in areas with high concentrations of fine particulates (PM2.5) as reported in northern Italy and Mexico. To develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 in the propagation of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in the population, the deposition patterns and efficiencies (DEs) of PM2.5 laced with the virus in healthy and asthmatic airways are studied. Physiologically correct 3-D models for generations 10-12 of the human airways are applied to carry out a numerical analysis of two-phase flow for full breathing cycles. Two concentrations of PM2.5 are applied for the simulation, i.e., 30 μg⋅m-3 and 80 μg⋅m-3 for three breathing statuses, i.e., rest, light exercise, and moderate activity. All the PM2.5 injected into the control volume is assumed to be 100% contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus. Skewed air-flow phenomena at the bifurcations are proportional to the Reynolds number at the inlet, and their intensity in the asthmatic airway exceeded that of the healthy one. Upon exhalation, two peak air-flow vectors from daughter branches combine to form one big vector in the parent generation. Asthmatic airway models has higher deposition efficiencies (DEs) for contaminated PM2.5 as compared to the healthy one. Higher DEs arise in the asthmatic airway model due to complex secondary flows which increase the impaction of contaminated PM2.5 on airways' walls.}, } @article {pmid33768184, year = {2021}, author = {Edomwonyi-Otu, LC and Dosumu, AI and Yusuf, N}, title = {Effect of oil on the performance of biopolymers as drag reducers in fresh water flow.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {7}, number = {3}, pages = {e06535}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06535}, pmid = {33768184}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {This study looks at the effectiveness of natural polymers (biopolymers) as drag reducers in flows of oil-water mixtures. The technique of using drag reducers to minimize the frictional drag in pipeline transportation of fluids is getting more challenging and there is need to be more environmentally friendly by using natural polymers. In this report, two natural polymers: xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG), were used as drag reducers in a 12-mm ID straight conduit with water. The concentration of the gums was varied from 50 to 250 pm while 25, 0.50 and 0.75 fractions of oil were mixed with freshwater. The molecular weight of the gums was also determined to gain insight into their influence on the rheology of the fluids. The result showed that the gums (natural polymers) performed better as drag reducer in freshwater than in mixture with oil. Specifically, the drag reduction (DR) of 200 pm GG and XG solutions at Reynolds number of 59000 in freshwater was 39% and 44% respectively, while with the addition of 50% oil fraction, it was reduced to 19% and 32% respectively. DR reduced with oil fraction. It was concluded that XG performs better in the presence of oil than GG.}, } @article {pmid33767256, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, L and Ni, P and Xi, G}, title = {The effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow and heat transfer characteristics in a circular tube.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {6844}, pmid = {33767256}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This study is conducted to investigate the effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow distribution and heat transfer in a circular tube. The effect of tape width of 20, 18, 16, 14 and 12 mm on the heat transfer performance is discussed under the same twist ratio of 2.0. The numerical analysis of the flow field, average Nusselt number, friction factor and thermo-hydraulic performance parameter of the tube are discussed with Reynolds number ranged from 2600 to 8760. The results indicate that the Nusselt number of the tube fitted with center-placed twisted tapes at various width is 7-51% higher than the plain tube, and performance in low Reynolds region was found more effective than that in high Reynolds region. The heat transfer for circular tube with twisted tape attached to the wall shows better performance than that for the tube with center-placed twisted tape. With a smaller tape width, a higher increasing ratio of Nu-wall/Nu-center is obtained. The increasing ratio for Nusselt number ranged from 3 to 18%. However, the use of twisted tape inserts is not beneficial for energy saving. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameters for convective heat transfer of helium gas flowing in a circular tube are below unity for the calculated Reynolds region.}, } @article {pmid33766315, year = {2021}, author = {Wang, X and Liu, Z and Cai, Y and Wang, B and Luo, X}, title = {A cost-effective serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve.}, journal = {Analytica chimica acta}, volume = {1155}, number = {}, pages = {338355}, doi = {10.1016/j.aca.2021.338355}, pmid = {33766315}, issn = {1873-4324}, abstract = {Due to high mixing performance and simple geometry structure, serpentine micromixer is one typical passive micromixer that has been widely investigated. Traditional zigzag and square-wave serpentine micromixers can achieve sufficient mixing, but tend to induce significant pressure drop. The excessive pressure drop means more energy consumption, which leads to low cost-performance of mixing. To mitigate excessive pressure drop, a novel serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve is proposed. While fluids flowing through ellipse curve microchannels, the flow directions keep continuous changing. Therefore, the Dean vortices are induced throughout the whole flow path. Numerical simulation and visualization experiments are conducted at Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 0.1 to 100. Dean vortices varies with the changing curvature in different ellipse curves, and local Dean numbers are calculated for quantitative evaluation. The results suggest that the ellipse with a larger eccentricity induces stronger Dean vortices, thus better mixing performance can be obtained. A parameter, named mixing performance cost (Mec), is proposed to evaluate the cost-performance of micromixers. Compared with the zigzag, square-wave and other improved serpentine micromixers, the ellipse curve micromixer produces lower pressure drop while have the capability to maintain excellent mixing performance. The ellipse curve micromixer is proved to be more cost-effective for rapid mixing in complex microfluidic systems.}, } @article {pmid33765646, year = {2021}, author = {Ghosh, UU and Ali, H and Ghosh, R and Kumar, A}, title = {Bacterial streamers as colloidal systems: Five grand challenges.}, journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science}, volume = {594}, number = {}, pages = {265-278}, doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2021.02.102}, pmid = {33765646}, issn = {1095-7103}, mesh = {*Bacteria ; *Biofilms ; Hydrodynamics ; Rivers ; }, abstract = {Bacteria can thrive in biofilms, which are intricately organized communities with cells encased in a self-secreted matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Imposed hydrodynamic stresses can transform this active colloidal dispersion of bacteria and EPS into slender thread-like entities called streamers. In this perspective article, the reader is introduced to the world of such deformable 'bacteria-EPS' composites that are a subclass of the generic flow-induced colloidal structures. While bacterial streamers have been shown to form in a variety of hydrodynamic conditions (turbulent and creeping flows), its abiotic analogues have only been demonstrated in low Reynolds number (Re < 1) particle-laden polymeric flows. Streamers are relevant to a variety of situations ranging from natural formations in caves and river beds to clogging of biomedical devices and filtration membranes. A critical review of the relevant biophysical aspects of streamer formation phenomena and unique attributes of its material behavior are distilled to unveil five grand scientific challenges. The coupling between colloidal hydrodynamics, device geometry and streamer formation are highlighted.}, } @article {pmid33759003, year = {2021}, author = {Mohammadinejad, S and Faivre, D and Klumpp, S}, title = {Stokesian dynamics simulations of a magnetotactic bacterium.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {3}, pages = {40}, pmid = {33759003}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {The swimming of bacteria provides insight into propulsion and steering under the conditions of low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Here we address the magnetically steered swimming of magnetotactic bacteria. We use Stokesian dynamics simulations to study the swimming of single-flagellated magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in an external magnetic field. Our model MTB consists of a spherical cell body equipped with a magnetic dipole moment and a helical flagellum rotated by a rotary motor. The elasticity of the flagellum as well as magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions is taken into account in this model. We characterized how the swimming velocity is dependent on parameters of the model. We then studied the U-turn motion after a field reversal and found two regimes for weak and strong fields and, correspondingly, two characteristic time scales. In the two regimes, the U-turn time is dominated by the turning of the cell body and its magnetic moment or the turning of the flagellum, respectively. In the regime for weak fields, where turning is dominated by the magnetic relaxation, the U-turn time is approximately in agreement with a theoretical model based on torque balance. In the strong-field regime, strong deformations of the flagellum are observed. We further simulated the swimming of a bacterium with a magnetic moment that is inclined relative to the flagellar axis. This scenario leads to intriguing double helical trajectories that we characterize as functions of the magnetic moment inclination and the magnetic field. For small inclination angles ([Formula: see text]) and typical field strengths, the inclination of the magnetic moment has only a minor effect on the swimming of MTB in an external magnetic field. Large inclination angles result in a strong reduction in the velocity in direction of the magnetic field, consistent with recent observations that bacteria with large inclination angles use a different propulsion mechanism.}, } @article {pmid33756187, year = {2021}, author = {Jamil, DF and Saleem, S and Roslan, R and Al-Mubaddel, FS and Rahimi-Gorji, M and Issakhov, A and Din, SU}, title = {Analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic Casson blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery using Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {203}, number = {}, pages = {106044}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106044}, pmid = {33756187}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Arteries ; *Atherosclerosis ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Constriction, Pathologic ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial diseases would lead to several serious disorders in the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. These disorders are mainly caused by the presence of fatty deposits, cholesterol and lipoproteins inside blood vessel. This paper deals with the analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery.

METHODS: The Casson fluid was used to model the blood that flows under the influences of uniformly distributed magnetic field and oscillating pressure gradient. The governing fractional differential equations were expressed using the Caputo Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel.

RESULTS: The analytical solutions of velocities for non-Newtonian model were then calculated by means of Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. These velocities were then presented graphically. The result shows that the velocity increases with respect to Reynolds number and Casson parameter, while decreases when Hartmann number increases.

CONCLUSIONS: Casson blood was treated as the non-Newtonian fluid. The MHD blood flow was accelerated by pressure gradient. These findings are beneficial for studying atherosclerosis therapy, the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of some medical problems.}, } @article {pmid33754747, year = {2021}, author = {Mouzourides, P and Kyprianou, A and Neophytou, MK}, title = {Exploring the multi-fractal nature of the air flow and pollutant dispersion in a turbulent urban atmosphere and its implications for long range pollutant transport.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {31}, number = {1}, pages = {013110}, doi = {10.1063/1.5123918}, pmid = {33754747}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {This work investigates the multi-fractal nature of a turbulent urban atmosphere using high-resolution atmospheric data. Meteorological and concentration measurements of passive and reactive pollutants collected over a 3-year period in a sub-urban high-Reynolds number atmospheric field were analyzed. Scaling laws characterizing the self-similarity and thereby depicting the multi-fractal nature are determined by calculating the singularity spectra, where a range of Hölder exponents, h, are estimated. In doing so, the complexity of the urban atmosphere entailing different stability regimes was addressed. Using the Monin-Obukhov length (LMO) as a marker of atmospheric stability and thereby an indication of the magnitude of anisotropy, we find where and how self-similarity is manifested relative to the different regimes and we estimate corresponding appropriate scaling laws. We find that the wind speed obeys the -5/3 law suggested by Kolmogorov only when the atmosphere lies within the stable regime as defined by Monin-Obukhov theory. Specifically, when the ratio of the atmospheric boundary layer height (Hb.l) over LMO is greater than 15, and at the same time, the ratio of the height above ground of the wind measurements (z0) over LMO is higher than 3 (i.e., in stable regime), then the singularity spectra of wind speed time series indicate that the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, coincides with Kolmogorov's second hypothesis. On the contrary under unstable regimes in the atmosphere where the anisotropy is approached, different scaling laws are estimated. In detail, when z0/LMO<0, the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, of the singularity spectra of the wind speed time series is either negative or close to zero, which is an indication of an impulse-like singularity, that is associated with rapid changes. For the ambient temperature and air quality measurements such as of carbon monoxide and particulate matter concentrations, it was found that they obey different laws, which are related with the long-term correlation of their data fluctuation.}, } @article {pmid33754568, year = {2021}, author = {Ji, JY and Zhao, YG and Yang, K and Zhang, WT and Gao, LQ and Ming, J and Wang, SS}, title = {Effects of the distribution of biological soil crust on the hydrodynamic characteristics of surface runoff.}, journal = {Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology}, volume = {32}, number = {3}, pages = {1015-1022}, doi = {10.13287/j.1001-9332.202103.017}, pmid = {33754568}, issn = {1001-9332}, mesh = {Geologic Sediments ; Hydrodynamics ; *Rain ; *Soil ; }, abstract = {The distribution pattern of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) is one of the main factors affecting runoff and sediment yield. The relationship between runoff and sediment yield and biocrusts' distribution pattern is not clear, which hinders understanding the mechanism underlying the effects of biocrusts on runoff and sediment from slopes. To fill the knowledge gap, we investigated the relationship between the landscape indices of three biocrusts' distribution patterns, i.e. zonation, chessboard and random, and the hydraulic parameters, using of simulated rainfall experiments and landscape ecology methods. The results showed that biocrust significantly affected the erosion force of slopes and that its distribution pattern could affect slope erosion dynamics. Compared to bare soil, the presence of biocrusts significantly reduced the runoff velocity (54.6%) and Froude number (67.0%), increased the runoff depth (86.2%) and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (10.68 times), but did not affect the Reynolds number and runoff power. Expect for the runoff depth, there were significant differences in the hydraulic parameters of the three biocrusts' distribution patterns, with the random pattern having the strongest impacts on the dynamics of slope erosion. Based on factor analysis and cluster analysis, five indices of percentage of patch to landscape area, patch density, landscape shape index, patch cohesion and splitting could be used as the indicators for the distribution characteristics of biocrust patches. The patch cohesion and splitting of biocrust patches were the main distribution pattern indices of the hydrodynamics of surface runoff. As the patches patch cohesion decreased, the splitting increased, which caused the surface runoff velocity increase, the resistance decrease, and the slope erosion became more severe.}, } @article {pmid33752093, year = {2021}, author = {Pejcic, S and Najjari, MR and Bisleri, G and Rival, DE}, title = {Characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic response of the ascending aorta imposed via pulsatile flow.}, journal = {Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials}, volume = {118}, number = {}, pages = {104395}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104395}, pmid = {33752093}, issn = {1878-0180}, mesh = {Animals ; *Aorta ; Elastic Modulus ; Elasticity ; Pulsatile Flow ; Stress, Mechanical ; Swine ; }, abstract = {This study characterizes the material properties of a viscoelastic, ex vivo porcine ascending aorta under dynamic-loading conditions via pulsatile flow. The deformation of the opaque vessel wall and the pulsatile flow field inside the vessel were recorded using ultrasound imaging. The internal pressure was extracted from the pulsatile flow results and, when coupled with the vessel-wall expansion, was used to calculate the instantaneous elastic modulus from a novel, time-resolved two-dimensional (i.e. axial and circumferential) stress model. The circumferential instantaneous elasticity obtained from the two-dimensional stress model was found to match the uniaxial tensile test for strains below 50%. The agreement in elasticity between the two stress states reveals that the two-dimensional stress model accurately resolves the circumferential stress of the viscoelastic aorta at physiological strains (8%-30%). At higher strains, results from pulsatile flow generated a more compliant response than the uniaxial measurements. Viscoelastic properties (storage modulus and loss factor) were also calculated using the two-dimensional stress model and compared to those obtained from uniaxial tests. While instantaneous elasticity matched between the cylindrical and uniaxial loading, the viscoelastic behaviour significantly diverged between stress states. The storage modulus obtained from the pulsatile flow data was dependent on mean Reynolds number, while the uniaxial storage modulus results exhibited a strong inverse dependency on the frequency. The loss factor for the pulsatile flow data increased alongside the frequency, while the uniaxial data indicated a constant loss factor over the entire frequency range. The results of the current study show that the two-dimensional stress model can accurately extract the material properties of the ex vivo porcine aorta.}, } @article {pmid33748634, year = {2021}, author = {Lu, H and Chen, L and Wang, J and Zhang, X and Li, G and Wang, J and Chen, W and Yan, B}, title = {Using a Modified Turian-Yuan Model to Enhance Heterogeneous Resistance in Municipal Sludge Transportation Pipeline.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {6}, number = {10}, pages = {7199-7211}, pmid = {33748634}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Based on the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model, the simulation results of three urban sludge pipelines with a volumetric concentration of 2.38, 3.94, and 5.39% were analyzed. The reasons for the large deviation of the simulation results under high Reynolds number conditions were also analyzed. The results showed that the deviation of the simulation was mainly caused by the difference between the sludge volumetric concentration (C V), the settlement resistance coefficient (C D), and the values of the two parameters in the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model. Consequently, it was necessary to optimize the index m 1 of C V and the index m 2 of C D. Taking mean square deviation as the objective function, using Matlab programming, the abovementioned two indexes were optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm. The optimized index m 1 of C V was 0.887, and the index m 2 of C D was -0.162. Hence, a modified Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model was obtained. The model verified that the minimum value of the regression coefficient, R 2, of the simulated value reached 0.9701, proving that, the model can be used to simulate the heterogeneous resistance of urban sludge pipeline transportation.}, } @article {pmid33736076, year = {2021}, author = {Tajfirooz, S and Meijer, JG and Kuerten, JGM and Hausmann, M and Fröhlich, J and Zeegers, JCH}, title = {Statistical-learning method for predicting hydrodynamic drag, lift, and pitching torque on spheroidal particles.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023304}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.023304}, pmid = {33736076}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A statistical learning approach is presented to predict the dependency of steady hydrodynamic interactions of thin oblate spheroidal particles on particle orientation and Reynolds number. The conventional empirical correlations that approximate such dependencies are replaced by a neural-network-based correlation which can provide accurate predictions for high-dimensional input spaces occurring in flows with nonspherical particles. By performing resolved simulations of steady uniform flow at 1≤Re≤120 around a 1:10 spheroidal body, a database consisting of Reynolds number- and orientation-dependent drag, lift, and pitching torque acting on the particle is collected. A multilayer perceptron is trained and validated with the generated database. The performance of the neural network is tested in a point-particle simulation of the buoyancy-driven motion of a 1:10 disk. Our statistical approach outperforms existing empirical correlations in terms of accuracy. The agreement between the numerical results and the experimental observations prove the potential of the method.}, } @article {pmid33731341, year = {2021}, author = {Corbetta, A and Menkovski, V and Benzi, R and Toschi, F}, title = {Deep learning velocity signals allow quantifying turbulence intensity.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {7}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {33731341}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Turbulence, the ubiquitous and chaotic state of fluid motions, is characterized by strong and statistically nontrivial fluctuations of the velocity field, and it can be quantitatively described only in terms of statistical averages. Strong nonstationarities impede statistical convergence, precluding quantifying turbulence, for example, in terms of turbulence intensity or Reynolds number. Here, we show that by using deep neural networks, we can accurately estimate the Reynolds number within 15% accuracy, from a statistical sample as small as two large-scale eddy turnover times. In contrast, physics-based statistical estimators are limited by the convergence rate of the central limit theorem and provide, for the same statistical sample, at least a hundredfold larger error. Our findings open up previously unexplored perspectives and the possibility to quantitatively define and, therefore, study highly nonstationary turbulent flows as ordinarily found in nature and in industrial processes.}, } @article {pmid33730564, year = {2021}, author = {Wiputra, H and Lim, M and Yap, CH}, title = {A transition point for the blood flow wall shear stress environment in the human fetal left ventricle during early gestation.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanics}, volume = {120}, number = {}, pages = {110353}, doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110353}, pmid = {33730564}, issn = {1873-2380}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; Female ; *Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Pregnancy ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {Development of the fetal heart is a fascinating process that involves a tremendous amount of growth. Here, we performed image-based flow simulations of 3 human fetal left ventricles (LV), and investigated the hypothetical scenario where the sizes of the hearts are scaled down, leading to reduced Reynolds number, to emulate earlier fetal stages. The shape and motion of the LV were retained over the scaling to isolate and understand the effects of length scaling on its fluid dynamics. We observed an interesting cut-off point in Reynolds number (Re), across which the dependency of LV wall shear stress (WSS) on Re changed. This was in line with classical fluid mechanic theory where skin friction coefficient exhibited first a decreasing trend and then a plateauing trend with increasing Re. Below this cut-off point, viscous effects dominated, stifling the formation of LV diastolic vorticity structures, and WSS was roughly independent of Reynolds number. However, above this cut-off, inertial effects dominated to cause diastolic vortex ring formation and detachment, and to cause WSS to scale linearly with Reynolds number. Results suggested that this transition point is found at approximately 11 weeks of gestation. Since WSS is thought to be a biomechanical stimuli for growth, this may have implications on normal fetal heart growth and malformation diseases like Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.}, } @article {pmid33728053, year = {2021}, author = {Kumar, VRS and Choudhary, SK and Radhakrishnan, PK and Bharath, RS and Chandrasekaran, N and Sankar, V and Sukumaran, A and Oommen, C}, title = {Lopsided Blood-Thinning Drug Increases the Risk of Internal Flow Choking Leading to Shock Wave Generation Causing Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Disease.}, journal = {Global challenges (Hoboken, NJ)}, volume = {5}, number = {3}, pages = {2000076}, pmid = {33728053}, issn = {2056-6646}, abstract = {The discovery of Sanal flow choking in the cardiovascular-system calls for multidisciplinary and global action to develop innovative treatments and to develop new drugs to negate the risk of asymptomatic-cardiovascular-diseases. Herein, it is shown that when blood-pressure-ratio (BPR) reaches the lower-critical-hemorrhage-index (LCHI) internal-flow-choking and shock wave generation can occur in the cardiovascular-system, with sudden expansion/divergence/vasospasm or bifurcation regions, without prejudice to the percutaneous-coronary-intervention (PCI). Analytical findings reveal that the relatively high and the low blood-viscosity are cardiovascular-risk factors. In vitro studies have shown that nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide gases are dominant in fresh blood samples of humans/guinea pigs at a temperature range of 98.6-104 F. An in silico study demonstrated the Sanal flow choking phenomenon leading to shock-wave generation and pressure-overshoot in the cardiovascular-system. It has been established that disproportionate blood-thinning treatment increases the risk of the internal-flow-choking due to the enhanced boundary-layer-blockage-factor, resulting from an increase in flow-turbulence level in the cardiovascular-system, caused by an increase in Reynolds number as a consequence of low blood-viscosity. The cardiovascular-risk can be diminished by concurrently lessening the viscosity of biofluid/blood and flow-turbulence by raising the thermal-tolerance-level in terms of blood-heat-capacity-ratio (BHCR) and/or by decreasing the systolic-to-diastolic blood-pressure-ratio.}, } @article {pmid33723624, year = {2021}, author = {Challita, EJ and Alexander, SLM and Han, SI and Blackledge, TA and Coddington, JA and Jung, S and Bhamla, MS}, title = {Slingshot spiders build tensed, underdamped webs for ultrafast launches and speedy halts.}, journal = {Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology}, volume = {207}, number = {2}, pages = {205-217}, pmid = {33723624}, issn = {1432-1351}, support = {1941933//National Science Foundation (US)/ ; 1817334//National Science Foundation/ ; NGS-57996R-19//National Geographic Society/ ; 1656645//National Science Foundation/ ; 2002714//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {We develop a mathematical model to capture the web dynamics of slingshot spiders (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae), which utilize a tension line to deform their orb webs into conical springs to hunt flying insects. Slingshot spiders are characterized by their ultrafast launch speeds and accelerations (exceeding 1300 [Formula: see text]), however a theoretical approach to characterize the underlying spatiotemporal web dynamics remains missing. To address this knowledge gap, we develop a 2D-coupled damped oscillator model of the web. Our model reveals three key insights into the dynamics of slingshot motion. First, the tension line plays a dual role: enabling the spider to load elastic energy into the web for a quick launch (in milliseconds) to displacements of 10-15 body lengths, but also enabling the spider to halt quickly, attenuating inertial oscillations. Second, the dominant energy dissipation mechanism is viscous drag by the silk lines - acting as a low Reynolds number parachute. Third, the web exhibits underdamped oscillatory dynamics through a finely-tuned balance between the radial line forces, the tension line force and viscous drag dissipation. Together, our work suggests that the conical geometry and tension-line enables the slingshot web to act as both an elastic spring and a shock absorber, for the multi-functional roles of risky predation and self-preservation.}, } @article {pmid33721123, year = {2021}, author = {Basha, HT and Sivaraj, R}, title = {Exploring the heat transfer and entropy generation of Ag/Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text]-blood nanofluid flow in a porous tube: a collocation solution.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {3}, pages = {31}, pmid = {33721123}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {Evaluating the entropy generation is essential in thermal systems to avoid the unnecessarily wasted thermal energy during the thermal processes. Nowadays, researchers are greatly fascinated to scrutinize the entropy generation in a human system because it is utilized as a thermodynamic approach to understand the heat transfer characteristics of cancer systems or wounded tissue and their accessibility status. Further, numerous nanoparticles have been employed as an agent to control the heat transfer of blood and wounded tissue. As a result, the present model manifests the entropy generation, flow characteristics and heat transport of Ag/Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text]-blood flow of a nanofluid in a permeable circular tube with the influence of variable electrical conductivity and linear radiation. Nonlinear transport equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity variables which are solved with weighted residual method. Significant parameters like Reynolds number, dimensionless permeability parameter, extending/contracting parameter, Eckert number and Hartmann number on the radial pressure, axial velocity, radial velocity and temperature are explored through graphs. The obtained results show that temperature distribution of Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text] nanoparticles is higher than Ag nanoparticle, in case of suction. The dimensionless permeability parameter has an opposite nature on the radial pressure for the suction and injection cases. Growing values of Hartmann number enhance the total entropy generation for the cases of suction and injection.}, } @article {pmid33719755, year = {2021}, author = {Liu, Z and Zhang, H and Lai, H}, title = {Fluid flow effects on the degradation kinetics of bioresorbable polymers.}, journal = {Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-12}, doi = {10.1080/10255842.2020.1867115}, pmid = {33719755}, issn = {1476-8259}, abstract = {Implants, tissue engineering scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers are widely used in biomedical engineering. The degradation of polymers plays a critical role in the effectiveness of these applications. In this paper, the mechanism of the hydrolytic degradation affected by the flow medium is studied. The results indicate that both high porosity and dynamic conditions may significantly slow down degradation speed. A critical value of the Reynolds number is found to exist. When the Reynolds number is higher than the critical value, the autocatalysis was suppressed. The models reported in this article might serve as a guide to design 3D biodegradable implants.}, } @article {pmid33713991, year = {2021}, author = {Al-Mubarak, HFI and Vallatos, A and Holmes, WM}, title = {Impact of turbulence-induced asymmetric propagators on the accuracy of phase-contrast velocimetry.}, journal = {Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997)}, volume = {325}, number = {}, pages = {106929}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmr.2021.106929}, pmid = {33713991}, issn = {1096-0856}, abstract = {Phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry (PC-MRI) has been widely used to investigate flow properties in numerous systems. In a horizontal cylindrical pipe (3 mm diameter), we investigated the accuracy of PC-MRI as the flow transitioned from laminar to turbulent flow (Reynolds number 352-2708). We focus primarily on velocimetry errors introduced by skewed intra-voxel displacement distributions, a consequence of PC-MRI theory assuming symmetric distributions. We demonstrated how rapid fluctuations in the velocity field, can produce broad asymmetric intravoxel displacement distributions near the wall. Depending on the shape of the distribution, this resulted in PC-MRI measurements under-estimating (positive skewness) or over-estimating (negative skewness) the true mean intravoxel velocity, which could have particular importance to clinical wall shear stress measurements. The magnitude of these velocity errors was shown to increase with the variance and decrease with the kurtosis of the intravoxel displacement distribution. These experimental results confirm our previous theoretical analysis, which gives a relationship for PC-MRI velocimetry errors, as a function of the higher moments of the intravoxel displacement distribution (skewness, variance, and kurtosis) and the experimental parameters q and Δ. This suggests that PC-MRI errors in such unsteady/turbulent flow conditions can potentially be reduced by employing lower q values or shorter observation times Δ.}, } @article {pmid33712884, year = {2021}, author = {Cho, M}, title = {Aerodynamics and the role of the earth's electric field in the spiders' ballooning flight.}, journal = {Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology}, volume = {207}, number = {2}, pages = {219-236}, pmid = {33712884}, issn = {1432-1351}, abstract = {Some spiders aerially disperse relying on their fine fibres. This behaviour has been known as 'ballooning'. Observations on the ballooning behaviour of spiders have a long history and have more recently received special attention, yet its underlying physics is still poorly understood. It was traditionally believed that spiders rely on the airflows by atmospheric thermal convection to do ballooning. However, a recent experiment showed that exposure to an electric field alone can induce spiders' pre-ballooning behaviours (tiptoe and dropping/dangling) and even pulls them upwards in the air. The controversy between explanations of ballooning by aerodynamic flow or the earth's electric field has long existed. The major obstacle in studying the physics of ballooning is the fact that airflow and electric field are both invisible and our naked eyes can hardly recognise the ballooning silk fibres of spiders. This review explores the theory and evidence for the physical mechanisms of spiders' ballooning connects them to the behavioural physiology of spiders for ballooning. Knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in future studies are identified.}, } @article {pmid33683671, year = {2021}, author = {Riley, JM and Price, NS and Saaid, HM and Good, BC and Aycock, KI and Craven, BA and Manning, KB}, title = {In Vitro Clot Trapping Efficiency of the FDA Generic Inferior Vena Cava Filter in an Anatomical Model: An Experimental Fluid-Structure Interaction Benchmark.}, journal = {Cardiovascular engineering and technology}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {339-352}, doi = {10.1007/s13239-021-00524-z}, pmid = {33683671}, issn = {1869-4098}, abstract = {PURPOSE: Robust experimental data for performing validation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of the transport of deformable solid bodies in internal flow are currently lacking. This in vitro experimental study characterizes the clot trapping efficiency of a new generic conical-type inferior vena cava (IVC) filter in a rigid anatomical model of the IVC with carefully characterized test conditions, fluid rheological properties, and clot mechanical properties.

METHODS: Various sizes of spherical and cylindrical clots made of synthetic materials (nylon and polyacrylamide gel) and bovine blood are serially injected into the anatomical IVC model under worst-case exercise flow conditions. Clot trapping efficiencies and their uncertainties are then quantified for each combination of clot shape, size, and material.

RESULTS: Experiments reveal the clot trapping efficiency increases with increasing clot diameter and length, with trapping efficiencies ranging from as low as approximately 42% for small 3.2 mm diameter spherical clots up to 100% for larger clot sizes. Because of the asymmetry of the anatomical IVC model, the data also reveal the iliac vein of clot origin influences the clot trapping efficiency, with the trapping efficiency for clots injected into the left iliac vein up to a factor of 7.5 times greater than that for clots injected into the right iliac (trapping efficiencies of approximately 10% versus 75%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Overall, this data set provides a benchmark for validating simulations predicting IVC filter clot trapping efficiency and, more generally, low-Reynolds number FSI modeling.}, } @article {pmid33673667, year = {2021}, author = {Mariotti, A and Antognoli, M and Galletti, C and Mauri, R and Salvetti, MV and Brunazzi, E}, title = {A Study on the Effect of Flow Unsteadiness on the Yield of a Chemical Reaction in a T Micro-Reactor.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {33673667}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Despite the very simple geometry and the laminar flow, T-shaped microreactors have been found to be characterized by different and complex steady and unsteady flow regimes, depending on the Reynolds number. In particular, flow unsteadiness modifies strongly the mixing process; however, little is known on how this change may affect the yield of a chemical reaction. In the present work, experiments and 3-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out jointly to analyze mixing and reaction in a T-shaped microreactor with the ultimate goal to investigate how flow unsteadiness affects the reaction yield. The onset of the unsteady asymmetric regime enhances the reaction yield by more than 30%; however, a strong decrease of the yield back to values typical of the vortex regime is observed when the flow undergoes a transition to the unsteady symmetric regime.}, } @article {pmid33672972, year = {2021}, author = {Gao, Y and Magaud, P and Baldas, L and Wang, Y}, title = {Inertial Migration of Neutrally Buoyant Spherical Particles in Square Channels at Moderate and High Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {33672972}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {BK20200336//Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province/ ; }, abstract = {The inertial migration of particles in microchannel flows has been deeply investigated in the last two decades. In spite of numerous reports on the inertial focusing patterns in a square channel, the particle inertial focusing and longitudinal ordering processes remain unclear at high Reynolds numbers (>200) in square microchannels smaller than 100 µm in width. Thus, in this work, in situ visualization of particles flowing in square micro-channels at Reynolds numbers Re ranging from 5 to 280 has been conducted and their migration behaviors have been analyzed. The obtained results confirm that new equilibrium positions appear above a critical Re depending on the particle to channel size ratio and the particle volume fraction. It is also shown that, for a given channel length, an optimal Reynolds number can be identified, for which the ratio of particles located on equilibrium positions is maximal. Moreover, the longitudinal ordering process, i.e., the formation of trains of particles on equilibrium positions and the characterization of their length, has also been analyzed for the different flow conditions investigated in this study.}, } @article {pmid33670962, year = {2021}, author = {Xie, GF and Zhao, L and Dong, YY and Li, YG and Zhang, SL and Yang, C}, title = {Hydraulic and Thermal Performance of Microchannel Heat Sink Inserted with Pin Fins.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {33670962}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {With the development of micromachining technologies, a wider use of microchannel heat sink (MCHS) is achieved in many fields, especially for cooling electronic chips. A microchannel with a width of 500 μm and a height of 500 μm is investigated through the numerical simulation method. Pin fins are arranged at an inclined angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°, when arrangement method includes in-lined pattern and staggered pattern. The effects of inclined angle and arrangement method on flow field and temperature field of MCHSs are studied when Reynolds number ranges from 10 to 300. In addition to this, quantitative analyses of hydraulic and thermal performance are also discussed in this work. With the increase of inclined angle, the variation of friction factor and Nusselt number do not follow certain rules. The best thermal performance is achieved in MCHS with in-lined fines at an inclined angle of 30° accompanied with the largest friction factor. Arrangement method of pin fins plays a less significant role compared with inclined angle from a general view, particularly in the Reynolds number range of 100~300.}, } @article {pmid33670569, year = {2021}, author = {Malviya, R and Jha, S and Fuloria, NK and Subramaniyan, V and Chakravarthi, S and Sathasivam, K and Kumari, U and Meenakshi, DU and Porwal, O and Sharma, A and Kumar, DH and Fuloria, S}, title = {Determination of Temperature-Dependent Coefficients of Viscosity and Surface Tension of Tamarind Seeds (Tamarindus indica L.) Polymer.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {33670569}, issn = {2073-4360}, abstract = {The rheological properties of tamarind seed polymer are characterized for its possible commercialization in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Seed polymer was extracted using water as a solvent and ethyl alcohol as a precipitating agent. The temperature's effect on the rheological behavior of the polymeric solution was studied. In addition to this, the temperature coefficient, viscosity, surface tension, activation energy, Gibbs free energy, Reynolds number, and entropy of fusion were calculated by using the Arrhenius, Gibbs-Helmholtz, Frenkel-Eyring, and Eotvos equations, respectively. The activation energy of the gum was found to be 20.46 ± 1.06 kJ/mol. Changes in entropy and enthalpy were found to be 23.66 ± 0.97 and -0.10 ± 0.01 kJ/mol, respectively. The calculated amount of entropy of fusion was found to be 0.88 kJ/mol. A considerable decrease in apparent viscosity and surface tension was produced when the temperature was raised. The present study concludes that the tamarind seed polymer solution is less sensitive to temperature change in comparison to Albzia lebbac gum, Ficus glumosa gum and A. marcocarpa gum. This study also concludes that the attainment of the transition state of viscous flow for tamarind seed gum is accompanied by bond breaking. The excellent physicochemical properties of tamarind seed polymers make them promising excipients for future drug formulation and make their application in the food and cosmetics industry possible.}, } @article {pmid33669613, year = {2021}, author = {Hossain, S and Tayeb, NT and Islam, F and Kaseem, M and Bui, PDH and Bhuiya, MMK and Aslam, M and Kim, KY}, title = {Enhancement of Mixing Performance of Two-Layer Crossing Micromixer through Surrogate-Based Optimization.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {33669613}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Optimum configuration of a micromixer with two-layer crossing microstructure was performed using mixing analysis, surrogate modeling, along with an optimization algorithm. Mixing performance was used to determine the optimum designs at Reynolds number 40. A surrogate modeling method based on a radial basis neural network (RBNN) was used to approximate the value of the objective function. The optimization study was carried out with three design variables; viz., the ratio of the main channel thickness to the pitch length (H/PI), the ratio of the thickness of the diagonal channel to the pitch length (W/PI), and the ratio of the depth of the channel to the pitch length (d/PI). Through a primary parametric study, the design space was constrained. The design points surrounded by the design constraints were chosen using a well-known technique called Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The optimal design confirmed a 32.0% enhancement of the mixing index as compared to the reference design.}, } @article {pmid33667105, year = {2021}, author = {Brik, M and Harmand, S and Zaaroura, I and Saboni, A}, title = {Experimental and Numerical Study for the Coalescence Dynamics of Vertically Aligned Water Drops in Oil.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {37}, number = {10}, pages = {3139-3147}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03624}, pmid = {33667105}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {In this paper, we propose an experimental and numerical investigation for the impact of the surface tension and the continuous phase viscosity on the dynamics of the liquid bridge during the coalescence process in liquid-liquid systems. A specific configuration of a sessile drop in direct contact with another drop placed over it has been studied. Calculating the redefined Reynolds number Re, it is found that for all studied cases, the coalescence process is dominated by the inertial force. The first step of the work was the validation of the numerical model that has been performed in an axisymmetric coordinate system. This has been done by the comparison between numerical and experimental results obtained in the framework of experimental series realized in parallel for two different liquid-liquid (LL) systems: water drops in silicone oil (SilOil M40.165) and water drops in sunflower oil. A good agreement was found between different results for numerous parameters used for comparisons. It is found that for the first stages of the coalescence (at the start of the drops merging), for a given drop's viscosity, the dynamics of the dimensionless liquid bridge is conducted by the viscosity of the continuous phase where it is illustrated that the more the surrounded viscosity is large, the lower the rate of the liquid bridge growth, the lower the earlier radial velocity of the bridge, and the higher the external capillary pressure generated around the bridge. Moreover, it is depicted that the impact of the surface tension starts appearing after the complete development of the liquid bridge where it is observed that for the same surrounding phase viscosity, the propagation of the capillary wave is faster for a LL system with higher surface tensions than those of lower surface tensions.}, } @article {pmid33666462, year = {2021}, author = {Buaria, D and Clay, MP and Sreenivasan, KR and Yeung, PK}, title = {Turbulence is an Ineffective Mixer when Schmidt Numbers Are Large.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {7}, pages = {074501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.074501}, pmid = {33666462}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We solve the advection-diffusion equation for a stochastically stationary passive scalar θ, in conjunction with forced 3D Navier-Stokes equations, using direct numerical simulations in periodic domains of various sizes, the largest being 8192^{3} . The Taylor-scale Reynolds number varies in the range 140-650 and the Schmidt number Sc≡ν/D in the range 1-512, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and D is the molecular diffusivity of θ. Our results show that turbulence becomes an ineffective mixer when Sc is large. First, the mean scalar dissipation rate ⟨χ⟩=2D⟨|∇θ|^{2} ⟩, when suitably nondimensionalized, decreases as 1/logSc. Second, 1D cuts through the scalar field indicate increasing density of sharp fronts on larger scales, oscillating with large excursions leading to reduced mixing, and additionally suggesting weakening of scalar variance flux across the scales. The scaling exponents of the scalar structure functions in the inertial-convective range appear to saturate with respect to the moment order and the saturation exponent approaches unity as Sc increases, qualitatively consistent with 1D cuts of the scalar.}, } @article {pmid33665269, year = {2021}, author = {Sleiti, AK}, title = {Dataset for measured viscosity of Polyalpha-Olefin- boron nitride nanofluids.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {35}, number = {}, pages = {106881}, doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2021.106881}, pmid = {33665269}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {Datasets of measured viscosity of Polyalpha-Olefin- boron nitride (PAO/hBN) nanofluids are reported. An AR-G2 rheometer (from TA Instruments) experimental setup is used for measuring the rheological property of PAO/hBN nanofluids, which is a combined motor and transducer (CMT) instrument. The test fluid sample size is approximately 1.5 ml and the tests were conducted over a temperature range of the tested fluids from - 20 °C to 70 °C by a water circulator chamber. The dataset includes measured viscosities as a function of the BN volumetric concentration (ϕ) of 0, 0.6 and 1%. Two sets of viscosity measurements are conducted insuring the thermal equilibrium conditions are reached for all experiments. In set (1), the viscosity is measured at intervals of 10 °C by fixing the temperature at each interval (at -20, -10, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C), while the shear stress and shear rate are varied. In set (2), the temperature is varied from -20 °C to 70 °C at intervals of 0.5 °C, while the shear stress is fixed and the shear rate is varied accordingly. Set (1) is designed to verify whether the fluids are Newtonian or not and set (2) is designed to derive correlations for the viscosity as a function of temperature. Several characteristics data are recorded including rotational speed of the spindle (RPM), torque, viscosity (Pa- s), shear stress (Pa), shear strain rate (1/s) and temperature (°C). The reuse potential of the dataset includes calculating Reynolds number for further flow studies; heat transfer performance studies of nanofluids; lubrication and lubricants' development studies and characteristics of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The dataset reported here were used (but not published) in the article published by the author in [1] (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2020.100776).}, } @article {pmid33652896, year = {2021}, author = {Charlton, AJ and Blandin, G and Leslie, G and Le-Clech, P}, title = {Impact of Forward Osmosis Operating Pressure on Deformation, Efficiency and Concentration Polarisation with Novel Links to CFD.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {11}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {33652896}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {Forward osmosis (FO) modules currently suffer from performance efficiency limitations due to concentration polarisation (CP), as well as pressure drops during operation. There are incentives to further reduce CP effects, as well as optimise spacer design for pressure drop improvements and mechanical support. In this study, the effects of applying transmembrane pressure (TMP) on FO membrane deformation and the subsequent impact on module performance was investigated by comparing experimental data to 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for three commercial FO modules. At a TMP of 1.5 bar the occlusion of the draw-channel induced by longitudinal pressure hydraulic drop was comparable for the Toray (16%) and HTI modules (12%); however, the hydraulic perimeter of the Profiera module was reduced by 46%. CFD simulation of the occluded channels indicated that a change in hydraulic perimeter due to a 62% increase in shear strain resulted in a 31% increase in the Reynolds number. This reduction in channel dimensions enhanced osmotic efficiency by reducing CP via improved draw-channel hydrodynamics, which significantly disrupted the external concentration polarization (ECP) layer. Furthermore, simulations indicated that the Reynolds number experienced only modest increases with applied TMP and that shear strain at the membrane surface was found to be the most important factor when predicting flux performance enhancement, which varied between the different modules. This work suggests that a numerical approach to assess the effects of draw-spacers on pressure drop and CP can optimize and reduce investment in the design and validation of FO module designs.}, } @article {pmid33639789, year = {2021}, author = {Ramadan, IA and Bailliet, H and Valière, JC}, title = {Experimental investigation of oscillating flow characteristics at the exit of a stacked mesh grid regenerator.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {149}, number = {2}, pages = {807}, doi = {10.1121/10.0003375}, pmid = {33639789}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {The aim of this study is to investigate the oscillating flow velocity field at the exit of different stacked mesh grid regenerators using Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. Twelve different experimental cases are discussed, yielding oscillating flow fields at the exit of four kinds of regenerators for different acoustic levels. The regenerators are classified according to the mesh wire size to viscous penetration depth ratio and according to the method of stacking the mesh grids. Based on the analysis of the vorticity fields at the exit of the regenerator, three groups of flow patterns are identified. This classification is correctly verified by using the Reynolds number (based on the acoustic amplitude and wire diameter) and the Strouhal number (based on the acoustic displacement amplitude and wire diameter). The characteristics of the fluctuating velocity components are investigated for these various flow patterns. The critical Reynolds number, past which the flow is highly dissipative, is determined. The dissipation timescale is investigated and the quasi-steady approximation is found to be valid for the analysis of the oscillating flow at the exit of the regenerator mesh.}, } @article {pmid33635696, year = {2021}, author = {Bakhuis, D and Ezeta, R and Bullee, PA and Marin, A and Lohse, D and Sun, C and Huisman, SG}, title = {Catastrophic Phase Inversion in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {6}, pages = {064501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.064501}, pmid = {33635696}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Emulsions are omnipresent in the food industry, health care, and chemical synthesis. In this Letter the dynamics of metastable oil-water emulsions in highly turbulent (10^{11} ≤Ta≤3×10^{13} ) Taylor-Couette flow, far from equilibrium, is investigated. By varying the oil-in-water void fraction, catastrophic phase inversion between oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be triggered, changing the morphology, including droplet sizes, and rheological properties of the mixture, dramatically. The manifestation of these different states is exemplified by combining global torque measurements and local in situ laser induced fluorescence microscopy imaging. Despite the turbulent state of the flow and the dynamic equilibrium of the oil-water mixture, the global torque response of the system is found to be as if the fluid were Newtonian, and the effective viscosity of the mixture was found to be several times bigger or smaller than either of its constituents.}, } @article {pmid33635462, year = {2021}, author = {Jain, PK and Lanjewar, A and Jain, R and Rana, KB}, title = {Performance analysis of multi-gap V-roughness with staggered elements of solar air heater based on artificial neural network and experimental investigations.}, journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {33635462}, issn = {1614-7499}, abstract = {Among all renewable energy sources, solar power is one of the major sources which contributes for pollution control and protection of environment. For a number of decades, technologies for utilizing the solar power have been the area of research and development. In the current research, thermal performance parameters of multi-gap V-roughness with staggered elements of a solar air heater (SAH) are experimentally investigated. The artificial neural network (ANN) is also utilized for predicting the thermal performance parameters of SAH. Experiments were executed in a rectangular channel with one roughened side at the top exposed to a uniform heat flux. A significant rise in thermal efficiency performance was reported under a predefined range of Reynolds number (Re) from 3000 to 14000 with an optimized value of relative roughness pitch ratio (P/e) and relative staggered rib length (w/g) as 12 and 1, respectively. The maximum thermal efficiency was attained in the range from 42.15 to 87.02% under considered Reynolds numbers for optimum value of P/e as 12 and w/g as 1. A multilayered perceptron (MLP) feed-forward ANN trained by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm was utilized to predict the thermal efficiency (ηth), friction (f), and Nusselt number (Nu). The thermal performance parameters such as P/e, w/g, Re, and temperature at the inlet, outlet, and plate were the critical input parameters/signals used in the ANN method. The optimum ANN arrangement/structure to predict the Nu, f, and ηth demonstrate higher accurateness in assessing the performance characteristics of SAH by attaining the root mean squared error (RMSE) in prediction and the Pearson coefficient of association (R2) of 1.591 and 0.994; 0.0012 and 0.851; and 0.025 and 0.981, respectively. The prediction profile plots of the ANN demonstrate the influence of various input parameters on the thermal performance parameters.}, } @article {pmid33633249, year = {2021}, author = {Altmeyer, S}, title = {On the ridge of instability in ferrofluidic Couette flow via alternating magnetic field.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {4705}, pmid = {33633249}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {There is a huge number of natural and industrial flows, which are subjected to time-dependent boundary conditions. The flow of a magnetic fluid under the influence of temporal modulations is such an example. Here, we perform numerical simulations of ferrofluidic Couette flow subject to time-periodic modulation (with frequency [Formula: see text]) in a spatially homogeneous magnetic field and report how such a modulation can lead to a significant Reynolds number Re enhancement. Consider a modified Niklas approximation we explain the relation between modulation amplitude, driving frequency and stabilization effect. From this, we describe the system response around the primary instability to be sensitive/critical by an alternating field. We detected that such an alternating field provides an easy and in particular accurate controllable key parameter to trigger the system to change from subcritical to supercritical and vice versa. Our findings provide a framework to study other types of magnetic flows driven by time-dependent forcing.}, } @article {pmid33625506, year = {2021}, author = {Sera, T and Kamiya, N and Fukushima, T and Tanaka, G}, title = {Visualizing the Flow Patterns in an Expanding and Contracting Pulmonary Alveolated Duct Based on Microcomputed Tomography Images.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {143}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4050285}, pmid = {33625506}, issn = {1528-8951}, abstract = {We visualized the flow patterns in an alveolated duct model with breathing-like expanding and contracting wall motions using particle image velocimetry, and then, we investigated the effect of acinar deformation on the flow patterns. We reconstructed a compliant, scaled-up model of an alveolated duct from synchrotron microcomputed tomography images of a mammalian lung. The alveolated duct did not include any bifurcation, and its entire surface was covered with alveoli. We embedded the alveolated duct in a sealed container that was filled with fluid. We oscillated the fluid in the duct and container simultaneously and independently to control the flow and duct volume. We examined the flow patterns in alveoli, with the Reynolds number (Re) at 0.03 or 0.22 and the acinar volume change at 0%, 20%, or 80%. At the same Re, the heterogeneous deformation induced different inspiration and expiration flow patterns, and the recirculating regions in alveoli changed during respiratory cycle. During a larger acinar deformation at Re = 0.03, the flow patterns tended to change from recirculating flow to radial flow during inspiration and vice versa during expiration. Additionally, the alveolar geometric characteristics, particularly the angle between the alveolar duct and mouth, affected these differences in flow patterns. At Re = 0.22, recirculating flow patterns tended to form during inspiration and expiration, regardless of the magnitude of the acinar deformation. Our in vitro experiments suggest that the alveolated flows with nonself-similar and heterogeneous wall motions may promote particle mixing and deposition.}, } @article {pmid33622143, year = {2021}, author = {Pepper, RE and Riley, EE and Baron, M and Hurot, T and Nielsen, LT and Koehl, MAR and Kiørboe, T and Andersen, A}, title = {The effect of external flow on the feeding currents of sessile microorganisms.}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface}, volume = {18}, number = {175}, pages = {20200953}, pmid = {33622143}, issn = {1742-5662}, mesh = {*Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Suspensions ; }, abstract = {Microscopic sessile suspension feeders live attached to surfaces and, by consuming bacteria-sized prey and by being consumed, they form an important part of aquatic ecosystems. Their environmental impact is mediated by their feeding rate, which depends on a self-generated feeding current. The feeding rate has been hypothesized to be limited by recirculating eddies that cause the organisms to feed from water that is depleted of food particles. However, those results considered organisms in still water, while ambient flow is often present in their natural habitats. We show, using a point-force model, that even very slow ambient flow, with speed several orders of magnitude less than that of the self-generated feeding current, is sufficient to disrupt the eddies around perpendicular suspension feeders, providing a constant supply of food-rich water. However, the feeding rate decreases in external flow at a range of non-perpendicular orientations due to the formation of recirculation structures not seen in still water. We quantify the feeding flow and observe such recirculation experimentally for the suspension feeder Vorticella convallaria in external flows typical of streams and rivers.}, } @article {pmid33622097, year = {2021}, author = {Ge-JiLe, H and Javid, K and Khan, SU and Raza, M and Khan, MI and Qayyum, S}, title = {Double diffusive convection and Hall effect in creeping flow of viscous nanofluid through a convergent microchannel: a biotechnological applications.}, journal = {Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {1-18}, doi = {10.1080/10255842.2021.1888373}, pmid = {33622097}, issn = {1476-8259}, abstract = {Current analysis presents the mathematical modeling for peristaltic transport of nanofluid with applications of double-diffusive convection and Hall features. The flow has been induced by a convergent channel due to peristaltic propulsion. These rheological equations are transformed from fixed to wave frames by using a linear mathematical relation between these two frames. The dimensionless variables are used to transform these rheological equations into nondimensional forms. The flow analysis is carried out under two distinct scientific biological assumptions, one is known as long wavelength and the second one is low Reynolds number. The analytical solutions of these rheological equations are obtained with the help of a rigorous analytical method known as integration in the term of stream function. The physical effects of magnetic and Hall devices, respectively, on the flow features are also considered in the present analysis. The physical influences of dominant hydro-mechanical parameters on the axial velocity, pressure gradient, trapping, volumetric fraction of nanofluid, heat and mass transfer phenomena are studied. The complex scenario of biomimetic propulsions are considered in boundary walls to boost the proficiency of peristaltic micropumps.}, } @article {pmid33601572, year = {2021}, author = {Bao, G and Jian, Y}, title = {Odd-viscosity-induced instability of a falling thin film with an external electric field.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {1-1}, pages = {013104}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013104}, pmid = {33601572}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The influence of odd viscosity of Newtonian fluid on the instability of thin film flowing along an inclined plane under a normal electric field is studied. By odd viscosity, we mean apart from the well-known coefficient of shear viscosity, a classical liquid with broken time-reversal symmetry is endowed with a second viscosity coefficient in biological, colloidal, and granular systems. Under the long wave approximation, a nonlinear evolution equation of the free surface is derived by the method of systematic asymptotic expansion. The effects of the odd viscosity and external electric field are considered in this evolution equation and an analytical expression of critical Reynolds number is obtained. It is interesting to find that, by linear stability analysis, the critical Reynolds number increases with odd viscosity and decreases with external strength of electric field. In other words, odd viscosity has a stable effect and electric field has a destabilized effect on flowing of thin film. In addition, through nonlinear analysis, we obtain a Ginsburg-Landau equation and find that the film has not only the supercritical stability zone and the subcritical instability zone but also the unconditional stability zone and the explosive zone. The variations of each zone with related parameters, such as the strength of electric field, odd viscosity, and Reynolds number, etc., are investigated. The results are conducive to the further development of related experiments.}, } @article {pmid33601565, year = {2021}, author = {Pereira, FS and Grinstein, FF and Israel, DM and Rauenzahn, R}, title = {Molecular viscosity and diffusivity effects in transitional and shock-driven mixing flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {1-1}, pages = {013106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013106}, pmid = {33601565}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {This paper investigates the importance of molecular viscosity and diffusivity for the prediction of transitional and shock-driven mixing flows featuring high and low Reynolds and Mach number regions. Two representative problems are computed with implicit large-eddy simulations using the inviscid Euler equations (EE) and viscous Navier-Stokes equations (NSE): the Taylor-Green vortex at Reynolds number Re=3000 and initial Mach number Ma=0.28, and an air-SF_{6} -air gas curtain subjected to two shock waves at Ma=1.2. The primary focus is on differences between NSE and EE predictions due to viscous effects. The outcome of the paper illustrates the advantages of utilizing NSE. In contrast to the EE, where the effective viscosity decreases upon grid refinement, NSE predictions can be assessed for simulations of flows with transition to turbulence at prescribed constant Re. The NSE can achieve better agreement between solutions and reference data, and the results converge upon grid refinement. On the other hand, the EE predictions do not converge with grid refinement, and can only exhibit similarities with the NSE results at coarse grid resolutions. We also investigate the effect of viscous effects on the dynamics of the coherent and turbulent fields, as well as on the mechanisms contributing to the production and diffusion of vorticity. The results show that nominally inviscid calculations can exhibit significantly varying flow dynamics driven by changing effective resolution-dependent Reynolds number, and highlight the role of viscous processes affecting the vorticity field. These tendencies become more pronounced upon grid refinement. The discussion of the results concludes with the assessment of the computational cost of inviscid and viscous computations.}, } @article {pmid33601495, year = {2021}, author = {Livi, C and Di Staso, G and Clercx, HJH and Toschi, F}, title = {Influence of numerical resolution on the dynamics of finite-size particles with the lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {103}, number = {1-1}, pages = {013303}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013303}, pmid = {33601495}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We investigate and compare the accuracy and efficiency of different numerical approaches to model the dynamics of finite-size particles using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This includes the standard bounce-back (BB) and the equilibrium interpolation (EI) schemes. To accurately compare the different implementations, we first introduce a boundary condition to approximate the flow properties of an unbounded fluid in a finite simulation domain, taking into account the perturbation induced by a moving particle. We show that this boundary treatment is efficient in suppressing detrimental effects on the dynamics of spherical and ellipsoidal particles arising from the finite size of the simulation domain. We then investigate the performances of the BB and EI schemes in modeling the dynamics of a spherical particle settling under Stokes conditions, which can now be reproduced with great accuracy thanks to the treatment of the exterior boundary. We find that the EI scheme outperforms the BB scheme in providing a better accuracy scaling with respect to the resolution of the settling particle, while suppressing finite-size effects due to the particle discretization on the lattice grid. Additionally, in order to further increase the capability of the algorithm in modeling particles of sizes comparable to the lattice spacing, we propose an improvement to the EI scheme, the complete equilibrium interpolation (CEI). This approach allows us to accurately capture the boundaries of the particle also when located between two fluid nodes. We evaluate the CEI performance in solving the dynamics of an under-resolved particle under analogous Stokes conditions and also for the case of a rotating ellipsoid in a shear flow. Finally, we show that EI and CEI are able to recover the correct flow solutions also at small, but finite, Reynolds number. Adopting the CEI scheme it is not only possible to detect particles with zero lattice occupation, but also to increase up to one order of magnitude the accuracy of the dynamics of particles with a size comparable to the lattice spacing with respect to the BB and the EI schemes.}, } @article {pmid33590890, year = {2021}, author = {Pskowski, A and Bagchi, P and Zahn, JD}, title = {Investigation of red blood cell partitioning in an in vitro microvascular bifurcation.}, journal = {Artificial organs}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1111/aor.13941}, pmid = {33590890}, issn = {1525-1594}, support = {CBET 1604308//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {There is a long history of research examining red blood cell (RBC) partitioning in microvasculature bifurcations. These studies commonly report results describing partitioning that exists as either regular partitioning, which occurs when the RBC flux ratio is greater than the bulk fluid flowrate ratio, or reverse partitioning when the RBC flux ratio is less than or equal to that of the bulk fluid flowrate. This paper presents a study of RBC partitioning in a single bifurcating microchannel with dimensions of 6 to 16 μm, investigating the effects of hematocrit, channel width, daughter channel flowrate ratio, and bifurcation angle. The erythrocyte flux ratio, N*, manifests itself as either regular or reverse partitioning, and time-dependent partitioning is much more dynamic, occurring as both regular and reverse partitioning. We report a significant reduction in the well-known sigmoidal variation of the erythrocyte flux ratio (N*) versus the volumetric flowrate ratio (Q*), partitioning behavior with increasing hematocrit in microchannels when the channel dimensions are comparable with cell size. RBCs "lingering" or jamming at the bifurcation were also observed and quantified in vitro. Results from trajectory analyses suggest that the RBC position in the feeder channel strongly affects both partitioning and lingering frequency of RBCs, with both being significantly reduced when RBCs flow on streamlines near the edge of the channel as opposed to the center of the channel. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that even at low Reynolds number, partitioning is affected by the bifurcation angle by increasing cell-cell interactions. The presented results provide further insight into RBC partitioning as well as perfusion throughout the microvasculature.}, } @article {pmid33580288, year = {2021}, author = {Ender, H and Kierfeld, J}, title = {From diffusive mass transfer in Stokes flow to low Reynolds number Marangoni boats.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {44}, number = {1}, pages = {4}, pmid = {33580288}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {We present a theory for the self-propulsion of symmetric, half-spherical Marangoni boats (soap or camphor boats) at low Reynolds numbers. Propulsion is generated by release (diffusive emission or dissolution) of water-soluble surfactant molecules, which modulate the air-water interfacial tension. Propulsion either requires asymmetric release or spontaneous symmetry breaking by coupling to advection for a perfectly symmetrical swimmer. We study the diffusion-advection problem for a sphere in Stokes flow analytically and numerically both for constant concentration and constant flux boundary conditions. We derive novel results for concentration profiles under constant flux boundary conditions and for the Nusselt number (the dimensionless ratio of total emitted flux and diffusive flux). Based on these results, we analyze the Marangoni boat for small Marangoni propulsion (low Peclet number) and show that two swimming regimes exist, a diffusive regime at low velocities and an advection-dominated regime at high swimmer velocities. We describe both the limit of large Marangoni propulsion (high Peclet number) and the effects from evaporation by approximative analytical theories. The swimming velocity is determined by force balance, and we obtain a general expression for the Marangoni forces, which comprises both direct Marangoni forces from the surface tension gradient along the air-water-swimmer contact line and Marangoni flow forces. We unravel whether the Marangoni flow contribution is exerting a forward or backward force during propulsion. Our main result is the relation between Peclet number and swimming velocity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and, thus, swimming occur for a perfectly symmetrical swimmer above a critical Peclet number, which becomes small for large system sizes. We find a supercritical swimming bifurcation for a symmetric swimmer and an avoided bifurcation in the presence of an asymmetry.}, } @article {pmid33573067, year = {2021}, author = {Hosseini, SA and Safari, H and Thevenin, D}, title = {Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Multiphase Flows: Application to High Weber and Reynolds Numbers.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {33573067}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {TRR287-422037413//Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ ; }, abstract = {The lattice Boltzmann method, now widely used for a variety of applications, has also been extended to model multiphase flows through different formulations. While already applied to many different configurations in low Weber and Reynolds number regimes, applications to higher Weber/Reynolds numbers or larger density/viscosity ratios are still the topic of active research. In this study, through a combination of a decoupled phase-field formulation-the conservative Allen-Cahn equation-and a cumulant-based collision operator for a low-Mach pressure-based flow solver, we present an algorithm that can be used for higher Reynolds/Weber numbers. The algorithm was validated through a variety of test cases, starting with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in both 2D and 3D, followed by the impact of a droplet on a liquid sheet. In all simulations, the solver correctly captured the flow dynamics andmatched reference results very well. As the final test case, the solver was used to model droplet splashing on a thin liquid sheet in 3D with a density ratio of 1000 and kinematic viscosity ratio of 15, matching the water/air system at We = 8000 and Re = 1000. Results showed that the solver correctly captured the fingering instabilities at the crown rim and their subsequent breakup, in agreement with experimental and numerical observations reported in the literature.}, } @article {pmid33571986, year = {2021}, author = {Gungor, A and Hemmati, A}, title = {Implications of changing synchronization in propulsive performance of side-by-side pitching foils.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/abe54b}, pmid = {33571986}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {The unsteady hydrodynamics of side-by-side pitching foils are studied numerically at Reynolds number of 4000 with altering phase differences in the middle of an oscillation cycle. This represents a change in synchronization of oscillating foils, inspired by experimental observations on group swimming of Red nose tetra fish. The hybrid oscillation cases are based on an initially out-of-phase pitching that switch to in-phase at the 20th cycle of oscillation. Various sequential combinations of out-of-phase and in-phase pitching are also examined in terms of foil propulsive performance. It is observed that out-of-phase pitching foils initially produce zero total side-force. However, they start producing negative total side-force after 13 oscillation cycles. Contrarily for the in-phase oscillation cases, the initially positive total side-force reverted to zero over time. In hybrid oscillation cases, the negative total side-force produced during the initial out-of-phase oscillations abruptly adjusted to zero following a change of synchronization that led to in-phase oscillations, which is inspired from a particular swimming behavior in fish. Based on three hybrid modes, defined on the onset of mid-cycle switch to in-phase oscillations, it was apparent that the benefit of synchronization, or there lack of, greatly depended on the timing of the change in synchronization. Thus, mid-swimming change of synchronization in side-by-side systems inspired by fish schools compensates for their non-zero total side-force production to maintain their lateral position. Such changes do not translate to significant gains in neither thrust generation nor efficiency.}, } @article {pmid33561405, year = {2021}, author = {Longo, SJ and Ray, W and Farley, GM and Harrison, J and Jorge, J and Kaji, T and Palmer, AR and Patek, SN}, title = {Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement.}, journal = {Current biology : CB}, volume = {31}, number = {3}, pages = {R116-R117}, doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.025}, pmid = {33561405}, issn = {1879-0445}, abstract = {Surprisingly, the fastest motions are not produced by large animals or robots. Rather, small organisms or structures, including cnidarian stinging cells, fungal shooting spores, and mandible strikes of ants, termites, and spiders, hold the world acceleration records.1-5 These diverse systems share common features: they rapidly convert potential energy - stored in deformed material or fluid - into kinetic energy when a latch is released.4-6 However, the fastest of these are not repeatable, because mechanical components are broken or ejected.5,6 Furthermore, some of these systems must overcome the added challenge of moving in water, where high density and viscosity constrain acceleration at small sizes. Here we report the kinematics of repeatable, ultrafast snaps by tiny marine amphipods (Dulichiella cf. appendiculata). Males use their enlarged major claw, which can exceed 30% of body mass, to snap a 1 mm-long dactyl with a diameter equivalent to a human hair (184 μm). The claw snaps closed extremely rapidly, averaging 93 μs, 17 m s-1, and 2.4 x 105 m s-2. These snaps are among the smallest and fastest of any documented repeatable movement, and are sufficiently fast to operate in the inertial hydrodynamic regime (Reynolds number (Re) >10,000). They generate audible pops and rapid water jets, which occasionally yield cavitation, and may be used for defense. These amphipod snaps push the boundaries of acceleration and size for repeatable movements, particularly in water, and exemplify how new biomechanical insights can arise from unassuming animals. VIDEO ABSTRACT.}, } @article {pmid33544100, year = {2021}, author = {Yang, F}, title = {Homogeneous nucleation in a Poiseuille flow.}, journal = {Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP}, volume = {23}, number = {6}, pages = {3974-3982}, doi = {10.1039/d0cp06132h}, pmid = {33544100}, issn = {1463-9084}, abstract = {Nucleation in a dynamical environment plays an important role in the synthesis and manufacturing of quantum dots and nanocrystals. In this work, we investigate the effects of fluid flow (low Reynolds number flow) on the homogeneous nucleation in a circular microchannel in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The contributions of the configuration entropy from the momentum-phase space and the kinetic energy and strain energy of a microcluster are incorporated in the calculation of the change of the Gibbs free energy from a flow state without a microcluster to a flow state with a microcluster. An analytical equation is derived for the determination of the critical nucleus size. Using this analytical equation, an analytical solution of the critical nucleus size for the formation of a critical liquid nucleus is found. For the formation of a critical solid nucleus, the contributions from both the kinetic energy and the strain energy are generally negligible. We perform numerical analysis of the homogeneous nucleation of a sucrose microcluster in a representative volume element of an aqueous solution, which flows through a circular microchannel. The numerical results reveal the decrease of the critical nucleus size and the corresponding work of formation of a critical nucleus with the increase of the distance to axisymmetric axis for the same numbers of solvent atoms and solute atoms/particles.}, } @article {pmid33543985, year = {2021}, author = {Buaria, D and Clay, MP and Sreenivasan, KR and Yeung, PK}, title = {Small-Scale Isotropy and Ramp-Cliff Structures in Scalar Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {3}, pages = {034504}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.034504}, pmid = {33543985}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Passive scalars advected by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence exhibit a fundamental anomaly in odd-order moments because of the characteristic ramp-cliff structures, violating small-scale isotropy. We use data from direct numerical simulations with grid resolution of up to 8192^{3} at high Péclet numbers to understand this anomaly as the scalar diffusivity, D, diminishes, or as the Schmidt number, Sc=ν/D, increases; here ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The microscale Reynolds number varies from 140 to 650 and Sc varies from 1 to 512. A simple model for the ramp-cliff structures is developed and shown to characterize the scalar derivative statistics very well. It accurately captures how the small-scale isotropy is restored in the large-Sc limit, and additionally suggests a possible correction to the Batchelor length scale as the relevant smallest scale in the scalar field.}, } @article {pmid33543965, year = {2021}, author = {Nasouri, B and Vilfan, A and Golestanian, R}, title = {Minimum Dissipation Theorem for Microswimmers.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {126}, number = {3}, pages = {034503}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.034503}, pmid = {33543965}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We derive a theorem for the lower bound on the energy dissipation rate by a rigid surface-driven active microswimmer of arbitrary shape in a fluid at a low Reynolds number. We show that, for any swimmer, the minimum dissipation at a given velocity can be expressed in terms of the resistance tensors of two passive bodies of the same shape with a no-slip and perfect-slip boundary. To achieve the absolute minimum dissipation, the optimal swimmer needs a surface velocity profile that corresponds to the flow around the perfect-slip body, and a propulsive force density that corresponds to the no-slip body. Using this theorem, we propose an alternative definition of the energetic efficiency of microswimmers that, unlike the commonly used Lighthill efficiency, can never exceed unity. We validate the theory by calculating the efficiency limits of spheroidal swimmers.}, } @article {pmid33537715, year = {2021}, author = {Yu, P and Durgesh, V and Xing, T and Budwig, R}, title = {Application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to Study Coherent Flow Structures in a Saccular Aneurysm.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {143}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4050032}, pmid = {33537715}, issn = {1528-8951}, abstract = {Aneurysms are localized expansions of weakened blood vessels that can be debilitating or fatal upon rupture. Previous studies have shown that flow in an aneurysm exhibits complex flow structures that are correlated with its inflow conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to study the impact of different inflow conditions on energetic flow structures and their temporal behavior in an aneurysm. To achieve this objective, experiments were performed on an idealized rigid sidewall aneurysm model. A piston pump system was used for precise inflow control, i.e., peak Reynolds number (Rep) and Womersley number (α) were varied from 50 to 270 and 2 to 5, respectively. The velocity flow field measurements at the midplane location of the idealized aneurysm model were performed using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results demonstrate the efficacy of POD in decomposing complex data, and POD was able to capture the energetic flow structures unique to each studied inflow condition. Furthermore, the time-varying coefficient results highlighted the interplay between the coefficients and their corresponding POD modes, which in turn helped explain how POD modes impact certain flow features. The low-order reconstruction results were able to capture the flow evolution and provide information on complex flow in an aneurysm. The POD and low-order reconstruction results also indicated that vortex formation, evolution, and convection varied with an increase in α, while vortex strength and formation of secondary structures were correlated with an increase in Rep.}, } @article {pmid33530578, year = {2021}, author = {Selimefendigil, F and Öztop, HF}, title = {Thermal Management and Modeling of Forced Convection and Entropy Generation in a Vented Cavity by Simultaneous Use of a Curved Porous Layer and Magnetic Field.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {33530578}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The effects of using a partly curved porous layer on the thermal management and entropy generation features are studied in a ventilated cavity filled with hybrid nanofluid under the effects of inclined magnetic field by using finite volume method. This study is performed for the range of pertinent parameters of Reynolds number (100≤Re≤1000), magnetic field strength (0≤Ha≤80), permeability of porous region (10-4≤Da≤5×10-2), porous layer height (0.15H≤tp≤0.45H), porous layer position (0.25H≤yp≤0.45H), and curvature size (0≤b≤0.3H). The magnetic field reduces the vortex size, while the average Nusselt number of hot walls increases for Ha number above 20 and highest enhancement is 47% for left vertical wall. The variation in the average Nu with permeability of the layer is about 12.5% and 21% for left and right vertical walls, respectively, while these amounts are 12.5% and 32.5% when the location of the porous layer changes. The entropy generation increases with Hartmann number above 20, while there is 22% increase in the entropy generation for the case at the highest magnetic field. The porous layer height reduced the entropy generation for domain above it and it give the highest contribution to the overall entropy generation. When location of the curved porous layer is varied, the highest variation of entropy generation is attained for the domain below it while the lowest value is obtained at yp=0.3H. When the size of elliptic curvature is varied, the overall entropy generation decreases from b=0 to b=0.2H by about 10% and then increases by 5% from b=0.2H to b=0.3H.}, } @article {pmid33510410, year = {2021}, author = {Sato, N and Kawashima, D and Takei, M}, title = {Concentration profiles of ions and particles under hydrodynamic focusing in Y-shaped square microchannel.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {2585}, pmid = {33510410}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Three-dimensional ion and particle concentrations under hydrodynamic focusing in a Y-shaped square microchannel are numerically simulated to clarify the decrease of the ion concentration along the flow direction within the focused particle stream. The simulation model is theoretically governed by the laminar flow and advection-diffusion equations. The governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The ion and particle concentration distributions at five cross sections after the confluence of the branch channels are analyzed in 30 cases in which the sheath to sample flow rate ratio Qsh/Qsam and the Reynolds number Re are varied as parameters. The results show that the decrease of the cross-sectional average ion concentration along the flow direction within the particle stream [Formula: see text] is described by the diffusion length during the residence time with a characteristic velocity scale. In addition, the deformation of the particle stream due to inertial effects is described by a scaled Reynolds number that is a function of the flow rate ratio. The simulated particle stream thicknesses are validated by theory and a simple experiment. This paper reveals the relationship between the ion and particle concentrations and the dimensionless parameters for hydrodynamic focusing in the Y-shaped square microchannel under typical conditions.}, } @article {pmid33509927, year = {2021}, author = {Andreotti, B and Claudin, P and Iversen, JJ and Merrison, JP and Rasmussen, KR}, title = {A lower-than-expected saltation threshold at Martian pressure and below.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {118}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {33509927}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Aeolian sediment transport is observed to occur on Mars as well as other extraterrestrial environments, generating ripples and dunes as on Earth. The search for terrestrial analogs of planetary bedforms, as well as environmental simulation experiments able to reproduce their formation in planetary conditions, are powerful ways to question our understanding of geomorphological processes toward unusual environmental conditions. Here, we perform sediment transport laboratory experiments in a closed-circuit wind tunnel placed in a vacuum chamber and operated at extremely low pressures to show that Martian conditions belong to a previously unexplored saltation regime. The threshold wind speed required to initiate saltation is only quantitatively predicted by state-of-the art models up to a density ratio between grain and air of [Formula: see text] but unexpectedly falls to much lower values for higher density ratios. In contrast, impact ripples, whose emergence is continuously observed on the granular bed over the whole pressure range investigated, display a characteristic wavelength and propagation velocity essentially independent of pressure. A comparison of these findings with existing models suggests that sediment transport at low Reynolds number but high grain-to-fluid density ratio may be dominated by collective effects associated with grain inertia in the granular collisional layer.}, } @article {pmid33503087, year = {2021}, author = {Hoeger, K and Ursell, T}, title = {Steric scattering of rod-like swimmers in low Reynolds number environments.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {17}, number = {9}, pages = {2479-2489}, doi = {10.1039/d0sm01551b}, pmid = {33503087}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {*Ecosystem ; Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Biological ; Movement ; Swimming ; }, abstract = {Microbes form integral components of all natural ecosystems. In most cases, the surrounding micro-environment has physical variations that affect the movements of micro-swimmers, including solid objects of varying size, shape and density. As swimmers move through viscous environments, a combination of hydrodynamic and steric forces are known to significantly alter their trajectories in a way that depends on surface curvature. In this work, our goal was to clarify the role of steric forces when rod-like swimmers interact with solid objects comparable to cell size. We imaged hundreds-of-thousands of scattering interactions between swimming bacteria and micro-fabricated pillars with radii from ∼1 to ∼10 cell lengths. Scattering interactions were parameterized by the angle of the cell upon contact with the pillar, and primarily produced forward-scattering events that fell into distinct chiral distributions for scattering angle - no hydrodynamic trapping was observed. The chirality of a scattering event was a stochastic variable whose probability smoothly and symmetrically depended on the contact angle. Neglecting hydrodynamics, we developed a model that only considers contact forces and torques for a rear-pushed thin-rod scattering from a cylinder - the model predictions were in good agreement with measured data. Our results suggest that alteration of bacterial trajectories is subject to distinct mechanisms when interacting with objects of different size; primarily steric for objects below ∼10 cell lengths and requiring incorporation of hydrodynamics at larger scales. These results contribute to a mechanistic framework in which to examine (and potentially engineer) microbial movements through natural and synthetic environments that present complex steric structure.}, } @article {pmid33494348, year = {2021}, author = {Ambreen, T and Saleem, A and Park, CW}, title = {Homogeneous and Multiphase Analysis of Nanofluids Containing Nonspherical MWCNT and GNP Nanoparticles Considering the Influence of Interfacial Layering.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano11020277}, pmid = {33494348}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {The practical implication of nanofluids is essentially dependent on their accurate modelling, particularly in comparison with the high cost of experimental investigations, yet the accuracy of different computational approaches to simulate nanofluids remains controversial to this day. Therefore, the present study is aimed at analysing the homogenous, multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian (volume of fluid, mixture, Eulerian) and Lagrangian-Eulerian approximation of nanofluids containing nonspherical nanoparticles. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based and multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene nanoplatelets (MWCNT/GNP)-based nanofluids are computed by incorporating the influence of several physical mechanisms, including interfacial nanolayering. The accuracy of tested computational approaches is evaluated by considering particle concentration and Reynolds number ranges of 0.075-0.25 wt% and 200-470, respectively. The results demonstrate that for all nanofluid combinations and operational conditions, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approximation provides the most accurate convective heat transfer coefficient values with a maximum deviation of 5.34% for 0.25 wt% of MWCNT-water nanofluid at the largest Reynolds number, while single-phase and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase models accurately estimate the thermal fields of the diluted nanofluids at low Reynolds numbers, but overestimate the results for denser nanofluids at high Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid33493237, year = {2021}, author = {Mahrous, SA and Sidik, NAC and Saqr, KM}, title = {Numerical study on the energy cascade of pulsatile Newtonian and power-law flow models in an ICA bifurcation.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {16}, number = {1}, pages = {e0245775}, pmid = {33493237}, issn = {1932-6203}, mesh = {Humans ; Intracranial Aneurysm/pathology/*physiopathology ; Kinetics ; *Models, Biological ; *Pulsatile Flow ; }, abstract = {The complex physics and biology underlying intracranial hemodynamics are yet to be fully revealed. A fully resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) study has been performed to identify the intrinsic flow dynamics in an idealized carotid bifurcation model. To shed the light on the significance of considering blood shear-thinning properties, the power-law model is compared to the commonly used Newtonian viscosity hypothesis. We scrutinize the kinetic energy cascade (KEC) rates in the Fourier domain and the vortex structure of both fluid models and examine the impact of the power-law viscosity model. The flow intrinsically contains coherent structures which has frequencies corresponding to the boundary frequency, which could be associated with the regulation of endothelial cells. From the proposed comparative study, it is found that KEC rates and the vortex-identification are significantly influenced by the shear-thinning blood properties. Conclusively, from the obtained results, it is found that neglecting the non-Newtonian behavior could lead to underestimation of the hemodynamic parameters at low Reynolds number and overestimation of the hemodynamic parameters by increasing the Reynolds number. In addition, we provide physical insight and discussion onto the hemodynamics associated with endothelial dysfunction which plays significant role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms.}, } @article {pmid33490686, year = {2021}, author = {Ibrahim, W and Hirpho, M}, title = {Finite element analysis of mixed convection flow in a trapezoidal cavity with non-uniform temperature.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {e05933}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05933}, pmid = {33490686}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {A two dimensional flow analysis in a cavity shaped isosceles trapezium is carried out. Non-parallel sides of a trapezium are adiabatic. A varying sinusoidal temperature is applied to the lower wall while the upper wall is at constant temperature. Upper wall of the cavity moves with a velocity η 0 in the positive x-direction. Also, B 0 is constant magnetic field of strength aligned in the same x-direction and Newtonian fluid is considered. The values of magnetic field parameter used are H a = 0 , 50 , the Richardson number is R i = 0.1 , 1 , 10 , R e = 100 is Reynolds number used for the analysis, the amplitude of sinusoidal temperature is m = 0.25 , 0.5 , 1 . The impacts of different leading parameters are analyzed by plotting streamlines for flow fields and isotherm contours for temperature of the flow dynamics. The graphs that signify the variation of average Nusselt number and local Nusselt number are sketched for both lower and upper walls of the cavity. Result indicated that with constant temperature the top wall of the boundary layer thickness decreases as Richardson number Ri increases and for bottom wall with variable temperature. The Nusselt number gets higher with an increment in the amplitude of the oscillation of temperature function. Furthermore, the study revealed that the average Nusselt number gets reduced as the intensity of magnetic field is enhanced. The variation in transit of heat at the bottom wall is similar but the maximum value of heat transfer at the bottom wall shows a variation from 3.8 to 20 when H a = 0 and from 3 to 18 when H a = 50 . The accuracy of the present numerical algorithms is also established.}, } @article {pmid33477950, year = {2021}, author = {Kim, GY and Son, J and Han, JI and Park, JK}, title = {Inertial Microfluidics-Based Separation of Microalgae Using a Contraction-Expansion Array Microchannel.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {33477950}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {NRF-2011-0031348//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; NRF-2019R1A2B5B03070494//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; }, abstract = {Microalgae separation technology is essential for both executing laboratory-based fundamental studies and ensuring the quality of the final algal products. However, the conventional microalgae separation technology of micropipetting requires highly skilled operators and several months of repeated separation to obtain a microalgal single strain. This study therefore aimed at utilizing microfluidic cell sorting technology for the simple and effective separation of microalgae. Microalgae are characterized by their various morphologies with a wide range of sizes. In this study, a contraction-expansion array microchannel, which utilizes these unique properties of microalgae, was specifically employed for the size-based separation of microalgae. At Reynolds number of 9, two model algal cells, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis), were successfully separated without showing any sign of cell damage, yielding a purity of 97.9% for C. vulgaris and 94.9% for H. pluvialis. The result supported that the inertia-based separation technology could be a powerful alternative to the labor-intensive and time-consuming conventional microalgae separation technologies.}, } @article {pmid33465973, year = {2020}, author = {Liu, C and Gayme, DF}, title = {Input-output inspired method for permissible perturbation amplitude of transitional wall-bounded shear flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {6-1}, pages = {063108}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.063108}, pmid = {33465973}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The precise set of parameters governing transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows remains an open question; many theoretical bounds have been obtained, but there is not yet a consensus between these bounds and experimental or simulation results. In this work, we focus on a method to provide a provable Reynolds-number-dependent bound on the amplitude of perturbations a flow can sustain while maintaining the laminar state. Our analysis relies on an input-output approach that partitions the dynamics into a feedback interconnection of the linear and nonlinear dynamics (i.e., a Luré system that represents the nonlinearity as static feedback). We then construct quadratic constraints of the nonlinear term that is restricted by system physics to be energy-conserving (lossless) and to have bounded input-output energy. Computing the region of attraction of the laminar state (set of safe perturbations) and permissible perturbation amplitude are then reformulated as linear matrix inequalities, which allows more computationally efficient solutions than prevailing nonlinear approaches based on the sum of squares programming. The proposed framework can also be used for energy method computations and linear stability analysis. We apply our approach to low-dimensional nonlinear shear flow models for a range of Reynolds numbers. The results from our analytically derived bounds are consistent with the bounds identified through exhaustive simulations. However, they have the added benefit of being achieved at a much lower computational cost and providing a provable guarantee that a certain level of perturbation is permissible.}, } @article {pmid33462593, year = {2021}, author = {Shaheen, S and Anwar Bég, O and Gul, F and Maqbool, K}, title = {Electro-Osmotic Propulsion of Jeffrey Fluid in a Ciliated Channel Under the Effect of Nonlinear Radiation and Heat Source/Sink.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, volume = {143}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1115/1.4049810}, pmid = {33462593}, issn = {1528-8951}, abstract = {Mathematical modeling of mechanical system in microfluidics is an emerging area of interest in microscale engineering. Since microfluidic devices use the hair-like structure of artificial cilia for pumping, mixing, and sensing in different fields, electro-osmotic cilia-driven flow helps to generate the fluid velocity for the Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. Due to the deployment of artificial ciliated walls, the present research reports the combined effect of an electro-osmotic flow and convective heat transfer on Jeffrey viscoelastic electrolytic fluid flow in a two-dimensional ciliated vertical channel. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects are included in the present mathematical model. After applying Debye-Huckel approximation and small Reynolds number approximation to momentum and energy equation, the system of nonlinear partial differential equation is reduced into nonhomogenous boundary value problem. The problem determines the velocity, pressure, and temperature profiles by the application of semi-analytical technique known as homotopy perturbation method (HPM) with the help of software Mathematica. The graphical results of the study suggest that HPM is a reliable methodology for thermo physical electro-osmotic rheological transport in microchannels.}, } @article {pmid33450503, year = {2021}, author = {Javid, K and Riaz, M and Chu, YM and Ijaz Khan, M and Ullah Khan, S and Kadry, S}, title = {Peristaltic activity for electro-kinetic complex driven cilia transportation through a non-uniform channel.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {200}, number = {}, pages = {105926}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105926}, pmid = {33450503}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Body Fluids ; *Cilia ; Kinetics ; Peristalsis ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {MOTIVATIONS: Now-a-days in medical science, the transport study of biological fluids through non-uniform vessels are going to increase due to their close relation to the reality. Motivated through such type of complex transportation, the current study is presented of cilia hydro-dynamics of an aqueous electrolytic viscous fluid through a non-uniform channel under an applied axial electric field. Mathematical Formulations: Because of the complexity shape and nature of flow channel, we have used curvilinear coordinates in the derivation of continuity and momentum equationsin a fixed frame of reference. A linear transformation is used to renovate the flow system of equations from fixed (laboratory) to moving (wave) frame. For further simplification, the dimensionless variables are introduced to make the flow system of equations into the dimensionless form and at last convert these equations in term of stream function by using the mathematical terminologies of streamlines. The whole analysis is performed under (low Reynolds number) creeping phenomena and long wavelength approximation, respectively. Additionally, small ionic Peclet number and Debye-Huckel linearization are used to simplify the Nernst-Planck and Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The BVP4C technique is used to obtain the numerical solution for velocity distribution, pressure gradient, pressure rise and stream function through MATLAB.

MAIN OUTCOMES: The amplitude of velocity distribution is increased (decreased) at larger values of non-uniform parameter (cilia length). The non-uniform parameter played a vital role not only in the enhancement of circulation at the upper half of the channel but also the length of bolus increased. Results of straight channel are gained for larger value of the dimensionless radius of curvature parameter as well as cilia length.}, } @article {pmid33449773, year = {2020}, author = {Pan, Z and Nunes, JK and Stone, HA}, title = {Regime Map and Triple Point in Selective Withdrawal.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {125}, number = {26}, pages = {264502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.264502}, pmid = {33449773}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Entrainment in selective withdrawal occurs when both the top and bottom phases are withdrawn through a capillary tube oriented perpendicular to a flat gravitationally separated liquid-liquid interface. The tube introduces two distinct features to the conditions for fluid entrainment. First, the ratio of the two phases being withdrawn is affected by the region of influence of the flow upstream of the tube's orifice. Second, a minimum withdrawal flow rate must be reached for entrainment regardless of the distance between the interface and the tube. We show that these phenomena can be understood based on the Reynolds number that governs the external flow field around the capillary tube and the capillary number that regulates the effect of the viscosity and capillarity.}, } @article {pmid33438620, year = {2020}, author = {Shit, GC and Bera, A}, title = {Mathematical model to verify the role of magnetic field on blood flow and its impact on thermal behavior of biological tissue for tumor treatment.}, journal = {Biomedical physics & engineering express}, volume = {6}, number = {1}, pages = {015032}, doi = {10.1088/2057-1976/ab6e22}, pmid = {33438620}, issn = {2057-1976}, abstract = {The numerical computation has been performed to study the effects of static magnetic field on thermal behavior of tumor surrounded by living biological tissues and blood vessels. A small rectangular shaped tumor enclosing the blood vessel surrounded by healthy tissue is considered. The model consists of two-layer composite system in which the microvessel for blood flow is considered as a fluid layer and the living biological tissue including tumor as a solid layer. The wave bioheat transfer equation in the tissue layer together with energy transport equation for blood flow layer has been used in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The analytical expression for blood velocity in the presence of magnetic field has been used from Gold's solution. The computational work has been performed by employing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method. A comparison has been made to validate our numerical results with the previous solution by setting some parameters. The temperature profiles have been plotted at different locations of the axial tissue length for various values of the Hartmann number, Prandtl number, Womersley number and Reynolds number. It is observed that the application of magnetic field increases heat transfer rate within tumor tissues which in turn attribute to an enhancement of temperature about 316 K or above for hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy.}, } @article {pmid33430317, year = {2021}, author = {Gnapowski, E and Pytka, J and Józwik, J and Laskowski, J and Michałowska, J}, title = {Wind Tunnel Testing of Plasma Actuator with Two Mesh Electrodes to Boundary Layer Control at High Angle of Attack.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {33430317}, issn = {1424-8220}, abstract = {The manuscript presents experimental research carried out on the wing model with the SD 7003 profile. A plasma actuator with DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge) discharges was placed on the wing surface to control boundary layer. The experimental tests were carried out in the AeroLab wind tunnel where the forces acting on the wing during the tests were measured. The conducted experimental research concerns the analysis of the phenomena that take place on the surface of the wing with the DBD plasma actuator turned off and on. The plasma actuator used during the experimental tests has a different structure compared to the classic plasma actuator. The commonly tested plasma actuator uses solid/impermeable electrodes, while in the research, the plasma actuator uses a new type of electrodes, two mesh electrodes separated by an impermeable Kapton dielectric. The experimental research was carried out for the angle of attack α = 15° and several air velocities V = 5-15 m/s with a step of 5 m/s for the Reynolds number Re = 87,500-262,500. The critical angle of attack at which the SD 7003 profile has the maximum lift coefficient is about 11°; during the experimental research, the angle was 15°. Despite the high angle of attack, it was possible to increase the lift coefficient. The use of a plasma actuator with two mesh electrodes allowed to increase the lift by 5%, even at a high angle of attack. During experimental research used high voltage power supply for powering the DBD plasma actuator in the voltage range from 7.5 to 15 kV.}, } @article {pmid33416336, year = {2020}, author = {Monsalve, E and Brunet, M and Gallet, B and Cortet, PP}, title = {Quantitative Experimental Observation of Weak Inertial-Wave Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {125}, number = {25}, pages = {254502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.254502}, pmid = {33416336}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We report the quantitative experimental observation of the weak inertial-wave turbulence regime of rotating turbulence. We produce a statistically steady homogeneous turbulent flow that consists of nonlinearly interacting inertial waves, using rough top and bottom boundaries to prevent the emergence of a geostrophic flow. As the forcing amplitude increases, the temporal spectrum evolves from a discrete set of peaks to a continuous spectrum. Maps of the bicoherence of the velocity field confirm such a gradual transition between discrete wave interactions at weak forcing amplitude and the regime described by weak turbulence theory (WTT) for stronger forcing. In the former regime, the bicoherence maps display a near-zero background level, together with sharp localized peaks associated with discrete resonances. By contrast, in the latter regime, the bicoherence is a smooth function that takes values of the order of the Rossby number in line with the infinite-domain and random-phase assumptions of WTT. The spatial spectra then display a power-law behavior, both the spectral exponent and the spectral level being accurately predicted by WTT at high Reynolds number and low Rossby number.}, } @article {pmid33404675, year = {2021}, author = {Klein, AK and Dietzel, A}, title = {A Primer on Microfluidics: From Basic Principles to Microfabrication.}, journal = {Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {33404675}, issn = {0724-6145}, abstract = {Microfluidic systems enable manipulating fluids in different functional units which are integrated on a microchip. This chapter describes the basics of microfluidics, where physical effects have a different impact compared to macroscopic systems. Furthermore, an overwiew is given on the microfabrication of these systems. The focus lies on clean-room fabrication methods based on photolithography and soft lithography. Finally, an outlook on advanced maskless micro- and nanofabrication methods is given. Special attention is paid to laser structuring processes.}, } @article {pmid33398321, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, W and Wen, Y and Fan, X and Sun, M and Tian, C and Yang, M and Xie, H}, title = {Magnetically actuated intelligent hydrogel-based child-parent microrobots for targeted drug delivery.}, journal = {Journal of materials chemistry. B}, volume = {9}, number = {4}, pages = {1030-1039}, doi = {10.1039/d0tb02384a}, pmid = {33398321}, issn = {2050-7518}, mesh = {Cells, Cultured ; Child ; Doxorubicin/*chemistry ; *Drug Delivery Systems ; Humans ; Hydrogels/*chemistry ; Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; Magnetic Phenomena ; Magnetite Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Particle Size ; *Robotics/instrumentation ; Surface Properties ; }, abstract = {Small intestine-targeted drug delivery by oral administration has aroused the growing interest of researchers. In this work, the child-parent microrobot (CPM) as a vehicle protects the child microrobots (CMs) under a gastric acid environment and releases them in the small intestinal environment. The intelligent hydrogel-based CPMs with sphere, mushroom, red blood cell, and teardrop shapes are fabricated by an extrusion-dripping method. The CPMs package uniform CMs, which are fabricated by designed microfluidic (MF) devices. The fabrication mechanism and tunability of CMs and CPMs with different sizes and shapes are analyzed, modeled, and simulated. The shape of CPM can affect its drug release efficiency and kinetic characteristics. A vision-feedback magnetic driving system (VMDS) actuates and navigates CPM along the predefined path to the destination and continuously releases drug in the simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, a low Reynolds number (Re) regime) using a new motion control method with the tracking-learning-detection (TLD) algorithm. The newly designed CPM combines the advantages of powerful propulsion, good biocompatibility, and remarkable drug loading and release capacity at the intestinal level, which is expected to be competent for oral administration of small intestine-targeted therapy in the future.}, } @article {pmid33396499, year = {2020}, author = {Avila, K and Hof, B}, title = {Second-Order Phase Transition in Counter-Rotating Taylor-Couette Flow Experiment.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {23}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {33396499}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {ZF04B /2019/FB04 Avila_Kerstin//Central Reserach Development Fund of the University of Bremen/ ; }, abstract = {In many basic shear flows, such as pipe, Couette, and channel flow, turbulence does not arise from an instability of the laminar state, and both dynamical states co-exist. With decreasing flow speed (i.e., decreasing Reynolds number) the fraction of fluid in laminar motion increases while turbulence recedes and eventually the entire flow relaminarizes. The first step towards understanding the nature of this transition is to determine if the phase change is of either first or second order. In the former case, the turbulent fraction would drop discontinuously to zero as the Reynolds number decreases while in the latter the process would be continuous. For Couette flow, the flow between two parallel plates, earlier studies suggest a discontinuous scenario. In the present study we realize a Couette flow between two concentric cylinders which allows studies to be carried out in large aspect ratios and for extensive observation times. The presented measurements show that the transition in this circular Couette geometry is continuous suggesting that former studies were limited by finite size effects. A further characterization of this transition, in particular its relation to the directed percolation universality class, requires even larger system sizes than presently available.}, } @article {pmid33362423, year = {2020}, author = {Elsinga, GE and Ishihara, T and Hunt, JCR}, title = {Extreme dissipation and intermittency in turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {476}, number = {2243}, pages = {20200591}, pmid = {33362423}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {Extreme dissipation events in turbulent flows are rare, but they can be orders of magnitude stronger than the mean dissipation rate. Despite its importance in many small-scale physical processes, there is presently no accurate theory or model for predicting the extrema as a function of the Reynolds number. Here, we introduce a new model for the dissipation probability density function (PDF) based on the concept of significant shear layers, which are thin regions of elevated local mean dissipation. At very high Reynolds numbers, these significant shear layers develop layered substructures. The flow domain is divided into the different layer regions and a background region, each with their own PDF of dissipation. The volume-weighted regional PDFs are combined to obtain the overall PDF, which is subsequently used to determine the dissipation variance and maximum. The model yields Reynolds number scalings for the dissipation maximum and variance, which are in agreement with the available data. Moreover, the power law scaling exponent is found to increase gradually with the Reynolds numbers, which is also consistent with the data. The increasing exponent is shown to have profound implications for turbulence at atmospheric and astrophysical Reynolds numbers. The present results strongly suggest that intermittent significant shear layer structures are key to understanding and quantifying the dissipation extremes, and, more generally, extreme velocity gradients.}, } @article {pmid33362112, year = {2021}, author = {Foo, CT and Unterberger, A and Menser, J and Mohri, K}, title = {Tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions.}, journal = {Optics express}, volume = {29}, number = {1}, pages = {244-255}, doi = {10.1364/OE.412048}, pmid = {33362112}, issn = {1094-4087}, abstract = {The method of tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions is presented. Measurements of the peak natural CH* chemiluminescence in the flame and luminescence from different vaporised alkali metal salts that were seeded in a multi-annulus burner were used. An array of 29 CCD cameras around the Cambridge-Sandia burner was deployed, with 3 sets of cameras each measuring a different colour channel using bandpass optical filters. The three-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged fields of the individual measured channels were reconstructed and superimposed for two new operating conditions, with differing cold flow Reynolds numbers. The contour of the reconstructed flame front followed the interface between the burnt side of the flame, where the alkali salt luminescence appears, and the cold gas region. The increased mixing between different reconstructed channels in the downstream direction that is promoted by the higher levels of turbulence in the larger Reynolds number case was clearly demonstrated. The TIMes method enabled combustion zones originating from different streams and the flame front to be distinguished and their overlap regions to be identified, in the entire volume.}, } @article {pmid33361564, year = {2021}, author = {Brum, J and Bernal, M and Barrere, N and Negreira, C and Cabeza, C}, title = {Vortex dynamics and transport phenomena in stenotic aortic models using Echo-PIV.}, journal = {Physics in medicine and biology}, volume = {66}, number = {5}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1361-6560/abd670}, pmid = {33361564}, issn = {1361-6560}, mesh = {Aortic Valve Stenosis/*diagnostic imaging/physiopathology ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Pulsatile Flow ; *Rheology ; Ultrasonography ; }, abstract = {Atherosclerosis is the most fatal cardiovascular disease. As disease progresses, stenoses grow inside the arteries blocking their lumen and altering blood flow. Analysing flow dynamics can provide a deeper insight on the stenosis evolution. In this work we combined Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptors to analyze blood flow dynamics and fluid transport in stenotic aortic models with morphology, mechanical and optical properties close to those of real arteries. To this end, vorticity, particle residence time (PRT), particle's final position (FP) and finite time Lyapunov's exponents (FTLE) were computed from the experimental fluid velocity fields acquired using ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo-PIV). For the experiments, CT-images were used to create morphological realistic models of the descending aorta with 0%, 35% and 50% occlusion degree with same mechanical properties as real arteries. Each model was connected to a circuit with a pulsatile programmable pump which mimics physiological flow and pressure conditions. The pulsatile frequency was set to ≈0.9 Hz (55 bpm) and the upstream peak Reynolds number (Re) was changed from 1100 to 2000. Flow in the post-stenotic region was composed of two main structures: a high velocity jet over the stenosis throat and a recirculation region behind the stenosis where vortex form and shed. We characterized vortex kinematics showing that vortex propagation velocity increases withRe. Moreover, from the FTLE field we identified Lagrangian coherent structures (i.e. material barriers) that dictate transport behind the stenosis. The size and strength of those barriers increased withReand the occlusion degree. Finally, from the PRT and FP maps, we showed that independently ofRe, the same amount of fluid remains on the stenosis over more than a pulsatile period.}, } @article {pmid33352968, year = {2020}, author = {Wu, CY and Lai, BH}, title = {Numerical Study of T-Shaped Micromixers with Vortex-Inducing Obstacles in the Inlet Channels.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {33352968}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {NSC 101 - 2221 - E - 006 - 108 - MY3//Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China on Taiwan/ ; }, abstract = {To enhance fluid mixing, a new approach for inlet flow modification by adding vortex-inducing obstacles (VIOs) in the inlet channels of a T-shaped micromixer is proposed and investigated in this work. We use a commercial computational fluid dynamics code to calculate the pressure and the velocity vectors and, to reduce the numerical diffusion in high-Peclet-number flows, we employ the particle-tracking simulation with an approximation diffusion model to calculate the concentration distribution in the micromixers. The effects of geometric parameters, including the distance between the obstacles and the angle of attack of the obstacles, on the mixing performance of micromixers are studied. From the results, we can observe the following trends: (i) the stretched contact surface between different fluids caused by antisymmetric VIOs happens for the cases with the Reynolds number (Re) greater than or equal to 27 and the enhancement of mixing increases with the increase of Reynolds number gradually, and (ii) the onset of the engulfment flow happens at Re≈125 in the T-shaped mixer with symmetric VIOs or at Re≈140 in the standard planar T-shaped mixer and results in a sudden increase of the degree of mixing. The results indicate that the early initiation of transversal convection by either symmetric or antisymmetric VIOs can enhance fluid mixing at a relatively lower Re.}, } @article {pmid33333847, year = {2020}, author = {Li, YH and Chen, SC}, title = {Propulsion Mechanism of Flexible Microbead Swimmers in the Low Reynolds Number Regime.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {33333847}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {MOST 107-2218-E-606-003-MY2 and MOST 109-2221-E-606-003//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; }, abstract = {A propulsion mechanism for a flexible microswimmer constructed from superparamagnetic microbeads with different diameters and subjected to an oscillating field was studied experimentally and theoretically herein. Various types of artificial swimmers with different bending patterns were fabricated to determine the flexibility and an effective waveform for a planar beating flagellum. Waveform evolutions for various swimmer configurations were studied to determine the flexible mechanism of the swimmers. A one-armed microswimmer can propel itself only if the friction of its wavelike body is anisotropic. A swimmer with a larger head and a stronger magnetic dipole moment with a flexible tail allows the bending wave to propagate from the head toward the tail to generate forward thrust. The oscillating head and tail do not simultaneously generate positive thrust all the time within a period of oscillation. To increase the propulsion for a bending swimmer, this study proposes a novel configuration for a microbead swimmer that ensures better swimming efficiency. The ratio of the oscillation amplitude of the head to the length of the swimmer (from 0.26 to 0.28) produces a faster swimmer. On the other hand, the swimmer is propelled more effectively if the ratio of the oscillation amplitude of the tail to the length of the swimmer is from 0.29 to 0.33. This study determined the optimal configuration for a flexible microbead swimmer that generates the greatest propulsion in a low Reynolds number environment.}, } @article {pmid33331388, year = {2021}, author = {Dou, Y and Tzelios, PM and Livitz, D and Bishop, KJM}, title = {Programmable topotaxis of magnetic rollers in time-varying fields.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {17}, number = {6}, pages = {1538-1547}, doi = {10.1039/d0sm01443e}, pmid = {33331388}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {We describe how spatially uniform, time-periodic magnetic fields can be designed to power and direct the migration of ferromagnetic spheres up (or down) local gradients in the topography of a solid substrate. Our results are based on a dynamical model that considers the time-varying magnetic torques on the particle and its motion through the fluid at low Reynolds number. We use both analytical theory and numerical simulation to design magnetic fields that maximize the migration velocity up (or down) an inclined plane. We show how "topotaxis" of spherical particles relies on differences in the hydrodynamic resistance to rotation about axes parallel and perpendicular to the plane. Importantly, the designed fields can drive multiple independent particles to move simultaneously in different directions as determined by gradients in their respective environments. Experiments on ferromagnetic spheres provide evidence for topotactic motions up inclined substrates. The ability to program the autonomous navigation of driven particles within anisotropic environments is relevant to the design of colloidal robots.}, } @article {pmid33327115, year = {2020}, author = {Slanina, F}, title = {Colloid particles in microfluidic inertial hydrodynamic ratchet at moderate Reynolds number.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {5-1}, pages = {052601}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.052601}, pmid = {33327115}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The movement of spherical Brownian particle carried by an alternating fluid flow in a tube of periodically variable diameter is investigated. On the basis of our previous results [Phys. Rev. E 99, 012604 (2019)10.1103/PhysRevE.99.012604] on the hydrodynamics of the problem, we look at the competition of hydrodynamics and diffusion. We use the method of Fick-Jacobs mapping on an effective one-dimensional problem. We calculate the ratchet current and show that is is strictly related to finite size of the particles. The ratchet current grows quadratically with particle radius. We also show that the dominant contribution to the ratchet current is due to inertial hydrodynamic effects. This means that Reynolds number must be at least of order one. We discuss the possible use for separation of particles by size and perspectives of optimization of the tube shape.}, } @article {pmid33325030, year = {2021}, author = {Turon, V and Ollivier, S and Cwicklinski, G and Willison, JC and Anxionnaz-Minvielle, Z}, title = {H2 production by photofermentation in an innovative plate-type photobioreactor with meandering channels.}, journal = {Biotechnology and bioengineering}, volume = {118}, number = {3}, pages = {1342-1354}, doi = {10.1002/bit.27656}, pmid = {33325030}, issn = {1097-0290}, abstract = {Hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus is an anaerobic, photobiological process requiring specific mixing conditions. In this study, an innovative design of a photobioreactor is proposed. The design is based on a plate-type photobioreactor with an interconnected meandering channel to allow culture mixing and H2 degassing. The culture flow was characterized as a quasi-plug-flow with radial mixing caused by a turbulent-like regime achieved at a low Reynolds number. The dissipated volumetric power was decreased 10-fold while maintaining PBR performances (production and yields) when compared with a magnetically stirred tank reactor. To increase hydrogen production flow rate, several bacterial concentrations were tested by increasing the glutamate concentration using fed-batch cultures. The maximum hydrogen production flow rate (157.7 ± 9.3 ml H2 /L/h) achieved is one of the highest values so far reported for H2 production by R. capsulatus. These first results are encouraging for future scale-up of the plate-type reactor.}, } @article {pmid33322374, year = {2020}, author = {Liu, J and Xiao, Y and Li, M and Tao, J and Xu, S}, title = {Intermittency, Moments, and Friction Coefficient during the Subcritical Transition of Channel Flow.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {33322374}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {91752203, 11772173, 11490553//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {The intermittent distribution of localized turbulent structures is a key feature of the subcritical transitions in channel flows, which are studied in this paper with a wind channel and theoretical modeling. Entrance disturbances are introduced by small beads, and localized turbulent patches can be triggered at low Reynolds numbers (Re). High turbulence intensity represents strong ability of perturbation spread, and a maximum turbulence intensity is found for every test case as Re ≥ 950, where the turbulence fraction increases abruptly with Re. Skewness can reflect the velocity defects of localized turbulent patches and is revealed to become negative when Re is as low as about 660. It is shown that the third-order moments of the midplane streamwise velocities have minima, while the corresponding forth-order moments have maxima during the transition. These kinematic extremes and different variation scenarios of the friction coefficient during the transition are explained with an intermittent structure model, where the robust localized turbulent structure is simplified as a turbulence unit, a structure whose statistical properties are only weak functions of the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid33289747, year = {2021}, author = {Yang, PJ and Lee, AB and Chan, M and Kowalski, M and Qiu, K and Waid, C and Cervantes, G and Magondu, B and Biagioni, M and Vogelnest, L and Martin, A and Edwards, A and Carver, S and Hu, DL}, title = {Intestines of non-uniform stiffness mold the corners of wombat feces.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {17}, number = {3}, pages = {475-488}, doi = {10.1039/d0sm01230k}, pmid = {33289747}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {Animals ; Australia ; Feces ; Fungi ; Intestines ; *Marsupialia ; }, abstract = {The bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) is a fossorial, herbivorous, Australian marsupial, renowned for its cubic feces. However, the ability of the wombat's soft intestine to sculpt flat faces and sharp corners in feces is poorly understood. In this combined experimental and numerical study, we show one mechanism for the formation of corners in a highly damped environment. Wombat dissections show that cubes are formed within the last 17 percent of the intestine. Using histology and tensile testing, we discover that the cross-section of the intestine exhibits regions with a two-fold increase in thickness and a four-fold increase in stiffness, which we hypothesize facilitates the formation of corners by contractions of the intestine. Using a mathematical model, we simulate a series of azimuthal contractions of a damped elastic ring composed of alternating stiff and soft regions. Increased stiffness ratio and higher Reynolds number yield shapes that are more square. The corners arise from faster contraction in the stiff regions and relatively slower movement in the center of the soft regions. These results may have applications in manufacturing, clinical pathology, and digestive health.}, } @article {pmid33286895, year = {2020}, author = {Agrawal, R and Ng, HC and Davis, EA and Park, JS and Graham, MD and Dennis, DJC and Poole, RJ}, title = {Low- and High-Drag Intermittencies in Turbulent Channel Flows.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {33286895}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {FA9550-16-1-0076//Air Force Office of Scientific Research/ ; FA9550-18-1-0174//Air Force Office of Scientific Research/ ; OIA-1832976//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments in turbulent channel flow have found intermittent low- and high-drag events in Newtonian fluid flows, at Reτ=uτh/ν between 70 and 100, where uτ, h and ν are the friction velocity, channel half-height and kinematic viscosity, respectively. These intervals of low-drag and high-drag have been termed "hibernating" and "hyperactive", respectively, and in this paper, a further investigation of these intermittent events is conducted using experimental and numerical techniques. For experiments, simultaneous measurements of wall shear stress and velocity are carried out in a channel flow facility using hot-film anemometry (HFA) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively, for Reτ between 70 and 250. For numerical simulations, DNS of a channel flow is performed in an extended domain at Reτ = 70 and 85. These intermittent events are selected by carrying out conditional sampling of the wall shear stress data based on a combined threshold magnitude and time-duration criteria. The use of three different scalings (so-called outer, inner and mixed) for the time-duration criterion for the conditional events is explored. It is found that if the time-duration criterion is kept constant in inner units, the frequency of occurrence of these conditional events remain insensitive to Reynolds number. There exists an exponential distribution of frequency of occurrence of the conditional events with respect to their duration, implying a potentially memoryless process. An explanation for the presence of a spike (or dip) in the ensemble-averaged wall shear stress data before and after the low-drag (or high-drag) events is investigated. During the low-drag events, the conditionally-averaged streamwise velocities get closer to Virk's maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, near the wall, for all Reynolds numbers studied. Reynolds shear stress (RSS) characteristics during these conditional events are investigated for Reτ = 70 and 85. Except very close to the wall, the conditionally-averaged RSS is higher than the time-averaged value during the low-drag events.}, } @article {pmid33286770, year = {2020}, author = {Kashyap, PV and Duguet, Y and Dauchot, O}, title = {Flow Statistics in the Transitional Regime of Plane Channel Flow.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {33286770}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The transitional regime of plane channel flow is investigated above the transitional point below which turbulence is not sustained, using direct numerical simulation in large domains. Statistics of laminar-turbulent spatio-temporal intermittency are reported. The geometry of the pattern is first characterized, including statistics for the angles of the laminar-turbulent stripes observed in this regime, with a comparison to experiments. High-order statistics of the local and instantaneous bulk velocity, wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy are then provided. The distributions of the two former quantities have non-trivial shapes, characterized by a large kurtosis and/or skewness. Interestingly, we observe a strong linear correlation between their kurtosis and their skewness squared, which is usually reported at much higher Reynolds number in the fully turbulent regime.}, } @article {pmid33286441, year = {2020}, author = {Lee, T}, title = {Lognormality in Turbulence Energy Spectra.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {33286441}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The maximum entropy principle states that the energy distribution will tend toward a state of maximum entropy under the physical constraints, such as the zero energy at the boundaries and a fixed total energy content. For the turbulence energy spectra, a distribution function that maximizes entropy with these physical constraints is a lognormal function due to its asymmetrical descent to zero energy at the boundary lengths scales. This distribution function agrees quite well with the experimental data over a wide range of energy and length scales. For turbulent flows, this approach is effective since the energy and length scales are determined primarily by the Reynolds number. The total turbulence kinetic energy will set the height of the distribution, while the ratio of length scales will determine the width. This makes it possible to reconstruct the power spectra using the Reynolds number as a parameter.}, } @article {pmid33286423, year = {2020}, author = {Wang, R and Xie, Z and Yin, Y and Chen, L}, title = {Constructal Design of Elliptical Cylinders with Heat Generating for Entropy Generation Minimization.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e22060651}, pmid = {33286423}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {51579244//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {A heat dissipation model of discrete elliptical cylinders with heat generation on a thermal conduction pedestal cooled by forced convection is established. Constructal design is conducted numerically by taking the distributions of thermal conductivity and heat generating intensity as design variables, the dimensionless entropy generation rate (DEGR) as performance indicator. The optimal designs for discrete elliptical cylinders with heat generating are obtained respectively, i.e., there are optimal distributions of heat generating intensity with its fixed total amount of heat sources, and there are optimal distributions of thermal conductivity with its fixed total amount of heat sources. These optimums for minimum DEGRs are different at different Reynolds numbers of airflow. The heat generating intensity can be decreased one by one appropriately in the fluid flow direction to achieve the best effect. When the Reynolds number of airflow is smaller, the thermal conductivity of heat source can be increased one by one appropriately in the fluid flow direction to achieve the best effect; when the Reynolds number of airflow is larger, the thermal conductivity of each heat source should be equalized to achieve the best effect. The results can give thermal design guidelines for the practical heat generating devices with different materials and heat generating intensities.}, } @article {pmid33285959, year = {2020}, author = {Yu, S and Tang, T and Li, J and Yu, P}, title = {Effect of Prandtl Number on Mixed Convective Heat Transfer from a Porous Cylinder in the Steady Flow Regime.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {2}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e22020184}, pmid = {33285959}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {11672124//the National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; ZDSYS201802081843517//Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Complex Aerospace Flows/ ; KQTD2016022620054656//the Shenzhen Peacock Plan/ ; }, abstract = {The effect of the Prandtl number (Pr) on the flow and heat transfer from a porous circular cylinder with internal heat generation in the mixed convection regime is numerically investigated. The steady flow regime is considered over the ranges of the Reynolds number (Re), Darcy number (Da), and Richardson number (Ri), varying from 5 to 40, 10-6 to 10-2, and 0 to 2, respectively. The wake structure, the temperature distribution, and the heat transfer rate are discussed. Besides precipitating the growth of the recirculating wake, the Prandtl number is found to have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics. The concave isotherms, resembling a saddle-shaped structure, occur behind the cylinder at larger Pr, resulting in swells of the isotherms pairing off at the lateral sides. These swells are found to have a negative effect on heat transfer owing to a relatively smaller temperature gradient there. Then, the heat transfer rate in terms of the local Nusselt number (Nu) and enhancement ratio (Er) is calculated, which is closely related to Pr, Re, Da, and Ri. The local minimum heat transfer rate along the cylinder surface is found at the position where the swells of the isotherms form.}, } @article {pmid33285875, year = {2020}, author = {Deriszadeh, A and de Monte, F}, title = {On Heat Transfer Performance of Cooling Systems Using Nanofluid for Electric Motor Applications.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e22010099}, pmid = {33285875}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {This paper studies the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids as advance coolants for the cooling system of electric motors. Investigations are carried out using numerical analysis for a cooling system with spiral channels. To solve the governing equations, computational fluid dynamics and 3D fluid motion analysis are used. The base fluid is water with a laminar flow. The fluid Reynolds number and turn-number of spiral channels are evaluation parameters. The effect of nanoparticles volume fraction in the base fluid on the heat transfer performance of the cooling system is studied. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles leads to improving the heat transfer performance of the cooling system. On the other hand, a high-volume fraction of the nanofluid increases the pressure drop of the coolant fluid and increases the required pumping power. This paper aims at finding a trade-off between effective parameters by studying both fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of the nanofluid.}, } @article {pmid33285793, year = {2019}, author = {Rasool, G and Zhang, T and Chamkha, AJ and Shafiq, A and Tlili, I and Shahzadi, G}, title = {Entropy Generation and Consequences of Binary Chemical Reaction on MHD Darcy-Forchheimer Williamson Nanofluid Flow Over Non-Linearly Stretching Surface.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {33285793}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {11771389 and 11621101//The National Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {The current article aims to present a numerical analysis of MHD Williamson nanofluid flow maintained to flow through porous medium bounded by a non-linearly stretching flat surface. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to analyze the fluid flow, heat and mass transport as well as the aspects of entropy generation using Buongiorno model. Thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion is considered which appears due to the concentration and random motion of nanoparticles in base fluid, respectively. Uniform magnetic effect is induced but the assumption of tiny magnetic Reynolds number results in zero magnetic induction. The governing equations (PDEs) are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriately adjusted transformations. The numerical method is used for solving the so-formulated highly nonlinear problem. The graphical presentation of results highlights that the heat flux receives enhancement for augmented Brownian diffusion. The Bejan number is found to be increasing with a larger Weissenberg number. The tabulated results for skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are given. A decent agreement is noted in the results when compared with previously published literature on Williamson nanofluids.}, } @article {pmid33285790, year = {2019}, author = {Xu, L and Xiong, Y and Xi, L and Gao, J and Li, Y and Zhao, Z}, title = {Numerical Simulation of Swirling Impinging Jet Issuing from a Threaded Hole under Inclined Condition.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {1}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e22010015}, pmid = {33285790}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {51876157//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 2018A030313183//Guangdong Natural Science Foundation/ ; xjj2018044//special fund for basic scientific research business expenses of Central Universities/ ; }, abstract = {There are some inclined jet holes in the cooling structure of the leading edge region of gas turbine blades. In order to improve the cooling effect of traditional round holes, this paper proposes to replace the round holes with threaded holes, and studies the complex flow and heat transfer performance of the swirling impinging jet (SIJ) issuing from the 45° threaded holes in the inclined condition by numerical simulation. The influencing factors include jet inclination angle α (45°-90°), jet-to-plate distance (H/d = 2, 4, 6), and Reynolds number (6000-24,000). The results show that the inclination angle and jet-to-plate distance have a great influence on the size, shape, and position of vortices in the jet space, while the Reynolds number has little effect on the vortices. In the inclined state, the impinging cooling effect of the swirling impinging jet is better than that of the circular impinging jet (CIJ), both heat transfer coefficients will degrade significantly when the inclination angle is 45°. When the inclination angle is greater than 45°, compared with the round hole, the enhanced heat transfer region for the swirling jet is in the region of r/d < 3, while both of the Nusselt numbers in the wall jet region are weak, with a value of just 20. At the same time, with the increasing of the inclination angle (α > 45°), the average Nusselt number on target surface holds a constant value. Under the inclined conditions, the heat transfer coefficient on the target surface for the swirling jet is increased totally with the increasing of the Re, but when the Re is larger than 18,000, the rate of enhanced heat transfer gradually weakens.}, } @article {pmid33285453, year = {2021}, author = {Maurer, L and Villette, C and Reiminger, N and Jurado, X and Laurent, J and Nuel, M and Mosé, R and Wanko, A and Heintz, D}, title = {Distribution and degradation trend of micropollutants in a surface flow treatment wetland revealed by 3D numerical modelling combined with LC-MS/MS.}, journal = {Water research}, volume = {190}, number = {}, pages = {116672}, doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2020.116672}, pmid = {33285453}, issn = {1879-2448}, mesh = {Chromatography, Liquid ; Tandem Mass Spectrometry ; Waste Disposal, Fluid ; Waste Water/analysis ; *Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis ; *Wetlands ; }, abstract = {Conventional wastewater treatment plants are not designed to treat micropollutants; thus, for 20 years, several complementary treatment systems, such as surface flow wetlands have been used to address this issue. Previous studies demonstrate that higher residence time and low global velocities promote nutrient removal rates or micropollutant photodegradation. Nevertheless, these studies were restricted to the system limits (inlet/outlet). Therefore, detailed knowledge of water flow is crucial for identifying areas that promote degradation and optimise surface flow wetlands. The present study combines 3D water flow numerical modelling and liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). Using this numerical model, validated by tracer experimental data, several velocity areas were distinguished in the wetland. Four areas were selected to investigate the waterflow influence and led to the following results: on the one hand, the number and concentration of micropollutants are independent of the waterflow, which could be due to several assumptions, such as the chronic exposure associated with a low Reynolds number; on the other hand, the potential degradation products (metabolites) were also assessed in the sludge to investigate the micropollutant biodegradation processes occurring in the wetland; micropollutant metabolites or degradation products were detected in higher proportions (both number and concentration) in lower flow rate areas. The relation to higher levels of plant and microorganism metabolites suggests higher biological activity that promotes degradation.}, } @article {pmid33268359, year = {2020}, author = {Milana, E and Zhang, R and Vetrano, MR and Peerlinck, S and De Volder, M and Onck, PR and Reynaerts, D and Gorissen, B}, title = {Metachronal patterns in artificial cilia for low Reynolds number fluid propulsion.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {6}, number = {49}, pages = {}, pmid = {33268359}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Cilia are hair-like organelles, present in arrays that collectively beat to generate flow. Given their small size and consequent low Reynolds numbers, asymmetric motions are necessary to create a net flow. Here, we developed an array of six soft robotic cilia, which are individually addressable, to both mimic nature's symmetry-breaking mechanisms and control asymmetries to study their influence on fluid propulsion. Our experimental tests are corroborated with fluid dynamics simulations, where we find a good agreement between both and show how the kymographs of the flow are related to the phase shift of the metachronal waves. Compared to synchronous beating, we report a 50% increase of net flow speed when cilia move in an antiplectic wave with phase shift of -π/3 and a decrease for symplectic waves. Furthermore, we observe the formation of traveling vortices in the direction of the wave when metachrony is applied.}, } @article {pmid33266252, year = {2020}, author = {Morimatsu, H and Tsukahara, T}, title = {Laminar-Turbulent Intermittency in Annular Couette-Poiseuille Flow: Whether a Puff Splits or Not.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {22}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {33266252}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {16H06066, 19H02071//Japan Society for the Promotion of Science/ ; }, abstract = {Direct numerical simulations were carried out with an emphasis on the intermittency and localized turbulence structure occurring within the subcritical transitional regime of a concentric annular Couette-Poiseuille flow. In the annular system, the ratio of the inner to outer cylinder radius is an important geometrical parameter affecting the large-scale nature of the intermittency. We chose a low radius ratio of 0.1 and imposed a constant pressure gradient providing practically zero shear on the inner cylinder such that the base flow was approximated to that of a circular pipe flow. Localized turbulent puffs, that is, axial uni-directional intermittencies similar to those observed in the transitional circular pipe flow, were observed in the annular Couette-Poiseuille flow. Puff splitting events were clearly observed rather far from the global critical Reynolds number, near which given puffs survived without a splitting event throughout the observation period, which was as long as 104 outer time units. The characterization as a directed-percolation universal class was also discussed.}, } @article {pmid33252039, year = {2020}, author = {Asadzadeh, SS and Kiørboe, T and Larsen, PS and Leys, SP and Yahel, G and Walther, JH}, title = {Hydrodynamics of sponge pumps and evolution of the sponge body plan.}, journal = {eLife}, volume = {9}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {33252039}, issn = {2050-084X}, support = {7014-00033B//Danish council for Independent Research/International ; 9278//Villum Fonden/International ; 2016-05446//NSERC/International ; }, mesh = {Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Hydrodynamics ; Porifera/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Sponges are suspension feeders that filter vast amounts of water. Pumping is carried out by flagellated chambers that are connected to an inhalant and exhalant canal system. In 'leucon' sponges with relatively high-pressure resistance due to a complex and narrow canal system, pumping and filtering are only possible owing to the presence of a gasket-like structure (forming a canopy above the collar filters). Here, we combine numerical and experimental work and demonstrate how sponges that lack such sealing elements are able to efficiently pump and force the flagella-driven flow through their collar filter, thanks to the formation of a 'hydrodynamic gasket' above the collar. Our findings link the architecture of flagellated chambers to that of the canal system, and lend support to the current view that the sponge aquiferous system evolved from an open-type filtration system, and that the first metazoans were filter feeders.}, } @article {pmid33244217, year = {2020}, author = {Arumuru, V and Pasa, J and Samantaray, SS}, title = {Experimental visualization of sneezing and efficacy of face masks and shields.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {32}, number = {11}, pages = {115129}, pmid = {33244217}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {In the present work, we propose and demonstrate a simple experimental visualization to simulate sneezing by maintaining dynamic similarity to actual sneezing. A pulsed jet with Reynolds number Re = 30 000 is created using compressed air and a solenoid valve. Tracer particles are introduced in the flow to capture the emulated turbulent jet formed due to a sneeze. The visualization is accomplished using a camera and laser illumination. It is observed that a typical sneeze can travel up to 25 ft in ∼22 s in a quiescent environment. This highlights that the present widely accepted safe distance of 6 ft is highly underestimated, especially under the act of a sneeze. Our study demonstrates that a three-layer homemade mask is just adequate to impede the penetration of fine-sized particles, which may cause the spreading of the infectious pathogen responsible for COVID-19. However, a surgical mask cannot block the sneeze, and the sneeze particle can travel up to 2.5 ft. We strongly recommend using at least a three-layer homemade mask with a social distancing of 6 ft to combat the transmission of COVID-19 virus. In offices, we recommend the use of face masks and shields to prevent the spreading of droplets carrying the infectious pathogen. Interestingly, an N-95 mask blocks the sneeze in the forward direction; however, the leakage from the sides and top spreads the sneeze in the backward direction up to 2 ft. We strongly recommend using the elbow or hands to prevent droplet leakage even after wearing a mask during sneezing and coughing.}, } @article {pmid33244213, year = {2020}, author = {Mallik, AK and Mukherjee, S and Panchagnula, MV}, title = {An experimental study of respiratory aerosol transport in phantom lung bronchioles.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {32}, number = {11}, pages = {111903}, pmid = {33244213}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {The transport and deposition of micrometer-sized particles in the lung is the primary mechanism for the spread of aerosol borne diseases such as corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19). Considering the current situation, modeling the transport and deposition of drops in human lung bronchioles is of utmost importance to determine their consequences on human health. The current study reports experimental observations on deposition in micro-capillaries, representing distal lung bronchioles, over a wide range of Re that imitates the particle dynamics in the entire lung. The experiment investigated deposition in tubes of diameter ranging from 0.3 mm to 2 mm and over a wide range of Reynolds number (10-2 ⩽ Re ⩽ 103). The range of the tube diameter and Re used in this study is motivated by the dimensions of lung airways and typical breathing flow rates. The aerosol fluid was loaded with boron doped carbon quantum dots as fluorophores. An aerosol plume was generated from this mixture fluid using an ultrasonic nebulizer, producing droplets with 6.5 µm as a mean diameter and over a narrow distribution of sizes. The amount of aerosol deposited on the tube walls was measured using a spectrofluorometer. The experimental results show that dimensionless deposition (δ) varies inversely with the bronchiole aspect ratio (L ¯), with the effect of the Reynolds number (Re) being significant only at low L ¯ . δ also increased with increasing dimensionless bronchiole diameter (D ¯), but it is invariant with the particle size based Reynolds number. We show that δ L ¯ ∼ R e - 2 for 10-2 ⩽ Re ⩽ 1, which is typical of a diffusion dominated regime. For Re ⩾ 1, in the impaction dominated regime, δ L ¯ is shown to be independent of Re. We also show a crossover regime where sedimentation becomes important. The experimental results conclude that lower breathing frequency and higher breath hold time could significantly increase the chances of getting infected with COVID-19 in crowded places.}, } @article {pmid33220061, year = {2020}, author = {Battista, NA}, title = {Diving into a Simple Anguilliform Swimmer's Sensitivity.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {1236-1250}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa131}, pmid = {33220061}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Computational models of aquatic locomotion range from modest individual simple swimmers in 2D to sophisticated 3D multi-swimmer models that attempt to parse collective behavioral dynamics. Each of these models contain a multitude of model input parameters to which its outputs are inherently dependent, that is, various performance metrics. In this work, the swimming performance's sensitivity to parameters is investigated for an idealized, simple anguilliform swimming model in 2D. The swimmer considered here propagates forward by dynamically varying its body curvature, similar to motion of a Caenorhabditis elegans. The parameter sensitivities were explored with respect to the fluid scale (Reynolds number), stroke (undulation) frequency, as well as a kinematic parameter controlling the velocity and acceleration of each upstroke and downstroke. The input Reynolds number and stroke frequencies sampled were from [450, 2200] and [1, 3] Hz, respectively. In total, 5000 fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed, each with a unique parameter combination selected via a Sobol sequence, in order to conduct global sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the swimmer's performance is most sensitive to variations in its stroke frequency. Trends in swimming performance were discovered by projecting the performance data onto particular 2D subspaces. Pareto-like optimal fronts were identified. This work is a natural extension of the parameter explorations of the same model from Battista in 2020.}, } @article {pmid33212661, year = {2020}, author = {Gungor, A and Hemmati, A}, title = {Wake symmetry impacts the performance of tandem hydrofoils during in-phase and out-of-phase oscillations differently.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043104}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.043104}, pmid = {33212661}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The hydrodynamics of two oscillating foils in side-by-side configuration is numerically investigated for in-phase and out-of-phase pitching at Reynolds number of 4000 and Strouhal numbers of St=0.25-0.5. The effects of phase difference (in-phase and out-of-phase) and Strouhal number on symmetric attributes of the wake and unsteady propulsive performance of the foils are studied in detail. At lower Strouhal numbers, there is a quasisteady performance in both thrust generation and power consumption, which coincides with persistence of the wake symmetry. As Strouhal number increases, however, in-phase and out-of-phase pitching display unsteady cycle-averaged behavior with very different wake characteristics. The asymmetric wake of in-phase pitching foils at high Strouhal numbers transitions to a quasisymmetric wake, when an extensive interaction between the two vortex streets is observed in the wake. This coincides with an improvement on the propulsive performance of the foils. In contrast, the symmetric wake of the out-of-phase pitching foils at a high Strouhal number transitions to an asymmetric wake. The adverse effect of this transition is only observed on the propulsive performance of one foil while the other exploits the wake towards a better performance. The collective performance of the the out-of-phase pitching system, however, remains unchanged. There is also a strong correlation between the wake symmetric characteristics and total nonzero side-force production.}, } @article {pmid33212599, year = {2020}, author = {Inubushi, M and Goto, S}, title = {Transfer learning for nonlinear dynamics and its application to fluid turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043301}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.043301}, pmid = {33212599}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We introduce transfer learning for nonlinear dynamics, which enables efficient predictions of chaotic dynamics by utilizing a small amount of data. For the Lorenz chaos, by optimizing the transfer rate, we accomplish more accurate inference than the conventional method by an order of magnitude. Moreover, a surprisingly small amount of learning is enough to infer the energy dissipation rate of the Navier-Stokes turbulence because we can, thanks to the small-scale universality of turbulence, transfer a large amount of the knowledge learned from turbulence data at lower Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid33211148, year = {2021}, author = {Ikoma, T and Suwa, K and Sano, M and Ushio, T and Saotome, M and Ogawa, N and Satoh, H and Maekawa, Y}, title = {Early changes of pulmonary arterial hemodynamics in patients with systemic sclerosis: flow pattern, WSS, and OSI analysis with 4D flow MRI.}, journal = {European radiology}, volume = {31}, number = {6}, pages = {4253-4263}, pmid = {33211148}, issn = {1432-1084}, support = {26461065//Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology/ ; }, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; *Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging ; *Scleroderma, Systemic/complications/diagnostic imaging ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To study the pulmonary artery (PA) hemodynamics in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using 4D flow MRI (4D-flow).

METHODS: Twenty-three patients with SSc (M/F: 2/21, 57 ± 15 years, 3 manifest PA hypertension (PAH) by right heart catheterization) and 10 control subjects (M/F: 1/9, 55 ± 17 years) underwent 4D-flow for the in vivo measurement of 3D blood flow velocities in the PA. Data analysis included area-averaged flow quantification at the main PA, 3D wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) calculation along the PA surface, and Reynolds number. The composite outcome of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events was also investigated.

RESULTS: The maximum PA flow at the systole did not differ, but the minimum flow at the diastole was significantly greater in patients with SSc compared with that in control subjects (7.7 ± 16.0 ml/s vs. ‑ 13.0 ± 17.3 ml/s, p < 0.01). The maximum WSS at the peak systole was significantly lower and OSI was significantly greater in patients with SSc compared with those in control subjects (maximum WSS: 1.04 ± 0.20 Pa vs. 1.33 ± 0.34 Pa, p < 0.01, OSI: 0.139 ± 0.031 vs. 0.101 ± 0.037, p < 0.01). The cumulative event-free rate for the composite event was significantly lower in patients with minimum flow in main PA ≤ 9.22 ml/s (p = 0.012) and in patients with Reynolds number ≤ 2560 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: 4D-flow has the potential to detect changes of PA hemodynamics noninvasively and predict the outcome in patients with SSc at the stage before manifest PAH.

KEY POINTS: • The WSS at the peak systolic phase was significantly lower (p < 0.05), whereas OSI was greater (p < 0.01) in patients with SSc without manifest PAH than in controls. • The hemodynamic change detected by 4D-flow may help patient management even at the stage before manifest PAH in SSc. • The minimum PA flow and Reynolds number by 4D-flow will serve as a predictive marker for SSc.}, } @article {pmid33201951, year = {2021}, author = {Lochab, V and Prakash, S}, title = {Combined electrokinetic and shear flows control colloidal particle distribution across microchannel cross-sections.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {17}, number = {3}, pages = {611-620}, pmid = {33201951}, issn = {1744-6848}, support = {P30 CA016058/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ; R01 HL141941/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Recent experimental observations on combined electrokinetic and shear flows of colloidal suspensions in rectangular cross-section microfluidic channels have shown unusual cross-stream colloidal particle migration and dynamic assembly. Although a new electrophoresis-induced lift force has been postulated to cause the lateral migration of colloidal particles, little is known about how fluid properties and flow conditions impact this force and therefore subsequent colloidal particle migration. Furthermore, no experimental quantification of this electrophoresis-induced lift force is available. We report several key advances by demonstrating that the kinematic viscosity of the fluid can be used to modulate the spatial distribution of particles over the entire microchannel cross-section, with suppression of the colloidal particle migration observed with increase in fluid kinematic viscosity. Colloidal particle migration of ∼10 μm from not only the top and bottom microchannel walls but also from the side walls is shown with the corresponding electrophoresis-induced lift force of up to ∼30 fN. The breadth of flow conditions tested capture the channel Reynolds number in the 0.1-1.1 range, with inertial migration of colloidal particles shown in flow regimes where the migration was previously thought to be ineffective, if not for the electrophoresis-induced lift force. The ability of the electrophoresis-induced lift force to migrate colloidal particles across the entire microchannel cross-section establishes a new paradigm for three-dimensional control of colloidal particles within confined microchannels.}, } @article {pmid33199601, year = {2020}, author = {Omori, T and Ito, H and Ishikawa, T}, title = {Swimming microorganisms acquire optimal efficiency with multiple cilia.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {117}, number = {48}, pages = {30201-30207}, pmid = {33199601}, issn = {1091-6490}, mesh = {Bacteria/*metabolism ; Cilia/*physiology ; Hydrodynamics ; Movement ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {Planktonic microorganisms are ubiquitous in water, and their population dynamics are essential for forecasting the behavior of global aquatic ecosystems. Their population dynamics are strongly affected by these organisms' motility, which is generated by their hair-like organelles, called cilia or flagella. However, because of the complexity of ciliary dynamics, the precise role of ciliary flow in microbial life remains unclear. Here, we have used ciliary hydrodynamics to show that ciliates acquire the optimal propulsion efficiency. We found that ciliary flow highly resists an organism's propulsion and that the swimming velocity rapidly decreases with body size, proportional to the power of minus two. Accordingly, the propulsion efficiency decreases as the cube of body length. By increasing the number of cilia, however, efficiency can be significantly improved, up to 100-fold. We found that there exists an optimal number density of cilia, which provides the maximum propulsion efficiency for all ciliates. The propulsion efficiency in this case decreases inversely proportionally to body length. Our estimated optimal density of cilia corresponds to those of actual microorganisms, including species of ciliates and microalgae, which suggests that now-existing motile ciliates and microalgae have survived by acquiring the optimal propulsion efficiency. These conclusions are helpful for better understanding the ecology of microorganisms, such as the energetic costs and benefits of multicellularity in Volvocaceae, as well as for the optimal design of artificial microswimmers.}, } @article {pmid33199599, year = {2020}, author = {Andersen, A and Kiørboe, T}, title = {The effect of tethering on the clearance rate of suspension-feeding plankton.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {117}, number = {48}, pages = {30101-30103}, pmid = {33199599}, issn = {1091-6490}, mesh = {Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; Plankton/*physiology ; Rheology ; Suspensions ; Swimming ; }, abstract = {Many planktonic suspension feeders are attached to particles or tethered by gravity when feeding. It is commonly accepted that the feeding flows of tethered suspension feeders are stronger than those of their freely swimming counterparts. However, recent flow simulations indicate the opposite, and the cause of the opposing conclusions is not clear. To explore the effect of tethering on suspension feeding, we use a low-Reynolds-number flow model. We find that it is favorable to be freely swimming instead of tethered since the resulting feeding flow past the cell body is stronger, leading to a higher clearance rate. Our result underscores the significance of the near-field flow in shaping planktonic feeding modes, and it suggests that organisms tether for reasons that are not directly fluid dynamical (e.g., to stay near surfaces where the concentration of bacterial prey is high).}, } @article {pmid33197195, year = {2020}, author = {Hatte, S and Pitchumani, R}, title = {Fractal Model for Drag Reduction on Multiscale Nonwetting Rough Surfaces.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {36}, number = {47}, pages = {14386-14402}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02790}, pmid = {33197195}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Rough surfaces in contact with a flow of fluid exhibit alternating no-slip and free shear boundary conditions at the solid-liquid and air-liquid interfaces, respectively, thereby potentially offering drag reduction benefits. The balance between the dynamic pressure in the flow and the restoring capillary pressure in the interasperity spaces determines the stability of the Cassie state of wettability and is a function of the relative extent of no-slip and free shear regions per unit surface area. In the present study, using a fractal representation of rough surface topography, an analytical model is developed to quantify the stability of the Cassie state of wettability as well as drag reduction and the friction factor for laminar flow in a rectangular channel between nonwetting multiscale rough surfaces. A systematic study is conducted to quantify the effects of fractal parameters of the surfaces and the flow Reynolds number on drag reduction and the friction factor. The studies are used to develop friction factor curves extending the classical Moody diagram to hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. On the basis of the studies, regime maps are derived for estimating the extent of drag reduction offered by hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, revealing that superhydrophobic surfaces do not always offer the best drag reduction performance. The application of the fractal model to practical topographies of nonwetting surfaces of copper, aluminum, and zinc oxide fabricated via electrodeposition and etching is also discussed.}, } @article {pmid33184652, year = {2020}, author = {Rader, JA and Hedrick, TL and He, Y and Waldrop, LD}, title = {Functional Morphology of Gliding Flight II. Morphology Follows Predictions of Gliding Performance.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {1297-1308}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa126}, pmid = {33184652}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {The evolution of wing morphology among birds, and its functional consequences, remains an open question, despite much attention. This is in part because the connection between form and function is difficult to test directly. To address this deficit, in prior work, we used computational modeling and sensitivity analysis to interrogate the impact of altering wing aspect ratio (AR), camber, and Reynolds number on aerodynamic performance, revealing the performance landscapes that avian evolution has explored. In the present work, we used a dataset of three-dimensionally scanned bird wings coupled with the performance landscapes to test two hypotheses regarding the evolutionary diversification of wing morphology associated with gliding flight behavior: (1) gliding birds would exhibit higher wing AR and greater chordwise camber than their non-gliding counterparts; and (2) that two strategies for gliding flight exist, with divergent morphological conformations. In support of our first hypothesis, we found evidence of morphological divergence in both wing AR and camber between gliders and non-gliders, suggesting that wing morphology of birds that utilize gliding flight is under different selective pressures than the wings of non-gliding taxa. Furthermore, we found that these morphological differences also yielded differences in coefficient of lift measured both at the maximum lift to drag ratio and at minimum sinking speed, with gliding taxa exhibiting higher coefficient of lift in both cases. Minimum sinking speed was also lower in gliders than non-gliders. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the maximum ratio of the coefficient of lift to the coefficient of drag differed between gliders and non-gliders. This may point to the need for gliders to maintain high lift capability for takeoff and landing independent of gliding performance or could be due to the divergence in flight styles among gliders, as not all gliders are predicted to optimize either quantity. However, direct evidence for the existence of two morphologically defined gliding flight strategies was equivocal, with only slightly stronger support for an evolutionary model positing separate morphological optima for these strategies than an alternative model positing a single peak. The absence of a clear result may be an artifact of low statistical power owing to a relatively small sample size of gliding flyers expected to follow the "aerial search" strategy.}, } @article {pmid33184554, year = {2020}, author = {Lee, JY and Kottke, PA and Fedorov, AG}, title = {Hydrodynamics of Vortical Gas Jets Coupled to Point-Like Suction.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {32}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {33184554}, issn = {1070-6631}, support = {R01 GM112662/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Vortical jet flows in the Reynolds number (Re) range from 1000 to 3425 and swirl number (S) below 0.5, alone and in combination with suction through a small aperture, are experimentally investigated using optical visualization. Schlieren photography is employed to assess the vortical flow structure and establish the fundamental understanding of the source-to-sink gas-dynamic coupling, including the role played by flow rate, jet diameter, and the separation distance between the gas jet source and the suction sink. Compared to vortex-free jets, vortical jets for Re>2700 with swirl number S>0.27 experience earlier laminar-to-turbulent transition, with resulting rapid growth of the jet boundary. The ability to control growth of the jet expansion and mass and momentum dissipation into the surrounding is demonstrated via use of a coaxially aligned flow suction placed in the path of a jet. When a swirling jet is completely coupled with a flow suction, jet expansion is significantly suppressed. The suction/sink flow rate imposes a limit on the maximum input/source flow rate of gas jet to achieve complete coupling. Furthermore, there is a maximum distance over which effective coupling can occur, and for all Reynolds numbers considered this distance is shorter than the distance at which the jet structure breaks up into turbulent eddies in the absence of a sink.}, } @article {pmid33172214, year = {2020}, author = {Astudillo-Castro, C and Cordova, A and Oyanedel-Craver, V and Soto-Maldonado, C and Valencia, P and Henriquez, P and Jimenez-Flores, R}, title = {Prediction of the Limiting Flux and Its Correlation with the Reynolds Number during the Microfiltration of Skim Milk Using an Improved Model.}, journal = {Foods (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {33172214}, issn = {2304-8158}, support = {11110402//Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico/ ; }, abstract = {Limiting flux (JL) determination is a critical issue for membrane processing. This work presents a modified exponential model for JL calculation, based on a previously published version. Our research focused on skim milk microfiltrations. The processing variables studied were the crossflow velocity (CFV), membrane hydraulic diameter (dh), temperature, and concentration factor, totaling 62 experimental runs. Results showed that, by adding a new parameter called minimum transmembrane pressure, the modified model not only improved the fit of the experimental data compared to the former version (R2 > 97.00%), but also revealed the existence of a minimum transmembrane pressure required to obtain flux (J). This result is observed as a small shift to the right on J versus transmembrane pressure curves, and this shift increases with the flow velocity. This fact was reported in other investigations, but so far has gone uninvestigated. The JL predicted values were correlated with the Reynolds number (Re) for each dh tested. Results showed that for a same Re; JL increased as dh decreased; in a wide range of Re within the turbulent regime. Finally, from dimensionless correlations; a unique expression JL = f (Re, dh) was obtained; predicting satisfactorily JL (R2 = 84.11%) for the whole set of experiments.}, } @article {pmid33171451, year = {2020}, author = {Ford, M and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {On the role of phase lag in multi-appendage metachronal swimming of euphausiids.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/abc930}, pmid = {33171451}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Metachronal paddling is a common method of drag-based aquatic propulsion, in which a series of swimming appendages are oscillated, with the motion of each appendage phase-shifted relative to the neighboring appendages. Ecologically and economically important Euphausiid species such as Antarctic krill (E. superba) swim constantly in the pelagic zone by stroking their paddling appendages (pleopods), with locomotion accounting for the bulk of their metabolic expenditure. They tailor their metachronal swimming gaits for behavioral and energetic needs by changing pleopod kinematics. The functional importance of inter-pleopod phase lag (ϕ) to metachronal swimming performance and wake structure is unknown. To examine this relation, we developed a geometrically and dynamically scaled robot ('krillbot') capable of self-propulsion. Krillbot pleopods were prescribed to mimic published kinematics of fast-forward swimming (FFW) and hovering (HOV) gaits of E. superba, and the Reynolds number and Strouhal number of the krillbot matched well with those calculated for freely-swimming E. superba. In addition to examining published kinematics with uneven ϕ between pleopod pairs, we modified E. superba kinematics to uniformly vary ϕ from 0% to 50% of the cycle. Swimming speed and thrust were largest for FFW with ϕ between 15%-25%, coincident with ϕ range observed in FFW gait of E. superba. In contrast to synchronous rowing (ϕ=0%) where distances between hinged joints of adjacent pleopods were nearly constant throughout the cycle, metachronal rowing (ϕ>0%) brought adjacent pleopods closer together and moved them farther apart. This factor minimized body position fluctuation and augmented metachronal swimming speed. Though swimming speed was lowest for HOV, a ventrally angled downward jet was generated that can assist with weight support during feeding. In summary, our findings show that inter-appendage phase lag can drastically alter both metachronal swimming speed and the large-scale wake structure.}, } @article {pmid33159347, year = {2020}, author = {Ichikawa, C and Ishikawa, D and Yang, JM and Fujii, T}, title = {Phenomenological analysis on whipping behavior of rice flour batter.}, journal = {Journal of food science}, volume = {85}, number = {12}, pages = {4327-4334}, pmid = {33159347}, issn = {1750-3841}, mesh = {Edible Grain/*chemistry ; *Food ; Food Handling ; Oryza/*chemistry ; Particle Size ; Powders ; Surface Tension ; Viscosity ; Wettability ; }, abstract = {In this study, the bubbles in rice flour batter were investigated under a constant temperature, because the bubble size distribution is important for the control of food texture. We obtained experimental data using a hand mixer and compared the properties of doughs prepared using six rice flours; each flour was prepared through a different milling process. We also added the size effect of the rice flour particles as the Bond number. Furthermore, we performed a dynamic wettability test to estimate the wettability of the rice flour surface. The results of this test were described well by the Washburn equation, and dc cosθ/dp was calculated as a wettability parameter (where, dc = effective diameter of a capillary in a powder bed, cosθ = the contact angle, dp = mean particle diameter of rice flour). If bubble sizes depend mainly on the inertial force, viscous force, surface tension, and gravity, then the normalized mean bubble diameter should be a function of the Reynolds number, Weber number, and Froude number. The mean bubble diameter (dbm) generated by whipping was expected to be affected by the thickness (d) of the rod of the mixer, its movement speed, and physical properties of the material. Therefore, dimensionless mean diameter (dbm /d) was expressed based on a dimensionless equation. In the three-phase dispersion, different empirical equations were obtained depending on the amount of rice flour added, and the bubble diameter could be predicted using dimensionless parameters. In addition, the equations were generally applicable to the various materials selected for this study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The powder properties of rice flour were investigated, and dimensionless parameters were analyzed to construct an appropriate process control system for rice flour-based food products. Although the process method optimized for flour products is also used for rice flour products in practical situations, the comprehensive evaluation based on dimensionless parameters leads to optimization of the process for rice-flour based products. Moreover, this optimization might strongly support the creation of a new texture, and thus, the potential for market expansion of rice-flour based products is considerable.}, } @article {pmid33158219, year = {2020}, author = {Sana, S and Zivkovic, V and Boodhoo, K}, title = {Empirical Modelling of Hydrodynamic Effects on Starch Nanoparticles Precipitation in a Spinning Disc Reactor.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {10}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {33158219}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {Empirical correlations have been developed to relate experimentally determined starch nanoparticle size obtained in a solvent-antisolvent precipitation process with key hydrodynamic parameters of a spinning disc reactor (SDR). Three different combinations of dimensionless groups including a conventional Reynolds number (Re), rotational Reynolds number (Reω) and Rossby number (Ro) have been applied in individual models for two disc surfaces (smooth and grooved) to represent operating variables affecting film flow such as liquid flowrate and disc rotational speed, whilst initial supersaturation (S) has been included to represent varying antisolvent concentrations. Model 1 featuring a combination of Re, Reω and S shows good agreement with the experimental data for both the grooved and smooth discs. For the grooved disc, Re has a greater impact on particle size, whereas Reω is more influential on the smooth disc surface, the difference likely being due to the passive mixing induced by the grooves irrespective of the magnitude of the disc speed. Supersaturation has little impact on particle size within the limited initial supersaturation range studied. Model 2 which characterises both flow rate and disc rotational speed through Ro alone and combined with Re was less accurate in predicting particle size due to several inherent limitations.}, } @article {pmid33157545, year = {2021}, author = {Harvey, C and Inman, DJ}, title = {Aerodynamic efficiency of gliding birds vs comparable UAVs: a review.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {16}, number = {3}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/abc86a}, pmid = {33157545}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Here, we reviewed published aerodynamic efficiencies of gliding birds and similar sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) motivated by a fundamental question: are gliding birds more efficient than comparable UAVs? Despite a multitude of studies that have quantified the aerodynamic efficiency of gliding birds, there is no comprehensive summary of these results. This lack of consolidated information inhibits a true comparison between birds and UAVs. Such a comparison is complicated by variable uncertainty levels between the different techniques used to predict avian efficiency. To support our comparative approach, we began by surveying theoretical and experimental estimates of avian aerodynamic efficiency and investigating the uncertainty associated with each estimation method. We found that the methodology used by a study affects the estimated efficiency and can lead to incongruent conclusions on gliding bird aerodynamic efficiency. Our survey showed that studies on live birds gliding in wind tunnels provide a reliable minimum estimate of a birds' aerodynamic efficiency while simultaneously quantifying the wing configurations used in flight. Next, we surveyed the aeronautical literature to collect the published aerodynamic efficiencies of similar-sized, non-copter UAVs. The compiled information allowed a direct comparison of UAVs and gliding birds. Contrary to our expectation, we found that there is no definitive evidence that any gliding bird species is either more or less efficient than a comparable UAV. This non-result highlights a critical need for new technology and analytical advances that can reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating a gliding bird's aerodynamic efficiency. Nevertheless, our survey indicated that species flying within subcritical Reynolds number regimes may inspire UAV designs that can extend their operational range to efficiently operate in subcritical regimes. The survey results provided here point the way forward for research into avian gliding flight and enable informed UAV designs.}, } @article {pmid33156686, year = {2020}, author = {Friedrich, J and Gallon, S and Pumir, A and Grauer, R}, title = {Stochastic Interpolation of Sparsely Sampled Time Series via Multipoint Fractional Brownian Bridges.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {125}, number = {17}, pages = {170602}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.170602}, pmid = {33156686}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We propose and test a method to interpolate sparsely sampled signals by a stochastic process with a broad range of spatial and/or temporal scales. To this end, we extend the notion of a fractional Brownian bridge, defined as fractional Brownian motion with a given scaling (Hurst) exponent H and with prescribed start and end points, to a bridge process with an arbitrary number of intermediate and nonequidistant points. Determining the optimal value of the Hurst exponent H_{opt}, appropriate to interpolate the sparse signal, is a very important step of our method. We demonstrate the validity of our method on a signal from fluid turbulence in a high Reynolds number flow and discuss the implications of the non-self-similar character of the signal. The method introduced here could be instrumental in several physical problems, including astrophysics, particle tracking, and specific tailoring of surrogate data, as well as in domains of natural and social sciences.}, } @article {pmid33153075, year = {2020}, author = {Coclite, A and Coclite, GM and De Tommasi, D}, title = {Capsules Rheology in Carreau-Yasuda Fluids.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {10}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {33153075}, issn = {2079-4991}, support = {Prin 2017, 267 project code 2017J4EAYB//Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca/ ; CUP - D94I18000260001//Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca/ ; }, abstract = {In this paper, a Multi Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann scheme is used to describe the evolution of a non-Newtonian fluid. Such method is coupled with an Immersed-Boundary technique for the transport of arbitrarily shaped objects navigating the flow. The no-slip boundary conditions on immersed bodies are imposed through a convenient forcing term accounting for the hydrodynamic force generated by the presence of immersed geometries added to momentum equation. Moreover, such forcing term accounts also for the force induced by the shear-dependent viscosity model characterizing the non-Newtonian behavior of the considered fluid. Firstly, the present model is validated against well-known benchmarks, namely the parabolic velocity profile obtained for the flow within two infinite laminae for five values of the viscosity model exponent, n = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5. Then, the flow within a squared lid-driven cavity for Re = 1000 and 5000 (being Re the Reynolds number) is computed as a function of n for a shear-thinning (n < 1) fluid. Indeed, the local decrements in the viscosity field achieved in high-shear zones implies the increment in the local Reynolds number, thus moving the position of near-walls minima towards lateral walls. Moreover, the revolution under shear of neutrally buoyant plain elliptical capsules with different Aspect Ratio (AR = 2 and 3) is analyzed for shear-thinning (n < 1), Newtonian (n = 1), and shear-thickening (n > 1) surrounding fluids. Interestingly, the power law by Huang et al. describing the revolution period of such capsules as a function of the Reynolds number and the existence of a critical value, Rec, after which the tumbling is inhibited in confirmed also for non-Newtonian fluids. Analogously, the equilibrium lateral position yeq of such neutrally buoyant capsules when transported in a plane-Couette flow is studied detailing the variation of yeq as a function of the Reynolds number as well as of the exponent n.}, } @article {pmid33152635, year = {2020}, author = {Kim, J and Jin, D and Choi, H and Kweon, J and Yang, DH and Kim, YH}, title = {A zero-dimensional predictive model for the pressure drop in the stenotic coronary artery based on its geometric characteristics.}, journal = {Journal of biomechanics}, volume = {113}, number = {}, pages = {110076}, doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.110076}, pmid = {33152635}, issn = {1873-2380}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Constriction, Pathologic ; Coronary Angiography ; *Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging ; *Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging ; Humans ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Models, Statistical ; }, abstract = {The diameter- or area-reduction ratio measured from coronary angiography, commonly used in clinical practice, is not accurate enough to represent the functional significance of the stenosis, i.e., the pressure drop across the stenosis. We propose a new zero-dimensional model for the pressure drop across the stenosis considering its geometric characteristics and flow rate. To identify the geometric parameters affecting the pressure drop, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations for thirty-three patient-specific coronary stenoses. From these numerical simulations, we show that the pressure drop is mostly determined by the curvature as well as the area-reduction ratio of the stenosis before the minimal luminal area (MLA), but heavily depends on the area-expansion ratio after the MLA due to flow separation. Based on this result, we divide the stenosis into the converging and diverging parts in the present zero-dimensional model. The converging part is segmented into a series of straight and curved pipes with curvatures, and the loss of each pipe is estimated by an empirical relation between the total pressure drop, flow rate, and pipe geometric parameters (length, diameter, and curvature). The loss in the diverging part is predicted by a relation among the total pressure drop, Reynolds number, and area expansion ratio with the coefficients determined by a machine learning method. The pressure drops across the stenoses predicted by the present zero-dimensional model agree very well with those obtained from three-dimensional numerical simulations.}, } @article {pmid33147949, year = {2020}, author = {Wang, Y and Zhou, G and Yan, Y and Shao, B and Hou, J}, title = {Construction of Natural Loofah/Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Core-Shell Electrospun Nanofibers via a Controllable Janus Nozzle for Switchable Oil-Water Separation.}, journal = {ACS applied materials & interfaces}, volume = {12}, number = {46}, pages = {51917-51926}, doi = {10.1021/acsami.0c12912}, pmid = {33147949}, issn = {1944-8252}, abstract = {Developing microstructure and multifunctional membranes toward switchable oil-water separation has been highly desired in oily wastewater treatment. Herein, a controllable Janus nozzle was employed to innovatively electrospin natural loofah/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with a core-shell structure for gravity-driven water purification. By adjusting flow rates of the PVDF component, a core-shell structure of the composite fibers was obtained caused by the lower viscosity and surface tension of PVDF. In addition, a steady laminar motion of fluids was constructed based on the Reynolds number of flow fields being less than 2300. In order to investigate the formation mechanism of the microstructure, a series of Janus nozzles with different lengths were controlled to study the blending of the two immiscible components. The gravity difference between the two components might cause disturbance of the jet motion, and the PVDF component unidirectionally encapsulated the loofah to form the shell layer. Most importantly, the dry loofah/PVDF membranes could separate oil from an oil-water mixture, while the water-wetted membrane exhibited switchable separation that could separate water from the mixtures because of the hydroxyl groups of the hydrophilic loofah hydrogen-bonding with water molecules and forming a hydration layer. The composite fibers can be applied in water remediation in practice, and the method to produce core-shell structures seems attractive for technological applications involving macroscopic core-shell nano- or microfibers.}, } @article {pmid33136360, year = {2020}, author = {Jeon, W and Ahn, J and Kim, T and Kim, SM and Baik, S}, title = {Intertube Aggregation-Dependent Convective Heat Transfer in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Channels.}, journal = {ACS applied materials & interfaces}, volume = {12}, number = {45}, pages = {50355-50364}, doi = {10.1021/acsami.0c13361}, pmid = {33136360}, issn = {1944-8252}, abstract = {The heat transfer of carbon nanotube fin geometry has received considerable attention. However, the flow typically occurred over or around the pillars of nanotubes due to the greater flow resistance between the tubes. Here, we investigated the forced convective heat transfer of water through the interstitial space of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VAMWNTs, intertube distance = 69 nm). The water flow provided significantly a greater Reynolds number (Re) and Nusselt number (Nu) than air flow due to the greater density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. However, it resulted in surface tension-induced nanotube aggregation after the flow and drying process, generating random voids in the nanotube channel. This increased permeability (1.27 × 10-11 m2) and Re (2.83 × 10-1) but decreased the heat transfer coefficient (h, 9900 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (53.77), demonstrating a trade-off relationship. The h (25,927 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (153.49) could be further increased, at an equivalent permeability or Re, by increasing nanotube areal density from 2.08 × 1010 to 1.04 × 1011 cm-2. The area-normalized thermal resistance of the densified and aggregated VAMWNTs was smaller than those of the Ni foam, Si microchannel, and carbon nanotube fin array, demonstrating excellent heat transfer characteristics.}, } @article {pmid33119653, year = {2020}, author = {Lyons, K and Murphy, CT and Franck, JA}, title = {Flow over seal whiskers: Importance of geometric features for force and frequency response.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {15}, number = {10}, pages = {e0241142}, pmid = {33119653}, issn = {1932-6203}, mesh = {Animals ; Computer Simulation ; *Hydrodynamics ; Phoca/*anatomy & histology ; *Vibration ; Vibrissae/*anatomy & histology ; }, abstract = {The complex undulated geometry of seal whiskers has been shown to substantially modify the turbulent structures directly downstream, resulting in a reduction of hydrodynamic forces as well as modified vortex-induced-vibration response when compared with smooth whiskers. Although the unique hydrodynamic response has been well documented, an understanding of the fluid flow effects from each geometric feature remains incomplete. In this computational investigation, nondimensional geometric parameters of the seal whisker morphology are defined in terms of their hydrodynamic relevance, such that wavelength, aspect ratio, undulation amplitudes, symmetry and undulation off-set can be varied independently of one another. A two-factor fractional factorial design of experiments procedure is used to create 16 unique geometries, each of which dramatically amplifies or attenuates the geometric parameters compared with the baseline model. The flow over each unique topography is computed with a large-eddy simulation at a Reynolds number of 500 with respect to the mean whisker thickness and the effects on force and frequency are recorded. The results determine the specific fluid flow impact of each geometric feature which will inform both biologists and engineers who seek to understand the impact of whisker morphology or lay out a framework for biomimetic design of undulated structures.}, } @article {pmid33095615, year = {2020}, author = {Neuhaus, L and Hölling, M and Bos, WJT and Peinke, J}, title = {Generation of Atmospheric Turbulence with Unprecedentedly Large Reynolds Number in a Wind Tunnel.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {125}, number = {15}, pages = {154503}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.154503}, pmid = {33095615}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Generating laboratory flows resembling atmospheric turbulence is of prime importance to study the effect of wind fluctuations on objects such as buildings, vehicles, or wind turbines. A novel driving of an active grid following a stochastic process is used to generate velocity fluctuations with correlation lengths, and, thus, integral scales, much larger than the transverse dimension of the wind tunnel. The combined action of the active grid and a modulation of the fan speed allows one to generate a flow characterized by a four-decade inertial range and an integral scale Reynolds number of 2×10^{7} .}, } @article {pmid33092016, year = {2020}, author = {Domínguez-Pumar, M and Kowalski, L and Jiménez, V and Rodríguez, I and Soria, M and Bermejo, S and Pons-Nin, J}, title = {Analyzing the Performance of a Miniature 3D Wind Sensor for Mars.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {20}, number = {20}, pages = {}, pmid = {33092016}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {RTI2018-098728-B-C33//Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad/ ; }, abstract = {This paper analyzes the behavior of a miniature 3D wind sensor designed for Mars atmosphere. The sensor is a spherical structure of 10 mm diameter divided in four sectors. By setting all the sectors to constant temperature, above that of the air, the 3D wind velocity vector can be measured. Two sets of experiments have been performed. First, an experimental campaign made under typical Mars conditions at the Aarhus Wind Tunnel Simulator is presented. The results demonstrate that both wind speed and angle can be efficiently measured, using a simple inverse algorithm. The effect of sudden wind changes is also analyzed and fast response times in the range of 0.7 s are obtained. The second set of experiments is focused on analyzing the performance of the sensor under extreme Martian wind conditions, reaching and going beyond the Dust Devil scale. To this purpose, both high-fidelity numerical simulations of fluid dynamics and heat transfer and experiments with the sensor have been performed. The results of the experiments, made for winds in the Reynolds number 1000-2000 range, which represent 65-130 m/s of wind speed under typical Mars conditions, further confirm the simulation predictions and show that it will be possible to successfully measure wind speed and direction even under these extreme regimes.}, } @article {pmid33076024, year = {2020}, author = {Czelusniak, LE and Mapelli, VP and Guzella, MS and Cabezas-Gómez, L and Wagner, AJ}, title = {Force approach for the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033307}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.033307}, pmid = {33076024}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {One attractive feature of the original pseudopotential method consists on its simplicity of adding a force dependent on a nearest-neighbor potential function. In order to improve the method, regarding thermodynamic consistency and control of surface tension, different approaches were developed in the literature, such as multirange interactions potential and modified forcing schemes. In this work, a strategy to combine these enhancements with an appropriate interaction force field using only nearest-neighbor interactions is devised, starting from the desired pressure tensor. The final step of our procedure is implementing this external force by using the classical Guo forcing scheme. Numerical tests regarding static and dynamic flow conditions were performed. Static tests showed that current procedure is suitable to control the surface tension and phase densities. Based on thermodynamic principles, it is devised a solution for phase densities in a droplet, which states explicitly dependence on the surface tension and interface curvature. A comparison with numerical results suggest a physical inconsistency in the pseudopotential method. This fact is not commonly discussed in the literature, since most of studies are limited to the Maxwell equal area rule. However, this inconsistency is shown to be dependent on the equation of state (EOS), and its effects can be mitigated by an appropriate choice of Carnahan-Starling EOS parameters. Also, a droplet oscillation test was performed, and the most divergent solution under certain flow conditions deviated 7.5% from the expected analytical result. At the end, a droplet impact test against a solid wall was performed to verify the method stability, and it was possible to reach stable simulation results with density ratio of almost 2400 and Reynolds number of Re=373. The observed results corroborate that the proposed method is able to replicate the desired macroscopic multiphase behavior.}, } @article {pmid33076003, year = {2020}, author = {Rana, N and Perlekar, P}, title = {Coarsening in the two-dimensional incompressible Toner-Tu equation: Signatures of turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {3-1}, pages = {032617}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.032617}, pmid = {33076003}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We investigate coarsening dynamics in the two-dimensional, incompressible Toner-Tu equation. We show that coarsening proceeds via vortex merger events, and the dynamics crucially depend on the Reynolds number Re. For low Re, the coarsening process has similarities to Ginzburg-Landau dynamics. On the other hand, for high Re, coarsening shows signatures of turbulence. In particular, we show the presence of an enstrophy cascade from the intervortex separation scale to the dissipation scale.}, } @article {pmid33075904, year = {2020}, author = {Bos, WJT and Laadhari, F and Agoua, W}, title = {Linearly forced isotropic turbulence at low Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033105}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.033105}, pmid = {33075904}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We investigate the forcing strength needed to sustain a flow using linear forcing. A critical Reynolds number R_{c} is determined, based on the longest wavelength allowed by the system, the forcing strength and the viscosity. A simple model is proposed for the dissipation rate, leading to a closed expression for the kinetic energy of the flow as a function of the Reynolds number. The dissipation model and the prediction for the kinetic energy are assessed using direct numerical simulations and two-point closure integrations. An analysis of the dissipation-rate equation and the triadic structure of the nonlinear transfer allows to refine the model in order to reproduce the low-Reynolds-number asymptotic behavior, where the kinetic energy is proportional to R-R_{c} .}, } @article {pmid33075884, year = {2020}, author = {Rinoshika, H and Rinoshika, A and Wang, JJ}, title = {Three-dimensional multiscale flow structures behind a wall-mounted short cylinder based on tomographic particle image velocimetry and three-dimensional orthogonal wavelet transform.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.033101}, pmid = {33075884}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Three-dimensional (3D) flow structures around a wall-mounted short cylinder of height-to-diameter ratio 1 were instantaneously measured by a high-resolution tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) at Reynolds number of 10 720 in a water tunnel. 3D velocity fields, 3D vorticity, the Q criterion, the rear separation region, and the characteristic of arch type vortex and tip vortices were first discussed. We found a strong 3D W-type arch vortex behind the short cylinder, which was originated by the interaction between upwash and downwash flows. This W-type arch vortex was reshaped to the M-shaped arch vortex downstream. It indicated that the head shape of the arch vortex structure depended on the aspect ratio of the cylinder. The large-scale streamwise vortices were originated by the downwash and upwash flows near the center location of W-type arch vortex. Then the 3D orthogonal wavelet multiresolution technique was developed to analyze instantaneous 3D velocity fields of Tomo-PIV in order to clarify 3D multiscale wake flow structures. The W-type shape arch vortex was extracted in the time-averaged intermediate-scale structure, while an M-shaped arch vortex was identified in the time-averaged large-scale structure. The tip vortices distributed in the time-averaged large- and intermediate-scale structures. The instantaneous intermediate-scale upwash vortices played an essential role in producing W-type head of arch structure. It was also observed that strong small-scale vortices appeared in the shear layer or near the bottom plate and most of them were contained in the intermediate-scale structures.}, } @article {pmid33057044, year = {2020}, author = {Riasat, S and Ramzan, M and Kadry, S and Chu, YM}, title = {Significance of magnetic Reynolds number in a three-dimensional squeezing Darcy-Forchheimer hydromagnetic nanofluid thin-film flow between two rotating disks.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {17208}, pmid = {33057044}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {11971142//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11871202//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 61673169//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11701176//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11626101//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11601485//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {The remarkable aspects of carbon nanotubes like featherweight, durability, exceptional electrical and thermal conduction capabilities, and physicochemical stability make them desirous materials for electrochemical devices. Having such astonishing characteristics of nanotubes in mind our aspiration is to examine the squeezing three dimensional Darcy-Forchheimer hydromagnetic nanofluid thin-film flow amid two rotating disks with suspended multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) submerged into the base fluid water. The analysis is done by invoking partial slip effect at the boundary in attendance of autocatalytic reactions. The mathematical model consists of axial and azimuthal momentum and magnetic fields respectively. The tangential and axial velocity profiles and components of the magnetic field are examined numerically by employing the bvp4c method for varying magnetic, rotational, and squeezing Reynolds number. The torque effect near the upper and lower disks are studied critically using their graphical depiction. The values of the torque at the upper and lower disks are obtained for rotational and squeezed Reynolds numbers and are found in an excellent concurrence when compared with the existing literature. Numerically it is computed that the torque at the lower disk is higher in comparison to the upper disk for mounting estimates of the squeezed Reynolds number and the dimensionless parameter for magnetic force in an axial direction. From the graphical illustrations, it is learned that thermal profile declines for increasing values of the squeezed Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid33049170, year = {2020}, author = {Wong, JY and Chan, BKK and Chan, KYK}, title = {Swimming kinematics and hydrodynamics of barnacle larvae throughout development.}, journal = {Proceedings. Biological sciences}, volume = {287}, number = {1936}, pages = {20201360}, pmid = {33049170}, issn = {1471-2954}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Extremities ; Hydrodynamics ; Larva/physiology ; Rheology ; Swimming/*physiology ; Thoracica/*physiology ; Zooplankton ; }, abstract = {Changes in size strongly influence organisms' ecological performances. For aquatic organisms, they can transition from viscosity- to inertia-dominated fluid regimes as they grow. Such transitions are often associated with changes in morphology, swimming speed and kinematics. Barnacles do not fit into this norm as they have two morphologically distinct planktonic larval phases that swim differently but are of comparable sizes and operate in the same fluid regime (Reynolds number 100-101). We quantified the hydrodynamics of the rocky intertidal stalked barnacle Capitulum mitella from the nauplius II to cyprid stage and examined how kinematics and size increases affect its swimming performance. Cyprids beat their appendages in a metachronal wave to swim faster, more smoothly, and with less backwards slip per beat cycle than did all naupliar stages. Micro-particle image velocimetry showed that cyprids generated trailing viscous vortex rings that pushed water backwards for propulsion, contrary to the nauplii's forward suction current for particle capture. Our observations highlight that zooplankton swimming performance can shift via morphological and kinematic modifications without a significant size increase. The divergence in ecological functions through ontogeny in barnacles and the removal of feeding requirement likely contributed to the evolution of the specialized, taxonomically unique cyprid phase.}, } @article {pmid33026993, year = {2021}, author = {Jakob, J and Gross, M and Gunther, T}, title = {A Fluid Flow Data Set for Machine Learning and its Application to Neural Flow Map Interpolation.}, journal = {IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics}, volume = {27}, number = {2}, pages = {1279-1289}, doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2020.3028947}, pmid = {33026993}, issn = {1941-0506}, abstract = {In recent years, deep learning has opened countless research opportunities across many different disciplines. At present, visualization is mainly applied to explore and explain neural networks. Its counterpart-the application of deep learning to visualization problems-requires us to share data more openly in order to enable more scientists to engage in data-driven research. In this paper, we construct a large fluid flow data set and apply it to a deep learning problem in scientific visualization. Parameterized by the Reynolds number, the data set contains a wide spectrum of laminar and turbulent fluid flow regimes. The full data set was simulated on a high-performance compute cluster and contains 8000 time-dependent 2D vector fields, accumulating to more than 16 TB in size. Using our public fluid data set, we trained deep convolutional neural networks in order to set a benchmark for an improved post-hoc Lagrangian fluid flow analysis. In in-situ settings, flow maps are exported and interpolated in order to assess the transport characteristics of time-dependent fluids. Using deep learning, we improve the accuracy of flow map interpolations, allowing a more precise flow analysis at a reduced memory IO footprint.}, } @article {pmid33022594, year = {2020}, author = {Di Luca, M and Mintchev, S and Su, Y and Shaw, E and Breuer, K}, title = {A bioinspired Separated Flow wing provides turbulence resilience and aerodynamic efficiency for miniature drones.}, journal = {Science robotics}, volume = {5}, number = {38}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1126/scirobotics.aay8533}, pmid = {33022594}, issn = {2470-9476}, abstract = {Small-scale drones have enough sensing and computing power to find use across a growing number of applications. However, flying in the low-Reynolds number regime remains challenging. High sensitivity to atmospheric turbulence compromises vehicle stability and control, and low aerodynamic efficiency limits flight duration. Conventional wing designs have thus far failed to address these two deficiencies simultaneously. Here, we draw inspiration from nature's small flyers to design a wing with lift generation robust to gusts and freestream turbulence without sacrificing aerodynamic efficiency. This performance is achieved by forcing flow separation at the airfoil leading edge. Water and wind tunnel measurements are used to demonstrate the working principle and aerodynamic performance of the wing, showing a substantial reduction in the sensitivity of lift force production to freestream turbulence, as compared with the performance of an Eppler E423 low-Reynolds number wing. The minimum cruise power of a custom-built 104-gram fixed-wing drone equipped with the Separated Flow wing was measured in the wind tunnel indicating an upper limit for the flight time of 170 minutes, which is about four times higher than comparable existing fixed-wing drones. In addition, we present scaling guidelines and outline future design and manufacturing challenges.}, } @article {pmid33020499, year = {2020}, author = {Phelps, PR and Lee, CA and Morton, DM}, title = {Episodes of fast crystal growth in pegmatites.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {4986}, pmid = {33020499}, issn = {2041-1723}, abstract = {Pegmatites are shallow, coarse-grained magmatic intrusions with crystals occasionally approaching meters in length. Compared to their plutonic hosts, pegmatites are thought to have cooled rapidly, suggesting that these large crystals must have grown fast. Growth rates and conditions, however, remain poorly constrained. Here we investigate quartz crystals and their trace element compositions from miarolitic cavities in the Stewart pegmatite in southern California, USA, to quantify crystal growth rates. Trace element concentrations deviate considerably from equilibrium and are best explained by kinetic effects associated with rapid crystal growth. Kinetic crystal growth theory is used to show that crystals accelerated from an initial growth rate of 10-6-10-7 m s-1 to 10-5-10-4 m s-1 (10-100 mm day-1 to 1-10 m day-1), indicating meter sized crystals could have formed within days, if these rates are sustained throughout pegmatite formation. The rapid growth rates require that quartz crystals grew from thin (micron scale) chemical boundary layers at the fluid-crystal interfaces. A strong advective component is required to sustain such thin boundary layers. Turbulent conditions (high Reynolds number) in these miarolitic cavities are shown to exist during crystallization, suggesting that volatile exsolution, crystallization, and cavity generation occur together.}, } @article {pmid32992553, year = {2020}, author = {Qiu, Y and Hu, W and Wu, C and Chen, W}, title = {An Experimental Study of Microchannel and Micro-Pin-Fin Based On-Chip Cooling Systems with Silicon-to-Silicon Direct Bonding.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {20}, number = {19}, pages = {}, pmid = {32992553}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {51575487//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 6162790014//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {This paper describes an experimental study of the cooling capabilities of microchannel and micro-pin-fin based on-chip cooling systems. The on-chip cooling systems integrated with a micro heat sink, simulated power IC (integrated circuit) and temperature sensors are fabricated by micromachining and silicon-to-silicon direct bonding. Three micro heat sink structures: a microchannel heat sink (MCHS), an inline micro-pin-fin heat sink (I-MPFHS) and a staggered micro-pin-fin heat sink (S-MPFHS) are tested in the Reynolds number range of 79.2 to 882.3. The results show that S-MPFHS is preferred if the water pump can provide enough pressure drop. However, S-MPFHS has the worst performance when the rated pressure drop of the pump is lower than 1.5 kPa because the endwall effect under a low Reynolds number suppresses the disturbance generated by the staggered micro pin fins but S-MPFHS is still preferred when the rated pressure drop of the pump is in the range of 1.5 to 20 kPa. When the rated pressure drop of the pump is higher than 20 kPa, I-MPFHS will be the best choice because of high heat transfer enhancement and low pressure drop price brought by the unsteady vortex street.}, } @article {pmid32992113, year = {2021}, author = {Chen, Y and Chen, Y and Hu, S and Ni, Z}, title = {Continuous ultrasonic flow measurement for aerospace small pipelines.}, journal = {Ultrasonics}, volume = {109}, number = {}, pages = {106260}, doi = {10.1016/j.ultras.2020.106260}, pmid = {32992113}, issn = {1874-9968}, abstract = {Aerospace explorations stimulate extensive research on innovative propellant flow measurement technologies in microgravity conditions. Ultrasonic-based measurements have advantages of non-invasive and non-moving-component constructions as well as fast responses to bi-directional flow detection, its applications in aerospace explorations have already been reported. To avoid the shortages of pulse ultrasonic measurement configurations, flow measurement of continuous ultrasonic wave propagation is presented to match the requirements of large measurement range and high precision. Fabrication process and laboratory validations using water flow are presented. Ground experiments show that the linearity of the proposed ultrasonic flow meter is obtained in the measurement range [0, 80 ml/s] which is typical requirement in aerospace applications. Meanwhile, the fitted linear feature from the experimental data matches well the theoretical prediction except the flow prediction of stationary fluid. Under specific configurations, the absolute measurement error is significantly affected by the corresponding Reynolds number. Furthermore, the absolute measurement error is smaller when excitation signals with higher frequency are used if the phase tracking performance for different frequencies is identical.}, } @article {pmid32984706, year = {2020}, author = {Ye, Y and Luo, X and Dong, C and Xu, Y and Zhang, Z}, title = {Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Soot Suppression by Acoustic Oscillated Combustion.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {5}, number = {37}, pages = {23866-23875}, pmid = {32984706}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {The soot suppression by acoustic oscillations for acetylene diffusion flames was investigated combining numerical and experimental studies. The combustion and soot formation were predicted by the finite-rate detailed chemistry model and modified Moss-Brookes model, respectively, while the turbulence was predicted by the detached eddy simulation (DES) with a low Reynolds number correction. Experimental results showed that the soot rate almost decreased linearly with the amplitude of acoustic oscillation, and the pinch-off of the flame occurred at a large acoustic oscillation. Numerical results showed that the flame structure was well predicted, while the soot rate was over-predicted at large acoustic oscillations; the consumption of O2 increased obviously with the acoustic oscillation. The soot suppression was mainly caused by the decrease of the surface growth rate when the air was pushed toward the flame.}, } @article {pmid32982135, year = {2020}, author = {Dbouk, T and Drikakis, D}, title = {Weather impact on airborne coronavirus survival.}, journal = {Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994)}, volume = {32}, number = {9}, pages = {093312}, pmid = {32982135}, issn = {1070-6631}, abstract = {The contribution of this paper toward understanding of airborne coronavirus survival is twofold: We develop new theoretical correlations for the unsteady evaporation of coronavirus (CoV) contaminated saliva droplets. Furthermore, we implement the new correlations in a three-dimensional multiphase Eulerian-Lagrangian computational fluid dynamics solver to study the effects of weather conditions on airborne virus transmission. The new theory introduces a thermal history kernel and provides transient Nusselt (Nu) and Sherwood (Sh) numbers as a function of the Reynolds (Re), Prandtl (Pr), and Schmidt numbers (Sc). For the first time, these new correlations take into account the mixture properties due to the concentration of CoV particles in a saliva droplet. We show that the steady-state relationships induce significant errors and must not be applied in unsteady saliva droplet evaporation. The classical theory introduces substantial deviations in Nu and Sh values when increasing the Reynolds number defined at the droplet scale. The effects of relative humidity, temperature, and wind speed on the transport and viability of CoV in a cloud of airborne saliva droplets are also examined. The results reveal that a significant reduction of virus viability occurs when both high temperature and low relative humidity occur. The droplet cloud's traveled distance and concentration remain significant at any temperature if the relative humidity is high, which is in contradiction with what was previously believed by many epidemiologists. The above could explain the increase in CoV cases in many crowded cities around the middle of July (e.g., Delhi), where both high temperature and high relative humidity values were recorded one month earlier (during June). Moreover, it creates a crucial alert for the possibility of a second wave of the pandemic in the coming autumn and winter seasons when low temperatures and high wind speeds will increase airborne virus survival and transmission.}, } @article {pmid32973078, year = {2020}, author = {York, CA and Bartol, IK and Krueger, PS and Thompson, JT}, title = {Squids use multiple escape jet patterns throughout ontogeny.}, journal = {Biology open}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {32973078}, issn = {2046-6390}, abstract = {Throughout their lives, squids are both predators and prey for a multitude of animals, many of which are at the top of ocean food webs, making them an integral component of the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. The escape jet, which is produced by the rapid expulsion of water from the mantle cavity through a funnel, is central to a cephalopod's ability to avoid predation throughout its life. Although squid undergo morphological and behavioral changes and experience remarkably different Reynolds number regimes throughout their development, little is known about the dynamics and propulsive efficiency of escape jets throughout ontogeny. We examine the hydrodynamics and kinematics of escape jets in squid throughout ontogeny using 2D/3D velocimetry and high-speed videography. All life stages of squid produced two escape jet patterns: (1) 'escape jet I' characterized by short rapid pulses resulting in vortex ring formation and (2) 'escape jet II' characterized by long high-volume jets, often with a leading-edge vortex ring. Paralarvae exhibited higher propulsive efficiency than adult squid during escape jet ejection, and propulsive efficiency was higher for escape jet I than escape jet II in juveniles and adults. These results indicate that although squid undergo major ecological transitions and morphology changes from paralarvae to adults, all life stages demonstrate flexibility in escape jet responses and produce escape jets of surprisingly high propulsive efficiency.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.}, } @article {pmid32968087, year = {2020}, author = {Saqr, KM and Tupin, S and Rashad, S and Endo, T and Niizuma, K and Tominaga, T and Ohta, M}, title = {Physiologic blood flow is turbulent.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {15492}, pmid = {32968087}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Blood Circulation/*physiology ; Blood Vessels/physiology ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Biological ; Nonlinear Dynamics ; Pulsatile Flow/physiology ; }, abstract = {Contemporary paradigm of peripheral and intracranial vascular hemodynamics considers physiologic blood flow to be laminar. Transition to turbulence is considered as a driving factor for numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, stenosis and aneurysm. Recently, turbulent flow patterns were detected in intracranial aneurysm at Reynolds number below 400 both in vitro and in silico. Blood flow is multiharmonic with considerable frequency spectra and its transition to turbulence cannot be characterized by the current transition theory of monoharmonic pulsatile flow. Thus, we decided to explore the origins of such long-standing assumption of physiologic blood flow laminarity. Here, we hypothesize that the inherited dynamics of blood flow in main arteries dictate the existence of turbulence in physiologic conditions. To illustrate our hypothesis, we have used methods and tools from chaos theory, hydrodynamic stability theory and fluid dynamics to explore the existence of turbulence in physiologic blood flow. Our investigation shows that blood flow, both as described by the Navier-Stokes equation and in vivo, exhibits three major characteristics of turbulence. Womersley's exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation has been used with the flow waveforms from HaeMod database, to offer reproducible evidence for our findings, as well as evidence from Doppler ultrasound measurements from healthy volunteers who are some of the authors. We evidently show that physiologic blood flow is: (1) sensitive to initial conditions, (2) in global hydrodynamic instability and (3) undergoes kinetic energy cascade of non-Kolmogorov type. We propose a novel modification of the theory of vascular hemodynamics that calls for rethinking the hemodynamic-biologic links that govern physiologic and pathologic processes.}, } @article {pmid32959981, year = {2021}, author = {Gibson, BM and Furbish, DJ and Rahman, IA and Schmeeckle, MW and Laflamme, M and Darroch, SAF}, title = {Ancient life and moving fluids.}, journal = {Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society}, volume = {96}, number = {1}, pages = {129-152}, pmid = {32959981}, issn = {1469-185X}, support = {9968-16//National Geographic Society/ ; EAR-1735992//National Science Foundation/ ; Arthur Boucot Award//Paleontological Society/ ; Alberstadt-Reesman-Stearns Research Grant//Vanderbilt University/ ; }, abstract = {Over 3.7 billion years of Earth history, life has evolved complex adaptations to help navigate and interact with the fluid environment. Consequently, fluid dynamics has become a powerful tool for studying ancient fossils, providing insights into the palaeobiology and palaeoecology of extinct organisms from across the tree of life. In recent years, this approach has been extended to the Ediacara biota, an enigmatic assemblage of Neoproterozoic soft-bodied organisms that represent the first major radiation of macroscopic eukaryotes. Reconstructing the ways in which Ediacaran organisms interacted with the fluids provides new insights into how these organisms fed, moved, and interacted within communities. Here, we provide an in-depth review of fluid physics aimed at palaeobiologists, in which we dispel misconceptions related to the Reynolds number and associated flow conditions, and specify the governing equations of fluid dynamics. We then review recent advances in Ediacaran palaeobiology resulting from the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We provide a worked example and account of best practice in CFD analyses of fossils, including the first large eddy simulation (LES) experiment performed on extinct organisms. Lastly, we identify key questions, barriers, and emerging techniques in fluid dynamics, which will not only allow us to understand the earliest animal ecosystems better, but will also help to develop new palaeobiological tools for studying ancient life.}, } @article {pmid32959135, year = {2021}, author = {Sonnenberg, AH and Taylor, E and Mondoñedo, JR and Jawde, SB and Amin, SD and Song, J and Grinstaff, MW and Suki, B}, title = {Breath Hold Facilitates Targeted Deposition of Aerosolized Droplets in a 3D Printed Bifurcating Airway Tree.}, journal = {Annals of biomedical engineering}, volume = {49}, number = {2}, pages = {812-821}, pmid = {32959135}, issn = {1573-9686}, support = {U01 HL-139466/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; HU0001810012//Defense Health Agency/ ; U01 HL-139466/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {The lungs have long been considered a desired route for drug delivery but, there is still a lack of strategies to rationally target delivery sites especially in the presence of heterogeneous airway disease. Furthermore, no standardized system has been proposed to rapidly test different ventilation strategies and how they alter the overall and regional deposition pattern in the airways. In this study, a 3D printed symmetric bifurcating tree model mimicking part of the human airway tree was developed that can be used to quantify the regional deposition patterns of different delivery methodologies. The model is constructed in a novel way that allows for repeated measurements of regional deposition using reusable parts. During ventilation, nebulized ~3-micron-sized fluid droplets were delivered into the model. Regional delivery, quantified by precision weighing individual airways, was highly reproducible. A successful strategy to control regional deposition was achieved by combining an inspiratory wave form with a "breath hold" pause after each inspiration. Specifically, the second generation of the tree was successfully targeted, and deposition was increased by up to four times in generation 2 when compared to a ventilation without the breath hold (p < 0.0001). Breath hold was also demonstrated to facilitate deposition into blocked regions of the model, which mimic airway closure during an asthma that receive no flow during inhalation. Additionally, visualization experiments demonstrated that in the absence of fluid flow, the deposition of 3-micron water droplets is dominated by gravity, which, to our knowledge, has not been confirmed under standard laboratory conditions.}, } @article {pmid32952737, year = {2020}, author = {Bortot, M and Sharifi, A and Ashworth, K and Walker, F and Cox, A and Ruegg, K and Clendenen, N and Neeves, KB and Bark, D and Di Paola, J}, title = {Pathologic Shear and Elongation Rates Do Not Cause Cleavage of Von Willebrand Factor by ADAMTS13 in a Purified System.}, journal = {Cellular and molecular bioengineering}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {379-390}, pmid = {32952737}, issn = {1865-5025}, support = {R01 HL120728/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Introduction: Pathological flows in patients with severe aortic stenosis are associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by excessive cleavage of von Willebrand factor by its main protease, A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with a Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif, Member 13 (ADAMTS13) leading to decreased VWF function and mucocutaneous bleeding. Aortic valve replacement and correction of the flow behavior to physiological levels reverses the syndrome, supporting the association between pathological flow and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. We investigated the effects of shear and elongational rates on von Willebrand factor cleavage in the presence of ADAMTS13.

Methods: We identified acquired von Willebrand syndrome in five patients with severe aortic stenosis. Doppler echography values from these patients were used to develop three computational fluid dynamic (CFD) aortic valve models (normal, mild and severe stenosis). Shear, elongational rates and exposure times identified in the CFD simulations were used as parameters for the design of microfluidic devices to test the effects of pathologic shear and elongational rates on the structure and function of von Willebrand factor.

Results: The shear rates (0-10,000s-1), elongational rates (0-1000 s-1) and exposure times (1-180 ms) tested in our microfluidic designs mimicked the flow features identified in patients with aortic stenosis. The shear and elongational rates tested in vitro did not lead to excessive cleavage or decreased function of von Willebrand factor in the presence of the protease.

Conclusions: High shear and elongational rates in the presence of ADAMTS13 are not sufficient for excessive cleavage of von Willebrand Factor.}, } @article {pmid32946425, year = {2020}, author = {Gao, D and Bai, M and Hu, C and Lv, J and Wang, C and Zhang, X}, title = {Investigating control of convective heat transfer and flow resistance of Fe3O4/deionized water nanofluid in magnetic field in laminar flow.}, journal = {Nanotechnology}, volume = {31}, number = {49}, pages = {495402}, doi = {10.1088/1361-6528/abb15c}, pmid = {32946425}, issn = {1361-6528}, abstract = {This paper studies the convective heat transfer and flow resistance of Fe3O4/deionized water nanofluids in laminar flow under the control of an external magnetic field. The basic thermophysical parameters including viscosity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity are investigated to describe the fundamental performance of heat transfer and flow resistance. In the absence of the magnetic field, the heat transfer coefficients and flow friction could not change significantly at nanoparticle volume concentration of 0.05%. In the presence of the magnetic field, it can enhance heat transfer and flow resistance by 6% and 3.5% when the magnets interlace on both sides of the tube. The dynamic magnetic experiments discussed the heat transfer increase process in detail. The heat transfer and the flow resistance increase by 11.7% and 5.4% when magnetic field strength is 600 Gs, nanoparticle volume concentration is 2% and Reynolds number is 2000. The radial shuttle movement of magnetic nanoparticles in the cross-section, micro convection in base fluid and the slip velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid are considered the main reasons for heat transfer enhancement.}, } @article {pmid32942486, year = {2020}, author = {Mukhopadhyay, S and Mukhopadhyay, A}, title = {Waves and instabilities of viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023117}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.023117}, pmid = {32942486}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Evolution of waves and hydrodynamic instabilities of a thin viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom of moderate steepness have been analyzed analytically and numerically. The classical long-wave expansion method has been used to formulate a nonlinear evolution equation for the development of the free surface. A normal-mode approach has been adopted to discuss the linear stability analysis from the viewpoint of the spatial and temporal study. The method of multiple scales is used to derive a Ginzburg-Landau-type nonlinear equation for studying the weakly nonlinear stability solutions. Two significant wave families, viz., γ_{1} and γ_{2}, are found and discussed in detail along with the traveling wave solution of the evolution system. A time-dependent numerical study is performed with Scikit-FDif. The entire investigation is conducted primarily for a general periodic bottom, and the detailed results of a particular case study of sinusoidal topography are then discussed. The case study reveals that the bottom steepness ζ plays a dual role in the linear regime. Increasing ζ has a stabilizing effect in the uphill region, and the opposite occurs in the downhill region. While the viscoelastic parameter Γ has a destabilizing effect throughout the domain in both the linear and the nonlinear regime. Both supercritical and subcritical solutions are possible through a weakly nonlinear analysis. It is interesting to note that the unconditional zone decreases and the explosive zone increases in the downhill region rather than the uphill region for a fixed Γ and ζ. The same phenomena occur in a particular region if we increase Γ and keep ζ fixed. The traveling wave solution reveals the fact that to get the γ_{1} family of waves we need to increase the Reynolds number a bit more than the value at which the γ_{2} family of waves is found. The spatiotemporal evolution of the nonlinear surface equation indicates that different kinds of finite-amplitude permanent waves exist.}, } @article {pmid32942407, year = {2020}, author = {Hassan, MR and Wang, C}, title = {Lateral migration of a ferrofluid droplet in a plane Poiseuille flow under uniform magnetic fields.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {102}, number = {2-1}, pages = {022611}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.102.022611}, pmid = {32942407}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The lateral migration of a two-dimensional (2D) viscous ferrofluid droplet in a plane Poiseuille flow under a uniform magnetic field is studied numerically by using the level set method. Focusing on low droplet Reynolds number flows (Re_{d} ≤0.05), several numerical simulations are carried out to analyze the effects of magnetic field direction and strength, droplet size, and viscosity ratio on the lateral migration behavior of the droplet. The results indicate that the magnetic field direction plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of lateral migration of the droplet and the final equilibrium position in the channel. When the magnetic field is parallel to the channel, i.e., α=0^{∘} (the direction of magnetic field), the droplet is found to settle closer to the wall with an increase in magnetic Bond number Bo_{m}, while at α=45^{∘}, the droplet settles closer to the channel center. Varying the initial droplet sizes at a fixed magnetic Bond number Bo_{m} and viscosity ratio λ results in different final equilibrium positions within the channel. Additionally, the effect of different viscosity ratios on the migration behavior of the droplet is examined at variable magnetic Bond numbers Bo_{m} . At α=45^{∘}, a critical steady state of deformation is found for λ=0.5 and 1 where the droplet changes its migration direction and shifts toward the center of the channel, while at λ=0.05, the droplet crosses the center. At α=90^{∘}, the droplet is found to settle exactly at the center of the flow domain irrespective of different magnetic Bond numbers, droplet sizes, and viscosity ratios.}, } @article {pmid32926106, year = {2020}, author = {Beratlis, N and Capuano, F and Krishnan, K and Gurka, R and Squires, K and Balaras, E}, title = {Direct Numerical Simulations of a Great Horn Owl in Flapping Flight.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {1091-1108}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa127}, pmid = {32926106}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {The fluid dynamics of owls in flapping flight is studied by coordinated experiments and computations. The great horned owl was selected, which is nocturnal, stealthy, and relatively large sized raptor. On the experimental side, perch-to-perch flight was considered in an open wind tunnel. The owl kinematics was captured with multiple cameras from different view angles. The kinematic extraction was central in driving the computations, which were designed to resolve all significant spatio-temporal scales in the flow with an unprecedented level of resolution. The wing geometry was extracted from the planform image of the owl wing and a three-dimensional model, the reference configuration, was reconstructed. This configuration was then deformed in time to best match the kinematics recorded during flights utilizing an image-registration technique based on the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework. All simulations were conducted using an eddy-resolving, high-fidelity, solver, where the large displacements/deformations of the flapping owl model were introduced with an immersed boundary formulation. We report detailed information on the spatio-temporal flow dynamics in the near wake including variables that are challenging to measure with sufficient accuracy, such as aerodynamic forces. At the same time, our results indicate that high-fidelity computations over smooth wings may have limitations in capturing the full range of flow phenomena in owl flight. The growth and subsequent separation of the laminar boundary layers developing over the wings in this Reynolds number regime is sensitive to the surface micro-features that are unique to each species.}, } @article {pmid32920676, year = {2020}, author = {Sprenger, AR and Shaik, VA and Ardekani, AM and Lisicki, M and Mathijssen, AJTM and Guzmán-Lastra, F and Löwen, H and Menzel, AM and Daddi-Moussa-Ider, A}, title = {Towards an analytical description of active microswimmers in clean and in surfactant-covered drops.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {43}, number = {9}, pages = {58}, doi = {10.1140/epje/i2020-11980-9}, pmid = {32920676}, issn = {1292-895X}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Theoretical ; Rheology ; Stress, Mechanical ; *Surface-Active Agents ; Suspensions ; Swimming ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Geometric confinements are frequently encountered in the biological world and strongly affect the stability, topology, and transport properties of active suspensions in viscous flow. Based on a far-field analytical model, the low-Reynolds-number locomotion of a self-propelled microswimmer moving inside a clean viscous drop or a drop covered with a homogeneously distributed surfactant, is theoretically examined. The interfacial viscous stresses induced by the surfactant are described by the well-established Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive rheological model. Moreover, the active agent is represented by a force dipole and the resulting fluid-mediated hydrodynamic couplings between the swimmer and the confining drop are investigated. We find that the presence of the surfactant significantly alters the dynamics of the encapsulated swimmer by enhancing its reorientation. Exact solutions for the velocity images for the Stokeslet and dipolar flow singularities inside the drop are introduced and expressed in terms of infinite series of harmonic components. Our results offer useful insights into guiding principles for the control of confined active matter systems and support the objective of utilizing synthetic microswimmers to drive drops for targeted drug delivery applications.}, } @article {pmid32916991, year = {2020}, author = {Khan, MZU and Uddin, E and Akbar, B and Akram, N and Naqvi, AA and Sajid, M and Ali, Z and Younis, MY and García Márquez, FP}, title = {Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Heat Sink Using Al2O3 and ZrO2 Nanofluids.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {32916991}, issn = {2079-4991}, support = {01110G0137//Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha/ ; }, abstract = {A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed to select the bent channel aspect ratio by varying width and height between 35-300 μm for Reynolds number and base temperature magnitude range of 100-1000 and 320-370 K, respectively. The bent channel results demonstrate dean vortices phenomenon at the bend for Reynolds number of 500 and above. Thermal performance factor analysis shows an increase of 18% in comparison to straight channels of 200 μm width and height. Alumina nanoparticles at 1% and 3% concentration enhance the Nusselt number by an average of 10.4% and 23.7%, respectively, whereas zirconia enhances Nusselt number by 16% and 33.9% for same concentrations. On the other hand, thermal performance factor analysis shows a significant increase in pressure drop at high Reynolds number with 3% particle concentration. Using zirconia for nanofluid, Nusselt number of the bent multi-channel model is improved by an average of 18% for a 3% particle concentration as compared to bent channel with deionized water.}, } @article {pmid32910129, year = {2020}, author = {Tang, W and Zhu, S and Jiang, D and Zhu, L and Yang, J and Xiang, N}, title = {Channel innovations for inertial microfluidics.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {20}, number = {19}, pages = {3485-3502}, doi = {10.1039/d0lc00714e}, pmid = {32910129}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Inertial microfluidics has gained significant attention since first being proposed in 2007 owing to the advantages of simplicity, high throughput, precise manipulation, and freedom from an external field. Superior performance in particle focusing, filtering, concentrating, and separating has been demonstrated. As a passive technology, inertial microfluidics technology relies on the unconventional use of fluid inertia in an intermediate Reynolds number range to induce inertial migration and secondary flow, which depend directly on the channel structure, leading to particle migration to the lateral equilibrium position or trapping in a specific cavity. With the advances in micromachining technology, many channel structures have been designed and fabricated in the past decade to explore the fundamentals and applications of inertial microfluidics. However, the channel innovations for inertial microfluidics have not been discussed comprehensively. In this review, the inertial particle manipulations and underlying physics in conventional channels, including straight, spiral, sinusoidal, and expansion-contraction channels, are briefly described. Then, recent innovations in channel structure for inertial microfluidics, especially channel pattern modification and unconventional cross-sectional shape, are reviewed. Finally, the prospects for future channel innovations in inertial microfluidic chips are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide guidance for the continued study of innovative channel designs to improve further the accuracy and throughput of inertial microfluidics.}, } @article {pmid32901617, year = {2021}, author = {Oâ Neill, G and Tolley, NS}, title = {Modelling nasal airflow coefficients: an insight into the nature of airflow.}, journal = {Rhinology}, volume = {59}, number = {1}, pages = {66-74}, doi = {10.4193/Rhin19.440}, pmid = {32901617}, issn = {0300-0729}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; *Nose ; *Pulmonary Ventilation ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: There has been considerable discussion and conflicting views regarding the presence of laminar or turbulent flow within the nose. The aim of this study was to investigate how the modelling of variable flow coefficients can assist in the evalua- tion of the characteristics of flow in the resistive segments of the nose.

METHODOLOGY: A comparison was made between the flow coefficient for the nasal valve, obtained from a mathematical model, and resistive flow components such as a Venturi meter and orifice tube. Also, a variable loss coefficient was formulated for the whole (unilateral) nose which, by utilising the intersection of the laminar and turbulent asymptotes, provided an estimation for the critical Reynolds number (Rcrit).

RESULTS: The results show that the flow resistance of the nasal valve is considerably greater than that for both a Venturi meter and an orifice tube implying turbulent or turbulent-like flow for much of nasal inspiration. Regarding the loss coefficient for the whole (unilateral) nose, normal respiration flowrates are displaced well away from the laminar asymptote. The critical Reynolds number was estimated to be 450.

CONCLUSIONS: A novel method of determining the flow characteristics of the nose, particularly the critical Reynolds number, is presented. The analysis indicates a higher degree of turbulence than is assumed from a simple traditional calculation using a hy- draulic diameter and flow through straight tubes. There are implications for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling where either the entire nasal airflow is assumed to be laminar or a low turbulence model implemented.}, } @article {pmid32895674, year = {2020}, author = {Tegze, G and Podmaniczky, F and Somfai, E and Börzsönyi, T and Gránásy, L}, title = {Orientational order in dense suspensions of elliptical particles in the non-Stokesian regime.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {16}, number = {38}, pages = {8925-8932}, doi = {10.1039/d0sm00370k}, pmid = {32895674}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {Suspensions of neutrally buoyant elliptic particles are modeled in 2D using fully resolved simulations that provide two-way interaction between the particle and the fluid medium. Forces due to particle collisions are represented by a diffuse interface approach that allows the investigation of dense suspensions (up to 47% packing fraction). We focus on the role inertial forces play at low and high particle Reynolds numbers termed low Reynolds number and inertial regimes, respectively. The suspensions are characterized by the orientation distribution function (ODF) that reflects shear induced rotation of the particles at low Reynolds numbers, and nearly stationary (swaying) particles at high Reynolds numbers. In both cases, orientational ordering differs qualitatively from the behavior observed in the Stokesian-regime. The ODF becomes flatter with increasing packing fraction, as opposed to the sharpening previous work predicted in the Stokesian regime. The ODF at low particle concentrations differs significantly for the low Reynolds number and inertial regimes, whereas with increasing packing fraction convergence is observed. For dense suspensions, the particle-particle interactions dominate the particle motion.}, } @article {pmid32881533, year = {2020}, author = {Cui, G and Jacobi, I}, title = {Magnetic Control of Ferrofluid Droplet Adhesion in Shear Flow and on Inclined Surfaces.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {36}, number = {36}, pages = {10885-10891}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02369}, pmid = {32881533}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {The manipulation of ferrofluidic droplets by magnetic fields is a popular technique for controlling fluid transport in open microfluidic systems. We examine the effect of gravity and shear flow external forces on the adhesion properties of sessile ferrofluidic droplets in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field was found to enhance the critical Bond number at which sliding begins on a tilting substrate but suppress the critical Weber number at which sliding begins in a moderate Reynolds number channel flow. The divergent adhesion trends are explained in terms of the shape deformation induced in the ferrofluidic droplet, the substrate wettability, and the apparent contact angle variation induced by the droplet deformation.}, } @article {pmid32879533, year = {2019}, author = {Battista, F and Mollicone, JP and Gualtieri, P and Messina, R and Casciola, CM}, title = {Exact regularized point particle (ERPP) method for particle-laden wall-bounded flows in the two-way coupling regime.}, journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics}, volume = {878}, number = {}, pages = {420-444}, pmid = {32879533}, issn = {0022-1120}, support = {339446/ERC_/European Research Council/International ; }, abstract = {The Exact Regularized Point Particle (ERPP) method is extended to treat the interphase momentum coupling between particles and fluid in the presence of walls by accounting for the vorticity generation due to the particles close to solid boundaries. The ERPP method overcomes the limitations of other methods by allowing the simulation of an extensive parameter space (Stokes number, mass loading, particle-to-fluid density ratio and Reynolds number) and of particle spatial distributions that are uneven (few particles per computational cell). The enhanced ERPP method is explained in detail and validated by considering the global impulse balance. In conditions when particles are located close to the wall, a common scenario in wall-bounded turbulent flows, the main contribution to the total impulse arises from the particle-induced vorticity at the solid boundary. The method is applied to direct numerical simulations of particle-laden turbulent pipe flow in the two-way coupling regime to address the turbulence modulation. The effects of the mass loading, the Stokes number and the particle-to-fluid density ratio are investigated. The drag is either unaltered or increased by the particles with respect to the uncoupled case. No drag reduction is found in the parameter space considered. The momentum stress budget, which includes an extra stress contribution by the particles, provides the rationale behind the drag behaviour. The extra stress produces a momentum flux towards the wall that strongly modifies the viscous stress, the culprit of drag at solid boundaries.}, } @article {pmid32876861, year = {2020}, author = {Mottaghi, S and Nazari, M and Fattahi, SM and Nazari, M and Babamohammadi, S}, title = {Droplet size prediction in a microfluidic flow focusing device using an adaptive network based fuzzy inference system.}, journal = {Biomedical microdevices}, volume = {22}, number = {3}, pages = {61}, doi = {10.1007/s10544-020-00513-4}, pmid = {32876861}, issn = {1572-8781}, abstract = {Microfluidics has wide applications in different technologies such as biomedical engineering, chemistry engineering, and medicine. Generating droplets with desired size for special applications needs costly and time-consuming iterations due to the nonlinear behavior of multiphase flow in a microfluidic device and the effect of several parameters on it. Hence, designing a flexible way to predict the droplet size is necessary. In this paper, we use the Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), by mixing the artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy inference system (FIS), to study the parameters which have effects on droplet size. The four main dimensionless parameters, i.e. the Capillary number, the Reynolds number, the flow ratio and the viscosity ratio are regarded as the inputs and the droplet diameter as the output of the ANFIS. Using dimensionless groups cause to extract more comprehensive results and avoiding more experimental tests. With the ANFIS, droplet sizes could be predicted with the coefficient of determination of 0.92.}, } @article {pmid32873833, year = {2020}, author = {McGurk, KA and Owen, B and Watson, WD and Nethononda, RM and Cordell, HJ and Farrall, M and Rider, OJ and Watkins, H and Revell, A and Keavney, BD}, title = {Heritability of haemodynamics in the ascending aorta.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {14356}, pmid = {32873833}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {RG/07/012/24110/BHF_/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom ; MR/K501311/1/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom ; RG/12/16/29939/BHF_/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom ; RG/15/12/31616/BHF_/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom ; RG/18/9/33887/BHF_/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom ; }, mesh = {Adult ; Aged ; Aorta/*diagnostic imaging/*physiopathology ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Cardiovascular Abnormalities/*genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genotyping Techniques ; Hemodynamics/*genetics ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods ; Male ; Middle Aged ; *Pedigree ; Phenotype ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Young Adult ; }, abstract = {Blood flow in the vasculature can be characterised by dimensionless numbers commonly used to define the level of instabilities in the flow, for example the Reynolds number, Re. Haemodynamics play a key role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. Genetic studies have identified mechanosensitive genes with causal roles in CVD. Given that CVD is highly heritable and abnormal blood flow may increase risk, we investigated the heritability of fluid metrics in the ascending aorta calculated using patient-specific data from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. 341 participants from 108 British Caucasian families were phenotyped by CMR and genotyped for 557,124 SNPs. Flow metrics were derived from the CMR images to provide some local information about blood flow in the ascending aorta, based on maximum values at systole at a single location, denoted max, and a 'peak mean' value averaged over the area of the cross section, denoted pm. Heritability was estimated using pedigree-based (QTDT) and SNP-based (GCTA-GREML) methods. Estimates of Reynolds number based on spatially averaged local flow during systole showed substantial heritability ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), while the estimated heritability for Reynolds number calculated using the absolute local maximum velocity was not statistically significant (12-13%; [Formula: see text]). Heritability estimates of the geometric quantities alone; e.g. aortic diameter ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), were also substantially heritable, as described previously. These findings indicate the potential for the discovery of genetic factors influencing haemodynamic traits in large-scale genotyped and phenotyped cohorts where local spatial averaging is used, rather than instantaneous values. Future Mendelian randomisation studies of aortic haemodynamic estimates, which are swift to derive in a clinical setting, will allow for the investigation of causality of abnormal blood flow in CVD.}, } @article {pmid32859015, year = {2020}, author = {Nichka, VS and Geoffroy, TR and Nikonenko, V and Bazinet, L}, title = {Impacts of Flow Rate and Pulsed Electric Field Current Mode on Protein Fouling Formation during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidification of Skim Milk.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {32859015}, issn = {2077-0375}, support = {SD-210829409//Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada/ ; 19-38-90256//Russian Foundation for Basic Research/ ; }, abstract = {Fouling is one of the major problems in electrodialysis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of five different solution flow rates (corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 162, 242, 323, 404 and 485) combined with the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) current mode on protein fouling of bipolar membrane (BPM) during electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) of skim milk. The application of PEF prevented the fouling formation by proteins on the cationic interface of the BPM almost completely, regardless of the flow rate or Reynolds number. Indeed, under PEF mode of current the weight of protein fouling was negligible in comparison with CC current mode (0.07 ± 0.08 mg/cm2 versus 5.56 ± 2.40 mg/cm2). When a continuous current (CC) mode was applied, Reynolds number equals or higher than 323 corresponded to a minimal value of protein fouling of BPM. This positive effect of both increasing the flow rate and using PEF is due to the facts that during pauses, the solution flow flushes the accumulated protein from the membrane while in the same time there is a decrease in concentration polarization (CP) and consequently decrease in H+ generation at the cationic interface of the BPM, minimizing fouling formation and accumulation.}, } @article {pmid32858042, year = {2020}, author = {Tripathi, D and Prakash, J and Tiwari, AK and Ellahi, R}, title = {Thermal, microrotation, electromagnetic field and nanoparticle shape effects on Cu-CuO/blood flow in microvascular vessels.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {132}, number = {}, pages = {104065}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2020.104065}, pmid = {32858042}, issn = {1095-9319}, mesh = {Animals ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Copper/*chemistry ; *Electromagnetic Fields ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; *Microcirculation ; *Microfluidic Analytical Techniques ; Microvessels/*physiology ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; *Nanoparticles ; Pulsatile Flow ; Regional Blood Flow ; Rotation ; *Temperature ; Time Factors ; }, abstract = {A thermal analysis of Cu-CuO/ blood nanofluids flow in asymmetric microchannel propagating with wave velocity is presented in this study. For the blood, a micropolar fluid model is considered to investigate the microrotation effects of blood flow. Thermal radiation effects and the influence of nanoparticle shape, electric double layer thickness, and electromagnetic fields on the flow are studied. Three types of nanoparticles shapes namely cylinder, bricks and platelets are taken into account. Governing equations are solved under the approximations of long wavelength, low Reynolds number, and Debye-Hückel linearization. Numerical computations are performed for the axial pressure gradient, axial velocity, spin velocity and temperature distribution. The effects of various physical parameters on flow and thermal characteristics are computed and their physical interpretation is also discussed. The outcomes indicate that the axial velocity of Cu-CuO/blood nanoparticles strongly depends on applied electromagnetic field and microrotation. The model's finding will be applicable in designing the smart electromagnetic micro pumps for the hemodialysis and lungs-on-chip devices for the pumping of the blood.}, } @article {pmid32850285, year = {2020}, author = {Zhu, L and Xu, B and Wu, X and Lei, J and Hacker, DL and Liang, X and Wurm, FM}, title = {Analysis of volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a) in small- (250 mL) to large-scale (2500 L) orbitally shaken bioreactors.}, journal = {3 Biotech}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {397}, pmid = {32850285}, issn = {2190-572X}, abstract = {In this study, the combination of dimensional analysis (DA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to predict the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a) values under different operating conditions for orbitally shaken bioreactors (OSRs) with different filling volumes. It was found that Reynolds number and the interaction between Froude number and geometric number have the largest impact on k L a with impact indexes of 7.41 and 7.50, respectively. Moreover, the volume number has the largest negative impact on k L a, with an impact index of - 5.34. Thus, an effective way to increase the oxygen supply is by increasing the shaking speed and shaking diameter or decreasing the vessel diameter. However, cell cultivation with a higher filling volume will have an increased risk of oxygen scarcity. Therefore, with the help of the k L a prediction model, a suitable operating condition can be determined effectively and easily.}, } @article {pmid32846914, year = {2020}, author = {Ghalambaz, M and Arasteh, H and Mashayekhi, R and Keshmiri, A and Talebizadehsardari, P and Yaïci, W}, title = {Investigation of Overlapped Twisted Tapes Inserted in a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Two-Phase Nanofluid.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/nano10091656}, pmid = {32846914}, issn = {2079-4991}, abstract = {This study investigated the laminar convective heat transfer and fluid flow of Al2O3 nanofluid in a counter flow double-pipe heat exchanger equipped with overlapped twisted tape inserts in both inner and outer tubes. Two models of the same (co-swirling twisted tapes) and opposite (counter-swirling twisted tapes) angular directions for the stationary twisted tapes were considered. The computational fluid dynamic simulations were conducted through varying the design parameters, including the angular direction of twisted tape inserts, nanofluid volume concentration, and Reynolds number. It was found that inserting the overlapped twisted tapes in the heat exchanger significantly increases the thermal performance as well as the friction factor compared with the plain heat exchanger. The results indicate that models of co-swirling twisted tapes and counter-swirling twisted tapes increase the average Nusselt number by almost 35.2-66.2% and 42.1-68.7% over the Reynolds number ranging 250-1000, respectively. To assess the interplay between heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss penalty, the dimensionless number of performance evaluation criterion was calculated for all the captured configurations. Ultimately, the highest value of performance evaluation criterion is equal to 1.40 and 1.26 at inner and outer tubes at the Reynolds number of 1000 and the volume fraction of 3% in the case of counter-swirling twisted tapes model.}, } @article {pmid32845950, year = {2020}, author = {Zhang, S and Cui, Z and Wang, Y and den Toonder, JMJ}, title = {Metachronal actuation of microscopic magnetic artificial cilia generates strong microfluidic pumping.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {20}, number = {19}, pages = {3569-3581}, doi = {10.1039/d0lc00610f}, pmid = {32845950}, issn = {1473-0189}, mesh = {*Cilia ; Magnetic Fields ; Magnetics ; *Microfluidics ; Motion ; }, abstract = {Biological cilia that generate fluid flow or propulsion are often found to exhibit a collective wavelike metachronal motion, i.e. neighboring cilia beat slightly out-of-phase rather than synchronously. Inspired by this observation, this article experimentally demonstrates that microscopic magnetic artificial cilia (μMAC) performing a metachronal motion can generate strong microfluidic flows, though, interestingly, the mechanism is different from that in biological cilia, as is found through a systematic experimental study. The μMAC are actuated by a facile magnetic setup, consisting of an array of rod-shaped magnets. This arrangement imposes a time-dependent non-uniform magnetic field on the μMAC array, resulting in a phase difference between the beatings of adjacent μMAC, while each cilium exhibits a two-dimensional whip-like motion. By performing the metachronal 2D motion, the μMAC are able to generate a strong flow in a microfluidic chip, with velocities of up to 3000 μm s-1 in water, which, different from biological cilia, is found to be a result of combined metachronal and inertial effects, in addition to the effect of asymmetric beating. The pumping performance of the metachronal μMAC outperforms all previously reported microscopic artificial cilia, and is competitive with that of most of the existing microfluidic pumping methods, while the proposed platform requires no physical connection to peripheral equipment, reduces the usage of reagents by minimizing "dead volumes", avoids undesirable electrical effects, and accommodates a wide range of different fluids. The 2D metachronal motion can also generate a flow with velocities up to 60 μm s-1 in pure glycerol, where Reynolds number is less than 0.05 and the flow is primarily caused by the metachronal motion of the μMAC. These findings offer a novel solution to not only create on-chip integrated micropumps, but also design swimming and walking microrobots, as well as self-cleaning and antifouling surfaces.}, } @article {pmid32833583, year = {2020}, author = {Latt, J and Coreixas, C and Beny, J and Parmigiani, A}, title = {Efficient supersonic flow simulations using lattice Boltzmann methods based on numerical equilibria.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {378}, number = {2175}, pages = {20190559}, pmid = {32833583}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {A double-distribution-function based lattice Boltzmann method (DDF-LBM) is proposed for the simulation of polyatomic gases in the supersonic regime. The model relies on a numerical equilibrium that has been extensively used by discrete velocity methods since the late 1990s. Here, it is extended to reproduce an arbitrary number of moments of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. These extensions to the standard 5-constraint (mass, momentum and energy) approach lead to the correct simulation of thermal, compressible flows with only 39 discrete velocities in 3D. The stability of this BGK-LBM is reinforced by relying on Knudsen-number-dependent relaxation times that are computed analytically. Hence, high Reynolds-number, supersonic flows can be simulated in an efficient and elegant manner. While the 1D Riemann problem shows the ability of the proposed approach to handle discontinuities in the zero-viscosity limit, the simulation of the supersonic flow past a NACA0012 aerofoil confirms the excellent behaviour of this model in a low-viscosity and supersonic regime. The flow past a sphere is further simulated to investigate the 3D behaviour of our model in the low-viscosity supersonic regime. The proposed model is shown to be substantially more efficient than the previous 5-moment D3Q343 DDF-LBM for both CPU and GPU architectures. It then opens up a whole new world of compressible flow applications that can be realistically tackled with a purely LB approach. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fluid dynamics, soft matter and complex systems: recent results and new methods'.}, } @article {pmid32828761, year = {2020}, author = {Akram, J and Akbar, NS and Tripathi, D}, title = {Blood-based graphene oxide nanofluid flow through capillary in the presence of electromagnetic fields: A Sutterby fluid model.}, journal = {Microvascular research}, volume = {132}, number = {}, pages = {104062}, doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2020.104062}, pmid = {32828761}, issn = {1095-9319}, mesh = {Animals ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Capillaries/*physiology ; Computer Simulation ; *Electromagnetic Fields ; Graphite/*chemistry ; Humans ; *Microcirculation ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; *Nanoparticles ; Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted ; *Pulsatile Flow ; Time Factors ; }, abstract = {Pumping devices with the electrokinetics phenomena are important in many microscale transport phenomena in physiology. This study presents a theoretical and numerical investigation on the peristaltic pumping of non-Newtonian Sutterby nanofluid through capillary in presence of electromagnetohydrodynamics. Here blood (Sutterby fluid) is taken as a base fluid and nanofluid is prepared by the suspension of graphene oxide nanoparticle in blood. Graphene oxide is extremely useful in the medical domain for drug delivery and cancer treatment. The modified Buongiorno model for nanofluids and Poisson-Boltzmann ionic distribution is adopted for the formulation of the present problem. Constitutive flow equations are linearized by the implementation of approximations low Reynolds number, large wavelength, and the Debye-Hückel linearization. The numerical solution of reduced coupled and nonlinear set of equations is computed through Mathematica and graphical illustration is presented. Further, the impacts of buoyancy forces, thermal radiation, and mixed convection are also studied. It is revealed in this investigation that the inclusion of a large number of nanoparticles alters the flow characteristics significantly and boosts the heat transfer mechanism. Moreover, the pumping power of the peristaltic pump can be enhanced by the reduction in the width of the electric double layer which can be done by altering the electrolyte concentration.}, } @article {pmid32810744, year = {2020}, author = {Moruzzi, RB and Campos, LC and Sharifi, S and da Silva, PG and Gregory, J}, title = {Nonintrusive investigation of large Al-kaolin fractal aggregates with slow settling velocities.}, journal = {Water research}, volume = {185}, number = {}, pages = {116287}, doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2020.116287}, pmid = {32810744}, issn = {1879-2448}, mesh = {Flocculation ; *Fractals ; *Kaolin ; Particle Size ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {Although a combination of aggregate characteristics dictate particle settling, it is commonly assumed that large particles have higher terminal velocities. This simplifying assumption often leads to overprediction of large aggregate settling velocities which in turn negatively impacts on estimates of sedimentation clarification efficiency. Despite its importance, little attention has been given to large aggregates with slow-settling velocities. This paper addresses this gap by investigating slow-settling velocities of large, heterodisperse and multi-shape Al-kaolin aggregates using non-intrusive methods. A particle image velocimetry technique (PIV) was applied to track aggregate velocity and a non-intrusive image technique was used to determine aggregate characteristics, including size (df), three-dimensional fractal dimension (Df), density (ρf), aggregate velocity (Vexp) and Reynolds number (Re). Results showed no strict dependence of settling velocity on large aggregate size, shape and density, as Al-kaolin aggregates with the same size exhibited different settling velocities. A comparison of the results with the well-known Stokes' law for velocity modified by a shape factor showed that the settling velocities measured here can vary from 2 to 14 fold lower than the predicted values for perfect sphere-shape aggregates with the same density and size. Furthermore, results have also shown large Al-kaolin aggregate's drag coefficient (Cd) to be around 56/Re, for average fractal aggregate sphericity of around 0.58.}, } @article {pmid32809129, year = {2021}, author = {Cui, J and Liu, Y and Xiao, L and Chen, S and Fu, BM}, title = {Numerical study on the adhesion of a circulating tumor cell in a curved microvessel.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {20}, number = {1}, pages = {243-254}, pmid = {32809129}, issn = {1617-7940}, support = {G-UAHL//Hong Kong Polytechnic University/ ; G-UACM//Hong Kong Polytechnic University/ ; 19YF1417400//Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality/ ; 11902188//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {The adhesion of a circulating tumor cell (CTC) in a three-dimensional curved microvessel was numerically investigated. Simulations were first performed to characterize the differences in the dynamics and adhesion of a CTC in the straight and curved vessels. After that, a parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of the applied driven force density f (or the flow Reynolds number Re) and the CTC membrane bending modulus Kb on the CTC adhesion. Our simulation results show that the CTC prefers to adhere to the curved vessel as more bonds are formed around the transition region of the curved part due to the increased cell-wall contact by the centrifugal force. The parametric study also indicates that when the flow driven force f (or Re) increases or when the CTC becomes softer (Kb decreases), the bond formation probability increases and the bonds will be formed at more sites of a curved vessel. The increased f (or Re) brings a larger centrifugal force, while the decreased Kb generates more contact areas at the cell-wall interface, both of which are beneficial to the bond formation. In the curved vessel, it is found that the site where bonds are formed the most (hotspot) varies with the applied f and the Kb. For our vessel geometry, when f is small, the hotspot tends to be within the first bend of the vessel, while as f increases or Kb decreases, the hotspot may shift to the second bend of the vessel.}, } @article {pmid32805051, year = {2020}, author = {Rao, C and Liu, H}, title = {Effects of Reynolds Number and Distribution on Passive Flow Control in Owl-Inspired Leading-Edge Serrations.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {1135-1146}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa119}, pmid = {32805051}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {As a sophisticated micro device for noise reduction, the owl-inspired leading-edge (LE) serrations have been confirmed capable of achieving passive control of laminar-turbulent transition while normally paying a cost of lowering the aerodynamic performance in low Reynolds number (Re∼O[103]) regime. In order to explore potential applications of the owl-inspired serrated airfoils or blades in developing low noise wind turbines or multi-copters normally operating at higher Res, we conducted a large-eddy simulation (LES)-based study of Re effects on the aerodynamic performance of 2D clean and serrated models. Our results show that the LE serrations keep working effectively in mitigating turbulent fluctuations over a broad range of Re (O[103] ∼ O[105]), capable of achieving marked improvement in lift-to-drag ratio with increasing Res. As the aeroacoustic fields are in close association with the propagation of the turbulence sources, it is observed that the tradeoff between passive mitigation of turbulent fluctuations (hence aeroacoustic noise suppression) and aerodynamic performance can be noticeably mitigated at large angles of attack (AoAs) and at high Res. This indicates that the LE serrations present an alternative passive flow control mechanism at high Res through a straightforward local excitation of the flow transition while capable of mitigating the turbulent intensity passively. We further developed a 3D LES model of clean and partially serrated rectangular wings to investigate the effects of the LE serrations' distribution on aerodynamic features, on the basis of the observation that longer serrations are often distributed intensively in the mid-span of real owl's feathers. We find that the mid-span distributed LE serrations can facilitate the break-up of LE vortices and the turbulent transition passively and effectively while achieving a low level of turbulence kinetic energy over the upper suction surface of the wing.}, } @article {pmid32801384, year = {2020}, author = {Ardeshiri, H and Cassiani, M and Park, SY and Stohl, A and Pisso, I and Dinger, AS}, title = {On the Convergence and Capability of the Large-Eddy Simulation of Concentration Fluctuations in Passive Plumes for a Neutral Boundary Layer at Infinite Reynolds Number.}, journal = {Boundary-layer meteorology}, volume = {176}, number = {3}, pages = {291-327}, pmid = {32801384}, issn = {0006-8314}, abstract = {Large-eddy simulation (LES) experiments have been performed using the Parallelized LES Model (PALM). A methodology for validating and understanding LES results for plume dispersion and concentration fluctuations in an atmospheric-like flow is presented. A wide range of grid resolutions is shown to be necessary for investigating the convergence of statistical characteristics of velocity and scalar fields. For the scalar, the statistical moments up to the fourth order and the shape of the concentration probability density function (p.d.f.) are examined. The mean concentration is influenced by grid resolution, with the highest resolution simulation showing a lower mean concentration, linked to larger turbulent structures. However, a clear tendency to convergence of the concentration variance is observed at the two higher resolutions. This behaviour is explained by showing that the mechanisms driving the mean and the variance are differently influenced by the grid resolution. The analysis of skewness and kurtosis allows also the obtaining of general results on plume concentration fluctuations. Irrespective of grid resolution, a family of Gamma p.d.f.s well represents the shape of the concentration p.d.f. but only beyond the peak of the concentration fluctuation intensity. In the early plume dispersion phases, the moments of the p.d.f. are in good agreement with those generated by a fluctuating plume model. To the best of our knowledge, our study demonstrates for the first time that, if resolution and averaging time are adequate, atmospheric LES provides a trustworthy representation of the high order moments of the concentration field, up to the fourth order, for a dispersing plume.}, } @article {pmid32796948, year = {2020}, author = {Ryan, DP and Chen, Y and Nguyen, P and Goodwin, PM and Carey, JW and Kang, Q and Werner, JH and Viswanathan, HS}, title = {3D particle transport in multichannel microfluidic networks with rough surfaces.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {13848}, pmid = {32796948}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {20180151ER//Laboratory Directed Research and Development,United States/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation/ ; FWP LANLE3W1//Basic Energy Sciences/ ; }, abstract = {The transport of particles and fluids through multichannel microfluidic networks is influenced by details of the channels. Because channels have micro-scale textures and macro-scale geometries, this transport can differ from the case of ideally smooth channels. Surfaces of real channels have irregular boundary conditions to which streamlines adapt and with which particle interact. In low-Reynolds number flows, particles may experience inertial forces that result in trans-streamline movement and the reorganization of particle distributions. Such transport is intrinsically 3D and an accurate measurement must capture movement in all directions. To measure the effects of non-ideal surface textures on particle transport through complex networks, we developed an extended field-of-view 3D macroscope for high-resolution tracking across large volumes ([Formula: see text]) and investigated a model multichannel microfluidic network. A topographical profile of the microfluidic surfaces provided lattice Boltzmann simulations with a detailed feature map to precisely reconstruct the experimental environment. Particle distributions from simulations closely reproduced those observed experimentally and both measurements were sensitive to the effects of surface roughness. Under the conditions studied, inertial focusing organized large particles into an annular distribution that limited their transport throughout the network while small particles were transported uniformly to all regions.}, } @article {pmid32783851, year = {2020}, author = {Deng, D and Pan, Y and Liu, G and Liu, W and Ma, L}, title = {Seeking the hotspots of nitrogen removal: A comparison of sediment denitrification rate and denitrifier abundance among wetland types with different hydrological conditions.}, journal = {The Science of the total environment}, volume = {737}, number = {}, pages = {140253}, doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140253}, pmid = {32783851}, issn = {1879-1026}, mesh = {China ; Denitrification ; Hydrology ; *Nitrogen ; *Wetlands ; }, abstract = {Wetlands play a vital role in removing nitrogen (N) from aquatic environments via the denitrification process, which is regulated by multiple environmental and biological factors. Until now, the mechanisms by which environmental factors and microbial abundance regulate denitrification rates in wetlands under different hydrological conditions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated sediment potential denitrification rate (PDR) and unamended denitrification rate (UDR), and quantified denitrifier abundance (nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes) in 36 stream, river, pond, and ditch wetland sites along the Dan River, a nitrogen-rich river in central China. The result indicated that ditches had the highest denitrification rates and denitrifier abundance. Both PDR and UDR showed strong seasonality, and were observed to be negatively correlated with water velocity in streams and rivers. Moreover, denitrification rates were significantly related to denitrifier abundance and many water quality parameters and sediment properties. Interestingly, PDR and UDR were generally positively associated with N and carbon (C) availability in streams and rivers, but such correlations were not found in ponds and ditches. Using a scaling analysis, we found that environmental parameters, including Reynolds number, sediment total C ratio, and interstitial space, coupled with relative nirS gene abundance could predict the hotspots of denitrification rates in wetlands with varying hydrologic regimes. Our findings highlight that hydrological conditions, especially water velocity and hydrologic pulsing, play a nonnegligible role in determining N biogeochemical processes in wetlands.}, } @article {pmid32770358, year = {2020}, author = {Patterson, LHC and Walker, JL and Naivar, MA and Rodriguez-Mesa, E and Hoonejani, MR and Shields, K and Foster, JS and Doyle, AM and Valentine, MT and Foster, KL}, title = {Inertial flow focusing: a case study in optimizing cellular trajectory through a microfluidic MEMS device for timing-critical applications.}, journal = {Biomedical microdevices}, volume = {22}, number = {3}, pages = {52}, doi = {10.1007/s10544-020-00508-1}, pmid = {32770358}, issn = {1572-8781}, support = {1631656//Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems/International ; 1254893//Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation/International ; }, mesh = {Buffers ; Equipment Design ; *Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems/*instrumentation ; Microspheres ; Particle Size ; Polystyrenes/chemistry ; Temperature ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Although microfluidic micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are well suited to investigate the effects of mechanical force on large populations of cells, their high-throughput capabilities cannot be fully leveraged without optimizing the experimental conditions of the fluid and particles flowing through them. Parameters such as flow velocity and particle size are known to affect the trajectories of particles in microfluidic systems and have been studied extensively, but the effects of temperature and buffer viscosity are not as well understood. In this paper, we explored the effects of these parameters on the timing of our own cell-impact device, the μHammer, by first tracking the velocity of polystyrene beads through the device and then visualizing the impact of these beads. Through these assays, we find that the timing of our device is sensitive to changes in the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces that particles experience while traveling through the device. This sensitivity provides a set of parameters that can serve as a robust framework for optimizing device performance under various experimental conditions, without requiring extensive geometric redesigns. Using these tools, we were able to achieve an effective throughput over 360 beads/s with our device, demonstrating the potential of this framework to improve the consistency of microfluidic systems that rely on precise particle trajectories and timing.}, } @article {pmid32766844, year = {2020}, author = {Waldrop, LD and He, Y and Hedrick, TL and Rader, JA}, title = {Functional Morphology of Gliding Flight I: Modeling Reveals Distinct Performance Landscapes Based on Soaring Strategies.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {1283-1296}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa114}, pmid = {32766844}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {The physics of flight influences the morphology of bird wings through natural selection on flight performance. The connection between wing morphology and performance is unclear due to the complex relationships between various parameters of flight. In order to better understand this connection, we present a holistic analysis of gliding flight that preserves complex relationships between parameters. We use a computational model of gliding flight, along with analysis by uncertainty quantification, to (1) create performance landscapes of gliding based on output metrics (maximum lift-to-drag ratio, minimum gliding angle, minimum sinking speed, and lift coefficient at minimum sinking speed) and (2) predict what parameters of flight (chordwise camber, wing aspect ratio [AR], and Reynolds number) would differ between gliding and nongliding species of birds. We also examine performance based on the soaring strategy for possible differences in morphology within gliding birds. Gliding birds likely have greater ARs than non-gliding birds, due to the high sensitivity of AR on most metrics of gliding performance. Furthermore, gliding birds can use two distinct soaring strategies based on performance landscapes. First, maximizing distance traveled (maximizing lift-to-drag ratio and minimizing gliding angle) should result in wings with high ARs and middling-to-low wing chordwise camber. Second, maximizing lift extracted from updrafts should result in wings with middling ARs and high wing chordwise camber. Following studies can test these hypotheses using morphological measurements.}, } @article {pmid32762434, year = {2020}, author = {Arrieta, J and Cartwright, JHE and Gouillart, E and Piro, N and Piro, O and Tuval, I}, title = {Geometric mixing.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {378}, number = {2179}, pages = {20200168}, pmid = {32762434}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {Mixing fluids often involves a periodic action, like stirring one's tea. But reciprocating motions in fluids at low Reynolds number, in Stokes flows where inertia is negligible, lead to periodic cycles of mixing and unmixing, because the physics, molecular diffusion excepted, is time reversible. So how can fluid be mixed in such circumstances? The answer involves a geometric phase. Geometric phases are found everywhere in physics as anholonomies, where after a closed circuit in the parameters, some system variables do not return to their original values. We discuss the geometric phase in fluid mixing: geometric mixing. This article is part of the theme issue 'Stokes at 200 (part 2)'.}, } @article {pmid32752686, year = {2020}, author = {Seyler, SL and Pressé, S}, title = {Surmounting potential barriers: Hydrodynamic memory hedges against thermal fluctuations in particle transport.}, journal = {The Journal of chemical physics}, volume = {153}, number = {4}, pages = {041102}, doi = {10.1063/5.0013722}, pmid = {32752686}, issn = {1089-7690}, abstract = {Recently, trapped-particle experiments have probed the instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion revealing that, at early times, hydrodynamic history forces dominate Stokes damping. In these experiments, nonuniform particle motion is well described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (BBO) equation, which captures the unsteady Basset history force at a low Reynolds number. Building off of these results, earlier we showed that, at low temperature, BBO particles could exploit fluid inertia in order to overcome potential barriers (generically modeled as a tilted washboard), while its Langevin counter-part could not. Here, we explore the behavior of neutrally buoyant BBO particles at finite temperature for moderate Stokes damping. Remarkably, we find that the transport of particles injected into a bumpy potential with sufficiently high barriers can be completely quenched at intermediate temperatures, whereas itinerancy may be possible above and below that temperature window. This effect is present for both Langevin and BBO dynamics, though these occur over drastically different temperature ranges. Furthermore, hydrodynamic memory mitigates these effects by sustaining initial particle momentum, even in the difficult intermediate temperature regime.}, } @article {pmid32752632, year = {2020}, author = {Romanò, F and Türkbay, T and Kuhlmann, HC}, title = {Lagrangian chaos in steady three-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {30}, number = {7}, pages = {073121}, doi = {10.1063/5.0005792}, pmid = {32752632}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {Steady three-dimensional flows in lid-driven cavities are investigated numerically using a high-order spectral-element solver for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The focus is placed on critical points in the flow field, critical limit cycles, their heteroclinic connections, and on the existence, shape, and dependence on the Reynolds number of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori. In finite-length cuboidal cavities at small Reynolds numbers, a thin layer of chaotic streamlines covers all walls. As the Reynolds number is increased, the chaotic layer widens and the complementary KAM tori shrink, eventually undergoing resonances, until they vanish. Accurate data for the location of closed streamlines and of KAM tori are provided, both of which reach very close to the moving lid. For steady periodic Taylor-Görtler vortices in spanwise infinitely extended cavities with a square cross section, chaotic streamlines occupy a large part of the flow domain immediately after the onset of Taylor-Görtler vortices. As the Reynolds number increases, the remaining KAM tori vanish from the Taylor-Görtler vortices, while KAM tori grow in the central region further away from the solid walls.}, } @article {pmid32752610, year = {2020}, author = {Chatterjee, S and Verma, MK}, title = {Kolmogorov flow: Linear stability and energy transfers in a minimal low-dimensional model.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {30}, number = {7}, pages = {073110}, doi = {10.1063/5.0002751}, pmid = {32752610}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {In this paper, we derive a four-mode model for the Kolmogorov flow by employing Galerkin truncation and the Craya-Herring basis for the decomposition of velocity field. After this, we perform a bifurcation analysis of the model. Though our low-dimensional model has fewer modes than past models, it captures the essential features of the primary bifurcation of the Kolmogorov flow. For example, it reproduces the critical Reynolds number for the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation and the flow structures of past works. We also demonstrate energy transfers from intermediate scales to large scales. We perform direct numerical simulations of the Kolmogorov flow and show that our model predictions match the numerical simulations very well.}, } @article {pmid32752609, year = {2020}, author = {Josserand, C and Le Berre, M and Pomeau, Y}, title = {Scaling laws in turbulence.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {30}, number = {7}, pages = {073137}, doi = {10.1063/1.5144147}, pmid = {32752609}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {Following the idea that dissipation in turbulence at high Reynolds number is dominated by singular events in space-time and described by solutions of the inviscid Euler equations, we draw the conclusion that in such flows, scaling laws should depend only on quantities appearing in the Euler equations. This excludes viscosity or a turbulent length as scaling parameters and constrains drastically possible analytical pictures of this limit. We focus on the drag law deduced by Newton for a projectile moving quickly in a fluid at rest. Inspired by this Newton's drag force law (proportional to the square of the speed of the moving object in the limit of large Reynolds numbers), which is well verified in experiments when the location of the detachment of the boundary layer is defined, we propose an explicit relationship between the Reynolds stress in the turbulent wake and quantities depending on the velocity field (averaged in time but depending on space). This model takes the form of an integrodifferential equation for the velocity which is eventually solved for a Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe.}, } @article {pmid32751881, year = {2020}, author = {Voglhuber-Brunnmaier, T and Jakoby, B}, title = {Higher-Order Models for Resonant Viscosity and Mass-Density Sensors.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {20}, number = {15}, pages = {}, pmid = {32751881}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {LCM (COMET-K2)//Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft/ ; }, abstract = {Advanced fluid models relating viscosity and density to resonance frequency and quality factor of vibrating structures immersed in fluids are presented. The numerous established models which are ultimately all based on the same approximation are refined, such that the measurement range for viscosity can be extended. Based on the simple case of a vibrating cylinder and dimensional analysis, general models for arbitrary order of approximation are derived. Furthermore, methods for model parameter calibration and the inversion of the models to determine viscosity and/or density from measured resonance parameters are shown. One of the two presented fluid models is a viscosity-only model, where the parameters of it can be calibrated without knowledge of the fluid density. The models are demonstrated for a tuning fork-based commercial instrument, where maximum deviations between measured and reference viscosities of approximately ±0.5% in the viscosity range from 1.3 to 243 mPas could be achieved. It is demonstrated that these results show a clear improvement over the existing models.}, } @article {pmid32738822, year = {2020}, author = {Manchester, EL and Xu, XY}, title = {The effect of turbulence on transitional flow in the FDA's benchmark nozzle model using large-eddy simulation.}, journal = {International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering}, volume = {36}, number = {10}, pages = {e3389}, doi = {10.1002/cnm.3389}, pmid = {32738822}, issn = {2040-7947}, abstract = {The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) benchmark nozzle model has been studied extensively both experimentally and computationally. Although considerable efforts have been made on validations of a variety of numerical models against available experimental data, the transitional flow cases are still not fully resolved, especially with regards to detailed comparison of predicted turbulence quantities with experimental measurements. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting large-eddy simulations (LES) of flow through the FDA's benchmark model, at a transitional Reynolds number of 2000. Numerical results are compared to previous interlaboratory experimental results, with an emphasis on turbulence characteristics. Our results show that the LES methodology can accurately capture laminar quantities throughout the model. In the pre-jet breakdown region, predicted turbulence quantities are generally larger than high resolution experimental data acquired with laser Doppler velocimetry. In the jet breakdown regions, where maximum Reynolds stresses occur, Reynolds shear stresses show excellent agreement. Differences of up to 4% and 20% are observed near the jet core in the axial and radial normal Reynolds stresses, respectively. Comparisons between viscous and Reynolds shear stresses show that peak viscous shear stresses occur in the nozzle throat reaching a value of 18 Pa in the boundary layer, whilst peak Reynolds shear stresses occur in the jet breakdown region reaching a maximum value of 87 Pa. Our results highlight the importance in considering both laminar and turbulent contributions towards shear stresses and that neglecting the turbulence effect can significantly underestimate the total shear force exerted on the fluid.}, } @article {pmid32731122, year = {2020}, author = {Ahmed, R and Ali, N and Al-Khaled, K and Khan, SU and Tlili, I}, title = {Finite difference simulations for non-isothermal hydromagnetic peristaltic flow of a bio-fluid in a curved channel: Applications to physiological systems.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {195}, number = {}, pages = {105672}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105672}, pmid = {32731122}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Body Fluids ; Equipment Design ; *Peristalsis ; Rheology ; Temperature ; }, abstract = {Owing to the fundamental significances of peristalsis phenomenon in various biological systems like circulation of blood in vessels, lungs devices, pumping of blood in heart and movement of chyme in the gastrointestinal tract, variety of research by scientist on this topic has been presented in recently years. The peristaltic pumping plays a novel role in various industrial processes like transfer of sanitary materials, the pumping equipment design of roller pumps and many more. The present article investigates numerically the theoretical aspects of heat and mass transportation in peristaltic pattern of Carreau fluid through a curved channel. The computations for axial velocity, pressure rise, temperature field, mass concentration, and stream function are carried out under low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation in the wave frame of reference by utilizing appropriate numerical implicit finite difference technique (FDM). The implementation of numerical procedure and graphical representation of the computations are accomplished using MATLAB language. The impacts of rheological parameters of Carreau fluid, Brinkmann number, curvature parameter and Hartmann number are shown and discussed briefly. The study shows that for shear thinning of bio-materials, the velocity exhibits the boundary layer character near the boundary walls for greater Hartmann number. The interesting observations based on numerical simulations are graphically elaborated. The results show that the curvature of channel with larger value allows more heat transportation within the flow domain. On the contrary, inside the channel wall, the solutal mass concentration follows an increasing trend with decreasing the channel curvature. The temperature profile enhanced with increment of power-law index and curvature parameter. Moreover, the concentration profile increases with Brinkmann number and Hartmann number.}, } @article {pmid32728231, year = {2020}, author = {Boukharfane, R and Parsani, M and Bodart, J}, title = {Characterization of pressure fluctuations within a controlled-diffusion blade boundary layer using the equilibrium wall-modelled LES.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {12735}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-020-69671-y}, pmid = {32728231}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In this study, the generation of airfoil trailing edge broadband noise that arises from the interaction of turbulent boundary layer with the airfoil trailing edge is investigated. The primary objectives of this work are: (i) to apply a wall-modelled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) approach to predict the flow of air passing a controlled-diffusion blade, and (ii) to study the blade broadband noise that is generated from the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a lifting surface trailing edge. This study is carried out for two values of the Mach number, [Formula: see text] and 0.5, two values of the chord Reynolds number, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and two angles of attack, AoA [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. To examine the influence of the grid resolution on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, we compare our results with experimental data available in the literature. We also compare our results with two in-house numerical solutions generated from two wall-resolved LES (WRLES) calculations, one of which has a DNS-like resolution. We show that WMLES accurately predicts the mean pressure coefficient distribution, velocity statistics (including the mean velocity), and the traces of Reynolds tensor components. Furthermore, we observe that the instantaneous flow structures computed by the WMLES resemble those found in the reference WMLES database, except near the leading edge region. Some of the differences observed in these structures are associated with tripping and the transition to a turbulence mechanism near the leading edge, which are significantly affected by the grid resolution. The aeroacoustic noise calculations indicate that the power spectral density profiles obtained using the WMLES compare well with the experimental data.}, } @article {pmid32709009, year = {2020}, author = {Wang, Y and Zhang, Y and Qiao, Z and Wang, W}, title = {A 3D Printed Jet Mixer for Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {32709009}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {G-231823//The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative/ ; }, abstract = {Homogeneous mixing of microscopic volume fluids at low Reynolds number is of great significance for a wide range of chemical, biological, and medical applications. An efficient jet mixer with arrays of micronozzles was designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing (three-dimensional (3D) printing) technology for applications in centrifugal microfluidic platforms. The contact surface of miscible liquids was enhanced significantly by impinging plumes from two opposite arrays of micronozzles to improve mixing performance. The mixing efficiency was evaluated and compared with the commonly used Y-shaped micromixer. Effective mixing in the jet mixer was achieved within a very short timescale (3s). This 3D printed jet mixer has great potential to be implemented in applications by being incorporated into multifarious 3D printing devices in microfluidic platforms.}, } @article {pmid32702453, year = {2020}, author = {Emami, MS and Haghshenasfard, M and Zarghami, R and Sadeghi, R and Esfahany, MN}, title = {Experimental study on the reduction of loratadine particle size through confined liquid impinging jets.}, journal = {International journal of pharmaceutics}, volume = {587}, number = {}, pages = {119668}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119668}, pmid = {32702453}, issn = {1873-3476}, mesh = {*Loratadine ; *Nanoparticles ; Particle Size ; Solubility ; Solvents ; }, abstract = {The confined liquid impinging jets (CLIJ) technique was applied as a simple and effective approach to reducing the particle size of loratadine to enhance its solubility. The effect of anti-solvent (AS) to solution (S) flow rate ratio, organic phase concentration, Reynolds number (Re), and stabilizer concentration was investigated in this reduction process. After the synthesis, the chemical and physical properties of loratadine nanoparticles were determined through different characterization and analytical techniques. The results indicated that the particle size of loratadine decreases from 320 nm to 80 nm by increasing the AS/S ratio from 1 to 25. It was found that the particle size of loratadine was unchanged at the higher AS/S ratios. The loratadine nanoparticle size was optimized by changing the solution concentration, Re, and Tween 80 as a stabilizer. The finest loratadine nanoparticle size of about 53 nm was obtained with a narrow size distribution, which corresponds to solution concentration of 35 mg/mL, Re of 5687, and 0.1% (w/v) stabilizer concentration. It was revealed that the optimized loratadine nanoparticles completely dissolved after 11 min, indicating the loratadine nanoparticle dissolution rate 50 times faster than raw loratadine.}, } @article {pmid32688541, year = {2020}, author = {Fouxon, I and Lee, C}, title = {Large deviations, singularity, and lognormality of energy dissipation in turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {6-1}, pages = {061101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.061101}, pmid = {32688541}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We study implications of the assumption of power-law dependence of moments of energy dissipation in turbulence on the Reynolds number Re, holding due to intermittency. We demonstrate that at Re→∞ the dissipation's logarithm divided by lnRe converges with probability one to a negative constant. This implies that the dissipation is singular in the limit, as is known phenomenologically. The proof uses a large deviations function, whose existence is implied by the power-law assumption, and which provides the general asymptotic form of the dissipation's distribution. A similar function exists for vorticity and for velocity differences where it proves the moments representation of the multifractal model (MF). Then we observe that derivative of the scaling exponents of the dissipation, considered as a function of the order of the moment, is small at the origin. Thus the variation with the order is slow and can be described by a quadratic function. Indeed, the quadratic function, which corresponds to log-normal statistics, fits the data. Moreover, combining the lognormal scaling with the MF we derive a formula for the anomalous scaling exponents of turbulence which also fits the data. Thus lognormality, not to be confused with the Kolmogorov (1962) assumption of lognormal dissipation in the inertial range, when used in conjunction with the MF provides a concise way to get all scaling exponents of turbulence available at present.}, } @article {pmid32688510, year = {2020}, author = {Morita, T and Omori, T and Nakayama, Y and Toyabe, S and Ishikawa, T}, title = {Harnessing random low Reynolds number flow for net migration.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {6-1}, pages = {063101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.063101}, pmid = {32688510}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Random noise in low Reynolds number flow has rarely been used to obtain net migration of microscale objects. In this study, we numerically show that net migration of a microscale object can be extracted from random directional fluid forces in Stokes flow, by introducing deformability and inhomogeneous density into the object. We also developed a mathematical framework to describe the deformation-induced migration caused by noise. These results provide a basis for understanding the noise-induced migration of a microswimmer and are useful for harnessing energy from low Reynolds number flow.}, } @article {pmid32685735, year = {2020}, author = {Askar, AH and Kadham, SA and Mshehid, SH}, title = {The surfactants effect on the heat transfer enhancement and stability of nanofluid at constant wall temperature.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {6}, number = {7}, pages = {e04419}, doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04419}, pmid = {32685735}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {Surfactants role in the enhancement of the heat transfer and stability of alumina oxide - distilled water nanofluid was introduced in this research, where there are limited studies that conjugate between the stability improvement and its effect on the heat transfer coefficients. Four weight concentrations for the experiment were used (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) with 20 nm particle size under a constant wall temperature. The selection of appropriate surfactants weight was tested too by implementing three weight concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 %) related to each nanofluid concentration via measuring their effect on the zeta potential value. The heat transfer augmentation was tested through a double horizontal pipe under a constant wall temperature at entrance region with Reynolds number range (4000-11800). The results manifested the use of nanofluid worked on enhancement the heat transfer performance better than water, and the stable nanofluid elucidated better results.}, } @article {pmid32680965, year = {2020}, author = {Yang, T and Sprinkle, B and Guo, Y and Qian, J and Hua, D and Donev, A and Marr, DWM and Wu, N}, title = {Reconfigurable microbots folded from simple colloidal chains.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {117}, number = {31}, pages = {18186-18193}, pmid = {32680965}, issn = {1091-6490}, support = {R01 NS102465/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/United States ; R21 AI138214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ; }, mesh = {*Chemical Engineering ; Colloids/*chemistry ; Magnetics ; *Robotics ; }, abstract = {To overcome the reversible nature of low-Reynolds-number flow, a variety of biomimetic microrobotic propulsion schemes and devices capable of rapid transport have been developed. However, these approaches have been typically optimized for a specific function or environment and do not have the flexibility that many real organisms exhibit to thrive in complex microenvironments. Here, inspired by adaptable microbes and using a combination of experiment and simulation, we demonstrate that one-dimensional colloidal chains can fold into geometrically complex morphologies, including helices, plectonemes, lassos, and coils, and translate via multiple mechanisms that can be varied with applied magnetic field. With chains of multiblock asymmetry, the propulsion mode can be switched from bulk to surface-enabled, mimicking the swimming of microorganisms such as flagella-rotating bacteria and tail-whipping sperm and the surface-enabled motion of arching and stretching inchworms and sidewinding snakes. We also demonstrate that reconfigurability enables navigation through three-dimensional and narrow channels simulating capillary blood vessels. Our results show that flexible microdevices based on simple chains can transform both shape and motility under varying magnetic fields, a capability we expect will be particularly beneficial in complex in vivo microenvironments.}, } @article {pmid32680443, year = {2020}, author = {Ma, Y and Zhang, M and Luo, H}, title = {Numerical and experimental studies of gas-liquid flow and pressure drop in multiphase pump valves.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {103}, number = {3}, pages = {36850420940885}, doi = {10.1177/0036850420940885}, pmid = {32680443}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {A numerical and experimental study was carried out to investigate the two-phase flow fields of the typical three valves used in the multiphase pumps. Under the gas volume fraction conditions in the range of 0%-100%, the three-dimensional steady and dynamic two-phase flow characteristics, pressure drops, and their multipliers of the ball valve, cone valve, and disk valve were studied, respectively, using Eulerian-Eulerian approach and dynamic grid technique in ANSYS FLUENT. In addition, a valve test system was built to verify the simulated results by the particle image velocimetry and pressure test. The flow coefficient CQ (about 0.989) of the disk valve is greater than those of the other valves (about 0.864) under the steady flow with a high Reynolds number. The two-phase pressure drops of the three valves fluctuate in different forms with the vibration of the cores during the dynamic opening. The two-phase multipliers of the fully opened ball valve are consistent with the predicted values of the Morris model, while those of the cone valve and disk valve had the smallest differences with the predicted values of the Chisholm model. Through the comprehensive analysis of the flow performance, pressure drop, and dynamic stability of the three pump valves, the disk valve is found to be more suitable for the multiphase pumps due to its smaller axial space, resistance loss, and better flow capacity.}, } @article {pmid32679732, year = {2020}, author = {Juraeva, M and Kang, DJ}, title = {Mixing Performance of a Cross-Channel Split-and-Recombine Micro-Mixer Combined with Mixing Cell.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {32679732}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A new cross-channel split-and-recombine (CC-SAR) micro-mixer was proposed, and its performance was demonstrated numerically. A numerical study was carried out over a wide range of volume flow rates from 3.1 μL/min to 826.8 μL/min. The corresponding Reynolds number ranges from 0.3 to 80. The present micro-mixer consists of four mixing units. Each mixing unit is constructed by combining one split-and-recombine (SAR) unit with a mixing cell. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the present micro-mixer performs better than other micro-mixers based on SARs over a wide range of volume flow rate. The mixing enhancement is realized by a particular motion of vortex flow: the Dean vortex in the circular sub-channel and another vortex inside the mixing cell. The two vortex flows are generated on the different planes perpendicular to each other. They cause the two fluids to change their relative position as the fluids flow into the circular sub-channel of the SAR, eventually promoting violent mixing. High vorticity in the mixing cell elongates the flow interface between two fluids, and promotes mixing in the flow regime of molecular diffusion dominance.}, } @article {pmid32675836, year = {2020}, author = {Liu, J and Yang, W and Dong, M and Marsden, AL}, title = {The nested block preconditioning technique for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with emphasis on hemodynamic simulations.}, journal = {Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering}, volume = {367}, number = {}, pages = {}, pmid = {32675836}, issn = {0045-7825}, support = {R01 EB018302/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/United States ; R01 HL121754/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; R01 HL123689/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; R01 HL139796/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {We develop a novel iterative solution method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with boundary conditions coupled with reduced models. The iterative algorithm is designed based on the variational multiscale formulation and the generalized-α scheme. The spatiotemporal discretization leads to a block structure of the resulting consistent tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson procedure. As a generalization of the conventional block preconditioners, a three-level nested block preconditioner is introduced to attain a better representation of the Schur complement, which plays a key role in the overall algorithm robustness and efficiency. This approach provides a flexible, algorithmic way to handle the Schur complement for problems involving multiscale and multiphysics coupling. The solution method is implemented and benchmarked against experimental data from the nozzle challenge problem issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. The robustness, efficiency, and parallel scalability of the proposed technique are then examined in several settings, including moderately high Reynolds number flows and physiological flows with strong resistance effect due to coupled downstream vasculature models. Two patient-specific hemodynamic simulations, covering systemic and pulmonary flows, are performed to further corroborate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.}, } @article {pmid32666327, year = {2020}, author = {Xue, Y and Hellmuth, R and Shin, DH}, title = {Formation of Vortices in Idealised Branching Vessels: A CFD Benchmark Study.}, journal = {Cardiovascular engineering and technology}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, pages = {544-559}, doi = {10.1007/s13239-020-00477-9}, pmid = {32666327}, issn = {1869-4098}, mesh = {Arteries/pathology/*physiopathology ; Atherosclerosis/pathology/*physiopathology ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted ; Plaque, Atherosclerotic ; Stress, Mechanical ; }, abstract = {PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs near the junction of branching vessels, where blood recirculation tends to occur (Malek et al. in J Am Med Assoc 282(21):2035-2042, 1999, https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.21.2035). For decades, CFD has been used to predict flow patterns such as separation and recirculation zones in hemodynamic models, but those predictions have rarely been validated with experimental data. In the context of verification and validation (V&V), we first conduct a CFD benchmark calculation that reproduces the vortex detection experiments of Karino and Goldsmith (1980) with idealised branching blood vessels (Karino and Goldsmith in Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Internal Organs 26:500-506, 1980). The critical conditions for the formation of recirculation vortices, the so-called critical Reynolds numbers, are the main parameters for comparison with the experimental data to demonstrate the credibility of the CFD workflow. We then characterise the wall shear stresses and develop a surrogate model for the size of formed vortices.

METHODS: An automated parametric study generating more than 12,000 CFD simulations was performed, sweeping the geometries and flow conditions found in the experiments by Karino and Goldsmith. The flow conditions were restricted to steady-state laminar flow, with a range of inflow Reynolds numbers up to 350, with various flow ratios between the main branch outlet and side branch outlet. The side branch diameter was scaled relative to the main branch diameter, ranging from 1.05/3 to 3/3; and the branching angles ranged in size from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. Recirculation vortices were detected by the inversion of the velocity vector at certain locations, as well as by the inversion of the wall shear stress (WSS) vector.

RESULTS: The CFD simulations demonstrated good agreement with the experimental data on the critical Reynolds numbers. The spatial distributions of WSS on each branch were analysed to identify potential regions of disease. Once a vortex is formed, the size of the vortex increases by the square root of the Reynolds number. The CFD data was fitted to a surrogate model that accurately predicts the vortex size without the need to run computationally more expensive CFD simulations.

CONCLUSIONS: This benchmark study validates the CFD simulation of vortex detection in idealised branching vessels under comprehensive flow conditions. This work also proposes a surrogate model for the size of the vortex, which could reduce the computational requirements in the studies related to branching vessels and complex vascular systems.}, } @article {pmid32664605, year = {2020}, author = {Forte, P and Morais, JE and P Neiva, H and Barbosa, TM and Marinho, DA}, title = {The Drag Crisis Phenomenon on an Elite Road Cyclist-A Preliminary Numerical Simulations Analysis in the Aero Position at Different Speeds.}, journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health}, volume = {17}, number = {14}, pages = {}, pmid = {32664605}, issn = {1660-4601}, mesh = {Arm ; *Bicycling ; Head Protective Devices ; Humans ; *Hydrodynamics ; Male ; *Sports ; }, abstract = {The drag crisis phenomenon is the drop of drag coefficient (Cd) with increasing Reynolds number (Re) or speed. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothetical drag crisis phenomenon in a sports setting, assessing it in a bicycle-cyclist system. A male elite-level cyclist was recruited for this research and his competition bicycle, helmet, suit, and shoes were used. A three-dimensional (3D) geometry was obtained with a 3D scan with the subject in a static aero position. A domain with 7 m of length, 2.5 m of width and 2.5 m of height was created around the cyclist. The domain was meshed with 42 million elements. Numerical simulations by computer fluid dynamics (CFD) fluent numerical code were conducted at speeds between 1 m/s and 22 m/s, with increments of 1 m/s. The drag coefficient ranged between 0.60 and 0.95 across different speeds and Re. The highest value was observed at 2 m/s (Cd = 0.95) and Re of 3.21 × 105, whereas the lower Cd was noted at 9 m/s (Cd = 0.60) and 9.63 × 105. A drag crisis was noted between 3 m/s and 9 m/s. Pressure Cd ranged from 0.35 to 0.52 and the lowest value was observed at 3 m/s and the highest at 2 m/s. The viscous drag coefficient ranged between 0.15 and 0.43 and presented a trend decreasing from 4 m/s to 22 m/s. Coaches, cyclists, researchers, and support staff must consider that Cd varies with speed and Re, and the bicycle-cyclist dimensions, shape, or form may affect drag and performance estimations. As a conclusion, this preliminary work noted a drag crisis between 3 m/s and 9 m/s in a cyclist in the aero position.}, } @article {pmid32660001, year = {2020}, author = {Granados-Ortiz, FJ and Ortega-Casanova, J}, title = {Mechanical Characterisation and Analysis of a Passive Micro Heat Exchanger.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {7}, pages = {}, pmid = {32660001}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {UMA18-FEDERJA-184//UMA/Junta de Andalucia/European Union/ ; }, abstract = {Heat exchangers are widely used in many mechanical, electronic, and bioengineering applications at macro and microscale. Among these, the use of heat exchangers consisting of a single fluid passing through a set of geometries at different temperatures and two flows in T-shape channels have been extensively studied. However, the application of heat exchangers for thermal mixing over a geometry leading to vortex shedding has not been investigated. This numerical work aims to analyse and characterise a heat exchanger for microscale application, which consists of two laminar fluids at different temperature that impinge orthogonally onto a rectangular structure and generate vortex shedding mechanics that enhance thermal mixing. This work is novel in various aspects. This is the first work of its kind on heat transfer between two fluids (same fluid, different temperature) enhanced by vortex shedding mechanics. Additionally, this research fully characterise the underlying vortex mechanics by accounting all geometry and flow regime parameters (longitudinal aspect ratio, blockage ratio and Reynolds number), opposite to the existing works in the literature, which usually vary and analyse blockage ratio or longitudinal aspect ratio only. A relevant advantage of this heat exchanger is that represents a low-Reynolds passive device, not requiring additional energy nor moving elements to enhance thermal mixing. This allows its use especially at microscale, for instance in biomedical/biomechanical and microelectronic applications.}, } @article {pmid32656413, year = {2020}, author = {Dai, X and Liu, C and Zhao, J and Li, L and Yin, S and Liu, H}, title = {Optimization of Application Conditions of Drag Reduction Agent in Product Oil Pipelines.}, journal = {ACS omega}, volume = {5}, number = {26}, pages = {15931-15935}, pmid = {32656413}, issn = {2470-1343}, abstract = {Drag reduction performance was studied with a rotating disk instrument in the laboratory, and experiments show that there is an initial rapid growth stage and stability stage for drag reduction ratio change. The higher the rotational speed, the larger the initial drag reduction ratio is; the larger the concentration, the shorter the drag reduction stabilization time is. Under high concentration and high speed, the drag reduction onset time is short. Because of the shear degradation, the Reynolds number should be taken into account during use. Through a comparison of diesel properties after adding agents with national standard, it is confirmed that drag reduction agents could be used in this pipeline.}, } @article {pmid32639756, year = {2020}, author = {Pusztai, I and Juno, J and Brandenburg, A and TenBarge, JM and Hakim, A and Francisquez, M and Sundström, A}, title = {Dynamo in Weakly Collisional Nonmagnetized Plasmas Impeded by Landau Damping of Magnetic Fields.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {124}, number = {25}, pages = {255102}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.255102}, pmid = {32639756}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We perform fully kinetic simulations of flows known to produce dynamo in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), considering scenarios with low Reynolds number and high magnetic Prandtl number, relevant for galaxy cluster scale fluctuation dynamos. We find that Landau damping on the electrons leads to a rapid decay of magnetic perturbations, impeding the dynamo. This collisionless damping process operates on spatial scales where electrons are nonmagnetized, reducing the range of scales where the magnetic field grows in high magnetic Prandtl number fluctuation dynamos. When electrons are not magnetized down to the resistive scale, the magnetic energy spectrum is expected to be limited by the scale corresponding to magnetic Landau damping or, if smaller, the electron gyroradius scale, instead of the resistive scale. In simulations we thus observe decaying magnetic fields where resistive MHD would predict a dynamo.}, } @article {pmid32620000, year = {2020}, author = {Silverberg, O and Demir, E and Mishler, G and Hosoume, B and Trivedi, NR and Tisch, C and Plascencia, D and Pak, OS and Araci, IE}, title = {Realization of a Push-Me-Pull-You swimmer at low Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aba2b9}, pmid = {32620000}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Locomotion at low Reynolds numbers encounters stringent physical constraints due to the dominance of viscous over inertial forces. A variety of swimming microorganisms has demonstrated diverse strategies to generate self-propulsion in the absence of inertia. In particular, ameboid and euglenoid movements exploit shape deformations of the cell body for locomotion. Inspired by these biological organisms, the "Push-Me-Pull-You" (PMPY) swimmer (Avron JE, Kenneth O, Oaknin DH 2005 New J. Phys., 7, 234) represents an elegant artificial swimmer that can escape from the constraints of the scallop theorem and generate self-propulsion in highly viscous fluid environments. In this work, we present the first experimental realization of the PMPY swimmer, which consists of a pair of expandable spheres connected by an extensible link. We designed and constructed robotic PMPY swimmers and characterized their propulsion performance in highly viscous silicone oil in dynamically similar, macroscopic experiments. The proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility and robustness of the PMPY mechanism as a viable locomotion strategy at low Reynolds numbers.}, } @article {pmid32618067, year = {2021}, author = {Kashima, Y and Ninomiya, S}, title = {Hemodialysis efficiency management from the viewpoint of blood removal pressure.}, journal = {Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy}, volume = {25}, number = {2}, pages = {152-159}, doi = {10.1111/1744-9987.13557}, pmid = {32618067}, issn = {1744-9987}, abstract = {Degradation of dialysis efficiency during hemodialysis, caused by incompatible indwelling needle size or increase in hematocrit, is a serious problem that can threaten a patient's life. This study aims to derive a quantitative index for determining the indwelling needle diameter that can maintain an appropriate blood flow rate, and presents an effective method to prevent a decrease in the actual blood flow rate. The relationships between the set flow rate and various parameters such as indwelling needle diameter, blood viscosity, and arterial line pressure are analyzed. A simple and reliable method for estimating the actual blood flow rate is derived from these relationships. A correlation between viscosity and actual blood flow rate is estimated adequately by regression analysis using a least-squares method. The relationship between Reynolds number and the flow rate reduction ratio is also evaluated. A new parameter (simple estimation method for actual blood flow) is derived by measuring the blood removal pressure. A pump control approach that uses blood removal pressure is suggested, which can be a future research direction in the field of hemodialysis.}, } @article {pmid32611152, year = {2020}, author = {Zhou, T and Zhang, X and Zhong, S}, title = {An experimental study of trailing edge noise from a heaving airfoil.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {147}, number = {6}, pages = {4020}, doi = {10.1121/10.0001419}, pmid = {32611152}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {In this study, the far-field noise and near-field flow properties from a heaving NACA 0012 airfoil at the Reynolds number of 6.6×104 were investigated experimentally in a 0.4 m2 anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil had an incident angle of 0° and followed a sinusoidal heaving motion. The Strouhal number, controlled by changing the heaving frequency and amplitude, varied from 0.0024 to 0.008. The acoustic properties were measured by a free-field microphone placed at a distance of 1.2 m away from the tunnel central line, and the flow structures near the trailing edge were acquired using the particle image velocimetry. It was found that the heaving motion could reduce the sound pressure level (SPL) of the primary peak in the time-averaged spectra. The spectrograms obtained by the short-time Fourier transform revealed that the discrete tones were produced when the airfoil passed through the maximum heaving position. During the corresponding period, a sequence of large-scaled vortices convected on the airfoil surface was observed, and then was shed from the trailing edge to the wake region at the same frequency as the primary tone of the induced sound. With the increase of Strouhal number, the sound signals tended to be broadband, and the overall SPL was increased in the far field.}, } @article {pmid32609698, year = {2020}, author = {Xu, W and Luo, W and Wang, Y and You, Y}, title = {Data-driven three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of a turbulent jet flame using a generative adversarial network.}, journal = {Applied optics}, volume = {59}, number = {19}, pages = {5729-5736}, doi = {10.1364/AO.392803}, pmid = {32609698}, issn = {1539-4522}, abstract = {Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) is becoming a well-established tool for turbulent combustion diagnostics. However, the 3D CT technique suffers from contradictory demands of spatial resolution and domain size. This work therefore reports a data-driven 3D super-resolution approach to enhance the spatial resolution by two times along each spatial direction. The approach, named 3D super-resolution generative adversarial network (3D-SR-GAN), builds a generator and a discriminator network to learn the topographic information and infer high-resolution 3D turbulent flame structure with a given low-resolution counterpart. This work uses numerically simulated 3D turbulent jet flame structures as training data to update model parameters of the GAN network. Extensive performance evaluations are then conducted to show the superiority of the proposed 3D-SR-GAN network, compared with other direct interpolation methods. The results show that a convincing super-resolution (SR) operation with the overall error of ∼4% and the peak signal-to-noise ratio of 37 dB can be reached with an upscaling factor of 2, representing an eight times enhancement of the total voxel number. Moreover, the trained network can predict the SR structure of the jet flame with a different Reynolds number without retraining the network parameters.}, } @article {pmid32600217, year = {2021}, author = {Moum, JN}, title = {Variations in Ocean Mixing from Seconds to Years.}, journal = {Annual review of marine science}, volume = {13}, number = {}, pages = {201-226}, doi = {10.1146/annurev-marine-031920-122846}, pmid = {32600217}, issn = {1941-0611}, mesh = {El Nino-Southern Oscillation ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Theoretical ; Oceans and Seas ; Rheology ; Seasons ; Seawater/*chemistry ; Temperature ; Tidal Waves ; Time Factors ; }, abstract = {Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, [Formula: see text]) m, and the turbulence, [Formula: see text]) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. In many cases, it is difficult to separate the dependencies because measurements are sparse, also in both space and time. Comprehensive shipboard turbulence profiling experiments supplemented by Doppler sonar current measurements provide detailed observations of the evolution of the vertical structure of upper-ocean turbulence on timescales of minutes to weeks. Recent technical developments now permit measurements of turbulence in the ocean, at least at a few locations, for extended periods. This review summarizes recent and classic results in the context of our expanding knowledge of the temporal variability of ocean mixing, beginning with a discussion of the timescales of the turbulence itself (seconds to minutes) and how turbulence-enhanced mixing varies over hours, days, tidal cycles, monsoons, seasons, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation timescales (years).}, } @article {pmid32581842, year = {2020}, author = {Campinho, P and Vilfan, A and Vermot, J}, title = {Blood Flow Forces in Shaping the Vascular System: A Focus on Endothelial Cell Behavior.}, journal = {Frontiers in physiology}, volume = {11}, number = {}, pages = {552}, pmid = {32581842}, issn = {1664-042X}, abstract = {The endothelium is the cell monolayer that lines the interior of the blood vessels separating the vessel lumen where blood circulates, from the surrounding tissues. During embryonic development, endothelial cells (ECs) must ensure that a tight barrier function is maintained whilst dynamically adapting to the growing vascular tree that is being formed and remodeled. Blood circulation generates mechanical forces, such as shear stress and circumferential stretch that are directly acting on the endothelium. ECs actively respond to flow-derived mechanical cues by becoming polarized, migrating and changing neighbors, undergoing shape changes, proliferating or even leaving the tissue and changing identity. It is now accepted that coordinated changes at the single cell level drive fundamental processes governing vascular network morphogenesis such as angiogenic sprouting, network pruning, lumen formation, regulation of vessel caliber and stability or cell fate transitions. Here we summarize the cell biology and mechanics of ECs in response to flow-derived forces, discuss the latest advances made at the single cell level with particular emphasis on in vivo studies and highlight potential implications for vascular pathologies.}, } @article {pmid32575895, year = {2020}, author = {Nichols, A and Rubinato, M and Cho, YH and Wu, J}, title = {Optimal Use of Titanium Dioxide Colourant to Enable Water Surfaces to Be Measured by Kinect Sensors.}, journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {20}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {32575895}, issn = {1424-8220}, support = {EP/L015412/1//Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council/ ; Singapore attachment scheme//A*STAR UK-IHPC/ ; Early Career Researcher Scheme//The University of Sheffield/ ; }, abstract = {Recent studies have sought to use Microsoft Kinect sensors to measure water surface shape in steady flows or transient flow processes. They have typically employed a white colourant, usually titanium dioxide (TiO2), in order to make the surface opaque and visible to the infrared-based sensors. However, the ability of Kinect Version 1 (KV1) and Kinect Version 2 (KV2) sensors to measure the deformation of ostensibly smooth reflective surfaces has never been compared, with most previous studies using a V1 sensor with no justification. Furthermore, the TiO2 has so far been used liberally and indeterminately, with no consideration as to the type of TiO2 to use, the optimal proportion to use or the effect it may have on the very fluid properties being measured. This paper examines the use of anatase TiO2 with two generations of the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Assessing their performance for an ideal flat surface, it is shown that surface data obtained using the V2 sensor is substantially more reliable. Further, the minimum quantity of colourant to enable reliable surface recognition is discovered (0.01% by mass). A stability test shows that the colourant has a strong tendency to settle over time, meaning the fluid must remain well mixed, having serious implications for studies with low Reynolds number or transient processes such as dam breaks. Furthermore, the effect of TiO2 concentration on fluid properties is examined. It is shown that previous studies using concentrations in excess of 1% may have significantly affected the viscosity and surface tension, and thus the surface behaviour being measured. It is therefore recommended that future studies employ the V2 sensor with an anatase TiO2 concentration of 0.01%, and that the effects of TiO2 on the fluid properties are properly quantified before any TiO2-Kinect-derived dataset can be of practical use, for example, in validation of numerical models or in physical models of hydrodynamic processes.}, } @article {pmid32574537, year = {2020}, author = {Rhodeland, B and Hoeger, K and Ursell, T}, title = {Bacterial surface motility is modulated by colony-scale flow and granular jamming.}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface}, volume = {17}, number = {167}, pages = {20200147}, pmid = {32574537}, issn = {1742-5662}, mesh = {*Bacillus subtilis ; Biophysical Phenomena ; Cell Movement ; *Surface-Active Agents ; Water ; }, abstract = {Microbes routinely face the challenge of acquiring territory and resources on wet surfaces. Cells move in large groups inside thin, surface-bound water layers, often achieving speeds of 30 µm s-1 within this environment, where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces (low Reynolds number). The canonical Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for the study of collective migration over surfaces with groups exhibiting motility on length-scales three orders of magnitude larger than themselves within a few doubling times. Genetic and chemical studies clearly show that the secretion of endogenous surfactants and availability of free surface water are required for this fast group motility. Here, we show that: (i) water availability is a sensitive control parameter modulating an abiotic jamming-like transition that determines whether the group remains fluidized and therefore collectively motile, (ii) groups self-organize into discrete layers as they travel, (iii) group motility does not require proliferation, rather groups are pulled from the front, and (iv) flow within expanding groups is capable of moving material from the parent colony into the expanding tip of a cellular dendrite with implications for expansion into regions of varying nutrient content. Together, these findings illuminate the physical structure of surface-motile groups and demonstrate that physical properties, like cellular packing fraction and flow, regulate motion from the scale of individual cells up to length scales of centimetres.}, } @article {pmid32564722, year = {2020}, author = {Coreixas, C and Wissocq, G and Chopard, B and Latt, J}, title = {Impact of collision models on the physical properties and the stability of lattice Boltzmann methods.}, journal = {Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {378}, number = {2175}, pages = {20190397}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2019.0397}, pmid = {32564722}, issn = {1471-2962}, abstract = {The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is known to suffer from stability issues when the collision model relies on the BGK approximation, especially in the zero viscosity limit and for non-vanishing Mach numbers. To tackle this problem, two kinds of solutions were proposed in the literature. They consist in changing either the numerical discretization (finite-volume, finite-difference, spectral-element, etc.) of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equation (DVBE), or the collision model. In this work, the latter solution is investigated in detail. More precisely, we propose a comprehensive comparison of (static relaxation time based) collision models, in terms of stability, and with preliminary results on their accuracy, for the simulation of isothermal high-Reynolds number flows in the (weakly) compressible regime. It starts by investigating the possible impact of collision models on the macroscopic behaviour of stream-and-collide based D2Q9-LBMs, which clarifies the exact physical properties of collision models on LBMs. It is followed by extensive linear and numerical stability analyses, supplemented with an accuracy study based on the transport of vortical structures over long distances. In order to draw conclusions as generally as possible, the most common moment spaces (raw, central, Hermite, central Hermite and cumulant), as well as regularized approaches, are considered for the comparative studies. LBMs based on dynamic collision mechanisms (entropic collision, subgrid-scale models, explicit filtering, etc.) are also briefly discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fluid dynamics, soft matter and complex systems: recent results and new methods'.}, } @article {pmid32563162, year = {2020}, author = {Sonwani, RK and Giri, BS and Jaiswal, RP and Singh, RS and Rai, BN}, title = {Performance evaluation of a continuous packed bed bioreactor: Bio-kinetics and external mass transfer study.}, journal = {Ecotoxicology and environmental safety}, volume = {201}, number = {}, pages = {110860}, doi = {10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110860}, pmid = {32563162}, issn = {1090-2414}, mesh = {Bacillales/growth & development/metabolism ; Biodegradation, Environmental ; Bioreactors/*microbiology ; Cells, Immobilized/microbiology ; Kinetics ; Naphthalenes/*analysis ; Polyethylene/chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis ; Water Purification/*methods ; }, abstract = {The biodegradation of naphthalene using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) immobilized Exiguobacterium sp. RKS3 (MG696729) in a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) was studied. The performance of a continuous PBBR was evaluated at different inlet flow rates (IFRs) (20-100 mL/h) under 64 days of operation. The maximum naphthalene removal efficiency (RE) was found at low IFR, and it further decreased with increasing IFRs. In a continuous PBBR, the external mass transfer (EMT) aspect was analysed at various IFRs, and experimental data were interrelated between Colburn factor (JD) and Reynolds number (NRe) as [Formula: see text] . A new correlation [Formula: see text] was obtained to predict the EMT aspect of naphthalene biodegradation. Andrew-Haldane model was used to evaluate the bio-kinetic parameters of naphthalene degradation, and kinetic constant νmax, Js, and Ji were found as 0.386 per day, 13.6 mg/L, and 20.54 mg/L, respectively.}, } @article {pmid32557795, year = {2020}, author = {Dial, TR and Lauder, GV}, title = {Longer development provides first-feeding fish time to escape hydrodynamic constraints.}, journal = {Journal of morphology}, volume = {281}, number = {8}, pages = {956-969}, doi = {10.1002/jmor.21224}, pmid = {32557795}, issn = {1097-4687}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Female ; *Hydrodynamics ; Larva/growth & development ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; Viscosity ; Zebrafish/*growth & development ; }, abstract = {What is the functional effect of prolonged development? By controlling for size, we quantify first-feeding performance and hydrodynamics of zebrafish and guppy offspring (5 ± 0.5 mm in length), which differ fivefold in developmental time and twofold in ontogenetic state. By manipulating water viscosity, we control the hydrodynamic regime, measured as Reynolds number. We predicted that if feeding performance were strictly the result of hydrodynamics, and not development, feeding performance would scale with Reynolds number. We find that guppy offspring successfully feed at much greater distances to prey (1.0 vs. 0.2 mm) and with higher capture success (90 vs. 20%) compared with zebrafish larvae, and that feeding performance was not a result of Reynolds number alone. Flow visualization shows that zebrafish larvae produce a bow wave ~0.2 mm in length, and that the flow field produced during suction does not extend beyond this bow wave. Due to well-developed oral jaw protrusion, the similar-sized suction field generated by guppy offspring extends beyond the horizon of their bow wave, leading to successful prey capture from greater distances. These findings suggest that prolonged development and increased ontogenetic state provides first-feeding fish time to escape the pervasive hydrodynamic constraints (bow wave) of being small.}, } @article {pmid32555272, year = {2020}, author = {Gangfu, L and Haiwang, L and Ruquan, Y and Huijie, W and Zhi, T and Shuangzhi, X}, title = {Experimental Investigation on Velocity and Temperature Field in a Rotating Non-isothermal Turbulent Boundary Layer using Hot-wire.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {9892}, pmid = {32555272}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {51906008//National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/ ; 51822602//National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/ ; 51906008//National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/ ; }, abstract = {This experiment measured the instantaneous temperature and velocity field synchronously in non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer in a rotating straight channel with a parallel-array hot-wire probe. The Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity (U) and hydraulic diameter (D) is 19000, and the rotation numbers are 0, 0.07, 0.14, 0.21 and 0.28. The mean velocity u and mean temperature T as well as their fluctuating quantity u' and T' were measured at three streamwise locations (x/D = 4.06, 5.31, 6.56). A method for temperature-changing calibration with constant temperature hot-wire anemometers was proposed. It achieved the calibration in operational temperature range (15.5 °C-50 °C) of the hot-wire via a home-made heating section. The measurement system can obtain the velocity and temperature in a non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer at rotating conditions. The result analysis mainly contains the dimensionless mean temperature, temperature fluctuation as well as its skewness and flatness and streamwise turbulent heat flux. For the trailing side, the rotation effect is more obvious, and makes the dimensionless temperature profiles lower than that under static conditions. The dimensionless streamwise heat flux shows a linear decrease trend in the boundary layer. It is hoped that this research can improve our understanding of the flow and heat transfer mechanism in the internal cooling passages of turbine rotor blades.}, } @article {pmid32555239, year = {2020}, author = {Gepner, SW and Floryan, JM}, title = {Use of Surface Corrugations for Energy-Efficient Chaotic Stirring in Low Reynolds Number Flows.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {9865}, pmid = {32555239}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {We demonstrate that an intensive stirring can be achieved in laminar channel flows in a passive manner by utilizing the recently discovered instability waves which lead to chaotic particle movements. The stirring is suitable for mixtures made of delicate constituents prone to mechanical damage, such as bacteria and DNA samples, as collisions between the stream and both the bounding walls as well as mechanical mixing devices are avoided. Debris accumulation is prevented as no stagnant fluid zones are formed. Groove symmetries can be used to limit stirring to selected parts of the flow domain. The energy cost of flows with such stirring is either smaller or marginally larger than the energy cost of flows through smooth channels.}, } @article {pmid32543084, year = {2020}, author = {Xu, K and Wang, M and Tang, W and Ding, Y and Hu, A}, title = {Flash nanoprecipitation with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants to fabricate polylactic acid nanoparticles as highly efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.}, journal = {Chemistry, an Asian journal}, volume = {15}, number = {16}, pages = {2475-2479}, doi = {10.1002/asia.202000624}, pmid = {32543084}, issn = {1861-471X}, support = {21274042//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 21503078//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 22221818014//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; B502//Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project/ ; //Eastern Scholar Professorship/ ; //Shanghai local government/ ; }, mesh = {Biocompatible Materials/chemistry ; Contrast Media/*chemistry ; Gadolinium/*chemistry ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/*methods ; Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Particle Size ; Polyesters/*chemistry ; Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry ; Surface-Active Agents/chemistry ; }, abstract = {Polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles coated with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants (MS) are prepared using a simple and rapid one-step method, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. By co-assembling the Gd(III)-based MS and an amphiphilic polymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL), PLA cores were rapidly encapsulated to form biocompatible T1 contrast agents with tunable particle size and narrow size distribution. The hydrophobic property of Gd(III)-based MS were finely tuned to achieve their high loading efficiency. The size of the nanoparticles was easily controlled by tuning the stream velocity, Reynolds number and the amount of the amphiphilic block copolymer during the FNP process. Under the optimized condition, the relaxivity of the nanoparticles was achieved up to 35.39 mM-1 s-1 (at 1.5 T), which is over 8 times of clinically used MRI contrast agents, demonstrating the potential application for MR imaging.}, } @article {pmid32537967, year = {2020}, author = {Zhao, M and Yang, XN and Chen, PY and Sun, WY and Mu, XM and Gao, P and Zhao, GJ}, title = {[Effects of shrub patch pattern on runoff and sediment yield].}, journal = {Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology}, volume = {31}, number = {3}, pages = {735-743}, doi = {10.13287/j.1001-9332.202003.017}, pmid = {32537967}, issn = {1001-9332}, mesh = {*Environmental Monitoring ; *Geologic Sediments ; Rivers ; Soil ; }, abstract = {Understanding the changes of runoff, sediment transport, and hydrodynamic parameters of slopes under the influence of landscape patch coverage and connectivity is of great significance for revealing the hydrodynamic mechanism and hydrological connectivity of slope soil erosion process. In this study, the changes of runoff, sediment transport and hydrodynamic parameters of downhill surface in different coverage levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 90%) and different connectivity modes (vertical path, horizonal path, S-shaped path, random patches) of shrublands were analyzed by field artificial simulated rainfall test. The results showed that, with the increases of shrub cove-rage, runoff yield and sediment yield decreased exponentially. When the coverage increased to more than 60%, the capacity of shrubs to reduce runoff and sediment became stable. With the increases of shrub coverage, flow velocity, flow depth, Reynolds number, Froude number, stream power, and flow shear resistance significantly decreased, while Manning's roughness coefficient and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient increased significantly. When shrub coverage increased to more than 60%, there was no significant difference in the eigenvalues of hydraulic parameters. The runoff rate under the four connectivity modes followed the order of vertical path > S-shaped path > horizonal path > random patches. The sediment rate was the largest in the vertical path, followed by the S-shaped path, and the horizonal path was not significantly different from the random patches. The path with poor connectivity (horizonal path, random patches) exhibited stronger resistance of hydraulic transmission and poor hydraulic sedimentation capacity than the well-connected path (vertical path, S-shaped path). Our results could provide important theoretical basis for soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin.}, } @article {pmid32531594, year = {2020}, author = {Lequette, K and Ait-Mouheb, N and Wéry, N}, title = {Hydrodynamic effect on biofouling of milli-labyrinth channel and bacterial communities in drip irrigation systems fed with reclaimed wastewater.}, journal = {The Science of the total environment}, volume = {738}, number = {}, pages = {139778}, doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139778}, pmid = {32531594}, issn = {1879-1026}, mesh = {Bacteria ; Biofilms ; *Biofouling ; *Ear, Inner ; Hydrodynamics ; Membranes, Artificial ; Waste Water ; *Water Purification ; }, abstract = {The clogging of drippers due to the development of biofilms reduces the benefits and is an obstacle to the implementation of drip irrigation technology in a reclaimed water context. The narrow section and labyrinth geometry of the dripper channel results the development of a heterogeneous flow behaviours with the vortex zones which it enhance the fouling mechanisms. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the three dripper types, defined by their geometric and hydraulic parameters, fed with reclaimed wastewater, on the biofouling kinetics and the bacterial communities. Using optical coherence tomography, we demonstrated that the inlet of the drippers (mainly the first baffle) and vortex zones are the most sensitive area for biofouling. Drippers with the lowest Reynolds number and average cross-section velocity v (1 l·h-1) were the most sensible to biofouling, even if detachment events seemed more frequent in this dripper type. Therefore, dripper flow path with larger v should be consider to improve the anti-clogging performance. In addition, the dripper type and the geometry of the flow path influenced the structure of the bacterial communities from dripper biofilms. Relative abundancy of filamentous bacteria belonging to Chloroflexi phylum was higher in 1 l·h-1 drippers, which presented a higher level of biofouling. However, further research on the role of this phylum in dripper biofouling is required.}, } @article {pmid32521517, year = {2020}, author = {Gamble, LL and Harvey, C and Inman, DJ}, title = {Load alleviation of feather-inspired compliant airfoils for instantaneous flow control.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab9b6f}, pmid = {32521517}, issn = {1748-3190}, abstract = {Birds morph their wing shape to adjust to changing environments through muscle-activated morphing of the skeletal structure and passive morphing of the flexible skin and feathers. The role of feather morphing has not been well studied and its impact on aerodynamics is largely unknown. Here we investigate the aero-structural response of a flexible airfoil, designed with biologically accurate structural and material data from feathers, and compared the results to an equivalent rigid airfoil. Two coupled aero-structural models are developed and validated to simulate the response of a bioinspired flexible airfoil across a range of aerodynamic flight conditions. We found that the bioinspired flexible airfoil maintained lift at Reynolds numbers below 1.5x105, within the avian flight regime, performing similarly to its rigid counterpart. At greater Reynolds numbers, the flexible airfoil alleviated the lift force and experienced trailing edge tip displacement. Principal component analysis identified that the Reynolds number dominated this passive shape change which induced a decambering effect, although the angle of attack was found to effect the location of maximum camber. These results imply that birds or aircraft that have tailored chordwise flexible wings will respond like rigid wings while operating at low speeds, but will passively unload large lift forces while operating at high speeds.}, } @article {pmid32519077, year = {2020}, author = {Wierzchowski, K and Grabowska, I and Pilarek, M}, title = {Efficient propagation of suspended HL-60 cells in a disposable bioreactor supporting wave-induced agitation at various Reynolds number.}, journal = {Bioprocess and biosystems engineering}, volume = {43}, number = {11}, pages = {1973-1985}, pmid = {32519077}, issn = {1615-7605}, support = {DEC-2015/17/B/ST8/00631//Narodowe Centrum Nauki/ ; }, abstract = {Growth of human nonadherent HL-60 cell cultures performed in disposable bioreactor under various hydrodynamic conditions of 2-D wave-assisted agitation has been compared and discussed. Influence of Reynolds number for liquid (ReL) and the kLa coefficient, as key parameters characterized the bioprocessing of HL-60 cells in ReadyToProcess WAVETM 25 system, on reached values of the apparent maximal specific growth rate (μmax) and the specific yield of biomass (Y*X/S) has been identified. The values of ReL (i.e., 510-10,208), as well as kLa coefficient (i.e., 2.83-13.55 h-1), have been estimated for the cultures subjected to wave-induced mixing, based on simplified dimensionless correlation for various presents of WAVE 25 system. The highest values of apparent μmax = 0.038 h-1 and Y*X/S = 25.64 × 108 cells gglc-1 have been noted for cultures independently performed at wave-induced agitation characterized by ReL equaled to 5104 and 510, respectively. The presented results have high applicability potential in scale-up of bioprocesses focused on nonadherent animal cells, or in the case of any application of disposable bioreactors presenting similitude.}, } @article {pmid32518305, year = {2020}, author = {Waini, I and Ishak, A and Pop, I}, title = {Hybrid nanofluid flow towards a stagnation point on a stretching/shrinking cylinder.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {9296}, pmid = {32518305}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This paper examines the stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking cylinder in a hybrid nanofluid. Here, copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) are considered as the hybrid nanoparticles while water as the base fluid. The governing equations are reduced to the similarity equations using a similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using the boundary value problem solver, bvp4c, available in the Matlab software. It is found that the heat transfer rate is greater for the hybrid nanofluid compared to the regular nanofluid as well as the regular fluid. Besides, the non-uniqueness of the solutions is observed for certain physical parameters. It is also noticed that the bifurcation of the solutions occurs in the shrinking regions. In addition, the heat transfer rate and the skin friction coefficients increase in the presence of nanoparticles and for larger Reynolds number. It is found that between the two solutions, only one of them is stable as time evolves.}, } @article {pmid32516363, year = {2020}, author = {Cho, M and Koref, IS}, title = {The Importance of a Filament-like Structure in Aerial Dispersal and the Rarefaction Effect of Air Molecules on a Nanoscale Fiber: Detailed Physics in Spiders' Ballooning.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {60}, number = {4}, pages = {864-875}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icaa063}, pmid = {32516363}, issn = {1557-7023}, abstract = {Many flying insects utilize a membranous structure for flight, which is known as a "wing." However, some spiders use silk fibers for their aerial dispersal. It is well known that spiders can disperse over hundreds of kilometers and rise several kilometers above the ground in this way. However, little is known about the ballooning mechanisms of spiders, owing to the lack of quantitative data. Recently, Cho et al. discovered previously unknown information on the types and physical properties of spiders' ballooning silks. According to the data, a crab spider weighing 20 mg spins 50-60 ballooning silks simultaneously, which are about 200 nm thick and 3.22 m long for their flight. Based on these physical dimensions of ballooning silks, the significance of these filament-like structures is explained by a theoretical analysis reviewing the fluid-dynamics of an anisotropic particle (like a filament or a high-slender body). (1) The filament-like structure is materially efficient geometry to produce (or harvest, in the case of passive flight) fluid-dynamic force in a low Reynolds number flow regime. (2) Multiple nanoscale fibers are the result of the physical characteristics of a thin fiber, the drag of which is proportional to its length but not to its diameter. Because of this nonlinear characteristic of a fiber, spinning multiple thin ballooning fibers is, for spiders, a better way to produce drag forces than spinning a single thick spider silk, because spiders can maximize their drag on the ballooning fibers using the same amount of silk dope. (3) The mean thickness of fibers, 200 nm, is constrained by the mechanical strength of the ballooning fibers and the rarefaction effect of air molecules on a nanoscale fiber, because the slip condition on a fiber could predominate if the thickness of the fiber becomes thinner than 100 nm.}, } @article {pmid32508348, year = {2020}, author = {van Hooft, JA}, title = {A Note on Scalar-Gradient Sharpening in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer.}, journal = {Boundary-layer meteorology}, volume = {176}, number = {1}, pages = {149-156}, pmid = {32508348}, issn = {0006-8314}, abstract = {The scalar front generated by the horizontal self advection of a dipolar vortex through a modest scalar gradient is investigated. This physical scenario is an idealization of the emergence of strong temperature ramps in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The proposed mechanism is discussed and a two-dimensional analogy is studied in depth using direct numerical simulation. More specifically, the scalar-gradient sharpening is investigated as a function of the Reynolds number. It appears that the process of gradient sharpening at large-eddy scales may be challenging for turbulence-resolving methods applied to the stable-boundary-layer regime.}, } @article {pmid32507933, year = {2020}, author = {Jain, K}, title = {Efficacy of the FDA nozzle benchmark and the lattice Boltzmann method for the analysis of biomedical flows in transitional regime.}, journal = {Medical & biological engineering & computing}, volume = {58}, number = {8}, pages = {1817-1830}, pmid = {32507933}, issn = {1741-0444}, mesh = {Benchmarking/*methods ; Computer Simulation ; Equipment and Supplies ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration ; }, abstract = {Flows through medical devices as well as in anatomical vessels despite being at moderate Reynolds number may exhibit transitional or even turbulent character. In order to validate numerical methods and codes used for biomedical flow computations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established an experimental benchmark, which was a pipe with gradual contraction and sudden expansion representing a nozzle. The experimental results for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 500 to 6500 were publicly released. Previous and recent computational investigations of flow in the FDA nozzle found limitations in various CFD approaches and some even questioned the adequacy of the benchmark itself. This communication reports the results of a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) - based direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach applied to the FDA nozzle benchmark for transitional cases of Reynolds numbers 2000 and 3500. The goal is to evaluate if a simple off the shelf LBM would predict the experimental results without the use of complex models or synthetic turbulence at the inflow. LBM computations with various spatial and temporal resolutions are performed-in the extremities of 45 million to 2.88 billion lattice cells-executed respectively on 32 CPU cores of a desktop to more than 300,000 cores of a modern supercomputer to explore and characterize miniscule flow details and quantify Kolmogorov scales. The LBM simulations transition to turbulence at a Reynolds number 2000 like the FDA's experiments and acceptable agreement in jet breakdown locations, average velocity, shear stress, and pressure is found for both the Reynolds numbers. Graphical Abstract A bisecting plane showing the FDA nozzle and vorticity magnitude at t = 10 s for throat Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3500.}, } @article {pmid32505518, year = {2020}, author = {Cui, X and Wu, W and Ge, H}, title = {Investigation of airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration pattern using large eddy simulation method.}, journal = {Respiratory physiology & neurobiology}, volume = {279}, number = {}, pages = {103468}, doi = {10.1016/j.resp.2020.103468}, pmid = {32505518}, issn = {1878-1519}, abstract = {In this paper, the airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration process is predicted using large eddy simulation. The geometrical model is created by combining a popular cast-based mouth-throat model with tracheo-bronchial airways modeled with a trumpet-shaped conduit. The respiration process is simulated by sinusoidal displacing the bottom surface of the geometrical model. Large eddy simulation with dynamic sub-grid scale model is adopted for modeling the turbulent flow via a commercial CFD software, Converge. This study has found that (1) the secondary vortices in the mouth cavity are much more complex considering the lung expansion than setting the quasi-steady inspiration flow at the mouth-inlet; (2) the properties of secondary vortices in the trachea are not evidently different at the same Reynolds number at the accelerating and decelerating inspiration phases; (3) the reversed pharynx jet as well as recirculation zone is much unsteadier at the accelerating expiration phase than decelerating expiration phase for the same Reynolds number. We conclude that the properties of airflow structures are highly impacted by the respiration pattern and more investigations should be conducted, particularly, on the airflow structures during expiration phase for further understanding the properties of flow field.}, } @article {pmid32505137, year = {2020}, author = {Howard, MP and Statt, A and Stone, HA and Truskett, TM}, title = {Stability of force-driven shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with periodic boundaries.}, journal = {The Journal of chemical physics}, volume = {152}, number = {21}, pages = {214113}, doi = {10.1063/5.0010697}, pmid = {32505137}, issn = {1089-7690}, abstract = {We analyze the hydrodynamic stability of force-driven parallel shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions. We show that flows simulated in this way can be linearly unstable, and we derive an expression for the critical Reynolds number as a function of the geometric aspect ratio of the simulation domain. Approximate periodic extensions of Couette and Poiseuille flows are unstable at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude smaller than their aperiodic equivalents because the periodic boundaries impose fundamentally different constraints on the flow. This instability has important implications for simulating shear rheology and for designing nonequilibrium simulation methods that are compatible with periodic boundary conditions.}, } @article {pmid32499595, year = {2020}, author = {Meloni, S and Di Marco, A and Mancinelli, M and Camussi, R}, title = {Experimental investigation of jet-induced wall pressure fluctuations over a tangential flat plate at two Reynolds numbers.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {9140}, pmid = {32499595}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {The wall pressure fluctuations induced by a subsonic circular jet on a rigid flat plate have been investigated considering two jets with different exit section diameters at the same Mach number. The analysis is aimed at completing the series of papers presented by the authors on the interaction between a subsonic jet and infinite tangential flat plate where the exit Mach number was the only parameter of the jet flow that was varied. In order to analyse other effects out of the Mach number, two configurations with different nozzle exhaust diameters were explored with the objective of isolating the Reynolds number effect keeping fixed the exit Mach number. The nozzle exhaust diameters are 12 mm and 25.4 mm and the instrumented flat plate, installed parallel to the jet flow, is moved at different radial distances from the jet axis. The pressure footprint on the plate has been measured in the stream-wise direction by means of a pair of flush-mounted pressure transducers, providing point-wise pressure signals. Wall pressure fluctuations have been characterised in terms of spectral and statistical quantities. The effect of Reynolds is evidenced and possible scaling relationships that account for the Reynolds dependence are proposed. Implications for modeling the spectral coherence have been considered by the application of the Corcos' model and the effect of the jet Reynolds number on the model coefficients is analyzed.}, } @article {pmid32498258, year = {2020}, author = {Benedict, F and Kumar, A and Kadirgama, K and Mohammed, HA and Ramasamy, D and Samykano, M and Saidur, R}, title = {Thermal Performance of Hybrid-Inspired Coolant for Radiator Application.}, journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {10}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {32498258}, issn = {2079-4991}, support = {RDU190323 and RDU1803136//Universiti Malaysia Pahang/ ; FRGS/1/2017/TK03/UMP/02/25//Malaysia higher education ministry/ ; }, abstract = {Due to the increasing demand in industrial application, nanofluids have attracted the considerable attention of researchers in recent decades. The addition of nanocellulose (CNC) with water (W) and ethylene glycol (EG) to a coolant for a radiator application exhibits beneficial properties to improve the efficiency of the radiator. The focus of the present work was to investigate the performance of mono or hybrid metal oxide such as Al2O3 and TiO2 with or without plant base-extracted CNC with varying concentrations as a better heat transfer nanofluid in comparison to distilled water as a radiator coolant. The CNC is dispersed in the base fluid of EG and W with a 60:40 ratio. The highest absorption peak was noticed at 0.9% volume concentration of TiO2, Al2O3, CNC, Al2O3/TiO2, and Al2O3/CNC nanofluids which indicates a better stability of the nanofluids' suspension. Better thermal conductivity improvement was observed for the Al2O3 nanofluids in all mono nanofluids followed by the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids, respectively. The thermal conductivity of the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids with 0.9% volume concentration was found to be superior than that of the Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid nanofluids. Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluid dominates over other mono and hybrid nanofluids in terms of viscosity at all volume concentrations. CNC nanofluids (all volume concentrations) exhibited the highest specific heat capacity than other mono nanofluids. Additionally, in both hybrid nanofluids, Al2O3/CNC showed the lowest specific heat capacity. The optimized volume concentration from the statistical analytical tool was found to be 0.5%. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient, convective heat transfer, Reynolds number and the Nusselt number have a proportional relationship with the volumetric flow rate. Hybrid nanofluids exhibit better thermal conductivity than mono nanofluids. For instance, a better thermal conductivity improvement was shown by the mono Al2O3 nanofluids than the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids. On the other hand, superior thermal conductivity was observed for the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids compared to the other mono and hybrid ones (Al2O3/TiO2).}, } @article {pmid32495156, year = {2020}, author = {Ahasan, K and Landry, CM and Chen, X and Kim, JH}, title = {Effect of angle-of-attacks on deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) with symmetric airfoil pillars.}, journal = {Biomedical microdevices}, volume = {22}, number = {2}, pages = {42}, doi = {10.1007/s10544-020-00496-2}, pmid = {32495156}, issn = {1572-8781}, support = {1707056//Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems/International ; 1917299//Division of Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems/International ; }, mesh = {Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/*methods ; Particle Size ; Pressure ; }, abstract = {Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic technique for size fractionation of particles/cells in continuous flow with a great potential for biological and clinical applications. Growing interest of DLD devices in enabling high-throughput operation for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates, leading to operation at moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Recently, it has been shown that symmetric airfoil shaped pillars with neutral angle-of-attack (AoA) can be used for high-throughput design of DLD devices due to their mitigation of vortex effects and preservation of flow symmetry under high Re conditions. While high-Re operation with symmetric airfoil shaped pillars has been established, the effect of AoAs on the DLD performance has not been investigated. In this paper, we have characterized the airfoil DLD device with various AoAs. The transport behavior of microparticles has been observed and analyzed with various AoAs in realistic high-Re. Furthermore, we have modeled the flow fields and anisotropy in a representative airfoil pillar array, for both positive and negative AoA configurations. Unlike the conventional DLD device, lateral displacement has been suppressed with +5° and + 15° AoA configurations regardless of particle sizes. On the other hand, stronger lateral displacement has been seen with -5° and - 15° AoAs. This can be attributed to growing flow anisotropy as Re climbs, and significant expansion or compression of streamlines between airfoils with AoAs. The findings in this study can be utilized for the design and optimization of airfoil DLD microfluidic devices with various AoAs.}, } @article {pmid32488023, year = {2020}, author = {Li, X and Gao, J and Guo, Z and Yin, Y and Zhang, X and Sun, P and Gao, Z}, title = {A Study of Rainfall-Runoff Movement Process on High and Steep Slopes Affected by Double Turbulence Sources.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {9001}, pmid = {32488023}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {41371276//National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/ ; }, abstract = {To increase the available land area, a large-scale land remediation campaign was carried out in the loess hilly and gully area. A large number of high and steep slopes have been produced in the construction of road engineering and water conservancy engineering, and these slopes will cause serious soil erosion under rainfall conditions. Because rainfall runoff is simultaneously affected by slope, bed surface and rainfall, the runoff movement characteristics are complex. It is difficult to consider all influencing factors in the existing models, especially for steep slopes. In this study, artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to study the rainfall-runoff hydraulic processes under different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, and a modified method was proposed to model the key hydraulic parameters (i.e., equilibrium time, water surface line, and runoff processes) on steep slopes. The results showed that (1) For steep slopes (a 70° slope compared to a 5° slope), the runoff generation time, confluence time and equilibrium time of the slope decreased significantly. At the same time, the single width runoff of the steep slope had a power function relationship with the rainfall intensity and gradient. (2) The runoff patterns of steep slopes were different from those on gentle slopes and runoff patterns were more likely to change. The Reynolds number and Froude number for slope flow changed slowly when the slope was less than the critical gradient and increased significantly when the slope exceeded the critical gradient. (3) Based on the analysis of the "double turbulent model theory of thin-layer flow on a high-steep slope", combined with the dispersed motion wave model, a modified method for calculating the hydrodynamic factors of rainfall runoff was proposed. Then, this method was verified with indoor and outdoor experiments. The research results not only have theoretical significance, but also provide a more accurate calculation method for the design of high and steep slopes involved in land treatment engineering, road engineering and water conservancy engineering.}, } @article {pmid32481597, year = {2020}, author = {Robles-Romero, JM and Romero-Martín, M and Conde-Guillén, G and Cruces-Romero, D and Gómez-Salgado, J and Ponce-Blandón, JA}, title = {The Physics of Fluid Dynamics Applied to Vascular Ulcers and Its Impact on Nursing Care.}, journal = {Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {8}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {32481597}, issn = {2227-9032}, abstract = {The high incidence of vascular ulcers and the difficulties encountered in their healing process require the understanding of their multiple etiologies to develop effective strategies focused on providing different treatment options. This work provides a description of the principles of the physics of fluid dynamics related to vascular ulcers. The morphological characteristics of the cardiovascular system promote blood flow. The contraction force of the left ventricle is enhanced by its ability to reduce its radius of curvature and by increasing the thickness of the ventricular wall (Laplace's Law). Arterial flow must overcome vascular resistance (Ohm's equation). The elastic nature of the artery and the ability to reduce its diameter as flow rate progresses facilitate blood conduction at high speed up to arteriolar level, and this can be determined by the second equation of continuity. As it is a viscous fluid, we must discuss laminar flow, calculated by the Reynolds number, which favors proper conduction while aiming at the correct net filtration pressure. Any endothelial harmful process that affects the muscle wall of the vessel increases the flow speed, causing a decrease in capillary hydrostatic pressure, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients at the interstitial level. With regard to the return system, the flow direction is anti-gravity and requires endogenous aid to establish the Starling's equilibrium. Knowledge on the physics of vascular fluid dynamics makes it easier to understand the processes of formation of these ulcers so as to choosing the optimal healing and prevention techniques for these chronic wounds.}, } @article {pmid32466224, year = {2020}, author = {Charlton, AJ and Lian, B and Blandin, G and Leslie, G and Le-Clech, P}, title = {Impact of FO Operating Pressure and Membrane Tensile Strength on Draw-Channel Geometry and Resulting Hydrodynamics.}, journal = {Membranes}, volume = {10}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {32466224}, issn = {2077-0375}, abstract = {In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.}, } @article {pmid32462438, year = {2020}, author = {Asghar, Z and Ali, N and Waqas, M and Nazeer, M and Khan, WA}, title = {Locomotion of an efficient biomechanical sperm through viscoelastic medium.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {19}, number = {6}, pages = {2271-2284}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-020-01338-z}, pmid = {32462438}, issn = {1617-7940}, abstract = {Every group of microorganism utilizes a diverse mechanical strategy to propel through complex environments. These swimming problems deal with the fluid-organism interaction at micro-scales in which Reynolds number is of the order of 10-3. By adopting the same propulsion mechanism of so-called Taylor's sheet, here we address the biomechanical principle of swimming via different wavy surfaces. The passage (containing micro-swimmers) is considered to be passive two-dimensional channel filled with viscoelastic liquid, i.e., Oldroyd-4 constant fluid. For some initial value of unknowns, i.e., cell speed and flow rate of surrounding liquid, the resulting boundary value problem is solved by robust finite difference scheme. This convergent solution is further employed in the equilibrium conditions which will obviously not be satisfied for such crude values of unknowns. These unknowns are further refined (to satisfy the equilibrium conditions) by modified Newton-Raphson algorithm. These computed pairs are also utilized to compute the energy losses. The speed of swimming sheet its power delivered and flow rate of Oldroyd-4 constant fluid are compared for different kinds of wavy sheets. These results are also useful in the manufacturing of artificial (soft) microbots and the optimization of locomotion strategies.}, } @article {pmid32438546, year = {2020}, author = {Cassineri, S and Cioncolini, A and Smith, L and Curioni, M and Scenini, F}, title = {Experiments on Liquid Flow through Non-Circular Micro-Orifices.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {32438546}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {EP/L01680X/1//Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council/ ; }, abstract = {Microfluidics is an active research area in modern fluid mechanics, with several applications in science and engineering. Despite their importance in microfluidic systems, micro-orifices with non-circular cross-sections have not been extensively investigated. In this study, micro-orifice discharge with single-phase liquid flow was experimentally investigated for seven square and rectangular cross-section micro-orifices with a hydraulic diameter in the range of 326-510 µm. The discharge measurements were carried out in pressurized water (12 MPa) at ambient temperature (298 K) and high temperature (503 K). During the tests, the Reynolds number varied between 5883 and 212,030, significantly extending the range in which data are currently available in the literature on non-circular micro-orifices. The results indicate that the cross-sectional shape of the micro-orifice has little, if any, effect on the hydrodynamic behavior. Thus, existing methods for the prediction of turbulent flow behavior in circular micro-orifices can be used to predict the flow behavior in non-circular micro-orifices, provided that the flow geometry of the non-circular micro-orifice is described using a hydraulic diameter.}, } @article {pmid32422718, year = {2020}, author = {Moriconi, L}, title = {Magnetic dissipation of near-wall turbulent coherent structures in magnetohydrodynamic pipe flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043111}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.043111}, pmid = {32422718}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Relaminarization of wall-bounded turbulent flows by means of external static magnetic fields is a long-known phenomenon in the physics of electrically conducting fluids at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the large literature on the subject, it is not yet completely clear what combination of the Hartmann (M) and the Reynolds number has to be used to predict the laminar-turbulent transition in channel or pipe flows fed by upstream turbulent flows free of magnetic perturbations. Relying upon standard phenomenological approaches related to mixing length and structural concepts, we put forward that M/R_{τ}, where R_{τ} is the friction Reynolds number, is the appropriate controlling parameter for relaminarization, a proposal which finds good support from available experimental data.}, } @article {pmid32422715, year = {2020}, author = {Ekanem, EM and Berg, S and De, S and Fadili, A and Bultreys, T and Rücker, M and Southwick, J and Crawshaw, J and Luckham, PF}, title = {Signature of elastic turbulence of viscoelastic fluid flow in a single pore throat.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {4-1}, pages = {042605}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.042605}, pmid = {32422715}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {When a viscoelastic fluid, such as an aqueous polymer solution, flows through a porous medium, the fluid undergoes a repetitive expansion and contraction as it passes from one pore to the next. Above a critical flow rate, the interaction between the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and the pore configuration results in spatial and temporal flow instabilities reminiscent of turbulentlike behavior, even though the Reynolds number Re≪1. To investigate whether this is caused by many repeated pore body-pore throat sequences, or simply a consequence of the converging (diverging) nature present in a single pore throat, we performed experiments using anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in a microfluidic flow geometry representing a single pore throat. This allows the viscoelastic fluid to be characterized at increasing flow rates using microparticle image velocimetry in combination with pressure drop measurements. The key finding is that the effect, popularly known as "elastic turbulence," occurs already in a single pore throat geometry. The critical Deborah number at which the transition in rheological flow behavior from pseudoplastic (shear thinning) to dilatant (shear thickening) strongly depends on the ionic strength, the type of cation in the anionic HPAM solution, and the nature of pore configuration. The transition towards the elastic turbulence regime was found to directly correlate with an increase in normal stresses. The topology parameter, Q_{f}, computed from the velocity distribution, suggests that the "shear thickening" regime, where much of the elastic turbulence occurs in a single pore throat, is a consequence of viscoelastic normal stresses that cause a complex flow field. This flow field consists of extensional, shear, and rotational features around the constriction, as well as upstream and downstream of the constriction. Furthermore, this elastic turbulence regime, has high-pressure fluctuations, with a power-law decay exponent of up to |-2.1| which is higher than the Kolmogorov value for turbulence of |-5/3|.}, } @article {pmid32388985, year = {2020}, author = {Jain, SK and Banerjee, U and Sen, AK}, title = {Trapping and Coalescence of Diamagnetic Aqueous Droplets Using Negative Magnetophoresis.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {36}, number = {21}, pages = {5960-5966}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00846}, pmid = {32388985}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {The manipulation of aqueous droplets has a profound significance in biochemical assays. Magnetic field-driven droplet manipulation, offering unique advantages, is consequently gaining attention. However, the phenomenon relating to diamagnetic droplets is not well understood. Here, we report the understanding of trapping and coalescence of flowing diamagnetic aqueous droplets in a paramagnetic (oil-based ferrofluid) medium using negative magnetophoresis. Our study revealed that the trapping phenomenon is underpinned by the interplay of magnetic energy (Em) and frictional (viscous) energy (Ef), in terms of magnetophoretic stability number, Sm = (Em/Ef). The trapping and nontrapping regimes are characterized based on the peak value of magnetophoretic stability number, Smp, and droplet size, D*. The study of coalescence of a trapped droplet with a follower droplet (and a train of droplets) revealed that the film-drainage Reynolds number (Refd) representing the coalescence time depends on the magnetic Bond number, Bom. The coalesced droplet continues to remain trapped or gets self-released obeying the Smp and D* criterion. Our study offers an understanding of the magnetic manipulation of diamagnetic aqueous droplets that can potentially be used for biochemical assays in microfluidics.}, } @article {pmid32357661, year = {2020}, author = {Garcia, F and Seilmayer, M and Giesecke, A and Stefani, F}, title = {Chaotic wave dynamics in weakly magnetized spherical Couette flows.}, journal = {Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)}, volume = {30}, number = {4}, pages = {043116}, doi = {10.1063/1.5140577}, pmid = {32357661}, issn = {1089-7682}, abstract = {Direct numerical simulations of a liquid metal filling the gap between two concentric spheres are presented. The flow is governed by the interplay between the rotation of the inner sphere (measured by the Reynolds number Re) and a weak externally applied axial magnetic field (measured by the Hartmann number Ha). By varying the latter, a rich variety of flow features, both in terms of spatial symmetry and temporal dependence, is obtained. Flows with two or three independent frequencies describing their time evolution are found as a result of Hopf bifurcations. They are stable on a sufficiently large interval of Hartmann numbers where regions of multistability of two, three, and even four types of these different flows are detected. The temporal character of the solutions is analyzed by means of an accurate frequency analysis and Poincaré sections. An unstable branch of flows undergoing a period doubling cascade and frequency locking of three-frequency solutions is described as well.}, } @article {pmid32357025, year = {2020}, author = {Kang, S and Kwak, R}, title = {Pattern Formation of Three-Dimensional Electroconvection on a Charge Selective Surface.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {124}, number = {15}, pages = {154502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.154502}, pmid = {32357025}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {When a charge selective surface consumes or transports only cations or anions in the electrolyte, biased ion rejection initiates hydrodynamic instability, resulting in vortical fluid motions called electroconvection. In this Letter, we describe the first laboratory observation of three-dimensional electroconvection on a charge selective surface. Combining experiment and scaling analysis, we successfully categorized three distinct patterns of 3D electroconvection according to [(Ra_{E} )/(Re^{2} Sc)] [electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E} ), Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc)] as (i) polygonal, (ii) transverse, or (iii) longitudinal rolls. If Re increases or Ra_{E} decreases, pure longitudinal rolls are presented. On the other hand, transverse rolls are formed between longitudinal rolls, and two rolls are transformed as polygonal one at higher Ra_{E} or lower Re. In this pattern selection scenario, Sc determines the critical electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E} ^{*} ) for the onset of each roll, resulting in Ra_{E} ^{*} ∼Re^{2} Sc. We also verify that convective ion flux by electroconvection (represented by an electric Nusselt number Nu_{E} ) is fitted to a power law, Nu_{E} ∼[(Ra_{E} -Ra_{E} ^{*} )/(Re^{2} Sc)]^{α_{1} } Re^{α_{2} } Pe^{α_{3} } [Péclet number (Pe)], where each term represents the characteristics of electroconvection, shear flow, and ion transport.}, } @article {pmid32349452, year = {2020}, author = {Raza, W and Hossain, S and Kim, KY}, title = {A Review of Passive Micromixers with a Comparative Analysis.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {32349452}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {2019R1A2C1007657//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; }, abstract = {A wide range of existing passive micromixers are reviewed, and quantitative analyses of ten typical passive micromixers were performed to compare their mixing indices, pressure drops, and mixing costs under the same axial length and flow conditions across a wide Reynolds number range of 0.01-120. The tested micromixers were selected from five types of micromixer designs. The analyses of flow and mixing were performed using continuity, Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations. The results of the comparative analysis were presented for three different Reynolds number ranges: low-Re (Re ≤ 1), intermediate-Re (1 < Re ≤ 40), and high-Re (Re > 40) ranges, where the mixing mechanisms are different. The results show a two-dimensional micromixer of Tesla structure is recommended in the intermediate- and high-Re ranges, while two three-dimensional micromixers with two layers are recommended in the low-Re range due to their excellent mixing performance.}, } @article {pmid32342660, year = {2020}, author = {Storm, TJ and Nolan, KE and Roberts, EM and Sanderson, SL}, title = {Oropharyngeal morphology related to filtration mechanisms in suspension-feeding American shad (Clupeidae).}, journal = {Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology}, volume = {333}, number = {7}, pages = {493-510}, doi = {10.1002/jez.2363}, pmid = {32342660}, issn = {2471-5646}, support = {/HHMI/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/United States ; }, mesh = {Animals ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Gills ; Oropharynx/*anatomy & histology ; }, abstract = {To assess potential filtration mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy was used in a comprehensive quantification and analysis of the morphology and surface ultrastructure for all five branchial arches in the ram suspension-feeding fish, American shad (Alosa sapidissima, Clupeidae). The orientation of the branchial arches and the location of mucus cells on the gill rakers were more consistent with mechanisms of crossflow filtration and cross-step filtration rather than conventional dead-end sieving. The long, thin gill rakers could lead to a large area for the exit of water from the oropharyngeal cavity during suspension feeding (high fluid exit ratio). The substantial elongation of gill rakers along the dorsal-ventral axis formed d-type ribs with a groove aspect ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of approximately 500, consistent with the potential operation of cross-step filtration. Mucus cell abundance differed significantly along the length of the raker and the height of the raker. The mucus cell abundance data and the observed sloughing of denticles along the gill raker margins closest to the interior of the oropharyngeal cavity suggest that gill raker growth may occur primarily at the raker tips, the denticle bases, and the internal raker margins along the length of the raker. These findings will be applied in ongoing experiments with 3D-printed physical models of fish oral cavities in flow tanks, and in future ecological studies on the diet and nutrition of suspension-feeding fishes.}, } @article {pmid32340402, year = {2020}, author = {Singh, AV and Ansari, MHD and Mahajan, M and Srivastava, S and Kashyap, S and Dwivedi, P and Pandit, V and Katha, U}, title = {Sperm Cell Driven Microrobots-Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Biologically Inspired Robotic Design.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {32340402}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {With the advent of small-scale robotics, several exciting new applications like Targeted Drug Delivery, single cell manipulation and so forth, are being discussed. However, some challenges remain to be overcome before any such technology becomes medically usable; among which propulsion and biocompatibility are the main challenges. Propulsion at micro-scale where the Reynolds number is very low is difficult. To overcome this, nature has developed flagella which have evolved over millions of years to work as a micromotor. Among the microscopic cells that exhibit this mode of propulsion, sperm cells are considered to be fast paced. Here, we give a brief review of the state-of-the-art of Spermbots - a new class of microrobots created by coupling sperm cells to mechanical loads. Spermbots utilize the flagellar movement of the sperm cells for propulsion and as such do not require any toxic fuel in their environment. They are also naturally biocompatible and show considerable speed of motion thereby giving us an option to overcome the two challenges of propulsion and biocompatibility. The coupling mechanisms of physical load to the sperm cells are discussed along with the advantages and challenges associated with the spermbot. A few most promising applications of spermbots are also discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the future outlook of this extremely promising category of microrobots is given at the end.}, } @article {pmid32325022, year = {2020}, author = {Zhou, Q and Fidalgo, J and Calvi, L and Bernabeu, MO and Hoskins, PR and Oliveira, MSN and Krüger, T}, title = {Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dilute Red Blood Cell Suspensions in Low-Inertia Microchannel Flow.}, journal = {Biophysical journal}, volume = {118}, number = {10}, pages = {2561-2573}, pmid = {32325022}, issn = {1542-0086}, mesh = {Computer Simulation ; *Erythrocytes ; *Hydrodynamics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Suspensions ; }, abstract = {Microfluidic technologies are commonly used for the manipulation of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and analyses of flow-mediated biomechanics. To enhance the performance of microfluidic devices, understanding the dynamics of the suspensions processed within is crucial. We report novel, to our knowledge, aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of RBC suspensions flowing through a typical microchannel at low Reynolds number. Through experiments with dilute RBC suspensions, we find an off-center two-peak (OCTP) profile of cells contrary to the centralized distribution commonly reported for low-inertia flows. This is reminiscent of the well-known "tubular pinch effect," which arises from inertial effects. However, given the conditions of negligible inertia in our experiments, an alternative explanation is needed for this OCTP profile. Our massively parallel simulations of RBC flow in real-size microfluidic dimensions using the immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method confirm the experimental findings and elucidate the underlying mechanism for the counterintuitive RBC pattern. By analyzing the RBC migration and cell-free layer development within a high-aspect-ratio channel, we show that such a distribution is co-determined by the spatial decay of hydrodynamic lift and the global deficiency of cell dispersion in dilute suspensions. We find a cell-free layer development length greater than 46 and 28 hydraulic diameters in the experiment and simulation, respectively, exceeding typical lengths of microfluidic designs. Our work highlights the key role of transient cell distribution in dilute suspensions, which may negatively affect the reliability of experimental results if not taken into account.}, } @article {pmid32317809, year = {2020}, author = {Navah, F and de la Llave Plata, M and Couaillier, V}, title = {A High-Order Multiscale Approach to Turbulence for Compact Nodal Schemes.}, journal = {Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering}, volume = {363}, number = {}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1016/j.cma.2020.112885}, pmid = {32317809}, issn = {0045-7825}, support = {R01 DC005788/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {This article presents a formulation that extends the multiscale modelling for compressible large-eddy simulation to a vast family of compact nodal numerical methods represented by the high-order flux reconstruction scheme. The theoretical aspects of the proposed formulation are laid down via mathematical derivations which clearly expose the underlying assumptions and approximations and provide sufficient details for accurate reproduction of the methodology. The final form is assessed on a Taylor-Green vortex benchmark with Reynolds number of 5000 and compared to filtered direct numerical simulation data. These numerical experiments exhibit the important role of sufficient de-aliasing, appropriate amount of upwinding from Roe's numerical flux and large/small scale partition, in achieving better agreement with reference data, especially on coarse grids, when compared to the baseline implicit large-eddy simulation.}, } @article {pmid32315915, year = {2020}, author = {Banerjee, A and Sharma, T and Nautiyal, AK and Dasgupta, D and Hazra, S and Bhaskar, T and Ghosh, D}, title = {Scale-up strategy for yeast single cell oil production for Rhodotorula mucilagenosa IIPL32 from corn cob derived pentosan.}, journal = {Bioresource technology}, volume = {309}, number = {}, pages = {123329}, doi = {10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123329}, pmid = {32315915}, issn = {1873-2976}, mesh = {Fermentation ; *Rhodotorula ; Xylose ; Yeasts ; *Zea mays ; }, abstract = {This work was aimed to strategically scale-up the yeast lipid production process using Reynolds number as a standard rheological parameter from 50 mL to 50 L scale. Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 was cultivated in xylose rich corncob hydrolysate. The fermentation process for growth and maturation was operated in fed-batch with two different C/N ratios of 40 and 60. The hydrodynamic parameters were used to standardize and represent the effect of rheology on the fermentation process. The growth pattern of the yeast was found similar in both shake flask and fermenter with the maximum growth observed at 48 h. The lipid yield increased from 0.4 g/L and 0.5 g/L to 1.3 g/L and 1.83 g/L for 50 mL to 50 L for C/N ratio 40 and 60 respectively. The increase in productivity during the growth phase and lipid accumulation during the maturation phase showed that the scale-up strategy was successful.}, } @article {pmid32295138, year = {2020}, author = {Erdem, K and Ahmadi, VE and Kosar, A and Kuddusi, L}, title = {Differential Sorting of Microparticles Using Spiral Microchannels with Elliptic Configurations.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {32295138}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {Project Number: MDK-2017-40845//Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi/ ; }, abstract = {Label-free, size-dependent cell-sorting applications based on inertial focusing phenomena have attracted much interest during the last decade. The separation capability heavily depends on the precision of microparticle focusing. In this study, five-loop spiral microchannels with a height of 90 µm and a width of 500 µm are introduced. Unlike their original spiral counterparts, these channels have elliptic configurations of varying initial aspect ratios, namely major axis to minor axis ratios of 3:2, 11:9, 9:11, and 2:3. Accordingly, the curvature of these configurations increases in a curvilinear manner through the channel. The effects of the alternating curvature and channel Reynolds number on the focusing of fluorescent microparticles with sizes of 10 and 20 µm in the prepared suspensions were investigated. At volumetric flow rates between 0.5 and 3.5 mL/min (allowing separation), each channel was tested to collect samples at the designated outlets. Then, these samples were analyzed by counting the particles. These curved channels were capable of separating 20 and 10 µm particles with total yields up to approximately 95% and 90%, respectively. The results exhibited that the level of enrichment and the focusing behavior of the proposed configurations are promising compared to the existing microfluidic channel configurations.}, } @article {pmid32294955, year = {2020}, author = {Sun, HCM and Liao, P and Wei, T and Zhang, L and Sun, D}, title = {Magnetically Powered Biodegradable Microswimmers.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {32294955}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {The propulsive efficiency and biodegradability of wireless microrobots play a significant role in facilitating promising biomedical applications. Mimicking biological matters is a promising way to improve the performance of microrobots. Among diverse locomotion strategies, undulatory propulsion shows remarkable efficiency and agility. This work proposes a novel magnetically powered and hydrogel-based biodegradable microswimmer. The microswimmer is fabricated integrally by 3D laser lithography based on two-photon polymerization from a biodegradable material and has a total length of 200 μm and a diameter of 8 μm. The designed microswimmer incorporates a novel design utilizing four rigid segments, each of which is connected to the succeeding segment by spring to achieve undulation, improving structural integrity as well as simplifying the fabrication process. Under an external oscillating magnetic field, the microswimmer with multiple rigid segments connected by flexible spring can achieve undulatory locomotion and move forward along with the directions guided by the external magnetic field in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. In addition, experiments demonstrated that the microswimmer can be degraded successfully, which allows it to be safely applied in real-time in vivo environments. This design has great potential in future in vivo applications such as precision medicine, drug delivery, and diagnosis.}, } @article {pmid32290599, year = {2020}, author = {Huang, B and Li, H and Xu, T}, title = {Experimental Investigation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Reentrant Cavities.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {32290599}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {No.51906008, No.51822602//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; No. YWF-19-BJ-J-293//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; 2017-Ⅲ-0003-0027//National Major Science and Technology Projects of China/ ; }, abstract = {The application of microchannel heat exchangers is of great significance in industrial fields due to their advantages of miniaturized scale, large surface-area-to-volume ratio, and high heat transfer rate. In this study, microchannel heat exchangers with and without fan-shaped reentrant cavities were designed and manufactured, and experiments were conducted to investigate the flow and heat-transfer characteristics. The impact rising from the radius of reentrant cavities, as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and the pressure drop, is also analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with straight microchannels, microchannels with reentrant cavities could enhance the heat transfer and, more importantly, reduce the pressure drop at the same time. For the ranges of parameters studied, increasing the radius of reentrant cavities could augment the effect of pressure-drop reduction, while the corresponding variation of heat transfer is complicated. It is considered that adding reentrant cavities in microchannel heat exchangers is an ideal approach to improve performance.}, } @article {pmid32290016, year = {2020}, author = {Alboussière, T and Drif, K and Plunian, F}, title = {Dynamo action in sliding plates of anisotropic electrical conductivity.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033107}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.033107}, pmid = {32290016}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {With materials of anisotropic electrical conductivity, it is possible to generate a dynamo with a simple velocity field, of the type precluded by Cowling's theorems with isotropic materials. Following a previous study by Ruderman and Ruzmaikin [M. S. Ruderman and A. A. Ruzmaikin, Magnetic field generation in an anisotropically conducting fluid, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 28, 77 (1984)GAFDD30309-192910.1080/03091928408210135], who considered the dynamo effect induced by a uniform shear flow, we determine the conditions for the dynamo threshold when a solid plate is sliding over another one, both with anisotropic electrical conductivity. We obtain numerical solutions for a general class of anisotropy and obtain the conditions for the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, using a collocation Chebyshev method. In a particular geometry of anisotropy and wave number, we also derive an analytical solution, where the eigenvectors are just combinations of four exponential functions. An explicit analytical expression is obtained for the critical magnetic Reynolds number. Above the critical magnetic Reynolds number, we have also derived an analytical expression for the growth rate showing that this is a "very fast" dynamo, extrapolating on the "slow" and "fast" terminology introduced by Vainshtein and Zeldovich [S. I. Vainshtein and Y. B. Zeldovich, Reviews of topical problems: Origin of magnetic fields in astrophysics (turbulent "dynamo" mechanisms), Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 159 (1972)SOPUAP0038-567010.1070/PU1972v015n02ABEH004960].}, } @article {pmid32289979, year = {2020}, author = {Reyes, F and Torrejón, V and Falcón, C}, title = {Wave damping of a sloshing wave by an interacting turbulent vortex flow.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.033106}, pmid = {32289979}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We report on the enhancement of the hydrodynamic damping of gravity waves at the surface of a fluid layer as they interact with a turbulent vortex flow in a sloshing experiment. Gravity surface waves are excited by oscillating horizontally a square container holding our working fluid (water). At the bottom of the container, four impellers in a quadrupole configuration generate a vortex array at moderate to high Reynolds number, which interact with the wave. We measure the surface fluctuations using different optical nonintrusive methods and the local velocity of the flow. In our experimental range, we show that as we increase the angular velocity of the impellers, the gravity wave amplitude decreases without changing the oscillation frequency or generating transverse modes. This wave dissipation enhancement is contrasted with the increase of the turbulent velocity fluctuations from particle image velocimetry measurements via a turbulent viscosity. To rationalize the damping enhancement a periodically forced shallow water model including viscous terms is presented, which is used to calculate the sloshing wave resonance curve. The enhanced viscous dissipation coefficient is found to scale linearly with the measured turbulent viscosity. Hence, the proposed scheme is a good candidate as an active surface gravity wave dampener via vortex flow reconfiguration.}, } @article {pmid32284987, year = {2020}, author = {Spandan, V and Putt, D and Ostilla-Mónico, R and Lee, AA}, title = {Fluctuation-induced force in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {6}, number = {14}, pages = {eaba0461}, pmid = {32284987}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Understanding force generation in nonequilibrium systems is a notable challenge in statistical physics. We uncover a fluctuation-induced force between two plates immersed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence using direct numerical simulations. The force is a nonmonotonic function of plate separation. The mechanism of force generation reveals an intriguing analogy with fluctuation-induced forces: In a fluid, energy and vorticity are localized in regions of defined length scales. When varying the distance between the plates, we exclude energy structures modifying the overall pressure on the plates. At intermediate plate distances, the intense vorticity structures (worms) are forced to interact in close vicinity between the plates. This interaction affects the pressure in the slit and the force between the plates. The combination of these two effects causes a nonmonotonic attractive force with a complex Reynolds number dependence. Our study sheds light on how length scale-dependent distributions of energy and high-intensity vortex structures determine Casimir forces.}, } @article {pmid32260002, year = {2020}, author = {Asakawa, J and Nishii, K and Nakagawa, Y and Koizumi, H and Komurasaki, K}, title = {Direct measurement of 1-mN-class thrust and 100-s-class specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {91}, number = {3}, pages = {035116}, doi = {10.1063/1.5121411}, pmid = {32260002}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {This paper presents the development of a thrust stand to enable direct measurement of thrust and specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system during firing. The thrust stand is an inverted pendulum and incorporates a mass balance for direct in situ mass measurement. The proposed calibration procedure allows precise performance characterization and achieves a resolution of 80 μN thrust and 0.01 g mass loss, by taking into account the drift of the thrust-stand zero caused by propellant consumption. The performance of a water micro-resistojet propulsion system for CubeSats was directly characterized as a proof of concept of the thrust stand. Continuous profiles of thrust, specific impulse, and mass consumption were acquired under various conditions in a single firing test. A thrust from 1 mN to 10 mN and a specific impulse from 45 s to 100 s with a maximum measurement uncertainty of ±15.3% were measured for the throat Reynolds number in the range 100-400.}, } @article {pmid32244961, year = {2020}, author = {Joseph, J and Rehman, D and Delanaye, M and Morini, GL and Nacereddine, R and Korvink, JG and Brandner, JJ}, title = {Numerical and Experimental Study of Microchannel Performance on Flow Maldistribution.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {32244961}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {Grant Agreement No. 643095//European Community H2020 Framework/ ; }, abstract = {Miniaturized heat exchangers are well known for their superior heat transfer capabilities in comparison to macro-scale devices. While in standard microchannel systems the improved performance is provided by miniaturized distances and very small hydraulic diameters, another approach can also be followed, namely, the generation of local turbulences. Localized turbulence enhances the heat exchanger performance in any channel or tube, but also includes an increased pressure loss. Shifting the critical Reynolds number to a lower value by introducing perturbators controls pressure losses and improves thermal efficiency to a considerable extent. The objective of this paper is to investigate in detail collector performance based on reduced-order modelling and validate the numerical model based on experimental observations of flow maldistribution and pressure losses. Two different types of perturbators, Wire-net and S-shape, were analyzed. For the former, a metallic wire mesh was inserted in the flow passages (hot and cold gas flow) to ensure stiffness and enhance microchannel efficiency. The wire-net perturbators were replaced using an S-shaped perturbator model for a comparative study in the second case mentioned above. An optimum mass flow rate could be found when the thermal efficiency reaches a maximum. Investigation of collectors with different microchannel configurations (s-shaped, wire-net and plane channels) showed that mass flow rate deviation decreases with an increase in microchannel resistance. The recirculation zones in the cylindrical collectors also changed the maldistribution pattern. From experiments, it could be observed that microchannels with S-shaped perturbators shifted the onset of turbulent transition to lower Reynolds number values. Experimental studies on pressure losses showed that the pressure losses obtained from numerical studies were in good agreement with the experiments (<4%).}, } @article {pmid32168670, year = {2020}, author = {Thirani, S and Gupta, P and Scalo, C}, title = {Knudsen number effects on the nonlinear acoustic spectral energy cascade.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {101}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.101.023101}, pmid = {32168670}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We present a numerical investigation of the effects of gas rarefaction on the energy dynamics of resonating planar nonlinear acoustic waves. The problem setup is a gas-filled, adiabatic tube, excited from one end by a piston oscillating at the fundamental resonant frequency of the tube and closed at the other end; nonlinear wave steepening occurs until a limit cycle is reached, resulting in shock formation for sufficiently high densities. The Knudsen number, defined here as the ratio of the characteristic molecular collision timescale to the resonance period, is varied in the range Kn=10^{-1} -10^{-5}, from rarefied to dense regime, by changing the base density of the gas. The working fluid is Argon. A numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation, closed with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model, is used to simulate cases for Kn≥0.01. The fully compressible one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are used for Kn<0.01 with adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the resonating weak shocks, reaching wave Mach numbers up to 1.01. Nonlinear wave steepening and shock formation are associated with spectral broadening of the acoustic energy in the wavenumber-frequency domain; the latter is defined based on the exact energy corollary for second-order nonlinear acoustics derived by Gupta and Scalo [Phys. Rev. E 98, 033117 (2018)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.98.033117], representing the Lyapunov function of the system. At the limit cycle, the acoustic energy spectra exhibit an equilibrium energy cascade with a -2 slope in the inertial range, also observed in freely decaying nonlinear acoustic waves by the same authors. In the present system, energy is introduced externally via a piston at low wavenumbers or frequencies and balanced by thermoviscous dissipation at high wavenumbers or frequencies, responsible for the base temperature increase in the system. The thermoviscous dissipation rate is shown to scale as Kn^{2} for fixed Reynolds number based on the maximum velocity amplitude, i.e., increasing with the degree of flow rarefaction; consistently, the smallest length scale of the steepened waves at the limit cycle, corresponding to the thickness of the shock (when present) also increases with Kn. For a given fixed piston velocity amplitude, the bandwidth of the inertial range of the spectral energy cascade decreases with increasing Knudsen numbers, resulting in a reduced resonant response of the system. By exploiting dimensionless scaling laws borrowed by Kolmogorov's theory of hydrodynamic turbulence, it is shown that an inertial range for spectral energy transfer can be expected for acoustic Reynolds numbers Re_{U_{max} } >100, based on the maximum acoustic velocity amplitude in the domain.}, } @article {pmid32151621, year = {2020}, author = {Krieg, M and Mohseni, K}, title = {Transient pressure modeling in jetting animals.}, journal = {Journal of theoretical biology}, volume = {494}, number = {}, pages = {110237}, doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110237}, pmid = {32151621}, issn = {1095-8541}, mesh = {Animals ; *Aquatic Organisms ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Decapodiformes/physiology ; Larva/anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Models, Biological ; Odonata/physiology ; Pressure ; *Scyphozoa/physiology ; *Swimming ; }, abstract = {There are many marine animals that employ a form of jet propulsion to move through the water, often creating the jets by expanding and collapsing internal fluid cavities. Due to the unsteady nature of this form of locomotion and complex body/nozzle geometries, standard modeling techniques prove insufficient at capturing internal pressure dynamics, and hence swimming forces. This issue has been resolved with a novel technique for predicting the pressure inside deformable jet producing cavities (M. Krieg and K. Mohseni, J. Fluid Mech., 769, 2015), which is derived from evolution of the surrounding fluid circulation. However, this model was only validated for an engineered jet thruster with simple geometry and relatively high Reynolds number (Re) jets. The purpose of this manuscript is twofold: (i) to demonstrate how the circulation based pressure model can be used to analyze different animal body motions as they relate to propulsive output, for multiple species of jetting animals, (ii) and to quantitatively validate the pressure modeling for biological jetting organisms (typically characterized by complicated cavity geometry and low/intermediate Re flows). Using jellyfish (Sarsia tubulosa) as an example, we show that the pressure model is insensitive to complex cavity geometry, and can be applied to lower Re swimming. By breaking down the swimming behavior of the jellyfish, as well as that of squid and dragonfly larvae, according to circulation generating mechanisms, we demonstrate that the body motions of Sarsia tubulosa are optimized for acceleration at the beginning of pulsation as a survival response. Whereas towards the end of jetting, the velar morphology is adjusted to decrease the energetic cost. Similarly, we show that mantle collapse rates in squid maximize propulsive efficiency. Finally, we observe that the hindgut geometry of dragonfly larvae minimizes the work required to refill the cavity. Date Received: 10-18-2019, Date Accepted: 99-99-9999 *kriegmw@hawaii.edu, UHM Ocean and Res Eng, 2540 Dole St, Honolulu, HI 96822.}, } @article {pmid32125866, year = {2020}, author = {Fang, WZ and Ham, S and Qiao, R and Tao, WQ}, title = {Magnetic Actuation of Surface Walkers: The Effects of Confinement and Inertia.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {36}, number = {25}, pages = {7046-7055}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03487}, pmid = {32125866}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Driven by a magnetic field, the rotation of a particle near a wall can be rectified into a net translation. The particles thus actuated, or surface walkers, are a kind of active colloid that finds application in biology and microfluidics. Here, we investigate the motion of spherical surface walkers confined between two walls using simulations based on the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann method. The degree of confinement and the nature of the confining walls (slip vs no-slip) significantly affect a particle's translational speed and can even reverse its translational direction. When the rotational Reynolds number Reω is larger than 1, inertia effects reduce the critical frequency of the magnetic field, beyond which the sphere can no longer follow the external rotating field. The reduction of the critical frequency is especially pronounced when the sphere is confined near a no-slip wall. As Reω increases beyond 1, even when the sphere can still rotate in the synchronous regime, its translational Reynolds number ReT no longer increases linearly with Reω and even decreases when Reω exceeds ∼10.}, } @article {pmid32098945, year = {2020}, author = {Stixrude, L and Scipioni, R and Desjarlais, MP}, title = {A silicate dynamo in the early Earth.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {935}, pmid = {32098945}, issn = {2041-1723}, support = {291432//EC | EC Seventh Framework Programm | FP7 Ideas: European Research Council (FP7-IDEAS-ERC - Specific Programme: "Ideas" Implementing the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (2007 to 2013))/ ; EAR-1853388//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; }, abstract = {The Earth's magnetic field has operated for at least 3.4 billion years, yet how the ancient field was produced is still unknown. The core in the early Earth was surrounded by a molten silicate layer, a basal magma ocean that may have survived for more than one billion years. Here we use density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations to predict the electrical conductivity of silicate liquid at the conditions of the basal magma ocean: 100-140 GPa, and 4000-6000 K. We find that the electrical conductivity exceeds 10,000 S/m, more than 100 times that measured in silicate liquids at low pressure and temperature. The magnetic Reynolds number computed from our results exceeds the threshold for dynamo activity and the magnetic field strength is similar to that observed in the Archean paleomagnetic record. We therefore conclude that the Archean field was produced by the basal magma ocean.}, } @article {pmid32093331, year = {2020}, author = {Rehman, D and Joseph, J and Morini, GL and Delanaye, M and Brandner, J}, title = {A Hybrid Numerical Methodology Based on CFD and Porous Medium for Thermal Performance Evaluation of Gas to Gas Micro Heat Exchanger.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {32093331}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {643095//Horizon 2020 Framework Programme/ ; }, abstract = {In micro heat exchangers, due to the presence of distributing and collecting manifolds as well as hundreds of parallel microchannels, a complete conjugate heat transfer analysis requires a large amount of computational power. Therefore in this study, a novel methodology is developed to model the microchannels as a porous medium where a compressible gas is used as a working fluid. With the help of such a reduced model, a detailed flow analysis through individual microchannels can be avoided by studying the device as a whole at a considerably less computational cost. A micro heat exchanger with 133 parallel microchannels (average hydraulic diameter of 200 μ m) in both cocurrent and counterflow configurations is investigated in the current study. Hot and cold streams are separated by a stainless-steel partition foil having a thickness of 100 μ m. Microchannels have a rectangular cross section of 200 μ m × 200 μ m with a wall thickness of 100 μ m in between. As a first step, a numerical study for conjugate heat transfer analysis of microchannels only, without distributing and collecting manifolds is performed. Mass flow inside hot and cold fluid domains is increased such that inlet Reynolds number for both domains remains within the laminar regime. Inertial and viscous coefficients extracted from this study are then utilized to model pressure and temperature trends within the porous medium model. To cater for the density dependence of inertial and viscous coefficients due to the compressible nature of gas flow in microchannels, a modified formulation of Darcy-Forschheimer law is adopted. A complete model of a double layer micro heat exchanger with collecting and distributing manifolds where microchannels are modeled as the porous medium is finally developed and used to estimate the overall heat exchanger effectiveness of the investigated micro heat exchanger. A comparison of computational results using proposed hybrid methodology with previously published experimental results of the same micro heat exchanger showed that adopted methodology can predict the heat exchanger effectiveness within the experimental uncertainty for both cocurrent and counterflow configurations.}, } @article {pmid32082068, year = {2020}, author = {Luo, J and Chen, L and Li, K and Jackson, A}, title = {Optimal kinematic dynamos in a sphere.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {476}, number = {2233}, pages = {20190675}, pmid = {32082068}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {A variational optimization approach is used to optimize kinematic dynamos in a unit sphere and locate the enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action. The magnetic boundary condition is chosen to be either pseudo-vacuum or perfectly conducting. Spectra of the optimal flows corresponding to these two magnetic boundary conditions are identical since theory shows that they are relatable by reversing the flow field (Favier & Proctor 2013 Phys. Rev. E 88, 031001 (doi:10.1103/physreve.88.031001)). A no-slip boundary for the flow field gives a critical magnetic Reynolds number of 62.06, while a free-slip boundary reduces this number to 57.07. Optimal solutions are found to possess certain rotation symmetries (or anti-symmetries) and optimal flows share certain common features. The flows localize in a small region near the sphere's centre and spiral upwards with very large velocity and vorticity, so that they are locally nearly Beltrami. We also derive a new lower bound on the magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, which, for the case of enstrophy normalization, is five times larger than the previous best bound.}, } @article {pmid32082060, year = {2020}, author = {Jose, S and Govindarajan, R}, title = {Non-normal origin of modal instabilities in rotating plane shear flows.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {476}, number = {2233}, pages = {20190550}, pmid = {32082060}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {Small variations introduced in shear flows are known to affect stability dramatically. Rotation of the flow system is one example, where the critical Reynolds number for exponential instabilities falls steeply with a small increase in rotation rate. We ask whether there is a fundamental reason for this sensitivity to rotation. We answer in the affirmative, showing that it is the non-normality of the stability operator in the absence of rotation which triggers this sensitivity. We treat the flow in the presence of rotation as a perturbation on the non-rotating case, and show that the rotating case is a special element of the pseudospectrum of the non-rotating case. Thus, while the non-rotating flow is always modally stable to streamwise-independent perturbations, rotating flows with the smallest rotation are unstable at zero streamwise wavenumber, with the spanwise wavenumbers close to that of disturbances with the highest transient growth in the non-rotating case. The instability critical rotation number scales inversely as the square of the Reynolds number, which we demonstrate is the same as the scaling obeyed by the minimum perturbation amplitude in non-rotating shear flow needed for the pseudospectrum to cross the neutral line. Plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette flow are shown to behave similarly in this context.}, } @article {pmid32067001, year = {2020}, author = {Razavi Bazaz, S and Mashhadian, A and Ehsani, A and Saha, SC and Krüger, T and Ebrahimi Warkiani, M}, title = {Computational inertial microfluidics: a review.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {20}, number = {6}, pages = {1023-1048}, doi = {10.1039/c9lc01022j}, pmid = {32067001}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {Since the discovery of inertial focusing in 1961, numerous theories have been put forward to explain the migration of particles in inertial flows, but a complete understanding is still lacking. Recently, computational approaches have been utilized to obtain better insights into the underlying physics. In particular, fundamental aspects of particle focusing inside straight and curved microchannels have been explored in detail to determine the dependence of focusing behavior on particle size, channel shape, and flow Reynolds number. In this review, we differentiate between the models developed for inertial particle motion on the basis of whether they are semi-analytical, Navier-Stokes-based, or built on the lattice Boltzmann method. This review provides a blueprint for the consideration of numerical solutions for modeling of inertial particle motion, whether deformable or rigid, spherical or non-spherical, and whether suspended in Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. In each section, we provide the general equations used to solve particle motion, followed by a tutorial appendix and specified sections to engage the reader with details of the numerical studies. Finally, we address the challenges ahead in the modeling of inertial particle microfluidics for future investigators.}, } @article {pmid32066045, year = {2020}, author = {Tanveer, A and Salahuddin, T and Khan, M and Malik, MY and Alqarni, MS}, title = {Theoretical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in a microchannel.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {191}, number = {}, pages = {105280}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105280}, pmid = {32066045}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Electroosmosis ; Hemodynamics ; Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Biological ; Models, Statistical ; Nanotechnology ; Rheology ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In this work the theoretical analysis is presented for a electroosmotic flow of Bingham nanofluid induced by applied electrostatic potential. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is considered in the presence of Electric double layer (EDL). A Bingham fluid model is employed to describe the rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. Flow characteristics are investigated by employing Debye-Huckel linearization principle. Such preferences have not been reported previously for non-Newtonian Bingham nanofluid to the best of author's knowledge.

METHOD: The transformed equations for electroosmotic flow are solved to seek values for the nanofluid velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length.

RESULTS: The effects of key parameters like Brinkmann number, Prandtl number, Debey Huckel parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter are plotted on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Graphical results for the flow phenomenon are discussed briefly.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-uniformity in channel as well as yield stress τ0 cause velocity declaration for both positive and negative values of U. Nanofluid temperature is found an increasing function of electro osmotic parameter κ if U is positive while it is a decreasing function if U is negative. A completely reverse response is seen in case of concentration profile. The thermophoresis parameter Nt, the Brow nian motion parameter Nb and Brinkman number Br cause an enhancement in temperature. The results are new in case of U.}, } @article {pmid32062487, year = {2020}, author = {Yan, SR and Sedeh, S and Toghraie, D and Afrand, M and Foong, LK}, title = {Analysis and manegement of laminar blood flow inside a cerebral blood vessel using a finite volume software program for biomedical engineering.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {190}, number = {}, pages = {105384}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105384}, pmid = {32062487}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Adult ; Algorithms ; *Biomedical Engineering ; *Blood Flow Velocity ; *Cerebral Veins/physiology ; Female ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Shear Strength ; *Software ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemodynamic blood flow analysis in the cerebrovascular is has become one of the important research topics in the bio-mechanic in recent decades. The primary duty of the cerebral blood vessel is supplying Glucose and oxygen for the brain.

METHODS: In this investigation, the non-Newtonian blood flow in the cerebral blood vessels studied. For modeling the geometry of this problem, we used Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) approach to take Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images and using an open-source software package to construct the geometry, which is a complicated one. The power-law indexes, heat flux, and Reynolds number range in the investigation are 0.6 ≤ n ≤ 0.8, 5 ≤ q ≤ 15Wm-2 and 160≤Re≤310. Effects of Reynolds number, power-law indexes and heat fluxes are investigated.

RESULTS: We found that the pressure drop increase with increasing the Reynolds number and power-law index. The maximum Nusselt number in the cerebral blood vessels accrued in the running position of the body in n = 0.8. Also, the highest average wall shear stress occurs in maximum power-law indexes and Reynolds number.

CONCLUSION: By increasing the power-law index and Reynolds number, the wall shear stress increases.}, } @article {pmid32052248, year = {2020}, author = {Waheed, S and Noreen, S and Tripathi, D and Lu, DC}, title = {Electrothermal transport of third-order fluids regulated by peristaltic pumping.}, journal = {Journal of biological physics}, volume = {46}, number = {1}, pages = {45-65}, pmid = {32052248}, issn = {1573-0689}, mesh = {Electroosmosis/*instrumentation ; *Hot Temperature ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Theoretical ; }, abstract = {The study of heat and electroosmotic characteristics in the flow of a third-order fluid regulated by peristaltic pumping is examined by using governing equations, i.e., the continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, and concentration equation. The wavelength is considered long compared to its height and a low Reynolds number is assumed. The velocity slip condition is employed. Analytical solutions are performed through the perturbation technique. The expressions for the dimensionless velocity components, temperature, concentration, and heat transfer rate are obtained. Pumping features were computed numerically for discussion of results. Trapping and heat transfer coefficient distributions were also studied graphically. The findings of the present study can be applied to design biomicrofluidic devices like tumor-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip.}, } @article {pmid32042893, year = {2020}, author = {Cerbus, RT and Liu, CC and Gioia, G and Chakraborty, P}, title = {Small-scale universality in the spectral structure of transitional pipe flows.}, journal = {Science advances}, volume = {6}, number = {4}, pages = {eaaw6256}, pmid = {32042893}, issn = {2375-2548}, abstract = {Turbulent flows are not only everywhere, but every turbulent flow is the same at small scales. The extraordinary simplification engendered by this "small-scale universality" is a hallmark of turbulence theory. However, on the basis of the restrictive assumptions invoked by A. N. Kolmogorov to demonstrate this universality, it is widely thought that only idealized turbulent flows conform to this framework. Using experiments and simulations that span a wide range of Reynolds number, we show that small-scale universality governs the spectral structure of a class of flows with no apparent ties to the idealized flows: transitional pipe flows. Our results not only extend the universality of Kolmogorov's framework beyond expectation but also establish an unexpected link between transitional pipe flows and Kolmogorovian turbulence.}, } @article {pmid32041775, year = {2020}, author = {Usherwood, JR and Cheney, JA and Song, J and Windsor, SP and Stevenson, JPJ and Dierksheide, U and Nila, A and Bomphrey, RJ}, title = {High aerodynamic lift from the tail reduces drag in gliding raptors.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {223}, number = {Pt 3}, pages = {}, pmid = {32041775}, issn = {1477-9145}, support = {/WT_/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom ; 202854/Z/16/Z/WT_/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom ; }, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Flight, Animal/*physiology ; Hawks/*physiology ; Species Specificity ; Strigiformes/*physiology ; Tail/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Many functions have been postulated for the aerodynamic role of the avian tail during steady-state flight. By analogy with conventional aircraft, the tail might provide passive pitch stability if it produced very low or negative lift. Alternatively, aeronautical principles might suggest strategies that allow the tail to reduce inviscid, induced drag: if the wings and tail act in different horizontal planes, they might benefit from biplane-like aerodynamics; if they act in the same plane, lift from the tail might compensate for lift lost over the fuselage (body), reducing induced drag with a more even downwash profile. However, textbook aeronautical principles should be applied with caution because birds have highly capable sensing and active control, presumably reducing the demand for passive aerodynamic stability, and, because of their small size and low flight speeds, operate at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude below those of light aircraft. Here, by tracking up to 20,000, 0.3 mm neutrally buoyant soap bubbles behind a gliding barn owl, tawny owl and goshawk, we found that downwash velocity due to the body/tail consistently exceeds that due to the wings. The downwash measured behind the centreline is quantitatively consistent with an alternative hypothesis: that of constant lift production per planform area, a requirement for minimizing viscous, profile drag. Gliding raptors use lift distributions that compromise both inviscid induced drag minimization and static pitch stability, instead adopting a strategy that reduces the viscous drag, which is of proportionately greater importance to lower Reynolds number fliers.}, } @article {pmid32024757, year = {2020}, author = {Wu, Z and Zaki, TA and Meneveau, C}, title = {High-Reynolds-number fractal signature of nascent turbulence during transition.}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, volume = {117}, number = {7}, pages = {3461-3468}, pmid = {32024757}, issn = {1091-6490}, abstract = {Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurring over a smooth surface is a particularly important route to chaos in fluid dynamics. It often occurs via sporadic inception of spatially localized patches (spots) of turbulence that grow and merge downstream to become the fully turbulent boundary layer. A long-standing question has been whether these incipient spots already contain properties of high-Reynolds-number, developed turbulence. In this study, the question is posed for geometric scaling properties of the interface separating turbulence within the spots from the outer flow. For high-Reynolds-number turbulence, such interfaces are known to display fractal scaling laws with a dimension [Formula: see text], where the 1/3 excess exponent above 2 (smooth surfaces) follows from Kolmogorov scaling of velocity fluctuations. The data used in this study are from a direct numerical simulation, and the spot boundaries (interfaces) are determined by using an unsupervised machine-learning method that can identify such interfaces without setting arbitrary thresholds. Wide separation between small and large scales during transition is provided by the large range of spot volumes, enabling accurate measurements of the volume-area fractal scaling exponent. Measurements show a dimension of [Formula: see text] over almost 5 decades of spot volume, i.e., trends fully consistent with high-Reynolds-number turbulence. Additional observations pertaining to the dependence on height above the surface are also presented. Results provide evidence that turbulent spots exhibit high-Reynolds-number fractal-scaling properties already during early transitional and nonisotropic stages of the flow evolution.}, } @article {pmid32024433, year = {2020}, author = {Xu, Z and Qin, H and Li, P and Liu, R}, title = {Computational fluid dynamics approaches to drag and wake of a long-line mussel dropper under tidal current.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {103}, number = {1}, pages = {36850419901235}, doi = {10.1177/0036850419901235}, pmid = {32024433}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {Hydrodynamic effects of mussel farms have attracted increased research attentions in recent years. The understanding of the hydrodynamic impacts is essential for predicting the sustainability of mussel farms. A large mussel farm includes thousands of mussel droppers, and the combined drag on the mussel droppers is sufficient to possibly affect the longevity of the entire long-lines. This article intends to study the drag and wake of an individual long-line mussel dropper using computational fluid dynamics approaches. Two equivalent rough cylinders, namely, Curved-Model and Sharp-Model, have been utilized to simulate the mussel dropper, and each rough cylinder is assigned with surface roughness. The porosity is not considered in this article due to its complexity from inhalant and exhalant of mussels. Two-dimensional laminar simulations are conducted at Reynolds number from 10 to 200, and three-dimensional large eddy simulations are conducted at subcritical Reynolds number ranging from 3900 to 105. The results show that larger drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers are attributed to surface roughness and sharp crowns on the rough cylinder. The obtained drag coefficient ranges from 1.1 to 1.2 with respect to the diameter of the mussel dropper and the peak value of the tidal velocities. Wakes behind rough cylinders fluctuate more actively compared to those of smooth cylinders. This research work provides new insight for further investigations on hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and mussel droppers.}, } @article {pmid32007018, year = {2020}, author = {Ganta, N and Mahato, B and Bhumkar, YG}, title = {Prediction of the aerodynamic sound generated due to flow over a cylinder performing combined steady rotation and rotary oscillations.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {147}, number = {1}, pages = {325}, doi = {10.1121/10.0000585}, pmid = {32007018}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {Analysis of sound generated due to a laminar flow past a circular cylinder subjected to the mean rotation along with the rotary oscillating motion has been performed for the Reynolds number Re = 150 and the Mach number M = 0.2. The direct numerical simulation approach has been used to study modifications in the generated sound field over a range of forcing parameters using disturbance pressure field information. Flow and sound fields are accurately resolved over a nondimensional radial distance r≤100 from the center of the cylinder. Frequencies, as well as wavelengths of generated sound waves, have been effectively altered by varying the forcing frequency-ratio, whereas the directivity nature of the radiated sound field has been modified by varying the forcing amplitude-ratio. Doak's decomposition technique has been used to understand the reasons behind changes in the radiated sound fields as the forcing parameters are varied.}, } @article {pmid32006194, year = {2020}, author = {Alouges, F and Di Fratta, G}, title = {Parking 3-sphere swimmer: II. The long-arm asymptotic regime.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {43}, number = {2}, pages = {6}, pmid = {32006194}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {The paper carries on our previous investigations on the complementary version of Purcell's rotator (sPr3): a low-Reynolds-number swimmer composed of three balls of equal radii. In the asymptotic regime of very long arms, the Stokes-induced governing dynamics is derived, and then experimented in the context of energy-minimizing self-propulsion characterized in the first part of the paper.}, } @article {pmid34095645, year = {2020}, author = {Zhang, X and Graham, MD}, title = {Multiplicity of stable orbits for deformable prolate capsules in shear flow.}, journal = {Physical review fluids}, volume = {5}, number = {2}, pages = {}, pmid = {34095645}, issn = {2469-990X}, support = {R21 MD011590/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {This work investigates the orbital dynamics of a fluid-filled deformable prolate capsule in unbounded simple shear flow at zero Reynolds number using direct simulations. The motion of the capsule is simulated using a model that incorporates shear elasticity, area dilatation, and bending resistance. Here the deformability of the capsule is characterized by the nondimensional capillary number Ca, which represents the ratio of viscous stresses to elastic restoring stresses on the capsule. For a capsule with small bending stiffness, at a given Ca, the orientation converges over time towards a unique stable orbit independent of the initial orientation. With increasing Ca, four dynamical modes are found for the stable orbit, namely, rolling, wobbling, oscillating-swinging, and swinging. On the other hand, for a capsule with large bending stiffness, multiplicity in the orbit dynamics is observed. When the viscosity ratio λ ≲ 1, the long-axis of the capsule always tends towards a stable orbit in the flow-gradient plane, either tumbling or swinging, depending on Ca. When λ ≳ 1, the stable orbit of the capsule is a tumbling motion at low Ca, irrespective of the initial orientation. Upon increasing Ca, there is a symmetry-breaking bifurcation away from the tumbling orbit, and the capsule is observed to adopt multiple stable orbital modes including nonsymmetric precessing and rolling, depending on the initial orientation. As Ca further increases, the nonsymmetric stable orbit loses existence at a saddle-node bifurcation, and rolling becomes the only attractor at high Ca, whereas the rolling state coexists with the nonsymmetric state at intermediate values of Ca. A symmetry-breaking bifurcation away from the rolling orbit is also found upon decreasing Ca. The regime with multiple attractors becomes broader as the aspect ratio of the capsule increases, while narrowing as viscosity ratio increases. We also report the particle contribution to the stress, which also displays multiplicity.}, } @article {pmid34045778, year = {2020}, author = {Sherman, E and Lambert, L and White, B and Krane, MH and Wei, T}, title = {Cycle-to-cycle flow variations in a square duct with a symmetrically oscillating constriction.}, journal = {Fluid dynamics research}, volume = {52}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {34045778}, issn = {0169-5983}, support = {R01 DC005642/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {Spatially and temporally resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) measurements are presented of flow complexities in a nominally two-dimensional, symmetric, duct with an oscillating constriction. The motivation for this research lies in advancing the state-of-the-art in applying integral control volume analysis to modeling unsteady internal flows. The specific target is acoustic modeling of human phonation. The integral mass and momentum equations are directly coupled to the acoustic equations and provide quantitative insight into acoustic source strengths in addition to the dynamics of the fluid-structure interactions in the glottis. In this study, a square cross-section duct was constructed with symmetric, computer controlled, oscillating constrictions that incorporate both rocking as well as oscillatory open/close motions. Experiments were run in a free-surface water tunnel over a Strouhal number range, based on maximum jet speed and model length, of 0.012 - 0.048, for a fixed Reynolds number, based on maximum gap opening and maximum jet speed, of 8000. In this study, the constriction motions were continuous with one open-close cycle immediately following another. While the model and its motions were nominally two-dimensional and symmetric, flow asymmetries and oscillation frequency dependent cycle-to-cycle variations were observed. These are examined in the context of terms in the integral conservation equations.}, } @article {pmid31999751, year = {2020}, author = {Liu, P and Liu, H and Yang, Y and Wang, M and Sun, Y}, title = {Comparison of design methods for negative pressure gradient rotary bodies: A CFD study.}, journal = {PloS one}, volume = {15}, number = {1}, pages = {e0228186}, pmid = {31999751}, issn = {1932-6203}, mesh = {Animals ; Computer Simulation ; *Hydrodynamics ; Models, Theoretical ; *Pressure ; Ships ; Stress, Mechanical ; Surface Properties ; }, abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to test two body design methods which use negative pressure gradient to suppress laminar flow separation and drag reduction. The steady-state model of the Transition SST model is used to calculate the pressure distribution, wall shear stress, and drag coefficient under zero angle of attack at different velocities. Four bodies designed by two different methods are considered. Our results show the first method is superior to the body of Hansen in drag reduction and the body designed by the first method is more likely to obtain the characteristics of suppressing or eliminating separation, which can effectively improve laminar flow coverage to achieve drag reduction under higher Reynolds number conditions. The results show that the negative pressure gradient method can suppress separation and drag reduction better than the second method. This successful design method is expected to open a promising prospect for its application in the design of small drag, small noise subsonic hydrodynamic hull and underwater weapons.}, } @article {pmid31991147, year = {2020}, author = {Nguyen, KH and Gemmell, BJ and Rohr, JR}, title = {Effects of temperature and viscosity on miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni: ramifications for disease transmission.}, journal = {International journal for parasitology}, volume = {50}, number = {2}, pages = {153-159}, pmid = {31991147}, issn = {1879-0135}, support = {HHSN272201000005C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ; HHSN272201000005I/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ; R01 TW010286/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States ; }, mesh = {Animals ; Biomphalaria/parasitology ; Cercaria/*physiology ; Climate Change ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Humans ; Larva/physiology ; Life Cycle Stages ; Movement/*physiology ; Schistosoma mansoni/*physiology ; Schistosomiasis mansoni/*transmission ; Temperature ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Parasites with complex life cycles can be susceptible to temperature shifts associated with seasonal changes, especially as free-living larvae that depend on a fixed energy reserve to survive outside the host. The life cycle of Schistosoma, a trematode genus containing some species that cause human schistosomiasis, has free-living, aquatic miracidial and cercarial larval stages that swim using cilia or a forked tail, respectively. The small size of these swimmers (150-350 µm) dictates that their propulsion is dominated by viscous forces. Given that viscosity inhibits the swimming ability of small organisms and is inversely correlated with temperature, changes in temperature should affect the ability of free-living larval stages to swim and locate a host. By recording miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni using a high-speed camera and manipulating temperature and viscosity independently, we assessed the role each factor plays in the swimming mechanics of the parasite. We found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Reynolds numbers, which describe the ratio of inertial to viscous forces exerted on an aquatic organism, were <1 across treatments. Q10 values were <2 when comparing viscosity treatments at 20 °C and 30 °C, further supporting the influence of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Given that both larval stages have limited energy reserves and infection takes considerable energy, successful transmission depends on both speed and lifespan. We coupled our speed data with mortality measurements across temperatures and discovered that the theoretical maximum distance travelled increased with temperature and decreased with viscosity for both larval stages. Thus, our results suggest that S. mansoni transmission is high during warm times of the year, partly due to improved swimming performance of the free-living larval stages, and that increases in temperature variation associated with climate change might further increase transmission.}, } @article {pmid31989130, year = {2020}, author = {Fauzi, FB and Ismail, E and Syed Abu Bakar, SN and Ismail, AF and Mohamed, MA and Md Din, MF and Illias, S and Ani, MH}, title = {The role of gas-phase dynamics in interfacial phenomena during few-layer graphene growth through atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition.}, journal = {Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP}, volume = {22}, number = {6}, pages = {3481-3489}, doi = {10.1039/c9cp05346h}, pmid = {31989130}, issn = {1463-9084}, abstract = {The complicated chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is currently the most viable method of producing graphene. Most studies have extensively focused on chemical aspects either through experiments or computational studies. However, gas-phase dynamics in CVD reportedly plays an important role in improving graphene quality. Given that mass transport is the rate-limiting step for graphene deposition in atmospheric-pressure CVD (APCVD), the interfacial phenomena at the gas-solid interface (i.e., the boundary layer) are a crucial controlling factor. Accordingly, only by understanding and controlling the boundary-layer thickness can uniform full-coverage graphene deposition be achieved. In this study, a simplified computational fluid dynamics analysis of APCVD was performed to investigate gas-phase dynamics during deposition. Boundary-layer thickness was also estimated through the development of a customised homogeneous gas model. Interfacial phenomena, particularly the boundary layer and mass transport within it, were studied. The effects of Reynolds number on these factors were explored and compared with experimentally obtained results of the characterised graphene deposit. We then discussed and elucidated the important relation of fluid dynamics to graphene growth through APCVD.}, } @article {pmid31982669, year = {2020}, author = {Asghar, Z and Ali, N and Javid, K and Waqas, M and Dogonchi, AS and Khan, WA}, title = {Bio-inspired propulsion of micro-swimmers within a passive cervix filled with couple stress mucus.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {189}, number = {}, pages = {105313}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105313}, pmid = {31982669}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Cervix Uteri/*physiology ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Mucus/*physiology ; Rheology ; Spermatozoa ; Stress, Psychological/metabolism ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The swimming mechanism of self-propelling organisms has been imitated by biomedical engineers to design the mechanical micro bots. The interaction of these swimmers with surrounding environment is another important aspect. The present swimming problem integrates Taylor sheet model with couple stress fluid model. The thin passage containing micro-swimmers and mucus is approximated as a rigid (passive) two-dimensional channel. The spermatozoa forms a pack quite similar as a complex wavy sheet.

METHODS: Swimming problem with couple stress cervical liquid (at low Reynolds number) leads to a linear sixth order differential equation. The boundary value problem (BVP) is solved analytically with two unknowns i.e. speed of complex wavy sheet and flow rate of couple stress mucus. After utilizing this solution into equilibrium conditions these unknowns can be computed via Newton-Raphson algorithm. Furthermore, the pairs of numerically calculated organism speed and flow rate are utilized in the expression of power dissipation.

RESULTS: This work describes that the speed of micro-swimmers can be enhanced by suitable rheology of the surrounding liquid. The usage of couple stress fluid as compared to Newtonian fluid enhances the energy dissipation and reduces the flow rate. On the other hand complex wavy surface also aids the organisms to swim faster.}, } @article {pmid31978919, year = {2020}, author = {Zhu, Y and Yang, G and Zhuang, C and Li, C and Hu, D}, title = {Oral cavity flow distribution and pressure drop in balaenid whales feeding: a theoretical analysis.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {15}, number = {3}, pages = {036004}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab6fb8}, pmid = {31978919}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Bionics ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Models, Theoretical ; Mouth/*physiology ; Whales/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Balaenid whales, as continuous ram filter feeders, can efficiently separate prey from water by baleen. The feeding process of balaenid whales is extremely complex, in which the flow distribution and pressure drop in the oral cavity play a significant role. In this paper, a theoretical model coupled with oral cavity velocity and pressure in balaenid whales is established based on mass conservation, momentum conservation and pressure drop equations, considering both the inertial and the friction terms. A discrete method with section-by-section calculation is adopted to solve the theoretical model. The effects of four crucial parameters, i.e. the ratio of filtration area to inlet area (S), the Reynolds number of entrance (Re in), the ratio of thickness to permeability of the porous media formed by the fringe layer (ϕ) and the width ratio of the anteroposterior canal within the mouth along the tongue (APT channel) to that along the lip (APL channel) (H) are discussed. The results show that, for a given case, the flow distribution and the pressure drop both show increasing trends with the flow direction. For different cases, when S is small, Re in is small and ϕ is large, a good flow pattern emerges with a smoother flow speed near the oropharynx, better drainage, better shunting and filtration, and higher energy efficiency. However, for smaller values of H, some energy efficiency is sacrificed to achieve additional average transverse flow in order to produce better shunting and filtration. The research in this paper provides a reference for the design of high-efficiency bionic filters.}, } @article {pmid31978870, year = {2020}, author = {Afrouzi, HH and Ahmadian, M and Hosseini, M and Arasteh, H and Toghraie, D and Rostami, S}, title = {Simulation of blood flow in arteries with aneurysm: Lattice Boltzmann Approach (LBM).}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {187}, number = {}, pages = {105312}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105312}, pmid = {31978870}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Aneurysm/*diagnostic imaging ; Arteries/diagnostic imaging ; *Blood Flow Velocity ; Cardiovascular Diseases/*diagnostic imaging ; Computer Simulation ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Rheology ; Shear Strength ; Stress, Mechanical ; Stroke/*diagnostic imaging ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most countries, the higher death rates are due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. These problems often derive from irregular blood flow and the circulatory system disorder.

METHODS: In this paper, the blood flow is simulated in a created aneurysm in the artery upon using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Blood is selected as a non-Newtonian fluid which was simulated with power-law model. The lattice Boltzmann results for non-Newtonian fluid flow with power-law model and the curved boundary are compared and validated with previous studies which show a good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for two types of aneurysms. For the first aneurysm, three power-law exponents of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 at Reynolds number of 100 for three different cases are investigated.

RESULTS: The results show that the wall shear stress increases with increasing the power-law exponent. In addition, in the main duct of artery where the velocity is larger, shear stress is lower due to the smaller velocity gradient. For the second Aneurysm, the simulations are done for three Reynolds numbers of 100, 150 and 200, and three Womersley numbers of 4, 12 and 20. The blood flow is pulsating at the inlet such as the real pulsating wave in the blood. Results show that with increasing the Womersley number, the velocity profiles in the middle of the aneurysm are closer at a constant Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing the Reynolds number, the range of vortices and values of velocity and tension grow in the aneurysm.}, } @article {pmid31975701, year = {2020}, author = {Porté-Agel, F and Bastankhah, M and Shamsoddin, S}, title = {Wind-Turbine and Wind-Farm Flows: A Review.}, journal = {Boundary-layer meteorology}, volume = {174}, number = {1}, pages = {1-59}, pmid = {31975701}, issn = {0006-8314}, abstract = {Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.}, } @article {pmid31962497, year = {2019}, author = {Kaminsky, J and Klewicki, J and Birnir, B}, title = {Application of the stochastic closure theory to the Townsend-Perry constants.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {6-1}, pages = {061101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.061101}, pmid = {31962497}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We compare the stochastic closure theory (SCT) to the Townsend-Perry constants as estimated from measurements in the Flow Physic Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire. First, we explain the derivation of the Townsend-Perry constants, which were originally formulated by Meneveau and Marusic, in analogy with a Gaussian distribution. However, this was not supported by the data. Instead, the data show a sub-Gaussian relation that was explained by Birnir and Chen. We show herein how the SCT can be used to compute the constants, which explains their sub-Gaussian relations. We then compare the SCT theory predictions, including Reynolds-number-dependent corrections, with the data, showing good agreement.}, } @article {pmid31962492, year = {2019}, author = {Jin, Y and Cheng, S and Chamorro, LP}, title = {Active pitching of short splitters past a cylinder: Drag increase and wake.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {6-1}, pages = {063106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.063106}, pmid = {31962492}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p} and amplitudes A_{0} at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4} . Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p}, or A_{0} . Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A} to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d} across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A} ≈0.035. Below this value, the C_{d} remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A} past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d} past the critical St_{A} .}, } @article {pmid31955110, year = {2020}, author = {Rajwa-Kuligiewicz, A and Radecki-Pawlik, A and Skalski, T and Plesiński, K and Rowiński, PM and Manson, JR}, title = {Hydromorphologically-driven variability of thermal and oxygen conditions at the block ramp hydraulic structure: The Porębianka River, Polish Carpathians.}, journal = {The Science of the total environment}, volume = {713}, number = {}, pages = {136661}, doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136661}, pmid = {31955110}, issn = {1879-1026}, abstract = {Growing anthropopressure in mountain streams aimed at limiting erosion and flood protection often caused adverse effects on the natural environment. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the restoration and conservation of natural habitats in mountain streams using environmentally friendly solutions such as the Block Ramp (BR) Hydraulic Structures. In this study we investigated the factors responsible for spatial variability in thermal and oxygen conditions at the single BR structure in the growing season, and the relation between water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. This has been done by measurements of hydraulic characteristics along with physicochemical properties of water, such as water temperature and DO concentration, at two different discharges. The redundancy analysis has been applied in order to describe the relationships among hydraulic parameters and physicochemical variables, and extract potential sources of water temperature and DO variability within the BR hydraulic structure. Results have shown that DO and water temperature distributions within the BR hydraulic structure depend on discharge conditions and are associated with the submergence of the block ramp. The highest heterogeneity in hydraulic, DO and water temperature conditions occurs at low flow and is associated with the presence of crevices between protruding cobbles at the block ramp. The lowest variability, in turn, occurs at high discharge, when the block ramp is completely submerged. The results indicated that thermal and oxygen conditions within the BR hydraulic structure are independent of hydraulic parameters at low flow. Moreover, the relation between DO concentration and water temperature is positive at low flow indicating potential impact of biological processes. On the contrary, at high discharge both, the DO concentrations and water temperature within the BR structure, depend on bed shear velocity and maximum Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid31948589, year = {2020}, author = {Haghighinia, A and Movahedirad, S}, title = {Mass transfer in a novel passive micro-mixer: Flow tortuosity effects.}, journal = {Analytica chimica acta}, volume = {1098}, number = {}, pages = {75-85}, doi = {10.1016/j.aca.2019.11.028}, pmid = {31948589}, issn = {1873-4324}, abstract = {Hydroynamic fluid tortuosity is a parameter to describe the fluid streamlines average elongation. The motivation of the present study is introducing a new concept for theoretical predictions of dynamic tortuosity effects on mass transfer in a novel three-dimensional passive T-shape micro-mixer both experimentally and by numerical simulation. In the numerical analysis, continuity, motion, and diffusion-convection equations were solved, and the amount of mass transfer and the fluid tortuosity was calculated for different rectangular winglet angles. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 0.1-93. The results show that when the angle of winglet tends to 22.5°, the fluid tortuosity, lateral velocity, and fluid mass transfer tend to maximum values. Furthermore, the effect of fluid tortuosity on the fluid stretching as a theory of chaotic mixing is investigated.}, } @article {pmid31947897, year = {2020}, author = {Rhoades, T and Kothapalli, CR and Fodor, PS}, title = {Mixing Optimization in Grooved Serpentine Microchannels.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {31947897}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {Undergraduate Summer Research Award 2019 and Graduate Faculty Research Award 2019//Cleveland State University/ ; }, abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics modeling at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 to 100 was used to characterize the performance of a new type of micromixer employing a serpentine channel with a grooved surface. The new topology exploits the overlap between the typical Dean flows present in curved channels due to the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluids, and the helical flows induced by slanted groove-ridge patterns with respect to the direction of the flow. The resulting flows are complex, with multiple vortices and saddle points, leading to enhanced mixing across the section of the channel. The optimization of the mixers with respect to the inner radius of curvature (Rin) of the serpentine channel identifies the designs in which the mixing index quality is both high (M > 0.95) and independent of the Reynolds number across all the values investigated.}, } @article {pmid31947174, year = {2019}, author = {Oktamuliani, S and Hasegawa, K and Saijo, Y}, title = {Left Ventricular Vortices in Myocardial Infarction Observed with Echodynamography.}, journal = {Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference}, volume = {2019}, number = {}, pages = {5816-5819}, doi = {10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856394}, pmid = {31947174}, issn = {2694-0604}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Case-Control Studies ; Echocardiography, Doppler, Color ; Heart Ventricles ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Myocardial Infarction/*diagnostic imaging ; *Ventricular Function, Left ; }, abstract = {Echodynamography (EDG) is a computational method to deduce two-dimensional (2D) blood flow vector from conventional color Doppler ultrasound image by considering that the blood flow is divided into vortex and base flow components. Left ventricular (LV) vortices indicate cardiac flow status influenced by LV wall motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of LV vortices may become new and sensitive parameters for cardiac function. In the present study, quantitative parameters of LV vortices such as vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were calculated and relation between each parameter was assessed. Six healthy volunteers and three patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) were involved in the study. Serial CDE images in apical three-chamber view were recorded and 2D blood flow vector was superimposed on the CDE image. Vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were compared between the normal volunteers and the MI patients. The results showed that vortex index (3.09±2.06 vs. 3.34±2.33, p<; 0.05), vortex size (1.76 0.69 vs. 2.01 ±0.68, p<; 0.05), Reynolds number (1020±603 vs.±1312 1046, p<; ±0.05) were significantly greater in the MI patients than in the healthy volunteers. Vortex equivalent diameter in LV showed significant positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.799, y = 0.001x + 0.7098, p <; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.6404, y = 0.0005x+1.3185, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. Vortex index showed positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.9351, y = 0.002x+0.1397, p<; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.758, y = 0.0019x+0.7957, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. In conclusion, EDG provides information on LV hemodynamics by quantitative LV vortices parameters both in healthy volunteers and MI patients.}, } @article {pmid31946085, year = {2019}, author = {Hamad, EM and Sawalmeh, B and Mhawsh, AA and Mansour, M and Awad, M and Al-Halhouli, AT and Al-Gharabli, SI}, title = {Investigation of Bifurcation Effect on Various Microfluidic Designs for Blood Separation.}, journal = {Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference}, volume = {2019}, number = {}, pages = {1097-1100}, doi = {10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856380}, pmid = {31946085}, issn = {2694-0604}, mesh = {Equipment Design ; *Lab-On-A-Chip Devices ; *Microfluidic Analytical Techniques ; *Microfluidics ; Plasma ; Software ; }, abstract = {In this project, a microfluidic device for blood separation will be designed and tested in order to separate plasma from whole blood for diagnostic purposes. The design will be based on previously implemented designs that will be further discussed in the next sections. When designing microfluidic devices, it is essential to consider the different physical phenomena that arise from switching from the macro scale to the micro scale. Parameters such as the Reynolds number and the forces affecting the fluid must be studied in order to produce a suitable and effective design. Finite element methods have been implemented prior to the production of the microfluidic devices. Various geometries/designs have been tested using Fluent ANSYS software. Later on, the successful design was fabricated using micromachining on an acrylic substrate and was tested using simulated blood through of a syringe pump.}, } @article {pmid31942792, year = {2020}, author = {Martínez-Merino, P and Midgley, SD and Martín, EI and Estellé, P and Alcántara, R and Sánchez-Coronilla, A and Grau-Crespo, R and Navas, J}, title = {Novel WS2-Based Nanofluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Performance Characterization and Molecular-Level Insights.}, journal = {ACS applied materials & interfaces}, volume = {12}, number = {5}, pages = {5793-5804}, doi = {10.1021/acsami.9b18868}, pmid = {31942792}, issn = {1944-8252}, abstract = {Nano-colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid, nanofluids, are appealing because of their interesting properties related to heat transfer processes. While nanomaterials based on transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have been widely studied in catalysis, sensing, and energy storage applications, there are few studies of nanofluids based on TMCs for heat transfer applications. In this study, the preparation and analysis of nanofluids based on 2D-WS2 in a typical heat transfer fluid (HTF) used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are reported. Nanofluids prepared using an exfoliation process exhibited well-defined nanosheets and were highly stable. The nanofluids were characterized in terms of properties related to their application in CSP. The presence of WS2 nanosheets did not modify significantly the surface tension, the viscosity, or the isobaric specific heat, but the thermal conductivity was improved by up to 30%. The Ur factor, which characterizes the thermal efficiency of the fluid in the solar collector, shows an enhancement of up to 22% in the nanofluid, demonstrating great promise for CSP applications. The Reynolds number and friction factor of the fluid were not significantly modified by the addition of the nanomaterial to the HTF, which is also positive for practical applications in CSP plants. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the nanoparticle/fluid interface showed an irreversible dissociative adsorption of diphenyl oxide molecules on the WS2 edge, with very low kinetic barrier. The resulting "decoration" of the WS2 edge dramatically affects the nature of the interface interactions and is therefore expected to affect significantly the rheological and transport properties of the nanofluids.}, } @article {pmid31938721, year = {2020}, author = {Zhang, T and Moreau, D and Geyer, T and Fischer, J and Doolan, C}, title = {Dataset on tip vortex formation noise produced by wall-mounted finite airfoils with flat and rounded tip geometries.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {28}, number = {}, pages = {105058}, pmid = {31938721}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {The vortex generated at the tip of an airfoil such as an aircraft wing, wind turbine blade, submarine fin or propeller blade can dominate its wake and be a significant source of unwanted noise. The data collection presented in this paper consists of measurements of tip vortex formation noise produced by finite length airfoils with flat and rounded tips. These data were obtained using the specialist aeroacoustic test facilities at the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus, Germany and a 47-channel planar microphone array. Over 1200 unique test cases with variations in airfoil profile shape, tip geometry, angle of attack and Reynolds number were measured during the experimental campaign. The dataset contains one-third-octave band tip noise spectra that have been processed using Acoular, a Python module for acoustic beamforming.}, } @article {pmid31935152, year = {2020}, author = {Salazar-Magallón, JA and Huerta de la Peña, A}, title = {Production of antifungal saponins in an airlift bioreactor with a cell line transformed from Solanum chrysotrichum and its activity against strawberry phytopathogens.}, journal = {Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology}, volume = {50}, number = {2}, pages = {204-214}, doi = {10.1080/10826068.2019.1676781}, pmid = {31935152}, issn = {1532-2297}, mesh = {Antifungal Agents/*chemical synthesis/pharmacology ; *Bioreactors ; Cell Line, Transformed ; Fragaria/*microbiology ; Saponins/*chemical synthesis/*pharmacology ; Solanum/*chemistry ; }, abstract = {Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.}, } @article {pmid31933715, year = {2020}, author = {Hu, X and Lin, J and Chen, D and Ku, X}, title = {Influence of non-Newtonian power law rheology on inertial migration of particles in channel flow.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {14}, number = {1}, pages = {014105}, pmid = {31933715}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {In this paper, the inertial migration of particles in the channel flow of power-law fluid is numerically investigated. The effects of the power-law index (n), Reynolds number (Re), blockage ratio (k), and channel aspect ratio (AR) on the inertial migration of particles and equilibrium position are explored. The results show that there exist two stages of particle migration and four stable equilibrium positions for particles in the cross section of a square channel. The particle equilibrium positions in a rectangular channel are much different from those in a square channel. In shear-thinning fluids, the long channel face equilibrium position and two kinds of particle trajectories are found at low Re. With increasing Re, the short channel face equilibrium position turns to be stable, multiequilibrium positions, and three kinds of particle trajectories along the long wall start to form. Only two stable equilibrium positions exist in shear-thickening fluids. The equilibrium positions are getting closer to the channel centerline with increasing n and k and with decreasing Re. The inertial focusing length L 2 in the second stage of particle migration is much longer than inertial focusing length L 1 in the first stage. In the square channel, L 2 is decreased with increasing Re and k and with decreasing n. In the rectangular channel, L 2 is the shortest in the shear-thinning fluid.}, } @article {pmid31931378, year = {2020}, author = {Feng, Y and Wang, Q and Duan, JL and Li, XY and Ma, JY and Wu, L and Han, Y and Liu, XY and Zhang, YB and Yuan, XZ}, title = {Attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket.}, journal = {Water research}, volume = {171}, number = {}, pages = {115458}, doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2019.115458}, pmid = {31931378}, issn = {1879-2448}, mesh = {Anaerobiosis ; *Biofuels ; Bioreactors ; *Sewage ; Waste Disposal, Fluid ; }, abstract = {The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.}, } @article {pmid31923819, year = {2020}, author = {Muhammad, R and Khan, MI and Jameel, M and Khan, NB}, title = {Fully developed Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convective flow over a curved surface with activation energy and entropy generation.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {188}, number = {}, pages = {105298}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105298}, pmid = {31923819}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Computer Simulation ; Convection ; Diffusion ; Elasticity ; Entropy ; *Hot Temperature ; Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Theoretical ; Nanotechnology/methods ; *Rheology ; Software ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Mixed convection (forced+natural convection) is frequently observed in exceptionally high output devices where the forced convection isn't sufficient to dissipate all of the heat essential. At this point, consolidating natural convection with forced convection will frequently convey the ideal outcomes. Nuclear reactor technology and a few features of electronic cooling are the examples of these processes. Mixed convection problems are categorized by Richardson number (Ri), which is the ratio of Grashof number (for natural convection) and Reynolds number (for forced convection). For buoyancy or mixed convection the relative effect can be addressed by Richardson number. Typically, the natural convection is negligible when Richardson number is less than 0.1 (Ri < 0.1), forced convection is negligible when Richardson number is greater than 10 (Ri > 10) and neither is negligible when (0.1 < Ri < 10). It might be noticed that generally the forced convection is large comparative with natural convection except in case of remarkably low forced flow velocities. The current work gives significant insights regarding dissipative mixed convective Darcy-Forchheimer flow with entropy generation over a stretched curved surface. The energy equation is developed with respect to nonlinear radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating (Joule heating). Binary reaction via activation energy is accounted.

METHOD: Curvilinear transformations are utilized to change the nonlinear PDE's into ordinary ones. Computational outcomes are obtained via NDSolve MATHEMATICA. The results are computed and discussed graphically.

RESULTS: Velocity decays for Forchheimer number. Entropy generation enhances for diffusion parameter and chemical reaction parameter. Concentration profile reduces chemical reaction parameter and enhances for activation parameter.}, } @article {pmid31923536, year = {2020}, author = {Rane, YS and Marston, JO}, title = {Computational study of fluid flow in tapered orifices for needle-free injectors.}, journal = {Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society}, volume = {319}, number = {}, pages = {382-396}, doi = {10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.01.013}, pmid = {31923536}, issn = {1873-4995}, mesh = {Injections, Jet ; *Rheology ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Transdermal drug delivery using spring-powered jet injection has been studied for several decades and continues to be highly sought after due to the advent of targeted needle-free techniques, especially for viscous and complex fluids. As such, this paper reports results from numerical simulations to study the role of fluid rheology and cartridge geometry on characteristics such as jet exit velocity, total pressure drop and boundary layer thickness, since these all factor in to jet stability and collimation. The numerical approach involves incompressible steady flow with turbulence modelling based on the system Reynolds number at the orifice (Re = ρdovj/μ). The results are experimentally validated for a given geometry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (101 < Re < 104), and our results indicate a sharp decrease in dimensionless pressure drop (Eu = 2∆P/ρvj2) for Re < 102) and gradually approaching the inviscid limit at Re ≥ 104. By extending the study to non-Newtonian fluids, whose rheological profile is approximated by the Carreau model, we also elucidated the effect of different rheological parameters. Lastly by studying a range of nozzle geometries such as conical, sigmoid taper and multi-tier tapers, we observe that fluid acceleration suppresses the boundary layer growth, which indicates there may be optimal geometries for creating jets to target specific tissue depths.}, } @article {pmid31907556, year = {2020}, author = {Pan, X and Tang, L and Feng, J and Liang, R and Pu, X and Li, R and Li, K}, title = {Experimental Research on the Degradation Coefficient of Ammonia Nitrogen Under Different Hydrodynamic Conditions.}, journal = {Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology}, volume = {104}, number = {2}, pages = {288-292}, doi = {10.1007/s00128-019-02781-0}, pmid = {31907556}, issn = {1432-0800}, support = {2019YFS0505//Major Project for Specialized Science and Technology Fund of Sichuan Province/ ; 2018SZDZX0027//Major Project of Specialized Science and Technology Fund of Sichuan Province/ ; }, mesh = {Ammonia/*analysis/chemistry ; Environmental Monitoring ; Hydrodynamics ; Kinetics ; Nitrogen/*analysis/chemistry ; Rivers/chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis/chemistry ; }, abstract = {Degradation coefficients for pollutants in water are important parameters that are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. In controlled experiments, the processes and trends of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) degradation in raw waters were studied under different flow conditions using a laboratory annular flume. Analysis of the observed change in NH3-N concentration with time under various flow conditions allowed calculation of a degradation efficiency (concentration change amount/initial concentration) which for NH3-N increased as the flow velocity increased. According to a first-order kinetic equation to fit the experimental data, the range of variation of the degradation coefficient of NH3-N at different flowrates was between 0.047 per day (0.01 m/s) and 0.203 per day (0.30 m/s). Dimensional analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the degradation coefficient and flow velocity (v), water depth (H), Froude number (Fr), and Reynolds number (Re), which was verified through field data collected in the Chishui River.}, } @article {pmid31905597, year = {2019}, author = {Sobecki, C and Zhang, J and Wang, C}, title = {Numerical Study of Paramagnetic Elliptical Microparticles in Curved Channels and Uniform Magnetic Fields.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {31905597}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {We numerically investigated the dynamics of a paramagnetic elliptical particle immersed in a low Reynolds number Poiseuille flow in a curved channel and under a uniform magnetic field by direct numerical simulation. A finite element method, based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, analyzed how the channel geometry, the strength and direction of the magnetic field, and the particle shape affected the rotation and radial migration of the particle. The net radial migration of the particle was analyzed after executing a π rotation and at the exit of the curved channel with and without a magnetic field. In the absence of a magnetic field, the rotation is symmetric, but the particle-wall distance remains the same. When a magnetic field is applied, the rotation of symmetry is broken, and the particle-wall distance increases as the magnetic field strength increases. The causation of the radial migration is due to the magnetic angular velocity caused by the magnetic torque that constantly changes directions during particle transportation. This research provides a method of magnetically manipulating non-spherical particles on lab-on-a-chip devices for industrial and biological applications.}, } @article {pmid31893769, year = {2019}, author = {Bahrami, A and Hoseinzadeh, S and Heyns, PS and Mirhosseini, SM}, title = {Experimental investigation of co-flow jet's airfoil flow control by hot wire anemometer.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {90}, number = {12}, pages = {125107}, doi = {10.1063/1.5113592}, pmid = {31893769}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {An experimental flow control technique is given in this paper to study the jet effect on the coflow jet's airfoil with injection and suction and compared with the jet-off condition. The airfoil is CFJ0025-065-196, and the Reynolds number based on the airfoil's chord length is 105. To measure the turbulence components of flow, a hot wire anemometry apparatus in a wind tunnel has been used. In this paper, the effect of the average velocity and boundary layer thickness on the coflow jet's airfoil is analyzed. The test is done for two different coflow velocities and for different angles of attack. It is also shown that, by increasing the velocity difference between the jet and the main flow, separation is delayed, and this delay can be preserved by raising coflow velocity at higher angles of attack. So, this flow control method has a good efficiency, and it is possible to reach higher numbers of lift and lower numbers of drag coefficients.}, } @article {pmid31890822, year = {2020}, author = {Pendse, V and Mazumdar, B and Kumar, H}, title = {Formulation of experimental data based model for solid-liquid mass transfer enhancement in three phase fluidized bed using nanofluid.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {28}, number = {}, pages = {104990}, pmid = {31890822}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {This experimental data based model in three phase fluidized bed was designed to enhance the solid-liquid mass transfer. This data focuses on mass transfer enhancement using nanomaterial. In present investigation benzoic acid-water-air system was used as three phases ie solid, liquid and gas respectively with Arachitol nano as nanomaterial in different volume percent in three phase fluidized bed. Data from experiment were collected by varying gas velocity, bed height, nanomaterial percentage and time. After a convenient selection various correlation have been derived. The data presented here is the full set of experimental value and coefficients and exponents in correlation were estimated from nonlinear optimization technique in MATLAB.}, } @article {pmid31882681, year = {2019}, author = {Krishnan, SR and Bal, J and Putnam, SA}, title = {A simple analytic model for predicting the wicking velocity in micropillar arrays.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {20074}, pmid = {31882681}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {N00014-15-1-2481//United States Department of Defense | United States Navy | Office of Naval Research (ONR)/ ; 1653396//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; }, abstract = {Hemiwicking is the phenomena where a liquid wets a textured surface beyond its intrinsic wetting length due to capillary action and imbibition. In this work, we derive a simple analytical model for hemiwicking in micropillar arrays. The model is based on the combined effects of capillary action dictated by interfacial and intermolecular pressures gradients within the curved liquid meniscus and fluid drag from the pillars at ultra-low Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Fluid drag is conceptualized via a critical Reynolds number: [Formula: see text], where v0 corresponds to the maximum wetting speed on a flat, dry surface and x0 is the extension length of the liquid meniscus that drives the bulk fluid toward the adsorbed thin-film region. The model is validated with wicking experiments on different hemiwicking surfaces in conjunction with v0 and x0 measurements using Water [Formula: see text], viscous FC-70 [Formula: see text] and lower viscosity Ethanol [Formula: see text].}, } @article {pmid31881751, year = {2019}, author = {Li, H and Li, Y and Huang, B and Xu, T}, title = {Flow Characteristics of the Entrance Region with Roughness Effect within Rectangular Microchannels.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {31881751}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {We conducted systematic numerical investigations of the flow characteristics within the entrance region of rectangular microchannels. The effects of the geometrical aspect ratio and roughness on entrance lengths were analyzed. The incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). In the simulation, hydraulic diameters (Dh) ranging from 50 to 200 µm were studied, and aspect ratios of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 were considered as well. The working fluid was set as water, and the Reynolds number ranged from 0.5 to 100. The results showed a good agreement with the conducted experiment. Correlations are proposed to predict the entrance lengths of microchannels with respect to different aspect ratios. Compared with other correlations, these new correlations are more reliable because a more practical inlet condition was considered in our investigations. Instead of considering the influence of the width and height of the microchannels, in our investigation we proved that the critical role is played by the aspect ratio, representing the combination of the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the existence of rough elements obviously shortens the entrance region, and this effect became more pronounced with increasing relative roughness and Reynolds number. A similar effect could be seen by shortening the roughness spacing. An asymmetric distribution of rough elements decreased the entrance length compared with a symmetric distribution, which can be extrapolated to other irregularly distributed forms.}, } @article {pmid31878263, year = {2019}, author = {Kang, DJ}, title = {Effects of Channel Wall Twisting on the Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {31878263}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {2018//Yeungnam University/ ; }, abstract = {A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the degree of mixing (DOM), which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing cost (MC). The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid31875772, year = {2020}, author = {Zhang, L and Zhou, J and Zhang, B and Gong, W}, title = {Numerical investigation on the solid particle erosion in elbow with water-hydrate-solid flow.}, journal = {Science progress}, volume = {103}, number = {1}, pages = {36850419897245}, doi = {10.1177/0036850419897245}, pmid = {31875772}, issn = {2047-7163}, abstract = {Erosion in pipeline caused by solid particles, which may lead to premature failure of the pipe system, is regarded as one of the most important concerns in the field of oil and gas. Therefore, the Euler-Lagrange, erosion model, and discrete phase model are applied for the purpose of simulating the erosion of water-hydrate-solid flow in submarine hydrate transportation pipeline. In this article, the flow and erosion characteristics are well verified on the basis of experiments. Moreover, analysis is conducted to have a good understanding of the effects of hydrate volume, mean curvature radius/pipe diameter (R/D) rate, flow velocity, and particle diameter on elbow erosion. It is finally obtained that the hydrate volume directly affects the Reynolds number through viscosity and the trend of the Reynolds number is consistent with the trend of erosion rate. Taking into account different R/D rates, the same Stokes number reflects different dynamic transforms of the maximum erosion zone. However, the outmost wall (zone D) will be the final erosion zone when the value of the Stokes number increases to a certain degree. In addition, the erosion rate increases sharply along with the increase of flow velocity and particle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the erosion zone can be ignored in comparison with the particle diameter. Moreover, it is observed that flow velocity is deemed as the most sensitive factor on erosion rate among these factors employed in the orthogonal experiment.}, } @article {pmid31874992, year = {2019}, author = {Liu, X and Fan, D and Yu, X and Liu, Z and Sun, J}, title = {Effects of Simulated Gravel on Hydraulic Characteristics of Overland Flow Under Varying Flow Discharges, Slope Gradients and Gravel Coverage Degrees.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {19781}, pmid = {31874992}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {To quantify the hydraulic characteristics of overland flow on gravel-covered slopes, eight flow discharges (Q) (8.44-122 L/min), five slope gradients (J) (2°-10°) and four gravel coverage degrees (Cr) (0-30%) were examined via a laboratory flume. The results showed that (1) gravel changed flow regime. Gravel increased the Reynolds number (Re) by 2.94-33.03%. Re were less affected by J and positively correlated with Cr and Q. Gravel decreased the Froude number (Fr) by 6.83-77.31%. Fr was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. (2) Gravel delayed the flow velocity (u) and increased the flow depth (h) and flow resistance (f). Gravel reduced u by 1.20-58.95%. u was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. Gravel increased h by 0.12-2.41 times. h was positively correlated with Q and Cr and negatively correlated with J. Gravel increased f by 0.15-18.42 times. f were less affected by J, positively correlated with Cr and negatively correlated with Q. (3) The relationships between hydraulic parameters and Q, J and Cr identified good power functions. Hydraulic parameters were mainly affected by Cr. These results can guide the ecological construction of soil and water conservation.}, } @article {pmid31868425, year = {2019}, author = {Panickacheril John, J and Donzis, DA and Sreenivasan, KR}, title = {Solenoidal Scaling Laws for Compressible Mixing.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {123}, number = {22}, pages = {224501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.224501}, pmid = {31868425}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Mixing of passive scalars in compressible turbulence does not obey the same classical Reynolds number scaling as its incompressible counterpart. We first show from a large database of direct numerical simulations that even the solenoidal part of the velocity field fails to follow the classical incompressible scaling when the forcing includes a substantial dilatational component. Though the dilatational effects on the flow remain significant, our main results are that both the solenoidal energy spectrum and the passive scalar spectrum assume incompressible forms, and that the scalar gradient essentially aligns with the most compressive eigenvalue of the solenoidal part, provided that only the solenoidal components are consistently used for scaling. A slight refinement of this statement is also pointed out.}, } @article {pmid31862924, year = {2019}, author = {Nath, R and Krishnan, M}, title = {Optimization of double diffusive mixed convection in a BFS channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle using Taguchi method and utility concept.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {19536}, pmid = {31862924}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {This research work focuses on the implementation of Taguchi method and utility concept for optimization of flow, geometrical and thermo-physical parameters for mixed convective heat and mass transfer in a backward facing step (BFS) channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle doped in water-ethylene glycol mixture. Mass, momentum, energy and solutal conservation equations for the flow field are cast in velocity-vorticity form of Navier-Stokes equations, which are solved using Galerkin's weighted residual finite element method through isoparametric formulation. The following six parameters, expansion ratio of the BFS channel (H/h), Reynolds number (Re), buoyancy ratio (N), nanoparticle volume fraction (χ), shape of nanoparticles and thermal Grashof number (GrT) at three levels are considered as controlling parameters for optimization using Taguchi method. An L27 orthogonal array has been chosen to get the levels of the six parameters for the 27 trial runs. Simulation results were obtained for 27 trial runs from which three different sets of optimum levels of the control parameters were obtained for maximum Nu and Sh and minimum wall shear stress during double diffusive mixed convection in the channel. Then, in order to obtain a single set of optimum levels of the control parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress concurrently, utility concept has been implemented. Taguchi results indicate that expansion ratio and volume fraction of nanoparticles are the significant contributing parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress. Utility concept predicts the average Nusselt number less by 2% and Sherwood number less by 3% compared to the Taguchi method with equal weightage of 40% assumed for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers and 20% for wall shear stress.}, } @article {pmid31861736, year = {2019}, author = {Maklad, O and Eliasy, A and Chen, KJ and Theofilis, V and Elsheikh, A}, title = {Simulation of Air Puff Tonometry Test Using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Deforming Mesh for Corneal Material Characterisation.}, journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health}, volume = {17}, number = {1}, pages = {}, pmid = {31861736}, issn = {1660-4601}, mesh = {Cornea/*diagnostic imaging ; Corneal Injuries/*diagnosis ; Humans ; Intraocular Pressure/*physiology ; Manometry/*methods ; *Surgical Mesh ; Tonometry, Ocular/*methods ; }, abstract = {: Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye.

METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet was 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number was Re=2.3×104, with jet orifice diameter 2.4 mm and impinging distance 11 mm. The model of the human eye was analysed using finite element method with regional hyperelastic material variation and corneal patient-specific topography starting from stress-free configuration. The cornea was free to deform as a response to the air puff using an adaptive deforming mesh at every time step of the solution. Aqueous and vitreous humours were simulated as a fluid cavity filled with incompressible fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3.

RESULTS: Using the adaptive deforming mesh in numerical simulation of the air puff test improved the traditional understanding of how pressure distribution on cornea changes with time of the test. There was a mean decrease in maximum pressure (at corneal apex) of 6.29 ± 2.2% and a development of negative pressure on a peripheral corneal region 2-4 mm away from cornea centre.

CONCLUSIONS: The study presented an improvement of numerical simulation of the air puff test, which will lead to more accurate intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal material behaviour estimation. The parametric study showed that pressure of the air puff is different from one model to another, value-wise and distribution-wise, based on cornea biomechanical parameters.}, } @article {pmid31847758, year = {2019}, author = {Sum Wu, K and Nowak, J and Breuer, KS}, title = {Scaling of the performance of insect-inspired passive-pitching flapping wings.}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface}, volume = {16}, number = {161}, pages = {20190609}, pmid = {31847758}, issn = {1742-5662}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomimetics/*methods ; *Computer Simulation ; Flight, Animal/*physiology ; Insecta/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; *Robotics ; Wings, Animal/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Flapping flight using passive pitch regulation is a commonly used mode of thrust and lift generation in insects and has been widely emulated in flying vehicles because it allows for simple implementation of the complex kinematics associated with flapping wing systems. Although robotic flight employing passive pitching to regulate angle of attack has been previously demonstrated, there does not exist a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of this mode of aerodynamic force generation, nor a method to accurately predict its performance over a range of relevant scales. Here, we present such scaling laws, incorporating aerodynamic, inertial and structural elements of the flapping-wing system, validating the theoretical considerations using a mechanical model which is tested for a linear elastic hinge and near-sinusoidal stroke kinematics over a range of scales, hinge stiffnesses and flapping frequencies. We find that suitably defined dimensionless parameters, including the Reynolds number, Re, the Cauchy number, Ch, and a newly defined 'inertial-elastic' number, IE, can reliably predict the kinematic and aerodynamic performance of the system. Our results also reveal a consistent dependency of pitching kinematics on these dimensionless parameters, providing a connection between lift coefficient and kinematic features such as angle of attack and wing rotation.}, } @article {pmid31835453, year = {2019}, author = {Tan, L and Ali, J and Cheang, UK and Shi, X and Kim, D and Kim, MJ}, title = {µ-PIV Measurements of Flows Generated by Photolithography-Fabricated Achiral Microswimmers.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {31835453}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {JCYJ20180302174151692//Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality/ ; 51850410516//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 20181119590C//Shenzhen Peacock Plan/ ; 2017KTSCX167//Department of Education of Guangdong Province/ ; 1735968//National Science Foundation/ ; }, abstract = {Robotic micro/nanoswimmers can potentially be used as tools for medical applications, such as drug delivery and noninvasive surgery. Recently, achiral microswimmers have gained significant attention because of their simple structures, which enables high-throughput fabrication and size scalability. Here, microparticle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) was used to study the hydrodynamics of achiral microswimmers near a boundary. The structures of these microswimmers resemble the letter L and were fabricated using photolithography and thin-film deposition. Through µ-PIV measurements, the velocity flow fields of the microswimmers rotating at different frequencies were observed. The results herein yield an understanding of the hydrodynamics of the L-shaped microswimmers, which will be useful in applications such as fluidic manipulation.}, } @article {pmid31824735, year = {2019}, author = {Ford, MP and Lai, HK and Samaee, M and Santhanakrishnan, A}, title = {Hydrodynamics of metachronal paddling: effects of varying Reynolds number and phase lag.}, journal = {Royal Society open science}, volume = {6}, number = {10}, pages = {191387}, pmid = {31824735}, issn = {2054-5703}, abstract = {Negatively buoyant freely swimming crustaceans such as krill must generate downward momentum in order to maintain their position in the water column. These animals use a drag-based propulsion strategy, where pairs of closely spaced swimming limbs are oscillated rhythmically from the tail to head. Each pair is oscillated with a phase delay relative to the neighbouring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave travelling in the direction of animal motion. It remains unclear how oscillations of limbs in the horizontal plane can generate vertical momentum. Using particle image velocimetry measurements on a robotic model, we observed that metachronal paddling with non-zero phase lag created geometries of adjacent paddles that promote the formation of counter-rotating vortices. The interaction of these vortices resulted in generating large-scale angled downward jets. Increasing phase lag resulted in more vertical orientation of the jet, and phase lags in the range used by Antarctic krill produced the most total momentum. Synchronous paddling produced lower total momentum when compared with metachronal paddling. Lowering Reynolds number by an order of magnitude below the range of adult krill (250-1000) showed diminished downward propagation of the jet and lower vertical momentum. Our findings show that metachronal paddling is capable of producing flows that can generate both lift (vertical) and thrust (horizontal) forces needed for fast forward swimming and hovering.}, } @article {pmid31824223, year = {2019}, author = {Wang, X and Christov, IC}, title = {Theory of the flow-induced deformation of shallow compliant microchannels with thick walls.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {475}, number = {2231}, pages = {20190513}, pmid = {31824223}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {Long, shallow microchannels embedded in thick, soft materials are widely used in microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the bulging effect caused by fluid-structure interactions between the internal viscous flow and the soft walls has not been completely understood. Previous models either contain a fitting parameter or are specialized to channels with plate-like walls. This work is a theoretical study of the steady-state response of a compliant microchannel with a thick wall. Using lubrication theory for low-Reynolds-number flows and the theory for linearly elastic isotropic solids, we obtain perturbative solutions for the flow and deformation. Specifically, only the channel's top wall deformation is considered, and the ratio between its thickness t and width w is assumed to be (t/w)2≫1. We show that the deformation at each stream-wise cross section can be considered independently, and that the top wall can be regarded as a simply supported rectangle subject to uniform pressure at its bottom. The stress and displacement fields are found using Fourier series, based on which the channel shape and the hydrodynamic resistance are calculated, yielding a new flow rate-pressure drop relation without fitting parameters. Our results agree favourably with, and thus rationalize, previous experiments.}, } @article {pmid31816973, year = {2019}, author = {Raza, W and Kim, KY}, title = {Asymmetrical Split-and-Recombine Micromixer with Baffles.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {12}, pages = {}, pmid = {31816973}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {2019R1A2C1007657//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; }, abstract = {The present work proposes a planar micromixer design comprising hybrid mixing modules of split-and-recombine units and curved channels with radial baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations along with the advection-diffusion equation in a Reynolds number range of 0.1-80. The variance of the concentration of the mixed species was considered to quantify the mixing index. The micromixer showed far better mixing performance over whole Reynolds number range than an earlier split-and-recombine micromixer. The mixer achieved mixing indices greater than 90% at Re ≥ 20 and a mixing index of 99.8% at Re = 80. The response of the mixing quality to the change of three geometrical parameters was also studied. A mixing index over 80% was achieved within 63% of the full length at Re = 20.}, } @article {pmid31808773, year = {2020}, author = {Abay, A and Recktenwald, SM and John, T and Kaestner, L and Wagner, C}, title = {Cross-sectional focusing of red blood cells in a constricted microfluidic channel.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {16}, number = {2}, pages = {534-543}, doi = {10.1039/c9sm01740b}, pmid = {31808773}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {Erythrocytes/*chemistry ; Humans ; Microfluidics/instrumentation ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {Constrictions in blood vessels and microfluidic devices can dramatically change the spatial distribution of passing cells or particles and are commonly used in biomedical cell sorting applications. However, the three-dimensional nature of cell focusing in the channel cross-section remains poorly investigated. Here, we explore the cross-sectional distribution of living and rigid red blood cells passing a constricted microfluidic channel by tracking individual cells in multiple layers across the channel depth and across the channel width. While cells are homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section pre-contraction, we observe a strong geometry-induced focusing towards the four channel faces post-contraction. The magnitude of this cross-sectional focusing effect increases with increasing Reynolds number for both living and rigid red blood cells. We discuss how this non-uniform cell distribution downstream of the contraction results in an apparent double-peaked velocity profile in particle image velocimetry analysis and show that trapping of red blood cells in the recirculation zones of the abrupt construction depends on cell deformability.}, } @article {pmid31805484, year = {2020}, author = {Shah, Z and Khan, A and Khan, W and Kamran Alam, M and Islam, S and Kumam, P and Thounthong, P}, title = {Micropolar gold blood nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer between permeable channels.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {186}, number = {}, pages = {105197}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105197}, pmid = {31805484}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Gold/*chemistry ; *Hot Temperature ; *Hydrodynamics ; Nanotechnology/*methods ; Permeability ; }, abstract = {This article characterizes flow and heat transmission of blood that carries the micropolar nanofluid of gold in a permeable channel. The thermal radiations are also present in the channel while its walls are either moving or stationary. The base-fluid is considered as blood while micro polar nanofluid is taken as gold. By using similarity transformations along with dimensionless quantities the modeled equations of the problem are transmuted into a system of non-linear ODEs with a set of appropriate boundary conditions. The semi-analytical method, HAM is then applied to determine the solution of a set of resultant equations. The results obtained by HAM have also compared with numerical solutions. The influence of non-dimensional parameters like fractional parameter suction/injection β, Reynolds Number Re, Darcys Number Da, micropolar parameter K, Prandtl number Pr and Radiation parameter Rd etc., which provides physical interpretations of temperature, microrotation n and velocity fields are discussed in detail with the help of graphical representations. Nusselt number is calculated and presented through table. This study determined that the temperature of micropolar nanofluid augmented along with augmentation in the volume fraction. Radiation Rd augmented the heat transfer rate at the upper wall and reduce it at the lower wall. The suction/injection parameter 'β' reduces the heat transfer rate in case of β < 0 at the upper wall, where it is augmented at lower wall.}, } @article {pmid31805457, year = {2020}, author = {Pandey, R and Kumar, M and Majdoubi, J and Rahimi-Gorji, M and Srivastav, VK}, title = {A review study on blood in human coronary artery: Numerical approach.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {187}, number = {}, pages = {105243}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105243}, pmid = {31805457}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging/physiopathology ; Biomedical Engineering ; Coronary Artery Bypass ; Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging/physiopathology ; Coronary Vessels/*anatomy & histology/diagnostic imaging/*physiology ; Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Hydrodynamics ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Models, Cardiovascular ; Tomography, Optical Coherence ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of blood flow in human coronary artery is one of the emerging fields of Biomed- ical engineering. In present review paper, Finite Volume Method with governing equations and boundary conditions are briefly discussed for different coronary models. Many researchers have come up with astonishing results related to the various factors (blood viscosity, rate of blood flow, shear stress on the arterial wall, Reynolds number, etc.) affecting the hemodynamic of blood in the right/left coronary artery. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of all those work done by the researchers to justify their work related to factors which hampers proper functioning of heart and lead to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Governing equations like Navier-stokes equations, continuity equations etc. are widely used and are solved using CFD solver to get a clearer view of coronary artery blockage. Different boundary conditions and blood properties published in the last ten years are summarized in the tabulated form. This table will help new researchers to work on this area.}, } @article {pmid31801127, year = {2020}, author = {Pöhnl, R and Popescu, MN and Uspal, WE}, title = {Axisymmetric spheroidal squirmers and self-diffusiophoretic particles.}, journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal}, volume = {32}, number = {16}, pages = {164001}, doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ab5edd}, pmid = {31801127}, issn = {1361-648X}, abstract = {We study, by means of an exact analytical solution, the motion of a spheroidal, axisymmetric squirmer in an unbounded fluid, as well as the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic flow associated to it. In contrast to the case of a spherical squirmer-for which, e.g. the velocity of the squirmer and the magnitude of the stresslet associated with the flow induced by the squirmer are respectively determined by the amplitudes of the first two slip ('squirming') modes-for the spheroidal squirmer each squirming mode either contributes to the velocity, or contributes to the stresslet. The results are straightforwardly extended to the self-phoresis of axisymmetric, spheroidal, chemically active particles in the case when the phoretic slip approximation holds.}, } @article {pmid31797965, year = {2019}, author = {Rajappan, A and McKinley, GH}, title = {Epidermal biopolysaccharides from plant seeds enable biodegradable turbulent drag reduction.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {18263}, pmid = {31797965}, issn = {2045-2322}, mesh = {Engineering ; Flax/*chemistry ; Friction ; Lubrication ; Plant Mucilage/*chemistry ; Polyethylene Glycols/*chemistry ; *Rheology ; Seeds/*chemistry ; Viscosity ; Water ; }, abstract = {The high cost of synthetic polymers has been a key impediment limiting the widespread adoption of polymer drag reduction techniques in large-scale engineering applications, such as marine drag reduction. To address consumable cost constraints, we investigate the use of high molar mass biopolysaccharides, present in the mucilaginous epidermis of plant seeds, as inexpensive drag reducers in large Reynolds number turbulent flows. Specifically, we study the aqueous mucilage extracted from flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) and compare its drag reduction efficacy to that of poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO, a common synthetic polymer widely used as a drag reducing agent in aqueous flows. Macromolecular and rheological characterisation confirm the presence of high molar mass (≥2 MDa) polysaccharides in the extracted mucilage, with an acidic fraction comprising negatively charged chains. Frictional drag measurements, performed inside a bespoke Taylor-Couette apparatus, show that the as-extracted mucilage has comparable drag reduction performance under turbulent flow conditions as aqueous PEO solutions, while concurrently offering advantages in terms of raw material cost, availability, and bio-compatibility. Our results indicate that plant-sourced mucilage can potentially serve as a cost-effective and eco-friendly substitute for synthetic drag reducing polymers in large scale turbulent flow applications.}, } @article {pmid31786449, year = {2020}, author = {Ibrahim, M and Ijaz Khan, M}, title = {Mathematical modeling and analysis of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water flow over a stretchable sheet.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {187}, number = {}, pages = {105222}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105222}, pmid = {31786449}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Carbon/*chemistry ; Computer Simulation ; Convection ; Hot Temperature ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Theoretical ; Nanotechnology/*methods ; Nanotubes, Carbon/*chemistry ; Porosity ; Temperature ; Viscosity ; Water/*chemistry ; }, abstract = {In this article we focused on the mixed convection flow of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water over a stretchable permeable sheet. The nanofluid occupied porous medium. Darcy's law is used to characterize porous medium. The impact of viscous dissipation is considered. Transformation procedure is adopted to transform the governing PDE's system into dimensionless form. In order to solve the dimensionless PDE's system we used numerical method known as Finite difference method. Effects of flow variables i.e porosity parameter, suction parameter, Grashof number and Reynolds number on velocity, skin friction, temperature and Nusselt number are described graphically. The obtained results shows that velocity is dominant in SWCNT-Water over MWCNT-Water. Temperature is dominant in MWCNT-Water over SWCNT-Water.}, } @article {pmid31785535, year = {2020}, author = {Turkyilmazoglu, M}, title = {Single phase nanofluids in fluid mechanics and their hydrodynamic linear stability analysis.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {187}, number = {}, pages = {105171}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105171}, pmid = {31785535}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Colloids/chemistry ; Hot Temperature ; *Hydrodynamics ; Linear Models ; *Nanoparticles ; Nanotechnology/*methods ; *Rheology ; Software ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hydrodynamic stability of nanofluids of one phase is investigated in this paper based on linear stability theory. The overall thrust here is that the linear stability features of nanofluids can be estimated from their corresponding working fluid, at least in special circumstances.

METHODS: The approach uses the adjusting parameter to make assertions about stability. This is possible by certain correlations between the resulting eigenvalues.

RESULTS: It is shown that as the nanoparticles are added, the mean flow of nanofluids is slightly modified and the resulting eigen space of nano disturbances is built on the corresponding pure flow eigen space of perturbations. Several fluid dynamics problems are revisited to verify the usefulness of the obtained correlations.

CONCLUSION: The presented approach in this work serves us to understand the stabilizing/destabilizing effects of nanofluids as compared to the standard base fluids in terms of stability of viscous/inviscid and temporal/spatial senses. To illustrate, the critical Reynolds number in a traditional boundary layer flow is shown to be pushed to higher values with the dispersed nanoparticles in a working fluid, clearly implying the delay in transition from laminar to turbulent state.}, } @article {pmid31784839, year = {2019}, author = {Chen, J and He, Y and Wang, J and Huang, M and Guo, C}, title = {Dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community with different aeration depths in malodorous river.}, journal = {World journal of microbiology & biotechnology}, volume = {35}, number = {12}, pages = {196}, pmid = {31784839}, issn = {1573-0972}, support = {41877477//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 16ZR1408800//Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai/ ; 16PJD023//Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program/ ; 18DZ1203806//Shanghai Science and Technology Development Foundation/ ; 1701K005//Research Funds of The Guangxi Key Laboratory of Theory and Technology for Environmental Pollution Control/ ; }, mesh = {Bacteria/classification/genetics/*metabolism ; China ; Geologic Sediments/microbiology ; Microbiota/*physiology ; Nitrogen/*metabolism ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Rivers/*chemistry/*microbiology ; Sulfur/metabolism ; }, abstract = {In this research, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community in malodorous river were investigated with different aeration depths. Computational flow dynamics (CFD) and Reynolds number (Re) were specially used to characterize the hydrodynamics condition under different aeration depths. The results indicated that aeration depth had vital impact on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community structure. It was found that a range of aeration depth (0.20-0.45 m above sediment-water interface) facilitated the removal of NH4+-N and TN with Re ranging between 6211 and 8930. Proteobacteria took over Firmicutes to become the predominant phylum (36-78%) under aeration, and the main subdivisions of γ-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria also varied greatly with different aeration depths. Interestingly, there was a marked shift of the inferentially identified dominant functional role within Proteobacteria from organic-matter degradation to nitrogen metabolism and then to sulfur metabolism as well as the coupling of nitrogen and sulfur with the increase of disturbance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) further confirmed the importance of aeration disturbance in shaping bacterial community. These findings help to gain improved understanding of endogenous N-behavior and aquatic microbial ecology, and underline the need for integrating the hydrodynamics factors with microbial community.}, } @article {pmid31779425, year = {2019}, author = {Singh, H and Bonnesoeur, A and Besnard, H and Houssin, C and Prigent, A and Crumeyrolle, O and Mutabazi, I}, title = {A large thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette (THETACO) facility for investigation of turbulence induced by simultaneous action of rotation and radial temperature gradient.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {90}, number = {11}, pages = {115112}, doi = {10.1063/1.5119811}, pmid = {31779425}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {A thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette facility has been designed to investigate turbulent flows generated by differential rotation and radial temperature gradient. It consists of a cylindrical annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder. The electric heating system is installed inside the inner cylinder, and the annulus is immersed in a large cylindrical container filled with cooling fluid. Temperature regulators independently control the temperature of the inner surface of the inner cylinder and that of the cooling fluid. The facility allows us to reach values of the Reynolds number (Re ∼ 5 × 105) and of the Rayleigh number (Ra ∼ 3 × 106) for water as the working fluid. The facility provides torque measurements, a full optical access at the side and from the bottom for velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (2D, stereoscopic, and tomographic). Temperature measurements in the flow can be performed by thermochromic liquid crystals or laser induced fluorescence.}, } @article {pmid31777765, year = {2019}, author = {Zhang, X and Lam, WA and Graham, MD}, title = {Dynamics of deformable straight and curved prolate capsules in simple shear flow.}, journal = {Physical review fluids}, volume = {4}, number = {4}, pages = {}, pmid = {31777765}, issn = {2469-990X}, support = {R21 MD011590/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/United States ; }, abstract = {This work investigates the motion of neutrally-buoyant, slightly deformable straight and curved prolate fluid-filled capsules in unbounded simple shear flow at zero Reynolds number using direct simulations. The curved capsules serve as a model for the typical crescent-shaped sickle red blood cells in sickle cell disease (SCD). The effects of deformability and curvature on the dynamics are revealed. We show that with low deformability, straight prolate spheroidal capsules exhibit tumbling in the shear plane as their unique asymptotically stable orbit. This result contrasts with that for rigid spheroids, where infinitely many neutrally stable Jeffery orbits exist. The dynamics of curved prolate capsules are more complicated due to a combined effect of deformability and curvature. At short times, depending on the initial orientation, slightly deformable curved prolate capsules exhibit either a Jeffery-like motion such as tumbling or kayaking, or a non-Jeffery-like behavior in which the director (end-to-end vector) of the capsule crosses the shear-gradient plane back and forth. At long times, however, a Jeffery-like quasiperiodic orbit is taken regardless of the initial orientation. We further show that the average of the long-time trajectory can be well approximated using the analytical solution for Jeffery orbits with an effective orbit constant C eff and aspect ratio ℓ eff. These parameters are useful for characterizing the dynamics of curved capsules as a function of given deformability and curvature. As the capsule becomes more deformable or curved, C eff decreases, indicating a shift of the orbit towards log-rolling motion, while ℓ eff increases weakly as the degree of curvature increases but shows negligible dependency on deformability. These features are not changed substantially as the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids is changed from 1 to 5. As cell deformability, cell shape, and cell-cell interactions are all pathologically altered in blood disorders such as SCD, these results will have clear implications on improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of hematologic disease.}, } @article {pmid31771023, year = {2019}, author = {Shan, X}, title = {Central-moment-based Galilean-invariant multiple-relaxation-time collision model.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043308}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.043308}, pmid = {31771023}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Aiming at systematically correcting the non-Galilean-invariant thermal diffusivity in the previous multiple-relaxation-time Boltzmann equation collision model [Shan and Chen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 18, 635 (2007)IJMPEO0129-183110.1142/S0129183107010887], we show that by separately relaxing the central moments of the distribution function, Chapman-Enskog calculation leads to the correct hydrodynamic equations with mutually independent and Galilean invariant viscosity and thermal diffusivity, provided the velocity-space discretization preserves moments up to the fourth order. By transforming the central moments back to the absolute reference frame and evaluating using fixed discrete velocities, the efficient and accurate streaming-collision time-stepping algorithm is preserved. The lattice Boltzmann model is found to have excellent numerical stability in high-Reynolds-number simulations.}, } @article {pmid31771016, year = {2019}, author = {Berera, A and Clark, D}, title = {Information production in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {4-1}, pages = {041101}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.041101}, pmid = {31771016}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We study the Reynolds number scaling of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and attractor dimension for three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence through the use of direct numerical simulation. To do so, we obtain Lyapunov spectra for a range of different Reynolds numbers by following the divergence of a large number of orthogonal fluid trajectories. We find that the attractor dimension grows with the Reynolds number as Re^{2.35} with this exponent being larger than predicted by either dimensional arguments or intermittency models. The distribution of Lyapunov exponents is found to be finite around λ≈0 contrary to a possible divergence suggested by Ruelle. The relevance of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov spectra in comparing complex physical systems is discussed.}, } @article {pmid31770976, year = {2019}, author = {Chitsaz, M and Fathali, M}, title = {Impact of an initial random magnetic field on the evolution of two-dimensional shearless mixing layers.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {4-1}, pages = {043106}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.043106}, pmid = {31770976}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The impact of an initial random magnetic field on the temporal evolution of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent shearless mixing layer is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Different intensities of the initial random magnetic field are imposed with uniform probability distribution on an identical flow field. The initial flow field condition is the turbulent shearless mixing layer with different kinetic energy ratio (E_{H} /E_{L} =6.7) and identical integral length scale. Simulations are carried out in a moderate magnetic Reynolds number, which causes a two-way interaction between the velocity and magnetic fields. In order to analyze the effect of the initial random magnetic field on the mixing characteristics, the intermittency inside the mixing layer and the mixing evolution parameters are investigated. It is found that with small initial magnetic field intensity, the intermittency in both large and small scales are larger than those values in hydrodynamic flow. However, increasing the intensity of the initial magnetic field reduces the intermittency in the mixing region to lower values compared to the hydrodynamic flow. The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show reduction by increasing the initial magnetic field intensity, which is attributed to the reduction of the averaged Reynolds number of both homogenous isotropic turbulent regions due to the suppressing effect of the Lorentz force on the velocity fields of these regions.}, } @article {pmid31759716, year = {2020}, author = {Ćmiel, AM and Strużyński, A and Wyrębek, M and Lipińska, AM and Zając, K and Zając, T}, title = {Response of freshwater mussel recruitment to hydrological changes in a eutrophic floodplain lake.}, journal = {The Science of the total environment}, volume = {703}, number = {}, pages = {135467}, doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135467}, pmid = {31759716}, issn = {1879-1026}, mesh = {Animals ; Ecosystem ; Endangered Species ; Eutrophication ; Hydrology ; *Lakes ; *Unionidae ; }, abstract = {Although eutrophication of freshwaters is a natural process, the human impact often leads to inland waters becoming overloaded with nutrients, impoverishing many valuable and vanishing habitats, such as floodplain lakes. These changes need to be reversed if the occurrence of endangered aquatic species is to be restored. In this paper we analyse the impact of a change in the water regime of a naturally eutrophic floodplain lake, which harbours a large diversity of Unionidae (large freshwater mussels), a globally threatened taxonomic group that provides important ecosystem functions and services. We found that a slight increase in the discharge from this waterbody, following the construction of an additional outflow pipe, positively influenced recruitment in three of the five mussel species inhabiting the lake. We also found that, after the construction of this additional outflow, the niches of juveniles of Anodonta cygnea and Unio spp. changed, revealing differences in their hydrological requirements. Our results suggest that, as in lotic habitats, complex hydraulic parameters are highly significant to unionid mussels in lentic conditions.}, } @article {pmid31744080, year = {2019}, author = {Taheri, RA and Goodarzi, V and Allahverdi, A}, title = {Mixing Performance of a Cost-effective Split-and-Recombine 3D Micromixer Fabricated by Xurographic Method.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {31744080}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer based on the lamination of fluid layers. Lamination-based mixers benefit from increasing the contact surface between two fluid phases by enhancing molecular diffusion to achieve a faster mixing. Novel three-dimensional split and recombine (SAR) structures are proposed to generate fluid laminations. Numerical simulations were conducted to model the mixer performance. Furthermore, experiments were conducted using dyes to observe fluid laminations and evaluate the proposed mixer's characteristics. Mixing quality was experimentally obtained by means of image-based mixing index (MI) measurement. The multi-layer device was fabricated utilizing the Xurography method, which is a simple and low-cost method to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. Mixing indexes of 96% and 90% were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 0.1 and 1, respectively. Moreover, the device had an MI value of 67% at a Reynolds number of 10 (flow rate of 116 µL/min for each inlet). The proposed micromixer, with its novel design and fabrication method, is expected to benefit a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications, due to its high efficiency, low cost, high throughput and ease of fabrication.}, } @article {pmid31737769, year = {2019}, author = {Shaikh, MM and Massan, SU and Wagan, AI}, title = {A sixteen decimal places' accurate Darcy friction factor database using non-linear Colebrook's equation with a million nodes: A way forward to the soft computing techniques.}, journal = {Data in brief}, volume = {27}, number = {}, pages = {104733}, doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2019.104733}, pmid = {31737769}, issn = {2352-3409}, abstract = {The Colebrook's equation is considered as an empirical model to accurately compute the Darcy friction factor in pipes under fully-developed turbulent flow. Due to non-linearity and implicitness of the Colebrook's equation, one needs to use numerical methods to acquire reasonably good approximation to the true friction factor values. However, such idea is not preferred by practitioners as it demands use of computers - also more computational time and effort. To overcome this, explicit equations that can describe Darcy friction factor directly in terms of the Reynolds number and relative roughness are essential. Using Fixed point iteration method in the MATLAB software, we have developed a 16 decimal places' accurate friction factor database for the Darcy friction factor for a 1000 by 1000 mesh of Reynolds number and relative roughness values. The accurate dataset described in this work will serve to be basis for the construction of new and more reliable explicit equations using regression modeling, artificial intelligence techniques and other soft computing methods.}, } @article {pmid31736648, year = {2019}, author = {Papageorgiou, DT and Tanveer, S}, title = {Analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model for two-fluid shear driven flows.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {475}, number = {2230}, pages = {20190367}, doi = {10.1098/rspa.2019.0367}, pmid = {31736648}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {This paper is concerned with analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model developed in Kalogirou & Papageorgiou (J. Fluid Mech. 802, 5-36, 2016) for a perturbed two-layer Couette flow when the thickness of the more viscous fluid layer next to the stationary wall is small compared to the thickness of the less viscous fluid. Travelling wave solutions and their stability are determined numerically, and secondary bifurcation points are identified in the process. We also determine regions in parameter space where bistability is observed with two branches being linearly stable at the same time. The travelling wave solutions are mathematically justified through a quasi-solution analysis in a neighbourhood of an empirically constructed approximate solution. This relies in part on precise asymptotics of integrals of Airy functions for large wave numbers. The primary bifurcation about the trivial state is shown rigorously to be supercritical, and the dependence of bifurcation points, as a function of Reynolds number R and the primary wavelength 2πν -1/2 of the disturbance, is determined analytically.}, } @article {pmid31734470, year = {2020}, author = {Farooq, S and Hayat, T and Khan, MI and Alsaedi, A}, title = {Entropy generation minimization (EGM) in magneto peristalsis with variable properties.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {186}, number = {}, pages = {105045}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105045}, pmid = {31734470}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Entropy ; *Magnetics ; Thermal Conductivity ; *Viscosity ; }, abstract = {OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: This article featuring the peristaltic transport of viscous material with variable properties (i.e. temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity) through curved configuration. Fluid saturating through porous channel walls of uniform space. Entropy generation consideration here is to analyze irreversibility aspects. Channel boundaries retain the velocity and thermal slip conditions.

METHOD: Wave frame of reference is attained with the utilization of long wavelength and small Reynolds number approach. Solution of the simplified coupled system of dimensionless constraints is obtained numerically. Detailed analysis of important quantities of interest has been presented in discussion portion.

RESULTS: Entropy generation variation near center is very small whereas in the vicinity of the channel wall is larger. Bejan number has reverse variation as observed for entropy generation.

CONCLUSION: Variable characteristics of viscosity has opposite impact on velocity and temperature is observed. It is also noticed small irreversibility effects are obtained for higher varying viscosity and thermal conductivity near the vicinity of the channel walls.}, } @article {pmid31719582, year = {2019}, author = {Ying, Y and Lin, Y}, title = {Inertial Focusing and Separation of Particles in Similar Curved Channels.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {16575}, pmid = {31719582}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {Inertial particle focusing in curved channels has enormous potential for lab-on-a-chip applications. This paper compares a zigzag channel, which has not been used previously for inertial focusing studies, with a serpentine channel and a square wave channel to explore their differences in terms of focusing performance and separation possibilities. The particle trajectories and fluid fields in the curved channels are studied by a numerical simulation. The effects of different conditions (structure, Reynolds number, and particle size) on the competition between forces and the focusing performance are studied. The results indicate that the zigzag channel has the best focusing effect at a high Reynolds number and that the serpentine channel is second in terms of performance. Regarding the particle separation potential, the zigzag channel has a good performance in separating 5 μm and 10 μm particles at ReC = 62.5. In addition, the pressure drop of the channel is also considered to evaluate the channel performance, which has not been taken into account in the literature on inertial microfluidics. This result is expected to be instructive for the selection and optimization of inertial microchannel structures.}, } @article {pmid31718189, year = {2019}, author = {Zhang, Z and Zhang, P}, title = {Numerical Interpretation to the Roles of Liquid Viscosity in Droplet Spreading at Small Weber Numbers.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {35}, number = {49}, pages = {16164-16171}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02736}, pmid = {31718189}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Droplet impacting a free-slip plane at small Weber numbers (We < 30) was numerically investigated by a front tracking method, with particular emphasis on clarifying the roles of the liquid viscosity and the "left-over" internal kinetic energy in droplet spreading. The most interesting discovery is that there exists a certain range of We in which the maximum diameter rate, D̃m, shows a nonmonotonic variation with the Reynolds number, Re. This non-monotonic variation is owing to the dual role of liquid viscosity in influencing droplet spreading. Specifically, when the initial surface energy is comparable to the initial kinetic energy (the corresponding We is around 10-30), the high strain rates of the droplet internal flow dominate its viscous dissipation at a relatively large Re, while the liquid viscosity dominates the viscous dissipation at a relatively small Re. Furthermore, to unravel the influence of droplet attachment and detachment on droplet spreading, we considered two limiting situations such as full attachment (with no gas film throughout droplet spreading) and full detachment (with a gas film throughout droplet spreading). The results show that the droplet with a gas film tends to generate a stronger vortical motion in its rim, results in a larger left-over kinetic energy, and hence causes a smaller spreading.}, } @article {pmid31718021, year = {2019}, author = {Kottmeier, J and Wullenweber, M and Blahout, S and Hussong, J and Kampen, I and Kwade, A and Dietzel, A}, title = {Accelerated Particle Separation in a DLD Device at Re > 1 Investigated by Means of µPIV.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {31718021}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {A pressure resistant and optically accessible deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) device was designed and microfabricated from silicon and glass for high-throughput fractionation of particles between 3.0 and 7.0 µm comprising array segments of varying tilt angles with a post size of 5 µm. The design was supported by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using OpenFOAM software. Simulations indicated a change in the critical particle diameter for fractionation at higher Reynolds numbers. This was experimentally confirmed by microparticle image velocimetry (µPIV) in the DLD device with tracer particles of 0.86 µm. At Reynolds numbers above 8 an asymmetric flow field pattern between posts could be observed. Furthermore, the new DLD device allowed successful fractionation of 2 µm and 5 µm fluorescent polystyrene particles at Re = 0.5-25.}, } @article {pmid31715344, year = {2019}, author = {Di, D and Qu, X and Liu, C and Fang, L and Quan, P}, title = {Continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles using a three-dimensional-coaxial-flow microfluidic platform.}, journal = {International journal of pharmaceutics}, volume = {572}, number = {}, pages = {118831}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118831}, pmid = {31715344}, issn = {1873-3476}, mesh = {Animals ; Biological Availability ; Celecoxib/*administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacokinetics ; Glass ; High-Throughput Screening Assays ; Male ; *Microfluidic Analytical Techniques ; *Nanoparticles ; Particle Size ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Solubility ; Water/chemistry ; }, abstract = {Increasing the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs by decreasing the particle size of the drugs into nano-size is a well-known strategy. However, continuous production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size is critical for clinical application of the strategy. Here we report a simple microfluidic mixing method that can achieve continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles with uniform particle size and high dissolution rate. A three-dimensional (3D) coaxial-flow microfluidic device was fabricated by assembling two coaxial aligned borosilicate glass capillaries on a glass slide, and a tapered glass capillary was inserted into another bigger cylindrical one with coaxial alignment. Celecoxib nanoparticles were prepared by the microfluidic device under the turbulent jet regime. The 3D-coaxial-flow pattern and high Reynolds number ensured the extremely short mixing time, consequently, resulted in the high throughput production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size. The obtained nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and showed superior dissolution rate compared with the coarse powder both in sink and non-sink conditions. The bioavailability of the water insoluble drug was also significantly improved by the reduction of particle size into nano-size.}, } @article {pmid31700559, year = {2019}, author = {Herrmann, N and Neubauer, P and Birkholz, M}, title = {Spiral microfluidic devices for cell separation and sorting in bioprocesses.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {13}, number = {6}, pages = {061501}, pmid = {31700559}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {Inertial microfluidic systems have been arousing interest in medical applications due to their simple and cost-efficient use. However, comparably small sample volumes in the microliter and milliliter ranges have so far prevented efficient applications in continuous bioprocesses. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that these systems are well suited for cell separation in bioprocesses because of their facile adaptability to various reactor sizes and cell types. This review will discuss potential applications of inertial microfluidic cell separation systems in downstream bioprocesses and depict recent advances in inertial microfluidics for bioprocess intensification. This review thereby focusses on spiral microchannels that separate particles at a moderate Reynolds number in a laminar flow (Re < 2300) according to their size by applying lateral hydrodynamic forces. Spiral microchannels have already been shown to be capable of replacing microfilters, extracting dead cells and debris in perfusion processes, and removing contaminant microalgae species. Recent advances in parallelization made it possible to process media on a liter-scale, which might pave the way toward industrial applications.}, } @article {pmid31674812, year = {2019}, author = {Sharzehee, M and Chang, Y and Song, JP and Han, HC}, title = {Hemodynamic effects of myocardial bridging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.}, journal = {American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology}, volume = {317}, number = {6}, pages = {H1282-H1291}, doi = {10.1152/ajpheart.00466.2019}, pmid = {31674812}, issn = {1522-1539}, mesh = {Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications/pathology/*physiopathology ; Coronary Circulation ; Female ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Myocardial Bridging/complications/pathology/*physiopathology ; *Patient-Specific Modeling ; }, abstract = {Myocardial bridging (MB) is linked to angina and myocardial ischemia and may lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it remains unclear how MB affect the coronary blood flow in HCM patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MB on coronary hemodynamics in HCM patients. Fifteen patients with MB (7 HCM and 8 non-HCM controls) in their left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were chosen. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in anatomically realistic models of diseased (with MB) and virtually healthy (without MB) LAD from these patients, reconstructed from biplane angiograms. Our CFD simulation results demonstrated that dynamic compression of MB led to diastolic flow disturbances and could significantly reduce the coronary flow in HCM patients as compared with non-HCM group (P < 0.01). The pressure drop coefficient was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) in HCM patients. The flow rate change is strongly correlated with both upstream Reynolds number and MB compression ratio, while the MB length has less impact on coronary flow. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes revealed that HCM patients with an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention. In conclusion, the transient MB compression can significantly alter the diastolic flow pattern and wall shear stress distribution in HCM patients. HCM patients with severe MB may need a surgical intervention.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, the hemodynamic significance of myocardial bridging (MB) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was investigated to provide valuable information for surgical decision-making. Our results illustrated that the transient MB compression led to complex flow patterns, which can significantly alter the diastolic flow and wall shear stress distribution. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes demonstrated that patients with HCM and an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention.}, } @article {pmid31671753, year = {2019}, author = {Shanko, ES and van de Burgt, Y and Anderson, PD and den Toonder, JMJ}, title = {Microfluidic Magnetic Mixing at Low Reynolds Numbers and in Stagnant Fluids.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {11}, pages = {}, pmid = {31671753}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Microfluidic mixing becomes a necessity when thorough sample homogenization is required in small volumes of fluid, such as in lab-on-a-chip devices. For example, efficient mixing is extraordinarily challenging in capillary-filling microfluidic devices and in microchambers with stagnant fluids. To address this issue, specifically designed geometrical features can enhance the effect of diffusion and provide efficient mixing by inducing chaotic fluid flow. This scheme is known as "passive" mixing. In addition, when rapid and global mixing is essential, "active" mixing can be applied by exploiting an external source. In particular, magnetic mixing (where a magnetic field acts to stimulate mixing) shows great potential for high mixing efficiency. This method generally involves magnetic beads and external (or integrated) magnets for the creation of chaotic motion in the device. However, there is still plenty of room for exploiting the potential of magnetic beads for mixing applications. Therefore, this review article focuses on the advantages of magnetic bead mixing along with recommendations on improving mixing in low Reynolds number flows (Re ≤ 1) and in stagnant fluids.}, } @article {pmid31671339, year = {2020}, author = {Ijaz Khan, M and Ali, A and Hayat, T and Alsaedi, A}, title = {Entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow with probable error and statistical declaration.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {185}, number = {}, pages = {105137}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105137}, pmid = {31671339}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Entropy ; Nanotubes, Carbon/*chemistry ; Probability ; Thermodynamics ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: CNTs are categorized subject to their structures i.e., SWCNTs (single wall nanotubes), DWCNTs (double wall nanotubes) and MWCNTs (multi-wall nanotubes). The various structures have distinct characteristics that make the nanotubes suitable for various physical applications. It is due their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal attributes CNTs present thrilling opportunities for mechanical engineering, industrial, scientific research and commercial applications. There is fruitful potential for carbon nanotubes in the composites business and industry. Today, CNTs find utilization in frequent various products, and analyst continue to explore new applications. Currently applications comprise wind turbines, bicycle components, scanning probe microscopes, flat panel displays, marine paints, sensing devices, electronics, batteries with longer lifetime and electrical circuitry etc. Such applications in mind, entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow of nanomaterial by a stretched surface. Flow is caused due to stretching phenomenon and studied in 3D coordinates. Both types of CNTs are studied i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs. CNTs are considered for nanoparticles and water for continuous phase fluid. Special consideration is given to the analysis of statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number. Furthermore, entropy rate is calculated. Entropy rate is discussed in the presence of four main irreversibilities i.e., heat transfer, Joule heating, porosity and dissipation.

METHOD: Homotopy technique is utilized to develop the convergence series solutions.

RESULTS: Impacts of sundry variables subject to both SWCNTs (single) and MWCNTs (multi) are graphically discussed. Statistical analysis and probable error for surface drag force and Nusselt number are numerically calculated subject to various flow variables. Numerical results for such engineering quantities are displayed through tables. In addition, comparative analysis for SWCNTs and MWCNTs are presented for the velocity, concentration and thermal fields.

CONCLUSIONS: Results for entropy rate is calculated in the presence of various sundry variable through implementation of second law of thermodynamics. It is examined from the results that velocity decreases for both CNTs via higher magnetic, inertia coefficient and porosity parameters. Secondary velocity i.e., velocity in g-direction boosts up versus rotation parameter while it declines for larger slip parameter for both CNTs. thermal field intensifies for both CNTs via larger heat generation/absorption parameter. Concentration which shows the mass transfer of species increases subject to higher homogeneous parameter and Schmidt number in case of both CNTs. Entropy rate in more for larger magnetic, Reynolds number and slip parameter. Bejan number boosts up for higher Reynold number and slip parameter while it declines for magnetic parameter.}, } @article {pmid31657131, year = {2020}, author = {Dincau, B and Dressaire, E and Sauret, A}, title = {Pulsatile Flow in Microfluidic Systems.}, journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)}, volume = {16}, number = {9}, pages = {e1904032}, doi = {10.1002/smll.201904032}, pmid = {31657131}, issn = {1613-6829}, mesh = {Cell Culture Techniques ; Hydrodynamics ; *Microfluidics/trends ; *Pulsatile Flow ; }, abstract = {This review describes the current knowledge and applications of pulsatile flow in microfluidic systems. Elements of fluid dynamics at low Reynolds number are first described in the context of pulsatile flow. Then the practical applications in microfluidic processes are presented: the methods to generate a pulsatile flow, the generation of emulsion droplets through harmonic flow rate perturbation, the applications in mixing and particle separation, and the benefits of pulsatile flow for clog mitigation. The second part of the review is devoted to pulsatile flow in biological applications. Pulsatile flows can be used for mimicking physiological systems, to alter or enhance cell cultures, and for bioassay automation. Pulsatile flows offer unique advantages over a steady flow, especially in microfluidic systems, but also require some new physical insights and more rigorous investigation to fully benefit future applications.}, } @article {pmid31656395, year = {2019}, author = {Folkersma, M and Schmehl, R and Viré, A}, title = {Boundary layer transition modeling on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils.}, journal = {Wind energy (Chichester, England)}, volume = {22}, number = {7}, pages = {908-921}, pmid = {31656395}, issn = {1099-1824}, abstract = {We present a computational fluid dynamic analysis of boundary layer transition on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils used for airborne wind energy generation. Because of the operation in pumping cycles, the airfoil is generally subject to a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The analysis is based on the combination of the shear stress transport turbulence model with the γ - R ˜ e θ t transition model, which can handle the laminar boundary layer and its transition to turbulence. The implementation of both models in OpenFOAM is described. We show a validation of the method for a sailwing (ie, a wing with a membrane) airfoil and an application to a leading edge inflatable kite airfoil. For the sailwing airfoil, the results computed with transition model agree well with the existing low Reynolds number experiment over the whole range of angles of attack. For the leading edge inflatable kite airfoil, the transition modeling has both favorable and unfavorable effects on the aerodynamics. On the one hand, the aerodynamics suffer from the laminar separation. But, on the other hand, the laminar boundary layer thickens slower than the turbulent counterpart, which, in combination with transition, delays the separation. The results also indicate that the aerodynamics of the kite airfoil could be improved by delaying the boundary layer transition during the traction phase and tripping the transition in the retraction phase.}, } @article {pmid31648622, year = {2020}, author = {Ozden, K and Sert, C and Yazicioglu, Y}, title = {Numerical investigation of wall pressure fluctuations downstream of concentric and eccentric blunt stenosis models.}, journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine}, volume = {234}, number = {1}, pages = {48-60}, doi = {10.1177/0954411919884167}, pmid = {31648622}, issn = {2041-3033}, mesh = {Acoustics ; Blood Vessels/*physiopathology ; *Constriction, Pathologic ; *Models, Biological ; *Pressure ; }, abstract = {Pressure fluctuations that cause acoustic radiation from vessel models with concentric and eccentric blunt stenoses are investigated. Large eddy simulations of non-pulsatile flow condition are performed using OpenFOAM. Calculated amplitude and spatial-spectral distribution of acoustic pressures at the post-stenotic region are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. It is found that increasing the Reynolds number does not change the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure, but causes a general increase in the spectrum level, although the change in the shape of the spectrum is not significant. On the contrary, compared to the concentric model at the same Reynolds number, eccentricity leads to an increase both at the distance of the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure from the stenosis exit and the spectrum level. This effect becomes more distinct when radial eccentricity of the stenosis increases. Both the flow rate and the eccentricity of the stenosis shape are evaluated to be clinically important parameters in diagnosing stenosis.}, } @article {pmid31640254, year = {2019}, author = {Su, L and Duan, Z and He, B and Ma, H and Xu, Z}, title = {Thermally Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Elliptical Minichannels with Constant Wall Temperature.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {31640254}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {2019YJS158//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; }, abstract = {Laminar convective heat transfer of elliptical minichannels is investigated for hydrodynamically fully developed but thermal developing flow with no-slip condition. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed in different elliptical geometries with the aspect ratio varying from 0.2 to 1. The effect of Reynolds number (25 ≤ Re ≤ 2000) on the local Nusselt number is examined in detail. The results indicate that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Reynolds number and it is sensitive to Reynolds number especially for Re less than 250. The effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number is small when compared with the effect of Reynolds number on local Nusselt number. The local Nusselt number is independent of cross-section geometry at the inlet. The maximum effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number arises at the transition section rather than the fully developed region. However, the non-dimensional thermal entrance length is a monotonic decreasing concave function of aspect ratio but a weak function of Reynolds number. Correlations for the local Nusselt number and the thermal developing length for elliptical channels are developed with good accuracy, which may provide guidance for design and optimization of elliptical minichannel heat sinks.}, } @article {pmid31640175, year = {2019}, author = {Raza, W and Ma, SB and Kim, KY}, title = {Single and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Three-Dimensional Unbalanced Split-and-Recombine Micromixer.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {31640175}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {No. 2019R1A2C1007657//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; }, abstract = {The three-dimensional geometry of a micromixer with an asymmetrical split-and-recombine mechanism was optimized to enhance the fluid-mixing capability at a Reynolds number of 20. Single and multi-objective optimizations were carried out by using particle swarm optimization and a genetic algorithm on a modeled surrogate surface. Surrogate modeling was performed using the computational results for the mixing. Mixing and flow analyses were carried out by solving the convection-diffusion equation in combination with the three-dimensional continuity and momentum equations. The optimization was carried out with two design variables related to dimensionless geometric parameters. The mixing effectiveness was chosen as the objective function for the single-objective optimization, and the pressure drop and mixing index at the outlet were chosen for the multi-objective optimization. The sampling points in the design space were determined using a design of experiment technique called Latin hypercube sampling. The surrogates for the objective functions were developed using a Kriging model. The single-objective optimization resulted in 58.9% enhancement of the mixing effectiveness compared to the reference design. The multi-objective optimization provided Pareto-optimal solutions that showed a maximum increase of 48.5% in the mixing index and a maximum decrease of 55.0% in the pressure drop in comparison to the reference design.}, } @article {pmid31639948, year = {2019}, author = {Basu, A and Bhattacharjee, JK}, title = {Kolmogorov or Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling: Universal energy spectra in stably stratified turbulent fluids.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {3-1}, pages = {033117}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.033117}, pmid = {31639948}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We set up the scaling theory for stably stratified turbulent fluids. For a system having infinite extent in the horizontal directions, but with a finite width in the vertical direction, this theory predicts that the inertial range can display three possible scaling behavior, which are essentially parametrized by the buoyancy frequency N, or dimensionless horizontal Froude number F_{h}, and the vertical length scale l_{v} that sets the scale of variation of the velocity field in the vertical direction for a fixed Reynolds number. For very low N or very high Re_{b} or F_{h}, and with l_{v} ≫l_{h}, the typical horizontal length scale, buoyancy forces are irrelevant and hence, unsurprisingly, the kinetic energy spectra show the well-known K41 scaling in the inertial range. In this regime, the local temperature behaves as a passively advected scalar, without any effect on the flow fields. For intermediate ranges of values of N,F_{h} ∼O(1), corresponding to moderate stratification, buoyancy forces are important enough to affect the scaling. This leads to the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling which is isotropic, when l_{v} ∼l_{h} . Finally, for very large N, corresponding to strong stratification, together with a very small l_{v}, the inertial-range flow fields effectively two-dimensionalize. The kinetic energy spectra are predicted to be anisotropic with only the horizontal part of the kinetic energy spectra following the K41 scaling. This suggests an intriguing re-entrant K41 scaling, as a function of stratification, for the horizontal components of the velocity field in this regime. The scaling theory further predicts the scaling of the thermal energy in each of these three scaling regimes. Our theory can be tested in large-scale simulations and appropriate laboratory-based experiments.}, } @article {pmid31631905, year = {2019}, author = {Bae, HJ and Lozano-Durán, A and Bose, ST and Moin, P}, title = {Dynamic slip wall model for large-eddy simulation.}, journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics}, volume = {859}, number = {}, pages = {400-432}, pmid = {31631905}, issn = {0022-1120}, support = {NNX15AU93A//NASA/United States ; }, abstract = {Wall modelling in large-eddy simulation (LES) is necessary to overcome the prohibitive near-wall resolution requirements in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. Most existing wall models rely on assumptions about the state of the boundary layer and require a priori prescription of tunable coefficients. They also impose the predicted wall stress by replacing the no-slip boundary condition at the wall with a Neumann boundary condition in the wall-parallel directions while maintaining the no-transpiration condition in the wall-normal direction. In the present study, we first motivate and analyse the Robin (slip) boundary condition with transpiration (non-zero wall-normal velocity) in the context of wall-modelled LES. The effect of the slip boundary condition on the one-point statistics of the flow is investigated in LES of turbulent channel flow and a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the slip condition provides a framework to compensate for the deficit or excess of mean momentum at the wall. Moreover, the resulting non-zero stress at the wall alleviates the well-known problem of the wall-stress under-estimation by current subgrid-scale (SGS) models (Jiménez & Moser, AIAA J., vol. 38 (4), 2000, pp. 605-612). Second, we discuss the requirements for the slip condition to be used in conjunction with wall models and derive the equation that connects the slip boundary condition with the stress at the wall. Finally, a dynamic procedure for the slip coefficients is formulated, providing a dynamic slip wall model free of a priori specified coefficients. The performance of the proposed dynamic wall model is tested in a series of LES of turbulent channel flow at varying Reynolds numbers, non-equilibrium three-dimensional transient channel flow and a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The results show that the dynamic wall model is able to accurately predict one-point turbulence statistics for various flow configurations, Reynolds numbers and grid resolutions.}, } @article {pmid31631902, year = {2019}, author = {Lozano-Durán, A and Bae, HJ}, title = {Error scaling of large-eddy simulation in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence.}, journal = {Journal of computational physics}, volume = {392}, number = {}, pages = {532-555}, pmid = {31631902}, issn = {0021-9991}, support = {NNX15AU93A//NASA/United States ; }, abstract = {We study the error scaling properties of large-eddy simulation (LES) in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence at moderately high Reynolds numbers. In order to avoid the additional complexity of wall-modeling, we perform LES of turbulent channel flows in which the no-slip condition at the wall is replaced by a Neumann condition supplying the exact mean wall-stress. The statistics investigated are the mean velocity profile, turbulence intensities, and kinetic energy spectra. The errors follow (Δ / L) α R e τ γ , where Δ is the characteristic grid resolution, Re τ is the friction Reynolds number, and L is the meaningful length-scale to normalize Δ in order to collapse the errors across the wall-normal distance. We show that Δ can be expressed as the L 2-norm of the grid vector and that L is well represented by the ratio of the friction velocity and mean shear. The exponent α is estimated from theoretical arguments for each statistical quantity of interest and shown to roughly match the values computed by numerical simulations. For the mean profile and kinetic energy spectra, α ≈ 1, whereas the turbulence intensities converge at a slower rate α < 1. The exponent γ is approximately 0, i.e. the LES solution is independent of the Reynolds number. The expected behavior of the turbulence intensities at high Reynolds numbers is also derived and shown to agree with the classic log-layer profiles for grid resolutions lying within the inertial range. Further examination of the LES turbulence intensities and spectra reveals that both quantities resemble their filtered counterparts from direct numerical simulation (DNS) data, but that the mechanism responsible for this similarity is related to the balance between the input power and dissipation rather than to filtering.}, } @article {pmid31627151, year = {2020}, author = {Hayat, T and Waqar Ahmad, M and Ijaz Khan, M and Alsaedi, A}, title = {Entropy optimization in CNTs based nanomaterial flow induced by rotating disks: A study on the accuracy of statistical declaration and probable error.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {184}, number = {}, pages = {105105}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105105}, pmid = {31627151}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Entropy ; Models, Theoretical ; Nanostructures/*chemistry ; Nanotubes, Carbon/*chemistry ; Probability ; Reproducibility of Results ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: CNTs (Carbon nanotubes) being allotropes of carbon, made of graphene and diameters of single and multi-walls carbon nanotubes are typically 0.8 to 2 nm and 5 to 20 mn, although diameter of MWCNTs can exceed 100 nm. Carbon nanotubes lengths range from less than 100 nm to 0.5 m. Their impressive structural, electronic and mechanical attributes subject to their small size and mass, their high electrical and thermal conductivities, and their strong mechanical potency. CNTs based materials are successfully applied in medicine and pharmacy subject to their huge surface area that is proficient of conjugating or adsorbing with a wide variety of genes, drugs, antibodies, vaccines and biosensors etc. Therefore, we have presented a theoretical study about mathematical modeling of CNTs based viscous material flow between two rotating disks. Both types of nanotubes i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs are considered. Xue model is used for the mathematical modeling. Fluid flow is due to rotating disks. Main focus here is given to probable error and statistical declaration. Entropy is calculated for both single and multi-walls nanotubes.

METHOD: Nonlinear PDEs are first converted into ODEs and then computed for homotopy convergent solutions.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number are numerically computed and discussed through Tables. From obtained outcomes it is concluded that magnitude of skin friction increases at both disks surface for higher values of Reynolds number, lower stretching parameter and porosity parameter while it decays for both of disks versus larger rotation parameter. Nusselt number or heat transfer rate also enhances at both disks in the presence of radiation and Reynolds number while it decays against Eckert number.}, } @article {pmid31620754, year = {2019}, author = {Bukowicki, M and Ekiel-Jeżewska, ML}, title = {Sedimenting pairs of elastic microfilaments.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {15}, number = {46}, pages = {9405-9417}, doi = {10.1039/c9sm01373c}, pmid = {31620754}, issn = {1744-6848}, abstract = {The dynamics of two identical elastic filaments settling under gravity in a viscous fluid in the low Reynolds number regime is investigated numerically. A large family of initial configurations symmetric with respect to a vertical plane is considered, as well as their non-symmetric perturbations. The behaviour of the filaments is primarily governed by the elasto-gravitational number, which depends on the filament's length and flexibility, and the strength of the external force. Flexible filaments usually converge toward horizontal and parallel orientation. We explain this phenomenon and show that it occurs also for curved rigid particles of similar shapes. Once aligned, the two fibres either converge toward a stationary, flexibility-dependent distance, or tend to collide or continuously repel each other. Rigid and straight rods perform periodic motions while settling down. Apart from very stiff particles, the dynamics is robust to non-symmetric perturbations.}, } @article {pmid31611726, year = {2019}, author = {Holdenried-Chernoff, D and Chen, L and Jackson, A}, title = {A trio of simple optimized axisymmetric kinematic dynamos in a sphere.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {475}, number = {2229}, pages = {20190308}, pmid = {31611726}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {Planetary magnetic fields are generated by the motion of conductive fluid in the planet's interior. Complex flows are not required for dynamo action; simple flows have been shown to act as efficient kinematic dynamos, whose physical characteristics are more straightforward to study. Recently, Chen et al. (2018, J. Fluid Mech. 839, 1-32. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.924)) found the optimal, unconstrained kinematic dynamo in a sphere, which, despite being of theoretical importance, is of limited practical use. We extend their work by restricting the optimization to three simple two-mode axisymmetric flows based on the kinematic dynamos of Dudley & James (1989, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 425, 407-429. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1989.0112)). Using a Lagrangian optimization, we find the smallest critical magnetic Reynolds number for each flow type, measured using an enstrophy-based norm. A Galerkin method is used, in which the spectral coefficients of the fluid flow and magnetic field are updated in order to maximize the final magnetic energy. We consider the t 0 1 s 0 1, t 0 1 s 0 2 and t 0 2 s 0 2 flows and find enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds numbers of 107.7, 142.4 and 125.5 (13.7, 19.6 and 16.4, respectively, with the energy-based definition). These are up to four times smaller than the original flows. These simple and efficient flows may be used as benchmarks in future studies.}, } @article {pmid31602809, year = {2020}, author = {Browne, CA and Shih, A and Datta, SS}, title = {Pore-Scale Flow Characterization of Polymer Solutions in Microfluidic Porous Media.}, journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)}, volume = {16}, number = {9}, pages = {e1903944}, doi = {10.1002/smll.201903944}, pmid = {31602809}, issn = {1613-6829}, abstract = {Polymer solutions are frequently used in enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation to improve the recovery of trapped nonaqueous fluids. However, applications are limited by an incomplete understanding of the flow in porous media. The tortuous pore structure imposes both shear and extension, which elongates polymers; moreover, the flow is often at large Weissenberg numbers, Wi, at which polymer elasticity in turn strongly alters the flow. This dynamic elongation can even produce flow instabilities with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations despite the low Reynolds number, Re. Unfortunately, macroscopic approaches are limited in their ability to characterize the pore-scale flow. Thus, understanding how polymer conformations, flow dynamics, and pore geometry together determine these nontrivial flow patterns and impact macroscopic transport remains an outstanding challenge. This review describes how microfluidic tools can shed light on the physics underlying the flow of polymer solutions in porous media at high Wi and low Re. Specifically, microfluidic studies elucidate how steady and unsteady flow behavior depends on pore geometry and solution properties, and how polymer-induced effects impact nonaqueous fluid recovery. This work thus provides new insights for polymer dynamics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, and applications such as enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation.}, } @article {pmid31594959, year = {2019}, author = {Houba, T and Dasgupta, A and Gopalakrishnan, S and Gosse, R and Roy, S}, title = {Supersonic turbulent flow simulation using a scalable parallel modal discontinuous Galerkin numerical method.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {14442}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-50546-w}, pmid = {31594959}, issn = {2045-2322}, support = {GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//NSF | National Science Board (NSB)/ ; }, abstract = {The scalability and efficiency of numerical methods on parallel computer architectures is of prime importance as we march towards exascale computing. Classical methods like finite difference schemes and finite volume methods have inherent roadblocks in their mathematical construction to achieve good scalability. These methods are popularly used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow simulations. The discontinuous Galerkin family of methods for solving continuum partial differential equations has shown promise in realizing parallel efficiency and scalability when approaching petascale computations. In this paper an explicit modal discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method utilizing Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) is proposed for unsteady turbulent flow simulations involving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. A study of the method was performed for the Taylor-Green vortex case at a Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 1600. The polynomial order P = 2 (third order accurate) was found to closely match the Direct Navier-Stokes (DNS) results for all Reynolds numbers tested outside of Re = 1600, which had a normalized RMS error of 3.43 × 10-4 in the dissipation rate for a 603 element mesh. The scalability and performance study of the method was then conducted for a Reynolds number of 1600 for polynomials orders from P = 2 to P = 6. The highest order polynomial that was tested (P = 6) was found to have the most efficient scalability using both the MPI and OpenMP implementations.}, } @article {pmid31590559, year = {2019}, author = {Porteous, R and Moreau, DJ and Doolan, CJ}, title = {The effect of the incoming boundary layer thickness on the aeroacoustics of finite wall-mounted square cylinders.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {146}, number = {3}, pages = {1808}, doi = {10.1121/1.5126693}, pmid = {31590559}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {This paper is concerned with the influence of the incoming wall boundary layer thickness on the noise produced by a square finite wall-mounted cylinder in cross-flow. Acoustic and near wake velocity measurements have been taken in an anechoic wind tunnel for a cylinder in two different near-zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers with thicknesses of 130% and 370% of the cylinder width, W. The cylinders have an aspect ratio of 0.29≤L/W≤22.9 (where L is the cylinder span) and were examined at a Reynolds number, based on width, of ReW = 1.4 × 104. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that increasing the height of the boundary layer delays the production of acoustic tones to higher aspect ratios. The height of the boundary layer changes the balance between upwash and downwash across the cylinder span, resulting in a delayed onset of the shedding regimes and correspondingly, the production of acoustic tones.}, } @article {pmid31590317, year = {2019}, author = {Kawaguchi, M and Fukui, T and Funamoto, K and Tanaka, M and Tanaka, M and Murata, S and Miyauchi, S and Hayase, T}, title = {Viscosity Estimation of a Suspension with Rigid Spheres in Circular Microchannels Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {10}, pages = {}, pmid = {31590317}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {Suspension flows are ubiquitous in industry and nature. Therefore, it is important to understand the rheological properties of a suspension. The key to understanding the mechanism of suspension rheology is considering changes in its microstructure. It is difficult to evaluate the influence of change in the microstructure on the rheological properties affected by the macroscopic flow field for non-colloidal particles. In this study, we propose a new method to evaluate the changes in both the microstructure and rheological properties of a suspension using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a power-law fluid model. Dilute suspension (0.38%) flows with fluorescent particles in a microchannel with a circular cross section were measured under low Reynolds number conditions (Re ≈ 10-4). Furthermore, the distribution of suspended particles in the radial direction was obtained from the measured images. Based on the power-law index and dependence of relative viscosity on the shear rate, we observed that the non-Newtonian properties of the suspension showed shear-thinning. This method will be useful in revealing the relationship between microstructural changes in a suspension and its rheology.}, } @article {pmid31574775, year = {2019}, author = {Singh, G and Lakkaraju, R}, title = {Wall-mounted flexible plates in a two-dimensional channel trigger early flow instabilities.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023109}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023109}, pmid = {31574775}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {A high level of mixing by passive means is a desirable feature in microchannels for various applications, and use of flexible obstacles (or plates) is one of the prime choices in that regard. To gain further insight, we carry out two-dimensional numerical simulations for flow past one or two flexible plates anchored to a channel's opposite walls using a fluid-structure interaction framework. For the inlet flow Reynolds number vs the Strouhal number plane, we observe a sudden flow change from a laminar to a time-periodic vortex shedding state when flexible plates are present in the channel. We found the critical Reynolds number to be Re_{cr} ≈370 when a single plate is anchored on the channel wall and Re_{cr} ≈290 or even lower when two plates are anchored. With an increase in the inlet flow Reynolds number (up to 3200), we found that vortices detach regularly at the plates' tips, which causes the flow to meander in the channel. In a two-plate anchored configuration, primary vortices generated at the first plate are constrained by the second plate and result in an energetic secondary vortex generation in the downstream side. The overall flow features and the energy dissipation in the channel are mainly controlled by the separation gap between the plates. At high-inlet-flow Reynolds numbers (≥1600), the probability density function (F) of the kinetic energy dissipation in a flexible plate configuration shows a stretched exponential shape in the form F(Z)∼1/sqrt[Z]e^{-pZ^{q} }, where Z is the normalized kinetic energy dissipation and the constants p=0.89 and q=0.86. The observed increase in energy dissipation comes at the cost of an increase in pressure loss in the channel, and we found that the loss is inversely related to the plates' separation gap. From our simulations, we found that if high mixing levels are desired, then two flexible plates anchored to the channel walls is a better choice than a channel flow without obstacles or flow past a single plate. The two-plate configuration with zero separation gap between the plates is best suited to achieve a high mixing level.}, } @article {pmid31574747, year = {2019}, author = {Feng, Y and Boivin, P and Jacob, J and Sagaut, P}, title = {Hybrid recursive regularized lattice Boltzmann simulation of humid air with application to meteorological flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023304}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023304}, pmid = {31574747}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {An extended version of the hybrid recursive regularized lattice-Boltzmann model which incorporates external force is developed to simulate humid air flows with phase change mechanisms under the Boussinesq approximation. Mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by a regularized lattice Boltzmann approach well suited for high Reynolds number flows, whereas the energy and humidity related equations are solved by a finite volume approach. Two options are investigated to account for cloud formation in atmospheric flow simulations. The first option considers a single conservation equation for total water and an appropriate invariant variable of temperature. In the other approach, liquid and vapor are considered via two separated equations, and phase transition is accounted for via a relaxation procedure. The obtained models are then systematically validated on four well-established benchmark problems including a double diffusive Rayleigh Bénard convection of humid air, two- and three-dimensional thermal moist rising bubble under convective atmospheric environment, as well as a shallow cumulus convection in the framework of large-eddy simulation.}, } @article {pmid31574698, year = {2019}, author = {Topayev, S and Nouar, C and Bernardin, D and Neveu, A and Bahrani, SA}, title = {Taylor-vortex flow in shear-thinning fluids.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023117}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023117}, pmid = {31574698}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {This paper deals with the Taylor-Couette flow of shear-thinning fluids. It focuses on the first principles understanding of the influence of the viscosity stratification and the nonlinear variation of the effective viscosity μ with the shear rate γ[over ̇] on the flow structure in the Taylor-vortex flow regime. A wide gap configuration (η=0.4) is mainly considered. A weakly nonlinear analysis, using the amplitude expansion method at high order, is adopted as a first approach to study nonlinear effects. For the numerical computation, the shear-thinning behavior is described by the Carreau model. The rheological parameters are varied in a wide range. The results indicate that the flow field undergoes a significant change as shear-thinning effects increase. First, vortices are squeezed against the inner wall and the center of the patterns is shifted axially toward the radial outflow boundaries (z=0,z/λ_{z} =1). This axial shift leads to increasing concentration of vorticity at these positions. The outflow becomes stronger than the inflow and the extent of the inflow zone where the vorticity is low increases acoordingly. Nevertheless, the strength of the vortices relative to the velocity of the inner cylinder is weaker. Second, the pseudo-Nusselt number, ratio of the torque to that obtained in the laminar flow, decreases. Third, higher harmonics become more relevant and grow faster with Reynolds number. Finally, the modification of the viscosity field is described.}, } @article {pmid31574640, year = {2019}, author = {Krämer, A and Wilde, D and Küllmer, K and Reith, D and Foysi, H}, title = {Pseudoentropic derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {2-1}, pages = {023302}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023302}, pmid = {31574640}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) facilitates efficient simulations of fluid turbulence based on advection and collision of local particle distribution functions. To ensure stable simulations on underresolved grids, the collision operator must prevent drastic deviations from local equilibrium. This can be achieved by various methods, such as the multirelaxation time, entropic, quasiequilibrium, regularized, and cumulant schemes. Complementing a part of a unified theoretical framework of these schemes, the present work presents a derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM), which follows a recently introduced entropic multirelaxation time LBM by Karlin, Bösch, and Chikatamarla (KBC). It is shown that both methods can be derived by locally maximizing a quadratic Taylor expansion of the entropy function. While KBC expands around the local equilibrium distribution, the RLBM is recovered by expanding entropy around a global equilibrium. Numerical tests were performed to elucidate the role of pseudoentropy maximization in these models. Simulations of a two-dimensional shear layer show that the RLBM successfully reproduces the largest eddies even on a 16×16 grid, while the conventional LBM becomes unstable for grid resolutions of 128×128 and lower. The RLBM suppresses spurious vortices more effectively than KBC. In contrast, simulations of the three-dimensional Taylor-Green and Kida vortices show that KBC performs better in resolving small scale vortices, outperforming the RLBM by a factor of 1.8 in terms of the effective Reynolds number.}, } @article {pmid31574614, year = {2019}, author = {Morris, RG and Rao, M}, title = {Active morphogenesis of epithelial monolayers.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {2-1}, pages = {022413}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.022413}, pmid = {31574614}, issn = {2470-0053}, mesh = {Epithelium/*growth & development/metabolism ; Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Biological ; *Morphogenesis ; Thermodynamics ; }, abstract = {During typical early-stage embryo development, single-cell-thick tissues of tightly bound epithelial cells autonomously generate profound changes in their shape, forming the basis of organism anatomy. We report on a (covariant) active-hydrodynamic theory of such monolayer morphogenesis that is closed under its shape-changing dynamics-i.e., the degrees of freedom that encode monolayer geometry appear properly as broken-symmetry variables. In our theory, the salient physics of tissue-scale deformations emerges from a balance between the displacement and/or shear of a low-Reynolds-number embedding fluid (the "yolk") and cell-autonomous stresses, themselves a result of combining apical contractile stresses with an elastic-like mechanical response under the constraint of constant cell volume. The leading-order hydrodynamic instabilities include both passive constrained-buckling and active deformation, which can be further categorized by cell shape changes that are either "squamous to columnar" or "regular-prism to truncated-pyramid." The deformations resulting from the latter qualitatively reproduce in vivo observations of the onset of both mesoderm and posterior midgut invaginations, which take place during gastrulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.}, } @article {pmid31546025, year = {2020}, author = {Phuong, NL and Quang, TV and Khoa, ND and Kim, JW and Ito, K}, title = {CFD analysis of the flow structure in a monkey upper airway validated by PIV experiments.}, journal = {Respiratory physiology & neurobiology}, volume = {271}, number = {}, pages = {103304}, doi = {10.1016/j.resp.2019.103304}, pmid = {31546025}, issn = {1878-1519}, mesh = {Animals ; *Computer Simulation ; Haplorhini ; *Hydrodynamics ; Inhalation Exposure ; Macaca fascicularis ; Male ; Mouth/diagnostic imaging/physiology ; Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging/*physiology ; *Particle Size ; Respiratory Mechanics/*physiology ; Rheology/*methods ; }, abstract = {Inhalation exposure to airborne contaminants has adverse effects on humans; however, related research is typically conducted using in vivo/in vitro tests on animals. Extrapolating the test results is complicated by anatomical and physiological differences between animals and humans and a lack of understanding of the transport mechanism inside their respective respiratory tracts. This study determined the detailed air-flow structure in the upper airway of a monkey. A steady computational fluid dynamics simulation, which was validated by previous particle image velocimetry measurements, was adopted for flow rates of 4 L/min and 10 L/min to analyze the flow structure from the nasal/oral cavities to the trachea region in a monkey airway model. The low Reynolds number type k-ε model provided a reasonably accurate prediction of the airflow in a monkey upper airway. Furthermore, it was confirmed that large velocity gradients were generated in the nasal vestibule and larynx regions, as well as increased turbulent air kinetic energy and wall sheer stress.}, } @article {pmid31542476, year = {2020}, author = {Shi, L and Wu, J and Krenn, HW and Yang, Y and Yan, S}, title = {Temporal model of fluid-feeding mechanisms in a long proboscid orchid bee compared to the short proboscid honey bee.}, journal = {Journal of theoretical biology}, volume = {484}, number = {}, pages = {110017}, doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.110017}, pmid = {31542476}, issn = {1095-8541}, mesh = {Animals ; *Bees/anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Feeding Behavior/physiology ; Flowers ; *Models, Biological ; Plant Nectar ; Time ; Tongue/anatomy & histology ; }, abstract = {Bees (Apidae) are flower-visiting insects that possess highly efficient mouthparts for the ingestion of nectar and other sucrose fluids. Their mouthparts are composed of mandibles and a tube-like proboscis. The proboscis forms a food canal, which encompasses a protrusible and hairy tongue to load and imbibe nectar, representing a fluid-feeding technique with a low Reynolds number. The western honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, can rhythmically erect the tongue microtrichia to regulate the glossal shape, achieving a tradeoff between nectar intake rate and viscous drag. Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossa imperialis) possess a proboscis longer than the body and combines this lapping-sucking mode of fluid-feeding with suction feeding. This additional technique of nectar uptake may have different biophysics. In order to reveal the effect of special structures of mouthparts in terms of feeding efficiency, we build a temporal model for orchid bees considering fluid transport in multi-states including active suction, tongue protraction and viscous dipping. Our model indicates that the dipping technique employed by honey bees can contribute to more than seven times the volumetric and energetic intake rate at a certain nectar concentration compared with the combined mode used by orchid bees. The high capability of the honey bee's proboscis to ingest nectar may inspire micropumps for transporting viscous liquid with higher efficiency.}, } @article {pmid31538112, year = {2019}, author = {Onyiriuka, EJ and Ighodaro, OO and Adelaja, AO and Ewim, DRE and Bhattacharyya, S}, title = {A numerical investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of water-based mango bark nanofluid flowing in a double-pipe heat exchanger.}, journal = {Heliyon}, volume = {5}, number = {9}, pages = {e02416}, pmid = {31538112}, issn = {2405-8440}, abstract = {In this study, the heat transfer characteristics of a new class of nanofluids made from mango bark was numerically simulated and studied during turbulent flow through a double pipe heat exchanger. A range of volume fractions was considered for a particle size of 100 nm. A two-phase flow was considered using the mixture model. The mixture model governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and volume fraction were solved using the finite-volume method. The results showed an increase of the Nusselt number by 68% for a Reynolds number of 5,000 and 45% for a Reynolds number of 13 000, and the heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was about twice that of the base fluid. In addition, the Nusselt number decreased by an average value of 0.76 with an increase of volume fraction by 1%. It was also found that there was a range of Reynolds numbers in which the trend of the average heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was completely reversed, and several plots showing zones of higher heat transfer which if taken advantage of in design will lead to higher heat transfer while avoiding other zones that have low heat transfer. It is hoped that these results will influence the thermal design of new heat exchangers.}, } @article {pmid31534269, year = {2019}, author = {Blumenthal, BT and Elmiligui, AA and Geiselhart, KA and Campbell, RL and Maughmer, MD and Schmitz, S}, title = {Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model.}, journal = {Journal of aircraft}, volume = {55}, number = {3}, pages = {1141-1153}, doi = {10.2514/1.C034454}, pmid = {31534269}, issn = {0021-8669}, support = {//Langley Research Center NASA/United States ; N-999999//Intramural NASA/United States ; }, abstract = {The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown, and improvements between subsequent BLI designs are presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet, with Reynolds number of 40 million based on mean aerodynamic chord and an angle of attack of 2° for all geometries. Results indicate an 8% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration compared to the baseline geometry. Small geometric alterations of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to marginally increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in an 8.7% reduction in power requirements for cruise, as well as a drag reduction of approximately twelve counts over the baseline geometry.}, } @article {pmid31533305, year = {2019}, author = {Wang, R and Wang, J and Yuan, W}, title = {Analysis and Optimization of a Microchannel Heat Sink with V-Ribs Using Nanofluids for Micro Solar Cells.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {31533305}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {11572107, 51376055//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; }, abstract = {It is crucial to control the temperature of solar cells for enhancing efficiency with the increasing power intensity of multiple photovoltaic systems. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with V-ribs using a water-based nanofluid as a coolant for micro solar cells was designed. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the flows and heat transfers in the MCHS when the Reynolds number ranges from 200 to 1000. The numerical results showed that the periodically arranged V-ribs can interrupt the thermal boundary, induce chaotic convection, increase heat transfer area, and subsequently improve the heat transfer performance of a MCHS. In addition, the preferential values of the geometric parameters of V-ribs and the physical parameters of the nanofluid were obtained on the basis of the Nusselt numbers at identical pump power. For MCHS with V-ribs on both the top and bottom wall, preferential values of V-rib are rib width d / W = 1 , flare angle α = 75 ° , rib height h r / H = 0.3 , and ratio of two slant sides b / a = 0.75 , respectively. This can provide sound foundations for the design of a MCHS in micro solar cells.}, } @article {pmid31533232, year = {2019}, author = {Tang, L and Pan, X and Feng, J and Pu, X and Liang, R and Li, R and Li, K}, title = {Experimental Investigation on the Relationship Between COD Degradation and Hydrodynamic Conditions in Urban Rivers.}, journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health}, volume = {16}, number = {18}, pages = {}, pmid = {31533232}, issn = {1660-4601}, mesh = {*Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis ; China ; Cities ; Hydrodynamics ; Rivers/*chemistry ; Water Pollution, Chemical/*analysis ; *Water Quality ; }, abstract = {Due to extensive pollution and the relatively weak flow replacement in urban rivers, determining how to fully utilize the self-purification abilities of water bodies for water quality protection has been a complex and popular topic of research and social concern. Organic pollution is an important type of urban river pollution, and COD (chemical oxygen demand) is one of the key pollution factors. Currently, there is a lack of research on the relationship between COD degradation and the flow characteristics of urban rivers. In this paper, COD degradation experiments were conducted in an annular flume with Jinjiang River water at controlled flow velocities and the COD degradation coefficients under different hydraulic conditions were analyzed. A good correlation was observed between the degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions. According to dimensional analysis, the relationship between the COD degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions such as the flow velocity, water depth, Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) was established as K COD = 86400 u h F r 0.8415 R e - 1.2719 + 0.258 . The COD degradation coefficients of the Chishui River in Guizhou Province ranged from 0.175-0.373 1/d based on this formula, and the field-measured values varied from 0.234-0.463 1/d. The error in the formula ranged from 5.4-25.3%. This study provides a scientific basis for the prediction of the COD degradation coefficients of urban rivers.}, } @article {pmid31533091, year = {2019}, author = {Wang, C and Ren, F and Tang, H}, title = {Enhancing propulsion performance of a flexible heaving foil through dynamically adjusting its flexibility.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {14}, number = {6}, pages = {064002}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab45d9}, pmid = {31533091}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomimetics/instrumentation/*methods ; Fishes/*physiology ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Biological ; Robotics/instrumentation/methods ; }, abstract = {This study investigates how dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness of a heaving foil affects its propulsion performance in a flow of Reynolds number 200. The foil is forced to oscillate sinusoidally at the leading edge, and its bending stiffness is tuned in a square-wave manner. Such a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem is explored using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. The results reveal that when the lower and upper bounds of the foil's time-dependent bending stiffness are moderate, the net thrust can be evidently enhanced compared to those in the corresponding constant-bending-stiffness cases, while the propulsion efficiency is not apparently ameliorated. The most significant enhancement is observed when the bending stiffness has lower and upper bounds of the same duration (i.e. a duty cycle of 1/2) and also it remains at the lower bound during stroke reversals (corresponding to an actuation phase angle of [Formula: see text]). When the two bounds simultaneously increase or decrease, however, dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness fails to improve the net thrust. Through this study, competitions among various forces/moments, including the inertial force, tension force, bending moment and fluid loading, acting on the foil and their influences on the foil's dynamics are also unveiled.}, } @article {pmid31511924, year = {2019}, author = {Acosta-Avalos, D and Rodrigues, E}, title = {On the motion of magnetotactic bacteria: theoretical predictions and experimental observations.}, journal = {European biophysics journal : EBJ}, volume = {48}, number = {8}, pages = {691-700}, pmid = {31511924}, issn = {1432-1017}, mesh = {*Bacteria ; *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; *Magnetic Fields ; *Models, Biological ; *Movement ; }, abstract = {The movement of magnetotactic bacteria is done in a viscous media in the low Reynolds number regime. In the present research, the simple model for magnetotactic bacteria motion, proposed by Nogueira and Lins de Barros (Eur Biophys J 24:13-21, 1995), was used to numerically simulate their trajectory. The model was done considering a spherical bacterium with a single flagellum and a magnetic moment positioned in the sphere center and parallel to the flagella. The numerical solution shows that the trajectory is a cylindrical helix and that the body Euler angles have linear dependencies on time. Using that information, analytical expressions were obtained for the first time for the center-of-mass coordinates, showing that the trajectories are helixes oriented to the magnetic field direction. They also show that the magnetic moment does not align to the magnetic field, but it precesses around it, being fully oriented only for very high magnetic fields. The analytical solution obtained permits to relate for the first time the flagellar force to the axial velocity and helical radius. Trajectories of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria were registered in video and the coordinates were obtained for several bacteria in different magnetic fields. The trajectories showed to be a complex mixture of two oscillating functions: one with frequency lower than 5 Hz and the other one with frequency higher than 10 Hz. The simple model of Nogueira and Lins de Barros shows to be incomplete, because is unable to explain the trajectories composed of two oscillating functions observed in uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria.}, } @article {pmid31499817, year = {2019}, author = {Falsaperla, P and Giacobbe, A and Mulone, G}, title = {Nonlinear stability results for plane Couette and Poiseuille flows.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {100}, number = {1-1}, pages = {013113}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.013113}, pmid = {31499817}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {We prove that the plane Couette and Poiseuille flows are nonlinearly stable if the Reynolds number is less than Re_{Orr} (2π/(λsinθ))/sinθ when a perturbation is a tilted perturbation in the direction x^{'} which forms an angle θ∈(0,π/2] with the direction i of the basic motion and does not depend on x^{'} . Re_{Orr} is the critical Orr-Reynolds number for spanwise perturbations which is computed for wave number 2π/(λsinθ), with λ being any positive wavelength. By taking the minimum with respect to λ, we obtain the critical energy Reynolds number for a fixed inclination angle and any wavelength: for plane Couette flow, it is Re_{Orr} =44.3/sinθ, and for plane Poiseuille flow, it is Re_{Orr} =87.6/sinθ (in particular, for θ=π/2 we have the classical values Re_{Orr} =44.3 for plane Couette flow and Re_{Orr} =87.6 for plane Poiseuille flow). Here the nondimensional interval between the planes bounding the channel is [-1,1]. In particular, these results improve those obtained by Joseph, who found for streamwise perturbations a critical nonlinear value of 20.65 in the plane Couette case, and those obtained by Joseph and Carmi who found the value 49.55 for plane Poiseuille flow for streamwise perturbations. If we fix some wavelengths from the experimental data and the numerical simulations, the critical Reynolds numbers that we obtain are in a very good agreement both with the the experiments and the numerical simulation. These results partially solve the Couette-Sommerfeld paradox.}, } @article {pmid31499421, year = {2019}, author = {Shah, F and Khan, MI and Hayat, T and Khan, MI and Alsaedi, A and Khan, WA}, title = {Theoretical and mathematical analysis of entropy generation in fluid flow subject to aluminum and ethylene glycol nanoparticles.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {182}, number = {}, pages = {105057}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105057}, pmid = {31499421}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Aluminum/*chemistry ; *Entropy ; Ethylene Glycol/*chemistry ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Theoretical ; Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Here we have conducted a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of viscous material with alumina water and ethylene glycol over a stretched surface. The flow is discussed with and without effective Prandtl number. MHD liquid is considered. Electric field is absent. Effect of uniform magnetic field is taken in the vertical direction to the surface. Influence of thermal radiation as well as Joule heating are taken into account for both aluminum oxide-water and aluminum oxide-Ethylene glycol nanofluids. Velocity slip and melting heat effects are considered.

METHODS: The nonlinear flow expressions are numerically solved via ND-solve technique (built-in-Shooting).

RESULTS: The physical impacts of flow variables like mixed convection parameter, magnetic parameter, Reynold number, Eckert number, melting parameter and heat source/sink parameter are graphically discussed. Moreover, entropy generation (irreversibility) and Bejan number are discussed graphically through various flow variables. Physical quantities like skin friction coefficient and Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are numerically calculated and discussed through Tables.

CONCLUSIONS: Impact of magnetic and slip parameters on the velocity field show decreasing behavior for both effective and without effective Prandtl number. Temperature field increases for both effective and without effective Prandtl number for higher values of magnetic and radiative parameters. Entropy number is an increasing function of Reynolds number while Bejan number shows opposite impact against Reynolds number. Moreover, heat transfer rate upsurges versus larger melting and radiative parameter.}, } @article {pmid31481279, year = {2021}, author = {DeJonckere, P and Lebacq, J}, title = {Intraglottal Aerodynamics at Vocal Fold Vibration Onset.}, journal = {Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation}, volume = {35}, number = {1}, pages = {156.e23-156.e32}, doi = {10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.08.002}, pmid = {31481279}, issn = {1873-4588}, abstract = {The most frequently observed type of voice onset in spontaneous speech in normal subjects is the soft onset, and it may be considered as the "physiological" onset. It starts from an immobile narrow glottal slit crossed by a continuous airflow, and then a few oscillations (even a single one in some cases) precede the first glottal closure. It is a transient event, during which the acting forces, lung pressure, intraglottal pressure, myoelastic tension of the vocal fold (VF) oscillator and inertance of the supraglottal vocal tract, interact to progressively reach the steady state of a sustained oscillation. Combined measurements of flow, area, and pressure provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the intraglottal mechanical events at the precise moment of starting oscillation in a physiological (soft or soft/breathy) onset. Our in vivo measurements of airflow and glottal area show that the very first oscillation occurs exactly at the time when turbulence appears at the level of the glottal narrowing, ie, when the Reynolds number reaches its critical value. The turbulence may be assumed to trigger an oscillator consisting in the ensemble of the VFs and the air of the vocal tract, which is known to be weakly damped. Turbulence can act here as an aspecific flick, triggering the oscillator, the frequency of oscillation being determined by its mechanical properties. Furthermore, the first noticeable glottal oscillations are sinusoidal: the VFs are neither steeply sucked together by a negative Bernoulli pressure, nor burst apart by the lung pressure. Our measurements show that, at the critical time, the rising positive lung pressure is balanced by the rising negative Bernoulli pressure generated by the transglottal flow.}, } @article {pmid31480452, year = {2019}, author = {Tsai, CD and Lin, XY}, title = {Experimental Study on Microfluidic Mixing with Different Zigzag Angles.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {9}, pages = {}, pmid = {31480452}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {108-2321-B-009-004-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; 108-2221-E-009-107-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; 108-2218-E-009-013-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; }, abstract = {This paper presents experimental investigations of passive mixing in a microfluidic channel with different zigzag angles. Zigzag channel is commonly used for microfluidic mixing because it does not need an additional control unit and can be easily implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system. In this work, microfluidic channels with six different zigzag angles, from θ = 0° to θ = 75°, are tested under ten different flow rates corresponding to Reynolds number from 0.309 to 309. Two colored liquids are mixed with the zigzag channels and mixing performance is evaluated based on the color of the pixels on the region of interest from captured images. According to the results, we found that the mixing performance is almost independent of the zigzag angle in the low-speed regime where its Reynolds number is less than 4. The mixing became very much depending on the zigzag angle in the high-speed regime where its Reynolds number is greater than 100. Microfluidic mixing is needed for Lab-on-a-chip applications in both low flow speed, such as medium perfusion for cell culture, and high flow speed, such as high-speed sensing on a point-of-care device. This work is aimed to provide practical information on zigzag mixing for chip design and applications.}, } @article {pmid31473843, year = {2020}, author = {Waheed, W and Alazzam, A and Al-Khateeb, AN and Abu-Nada, E}, title = {Dissipative particle dynamics for modeling micro-objects in microfluidics: application to dielectrophoresis.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {19}, number = {1}, pages = {389-400}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-019-01216-3}, pmid = {31473843}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {*Algorithms ; Animals ; *Electrophoresis ; Erythrocytes/physiology ; Humans ; *Microfluidics ; *Models, Theoretical ; }, abstract = {The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) technique is employed to model the trajectories of micro-objects in a practical microfluidic device. The simulation approach is first developed using an in-house Fortran code to model Stokes flow at Reynolds number of 0.01. The extremely low Reynolds number is achieved by adjusting the DPD parameters, such as force coefficients, thermal energies of the particles, and time steps. After matching the numerical flow profile with the analytical results, the technique is developed further to simulate the deflection of micro-objects under the effect of a deflecting external force in a rectangular microchannel. A mapping algorithm is introduced to establish the scaling relationship for the deflecting force between the physical device and the DPD domain. Dielectrophoresis is studied as a case study for the deflecting force, and the trajectory of a single red blood cell under the influence of the dielectrophoretic force is simulated. The device is fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques, and the experiments involving a dilute sample of red blood cells are performed at two different cases of the actuation voltage. Good agreement between the numerical and experimental results is achieved.}, } @article {pmid31473190, year = {2019}, author = {Chaput, R and Majoris, JE and Buston, PM and Paris, CB}, title = {Hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group cohesion in plankton.}, journal = {Journal of theoretical biology}, volume = {482}, number = {}, pages = {109987}, doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.08.018}, pmid = {31473190}, issn = {1095-8541}, mesh = {Animals ; Behavior, Animal/*physiology ; Coral Reefs ; *Ecosystem ; Environment ; Fishes/growth & development/*physiology ; *Hydrodynamics ; Larva ; *Mass Behavior ; Plankton/*physiology ; Social Behavior ; Swimming/physiology ; Viscosity ; }, abstract = {The dynamics of plankton in the ocean are determined by biophysical interactions. Although physics and biotic behaviors are known to influence the observed patchiness of planktonic populations, it is still unclear how much, and if, group behavior contributes to this biophysical interaction. Here, we demonstrate how simple rules of behavior can enhance or inhibit active group cohesion in plankton in a turbulent environment. In this study, we used coral-reef fish larvae as a model to investigate the interaction between microscale turbulence and planktonic organisms. We synthesized available information on the swimming speeds and sizes of reef fish larvae, and developed a set of equations to investigate the effects of viscosity and turbulence on larvae dispersion. We then calculated the critical dispersion rates for three different swimming strategies - cruise, random-walk, and pause-travel - to determine which strategies could facilitate group cohesion during dispersal. Our results indicate that swimming strategies and migration to low-turbulence regions are the key to maintaining group cohesion, suggesting that many reef fish species have the potential to remain together, from hatching to settlement. In addition, larvae might change their swimming strategies to maintain group cohesion, depending on environmental conditions and/or their ontogenic stage. This study provides a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group formation and cohesion in planktonic organisms, and reveals a wide range of conditions under which group formation may occur.}, } @article {pmid31472558, year = {2019}, author = {Zhang, C and Sanjose, M and Moreau, S}, title = {Aeolian noise of a cylinder in the critical regime.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {146}, number = {2}, pages = {1404}, doi = {10.1121/1.5122185}, pmid = {31472558}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {The noise from the flow around a circular cylinder in the critical regime is investigated by combining a compressible wall-resolved large eddy simulation and a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings analogy on solid and porous surfaces. This simulation is validated by comparing several flow parameters with previous experimental and numerical data in the same flow regime. Significantly reduced drag and increased vortex shedding Strouhal number (0.33) are observed. Two slightly asymmetric laminar separation bubbles (LSBs) on the cylinder surface at about 100° are shown to trigger turbulence through Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear-layer instability. The latter contributes to a narrowband hump in the wall-pressure fluctuations with a tone at a Strouhal number of 27, which can be as intense as the dominant vortex shedding tone. The ratio of the corresponding Strouhal numbers is consistent with the proposed variation with the Reynolds number by Prasad and Williamson [(1997). J. Fluid Mech. 333, 375-402]. The dominant far-field noise source is still the vortex shedding dipolar tone radiating mostly at 90°. Yet, two additional broadband noise sources are evidenced in the wake, one at low frequencies caused by the wake oscillation and another one at high frequencies caused by the KH instability mostly directly toward the LSB locations.}, } @article {pmid31462974, year = {2019}, author = {Gholampour, S and Bahmani, M and Shariati, A}, title = {Comparing the Efficiency of Two Treatment Methods of Hydrocephalus: Shunt Implantation and Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy.}, journal = {Basic and clinical neuroscience}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {185-198}, pmid = {31462974}, issn = {2008-126X}, abstract = {Introduction: Hydrocephalus is one of the most common diseases in children, and its treatment requires brain operation. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is very complicated and still unknown.

Methods: Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VPS) implantation are among the common treatments of hydrocephalus. In this study, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) hydrodynamic parameters and efficiency of the treatment methods were compared with numerical simulation and clinical follow-up of the treated patients.

Results: Studies have shown that in patients under 19 years of age suffering from hydrocephalus related to a Posterior Fossa Brain Tumor (PFBT), the cumulative failure rate was 21% and 29% in ETV and VPS operation, respectively. At first, the ETV survival curve shows a sharp decrease and after two months it gets fixed while VPS curve makes a gradual decrease and reaches to a level lower than ETV curve after 5.7 months. Post-operative complications in ETV and VPS methods are 17% and 31%, respectively. In infants younger than 12 months with hydrocephalus due to congenital Aqueduct Stenosis (AS), and also in the elderly patients suffering from Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH), ETV is a better treatment option. Computer simulations show that the maximum CSF pressure is the most reliable hydrodynamic index for the evaluation of the treatment efficacy in these patients. After treatment by ETV and shunt methods, CSF pressure decreases about 9 and 5.3 times, respectively and 2.5 years after shunt implantation, this number returns to normal range.

Conclusion: In infants with hydrocephalus, initial treatment by ETV was more reasonable than implanting the shunt. In adult with hydrocephalus, the initial failure in ETV occurred sooner compared to shunt therapy; however, ETV was more efficient.}, } @article {pmid31446522, year = {2020}, author = {Foo, YY and Pant, S and Tay, HS and Imangali, N and Chen, N and Winkler, C and Yap, CH}, title = {4D modelling of fluid mechanics in the zebrafish embryonic heart.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {19}, number = {1}, pages = {221-232}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-019-01205-6}, pmid = {31446522}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Animals ; Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*physiology ; Heart/diagnostic imaging/*embryology/*physiology ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; Myocardial Contraction ; Ventricular Function ; Zebrafish/*embryology ; }, abstract = {Abnormal blood flow mechanics can result in pathological heart malformation, underlining the importance of understanding embryonic cardiac fluid mechanics. In the current study, we performed image-based computational fluid dynamics simulation of the zebrafish embryonic heart ventricles and characterized flow mechanics, organ dynamics, and energy dynamics in detail. 4D scans of 5 days post-fertilization embryonic hearts with GFP-labelled myocardium were acquired using line-scan focal modulation microscopy. This revealed that the zebrafish hearts exhibited a wave-like contractile/relaxation motion from the inlet to the outlet during both systole and diastole, which we showed to be an energy efficient configuration. No impedance pumping effects of pressure and velocity waves were observed. Due to its tube-like configuration, inflow velocities were higher near the inlet and smaller at the outlet and vice versa for outflow velocities. This resulted in an interesting spatial wall shear stress (WSS) pattern where WSS waveforms near the inlet and those near the outlet were out of phase. There was large spatial variability in WSS magnitudes. Peak WSS was in the range of 47.5-130 dyne/cm2 at the inflow and outflow tracts, but were much smaller, in the range of 4-11 dyne/cm2, in the mid-ventricular segment. Due to very low Reynolds number and the highly viscous environment, intraventricular pressure gradients were high, suggesting substantial energy losses of flow through the heart.}, } @article {pmid31431815, year = {2019}, author = {Rackus, DG and Riedel-Kruse, IH and Pamme, N}, title = {"Learning on a chip:" Microfluidics for formal and informal science education.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {041501}, pmid = {31431815}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {Microfluidics is a technique for the handling of small volumes of liquids on the order of picoliters to nanoliters and has impact for miniaturized biomedical science and fundamental research. Because of its multi- and interdisciplinary nature (i.e., combining the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering), microfluidics offers much potential for educational applications, both at the university level as well as primary and secondary education. Microfluidics is also an ideal "tool" to enthuse and educate members of the general public about the interdisciplinary aspects of modern sciences, including concepts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects such as (bio)engineering, chemistry, and biomedical sciences. Here, we provide an overview of approaches that have been taken to make microfluidics accessible for formal and informal learning. We also point out future avenues and desired developments. At the extreme ends, we can distinguish between projects that teach how to build microfluidic devices vs projects that make various microscopic phenomena (e.g., low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, microbiology) accessible to learners and the general public. Microfluidics also enables educators to make experiments low-cost and scalable, and thereby widely accessible. Our goal for this review is to assist academic researchers working in the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies as well as educators with translating research from the laboratory into the lecture hall, teaching laboratory, or public sphere.}, } @article {pmid31421603, year = {2019}, author = {Hayat, T and Aslam, N and Ijaz Khan, M and Imran Khan, M and Alsaedi, A}, title = {MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in an inclined channel subject to radiative flux and convective boundary conditions.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {180}, number = {}, pages = {104999}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.104999}, pmid = {31421603}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {Algorithms ; Body Fluids/physiology ; Elasticity ; Humans ; *Hydrodynamics ; *Models, Biological ; Peristalsis/*physiology ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {BACKGROUND: In abundant of a digestive tract like smooth muscle tissue, human gastrointestinal tract contracts in sequence to generate a peristaltic wave, which pushes a food along the tract. The peristaltic motion contains circular relaxation smooth muscles, then their shrinkage (contraction) behind the chewed material to keep it from moving backward, then longitudinal contraction to shove it ahead. Therefore, we have conducted a theoretical investigation on peristaltic transport in flow of Johnson-Segalman liquid subject to inclined magnetic field. The energy equation is developed with extra heat transport assumptions like thermal radiative flux and dissipation. The channel walls are heated convectively.

METHODS: Dimensionless problems subject to small Reynolds number and long wavelength are tackled. Perturbation technique is implemented for small Weissenberg number.

RESULTS: The physical importance of involved parameters that directly affect the heat transfer rate temperature and velocity. The pertinent variables are amplitude ratio, wave number, Reynolds number, Hartman number, Prandtl number, Weissenberg number, thermal radiative heat flux, Biot number, elasticity variables and Froude number are graphically discussed. The obtained outcome shows that the velocity field increases against higher values of elasticity variables but velocity the material decays through higher fluid parameter. Temperature field declines through higher Hartman number. Furthermore, it is also examined that the heat transfer rate decays against rising Hartman number.

CONCLUSIONS: The impact of complaint walls on radiative peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman liquid in symmetric channel subject to inclined angle. The influence of Johnson-Segalman variable on the velocity field shows decreasing behavior. Velocity also declines against larger Hartman number. Temperature and heat transfer rate boosts through rising values of E1 E2 while decays versus larger E3. Furthermore, reduction in heat transfer coefficient is observed when the values of α and Br are increased.}, } @article {pmid31421600, year = {2019}, author = {Tanveer, A and Khan, M and Salahuddin, T and Malik, MY}, title = {Numerical simulation of electroosmosis regulated peristaltic transport of Bingham nanofluid.}, journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine}, volume = {180}, number = {}, pages = {105005}, doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105005}, pmid = {31421600}, issn = {1872-7565}, mesh = {*Electroosmosis ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Statistical ; *Nanoparticles ; Peristalsis/*physiology ; Rheology ; Solutions/chemistry ; Thermal Conductivity ; }, abstract = {The effects of slip condition and Joule heating on the peristaltic flow of Bingham nanofluid are investigated. The flow is taken in a porous channel with elastic walls. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. The transformed equations for the flow are solved to seek values for the nanoparticles velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length. Graphs are plotted to evaluate the behavior of various physical parameters on flow quantities in both slip and no-slip cases. The main features of the physical parameters are highlighted on the inclined non uniform channel. The results show an increment in velocity with rise in inclination and porosity while it reduces with magnetic field. Moreover, nanofluid favors the heat transfer and decline the concentration.}, } @article {pmid31417749, year = {2019}, author = {Lambert, WB and Stanek, MJ and Gurka, R and Hackett, EE}, title = {Leading-edge vortices over swept-back wings with varying sweep geometries.}, journal = {Royal Society open science}, volume = {6}, number = {7}, pages = {190514}, pmid = {31417749}, issn = {2054-5703}, abstract = {Micro air vehicles are used in a myriad of applications, such as transportation and surveying. Their performance can be improved through the study of wing designs and lift generation techniques including leading-edge vortices (LEVs). Observation of natural fliers, e.g. birds and bats, has shown that LEVs are a major contributor to lift during flapping flight, and the common swift (Apus apus) has been observed to generate LEVs during gliding flight. We hypothesize that nonlinear swept-back wings generate a vortex in the leading-edge region, which can augment the lift in a similar manner to linear swept-back wings (i.e. delta wing) during gliding flight. Particle image velocimetry experiments were performed in a water flume to compare flow over two wing geometries: one with a nonlinear sweep (swift-like wing) and one with a linear sweep (delta wing). Experiments were performed at three spanwise planes and three angles of attack at a chord-based Reynolds number of 26 000. Streamlines, vorticity, swirling strength, and Q-criterion were used to identify LEVs. The results show similar LEV characteristics for delta and swift-like wing geometries. These similarities suggest that sweep geometries other than a linear sweep (i.e. delta wing) are capable of creating LEVs during gliding flight.}, } @article {pmid31411455, year = {2020}, author = {Brown, AI and Sivak, DA}, title = {Theory of Nonequilibrium Free Energy Transduction by Molecular Machines.}, journal = {Chemical reviews}, volume = {120}, number = {1}, pages = {434-459}, doi = {10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00254}, pmid = {31411455}, issn = {1520-6890}, abstract = {Biomolecular machines are protein complexes that convert between different forms of free energy. They are utilized in nature to accomplish many cellular tasks. As isothermal nonequilibrium stochastic objects at low Reynolds number, they face a distinct set of challenges compared with more familiar human-engineered macroscopic machines. Here we review central questions in their performance as free energy transducers, outline theoretical and modeling approaches to understand these questions, identify both physical limits on their operational characteristics and design principles for improving performance, and discuss emerging areas of research.}, } @article {pmid31406979, year = {2019}, author = {Berg, O and Singh, K and Hall, MR and Schwaner, MJ and Müller, UK}, title = {Thermodynamics of the Bladderwort Feeding Strike-Suction Power from Elastic Energy Storage.}, journal = {Integrative and comparative biology}, volume = {59}, number = {6}, pages = {1597-1608}, doi = {10.1093/icb/icz144}, pmid = {31406979}, issn = {1557-7023}, mesh = {Biomechanical Phenomena ; Energy Transfer/*physiology ; *Food Chain ; Lamiales/*physiology ; Thermodynamics ; }, abstract = {The carnivorous plant bladderwort exemplifies the use of accumulated elastic energy to power motion: respiration-driven pumps slowly load the walls of its suction traps with elastic energy (∼1 h). During a feeding strike, this energy is released suddenly to accelerate water (∼1 ms). However, due to the traps' small size and concomitant low Reynolds number, a significant fraction of the stored energy may be dissipated as viscous friction. Such losses and the mechanical reversibility of Stokes flow are thought to degrade the feeding success of other suction feeders in this size range, such as larval fish. In contrast, triggered bladderwort traps are generally successful. By mapping the energy budget of a bladderwort feeding strike, we illustrate how this smallest of suction feeders can perform like an adult fish.}, } @article {pmid31394810, year = {2019}, author = {Alazzam, A and Al-Khaleel, M and Riahi, MK and Mathew, B and Gawanmeh, A and Nerguizian, V}, title = {Dielectrophoresis Multipath Focusing of Microparticles through Perforated Electrodes in Microfluidic Channels.}, journal = {Biosensors}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {}, pmid = {31394810}, issn = {2079-6374}, support = {CIRA-2019-014//Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research/ ; }, mesh = {Biosensing Techniques ; Electrodes ; Electrophoresis/methods ; Microfluidics/instrumentation/*methods ; *Models, Theoretical ; Particle Size ; Polystyrenes/analysis ; Silicon Dioxide/analysis ; }, abstract = {This paper presents focusing of microparticles in multiple paths within the direction of the flow using dielectrophoresis. The focusing of microparticles is realized through partially perforated electrodes within the microchannel. A continuous electrode on the top surface of the microchannel is considered, while the bottom side is made of a circular meshed perforated electrode. For the mathematical model of this microfluidic channel, inertia, buoyancy, drag and dielectrophoretic forces are brought up in the motion equation of the microparticles. The dielectrophoretic force is accounted for through a finite element discretization taking into account the perforated 3D geometry within the microchannel. An ordinary differential equation is solved to track the trajectories of the microparticles. For the case of continuous electrodes using the same mathematical model, the numerical simulation shows a very good agreement with the experiments, and this confirms the validation of focusing of microparticles within the proposed perforated electrode microchannel. Microparticles of silicon dioxide and polystyrene are used for this analysis. Their initial positions and radius, the Reynolds number, and the radius of the pore in perforated electrodes mainly conduct microparticles trajectories. Moreover, the radius of the pore of perforated electrode is the dominant factor in the steady state levitation height.}, } @article {pmid31386484, year = {2019}, author = {Samanta, T and Tian, H and Nakariakov, VM}, title = {Evidence for Vortex Shedding in the Sun's Hot Corona.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {123}, number = {3}, pages = {035102}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.035102}, pmid = {31386484}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {Vortex shedding is an oscillating flow that is commonly observed in fluids due to the presence of a blunt body in a flowing medium. Numerical simulations have shown that the phenomenon of vortex shedding could also develop in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) domain. The dimensionless Strouhal number, the ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the speed of a flowing medium, is a robust indicator for vortex shedding, and, generally of the order of 0.2 for a wide range of Reynolds number. Using an observation from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we report a wavelike or oscillating plasma flow propagating upward against the Sun's gravitational force. A newly formed shrinking loop in the postflare region possibly generates the oscillation of the upflow in the wake of the hot and dense loop through vortex shedding. The computed Strouhal number is consistent with the prediction from previous MHD simulations. Our observation suggests the possibility of vortex shedding in the solar corona.}, } @article {pmid31382385, year = {2019}, author = {Yu, X and Li, Y and Liu, Y and Yang, Y and Wu, Y}, title = {Flow Patterns of Viscoelastic Fracture Fluids in Porous Media: Influence of Pore-Throat Structures.}, journal = {Polymers}, volume = {11}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {31382385}, issn = {2073-4360}, support = {U1663206, 51704313, 51425406, 21706284//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 18CX02028A, 24720182146A//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; }, abstract = {Viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fluid and hydrolyzed polyacryamide (HPAM) solution are two of the most common fracturing fluids used in the hydraulic fracturing development of unconventional reservoirs. The filtration of fracturing fluids in porous media is mainly determined by the flow patterns in pore-throat structures. In this paper, three different microdevices analogue of porous media allow access to a large range of Deborah number (De) and concomitantly low Reynolds number (Re). Continuous pore-throat structures were applied to study the feedback effect of downstream structure on upstream flow of VES fluid and HPAM solution with Deborah (De) number from 1.11 to 146.4. In the infinite straight channel, flow patterns between VES fluids and HPAM solution were similar. However, as pore length shortened to 800 μm, flow field of VES fluid exhibited the triangle shape with double-peaks velocity patterns. The flow field of HPAM solution presented stable and centralized streamlines when Re was larger than 4.29 × 10-2. Additionally, when the pore length was further shortened to 400 μm, double-peaks velocity patterns were vanished for VES fluid and the stable convergent flow characteristic of HPAM solution was observed with all flow rates.}, } @article {pmid31380864, year = {2019}, author = {Feng, X and Ren, Y and Hou, L and Tao, Y and Jiang, T and Li, W and Jiang, H}, title = {Tri-fluid mixing in a microchannel for nanoparticle synthesis.}, journal = {Lab on a chip}, volume = {19}, number = {17}, pages = {2936-2946}, doi = {10.1039/c9lc00425d}, pmid = {31380864}, issn = {1473-0189}, abstract = {It is becoming more difficult to use bulk mixing and bi-fluid micromixing in multi-step continuous-flow reactions, multicomponent reactions, and nanoparticle synthesis because they typically involve multiple reactants. To date, most micromixing studies, both passive and active, have focused on how to efficiently mix two fluids, while micromixing of three or more fluids together (multi-fluid mixing) has been rarely explored. This study is the first on tri-fluid mixing in microchannels. We investigated tri-fluid mixing in three microchannel models: a straight channel, a classical staggered herringbone mixing (SHM) channel, and a three-dimensional (3D) X-crossing microchannel. Numerical simulations and experiments were jointly conducted. A two-step experimental process was performed to determine the tri-fluid mixing efficiencies of these microchannels. We found that the SHM cannot significantly enhance mixing of three streams especially for a Reynolds number (Re) higher than 10. However, the 3D X-crossing channel based on splitting-and-recombination (SAR) showed effective tri-mixing performance over a wide Re range up to 275 (with a corresponding flow rate of 1972.5 μL min-1), thereby enabling high microchannel throughput. Furthermore, this tri-fluid micromixing process was used to synthesize a kind of Si-based nanoparticle. This achieved a narrower particle size distribution than traditional bulk mixing. Therefore, SAR-based tri-fluid mixing is an alternative for chemical and biochemical reactions where three reactants need to be mixed.}, } @article {pmid31374925, year = {2019}, author = {Henein, C and Awwad, S and Ibeanu, N and Vlatakis, S and Brocchini, S and Tee Khaw, P and Bouremel, Y}, title = {Hydrodynamics of Intravitreal Injections into Liquid Vitreous Substitutes.}, journal = {Pharmaceutics}, volume = {11}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {31374925}, issn = {1999-4923}, support = {513211//NIHR Biomedical Research Centre/ ; }, abstract = {Intravitreal injections have become the cornerstone of retinal care and one of the most commonly performed procedures across all medical specialties. The impact of hydrodynamic forces of intravitreal solutions when injected into vitreous or vitreous substitutes has not been well described. While computational models do exist, they tend to underestimate the starting surface area of an injected bolus of a drug. Here, we report the dispersion profile of a dye bolus (50 µL) injected into different vitreous substitutes of varying viscosities, surface tensions, and volumetric densities. A novel 3D printed in vitro model of the vitreous cavity of the eye was designed to visualize the dispersion profile of solutions when injected into the following vitreous substitutes-balanced salt solution (BSS), sodium hyaluronate (HA), and silicone oils (SO)-using a 30G needle with a Reynolds number (Re) for injection ranging from approximately 189 to 677. Larger bolus surface areas were associated with faster injection speeds, lower viscosity of vitreous substitutes, and smaller difference in interfacial surface tensions. Boluses exhibited buoyancy when injected into standard S1000. The hydrodynamic properties of liquid vitreous substitutes influence the initial injected bolus dispersion profile and should be taken into account when simulating drug dispersion following intravitreal injection at a preclinical stage of development, to better inform formulations and performance.}, } @article {pmid31370481, year = {2019}, author = {Gvozdić, B and Dung, OY and van Gils, DPM and Bruggert, GH and Alméras, E and Sun, C and Lohse, D and Huisman, SG}, title = {Twente mass and heat transfer water tunnel: Temperature controlled turbulent multiphase channel flow with heat and mass transfer.}, journal = {The Review of scientific instruments}, volume = {90}, number = {7}, pages = {075117}, doi = {10.1063/1.5092967}, pmid = {31370481}, issn = {1089-7623}, abstract = {A new vertical water tunnel with global temperature control and the possibility for bubble and local heat and mass injection has been designed and constructed. The new facility offers the possibility to accurately study heat and mass transfer in turbulent multiphase flow (gas volume fraction up to 8%) with a Reynolds-number range from 1.5 × 104 to 3 × 105 in the case of water at room temperature. The tunnel is made of high-grade stainless steel permitting the use of salt solutions in excess of 15% mass fraction. The tunnel has a volume of 300 l. The tunnel has three interchangeable measurement sections of 1 m height but with different cross sections (0.3 × 0.04 m2, 0.3 × 0.06 m2, and 0.3 × 0.08 m2). The glass vertical measurement sections allow for optical access to the flow, enabling techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry, particle tracking velocimetry, and laser-induced fluorescent imaging. Local sensors can be introduced from the top and can be traversed using a built-in traverse system, allowing, for example, local temperature, hot-wire, or local phase measurements. Combined with simultaneous velocity measurements, the local heat flux in single phase and two phase turbulent flows can thus be studied quantitatively and precisely.}, } @article {pmid31369336, year = {2019}, author = {O'Neill, G and Tolley, NS}, title = {The complexities of nasal airflow: theory and practice.}, journal = {Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)}, volume = {127}, number = {5}, pages = {1215-1223}, doi = {10.1152/japplphysiol.01118.2018}, pmid = {31369336}, issn = {1522-1601}, mesh = {Humans ; *Inhalation ; *Models, Biological ; Turbinates/*physiology ; }, abstract = {The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nasal valve area, valve stiffness, and turbinate region cross-sectional area on airflow rate, nasal resistance, flow limitation, and inspiratory "hysteresis" by the use of a mathematical model of nasal airflow. The model of O'Neill and Tolley (Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 13: 273-277, 1988) describing the effects of valve area and stiffness on the nasal pressure-flow relationship was improved by the incorporation of additional terms involving 1) airflow through the turbinate region, 2) the dependence of the flow coefficients for the valve and turbinate region on the Reynolds number, and 3) effects of unsteady flow. The model was found to provide a good fit for normal values for nasal resistance and for pressure-flow curves reported in the literature for both congested and decongested states. Also, by showing the relative contribution of the nasal valve and turbinate region to nasal resistance, the model sheds light in explaining the generally poor correlation between nasal resistance measurements and the results from acoustic rhinometry. Furthermore, by proposing different flow conditions for the acceleration and deceleration phases of inspiration, the model produces an inspiratory loop (commonly referred to as hysteresis) consistent with those reported in the literature. With simulation of nasal flaring, the magnitude of the loop, the nasal resistance, and flow limitation all show change similar to that observed in the experimental results.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present model provides considerable insight into some difficult conundrums in both clinical and technical aspects of nasal airflow. Also, the description of nasal airflow mechanics based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Reynolds laminar-turbulent transition in long straight tubes, which has figured prominently in medical textbooks and journal articles for many years, is shown to be seriously in error at a fundamental level.}, } @article {pmid31363000, year = {2019}, author = {R Ferreira, R and Fukui, H and Chow, R and Vilfan, A and Vermot, J}, title = {The cilium as a force sensor-myth versus reality.}, journal = {Journal of cell science}, volume = {132}, number = {14}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jcs.213496}, pmid = {31363000}, issn = {1477-9137}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Cilia/*physiology ; Humans ; Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Organ Specificity ; Rheology ; }, abstract = {Cells need to sense their mechanical environment during the growth of developing tissues and maintenance of adult tissues. The concept of force-sensing mechanisms that act through cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions is now well established and accepted. Additionally, it is widely believed that force sensing can be mediated through cilia. Yet, this hypothesis is still debated. By using primary cilia sensing as a paradigm, we describe the physical requirements for cilium-mediated mechanical sensing and discuss the different hypotheses of how this could work. We review the different mechanosensitive channels within the cilium, their potential mode of action and their biological implications. In addition, we describe the biological contexts in which cilia are acting - in particular, the left-right organizer - and discuss the challenges to discriminate between cilium-mediated chemosensitivity and mechanosensitivity. Throughout, we provide perspectives on how quantitative analysis and physics-based arguments might help to better understand the biological mechanisms by which cells use cilia to probe their mechanical environment.}, } @article {pmid31359287, year = {2020}, author = {Jain, K}, title = {Transition to turbulence in an oscillatory flow through stenosis.}, journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology}, volume = {19}, number = {1}, pages = {113-131}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-019-01199-1}, pmid = {31359287}, issn = {1617-7940}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; Computer Simulation ; Constriction, Pathologic ; Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted ; Pressure ; *Rheology ; }, abstract = {Onset of flow transition in a sinusoidally oscillating flow through a rigid, constant area circular pipe with a smooth sinusoidal obstruction in the center of the pipe is studied by performing direct numerical simulations, with resolutions close to the Kolmogorov microscales. The studied pipe is stenosed in the center with a 75% reduction in area in two distinct configurations-one that is symmetric to the axis of the parent pipe and the other that is offset by 0.05 diameters to introduce an eccentricity, which disturbs the flow thereby triggering the onset of flow transition. The critical Reynolds number at which the flow transitions to turbulence for a zero-mean oscillatory flow through a stenosis is shown to be nearly tripled in comparison with studies of pulsating unidirectional flow through the same stenosis. The onset of transition is further explored with three different flow pulsation frequencies resulting in a total of 90 simulations conducted on a supercomputer. It is found that the critical Reynolds number at which the oscillatory flow transitions is not affected by the pulsation frequencies. The locations of flow breakdown and re-stabilization post-stenosis are, however, respectively shifted closer to the stenosis throat with increasing pulsation frequencies. The results show that oscillatory physiological flows, while more stable, exhibit fluctuations due to geometric complexity and have implications in studies of dispersion and solute transport in the cerebrospinal fluid flow and understanding of pathological conditions.}, } @article {pmid31345119, year = {2020}, author = {Krishnam, U and Sharma, V and Jha, PK}, title = {The Reynolds number modulated low frequency dynamical modes of aqueous medium embedded spherical virus and implications to detecting and killing viruses.}, journal = {Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics}, volume = {38}, number = {10}, pages = {3123-3129}, doi = {10.1080/07391102.2019.1648320}, pmid = {31345119}, issn = {1538-0254}, mesh = {Homicide ; *Viruses ; Water ; }, } @article {pmid33267453, year = {2019}, author = {Ma, H and Duan, Z and Su, L and Ning, X and Bai, J and Lv, X}, title = {Fluid Flow and Entropy Generation Analysis of Al2O3-Water Nanofluid in Microchannel Plate Fin Heat Sinks.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {8}, pages = {}, pmid = {33267453}, issn = {1099-4300}, support = {2019YJS155//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; }, abstract = {The flow in channels of microdevices is usually in the developing regime. Three-dimensional laminar flow characteristics of a nanofluid in microchannel plate fin heat sinks are investigated numerically in this paper. Deionized water and Al2O3-water nanofluid are employed as the cooling fluid in our work. The effects of the Reynolds number (100 < Re < 1000), channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1), and nanoparticle volume fraction (0.5% < Φ < 5%) on pressure drop and entropy generation in microchannel plate fin heat sinks are examined in detail. Herein, the general expression of the entropy generation rate considering entrance effects is developed. The results revealed that the frictional entropy generation and pressure drop increase as nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynolds number increase, while decrease as the channel aspect ratio increases. When the nanoparticle volume fraction increases from 0 to 3% at Re = 500, the pressure drop of microchannel plate fin heat sinks with ε = 0.5 increases by 9%. It is demonstrated that the effect of the entrance region is crucial for evaluating the performance of microchannel plate fin heat sinks. The study may shed some light on the design and optimization of microchannel heat sinks.}, } @article {pmid31342935, year = {2019}, author = {Liu, G and Xue, Q and Zheng, X}, title = {Phase-difference on seal whisker surface induces hairpin vortices in the wake to suppress force oscillation.}, journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics}, volume = {14}, number = {6}, pages = {066001}, doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab34fe}, pmid = {31342935}, issn = {1748-3190}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomimetics/*instrumentation ; Hydrodynamics ; Models, Biological ; Phoca/*physiology ; Vibrissae/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Seals are able to use their uniquely shaped whiskers to track hydrodynamic trails generated 30 s ago and detect hydrodynamic velocities as low as 245 [Formula: see text]m s-1. The high sensibility has long thought to be related to the wavy shape of the whiskers. This work revisited the hydrodynamics of a seal whisker model in a uniform flow, and discovered a new mechanism of seal whiskers in reducing self-induced noises, which is different from the long thought-of effect of the wavy shape. It was reported that the major and minor axes of the elliptical cross-sections of seal whisker are out of phase by approximately 180 degrees. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of laminar flow (Reynolds number range: 150-500) around seal-whisker-like cylinders were performed to examine the effect of the phase-difference on hydrodynamic forces and wake structures. It was found that the phase-difference induced hairpin vortices in the wake over a wide range of geometric and flow parameters (wavelength, wavy amplitude and Reynolds number), therefore substantially reducing lift-oscillations and self-induced noises. The formation mechanism of the hairpin vortices was analyzed and is discussed in details. The results provide valuable insights into an innovative vibration reduction and hydrodynamic sensing mechanism.}, } @article {pmid31330717, year = {2019}, author = {Jian, X and Zhang, W and Deng, Q and Huang, Y}, title = {Turbulent lithosphere deformation in the Tibetan Plateau.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {99}, number = {6-1}, pages = {062122}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.062122}, pmid = {31330717}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {In this work, we show that the Tibetan Plateau deformation demonstrates turbulence-like statistics, e.g., spatial invariance across continuous scales. A dual-power-law behavior is evident to show the existence of two possible conservation laws for the enstrophy-like cascade in the range 500≲r≲2000km and kinetic-energy-like cascade in the range 50≲r≲500km. The measured second-order structure-function scaling exponents ζ(2) are similar to their counterparts in the Fourier scaling exponents observed in the atmosphere, where in the latter case the earth's rotation is relevant. The turbulent statistics observed here for nearly zero-Reynolds-number flow can be interpreted by the geostrophic turbulence theory. Moreover, the intermittency correction is recognized with an intensity close to that of the hydrodynamic turbulence of high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows, implying a universal scaling feature of very different turbulent flows. Our results not only shed new light on the debate regarding the mechanism of the Tibetan Plateau deformation but also lead to new challenges for the geodynamic modeling using Newton or non-Newtonian models because the observed turbulence-like features have to be taken into account.}, } @article {pmid31318280, year = {2019}, author = {Dölger, J and Kiørboe, T and Andersen, A}, title = {Dense Dwarfs versus Gelatinous Giants: The Trade-Offs and Physiological Limits Determining the Body Plan of Planktonic Filter Feeders.}, journal = {The American naturalist}, volume = {194}, number = {2}, pages = {E30-E40}, doi = {10.1086/703656}, pmid = {31318280}, issn = {1537-5323}, mesh = {Animals ; Body Composition/*physiology ; Body Size ; Energy Metabolism ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Models, Theoretical ; Predatory Behavior ; Zooplankton/*physiology ; }, abstract = {Most marine plankton have a high energy (carbon) density, but some are gelatinous with approximately 100 times more watery bodies. How do those distinctly different body plans emerge, and what are the trade-offs? We address this question by modeling the energy budget of planktonic filter feeders across life-forms, from micron-sized unicellular microbes such as choanoflagellates to centimeter-sized gelatinous tunicates such as salps. We find two equally successful strategies, one being small with high energy density (dense dwarf) and the other being large with low energy density (gelatinous giant). The constraint that forces large-but not small-filter feeders to be gelatinous is identified as a lower limit to the size-specific filter area, below which the energy costs lead to starvation. A further limit is found from the maximum size-specific motor force that restricts the access to optimum strategies. The quantified constraints are discussed in the context of other resource-acquisition strategies. We argue that interception feeding strategies can be accessed by large organisms only if they are gelatinous. On the other hand, organisms that use remote prey sensing do not need to be gelatinous, even if they are large.}, } @article {pmid31315935, year = {2019}, author = {Samson, JE and Miller, LA and Ray, D and Holzman, R and Shavit, U and Khatri, S}, title = {A novel mechanism of mixing by pulsing corals.}, journal = {The Journal of experimental biology}, volume = {222}, number = {Pt 15}, pages = {}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.192518}, pmid = {31315935}, issn = {1477-9145}, mesh = {Animals ; Anthozoa/*physiology ; *Hydrodynamics ; Models, Theoretical ; Rheology ; Video Recording ; Water Movements ; }, abstract = {The dynamic pulsation of xeniid corals is one of the most fascinating phenomena observed in coral reefs. We quantify for the first time the flow near the tentacles of these soft corals, the active pulsations of which are thought to enhance their symbionts' photosynthetic rates by up to an order of magnitude. These polyps are approximately 1 cm in diameter and pulse at frequencies between approximately 0.5 and 1 Hz. As a result, the frequency-based Reynolds number calculated using the tentacle length and pulse frequency is on the order of 10 and rapidly decays as with distance from the polyp. This introduces the question of how these corals minimize the reversibility of the flow and bring in new volumes of fluid during each pulse. We estimate the Péclet number of the bulk flow generated by the coral as being on the order of 100-1000 whereas the flow between the bristles of the tentacles is on the order of 10. This illustrates the importance of advective transport in removing oxygen waste. Flow measurements using particle image velocimetry reveal that the individual polyps generate a jet of water with positive vertical velocities that do not go below 0.1 cm s-1 and with average volumetric flow rates of approximately 0.71 cm3 s-1 Our results show that there is nearly continual flow in the radial direction towards the polyp with only approximately 3.3% back flow. 3D numerical simulations uncover a region of slow mixing between the tentacles during expansion. We estimate that the average flow that moves through the bristles of the tentacles is approximately 0.03 cm s-1 The combination of nearly continual flow towards the polyp, slow mixing between the bristles, and the subsequent ejection of this fluid volume into an upward jet ensures the polyp continually samples new water with sufficient time for exchange to occur.}, } @article {pmid31314164, year = {2019}, author = {Liao, P and Xing, L and Zhang, S and Sun, D}, title = {Magnetically Driven Undulatory Microswimmers Integrating Multiple Rigid Segments.}, journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)}, volume = {15}, number = {36}, pages = {e1901197}, doi = {10.1002/smll.201901197}, pmid = {31314164}, issn = {1613-6829}, mesh = {Biosensing Techniques/methods ; Holography/methods ; Lasers ; Locomotion ; Microtechnology/*methods ; *Robotics ; }, abstract = {Mimicking biological locomotion strategies offers important possibilities and motivations for robot design and control methods. Among bioinspired microrobots, flexible microrobots exhibit remarkable efficiency and agility. These microrobots traditionally rely on soft material components to achieve undulatory propulsion, which may encounter challenges in design and manufacture including the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of rigid and soft components. Herein, a bioinspired magnetically driven microswimmer that mimics the undulatory propulsive mechanism is proposed. The designed microswimmer consists of four rigid segments, and each segment is connected to the succeeding segment by joints. The microswimmer is fabricated integrally by 3D laser lithography without further assembly, thereby simplifying microrobot fabrication while enhancing structural integrity. Experimental results show that the microswimmer can successfully swim forward along guided directions via undulatory locomotion in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. This work demonstrates for the first time that the flexible characteristic of microswimmers can be emulated by 3D structures with multiple rigid segments, which broadens possibilities in microrobot design. The proposed magnetically driven microswimmer can potentially be used in biomedical applications, such as medical diagnosis and treatment in precision medicine.}, } @article {pmid31300927, year = {2019}, author = {Hoell, C and Löwen, H and Menzel, AM and Daddi-Moussa-Ider, A}, title = {Creeping motion of a solid particle inside a spherical elastic cavity: II. Asymmetric motion.}, journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter}, volume = {42}, number = {7}, pages = {89}, pmid = {31300927}, issn = {1292-895X}, abstract = {An analytical method is proposed for computing the low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic mobility function of a small colloidal particle asymmetrically moving inside a large spherical elastic cavity, the membrane of which is endowed with resistance toward shear and bending. In conjunction with the results obtained in the first part (A. Daddi-Moussa-Ider, H. Löwen, S. Gekle, Eur. Phys. J. E 41, 104 (2018)), in which the axisymmetric motion normal to the surface of an elastic cavity is investigated, the general motion for an arbitrary force direction can now be addressed. The elastohydrodynamic problem is formulated and solved using the classic method of images through expressing the hydrodynamic flow fields as a multipole expansion involving higher-order derivatives of the free-space Green's function. In the quasi-steady limit, we demonstrate that the particle self-mobility function of a particle moving tangent to the surface of the cavity is larger than that predicted inside a rigid stationary cavity of equal size. This difference is justified by the fact that a stationary rigid cavity introduces additional hindrance to the translational motion of the encapsulated particle, resulting in a reduction of its hydrodynamic mobility. Furthermore, the motion of the cavity is investigated, revealing that the translational pair (composite) mobility, which linearly couples the velocity of the elastic cavity to the force exerted on the solid particle, is solely determined by membrane shear properties. Our analytical predictions are favorably compared with fully-resolved computer simulations based on a completed-double-layer boundary integral method.}, } @article {pmid31299253, year = {2019}, author = {Novelli, GL and Ferrari, LA and Vargas, GG and Loureiro, BV}, title = {A synergistic analysis of drag reduction on binary polymer mixtures containing guar gum.}, journal = {International journal of biological macromolecules}, volume = {137}, number = {}, pages = {1121-1129}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.042}, pmid = {31299253}, issn = {1879-0003}, mesh = {Acrylic Resins/*chemistry ; Feasibility Studies ; Galactans/*chemistry ; Mannans/*chemistry ; Molecular Weight ; *Motion ; Plant Gums/*chemistry ; Polyethylene Glycols/*chemistry ; Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemistry ; Rheology ; Rotation ; Shear Strength ; }, abstract = {Drag reduction by the addition of polymer additives has been widely studied. However, there are only a few studies on binary polymer mixtures, here named blends. In this work, xanthan gum, polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene oxide) were associated with guar gum and drag reduction was used as a parameter to determine the synergistic interaction between polymers. The aim was to verify the relation of the synergy with the rigidity of the polymeric chains, the molecular weights and the magnitude of the molecular interactions between the studied polymers. To that end, several ratios of mixtures were tested at different Reynolds numbers in a rotational rheometer with double-gap concentric cylinders geometry. Finally, experiments were done to verify the behaviour of the blends over time at a fixed Reynolds number. From all these tests, it was documented that blends containing rigid chain polymers show positive synergism in the interaction in at least one of the ratios and that this interaction is more pronounced when the molecular weights are closer and intermolecular forces are stronger. It was also noted that, in general, blends are great substitutes for solutions containing only one type of polymer.}, } @article {pmid31294955, year = {2019}, author = {Mazinani, S and Al-Shimmery, A and Chew, YMJ and Mattia, D}, title = {3D Printed Fouling-Resistant Composite Membranes.}, journal = {ACS applied materials & interfaces}, volume = {11}, number = {29}, pages = {26373-26383}, doi = {10.1021/acsami.9b07764}, pmid = {31294955}, issn = {1944-8252}, abstract = {Fouling remains a long-standing unsolved problem that hinders the widespread use of membrane applications in industry. This article reports the use of numerical simulations coupled with extensive material synthesis and characterization to fabricate fouling-resistant 3D printed composite membranes. The membranes consist of a thin polyethersulfone selective layer deposited onto a 3D printed flat and double sinusoidal (wavy) support. Fouling and cleaning of the composite membranes were tested by using bovine serum albumin solution in a cross-flow ultrafiltration setup. The transmembrane pressure was regulated at 1 bar and the cross-flow Reynolds number (Re) varied between 400 and 1000. In comparison to the flat membrane, the wavy membrane showed superior performance in terms of pure water permeance (PWP) (10% higher) and permeance recovery ratio (87% vs 53%) after the first filtration cycle at Re = 1000. Prolong testing showed that the wavy membrane could retain approximately 87% of its initial PWP after 10 complete filtration cycles. This impressive fouling-resistant behavior is attributed to the localized fluid turbulence induced by the 3D printed wavy structure. These results show that not only the lifetime of membrane operations could be favorably extended but also the operational costs and environmental damage of membrane-based processes could also be significantly reduced.}, } @article {pmid33267389, year = {2019}, author = {Lee, TW}, title = {Maximum Entropy Method for Solving the Turbulent Channel Flow Problem.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {7}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e21070675}, pmid = {33267389}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {There are two components in this work that allow for solutions of the turbulent channel flow problem: One is the Galilean-transformed Navier-Stokes equation which gives a theoretical expression for the Reynolds stress (u'v'); and the second the maximum entropy principle which provides the spatial distribution of turbulent kinetic energy. The first concept transforms the momentum balance for a control volume moving at the local mean velocity, breaking the momentum exchange down to its basic components, u'v', u'2, pressure and viscous forces. The Reynolds stress gradient budget confirms this alternative interpretation of the turbulence momentum balance, as validated with DNS data. The second concept of maximum entropy principle states that turbulent kinetic energy in fully-developed flows will distribute itself until the maximum entropy is attained while conforming to the physical constraints. By equating the maximum entropy state with maximum allowable (viscous) dissipation at a given Reynolds number, along with other constraints, we arrive at function forms (inner and outer) for the turbulent kinetic energy. This allows us to compute the Reynolds stress, then integrate it to obtain the velocity profiles in channel flows. The results agree well with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data at Reτ = 400 and 1000.}, } @article {pmid31283274, year = {2019}, author = {Chajwa, R and Menon, N and Ramaswamy, S}, title = {Kepler Orbits in Pairs of Disks Settling in a Viscous Fluid.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {122}, number = {22}, pages = {224501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.224501}, pmid = {31283274}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {We show experimentally that a pair of disks settling at negligible Reynolds number (∼10^{-4} ) displays two classes of bound periodic orbits, each with transitions to scattering states. We account for these dynamics, at leading far-field order, through an effective Hamiltonian in which gravitational driving endows orientation with the properties of momentum. This treatment is successfully compared against the measured properties of orbits and critical parameters of transitions between types of orbits. We demonstrate a precise correspondence with the Kepler problem of planetary motion for a wide range of initial conditions, find and account for a family of orbits with no Keplerian analog, and highlight the role of orientation as momentum in the many-disk problem.}, } @article {pmid31266939, year = {2019}, author = {Ren, Z and Hu, W and Dong, X and Sitti, M}, title = {Multi-functional soft-bodied jellyfish-like swimming.}, journal = {Nature communications}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {2703}, pmid = {31266939}, issn = {2041-1723}, mesh = {Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Elastomers/chemistry ; *Equipment Design ; Locomotion ; Magnetics/instrumentation ; Robotics/*instrumentation ; Scyphozoa/*physiology ; Swimming ; }, abstract = {The functionalities of the untethered miniature swimming robots significantly decrease as the robot size becomes smaller, due to limitations of feasible miniaturized on-board components. Here we propose an untethered jellyfish-inspired soft millirobot that could realize multiple functionalities in moderate Reynolds number by producing diverse controlled fluidic flows around its body using its magnetic composite elastomer lappets, which are actuated by an external oscillating magnetic field. We particularly investigate the interaction between the robot's soft body and incurred fluidic flows due to the robot's body motion, and utilize such physical interaction to achieve different predation-inspired object manipulation tasks. The proposed lappet kinematics can inspire other existing jellyfish-like robots to achieve similar functionalities at the same length and time scale. Moreover, the robotic platform could be used to study the impacts of the morphology and kinematics changing in ephyra jellyfish.}, } @article {pmid31236828, year = {2019}, author = {Klusak, E and Quinlan, NJ}, title = {High-Resolution Measurements of Leakage Flow Inside the Hinge of a Large-scale Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Hinge Model.}, journal = {Cardiovascular engineering and technology}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {469-481}, doi = {10.1007/s13239-019-00423-4}, pmid = {31236828}, issn = {1869-4098}, mesh = {Blood Flow Velocity ; *Heart Valve Prosthesis ; Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects/*instrumentation ; *Hemodynamics ; Humans ; Materials Testing ; Prosthesis Design ; Stress, Mechanical ; Thrombosis/etiology/physiopathology ; }, abstract = {PURPOSE: It is believed that non-physiological leakage flow through hinge gaps during diastole contributes to thrombus formation in Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves (BMHVs). Because of the small scale and difficulty of experimental access, fluid dynamics inside the hinge cavity has not yet been characterised in detail. The objective is to investigate small-scale structure inside the hinge experimentally, and gain insight into its role in stimulating cellular responses.

METHODS: An optically accessible scaled-up model of a BMHV hinge was designed and built, preserving dynamic similarity to a clinical BMHV. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and quantify the flow fields inside the hinge at physiological Reynolds number and dimensionless pressure drop. The flow was measured at in-plane and out-of-plane spatial resolution of 32 and 86 μm, respectively, and temporal resolution of [Formula: see text] RESULTS: Likely flow separation on the ventricular surface of the cavity has been observed for the first time, and is a source of unsteadiness and perhaps turbulence. The shear stress found in all planes exceeds the threshold of platelet activation, ranging up to 168 Pa.

CONCLUSIONS: The scale-up approach provided new insight into the nature of the hinge flow and enhanced understanding of its complexity. This study revealed flow features that may induce blood element damage.}, } @article {pmid31236057, year = {2019}, author = {Cafiero, G and Vassilicos, JC}, title = {Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings and self-similarity in turbulent planar jets.}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences}, volume = {475}, number = {2225}, pages = {20190038}, pmid = {31236057}, issn = {1364-5021}, abstract = {We study the self-similarity and dissipation scalings of a turbulent planar jet and the theoretically implied mean flow scalings. Unlike turbulent wakes where such studies have already been carried out (Dairay et al. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 781, 166-198. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.493); Obligado et al. 2016 Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 044409. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.044409)), this is a boundary-free turbulent shear flow where the local Reynolds number increases with distance from inlet. The Townsend-George theory revised by (Dairay et al. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 781, 166-198. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.493)) is applied to turbulent planar jets. Only a few profiles need to be self-similar in this theory. The self-similarity of mean flow, turbulence dissipation, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress profiles is supported by our experimental results from 18 to at least 54 nozzle sizes, the furthermost location investigated in this work. Furthermore, the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling found in turbulent wakes, decaying grid-generated turbulence, various instances of periodic turbulence and turbulent boundary layers (Dairay et al. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 781, 166-198. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.493); Vassilicos 2015 Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 95, 114. (doi:10.1146/annurev-fluid-010814-014637); Goto & Vassilicos 2015 Phys. Lett. A 3790, 1144-1148. (doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2015.02.025); Nedic et al. 2017 Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 032601. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.032601)) is also observed in the present turbulent planar jet and in the turbulent planar jet of (Antonia et al. 1980 Phys. Fluids 23, 863055. (doi:10.1063/1.863055)). Given these observations, the theory implies new mean flow and jet width scalings which are found to be consistent with our data and the data of (Antonia et al. 1980 Phys. Fluids 23, 863055. (doi:10.1063/1.863055)). In particular, it implies a hitherto unknown entrainment behaviour: the ratio of characteristic cross-stream to centreline streamwise mean flow velocities decays as the -1/3 power of streamwise distance in the region, where the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling holds.}, } @article {pmid31229600, year = {2019}, author = {Garwood, RJ and Behnsen, J and Haysom, HK and Hunt, JN and Dalby, LJ and Quilter, SK and Maclaine, JS and Cox, JPL}, title = {Olfactory flow in the sturgeon is externally driven.}, journal = {Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology}, volume = {235}, number = {}, pages = {211-225}, doi = {10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.06.013}, pmid = {31229600}, issn = {1531-4332}, mesh = {Animals ; Computer Simulation ; Fishes/*physiology ; Models, Anatomic ; Nasal Cavity/physiology ; Nose/*physiology ; *Odorants ; Smell/*physiology ; Swimming/physiology ; }, abstract = {Fluid dynamics plays an important part in olfaction. Using the complementary techniques of dye visualisation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we investigated the hydrodynamics of the nasal region of the sturgeon Huso dauricus. H. dauricus offers several experimental advantages, including a well-developed, well-supported, radial array (rosette) of visible-by-eye olfactory sensory channels. We represented these features in an anatomically accurate rigid model derived from an X-ray scan of the head of a preserved museum specimen. We validated the results from the CFD simulation by comparing them with data from the dye visualisation experiments. We found that flow through both the nasal chamber and, crucially, the sensory channels could be induced by an external flow (caused by swimming in vivo) at a physiologically relevant Reynolds number. Flow through the nasal chamber arises from the anatomical arrangement of the incurrent and excurrent nostrils, and is assisted by the broad, cartilage-supported, inner wall of the incurrent nostril. Flow through the sensory channels arises when relatively high speed flow passing through the incurrent nostril encounters the circular central support of the olfactory rosette, decelerates, and is dispersed amongst the sensory channels. Vortices within the olfactory flow may assist odorant transport to the sensory surfaces. We conclude that swimming alone is sufficient to drive olfactory flow in H. dauricus, and consider the implications of our results for the three other extant genera of sturgeons (Acipenser, Pseudoscaphirhynchus and Scaphirhynchus), and for other fishes with olfactory rosettes.}, } @article {pmid31215548, year = {2019}, author = {Man, Y and Kanso, E}, title = {Morphological transitions of axially-driven microfilaments.}, journal = {Soft matter}, volume = {15}, number = {25}, pages = {5163-5173}, doi = {10.1039/c8sm02397b}, pmid = {31215548}, issn = {1744-6848}, mesh = {Actin Cytoskeleton/*metabolism ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Elasticity ; *Models, Molecular ; }, abstract = {The interactions of microtubules with motor proteins are ubiquitous in cellular and sub-cellular processes that involve motility and cargo transport. In vitro motility assays have demonstrated that motor-driven microtubules exhibit rich dynamical behaviors from straight to curved configurations. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamic instabilities of elastic filaments, with free-ends, driven by single follower forces that emulate the action of molecular motors. Using the resistive force theory at low Reynolds number, and a combination of numerical techniques with linear stability analysis, we show the existence of four distinct regimes of filament behavior, including a novel buckled state with locked curvature. These successive instabilities recapitulate the full range of experimentally-observed microtubule behavior, implying that neither structural nor actuation asymmetry are needed to elicit this rich repertoire of motion.}, } @article {pmid31212518, year = {2019}, author = {He, G and Wang, J and Rinoshika, A}, title = {Orthogonal wavelet multiresolution analysis of the turbulent boundary layer measured with two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {99}, number = {5-1}, pages = {053105}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.053105}, pmid = {31212518}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The turbulent boundary layer flow measured by two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry is analyzed using the discrete orthogonal wavelet method. The Reynolds number of the turbulent boundary layer based on the friction velocity is Re_{τ} =235. The flow field is decomposed into a number of wavelet levels which have different characteristic scales. The velocity statistics and coherent structures at different wavelet levels are investigated. It is found that the fluctuation intensities and their peak locations differ for varying scales. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of different wavelet components reveals a cascade of scales of coherent structures, especially the small-scale ones that are usually difficult to be identified in POD modes of the undecomposed flow field. The interactions among the scales are investigated in terms of large-scale amplitude modulations of the small-scale structures. In previous studies the velocity fluctuations are separated into two parts, the large scale and the small scale, divided usually by the boundary layer thickness. In the present study, however, the scales smaller than the boundary layer thickness are further separated. Therefore, the modulation analysis is a refined investigation that differentiates the modulation effects on separated small scales. The results reveal that the modulation effects vary among the small scales.}, } @article {pmid31212497, year = {2019}, author = {Puljiz, M and Menzel, AM}, title = {Displacement field around a rigid sphere in a compressible elastic environment, corresponding higher-order Faxén relations, as well as higher-order displaceability and rotateability matrices.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {99}, number = {5-1}, pages = {053002}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.053002}, pmid = {31212497}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {An efficient route to the displacement field around a rigid spherical inclusion in an infinitely extended homogeneous elastic medium is presented in a slightly alternative way when compared to some common textbook methods. Moreover, two Faxén relations of next-higher order beyond the stresslet are calculated explicitly for compressible media. They quantify higher-order moments involving the force distribution on a rigid spherical particle in a deformed elastic medium. As a consequence, additional contributions to the distortions of the deformed elastic medium are identified that are absent to lower order. Furthermore, the displaceability and rotateability matrices for an ensemble of rigid spheres are calculated up to (including) sixth order in inverse particle separation distance. These matrices describe the interactions mediated between the rigid embedded particles by the elastic environment. In this way, additional coupling effects are identified that are absent to lower order, particularly when rotations and torques are involved. All methods and results can formally be transferred to the corresponding case of incompressible hydrodynamic low-Reynolds-number Stokes flow by considering the limit of an incompressible environment. The roles of compressibility of the embedding medium and of the here additionally derived higher-order contributions are highlighted by some selected example configurations.}, } @article {pmid31212461, year = {2019}, author = {Nie, D and Lin, J}, title = {Discontinuity in the sedimentation system with two particles having different densities in a vertical channel.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {99}, number = {5-1}, pages = {053112}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.053112}, pmid = {31212461}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {The two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method was used to numerically study a sedimentation system with two particles having different densities in a vertical channel for Galileo numbers in the range of 5≤Ga≤15 (resulting in a Reynolds number, based on the settling velocity, approximately ranging between 0.6 and 7). Two types of periodic motion, differing from each other in terms of the size of the limit cycle, the magnitude of the time period, and their changes upon increasing the density difference between particles, are identified depending on whether there is a wake effect. The most prominent features of this system are discontinuous changes in the settling velocity (6.7≤Ga<9.7) and time period of oscillation (10.5≤Ga≤15) at a critical value of the density difference between particles. The first discontinuity results in an abrupt increase in the Reynolds number, associated with a Hopf bifurcation without the presence of vortex shedding. The second discontinuity is accompanied by the disappearance of "abnormal rotation" (referring to the situation in which a particle appears to roll up a wall when settling) of the heavy particle, which directly results from a sharp increase in the amplitude of oscillation induced by the enhanced wake effect at another critical density difference between particles. The wall effects on these discontinuous changes were also examined.}, } @article {pmid31212451, year = {2019}, author = {Wang, L and Tian, FB}, title = {Numerical simulation of flow over a parallel cantilevered flag in the vicinity of a rigid wall.}, journal = {Physical review. E}, volume = {99}, number = {5-1}, pages = {053111}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.053111}, pmid = {31212451}, issn = {2470-0053}, abstract = {Flow over a parallel cantilevered flag in the vicinity of a rigid wall is numerically studied using an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) in two-dimensional domain, where the dynamics of the fluid and structure are, respectively, solved by the LBM and a finite-element method (FEM), with a penalty IB to handle the fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Specifically, a benchmark case considering a plate attached to the downstream of a stationary cylinder is first conducted to validate the current solver. Then, the wall effects on the flag are systemically studied, considering the effects of off-wall distance, structure-to-fluid mass ratio, bending rigidity, and Reynolds number. Three flapping modes, including symmetrical flapping, asymmetrical flapping, and chaotic flapping, along with a steady state are observed in the simulations. It is found that the flag is vibrating or stable with a mean angle inclined in the fluid when it is mounted in the vicinity of a rigid wall. The mean inclined angle first increases in the steady state and then decreases in the unsteady state with the off-wall distance. In the unsteady regime, the dependency of the inclined angle on the off-wall distance is similar to that of the gradient of the fluid velocity. In addition, the rigid wall near the flag decreases the lift and drag generation and further stabilizes the flag-fluid system. Contrarily, the flag inertia destabilizes the flag, and large flag inertia induces chaotic vibrating modes.}, } @article {pmid31207995, year = {2019}, author = {Zhang, H and Li, X and Chuai, R and Zhang, Y}, title = {Chaotic Micromixer Based on 3D Horseshoe Transformation.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {31207995}, issn = {2072-666X}, support = {20180550950//Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning/ ; }, abstract = {To improve the efficiency of mixing under laminar flow with a low Reynolds number (Re), a novel three-dimensional Horseshoe Transformation (3D HT) was proposed as the basis for the design of a micromixer. Compared with the classical HT, the Lyapunov exponent of the 3D HT, which was calculated based on a symbolic dynamic system, proved the chaotic enhancement. Based on the 3D HT, a micromixer with a mixing length of 12 mm containing six mixing units was obtained by sequentially applying "squeeze", "stretch", "twice fold", "inverse transformation", and "intersection" operations. Numerical simulation and Peclet Number (Pe) calculations indicated that when the squeeze amplitude 0 < α < 1/2, 0 < β < 1/2, the stretch amplitude γ > 4, and Re ≥ 1, the mass transfer in the mixer was dominated by convective diffusion induced by chaotic flow. When Re = 10, at the outlet of the mixing chamber, the simulated mixing index was 96.4%, which was far less than the value at Re = 0.1 (σ = 0.041). Microscope images of the mixing chamber and the curve trend of pH buffer solutions obtained from a mixing experiment were both consistent with the results of the simulation. When Re = 10, the average mixing index of the pH buffer solutions was 91.75%, which proved the excellent mixing efficiency of the mixer based on the 3D HT.}, } @article {pmid31206776, year = {2019}, author = {Belut, E and Sánchez Jiménez, A and Meyer-Plath, A and Koivisto, AJ and Koponen, IK and Jensen, ACØ and MacCalman, L and Tuinman, I and Fransman, W and Domat, M and Bivolarova, M and van Tongeren, M}, title = {Indoor dispersion of airborne nano and fine particles: Main factors affecting spatial and temporal distribution in the frame of exposure modeling.}, journal = {Indoor air}, volume = {29}, number = {5}, pages = {803-816}, doi = {10.1111/ina.12579}, pmid = {31206776}, issn = {1600-0668}, mesh = {Aerosols/*analysis ; Air Pollutants/*analysis ; Air Pollution, Indoor/*analysis ; Environmental Monitoring ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Nanoparticles ; Particle Size ; Spatio-Temporal Analysis ; Ventilation ; }, abstract = {A particle exposure experiment inside a large climate-controlled chamber was conducted. Data on spatial and temporal distribution of nanoscale and fine aerosols in the range of mobility diameters 8-600 nm were collected with high resolution, for sodium chloride, fluorescein sodium, and silica particles. Exposure scenarios studied included constant and intermittent source emissions, different aggregation conditions, high (10 h-1) and low (3.5 h-1) air exchange rates (AERs) corresponding to chamber Reynolds number, respectively, equal to 1 × 105 and 3 × 104 . Results are presented and analyzed to highlight the main determinants of exposure and to determine whether the assumptions underlying two-box models hold under various scenarios. The main determinants of exposure found were the source generation rate and the ventilation rate. The effect of particles nature was indiscernible, and the decrease of airborne total number concentrations attributable to surface deposition was estimated lower than 2% when the source was active. A near-field/far-field structure of aerosol concentration was always observed for the AER = 10 h-1 but for AER = 3.5 h-1 , a single-field structure was found. The particle size distribution was always homogeneous in space but a general shift of particle diameter (-8% to +16%) was observed between scenarios in correlation with the AER and with the source position, presumably largely attributable to aggregation.}, } @article {pmid33267306, year = {2019}, author = {Abd El-Aziz, M and Afify, AA}, title = {MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet with Entropy Generation Analysis and Hall Influence.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {6}, pages = {}, doi = {10.3390/e21060592}, pmid = {33267306}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {The impacts of entropy generation and Hall current on MHD Casson fluid over a stretching surface with velocity slip factor have been numerically analyzed. Numerical work for the governing equations is established by using a shooting method with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The outcomes show that the entropy generation is enhanced with a magnetic parameter, Reynolds number and group parameter. Further, the reverse behavior is observed with the Hall parameter, Eckert number, Casson parameter and slip factor. Also, it is viewed that Bejan number reduces with a group parameter.}, } @article {pmid31186821, year = {2019}, author = {Aghilinejad, A and Aghaamoo, M and Chen, X}, title = {On the transport of particles/cells in high-throughput deterministic lateral displacement devices: Implications for circulating tumor cell separation.}, journal = {Biomicrofluidics}, volume = {13}, number = {3}, pages = {034112}, pmid = {31186821}, issn = {1932-1058}, abstract = {Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD), which takes advantage of the asymmetric bifurcation of laminar flow around the embedded microposts, has shown promising capabilities in separating cells and particles of different sizes. Growing interest in utilizing high-throughput DLD devices for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates in these devices, leading to operating in moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Despite extensive research on DLD devices in the creeping regime, limited research has focused on the physics of flow, critical size of the device, and deformable cell behavior in DLD devices at moderate to high Re. In this study, the transport behavior of particles/cells is investigated in realistic high-throughput DLD devices with hundreds of microposts by utilizing multiphysics modeling. A practical formula is proposed for the prediction of the device critical size, which could serve as a design guideline for high-throughput DLD devices. Then, the complex hydrodynamic interactions between a deformable cell and DLD post arrays are investigated. A dimensionless index is utilized for comparing different post designs to quantify the cell-post interaction. It is shown that the separation performances in high-throughput devices are highly affected by Re as well as the micropost shapes. These findings can be utilized for the design and optimization of high-throughput DLD microfluidic devices.}, } @article {pmid31185351, year = {2019}, author = {Tshumah-Mutingwende, RRMS and Takahashi, F}, title = {Physio-chemical effects of freshwaters on the dissolution of elementary mercury.}, journal = {Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)}, volume = {252}, number = {Pt A}, pages = {627-636}, doi = {10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.130}, pmid = {31185351}, issn = {1873-6424}, mesh = {Ecosystem ; Environmental Monitoring/methods ; Fresh Water/*chemistry ; Gold/analysis ; Humans ; Mercury/*analysis/chemistry ; Methylmercury Compounds/analysis ; Solubility ; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis/chemistry ; }, abstract = {Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used by Artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGMs) to extract gold from ore. Due to the unavailability of appropriate waste disposal facilities, Hg0-rich amalgamation tailings are often discharged into nearby aquatic systems where the Hg0 droplets settle in bottom sediment and sediment-water interfaces. Hg0 dissolution and following biogeochemical transformations to methylmercury (MeHg) have been concerned owing to its potential risk to human health and the ecosystem. For reliable estimates of Hg exposure to human bodies using pollutant environmental fate and transport models, knowledge of the Hg0 dissolution rate is important. However, only limited literature is available. Therefore, it was investigated in this study. Dissolution tests in a 'dark chamber' revealed that an increase in medium pH resulted in a decrease in the dissolution rate, whereas, a large Hg0 droplet surface area (SA) and high Reynolds number (Re) resulted in a faster dissolution. A multivariate first order dissolution model of the form:kˆ=-7.9×10-5[pH]+7.0×10-4[logRe]+7.9×10-4[SA]-2.5×10-3 was proposed (adjusted R2 = 0.99). The Breusch-Pagan and White heteroscedasticity tests revealed that the model residuals are homoscedastic (p-value = 0.05) at the 5% significance level. Parameter sensitivity analysis suggests that slow mercury dissolution from the Hg0 droplets to aquatic systems might mask emerging environmental risk of mercury. Even after mercury usage in ASGM is banned, mercury dissolution and following contamination will continue for about 40 years or longer owing to previously discharged Hg0 droplets.}, } @article {pmid31176976, year = {2019}, author = {Almohammadi, H and Amirfazli, A}, title = {Droplet impact: Viscosity and wettability effects on splashing.}, journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science}, volume = {553}, number = {}, pages = {22-30}, doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2019.05.101}, pmid = {31176976}, issn = {1095-7103}, abstract = {HYPOTHESES: The wettability of a surface affects the splashing behavior of a droplet upon impact onto a surface only when surface exhibits either a very high or a very low contact angle. Viscosity affects the splashing threshold in a non-monotony way.

EXPERIMENTS: To examine the roles of drop viscosity and surface wettability on splashing, a wide range of liquid viscosities (1-100 cSt), surface wettabilities (from hydrophilic to hydrophobic), drop velocities (0.5-3.3 m/s), and liquid surface tensions (∼20 and 70 mN/m) were examined. High speed imaging was used.

FINDINGS: Wettability affects the splashing threshold at very extreme limits of the wettability i.e. at very high or very low contact angle values; however, the wettability effect is less prominent on spreading-splashing regime map. For drops of any surface tension impacting surfaces with any wettability, an increase in viscosity (up to ∼5 cSt or Reynolds number of 2000) promotes splashing; whereas using liquids with viscosities larger than 5 cSt, suppress splashing. We explained such behaviors using evolution of the lamella rim, dynamic contact angle, and velocity of the expanding lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed a general empirical relationship which explains all of ours, and previously reported data.}, } @article {pmid31167483, year = {2019}, author = {Siddiqui, AA and Turkyilmazoglu, M}, title = {A New Theoretical Approach of Wall Transpiration in the Cavity Flow of the Ferrofluids.}, journal = {Micromachines}, volume = {10}, number = {6}, pages = {}, pmid = {31167483}, issn = {2072-666X}, abstract = {An idea of permeable (suction/injection) chamber is proposed in the current work to control the secondary vortices appearing in the well-known lid-driven cavity flow by means of the water based ferrofluids. The Rosensweig model is conveniently adopted for the mathematical analysis of the physical problem. The governing equation of model is first transformed into the vorticity transport equation. A special finite difference method in association with the successive over-relaxation method (SOR) is then employed to numerically simulate the flow behavior. The effects of intensity of magnetic source (controlled by the Stuart number), aspect ratio of the cavity, rate of permeability (i.e., α p = V 0 U), ratio of speed of suction/injection V 0 to the sliding-speed U of the upper wall of a cavity, and Reynolds number on the ferrofluid in the cavity are fully examined. It is found that the secondary vortices residing on the lower wall of the cavity are dissolved by the implementation of the suction/injection chamber. Their character is dependent on the rate of permeability. The intensity of magnetic source affects the system in such a way to alter the flow and to transport the fluid away from the magnetic source location. It also reduces the loading effects on the walls of the cavity. If the depth of cavity (or the aspect ratio) is increased, the secondary vortices join together to form a single secondary vortex. The number of secondary vortices is shown to increase if the Reynolds number is increased for both the clear fluid as well as the ferrofluids. The suction and injection create resistance in settlement of solid ferroparticles on the bottom. The results obtained are validated with the existing data in the literature and satisfactory agreement is observed. The presented problem may find applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and engineering industries.}, } @article {pmid31165744, year = {2019}, author = {Arumuru, V and Dash, JN and Dora, D and Jha, R}, title = {Vortex Shedding Optical Flowmeter based on Photonic Crystal Fiber.}, journal = {Scientific reports}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {8313}, pmid = {31165744}, issn = {2045-2322}, abstract = {In the present work we propose a PCF (photonic crystal fiber) based Modal interferometer detector for sensing low flow velocity by detecting the frequency of vortices shed from a bluff body. The proposed novel design encapsulates the interferometric arm inside a metal casing to protect the sensor from harsh process fluids. The characterization of the developed probe is conducted under no flow conditions using a piezo actuator to evaluate the sensor response over wide frequency range (0-500 Hz). The developed sensors shows a reasonably flat response in the tested frequency range. Experiments are conducted by employing the developed sensor behind a bluff body of a vortex flowmeter to measure the frequency of the shed vortices and hence, the fluid flow rate. The low flow rate sensitivity of the vortex flowmeter is improved many folds by using the present sensor and the minimum Reynolds number detected is Re = 5000. A linear trend is observed between the frequency of the vortices and the flow velocity which is desirable for fluid flow measurement. The PCF based interferometric sensor with metal encapsulation makes the vortex flowmeter, sensitive at low flow rates, robust and economical to be used in industrial application.}, } @article {pmid31153354, year = {2019}, author = {Farouk, B and Antao, DS and Hasan, N}, title = {Acoustically driven oscillatory flow fields in a cylindrical resonator at resonance.}, journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America}, volume = {145}, number = {5}, pages = {2932}, doi = {10.1121/1.5097594}, pmid = {31153354}, issn = {1520-8524}, abstract = {Generation and development of acoustic waves in an air-filled cylindrical resonator driven by a conical electro-mechanical speaker are studied experimentally and simulated numerically. The driving frequencies of the speaker are chosen such that a standing wave field is produced at each chosen frequency in the resonator. The amplitude of the generated acoustic (pressure) waves is measured along the axis of the resonator by a fast response piezo-resistive pressure transducer, while the radial distribution of the oscillatory axial velocities is measured at the corresponding velocity anti-node locations by a constant temperature hot-film anemometer. For the cases studied, the acoustic Reynolds number ranged between 20.0 and 60.0 and the flow fields were always found to be in the laminar regime. The flow field in the resonator is also simulated by a high-fidelity numerical scheme with low numerical diffusion. Formation of the standing wave and quasi-steady acoustic streaming are numerically simulated by solving the fully compressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of the sound field intensity (i.e., input power to the speaker) and driving frequency on the standing wave field and the resultant formation process of the streaming structures are also investigated.}, } @article {pmid31144946, year = {2019}, author = {Kaneda, Y and Yamamoto, Y and Tsuji, Y}, title = {Linear Response Theory for One-Point Statistics in the Inertial Sublayer of Wall-Bounded Turbulence.}, journal = {Physical review letters}, volume = {122}, number = {19}, pages = {194502}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.194502}, pmid = {31144946}, issn = {1079-7114}, abstract = {The idea of linear response theory well known in the statistical mechanics for thermal equilibrium systems is applied to one-point statistics in the inertial sublayer of wall-bounded turbulence (WBT). A close analogy between the energy transfer from large to small scales in isotropic turbulence and the momentum transfer in the wall normal direction in WBT plays a key role in the application. The application gives estimates of the influence of the finite Reynolds number on the statistics. The estimates are consistent with data by high-resolution direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow.}, } @article {pmid31140495, year = {2019}, author = {Fadel, M and Daurelle, JV and Fourmond, V and Vicente, J}, title = {A new electrochemical cell with a uniformly accessible electrode to study fast catalytic reactions.}, journal = {Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP}, volume = {21}, number = {23}, pages = {12360-12371}, doi = {10.1039/c9cp01487j}, pmid = {31140495}, issn = {1463-9084}, abstract = {The electrochemical study of fast catalytic reactions is limited by mass transport when using the conventional electrochemical cell with a rotating disk electrode (RDE). To overcome this issue, it is important to find a new device with improved transport properties that respects electrochemical constraints. We used numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamics to design a new electrochemical cell based on the so-called "jet flow" design for the kinetic studies of catalytic chemical reactions at the surface of an electrode. The new cell is characterized by a high, reliable and uniform mass transport over the electroactive part of its surface. We investigated the effects of the nozzle and the electrode diameters, the nozzle-electrode distance and the Reynolds number on the performance of the jet-electrode in the flow system. Through the optimization of the geometry of this jet electrode cell, we achieved a factor of 3 enhancement in transport compared to the rotating disk electrode. We succeeded in constructing the designed electrode, characterized it with electrochemical techniques, and found an excellent agreement between the transport properties deduced from the numerical simulations and those from the measurements.}, } @article {pmid31123743, year = {2019}, author = {Wang, P and Zhang, Q and Wang, M and Yin, B and Hou, D and Zhang, Y}, title = {Atomistic insights into cesium chloride solution transport through the ultra-confined calcium-silicate-hydrate channel.}, journal = {Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP}, volume = {21}, number = {22}, pages = {11892-11902}, doi = {10.1039/c8cp07676f}, pmid = {31123743}, issn = {1463-9084}, abstract = {The transport of water and ions in the gel pores of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) determines the durability of cement material. In this study, molecular dynamics was employed to investigate the capillary imbibition process of CsCl solution in the C-S-H channel. The advanced frontier of CsCl solution flow inside the C-S-H capillary shows a concave meniscus shape, which reflects the hydrophilic properties of the C-S-H substrate. Reynolds number calculations show that the transport process is laminar flow and dominated by viscous forces. The invading depth of the CsCl solution deviates from the theoretical prediction of the classic Lucas-Washburn (L-W) equation, but the modified theoretical equation, by incorporating the effect of slip length, dynamic contact angle, and effective viscosity into the L-W equation, can describe the penetration curve of the solution very well. The validity of our developed theoretical equation was confirmed by additional systems with different ion concentrations. In addition, the local structure of ions was analyzed to elucidate the effect of ion concentration on the transport process. The adsorption and accumulation of ions retard the transport process of water. With an increase in the ionic concentration, the effects of immobilization and cluster accumulation became more pronounced, further reducing the transport rate of water. This study provides fundamental insight into the transport behavior of liquid in the gel pores of cement-based material.}, } @article {pmid31120757, year = {2019}, author = {Zhang, J and Liu, H and Ba, Y}, title = {Numerical Study of Droplet Dynamics on a Solid Surface with Insoluble Surfactants.}, journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids}, volume = {35}, number = {24}, pages = {7858-7870}, doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b00495}, pmid = {31120757}, issn = {1520-5827}, abstract = {Surfactants are widely used in many industrial processes, where the presence of surfactants not only reduces the interfacial tension between fluids but also alters the wetting properties of solid surfaces. To understand how the surfactants influence the droplet motion on a solid surface, a hybrid method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants and contact-line dynamics is developed. This method solves immiscible two-phase flows through a lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model and simultaneously solves the convection-diffusion equation for surfactant concentration through a finite difference method. In addition, a dynamic contact angle formulation that describes the dependence of the local contact angle on the surfactant concentration is derived, and the resulting contact angle is enforced by a geometrical wetting condition. Our method is first used to simulate static contact angles for a droplet resting on a solid surface, and the results show that the presence of surfactants can significantly modify surface wettability, especially when the surface is more hydrophilic or more hydrophobic. This is then applied to simulate a surfactant-laden droplet moving on a substrate subject to a linear shear flow for varying effective capillary number (Cae), Reynolds number (Re), and surface wettability, where the results are often compared with those of a clean droplet. For varying Cae, the simulations are conducted by considering a neutral surface. At low values of Cae, the droplet eventually reaches a steady deformation and moves at a constant velocity. In either a clean or surfactant-laden case, the moving velocity of the droplet linearly increases with the moving wall velocity, but the slope is always higher (i.e., the droplet moves faster) in the surfactant-laden case where the droplet exhibits a bigger deformation. When Cae is increased beyond a critical value (Cae,c), the droplet breakup would happen. The presence of surfactants is found to decrease the value of Cae,c, but it shows a non-monotonic effect on the droplet breakup. An increase in Re is able to increase not only droplet deformation but also surfactant dilution. The role of surfactants in the droplet behavior is found to greatly depend upon the surface wettability. For a hydrophilic surface, the presence of surfactants can decrease the wetting length and enables the droplet to reach a steady state faster; while for a hydrophobic surface, it increases the wetting length and delays the departure of the droplet from the solid surface.}, } @article {pmid33267233, year = {2019}, author = {de Divitiis, N}, title = {Statistical Lyapunov Theory Based on Bifurcation Analysis of Energy Cascade in Isotropic Homogeneous Turbulence: A Physical-Mathematical Review.}, journal = {Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)}, volume = {21}, number = {5}, pages = {}, pmid = {33267233}, issn = {1099-4300}, abstract = {This work presents a review of previous articles dealing with an original turbulence theory proposed by the author and provides new theoretical insights into some related issues. The new theoretical procedures and methodological approaches confirm and corroborate the previous results. These articles study the regime of homogeneous isotropic turbulence for incompressible fluids and propose theoretical approaches based on a specific Lyapunov theory for determining the closures of the von Kármán-Howarth and Corrsin equations and the statistics of velocity and temperature difference. While numerous works are present in the literature which concern the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the Fourier domain (i.e., Lin equation closure), few articles deal with the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the physical space. These latter, being based on the eddy-viscosity concept, describe diffusive closure models. On the other hand, the proposed Lyapunov theory leads to nondiffusive closures based on the property that, in turbulence, contiguous fluid particles trajectories continuously diverge. Therefore, the main motivation of this review is to present a theoretical formulation which does not adopt the eddy-viscosity paradigm and summarizes the results of the previous works. Next, this analysis assumes that the current fluid placements, together with velocity and temperature fields, are fluid state variables. Thi