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The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.

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This is ESP-abstract formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This is ESP-H1 Header Format

This is ESP-H2 Header Format

This is ESP-H3 Header Format

This is ESP-H4 Header Format

Hello —this is ESP-pop-cap formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This paragraph is for testing superscripts and subscripts, as in F1 or F2 or F3 or x2. The parallel between the Σδ behavior of the chromosomes in F2 reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

This is ESP-b1 formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

This is ESP-b1 formatted text (continued). The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

9. This is ESP-b2 formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

This is ESP-b2 formatted text (continued). The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

9999. This is ESP-b3 formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

This is ESP-b3 formatted text (continued). The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This is ESP-quote formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

ESP-quote-source

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This demonstrates ESP PULL-QUOTE Right

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This demonstrates ESP PULL-QUOTE Left

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

bateson-and-punnett

Figure x. This is ESP figure-caption formatted text. Reginald Punnett and William Bateson, relaxing on the bench.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

Hello —this is ESP-pop-cap formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

bateson and johannsen in the garden

William Bateson (right) in his garden in Merton, England, with Wilhelm Johannsen, 1924.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

Nettie Stevens

Nettie Stevens

This is RJR-standard formatted text. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908). Later, on the appearance of a sex-linked wing mutation in Drosophila, Morgan (1910a, 1911) was able to make clear a new point. By crossing white-eyed, long-winged flies to those with red eyes and rudimentary wings (the new sex-linked character) he obtained, in F2, white-eyed, rudimentary-winged flies.

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Joseph Huddart (1777)

An Account of Persons Who Could Not Distinguish Colours. By Mr. Joseph Huddart, in a Letter to the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F. R. S.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. January 1, 1777 67:260-265; doi:10.1098/rstl.1777.0015

J. Scott and Michael Lort (1778)

An Account of a Remarkable Imperfection of Sight. In a Letter from J. Scott to the Rev. Mr. Whisson, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Communicated by the Rev. Michael Lort, B. D. F. R. S.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. January 1, 1778 68:611-614; doi:10.1098/rstl.1778.0028

ABSTRACT: This is ESP-citation-abstract formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

BLURB: This is ESP-citation-blurb formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

J. Scott and Michael Lort (1778)

An Account of a Remarkable Imperfection of Sight. In a Letter from J. Scott to the Rev. Mr. Whisson, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Communicated by the Rev. Michael Lort, B. D. F. R. S.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. January 1, 1778 68:611-614; doi:10.1098/rstl.1778.0028

ABSTRACT: This is ESP-citation-abstract formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

BLURB: This is ESP-citation-blurb formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

J. Scott and Michael Lort (1778)

An Account of a Remarkable Imperfection of Sight. In a Letter from J. Scott to the Rev. Mr. Whisson, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Communicated by the Rev. Michael Lort, B. D. F. R. S.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. January 1, 1778 68:611-614; doi:10.1098/rstl.1778.0028

ABSTRACT: This is ESP-citation-abstract formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

BLURB: This is ESP-citation-blurb formatted data. The parallel between the behavior of the chromosomes in reduction and that of Mendelian factors in segregation was first pointed out by Sutton (1902) though earlier in the same year Boveri (1902) had referred to a possible connection. In this paper and others Boveri brought forward considerable evidence from the field of experimental embryology indicating that the chromosomes play an important role in development and inheritance. The first attempt at connecting any given somatic character with a definite chromosome came with McClung's (1902) suggestion that the accessory chromosome is a sex-determiner. Stevens (1905) and Wilson (1905) verified this by showing that in numerous forms there is a sex chromosome, present in all the eggs and in the female-producing sperm, but absent, or represented by a smaller homologue, in the male-producing sperm. A further step was made when Morgan (1910) showed that the factor for color in the eyes of the fly Drosophila ampelophila follows the distribution of the sex chromosome already found in the same species by Stevens (1908).

ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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In the small "Fly Room" at Columbia University, T.H. Morgan and his students, A.H. Sturtevant, C.B. Bridges, and H.J. Muller, carried out the work that laid the foundations of modern, chromosomal genetics. The excitement of those times, when the whole field of genetics was being created, is captured in this book, written in 1965 by one of those present at the beginning. R. Robbins

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ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )