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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 23 Apr 2024 at 01:58 Created: 

Climate Change

The world is warming up, with 2023 being by far the hottest year since record keeping began and 2024 shaping up to be hotter yet. But these changes only involve one or two degrees. What's the big deal?

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one liter of water by one degree is one kilocalorie (kcal). Scaling up, the amount of energy required for a one-degree increase in the water temperature of the Gulf of Mexico is 2,434,000,000,000,000,000 kcals. That's 25 million times more energy than released by the WW-II atomic bomb that destroyed the city of Hiroshima and killed more than 100,000 people.

So, for every one degree increase in water temperature, the Gulf of Mexico takes on 25-million atomic bombs worth of new energy, which is then available to fuel hurricanes and other storms. Maybe a one-degree rise in temperature is a big deal.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-04-22

Costin A, Fisher D, Harper B, et al (2024)

Climate Change and Mental Health: An Interactive Educational Session.

MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, 20:11418.

INTRODUCTION: Climate change is the single biggest health threat facing humanity, with direct and indirect impacts on mental health, yet health impacts of climate change remain notably absent from most medical school curricula. We describe a timely interactive educational session on climate change and mental health that was implemented and studied on a medical student clinical psychiatry rotation.

METHODS: We developed a 1-hour introductory session on the mental health impacts of climate change and potential solutions. The session was delivered to third-year medical students on their 4-week clinical psychiatry rotation and included pre- and postsession survey questions assessing their knowledge, comfort, and readiness regarding the topic.

RESULTS: Seventy students participated in the session, with 49 students completing the pre- and postsession surveys, giving a response rate of 70%. The average score for the four Likert-scale questions on the survey increased from 2.7 presession to 3.9 postsession on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). All questions displayed statistically significant improvement. Qualitative analysis identified knowledge gained about the mental health impacts of climate change as the most important aspect of the session to students.

DISCUSSION: The introductory session effectively filled an urgent need in medical education curricula regarding climate change's effects on human health. Overall, distribution of and improvement upon this timely teaching content can serve a valuable role in medical student education as the effects of climate change, particularly on mental health, continue to progress throughout the century.

RevDate: 2024-04-22

Herbillon F, Piou C, CN Meynard (2024)

An increase in management actions has compensated for past climate change effects on desert locust gregarization in western Africa.

Heliyon, 10(8):e29231.

In response to high population density, the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, becomes gregarious and forms swarms that can cause significant damage to crops and pastures, threatening food security of human populations from western Africa to India. This switch from solitary to gregarious populations is highly dependent on favorable weather conditions. Climate change, which has been hypothesized to shift conditions towards increasing risks of gregarization, is therefore likely to have significant impacts on the spatial distribution and likelihood of outbreak events. However, the desert locust is intensely managed at large scales, which possibly counteracts any increased risk of outbreaks due to a more favorable climate. Consequently, understanding the changes in risks in the future involves teasing out the effects of climate change and management actions. Here we studied the dynamics of gregarization at the very early stages of potential outbreaks, in parallel with trends in climate and management, between 1985 and 2018 in western Africa. We used three different spatial scales, with the goal to have a better understanding of the potential effects of climate change per se while controlling for management. Our first approach was to look at a regional scale, where we observed an overall decrease in gregarization events. However, this scale includes very heterogeneous environments and management efforts. To consider this heterogeneity, we divided the area into a grid of 0.5° cells. For each cell, a climate analysis was performed for rainfall and temperature, with trends obtained by a harmonic decomposition model on monthly data. Analyses of gregarization showed only a few significant trends, both positive and negative, mainly found in western Mauritania where management effort has increased. To improve the statistical power, these cells were then grouped into larger homogeneous climatic clusters, i.e. groups of cells with similar climatic conditions and similar climatic trends over the study period. At this scale, gregarization events depend on the intersection between climate conditions and management efforts. The clusters where gregarization increased were also the ones with the highest increase of management. These results highlight the important effect of preventive management, which may counteract the positive effects of climate change on locust proliferation.

RevDate: 2024-04-22

Sasaki M, Kingsbury KM, Booth DJ, et al (2024)

Body size mediates trophic interaction strength of novel fish assemblages under climate change.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological similarity plays an important role in biotic interactions. Increased body size similarity of competing species, for example, increases the strength of their biotic interactions. Body sizes of many exothermic species are forecast to be altered under global warming, mediating shifts in existing trophic interactions among species, in particular for species with different thermal niches. Temperate rocky reefs along the southeast coast of Australia are located in a climate warming hotspot and now house a mixture of temperate native fish species and poleward range-extending tropical fishes (vagrants), creating novel species assemblages. Here, we studied the relationship between body size similarity and trophic overlap between individual temperate native and tropical vagrant fishes. Dietary niche overlap between vagrant and native fish species increased as their body sizes converged, based on both stomach content composition (short-term diet), stable isotope analyses (integrated long-term diet) and similarity in consumed prey sizes. We conclude that the warming-induced faster growth rates of tropical range-extending fish species at their cool water ranges will continue to converge their body size towards and strengthen their degree of trophic interactions and dietary overlap with co-occurring native temperate species under increasing ocean warming. The strengthening of these novel competitive interactions is likely to drive changes to temperate food web structures and reshuffle existing species community structures.

RevDate: 2024-04-21

Soana E, Gervasio MP, Granata T, et al (2024)

Climate change impacts on eutrophication in the Po River (Italy): Temperature-mediated reduction in nitrogen export but no effect on phosphorus.

Journal of environmental sciences (China), 143:148-163.

Rivers worldwide are under stress from eutrophication and nitrate pollution, but the ecological consequences overlap with climate change, and the resulting interactions may be unexpected and still unexplored. The Po River basin (northern Italy) is one of the most agriculturally productive and densely populated areas in Europe. It remains unclear whether the climate change impacts on the thermal and hydrological regimes are already affecting nutrient dynamics and transport to coastal areas. The present work addresses the long-term trends (1992-2020) of nitrogen and phosphorus export by investigating both the annual magnitude and the seasonal patterns and their relationship with water temperature and discharge trajectories. Despite the constant diffuse and point sources in the basin, a marked decrease (-20%) in nitrogen export, mostly as nitrate, was recorded in the last decade compared to the 1990s, while no significant downward trend was observed for phosphorus. The water temperature of the Po River has warmed, with the most pronounced signals in summer (+0.13°C/year) and autumn (+0.16°C/year), together with the strongest increase in the number of warm days (+70%-80%). An extended seasonal window of warm temperatures and the persistence of low flow periods are likely to create favorable conditions for permanent nitrate removal via denitrification, resulting in a lower delivery of reactive nitrogen to the sea. The present results show that climate change-driven warming may enhance nitrogen processing by increasing respiratory river metabolism, thereby reducing export from spring to early autumn, when the risk of eutrophication in coastal zones is higher.

RevDate: 2024-04-21

Vasseur L, A Andrade (2024)

Using the Red List of Ecosystems and the Nature-based Solutions Global Standard as an integrated process for climate change adaptation in the Andean high mountains.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1903):20220326.

Under anthropogenic pressures and climate change, most ecosystems are showing signs of reduced resilience. Unfortunately, some are more at risk of collapse and, without interventions, they may lose biodiversity, ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here, we describe two tools that were developed under the auspices of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Red List of Ecosystems and the Nature-based Solutions Global Standard, and their capacity to first identify the ecosystems at risk of collapse in a nation and then develop solutions based on nature to improve their resilience. Nature-based solutions include, for example ecosystem-based adaptation, where solutions are developed to meet the needs of the local people while protecting nature to ensure greater resilience of the social-ecological system, not only the natural ecosystem. We discuss through a case study in the Andean high mountains and páramo social-ecological system how these approaches have been used in Colombia. We then discuss lessons learned and challenges that may reduce the capacity of a community to initiate such interventions, such as national policies and funding restrictions. We also discuss through another early case in Ecuador the importance to adapt these types of interventions to the geographical and cultural context of the social-ecological systems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bringing nature into decision-making'.

RevDate: 2024-04-21

Tiitta I, Cubelo F, McDermott-Levy R, et al (2024)

Climate change integration in nursing education: A scoping review.

Nurse education today, 139:106210 pii:S0260-6917(24)00120-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The environmental impacts of climate change such as extreme weather, affects human physical and mental health; therefore, including climate change and health is important in nursing education. Despite the recognition of the link between climate change and health, this important knowledge has not yet been systematically integrated into nursing curricula, highlighting the need for immediate action to prepare nurses for these emerging human health challenges.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to gain an overview of the existing literature exploring climate change in nursing curricula and answer following questions: DESIGN: Scoping review.

METHODS: A protocol was created and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist (PRISMA-SrC). Five data bases were searched: CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, PubMed, Scopus and Cochraine, in addition to databases, grey literature was searched from different sources (reference lists, Google). A total of 1055 articles were derived from the search and 47 articles were included in this review. After selection results from selected studies on educational interventions and climate change education, and opinion pieces were charted, followed by a team review and consensus on the findings.

CONCLUSION: This review shows the importance of integrating the topic of climate change into nursing curricula. This integration of climate change-related content into nursing curricula is essential for preparing students, not just for their future roles in healthcare, but also their role in policy and climate justice. These results also reflect strong support from students for that integration. But while progress has been made, further research is essential to evaluate the impacts of these teaching strategies on nursing education.

RevDate: 2024-04-21

Bokharaeian M, Toghdory A, T Ghoorchi (2024)

Evaluating the dose-dependent effects of curcumin nano-micelles on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed fattening lambs: Implications for climate change and sustainable animal production.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming threatens livestock production, especially in hot climates. This study evaluated the dose-dependent impacts of dietary curcumin nano-micelles (CNM) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed fattening lambs. Thirty-two crossbred male lambs [ˆIle-de-France × (Dalagh × Romanov)] were utilized within the current study. The initial weight of lambs was documented as averaged by 31.2 ± 1.55 kg, while they were in their 4th to 5th months of age. Animals were fed increasing doses of dietary CNM (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/day) over 97 days, under severe heat stress conditions with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 24.5. Quadratic improvements (p < 0.01) occurred in weight gain, average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 28.7%, 27.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, in the T40 group compared to the control. Additionally, T40 increased fiber digestion by 2.8% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, T40 quadratically improved parameters of rumen fermentation, including concentrations of NH3-N (p < 0.05), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA; p < 0.01), acetate (p < 0.05), and iso-valerate (p < 0.05), by 13.9%, 12.5%, 15.0%, and 43.5%, respectively, compared to the control. Quadratic increases were also observed in nitrogen balance (p < 0.05) and microbial protein synthesis (p < 0.01) by 19.8% and 37.6%, respectively, in the T40 group. Quadratic models estimated optimal CNM levels between 41.5 and 48.6 mg/day for multiple parameters. These findings indicate CNM at dose level of 40 mg/day could benefit heat-stressed lambs through enhanced rumen function and microbiota. Further research should refine ideal dosing for various species and production phases as higher levels adversely impacted fiber digestibility. Overall, CNM shows promise as a sustainable nutritional intervention for livestock production facing global warming.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Zhang MZ, Han Y, Xu Z, et al (2024)

Bias-corrected NESM3 global dataset for dynamical downscaling under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming scenarios.

Scientific data, 11(1):399.

Dynamical downscaling is vital for generating finer-scale climate projections. Recently, a set of simulations under four types of 1.5/2 °C global warming scenarios are available with Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology Earth System Model (NESM). However, NESM3's bias in large-scale driving variables would degrade downscaled simulations. We corrected NESM3 bias in terms of climate mean and inter-annual variance against ERA5 using a novel bias correction method and then produced a set of bias-corrected datasets for dynamical downscaling. The bias-corrected NESM3 spans the historical period for 1979-2014 and four future scenarios (i.e., 1.5 °C overshoot for 2070-2100, stabilized 1.5/2 °C for 2070-2100, and transient 2 °C for 2031-2061) with 1.25° × 1.25° horizontal resolution at six-hourly intervals. Our evaluation suggests that bias-corrected NESM3 outperforms the original NESM3 in the climatological mean of seasonal mean and variability, as well as climate extreme events during the historical period. This bias-corrected dataset is expected to generate more reliable projections for regional climate and environment under 1.5/2 °C global warming.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Severoni S, Hiam L, S Garry (2024)

Climate change and health: displaced and migrant populations must be included.

Lancet (London, England), 403(10436):1537-1538.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Reyes-Ortiz M, Lira-Noriega A, Osorio-Olvera L, et al (2024)

Leaf functional traits and ecological niche of Fagus grandifolia and Oreomunnea mexicana in natural forests and plantings as a proxy of climate change.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Functional traits reflect species' responses to environmental variation and the breadth of their ecological niches. Fagus grandifolia and Oreomunnea mexicana have restricted distribution in upper montane cloud forests (1700-2000 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. These species were introduced into plantings at lower elevations (1200-1600 m a.s.l.) that have climates predicted for montane forests in 2050 and 2070. The aim was to relate morphological leaf traits to the ecological niche structure of each species.

METHODS: Leaf functional traits (leaf area, specific leaf area [SLA], thickness, and toughness) were analyzed in forests and plantings. Atmospheric circulation models and representative concentration pathways (RCPs: 2.6, 4.5, 8.5) were used to assess future climate conditions. Trait-niche relationships were analyzed by measuring the Mahalanobis distance (MD) from the forests and the plantings to the ecological niche centroid (ENC).

RESULTS: For both species, leaf area and SLA were higher and toughness lower in plantings at lower elevation relative to those in higher-elevation forests, and thickness was similar. Leaf traits varied with distance from sites to the ENC. Forests and plantings have different environmental locations regarding the ENC, but forests are closer (MD 0.34-0.58) than plantings (MD 0.50-0.70) for both species.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevation as a proxy for expected future climate conditions influenced the functional traits of both species, and trait patterns related to the structure of their ecological niches were consistent. The use of distances to the ENC is a promising approach to explore variability in species' functional traits and phenotypic responses in optimal versus marginal environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Prada D, Baccarelli AA, Kupsco A, et al (2024)

Climate change and health: understanding mechanisms will inform mitigation and prevention strategies.

Nature medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Addison SL, Rúa MA, Smaill SJ, et al (2024)

Partner or perish: tree microbiomes and climate change.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(24)00064-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the complex relationships between plants, their microbiomes, and environmental changes is crucial for improving growth and survival, especially for long-lived tree species. Trees, like other plants, maintain close associations with a multitude of microorganisms on and within their tissues, forming a 'holobiont'. However, a comprehensive framework for detailed tree-microbiome dynamics, and the implications for climate adaptation, is currently lacking. This review identifies gaps in the existing literature, emphasizing the need for more research to explore the coevolution of the holobiont and the full extent of climate change impact on tree growth and survival. Advancing our knowledge of plant-microbial interactions presents opportunities to enhance tree adaptability and mitigate adverse impacts of climate changes on trees.

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Chowdhury R, Talukder B, Basta PC, et al (2024)

Saving the Amazon in South America by a regional approach on climate change: the need to consider the health perspective.

The Lancet. Global health pii:S2214-109X(24)00125-6 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-04-19

da Silva Freitas L, de Moura FR, Buffarini R, et al (2024)

The relationship and consequences of venomous animal encounters in the context of climate change.

Integrated environmental assessment and management, 20(3):589-591.

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Pinna S, Longo D, Zanobini P, et al (2024)

How to communicate with older adults about climate change: a systematic review.

Frontiers in public health, 12:1347935.

INTRODUCTION: Although older adults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, they seem to be overall less concerned about it, and less inclined to support climate policies. The study aims to identify the communication strategies that have been evaluated in promoting awareness and/or climate friendly behaviors in older adults.

METHODS: We searched multiple electronic databases for studies that evaluated the effects of any interventions aimed at communicating climate change to older persons (over 65 years) and assessed the results as awareness and /or behavioral changes. We selected quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies, and we also included systematic reviews for cross-referencing. Risk of bias of included studies was evaluated using different tools according to the study design.

RESULTS: From a total of 5,486 articles, only 3 studies were included. One mixed-method study engaged older adults to assess the community vulnerability to climate change and to develop adaptation recommendations based on their perspectives; one qualitative study conducted focus groups to identify the more effective language, values and themes based on participants' responses to narratives; one quantitative study utilized a 360-degree audio-visual platform allowing users to engage with immersive visualizations of sea-level rise scenarios.

DISCUSSION: Despite the paucity of literature, this review demonstrates the potential for different strategies to increase the awareness of older persons about climate change. The involvement of older adults in the communication process, the identification of their priorities, and the integration of technology in their daily lives are promising approaches but more research, including both quantitative and qualitative studies is recommended on this topic.

For further details about the protocol, this systematic review has been registered on PROSPERO on July 1, 2023 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42023438256).

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Tennakoon S, Apan A, T Maraseni (2024)

Unravelling the impact of climate change on honey bees: An ensemble modelling approach to predict shifts in habitat suitability in Queensland, Australia.

Ecology and evolution, 14(4):e11300.

Honey bees play a vital role in providing essential ecosystem services and contributing to global agriculture. However, the potential effect of climate change on honey bee distribution is still not well understood. This study aims to identify the most influential bioclimatic and environmental variables, assess their impact on honey bee distribution, and predict future distribution. An ensemble modelling approach using the biomod2 package in R was employed to develop three models: a climate-only model, an environment-only model, and a combined climate and environment model. By utilising bioclimatic data (radiation of the wettest and driest quarters and temperature seasonality) from 1990 to 2009, combined with observed honey bee presence and pseudo absence data, this model predicted suitable locations for honey bee apiaries for two future time spans: 2020-2039 and 2060-2079. The climate-only model exhibited a true skill statistic (TSS) value of 0.85, underscoring the pivotal role of radiation and temperature seasonality in shaping honey bee distribution. The environment-only model, incorporating proximity to floral resources, foliage projective cover, and elevation, demonstrated strong predictive performance, with a TSS of 0.88, emphasising the significance of environmental variables in determining habitat suitability for honey bees. The combined model had a higher TSS of 0.96, indicating that the combination of climate and environmental variables enhances the model's performance. By the 2020-2039 period, approximately 88% of highly suitable habitats for honey bees are projected to transition from their current state to become moderate (14.84%) to marginally suitable (13.46%) areas. Predictions for the 2060-2079 period reveal a concerning trend: 100% of highly suitable land transitions into moderately (0.54%), marginally (17.56%), or not suitable areas (81.9%) for honey bees. These results emphasise the critical need for targeted conservation efforts and the implementation of policies aimed at safeguarding honey bees and the vital apiary industry.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Hueholt DM, Barnes EA, Hurrell JW, et al (2024)

Speed of environmental change frames relative ecological risk in climate change and climate intervention scenarios.

Nature communications, 15(1):3332.

Stratospheric aerosol injection is a potential method of climate intervention to reduce climate risk as decarbonization efforts continue. However, possible ecosystem impacts from the strategic design of hypothetical intervention scenarios are poorly understood. Two recent Earth system model simulations depict policy-relevant stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios with similar global temperature targets, but a 10-year delay in intervention deployment. Here we show this delay leads to distinct ecological risk profiles through climate speeds, which describe the rate of movement of thermal conditions. On a planetary scale, climate speeds in the simulation where the intervention maintains temperature are not statistically distinguishable from preindustrial conditions. In contrast, rapid temperature reduction following delayed deployment produces climate speeds over land beyond either a preindustrial baseline or no-intervention climate change with present policy. The area exposed to threshold climate speeds places different scenarios in context to their relative ecological risks. Our results support discussion of tradeoffs and timescales in future scenario design and decision-making.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Zaremba D, Michałowski JM, Klöckner CA, et al (2024)

Development and validation of the Emotional Climate Change Stories (ECCS) stimuli set.

Behavior research methods [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is widely recognised as an urgent issue, and the number of people concerned about it is increasing. While emotions are among the strongest predictors of behaviour change in the face of climate change, researchers have only recently begun to investigate this topic experimentally. This may be due to the lack of standardised, validated stimuli that would make studying such a topic in experimental settings possible. Here, we introduce a novel Emotional Climate Change Stories (ECCS) stimuli set. ECCS consists of 180 realistic short stories about climate change, designed to evoke five distinct emotions-anger, anxiety, compassion, guilt and hope-in addition to neutral stories. The stories were created based on qualitative data collected in two independent studies: one conducted among individuals highly concerned about climate change, and another one conducted in the general population. The stories were rated on the scales of valence, arousal, anger, anxiety, compassion, guilt and hope in the course of three independent studies. First, we explored the underlying structure of ratings (Study 1; n = 601). Then we investigated the replicability (Study 2; n = 307) and cross-cultural validity (Study 3; n = 346) of ECCS. The collected ratings were highly consistent across the studies. Furthermore, we found that the level of climate change concern explained the intensity of elicited emotions. The ECCS dataset is available in Polish, Norwegian and English and can be employed for experimental research on climate communication, environmental attitudes, climate action-taking, or mental health and wellbeing.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

van Daalen KR, Wyma N, Schauer-Berg J, et al (2024)

The global health community at international climate change negotiations.

BMJ global health, 9(4): pii:bmjgh-2024-015292.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Kim J, PW Rouadi (2024)

The relationship of climate change to rhinitis.

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice pii:S2213-2198(24)00396-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence is mounting that climate change is having a significant impact on exacerbations of rhinitis. Concomitantly, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing at an accelerated rate. We herein explore the impact of carbon dioxide, barometric pressure and humidity changes, anthropogenic pollutants, on aeroallergens and rhinitis hypersensitivity. Important immune mechanisms underlying the climate-driven effects on rhinitis are discussed. Also, climate change is shifting ecological zones and seasons, increasing weather extremes, and altering regional atmospheric and environmental conditions. The direct impact of these factors on promoting allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are reviewed.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Huang H, Zhou Y, Kang X, et al (2024)

Editorial: Water and carbon dynamics, ecosystem stability of forest and grassland in response to climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1306381.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Skvareninova J, Sitko R, Vido J, et al (2024)

Phenological response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to climate change in the Western Carpathian climatic-geographical zones.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1242695.

INTRODUCTION: The paper analyzes the results of 26 years (1996-2021) of phenological observations of the vegetative organs of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the Western Carpathians. It evaluates the influence of the heterogeneity of this territory, including relief and elevation, based on climatic-geographical types.

METHODS: Phenological stages, including leaf unfolding, full leaves, leaf coloring, and leaf fall, were monitored at 40 phenological stations across eight elevation zones. The study assesses trends in the occurrence of phenological stages, the length of the growing season, and phenological elevation gradients.

RESULTS: The results indicate a statistically significant earlier onset of spring phenological phases and delay in autumn phases, resulting in an average extension of the beech growing season by 12 days. Our findings confirm that the lengthening of the growing season due to warming, as an expression of climate change, is predominantly attributed to the warming in the spring months. The detected delayed onset of autumn phenophases was not due to warming in the autumn months, but other environmental factors influence it. The trend of elongation of the growing season (p<0.01) is observed in all elevation zones, with a less significant trend observed only in zones around 400 and 600 m a.s.l, signaling changes in environmental conditions across most of the elevation spectrum. Moreover, the heterogeneity of climatic-geographical types within each elevation zone increases the variability in the duration of the growing season for sites with similar elevations. By extending the growing season, it is assumed that the beech area will be changed to locations with optimal environmental conditions, especially in terms of adverse climatic events (late spring frosts, drought) during the growing season. The phenological elevation gradients reveal an earlier onset of 2.2 days per 100 m for spring phenophases and a delay of 1.1-2.9 days per 100 m for autumn phenophases.

DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the specific environmental conditions of European beech in the Western Carpathians and their potential for anticipating changes in its original area. Additionally, these observations can aid in forecasting the further development of phenological manifestations related to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Aylward B, Cunsolo A, Clayton S, et al (2024)

Examining the mental health impacts of climate change on young people in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8 Suppl 1:S3.

BACKGROUND: Climate change poses a substantial threat to the mental wellbeing of young people. Population-level research is urgently needed to help inform policies and interventions to ensure that young people are not burdened by long-term mental health impacts from climate change. We sought to identify the prevalence, distribution, and factors associated with climate change-related mental and emotional health outcomes among young people (aged 13-34 years) in Canada.

METHODS: This study is part of a larger cross-sectional survey, which examined mental and emotional health responses to climate change among individuals aged 13 years or older from across Canada. We used a multi-stage, multi-stratified random probability sampling procedure. Participants were randomly recruited through either an addressed letter or a telephone call. Online and telephone questionnaires were used to interview individuals in English, French, or Inuktitut between April 1, 2022, and March 31, 2023. Data were weighted by age and province using population estimates from Statistics Canada and analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analyses, and multivariable regression analyses.

FINDINGS: The full survey included 2476 participants, with a subgroup of 409 young people. Of the 401 respondents who provided their gender identity, 215 (54%) identified as cisgender women, 167 (42%) identified as cisgender men, and 19 (5%) identified as non-binary. Preliminary results suggest that young people in Canada experience a wide range of climate-related emotional and mental health outcomes. More than 70% of respondents in the young people subgroup reported having at least mild levels of sadness, anger, worry, anxiety, concern, helplessness, hopelessness, or powerlessness related to climate change. The severity of climate-related emotional responses differed by gender, with non-binary respondents and cisgender women reporting higher average levels of distress than cisgender men. Regional differences were also observed, with northern regions and urban locations reporting more severe reactions.

INTERPRETATION: This study builds on the understanding of the burden of climate change on the mental health of young people. If unaddressed, the impact of this burden could have long-standing and wide-reaching public health and related socioeconomic effects.

FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, ArcticNet, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Doctoral Fellowship, Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Scholarship, and Alberta Innovates Graduate Student Scholarship.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Hounkpatin H, Nieto-Sanchez C, Castellano Pleguezuelo V, et al (2024)

How are health systems in sub-Saharan Africa adapting to protect human health from climate change threats? A scoping review and case study.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8 Suppl 1:S10.

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa stands out as one of the regions most affected by the climate crisis, while it has contributed to the problem only marginally. The foreseen negative effect on health adds great stress to the already overburdened health systems. Health systems' adaptation to climate change is, therefore, urgently needed to better protect human health. There is, however, scant evidence on how adaption is being planned and implemented in Africa. The aim of this study was to review the literature on health system adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa.

METHODS: In this scoping review and case study, we first carried out the scoping review, searching for publications on adaptation measures using the PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases on July 1, 2023. We included papers in English and French that addressed the adaptation of health systems in countries in sub-Saharan Africa without time limit. Second, we did a case study of the design and implementation of the National Adaptation Plan of Benin, with a specific focus on the policy-making process underlying the plan, whereby we used the health policy triangle as a policy analysis framework. Data were collected through a document review of national policy plans, reports, and evaluations.

FINDINGS: A total of 14 papers met the inclusion criteria, showing that climate change adaptation remains a niche in the literature for sub-Saharan Africa. Most included papers were authored by individuals from high-income countries. Health system adaptation measures cover seven domains: health systems strengthening; policy and planning; financing and implementation; information and capacity building; societal resilience; disaster risk prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery; and mitigation. The review found that the dominant role of global agencies in supporting or steering health system adaptation planning contributes to policy mimicry across countries, as confirmed by the case study of the adaptation plan in Benin. Benin's National Adaptation Plan prioritised three climate hazards: heat, drought, and flooding. Although the financial and technical inputs of international agencies effectively support Benin's adaptation planning, these inputs might induce a more narrow focus that does not fully respond to Benin's needs in terms of climate shocks and adaptation priorities.

INTERPRETATION: Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa are already adapting to climate change. Future research could focus on how national governments could develop adaptation plans that are responsive to local needs by making the needs analysis and priority-setting processes more inclusive of local stakeholders.

FUNDING: The Belgian Directorate-General for Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Kotz M, Levermann A, L Wenz (2024)

The economic commitment of climate change.

Nature, 628(8008):551-557.

Global projections of macroeconomic climate-change damages typically consider impacts from average annual and national temperatures over long time horizons[1-6]. Here we use recent empirical findings from more than 1,600 regions worldwide over the past 40 years to project sub-national damages from temperature and precipitation, including daily variability and extremes[7,8]. Using an empirical approach that provides a robust lower bound on the persistence of impacts on economic growth, we find that the world economy is committed to an income reduction of 19% within the next 26 years independent of future emission choices (relative to a baseline without climate impacts, likely range of 11-29% accounting for physical climate and empirical uncertainty). These damages already outweigh the mitigation costs required to limit global warming to 2 °C by sixfold over this near-term time frame and thereafter diverge strongly dependent on emission choices. Committed damages arise predominantly through changes in average temperature, but accounting for further climatic components raises estimates by approximately 50% and leads to stronger regional heterogeneity. Committed losses are projected for all regions except those at very high latitudes, at which reductions in temperature variability bring benefits. The largest losses are committed at lower latitudes in regions with lower cumulative historical emissions and lower present-day income.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Nori-Sarma A, S Galea (2024)

Climate change and mental health: a call for a global research agenda.

The lancet. Psychiatry, 11(5):316-317.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Kotcher J, Patel L, Wheat S, et al (2024)

How to communicate about climate change with patients.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 385:e079831.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Iqbal S, Xu J, Saleem Arif M, et al (2024)

Could soil microplastic pollution exacerbate climate change? A meta-analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00849-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics pollution and climate change are primarily investigated in isolation, despite their joint threat to the environment. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted during: the production of plastic and rubber, the use and degradation of plastic, and after contamination of environment. This is the first meta-analysis to assess underlying causal relationships and the influence of likely mediators. We included 60 peer-reviewed empirical studies; estimating GHGs emissions effect size and global warming potential (GWP), according to key microplastics properties and soil conditions. We investigated interrelationships with microbe functional gene expression. Overall, microplastics contamination was associated with increased GHGs emissions, with the strongest effect (60%) on CH4 emissions. Polylactic-acid caused 32% higher CO2 emissions, but only 1% of total GWP. Phenol-formaldehyde had the greatest (175%) GWP via 182% increased N2O emissions. Only polystyrene resulted in reduced GWP by 50%, due to N2O mitigation. Polyethylene caused the maximum (60%) CH4 emissions. Shapes of microplastics differed in GWP: fibre had the greatest GWP (66%) whereas beads reduced GWP by 53%. Films substantially increased emissions of all GHGs: 14% CO2, 10% N2O and 60% CH4. Larger-sized microplastics had higher GWP (125%) due to their 9% CO2 and 63% N2O emissions. GWP rose sharply if soil microplastics content exceeded 0.5%. Higher CO2 emissions, ranging from 4% to 20%, arose from soil which was either fine, saturated or had high-carbon content. Higher N2O emissions, ranging from 10% to 95%, arose from soils that had either medium texture, saturated water content or low-carbon content. Both CO2 and N2O emissions were 43% to 56% higher from soils with neutral pH. We conclude that microplastics contamination can cause raised GHGs emissions, posing a risk of exacerbating climate-change. We show clear links between GHGs emissions, microplastics properties, soil characteristics and soil microbe functional gene expression. Further research is needed regarding underlying mechanisms and processes.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Zhu Q, Zhou M, Zare Sakhvidi MJ, et al (2024)

Projecting heat-related cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to human-induced climate change in China.

EBioMedicine, 103:105119 pii:S2352-3964(24)00154-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been found to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and temperature variability. This study aimed to assess the extent to which human-induced climate change contributes to future heat-related CVD burdens.

METHODS: Daily data on CVD mortality and temperature were collected in 161 Chinese communities from 2007 to 2013. The association between heat and CVD mortality was established using a two-stage time-series design. Under the natural forcing, human-induced, and combined scenarios, we then separately projected excess cause-/age-/region-/education-specific mortality from future high temperature in 2010-2100, assuming no adaptation and population changes.

FINDINGS: Under shared socioeconomic pathway with natural forcing scenario (SSP2-4.5-nat), heat-related attributable fraction of CVD deaths decreased slightly from 3.3% [95% empirical confidence interval (eCI): 0.3, 5.8] in the 2010s to 2.8% (95% eCI: 0.1, 5.2) in the 2090s, with relative change of -0.4% (95% eCI: -0.8, 0.0). However, for combined natural and human-induced forcings, this estimate would surge to 8.9% (95% eCI: 1.5, 15.7), 14.4% (95% eCI: 1.5, 25.3), 21.3% (95% eCI: -0.6, 39.4), and 28.7% (95% eCI: -3.3, 48.0) in the 2090s under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. When excluding the natural forcing, the number of human-induced heat-related CVD deaths would increase from approximately eight thousand (accounting for 31% of total heat-related CVD deaths) in the 2010s to 33,052 (68%), 63,283 (80%), 101,091 (87%), and 141,948 (90%) in the 2090s under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. Individuals with stroke, females, the elderly, people living in rural areas, and those with lower education level would exhibit heightened susceptibility to future high temperature. In addition, Southern and Eastern regions of China were expected to experience a faster increase in heat-related attributable fraction of CVD deaths.

INTERPRETATION: Human activities would significantly amplify the future burden of heat-related CVD. Our study findings suggested that active adaptation and mitigation measures towards future warming could yield substantial health benefits for the patients with CVD.

FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Andreae M, Shultz JM, Shepherd JM, et al (2024)

Weathering the storms of climate change: Preparing persons with disabilities and the physiatrists who provide their care for extreme hurricanes.

PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation [Epub ahead of print].

Climate-driven disasters have disproportionate and often devastating consequences on individuals with disabilities. Warming ocean and air temperatures are fueling more extreme tropical cyclones, further endangering those living in at-risk regions. Although hurricane preparedness is particularly critical for those with functional impairments and/or special medical needs, studies show such persons are less ready for disasters than the general population. This review calls attention to the time-urgent need to improve hurricane readiness among persons with disabilities. It summarizes evidence that climate change is resulting in cyclonic storms that are increasingly jeopardizing the health and safety of affected persons and reflects on how this trend may compound the particular hardships those with disabilities experience during times of disaster. It identifies unique storm-related challenges faced by patient populations commonly cared for by physiatrists, including those with stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and limb loss. Available research pertaining to the gaps in emergency preparedness practices among persons with disabilities is reviewed as are potential strategies to mitigate barriers to achieving disaster readiness and resilience. Lastly, the review provides physiatrists with a comprehensive guide for optimally safeguarding their patients before, during, and after catastrophic hurricanes.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Makuyana T, K Dube (2024)

Mapping disability and climate change knowledge base in Scopus using bibliometric analysis.

African journal of disability, 13:1339.

BACKGROUND: Climate change and disability are rarely addressed by academic scholars within the spectrum of disabilities and as a single field of study. However, the intersectionality of disability exacerbates the vulnerability of people with disabilities to climate change as climate change frameworks in the Global North and South continue excluding them.

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to map the research-based knowledge housed in Scopus on disability and climate change. At the same time, it provides insights into innovative (novelty) ways of thinking and proposes a futuristic research agenda.

METHOD: A bibliometric analysis was conducted on Scopus-indexed articles using VOSviewer to map co-occurrences of keywords and co-authorship, and a manual thematic-scoping review augmented the data analysis.

RESULTS: The disability and climate change debate as a joint study evolved from concern among health practitioners to human rights and social inclusion.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is a skewness towards mental health and medical sociology lens, while other sub-groups of persons with disabilities are yet to be engaged in co-creating disability-inclusive climate change knowledge.

CONTRIBUTION: Thematic areas emerged as gaps that future studies embed principles enshrined in the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Sustainable Development Goals.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Ribeiro V, Grossi E, Levin-Carrion Y, et al (2024)

An Interactive Mapping and Case Discussion Seminar Introducing Medical Students to Climate Change, Environmental Justice, and Health.

MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, 20:11398.

INTRODUCTION: Integrating climate change and health into a medical school curriculum is critical for future physicians who will manage health crises caused by a rapidly changing climate. Although medical schools have increasingly included climate change in the curriculum, there remains a need to address the link between the climate crisis, environmental justice, and historical policies that shape environmental health disparities in local communities.

METHODS: In academic years 2021-2022 (AY22) and 2022-2023 (AY23), second-year medical students participated in a 2.5-hour seminar utilizing didactic teaching and small breakout groups that included interactive mapping activities and case scenarios. Learner knowledge and attitudes were self-assessed using pre- and postcurriculum surveys and a quiz. Qualitative thematic and content analysis was used to evaluate short-answer quiz responses and feedback.

RESULTS: Of 357 students who participated in the seminar, 208 (58%) completed both the precurriculum and postcurriculum surveys. Self-assessed ability increased significantly for all educational objectives across both years. Attitudes on the importance of climate change knowledge for patient health also improved from a mean of 3.5 precurriculum to 4.2 postcurriculum (difference = 0.7, p < .01) in AY22 and from 3.6 pre- to 4.3 postcurriculum (difference = 0.7, p < .01) in AY23 on a 5-point Likert scale.

DISCUSSION: This climate change and health session highlighting the link between environmental policy and climate change health vulnerability in the local context was successful in improving students' self-assessed ability across all stated educational objectives. Students cited the interactive small-group sessions as a major strength.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Islam MT, Kamal ASMM, Islam MM, et al (2024)

Impact of climate change on dengue incidence in Singapore: time-series seasonal analysis.

International journal of environmental health research [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to identify the meteorological factors that contribute to dengue epidemics. The monthly incidence of dengue was used as the outcome variable, while maximum temperature, humidity, precipitation, and sunshine hours were used as independent variables. The results showed a consistent increase in monthly dengue cases from 2013 to 2021, with seasonal patterns observed in stationary time-series data. The ARIMA (2, 1, 3) × seasonal (0, 1, 2)12 model was used based on its lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values. The analysis revealed that a 1-unit increase in rainfall was positively correlated with a small 0.062-unit increase in dengue cases, whereas a 1-unit increase in humidity was negatively associated, leading to a substantial reduction of approximately 16.34 cases. This study highlights the importance of incorporating weather data into national dengue prevention programs to enhance public awareness and to promote recommended safety measures.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Porcher S (2024)

The world needs a COP for water like the one for climate change.

Nature, 628(8008):502.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Morales M, Arp HPH, Castro G, et al (2024)

Eco-toxicological and climate change effects of sludge thermal treatments: Pathways towards zero pollution and negative emissions.

Journal of hazardous materials, 470:134242 pii:S0304-3894(24)00821-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The high moisture content and the potential presence of hazardous organic compounds (HOCs) and metals (HMs) in sewage sludge (SS) pose technical and regulatory challenges for its circular economy valorisation. Thermal treatments are expected to reduce the volume of SS while producing energy and eliminating HOCs. In this study, we integrate quantitative analysis of SS concentration of 12 HMs and 61 HOCs, including organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with life-cycle assessment to estimate removal efficiency of pollutants, climate change mitigation benefits and toxicological effects of existing and alternative SS treatments (involving pyrolysis, incineration, and/or anaerobic digestion). Conventional SS treatment leaves between 24 % and 40 % of OPFRs unabated, while almost no degradation occurs for PFAS. Thermal treatments can degrade more than 93% of target OPFRs and 95 % of target PFAS (with the rest released to effluents). The different treatments affect how HMs are emitted across environmental compartments. Conventional treatments also show higher climate change impacts than thermal treatments. Overall, thermal treatments can effectively reduce the HOCs emitted to the environment while delivering negative emissions (from about -56 to -111 kg CO2-eq per tonne of sludge, when pyrolysis is involved) and producing renewable energy from heat integration and valorization.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Yang J, Jiang X, Ma Y, et al (2024)

Potential global distribution of Setaria italica, an important species for dryland agriculture in the context of climate change.

PloS one, 19(4):e0301751 pii:PONE-D-23-42450.

Setaria italica (S. italica, Linnaeus, 1753) is a drought-resistant, barren-tolerant, and widely adapted C-4 crop that plays a vital role in maintaining agricultural and economic stability in arid and barren regions of the world. However, the potential habitat of S. italica under current and future climate scenarios remains to be explored. Predicting the potential global geographic distribution of S. italica and clarifying its ecological requirements can help promote sustainable agriculture, which is crucial for addressing the global food crisis. In this study, we predicted the potential global geographic distribution of S. italica based on 3,154 global distribution records using the Maxent model and ArcGIS software. We assessed the constraints on its potential distribution based on the contribution of environmental factors variables. The predictive accuracy of the Maxent model was evaluated using AUC values, TSS values, and Kappa statistics, respectively. The results showed that the Maxent model had a high prediction accuracy, and the simulation results were also reliable; the total suitable habitats of S. italica is 5.54×107 km2, which mainly included the United States (North America), Brazil (South America), Australia (Oceania), China, India (Asia), and the Russian Federation (Europe). The most suitable habitat of S. italica was 0.52×107 km2, accounting for 9.44% of the total areas, mainly in the United States, India, the Russian Federation, and China. Soil and precipitation (driest monthly precipitation, hottest seasonal precipitation) are the most critical factors limiting the potential distribution of S. italica. Compared with the modern potential distribution, we predict that the four future climate change scenarios will result in varying reductions in the possible geographic ranges of S. italica. Overall, climate change may significantly affect the global distribution of S. italica, altering its worldwide production and trade patterns.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Grassi A, Pagliarani I, Avio L, et al (2024)

Bioprospecting for plant resilience to climate change: mycorrhizal symbionts of European and American beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria and Ammophila breviligulata) from maritime sand dunes.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and global warming have contributed to increase terrestrial drought, causing negative impacts on agricultural production. Drought stress may be addressed using novel agronomic practices and beneficial soil microorganisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), able to enhance plant use efficiency of soil resources and water and increase plant antioxidant defence systems. Specific traits functional to plant resilience improvement in dry conditions could have developed in AMF growing in association with xerophytic plants in maritime sand dunes, a drought-stressed and low-fertility environment. The most studied of such plants are European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria Link), native to Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), found in North America. Given the critical role of AMF for the survival of these beachgrasses, knowledge of the composition of AMF communities colonizing their roots and rhizospheres and their distribution worldwide is fundamental for the location and isolation of native AMF as potential candidates to be tested for promoting crop growth and resilience under climate change. This review provides quantitative and qualitative data on the occurrence of AMF communities of A. arenaria and A. breviligulata growing in European, Mediterranean basin and North American maritime sand dunes, as detected by morphological studies, trap culture isolation and molecular methods, and reports on their symbiotic performance. Moreover, the review indicates the dominant AMF species associated with the two Ammophila species and the common species to be further studied to assess possible specific traits increasing their host plants resilience toward drought stress under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Newsome D, Newsome KB, SA Miller (2023)

Teaching, Learning, and Climate Change: Anticipated Impacts and Mitigation Strategies for Educators.

Behavior and social issues pii:129 [Epub ahead of print].

The impacts of climate change present numerous risks to the present and future state of teaching and learning. Natural disasters such as hurricanes, heat waves, flooding, blizzards, wildfires, sea level rise, and droughts threaten our ability to produce the learning outcomes promised to our pupils. Taking action to adapt to imminent climate-related challenges and mitigating measures that provoke and prolong ecological challenges is critical to the survival of these cultural institutions. Paradoxically, centers of teaching and learning can be seen as both victims of climate change as well as an instrumental part of the solution. Providing an efficient and effective education to the world's youth is a catalyst for the innovations that future generations of skilled professionals will use to combat climate change. Educational settings are also crucial venues for raising social awareness about anthropogenic climate change to undermine the complacency and denialism that have stagnated the global response to this crisis thus far. This paper incorporates suggestions from climate scientists and learning scientists about how to change how we teach, where we teach, and what we teach to ensure teaching enterprises survive and thrive in the face of a changing climate.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Miller J, Howard C, L Alqodmani (2024)

Advocating for a Healthy Response to Climate Change - COP28 and the Health Community.

The New England journal of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Banda LB, Dejene SW, Mzumara TI, et al (2024)

An ensemble model predicts an upward range shift of the endemic and endangered Yellow-throated Apalis (Apalis flavigularis) under future climate change in Malawi.

Ecology and evolution, 14(4):e11283 pii:ECE311283.

Climate change poses a significant threat to endemic and endangered montane bird species with limited elevation and temperature ranges. Understanding their responses to changes in climate is essential for informing conservation actions. This study focused on the montane dwelling Yellow-throated Apalis (Apalis flavigularis) in Malawi, aiming to identify key factors affecting its distribution and predicting its potential distribution under different climate change scenarios. Using an ensemble species distribution modeling approach, we found that the mean temperature of the driest quarter (Bio9), mean temperature of the wettest quarter (Bio8), and precipitation seasonality (Bio15) were the most important variables that influenced the distribution of this species. Across future climate scenarios, the species' geographic range declined where range losses varied from 57.74% (2050 RCP 6.0) to 82.88% (2070 RCP 6.0). We estimate its current range size to be 549 km[2] which is lower than some previous estimates of its spatial distribution. Moreover, our projections indicate that under future climate scenarios, the species will shift to higher elevations with a large proportion of suitable areas located outside forests, posing challenges for adaptation. Our results suggest that the species may be under greater threat than previously thought; hence, urgent conservation actions are required. We recommend reinforcing the protection of areas predicted to remain suitable under future climate scenarios and the development of a species conservation action plan.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Jia H, Fei X, Zhu J, et al (2024)

Soil respiration and its response to climate change and anthropogenic factors in a karst plateau wetland, southwest China.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8653.

It is important to investigate the responses of greenhouse gases to climate change (temperature, precipitation) and anthropogenic factors in plateau wetland. Based on the DNDC model, we used meteorological, soil, and land cover data to simulate the soil CO2 emission pattern and its responses to climate change and anthropogenic factors in Guizhou, China. The results showed that the mean soil CO2 emission flux in the Caohai Karst Plateau Wetland was 5.89 ± 0.17 t·C·ha[-1]·yr[-1] from 2000 to 2019, and the annual variation showed an increasing trend with the rate of 23.02 kg·C·ha[-1]·yr[-1]. The soil total annual mean CO2 emissions were 70.62 ± 2.04 Gg·C·yr[-1] (annual growth rate was 0.28 Gg·C·yr[-1]). Caohai wetland has great spatial heterogeneity. The emissions around Caohai Lake were high (the areas with high, middle, and low values accounted for 3.07%, 70.96%, and 25.97%, respectively), and the emission pattern was characterized by a decrease in radiation from Caohai Lake to the periphery. In addition, the cropland and forest areas exhibited high intensities (7.21 ± 0.15 t·C·ha[-1]·yr[-1] and 6.73 ± 0.58 t·C·ha[-1]·yr[-1], respectively) and high total emissions (54.97 ± 1.16 Gg·C·yr[-1] and 10.24 ± 0.88 Gg·C·yr[-1], respectively). Croplands and forests were the major land cover types controlling soil CO2 emissions in the Caohai wetland, while anthropogenic factors (cultivation) significantly increased soil CO2 emissions. Results showed that the soil CO2 emissions were positively correlated with temperature and precipitation; and the temperature change had a greater impact on soil respiration than the change in precipitation. Our results indicated that future climate change (increased temperature and precipitation) may promote an increase in soil CO2 emissions in karst plateau wetlands, and reasonable control measures (e.g. returning cropland to lakes and reducing anthropogenic factors) are the keys to controlling CO2 emissions.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Somboon S, Rossopa B, Yodda S, et al (2024)

Mitigating methane emissions and global warming potential while increasing rice yield using biochar derived from leftover rice straw in a tropical paddy soil.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8706.

The sustainable management of leftover rice straw through biochar production to mitigate CH4 emissions and enhance rice yield remains uncertain and undefined. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of using biochar derived from rice straw left on fields after harvest on greenhouse gas emissions, global warming potential (GWP), and rice yield in the paddy field. The experiment included three treatments: chemical fertilizer (CF), rice straw (RS, 10 t ha[-1]) + CF, and rice straw-derived biochar (BC, 3 t ha[-1] based on the amount of product remaining after pyrolysis) + CF. Compared with CF, BC + CF significantly reduced cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions, net GWP, and greenhouse gas emission intensity by 42.9%, 37.4%, 39.5%, and 67.8%, respectively. In contrast, RS + CF significantly increased cumulative CH4 emissions and net GWP by 119.3% and 13.8%, respectively. The reduced CH4 emissions were mainly caused by the addition of BC + CF, which did not increase the levels of dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, consequently resulting in reduced archaeal abundance, unlike those observed in RS + CF. The BC + CF also enhanced soil total organic carbon content and rice grain yield. This study indicated that using biochar derived from leftover rice straw mitigates greenhouse gas emissions and improves rice productivity in tropical paddy soil.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Anonymous (2024)

Correction to "Genomic architecture controls multivariate adaptation to climate change".

Global change biology, 30(4):e17270.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Chacowry A (2023)

Meeting the challenges to climate change adaptation: an NGO community-based successful projects in Mauritius.

GeoJournal pii:10850 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and anthropogenic pressure are among the main drivers of coastal environment degradation in Mauritius, a small island developing state. Globally, mitigation and adaptation strategies applied to the complex socio-ecological coastal systems offer effective solutions in curbing the adverse impacts. In environmental protection, Non-Governmental Organisations' (NGOs) role was first recognised in the 1992 UN Agenda 21 for Sustainable Development, and they are now integrated with most coastal environmental rehabilitation programmes. This paper describes two climate-based adaptation projects undertaken about a decade ago by an NGO in Mauritius. The projects were community-driven in all phases of implementation. The first project focussed on the Ecosystem-based-adaptation (EbA) approach of restoring a mangrove ecosystem and improving community life at Le Morne Village. The second project aimed at the rehabilitation of a historical site and the consolidation of a degraded coastline at Poudre d'Or Village. Components of 'hard' and 'soft' adaptive measures were applied as pathways to guide project implementation. The projects required extensive field visits, focus group interviews, and participatory inputs from all stakeholders. A 10-year assessment of the processes applied in the conceptualisation, implementation, and in evaluating the outcomes was gleaned from regular visits to local inhabitants, stakeholders, and NGO members since the completion of the projects. In 2022, an informal interview at Le Morne and a survey at Poudre d'Or showed that both projects resulted in positive outcomes. Good governance capacity and rigour in the management of the project team were highlighted as crucial attributes to the success of the projects.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Yarzábal LA, Salazar LMB, RA Batista-García (2021)

Climate change, melting cryosphere and frozen pathogens: Should we worry…?.

Environmental sustainability (Singapore), 4(3):489-501.

UNLABELLED: Permanently frozen environments (glaciers, permafrost) are considered as natural reservoirs of huge amounts of microorganisms, mostly dormant, including human pathogens. Due to global warming, which increases the rate of ice-melting, approximately 4 × 10[21] of these microorganisms are released annually from their frozen confinement and enter natural ecosystems, in close proximity to human settlements. Some years ago, the hypothesis was put forward that this massive release of potentially-pathogenic microbes-many of which disappeared from the face of the Earth thousands and even millions of years ago-could give rise to epidemics. The recent anthrax outbreaks that occurred in Siberia, and the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in glaciers worldwide, seem to confirm this hypothesis. In that context, the present review summarizes the currently available scientific evidence that allows us to imagine a near future in which epidemic outbreaks, similar to the abovementioned, could occur as a consequence of the resurrection and release of microbes from glaciers and permafrost.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (10.1007/s42398-021-00184-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Jiricka-Pürrer A, Brandenburg C, U Pröbstl-Haider (2020)

City tourism pre- and post-covid-19 pandemic - Messages to take home for climate change adaptation and mitigation?.

Journal of outdoor recreation and tourism, 31:100329.

The paper presents the status quo on climate change impacts on city tourism in Austria describing the impacts by air travel and a short stay on the greenhouse gas emissions and the changing conditions in the city. For Austrian cities, depending on location and topography, heavy rainfall events, storms and heat waves in particular could become increasingly relevant in the tourism context. For medium-sized and large cities, heat is the most frequently discussed topic in connection with possible adaptation potentials. The analysis of challenges shows a strong overlap of adaptation targets in city tourism with adaptation challenges for city planning including connection to the sub-urban surrounding areas to confront climate change impacts. Covid-19 pandemic, additionally, offered the opportunity to discuss a new re-start of the city-tourism against the experience during the shutdown period in spring 2020. The paper argues that we can learn from the current health crisis for coping with climate change related extreme events and to increase achievements in climate change mitigation. Firstly, the pandemic provides a strong ability to discuss the impact of city tourism due to short-term air travel and options to enhance more climate-friendly options on the other hand. Secondly, Covid-19 emphasized the need to reconsider the role of free spaces in metropolitan areas as well as their accessibility. Herewith synergies with climate change adaptation are likely when questioning the availability and accessibility of green and blue infrastructure as well as their capacities. Challenges including crowding and impacts by over tourism on public free spaces will require joint strategies involving all public and private institutions (including local communities and businesses) responsible for the maintenance of green and blue free spaces. Thirdly, the strong interactions between urban and suburban areas became evident once more, which will also be very relevant for city tourism in the future (e.g. in times of heat waves). Reflection on the transferability of coping with such crowding effects, related to the adaptive behaviour of residents and tourists in times of severe heat waves, might be relevant for both city tourism and summer tourism destinations near metropolitan areas. Finally, the Covid-19 crisis encourages discussions on over-tourism in metropolitan destinations in favour of a more balanced approach, in particular in inner city areas and around major sightseeing attractions.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Jansen MAK, Andrady AL, Barnes PW, et al (2024)

Environmental plastics in the context of UV radiation, climate change, and the Montreal Protocol.

Global change biology, 30(4):e17279.

There are close links between solar UV radiation, climate change, and plastic pollution. UV-driven weathering is a key process leading to the degradation of plastics in the environment but also the formation of potentially harmful plastic fragments such as micro- and nanoplastic particles. Estimates of the environmental persistence of plastic pollution, and the formation of fragments, will need to take in account plastic dispersal around the globe, as well as projected UV radiation levels and climate change factors.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Gauzens B, Rosenbaum B, Kalinkat G, et al (2024)

Flexible foraging behaviour increases predator vulnerability to climate change.

Nature climate change, 14(4):387-392.

Higher temperatures are expected to reduce species coexistence by increasing energetic demands. However, flexible foraging behaviour could balance this effect by allowing predators to target specific prey species to maximize their energy intake, according to principles of optimal foraging theory. Here we test these assumptions using a large dataset comprising 2,487 stomach contents from six fish species with different feeding strategies, sampled across environments with varying prey availability over 12 years in Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea). Our results show that foraging shifts from trait- to density-dependent prey selectivity in warmer and more productive environments. This behavioural change leads to lower consumption efficiency at higher temperature as fish select more abundant but less energetically rewarding prey, thereby undermining species persistence and biodiversity. By integrating this behaviour into dynamic food web models, our study reveals that flexible foraging leads to lower species coexistence and biodiversity in communities under global warming.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Hearn AX, Huber F, Koehrsen J, et al (2024)

The perceived potential of religion in mitigating climate change and how this is being realized in Germany and Switzerland.

Journal of environmental studies and sciences, 14(2):342-357.

Scholars of religion have repeatedly debated and contested the role of religion and spirituality in combatting climate change. In recent years, the potential of religion has also become an issue among natural scientists, politicians, environmental organizations, and civil society. Indeed, the potential of religion to mitigate climate change is perceived both internally and externally, and various expectations are placed on religion. This article examines the perceived potential of religion in mitigating climate change and how this is being realized. Based on 38 interviews, conducted with representatives from religious communities and umbrella organizations in Germany and Switzerland, we focus on the areas of values, political influence, and materialization. Our results show that the potential of religion in addressing climate change remains largely unfulfilled despite increasing steps in this direction.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Hao L, Sanada A, Chi B, et al (2024)

Long-term developments in seasonal hypoxia and response to climate change: A three-decade modeling study in the Ariake Sea, Japan.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02617-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hypoxia in the Ariake Sea, Japan, is steadily increasing in both duration and spatial coverage. Hypoxia, defined as dissolved oxygen (DO) below 3 mg/L, is strongly associated with the amplified frequency of extreme rainfall events driven by climate change, which poses a mounting threat to marine ecosystems on a global scale. In this study, we employed a general three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic coastal model and a phytoplankton-based ecosystem model to identify the potential cause of seasonal hypoxic events over three decades. The results indicated a substantial decrease in bottom DO levels from 1992 to 2021, with the rate of increase in hypoxic area being 8 km[2]/yr (95 % CI: -0.38, 16.2) and the anoxic area increasing from almost non-existent to 100 km[2]. Notably, among various environmental drivers, increased river discharge was identified as a pivotal factor in the occurrence of hypoxia. Large-scale river discharge events can potentially increase water stratification, leading to the formation of hypoxia. River discharge volume and the duration of bottom hypoxia in the Ariake Sea were correlated. The duration of hypoxia was strongly associated with river discharge magnitude, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.56 to 0.82 across six observational stations. Furthermore, analysis of varied simulated environmental factors over multiple years revealed diverse responses to climate change, indicating that the Ariake Sea is prone to experiencing a decline in its physical and water quality conditions.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

El-Far A, Yousry N, Abouelmagd F, et al (2024)

Influence of climate change on emerging pathogens and human immunity.

The Egyptian journal of immunology, 31(2):71-86.

Global warming can be defined as the detectable increase in average global temperature in the last ten years regarding frequency and intensity. Climate change represents a long-term detectable climatic variability. The climatic system of the earth is disrupted because of the continuous production of greenhouse gases, which raises the risk of the emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens. In this review, we aimed to present the different mechanisms of climate change that increase human/pathogen exposure, introduce the recent concept of disaster microbiology, and discuss the effects of climate change on zoonoses as well as the effects of climate change on antibiotic resistance and human health.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Guo Y, Bai R, T Hong (2024)

Transboundary cooperation in Arctic climate change governance under geopolitical tensions.

Journal of environmental management, 358:120855 pii:S0301-4797(24)00841-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Political conflicts or geopolitical tensions can create uncertainty in addressing climate change and environmental management in the Arctic. Dissecting how actors interact with each other and form networks is important for understanding ecological and environmental management challenges during geopolitical tensions, as well as promoting better governance. We construct transboundary networks for Arctic climate change governance (ACCG) from 2013 to 2021 based on the Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT). Further, we used network descriptive statistical analysis and Temporal Exponential Random Graph Models (TERGM) to explore the structure of ACCG networks and the key factors influencing cooperation formation. The findings suggest that the overall cooperation density of the ACCG is low, and the dominant position of core actors is continuously strengthening. Non-state actors are less likely to be seen as partners and their participation depends largely on cooperation with states. The results also show that actors with similar stances and problem exposure are more likely to cooperate, but those exposed to high latitudes often choose not to cooperate; first-comers are more likely to perceive as cooperating yet they are inclined to establish internal cooperation. Additionally, two geographically proximate actors are more likely to cooperate. This indicates that under geopolitical tensions, the ACCG faces challenges not only due to the limited capacity of non-state actors to perform transboundary functions but also because the cooperation mechanisms are influenced by regional political logic. Accordingly, we further suggest policy recommendations from developing binding international frameworks to guide transboundary cooperation, enhancing cooperation among non-state actors, and ensuring the representativeness and fairness of non-Arctic actors' participation. This research provides insights into transboundary environmental management under political tensions, while also offering new pathways for analysing large-scale environmental governance structures.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Markkula I, Turunen M, Rikkonen T, et al (2024)

Climate change, cultural continuity and ecological grief: Insights from the Sámi Homeland.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

Arctic regions are warming significantly faster than other parts of the globe, leading to changes in snow, ice and weather conditions, ecosystems and local cultures. These changes have brought worry and concern and triggered feelings of loss among Arctic Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Recently, research has started to address emotional and social dimensions of climate change, framed through the concept of ecological grief. In this study, we examine sociocultural impacts of climate change and expressions of ecological grief among members of reindeer herding communities in the Sámi Homeland in Finland. Results indicate that ecological grief is felt in connection to major environmental concerns in the area: changes in winter weather and extreme weather events, Atlantic salmon decline and land use changes, which all have cultural and social consequences. Our results indicate that ecological grief is strongly associated with ecological losses, but also with political decisions regarding natural resource governance.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Barton M, Elhindi J, Dey C, et al (2024)

Climate change: A clear and present danger to mental health - Response to Amos (2023) 'Thinking clearly about climate change and mental health'.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Deng C, Zhong Q, Shao D, et al (2024)

Potential Suitable Habitats of Chili Pepper in China under Climate Change.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(7):.

Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is extensively cultivated in China, with its production highly reliant on regional environmental conditions. Given ongoing climate change, it is imperative to assess its impact on chili pepper cultivation and identify suitable habitats for future cultivation. In this study, the MaxEnt model was optimized and utilized to predict suitable habitats for open-field chili pepper cultivation, and changes in these habitats were analyzed using ArcGIS v10.8. Our results showed that the parameter settings of the optimal model were FC = LQPTH and RM = 2.7, and the critical environmental variables influencing chili pepper distribution were annual mean temperature, isothermality, maximum temperature of the warmest month, and precipitation of the warmest quarter. Under current climate conditions, suitable habitats were distributed across all provinces in China, with moderately- and highly-suitable habitats concentrated in the east of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and south of the Inner Mongolia Plateau. Under future climate scenarios, the area of suitable habitats was expected to be larger than the current ones, except for SSP126-2050s, and reached the maximum under SSP126-2090s. The overlapping suitable habitats were concentrated in the east of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and south of the Inner Mongolia Plateau under various climate scenarios. In the 2050s, the centroids of suitable habitats were predicted to shift towards the southwest, except for SSP126, whereas this trend was reversed in the 2090s. Our results suggest that climate warming is conductive to the cultivation of chili pepper, and provide scientific guidance for the introduction and cultivation of chili pepper in the face of climate warming.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Zhang S, Wang X, Kinay P, et al (2024)

Climate Change Impacts on Potato Storage.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 13(7): pii:foods13071119.

In this study, we present a comprehensive literature review of the potential impacts of climate change on potato storage. Potato preservation can help reduce food loss and waste while increasing long-term food security, as potatoes are one of the most important crops worldwide. The review's results suggest climate change can negatively affect potato storage, especially tuber sprouting and diseases in storage chambers. Lower Sielianinov coefficient values (indicating dry and hot conditions) during the vegetative season of potato growing can lead to earlier sprouting. For instance, a decrease of 0.05 in the Sielianinov coefficient during the growing season results in tubers stored at 3 °C sprouting 25 days earlier and tubers stored at 5 °C experiencing a 15-day reduction in dormancy. This is due to the fact that the dry and hot climate conditions during the vegetation period of potato planting tend to shorten potato tubers' natural dormancy, which further leads to earlier sprouting during storage. Furthermore, high Sielianinov coefficient values may lead to worse disease situations. The results also suggest that research about the impacts of climate change on potato storage is very limited at the current stage, and further studies are needed to address the key knowledge gaps identified in this study.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Čanak I, Kostelac D, Jakopović Ž, et al (2024)

Lactic Acid Bacteria of Marine Origin as a Tool for Successful Shellfish Farming and Adaptation to Climate Change Conditions.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 13(7): pii:foods13071042.

Climate change, especially in the form of temperature increase and sea acidification, poses a serious challenge to the sustainability of aquaculture and shellfish farming. In this context, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of marine origin have attracted attention due to their ability to improve water quality, stimulate the growth and immunity of organisms, and reduce the impact of stress caused by environmental changes. Through a review of relevant research, this paper summarizes previous knowledge on this group of bacteria, their application as protective probiotic cultures in mollusks, and also highlights their potential in reducing the negative impacts of climate change during shellfish farming. Furthermore, opportunities for further research and implementation of LAB as a sustainable and effective solution for adapting mariculture to changing climate conditions were identified.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Sun PW, Chang JT, Luo MX, et al (2024)

Genomic insights into local adaptation and vulnerability of Quercus longinux to climate change.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):279.

BACKGROUND: Climate change is expected to alter the factors that drive changes in adaptive variation. This is especially true for species with long life spans and limited dispersal capabilities. Rapid climate changes may disrupt the migration of beneficial genetic variations, making it challenging for them to keep up with changing environments. Understanding adaptive genetic variations in tree species is crucial for conservation and effective forest management. Our study used landscape genomic analyses and phenotypic traits from a thorough sampling across the entire range of Quercus longinux, an oak species native to Taiwan, to investigate the signals of adaptation within this species.

RESULTS: Using ecological data, phenotypic traits, and 1,933 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 205 individuals, we classified three genetic groups, which were also phenotypically and ecologically divergent. Thirty-five genes related to drought and freeze resistance displayed signatures of natural selection. The adaptive variation was driven by diverse environmental pressures such as low spring precipitation, low annual temperature, and soil grid sizes. Using linear-regression-based methods, we identified isolation by environment (IBE) as the optimal model for adaptive SNPs. Redundancy analysis (RDA) further revealed a substantial joint influence of demography, geology, and environments, suggesting a covariation between environmental gradients and colonization history. Lastly, we utilized adaptive signals to estimate the genetic offset for each individual under diverse climate change scenarios. The required genetic changes and migration distance are larger in severe climates. Our prediction also reveals potential threats to edge populations in northern and southeastern Taiwan due to escalating temperatures and precipitation reallocation.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the intricate influence of ecological heterogeneity on genetic and phenotypic adaptation of an oak species. The adaptation is also driven by some rarely studied environmental factors, including wind speed and soil features. Furthermore, the genetic offset analysis predicted that the edge populations of Q. longinux in lower elevations might face higher risks of local extinctions under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Xue S, Massazza A, Akhter-Khan SC, et al (2024)

Mental health and psychosocial interventions in the context of climate change: a scoping review.

Npj mental health research, 3(1):10.

The evidence on the impacts of climate change on mental health and wellbeing is growing rapidly. The objective of this scoping review is to understand the extent and type of existing mental health and psychosocial interventions aimed at addressing the mental health and psychosocial impacts of climate change. A scoping review methodology was followed. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to May 2022. Comprehensive gray literature search, including expert consultation, was conducted to identify interventions for which peer-reviewed academic literature may not yet be available. Data on intervention type, setting, climate stressor, mental health outcome, evaluation, and any other available details were extracted, and results were summarized narratively. Academic literature search identified 16 records and gray literature search identified a further 24 records. Altogether, 37 unique interventions or packages of interventions were identified. The interventions act at the levels of microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem through diverse mechanisms. While most interventions have not been formally evaluated, promising preliminary results support interventions in low- and middle-income-country settings disproportionately affected by climate disasters. Interventions from multidisciplinary fields are emerging to reduce psychological distress and enhance mental health and wellbeing in the context of climate change. This scoping review details existing evidence on the interventions and summarizes intervention gaps and lessons learned to inform continued intervention development and scale-up interventions.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Abdullah MA, Chuah LF, Zakariya R, et al (2024)

Evaluating climate change impacts on reef environments via multibeam echo sounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler technology.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00762-X [Epub ahead of print].

Crucial to the Earth's oceans, ocean currents dynamically react to various factors, including rotation, wind patterns, temperature fluctuations, alterations in salinity and the gravitational pull of the moon. Climate change impacts coastal ecosystems, emphasizing the need for understanding these currents. This study explores multibeam echo sounder (MBES), specifically R2-Sonic 2020, offering detailed seabed information. Investigating coral reefs, rocky reefs and artificial reefs aimed to map seafloor currents movement and their climate change responses. MBES data study explores multibeam echo sounder (MBES), specifically R2-Sonic 2020, offering detailed seabed information. Investigating coral reefs, rocky reefs and artificial reefs aimed to map seafloor currents movement and their climate change responses. MBES data viz. Bathymetry and backscatter were classified and acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) ground data were validated using random forest regression. Results indicated high precision in currents speed measurement i.e. coral reefs with 0.96, artificial reefs with 0.94 and rocky reefs with 0.97. Currents direction accuracy was notable in coral reefs with 0.85, slightly lower in rocky reefs with 0.72 and artificial reefs with 0.60. Random forest identified sediment and backscatter as key for speed prediction while direction relies on bathymetry, slope and aspect. The study emphasizes integrating sediment size, backscatter, bathymetry and ADCP data for seafloor current analysis. This multibeam data on sediments and currents support better marine spatial planning and determine biodiversity patterns planning in the reef area.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Pauline NM, GA Lema (2024)

Consideration of Climate Change on Environmental Impact Assessment in Tanzania: Challenges and Prospects.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

The potential of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process to respond to climate change impacts of development projects can only be realized with the support of policies, regulations, and actors' engagement. While considering climate change in EIA has become partly mandatory through the EU revised Directive in Europe, African countries are still lagging. This paper assesses Tanzanian policies, laws, regulations, and EIA reports to uncover consideration of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation measures, drawing from the transformational role of EIA. The methodology integrates content analysis, interpretive policy analysis, and discourse analysis. The analyses draw from environmental policy, three regulatory documents and three EIA reports in Tanzania using a multi-cases study design. The aim was to understand how considering Climate Change issues in EIA has played out in practice. Results reveal less consideration of climate change issues in EIA. The policy, laws, and regulations do not guide when and how the EIA process should consider climate change-related impacts mitigation and adaptation. The practice of EIA in the country is utterly procedural in line with regulations provisions. Consequently, environmental impact statements only profile the climatology of the study area without conducting a deeper analysis of the historical and future climate to enhance the resilience of proposed projects. The weakness exposed in the laws and regulations contributes to the challenges of responding to the impacts of climate change through the EIA process. It is possible to address climate change issues throughout the project life cycle, including design, approval, implementation, monitoring, and auditing, provided the policy and regulations guide how and when the EIA process should consider climate change issues. Additionally, increasing stakeholders' awareness and participation can enhance the EIA process's potential to respond to the impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Hosseini N, Ghorbanpour M, H Mostafavi (2024)

The influence of climate change on the future distribution of two Thymus species in Iran: MaxEnt model-based prediction.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):269.

Within a few decades, the species habitat was reshaped at an alarming rate followed by climate change, leading to mass extinction, especially for sensitive species. Species distribution models (SDMs), which estimate both present and future species distribution, have been extensively developed to investigate the impacts of climate change on species distribution and assess habitat suitability. In the West Asia essential oils of T. daenensis and T. kotschyanus include high amounts of thymol and carvacrol and are commonly used as herbal tea, spice, flavoring agents and medicinal plants. Therefore, this study aimed to model these Thymus species in Iran using the MaxEnt model under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) for the years 2050 and 2070. The findings revealed that the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio10) was the most significant variable affecting the distribution of T. daenensis. In the case of T. kotschyanus, slope percentage was the primary influencing factor. The MaxEnt modeling also demonstrated excellent performance, as indicated by all the Area Under the Curve (AUC) values exceeding 0.9. Moreover, based on the projections, the two mentioned species are expected to undergo negative area changes in the coming years. These results can serve as a valuable achievement for developing adaptive management strategies aimed at enhancing protection and sustainable utilization in the context of global climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Bisanti L, La Corte C, Dara M, et al (2024)

Global warming-related response after bacterial challenge in Astroides calycularis, a Mediterranean thermophilic coral.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8495.

A worldwide increase in the prevalence of coral diseases and mortality has been linked to ocean warming due to changes in coral-associated bacterial communities, pathogen virulence, and immune system function. In the Mediterranean basin, the worrying upward temperature trend has already caused recurrent mass mortality events in recent decades. To evaluate how elevated seawater temperatures affect the immune response of a thermophilic coral species, colonies of Astroides calycularis were exposed to environmental (23 °C) or elevated (28 °C) temperatures, and subsequently challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using immunolabeling with specific antibodies, we detected the production of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), molecules involved in coral immune responses, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) activity, involved in general responses to thermal stress. A histological approach allowed us to characterize the tissue sites of activation (epithelium and/or gastroderm) under different experimental conditions. The activity patterns of the examined markers after 6 h of LPS stimulation revealed an up-modulation at environmental temperature. Under warmer conditions plus LPS-challenge, TLR4-NF-kB activation was almost completely suppressed, while constituent elevated values were recorded under thermal stress only. An HSP70 up-regulation appeared in both treatments at elevated temperature, with a significantly higher activation in LPS-challenge colonies. Such an approach is useful for further understanding the molecular pathogen-defense mechanisms in corals in order to disentangle the complex interactive effects on the health of these ecologically relevant organisms related to global climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Afifa , Arshad K, Hussain N, et al (2024)

Air pollution and climate change as grand challenges to sustainability.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02516-6 [Epub ahead of print].

There is a cross-disciplinary link between air pollution, climate crisis, and sustainable lifestyle as they are the most complex struggles of the present century. This review takes an in-depth look at this relationship, considering carbon dioxide emissions primarily from the burning of fossil fuels as the main contributor to global warming and focusing on primary SLCPs such as methane and ground-level ozone. Such pollutants severely alter the climate through the generation of greenhouse gases. The discussion is extensive and includes best practices from conventional pollution control technologies to hi-tech alternatives, including electric vehicles, the use of renewables, and green decentralized solutions. It also addresses policy matters, such as imposing stricter emissions standards, setting stronger environmental regulations, and rethinking some economic measures. Besides that, new developments such as congestion charges, air ionization, solar-assisted cleaning systems, and photocatalytic materials are among the products discussed. These strategies differ in relation to the local conditions and therefore exhibit a varying effectiveness level, but they remain evident as a tool of pollution deterrence. This stresses the importance of holistic and inclusive approach in terms of engineering, policies, stakeholders, and ecological spheres to tackle.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Voosen P (2024)

Clearer skies may be accelerating global warming.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 384(6692):147-148.

Study suggests declining pollution is one cause of worldwide rise in absorbed solar energy.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Adamczyk B (2024)

Tannins and Climate Change: Are Tannins Able To Stabilize Carbon in the Soil?.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The interaction between tannins and proteins has been studied intensively for more than half a century as a result of its significance for various applications. In chemical ecology, tannins are involved in response to environmental stress, including biotic (pathogens and herbivores) and abiotic (e.g., drought) stress, and in carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. This perspective summarizes the newest insights into the role of tannins in soil processes, including the interaction with fungi leading to C stabilization. Recent knowledge presented here may help to optimize land management to increase or preserve soil C to mitigate climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Chowdhury M, Martínez-Sansigre A, Mole M, et al (2024)

AI-driven remote sensing enhances Mediterranean seagrass monitoring and conservation to combat climate change and anthropogenic impacts.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8360.

Seagrasses are undergoing widespread loss due to anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Since 1960, the Mediterranean seascape lost 13-50% of the areal extent of its dominant and endemic seagrass-Posidonia oceanica, which regulates its ecosystem. Many conservation and restoration projects failed due to poor site selection and lack of long-term monitoring. Here, we present a fast and efficient operational approach based on a deep-learning artificial intelligence model using Sentinel-2 data to map the spatial extent of the meadows, enabling short and long-term monitoring, and identifying the impacts of natural and human-induced stressors and changes at different timescales. We apply ACOLITE atmospheric correction to the satellite data and use the output to train the model along with the ancillary data and therefore, map the extent of the meadows. We apply noise-removing filters to enhance the map quality. We obtain 74-92% of overall accuracy, 72-91% of user's accuracy, and 81-92% of producer's accuracy, where high accuracies are observed at 0-25 m depth. Our model is easily adaptable to other regions and can produce maps in in-situ data-scarce regions, providing a first-hand overview. Our approach can be a support to the Mediterranean Posidonia Network, which brings together different stakeholders such as authorities, scientists, international environmental organizations, professionals including yachting agents and marinas from the Mediterranean countries to protect all P. oceanica meadows in the Mediterranean Sea by 2030 and increase each country's capability to protect these meadows by providing accurate and up-to-date maps to prevent its future degradation.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Pearson H (2024)

The rise of eco-anxiety: scientists wake up to the mental-health toll of climate change.

Nature, 628(8007):256-258.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Anonymous (2024)

What happens when climate change and the mental-health crisis collide?.

Nature, 628(8007):235.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Onyekwelu I, V Sharda (2024)

Root proliferation adaptation strategy improved maize productivity in the US Great Plains: Insights from crop simulation model under future climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02348-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Adaptation measures are essential for reducing the impact of future climate risks on agricultural production systems. The present study focuses on implementing an adaptation strategy to mitigate the impact of future climate change on rainfed maize production in the Eastern Kansas River Basin (EKSRB), an important rainfed maize-producing region in the US Great Plains, which faces potential challenges of future climate risks due to a significant east-to-west aridity gradient. We used a calibrated CERES-Maize crop model to evaluate the impacts of baseline climate conditions (1985-2014), late-term future climate scenarios (under the SSP245 emission pathway and CMIP6 models), and a novel root proliferation adaptation strategy on regional maize yield and rainfall productivity. Changes in the plant root system by increasing the root density could lead to yield benefits, especially under drought conditions. Therefore, we modified the governing equation of soil root growth in the CERES-Maize model to reflect the genetic influence of a maize cultivar to improve root density by proliferation. Under baseline conditions, maize yield values ranged from 6522 to 12,849 kgha[-1], with a regional average value of 9270 kgha[-1]. Projections for the late-term scenario indicate a substantial decline in maize yield (36 % to 50 %) and rainfall productivity (25 % to 42 %). Introducing a hypothetical maize cultivar by employing root proliferation as an adaptation strategy resulted in a 27 % increase in regional maize yield, and a 28 % increase in rainfall productivity compared to the reference cultivar without adaptation. We observed an indication of spatial dependency of maize yield and rainfall productivity on the regional precipitation gradient, with counties towards the east having an implicit advantage over those in the west. These findings offer valuable insights for the US Great Plains maize growers and breeders, guiding strategic decisions to adapt rainfed maize production to the region's impending challenges posed by climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Tucholska K, Gulla B, A Ziernicka-Wojtaszek (2024)

Climate change beliefs, emotions and pro-environmental behaviors among adults: The role of core personality traits and the time perspective.

PloS one, 19(4):e0300246 pii:PONE-D-23-03403.

Climate change and its consequences are recognized as one of the most important challenges to the functioning of the Earth's ecosystem and humanity. However, the response to the threat posed by the climate crisis still seems inadequate. The question of which psychological factors cause people to engage (or not) in pro-environmental behavior remains without a comprehensive answer. The aim of this study is to establish the links between the cognitive (level of knowledge about climate change and degree of belief in climate myths), emotional (various climate emotions, especially climate anxiety) and behavioral aspects of attitudes towards the climate crisis and their determinants in the form of the Big Five personality domains and time perspectives. The stated hypotheses were verified by analyzing data collected in an online survey of 333 adults using knowledge tests and self-report methods, including psychological questionnaires (Climate Change Anxiety Scale by Clayton and Karazsia, Big Five Inventory-short version by Schupp and Gerlitz, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory by Zimbardo and Boyd), and measurement scales developed for this study (Climate myth belief scale, Climate emotion scale, and Inventories of current and planned pro-environmental activities). The results of stepwise regression analysis demonstrate the importance of the core personality traits and the dominant temporal perspective as determinants of belief in climate change myths, climate anxiety, as well as actual and planned pro-environmental behavior.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Lee BR, S Schaffer-Morrison (2024)

Forests of the future: The importance of tree seedling research in understanding forest response to anthropogenic climate change.

Tree physiology pii:7643630 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Escudero V, Fuenzalida M, Rezende EL, et al (2024)

Perspectives on embryo maturation and seed quality in a global climate change scenario.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7643466 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change has already brought noticeable alterations to multiple regions of our planet. Several important steps of plant growth and development, such as embryogenesis, can be affected by environmental changes. For instance, these changes would affect how stored nutrients are used during early stages of seed germination as it transitions from a heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolism, a critical period for the seedling's survival. In this perspective, we provide a brief description of relevant processes that occur during embryo maturation and account for nutrient accumulation, which are sensitive to environmental change. As examples of the effects associated with climate change are increased CO2 levels and changes in temperature. During seed development, most of the nutrients stored in the seed are accumulated during the seed maturation stage. These nutrients include, depending on the plant species, carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Regarding micronutrients, it has also been established that iron, a key micronutrient for various electron transfer processes in plant cells, accumulates during embryo maturation. Several articles have been published indicating that climate change can affect the quality of the seed, in terms of total nutritional content, but also, it may affect seed production. Here we discuss the potential effects of temperature and CO2 increase from an embryo autonomous point of view, in an attempt to separate the maternal effects from embryonic effects.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Cella W, Silva Junior RCAD, Pimenta PFP, et al (2024)

Morphometry of the wings of Anopheles aquasalis in simulated scenarios of climate change.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 57:e00704 pii:S0037-86822024000100704.

BACKGROUND: Climate change has significant implications on ecosystems. We verified the effects of climate change on the malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis using simulated climate change scenarios (SSCCs).

METHODS: An experimental model was designed for SSCCs, which composed of air-conditioned 25 m3 rooms.

RESULTS: The wing size was significantly different between SSCCs. A colony of Anopheles aquasalis could not be established in extreme scenarios.

CONCLUSIONS: Increases in temperature and CO2 in the atmosphere may modify the global epidemiology of malaria, marking its emergence in currently malaria-free areas.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Leddin D, Singh H, Armstrong D, et al (2024)

The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology's New Climate Change Committee.

Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology, 7(2):135-136.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Li S, Nilsson E, Seidel L, et al (2024)

Baltic Sea coastal sediment-bound eukaryotes have increased year-round activities under predicted climate change related warming.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1369102.

Climate change related warming is a serious environmental problem attributed to anthropogenic activities, causing ocean water temperatures to rise in the coastal marine ecosystem since the last century. This particularly affects benthic microbial communities, which are crucial for biogeochemical cycles. While bacterial communities have received considerable scientific attention, the benthic eukaryotic community response to climate change remains relatively overlooked. In this study, sediments were sampled from a heated (average 5°C increase over the whole year for over 50 years) and a control (contemporary conditions) Baltic Sea bay during four different seasons across a year. RNA transcript counts were then used to investigate eukaryotic community changes under long-term warming. The composition of active species in the heated and control bay sediment eukaryotic communities differed, which was mainly attributed to salinity and temperature. The family level RNA transcript alpha diversity in the heated bay was higher during May but lower in November, compared with the control bay, suggesting altered seasonal activity patterns and dynamics. In addition, structures of the active eukaryotic communities varied between the two bays during the same season. Hence, this study revealed that long-term warming can change seasonality in eukaryotic diversity patterns. Relative abundances and transcript expression comparisons between bays suggested that some taxa that now have lower mRNA transcripts numbers could be favored by future warming. Furthermore, long-term warming can lead to a more active metabolism in these communities throughout the year, such as higher transcript numbers associated with diatom energy production and protein synthesis in the heated bay during winter. In all, these data can help predict how future global warming will affect the ecology and metabolism of eukaryotic community in coastal sediments.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Wang Y, Z Wang (2024)

Change of spermatophyte family diversity in distribution patterns with climate change in China.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28519.

The global climate is undergoing extraordinary changes, profoundly influencing a variety of ecological processes. Understanding the distribution patterns and predicting the future of plant diversity is crucial for biodiversity conservation in the context of climate change. However, current studies on predictive geographic patterns of plant diversity often fail to separate the effects of global climate change from other influencing factors. In this study, we developed a spatial simulation model of spermatophyte family diversity (SSMSFD) based on data collected from 200 nature reserves covering approximately 1,500,000 km[2], where direct anthropogenic disturbances to plant diversity and the surrounding environment are absent. We predicted the spermatophyte family diversity for all provinces in China in 2020, 2040, and 2080, considering the impacts of global climate change. On average, China currently exhibits 118 plant families per 25 km[2], with a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. When considering only the effects of global climate change, excluding direct anthropogenic disturbances, our results indicate that under the Shared Socioeconomic Path Scenarios (SSPs) 245 and 585, spermatophyte family diversity is projected to slowly increase in most Chinese provinces from 2021 to 2080. Notably, the increase is more pronounced under SSPs585 compared to SSPs245. Global climate change has a positive effect on plant diversity, in contrast to the negative impact of anthropogenic disturbances that often lead to declines in plant diversity. This research highlights the contrasting outcomes of future plant diversity under the sole influence of global climate change and the significant negative effects of anthropogenic disturbances on diversity.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Berhanu AA, Ayele ZB, Dagnew DC, et al (2024)

Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate change and variability: Evidence from three agroecologies in the Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28277.

This study delves into the profound impact of climate change on agriculture in Ethiopia, particularly the vulnerabilities faced by smallholder farmers and the resulting implications for poverty. Focusing on three distinct agroecologies, namely: highland, midland, and lowland zones. The study employed a robust methodology, combining a cross-sectional survey, spatial-temporal trend analysis using GIS, and the development of an overall vulnerability index through the balanced weighted average method. The study, encompassing 646 households, combines data from a variety of sources and analytical tools like the vulnerability index, ArcGIS 10.8, and ERDA's IMAGINE 2015. Utilizing the LVI-IPCC scale, the study shows that climate change is an immediate vulnerability in all agroecological zones. It identifies highland areas as the most sensitive and exposed regions, while lowland households are found to be the most vulnerable in terms of overall vulnerabilities. The research reveals specific challenges faced by communities, such as inadequate health facilities and insufficient food and water supplies in both highland and lowland agroecosystems. Additionally, our investigation has observed a significant alteration in land use practices, specifically the shift from communal grazing land to private cultivation and plantations, emphasizing eucalyptus. This alteration enhances the ecosystem's vulnerability to climate disturbances. The study suggests targeted interventions, such as advocating for sustainable land-use practices, afforestation, and adopting climate-smart agriculture practices. It is important to implement policy measures that prioritize conserving and restoring shrubland, grazing land, and natural forests to ensure both long-term socio-economic and ecosystem resilience. The study's nuanced insights are instrumental in understanding the diverse challenges posed by climate change in Ethiopian agriculture, supporting informed policymaking and sustainable interventions.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Wakatsuki H, Takimoto T, Ishigooka Y, et al (2024)

A dataset for analyzing the climate change response of grain quality of 48 Japanese rice cultivars with contrasting levels of heat tolerance.

Data in brief, 54:110352.

Climate change has a significant impact on rice grain appearance quality; in particular, high temperatures during the grain filling period increase the rate of chalky immature grains, reducing the marketability of rice. Heat-tolerant cultivars have been bred and released to reduce the rate of chalky grain and improve rice quality under high temperatures, but the ability of these cultivars to actually reduce chalky grain content has never been demonstrated due to the lack of integrated datasets. Here, we present a dataset collected through a systematic literature search from publicly available data sources, for the quantitative analysis of the impact of meteorological factors on grain appearance quality of various rice cultivars with contrasted heat tolerance levels. The dataset contains 1302 field observations of chalky grain rates (%) - a critical trait affecting grain appearance sensitive to temperature shocks - for 48 cultivars covering five different heat-tolerant ranks (HTRs) collected at 44 sites across Japan. The dataset also includes the values of key meteorological variables during the grain filling period, such as the cumulative mean air temperature above the threshold temperature (TaHD), mean solar radiation, and mean relative humidity over 20 days after heading, obtained from a gridded daily meteorological dataset with a 1-km resolution developed by the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization. The dataset covers major commercial rice cultivars cultivated in Japan in different environmental conditions. It is a useful resource for analyzing the climate change impact on crop quality and assess the effectiveness of genetic improvements in heat tolerance. Its value has been illustrated in the research article entitled "Effectiveness of heat tolerance rice cultivars in preserving grain appearance quality under high temperatures - A meta-analysis", where the dataset was used to develop a statistical model quantifying the effects of high temperature on grain quality as a function of cultivar heat tolerance.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Cave JA (2024)

Medicines and global warming: a complex problem.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Quan Q, Yi F, H Liu (2024)

Fertilizer response to climate change: Evidence from corn production in China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02369-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Corn is the third most cultivated food crop in the world, and climate change has important effects on corn production and food security. China is the top user of chemical fertilizer in the world, and analyzing how to effectively manage fertilizer application in such a developing country with resource constraints is crucial. We present empirical evidence from China to demonstrate the nonlinear impact of temperature on fertilizer usage in corn production based on a panel dataset that shows 2297 corn-growing counties during 1998-2016. Our findings indicate that fertilizer usage barely changes with increasing temperatures that are below 28 °C; however, exposure to temperatures above 28 °C leads to a sharp increase in fertilizer use. The increase in temperatures in the sample period implies that fertilizer usage per hectare for corn increased by 1.5 kg. Summer corn fertilizer application in the Yellow-Huai River Valley is more sensitive to warming than in the North region. Moreover, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers have different temperature thresholds of 32 °C, 20 °C, and 20 °C, respectively, that cause significant changes.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Miranda JJ, C Zavaleta-Cortijo (2023)

The food crisis in the context of climate change and sustainable development goals.

Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica, 40(4):392-394.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Nuñez JA, Aguiar S, Jobbágy EG, et al (2024)

Climate change and land cover effects on water yield in a subtropical watershed spanning the yungas-chaco transition of Argentina.

Journal of environmental management, 358:120808 pii:S0301-4797(24)00794-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The demand for mountain water resources is increasing, and their availability is threatened by climate change, emphasizing the urgency for effective protection and management. The upper Sali-Dulce watershed holds vital significance as it contributes the majority of the Sali-Dulce water resources, supporting a densely populated dry region in Northwestern Argentina, covering an area of 24,217 km[2]. However, the potential impact of climate change and land use/land cover change on water yield in this watershed remains uncertain. This study employs the InVEST Annual Water Yield model to analyze the average water yield in the watershed and evaluate its potential changes under future scenarios of climate and land use/land cover change. InVEST was calibrated using data from multiple river gauges located across the watershed, indicating satisfactory performance (R[2] = 0.751, p-value = 0.0054). Precipitation and evapotranspiration were the most important variables explaining water yield in the area, followed by land use. Water yield showed a notable concentration in the montane area with 40% of the watershed accounting for 80% of the water yield, underscoring the importance of conserving natural land cover in this critical zone. Climate change scenarios project an increase in water yield ranging from 21 to 75%, while the effects of land cover change scenarios on water yield vary, with reforestation scenarios leading to reductions of up to 15% and expansions in non-irrigated agriculture resulting in increases of up to 40%. Additionally, water yield distribution may become more concentrated or dispersed, largely dependent on the type of land cover. The combined scenarios highlight the pivotal role of land cover in adapting to climate change. Our findings provide valuable insights for designing future studies and developing policies aimed at implementing effective adaptation strategies to climate change within the Salí-Dulce watershed.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Alanís-Méndez JL, Soto V, F Limón-Salvador (2024)

Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Prosthechea mariae (Orchidaceae) and within Protected Areas in Mexico.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6): pii:plants13060839.

The impact of climate change on the distribution of native species in the Neotropics remains uncertain for most species. Prosthechea mariae is an endemic epiphytic orchid in Mexico, categorized as threatened. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of climate change on the natural distribution of P. mariae and the capacity of protected areas (PAs) to safeguard optimal environmental conditions for the species in the future. Historical records were obtained from herbaria collections and through field surveys. We utilized climate variables from WorldClim for the baseline scenario and for the 2050 period, using the general circulation models CCSM4 and CNRM-CM5 (RCP 4.5). Three sets of climate data were created for the distribution models, and multiple models were evaluated using the kuenm package. We found that the species is restricted to the eastern region of the country. The projections of future scenarios predict not only a substantial reduction in habitat but also an increase in habitat fragmentation. Ten PAs were found within the current distribution area of the species; in the future, the species could lose between 36% and 48% of its available habitat within these PAs. The results allowed for the identification of locations where climate change will have the most severe effects, and proposals for long-term conservation are addressed.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Wang C, Zhang Y, Sheng Q, et al (2024)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Biogeography and Ecological Structure of Zelkova schneideriana Hand.-Mazz. in China.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6): pii:plants13060798.

This study utilized the platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, biomod2, to predict and quantitatively analyze the distribution changes of Zelkova schneideriana Hand.-Mazz. under different climate scenarios (SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5) based on climate and land-use data. This study evaluated the geographic range changes in future distribution areas and the results indicated that, under both SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, the distribution area of Zelkova schneideriana would be reduced, showing a trend towards migration to higher latitudes and elevations. Particularly, in the more extreme SSP5-8.5 scenario, the contraction of the distribution area was more pronounced, accompanied by more significant migration characteristics. Furthermore, the ecological structure within the distribution area of Zelkova schneideriana also experienced significant changes, with an increasing degree of fragmentation. The variables of Bio6 (minimum temperature of the coldest month), Bio2 (mean diurnal temperature range), Bio15 (precipitation seasonality), and elevation exhibited important influences on the distribution of Zelkova schneideriana, with temperature being particularly significant. Changes in land use, especially the conversion of cropland, had a significant impact on the species' habitat. These research findings highlight the distributional pressures faced by Zelkova schneideriana in the future, emphasizing the crucial need for targeted conservation measures to protect this species and similar organisms.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Vaissi S, Chahardoli A, Haghighi ZMS, et al (2024)

Metal nanoparticle-induced effects on green toads (Amphibia, Anura) under climate change: conservation implications.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The toxicity of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO), iron oxide (Fe3O4), nickel oxide (NiO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) on amphibians and their interaction with high temperatures, remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the survival, developmental, behavioral, and histological reactions of Bufotes viridis embryos and larvae exposed to different NPs for a duration of 10 days, using lethal concentrations (LC25%, LC50%, and LC75% mg/L) under both ambient (AT: 18 °C) and high (HT: 21 °C) temperatures. Based on LC, NiONPs > ZnONPs > CuONPs > Al2O3NPs > TiO2NPs > Fe3O4NPs showed the highest mortality at AT. A similar pattern was observed at HT, although mortality occurred at lower concentrations and Fe3O4NPs were more toxic than TiO2NPs. The results indicated that increasing concentrations of NPs significantly reduced hatching rates, except for TiO2NPs. Survival rates decreased, abnormality rates increased, and developmental processes slowed down, particularly for NiONPs and ZnONPs, under HT conditions. However, exposure to low concentrations of Fe3O4NPs for up to 7 days, CuONPs for up to 72 h, and NiO, ZnONPs, and TiO2NPs for up to 96 h did not have a negative impact on survival compared with the control group under AT. In behavioral tests with larvae, NPs generally induced hypoactivity at AT and hyperactivity at HT. Histological findings revealed liver and internal gill tissue lesions, and an increase in the number of melanomacrophage centers at HT. These results suggest that global warming may exacerbate the toxicity of metal oxide NPs to amphibians, emphasizing the need for further research and conservation efforts in this context.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Coker ES, Stone SL, McTigue E, et al (2024)

Climate change and health: rethinking public health messaging for wildfire smoke and extreme heat co-exposures.

Frontiers in public health, 12:1324662.

With the growing climate change crisis, public health agencies and practitioners must increasingly develop guidance documents addressing the public health risks and protective measures associated with multi-hazard events. Our Policy and Practice Review aims to assess current public health guidance and related messaging about co-exposure to wildfire smoke and extreme heat and recommend strengthened messaging to better protect people from these climate-sensitive hazards. We reviewed public health messaging published by governmental agencies between January 2013 and May 2023 in Canada and the United States. Publicly available resources were eligible if they discussed the co-occurrence of wildfire smoke and extreme heat and mentioned personal interventions (protective measures) to prevent exposure to either hazard. We reviewed local, regional, and national governmental agency messaging resources, such as online fact sheets and guidance documents. We assessed these resources according to four public health messaging themes, including (1) discussions around vulnerable groups and risk factors, (2) symptoms associated with these exposures, (3) health risks of each exposure individually, and (4) health risks from combined exposure. Additionally, we conducted a detailed assessment of current messaging about measures to mitigate exposure. We found 15 online public-facing resources that provided health messaging about co-exposure; however, only one discussed all four themes. We identified 21 distinct protective measures mentioned across the 15 resources. There is considerable variability and inconsistency regarding the types and level of detail across described protective measures. Of the identified 21 protective measures, nine may protect against both hazards simultaneously, suggesting opportunities to emphasize these particular messages to address both hazards together. More precise, complete, and coordinated public health messaging would protect against climate-sensitive health outcomes attributable to wildfire smoke and extreme heat co-exposures.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Smyth SJ, Phillips PWB, D Castle (2024)

An assessment of the linkages between GM crop biotechnology and climate change mitigation.

GM crops & food, 15(1):150-169.

This article provides an analysis and evaluation of peer-reviewed evidence on the contribution of crop biotechnology to climate change mitigation and adaption. While there is a range of agricultural technologies and products that contribute to climate change mitigation, this literature landscape analysis focuses on the development of genetically modified traits, their use and adoption in major commodity crops and responsive changes in production techniques. Jointly, these technologies and products are contributing to climate change mitigation, yet the technology, the literature and evidence is still evolving as more sophisticated research methods are used with greater consistency. The literature analysis is undertaken with consideration of the consequential impact that regulatory regimes have on technology development. This assessment utilizes the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale and citation analysis, concluding that GM crops provide benefits that contribute to climate change mitigation.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Trost K, Ertl V, König J, et al (2024)

Climate change-related concerns in psychotherapy: therapists' experiences and views on addressing this topic in therapy.

BMC psychology, 12(1):192.

BACKGROUND: While adverse impacts of climate change on physical health are well-known, research on its effects on mental health is still scarce. Thus, it is unclear whether potential impacts have already reached treatment practice. Our study aimed to quantify psychotherapists' experiences with patients reporting climate change-related concerns and their views on dealing with this topic in psychotherapy.

METHODS: In a nationwide online survey, responses were collected from 573 psychotherapists from Germany. Therapists reported on the presence of such patients, their socio-demographic characteristics, and climate change-related reactions. Psychotherapists' views on dealing with this topic in psychotherapy were also assessed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the responses.

RESULTS: About 72% (410/573) of psychotherapists indicated having had patients expressing concerns about climate change during treatment. Out of these therapists, 41% (166/410) stated that at least one patient sought treatment deliberately because of such concerns. Patients were mainly young adults with higher education. Most frequent primary diagnoses were depression, adjustment disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotherapists having encountered such patients differed from those without such encounters in their views on potential functional impairment and the necessity to target the concerns in treatment. Although 79% (326/415) of all respondents felt adequately prepared by their current therapeutic skills, 50% (209/414) reported a lack of information on how to deal with such concerns in therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that psychotherapists are frequently confronted with climate change-related concerns and regard the mental health impact of climate change on their patients as meaningful to psychotherapeutic care. Regular care could be improved by a continuous refinement of the conceptualization and knowledge of the mental health influences of climate change. This would allow providing tailored methods of assessing and addressing climate change-related concerns in practice.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Guhan V, Annadurai K, Easwaran S, et al (2024)

Assessing the impact of climate change on water requirement and yield of sugarcane over different agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8239.

The DSSAT CANEGRO model was calibrated and verified using field experimental data from five Tamil Nadu Agroclimatic Zones (1981-2022). The genetic coefficients of the sugarcane cultivar (CO-86032) were calculated. R[2] obtained between measured and simulated stalk fresh mass was 0.9 with the nRMSE (0.01) and RMSE (1.6) and R[2] between measured and simulated sucrose mass was 0.9 with the nRMSE (0.16) and RMSE (1.2). For yield R[2] obtained between measured and simulated was 0.9 with the nRMSE (0.01) and RMSE (1.6). As a result, the CANEGRO model may be used to mimic the phenology and yield features of the sugarcane cultivar in Tamil Nadu's Agro Climatic Zones. Temperature increases in Agro Climatic Zones resulted in varying yield reductions, with 2 °C increases causing a 3% loss, 3 °C increases 5%, and 4 °C increases 9%. The Water Requirement rose throughout all of the ACZ due to the high temperature, but to differing degrees. A 2 °C increase often results in an average 4% increase in the WR. 3 °C rise in temperature increased WR to 9% and WR rose by 13% when the temperature was raised by 4 °C.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Le Roux R, Furusho-Percot C, Deswarte JC, et al (2024)

Mapping the race between crop phenology and climate risks for wheat in France under climate change.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8184.

Climate change threatens food security by affecting the productivity of major cereal crops. To date, agroclimatic risk projections through indicators have focused on expected hazards exposure during the crop's current vulnerable seasons, without considering the non-stationarity of their phenology under evolving climatic conditions. We propose a new method for spatially classifying agroclimatic risks for wheat, combining high-resolution climatic data with a wheat's phenological model. The method is implemented for French wheat involving three GCM-RCM model pairs and two emission scenarios. We found that the precocity of phenological stages allows wheat to avoid periods of water deficit in the near future. Nevertheless, in the coming decades the emergence of heat stress and increasing water deficit will deteriorate wheat cultivation over the French territory. Projections show the appearance of combined risks of heat and water deficit up to 4 years per decade under the RCP 8.5 scenario. The proposed method provides a deep level of information that enables regional adaptation strategies: the nature of the risk, its temporal and spatial occurrence, and its potential combination with other risks. It's a first step towards identifying potential sites for breeding crop varieties to increase the resilience of agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Kamkuemah M, Ayo-Yusuf O, T Oni (2024)

Future proofing health in response to climate change and rapid urbanisation in Africa.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 385:e076476.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Arasaradnam RP, T Hillman (2022)

Climate change and health research - lessons from COP26.

Clinical medicine (London, England), 22(2):172-173.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Clinical medicine (London, England), 22(6):594-596.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

McWhorter JK, Halloran PR, Roff G, et al (2024)

Climate change impacts on mesophotic regions of the Great Barrier Reef.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(16):e2303336121.

Climate change projections for coral reefs are founded exclusively on sea surface temperatures (SST). While SST projections are relevant for the shallowest reefs, neglecting ocean stratification overlooks the striking differences in temperature experienced by deeper reefs for all or part of the year. Density stratification creates a buoyancy barrier partitioning the upper and lower parts of the water column. Here, we mechanistically downscale climate models and quantify patterns of thermal stratification above mesophotic corals (depth 30 to 50 m) of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Stratification insulates many offshore regions of the GBR from heatwaves at the surface. However, this protection is lost once global average temperatures exceed ~3 °C above preindustrial, after which mesophotic temperatures surpass a recognized threshold of 30 °C for coral mortality. Bottom temperatures on the GBR (30 to 50 m) from 2050 to 2060 are estimated to increase by ~0.5 to 1 °C under lower climate emissions (SSP1-1.9) and ~1.2 to 1.7 °C under higher climate emissions (SSP5-8.5). In short, mesophotic coral reefs are also threatened by climate change and research might prioritize the sensitivity of such corals to stress.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Ruxin TR, Morgenroth DC, Benmarhnia T, et al (2024)

The impact of climate change and related extreme weather on people with limb loss.

PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation [Epub ahead of print].

The human health consequences of climate change and extreme weather events are well documented. Published literature details the unique effects and necessary adaptation planning for people with physical disabilities in general; however, the specific impacts and plans for people with limb loss have yet to be explored. In this article, we discuss the impacts related to threats due to heat, cold, severe storms, and power outages. We describe how climate change uniquely affects people with limb loss and underscore the need for rehabilitation care providers and researchers to: (1) study the health impacts of climate change on people with lower limb loss; (2) educate themselves and patients on the climate crisis and climate preparedness; (3) co-develop resiliency strategies with patients, governments, and community organizations to improve adaptive capacity; and (4) advocate for policy changes that will enact protections for this at-risk population.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Jaramillo Arias M, Kulkarni N, Le A, et al (2024)

Climate Change, Emerging Vector-Borne Illnesses, and Anesthetic Considerations.

Cureus, 16(4):e57517.

As a result of the widespread prevalence of anesthetic usage, anesthesia-related complications are well studied, ranging from benign postoperative nausea and vomiting to potentially fatal complications, such as paralysis, malignant hyperthermia, and death. However, one intersection that still needs further analysis is the relationship between vector-borne illnesses (VBIs) and anesthetic complications. With the advent of climate change and global warming, what were previously endemic vectors have spread far beyond their typical regions, resulting in the spread of VBI. As the incidence of VBIs rapidly increases in the United States, operations for diagnostic testing, and thus the identification and treatments of these VBIs, have significantly diminished. A literature review was conducted to analyze case reports of patients with VBIs and anesthetic concerns with sources from PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and a wide range of complications were found.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Vuong QH, Nguyen MH, VP La (2024)

A dataset of blockade, vandalism, and harassment activities for the cause of climate change mitigation.

Data in brief, 54:110342.

Environmental activism is crucial for raising public awareness and support toward addressing the climate crisis. However, using climate change mitigation as the cause for blockade, vandalism, and harassment activities might be counterproductive and risk causing negative repercussions and declining public support. The paper describes a dataset of metadata of 89 blockade, vandalism, and harassment events happening 13 countries in recent years. The dataset comprises three main categories: 1) Events, 2) Activists, and 3) Consequences. For researchers interested in environmental activism, climate change, and sustainability, the dataset is helpful in studying the effectiveness and appropriateness of strategies to raise public awareness and support. For researchers in the field of security studies and green criminology, the dataset offers resources to study features and impacts of blockade, vandalism, and harassment events. The Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics was employed to validate the dataset. Consequently, the estimated result aligns with the Mindsponge Theory's theoretical reasoning.

RevDate: 2024-04-07

Mohsen M, Ismail S, Yuan X, et al (2024)

Sea cucumber physiological response to abiotic stress: Emergent contaminants and climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02351-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The ocean is facing a multitude of abiotic stresses due to factors such as climate change and pollution. Understanding how organisms in the ocean respond to these global changes is vital to better predicting consequences. Sea cucumbers are popular echinoderms with multiple ecological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical benefits. Here, we reviewed the effects of environmental change on an ecologically important echinoderm of the ocean, aiming to understand their response better, which could facilitate healthy culture programs under environmental changes and draw attention to knowledge gaps. After screening articles from the databases, 142 studies were included on the influence of emergent contaminants and climate variation on the early developmental stages and adults of sea cucumbers. We outlined the potential mechanism underlying the physiological response of sea cucumbers to emerging contaminants and climate change. It can be concluded that the physiological response of sea cucumbers to emergent contaminants differs from their response to climate change. Sea cucumbers could accumulate pollutants in their organs but are aestivated when exposed to extreme climate change. Research showed that the physiological response of sea cucumbers to pollutants indicates that these pollutants impair critical physiological processes, particularly during the more susceptible early phases of development compared to adults, and the accumulation of these pollutants in adults is often observed. For climate change, sea cucumbers showed gradual adaptation to the slight variation. However, sea cucumbers undergo aestivation under extreme conditions. Based on this review, critical suggestions for future research are presented, and we call for more efforts focusing on the co-occurrence of different stressors to extend the knowledge regarding the effects of environmental changes on these economically and ecologically important species.

RevDate: 2024-04-07

Kazama T, Hayakawa K, Nagata T, et al (2024)

Impact of climate change and oligotrophication on quality and quantity of lake primary production: A case study in Lake Biwa.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02409-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change and anthropogenic oligotrophication are expected to reshape the dynamics of primary production (PP) in aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have explored their long-term effects. In theory, the PP of phytoplankton in Lake Biwa may decline over decades due to warming, heightened stratification, and anthropogenic oligotrophication. Furthermore, the PP of large phytoplankton, which are inedible to zooplankton, along with biomass-specific productivity (PBc), could decrease. In this study, data from 1976 to 2021 and active fluorometry measurements taken in 2020 and 2021 were evaluated. Quantitatively, the temporal dynamics of mean seasonal PP during 1971-2021 were assessed according to the carbon fixation rate to investigate relationships among environmental factors. Qualitatively, phytoplankton biomass, PP, and PBc were measured in two size fractions [edible (S) or inedible (L) for zooplankton] in 2020 and 2021, and the L:S balance for these three measures was compared between 1992 (low-temperature/high-nutrient conditions) and 2020-2021 (high-temperature/low-nutrient conditions) to assess seasonal dynamics. The results indicated that climate change and anthropogenic oligotrophication over the past 30 years have diminished Lake Biwa's PP since the 1990s, impacting the phenology of PP dynamics. However, the L:S balance in PP and PBc has exhibited minimal change between the data from 1992 and the 2020-2021 period. These findings suggest that, although climate change and oligotrophication may reduce overall PP, they may not markedly alter the inedible/edible phytoplankton balance in terms of PP and PBc. Instead, as total PP declines, the production of small edible phytoplankton may decrease proportionally, potentially affecting trophic transfer efficiency and material cycling in Lake Biwa.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )