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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 24 Jun 2024 at 01:43 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-21

Zhao C, Chen G, Huang Y, et al (2024)

Alleviation of fluoride-induced colitis by tea polysaccharides: Insights into the role of Limosilactobacillus vaginalis and butyric acid.

Journal of hazardous materials, 476:134858 pii:S0304-3894(24)01437-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Endemic fluorosis has gained increasing attention as a public health concern, and the escalating risk of colitis resulting from excessive fluoride intake calls for effective mitigation strategies. This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the alleviation of fluoride-induced colitis by Tea polysaccharides (TPS). Under conditions of excessive fluoride intake, significant changes were observed in the gut microbiota of rats, leading to aggravated colitis. However, the intervention of TPS exerted a notable alleviating effect on colitis symptoms. Antibiotic intervention and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments provided evidence that TPS-mediated relief of fluoride-induced colitis is mediated through its effects on the gut microbiota. Furthermore, TPS supplementation was found to modulate the structure of gut microbiota, enhance the relative abundance of Limosilactobacillus vaginalis in the gut microbiota, and promote the expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) receptors in colonic tissue. Notably, L. vaginalis played a significant role in alleviating fluoride-induced colitis and facilitating the absorption of butyric acid in the rat colon. Subsequent butyric acid intervention experiments confirmed its remarkable alleviating effect on fluoride-induced colitis. Overall, these findings provide a potential preventive strategy for fluoride-induced colitis by TPS intervention, which is mediated by L. vaginalis and butyric acid.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Calabrese FM, Genchi VA, Serale N, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota and fecal volatilome profile inspection in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity phenotypes.

Journal of endocrinological investigation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: People with metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) differ for the presence or absence of cardio-metabolic complications, respectively.

OBJECTIVE: Based on these differences, we are interested in deepening whether these obesity phenotypes could be linked to changes in microbiota and metabolome profiles. In this respect, the overt role of microbiota taxa composition and relative metabolic profiles is not completely understood. At this aim, biochemical and nutritional parameters, fecal microbiota, metabolome and SCFA compositions were inspected in patients with MHO and MUO under a restrictive diet regimen with a daily intake ranging from 800 to 1200 kcal.

METHODS: Blood, fecal samples and food questionnaires were collected from healthy controls (HC), and an obese cohort composed of both MHO and MUO patients. Most impacting biochemical/anthropometric variables from an a priori sample stratification were detected by applying a robust statistics approach useful in lowering the background noise. Bacterial taxa and volatile metabolites were assessed by qPCR and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, respectively. A targeted GC-MS analyses on SCFAs was also performed.

RESULTS: Instructed to follow a controlled and restricted daily calorie intake, MHO and MUO patients showed differences in metabolic, gut microbial and volatilome signatures. Our data revealed higher quantities of specific pro-inflammatory taxa (i.e., Desulfovibrio and Prevotella genera) and lower quantities of Clostridium coccoides group in MUO subset. Higher abundances in alkane, ketone, aldehyde, and indole VOC classes together with a lower amount of butanoic acid marked the faecal MUO metabolome.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to MHO, MUO subset symptom picture is featured by specific differences in gut pro-inflammatory taxa and metabolites that could have a role in the progression to metabolically unhealthy status and developing of obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases. The approach is suitable to better explain the crosstalk existing among dysmetabolism-related inflammation, nutrient intake, lifestyle, and gut dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Sun W, Mei X, Wang J, et al (2024)

Zn(II)-curcumin prevents cadmium-aggravated diabetic nephropathy by regulating gut microbiota and zinc homeostasis.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 15:1411230.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is known as the most common complication of diabetes, resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction without effective clinical treatments. Herein, we revealed the protective effects and mechanisms of Zn(II)-curcumin, a curcumin derivative, against streptozotocin-induced DN in rats in the presence or absence of cadmium exposure. Methods: The present study focused on investigating the therapy of Zn(II)-curcumin against cadmium-aggravated DN by regulating gut microbiota, metabolism, inflammation and zinc homeostasis based on pathological changes, TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: We found Zn(II)-curcumin significantly mitigated the cadmium-aggravated phenotypes of diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by the remission of renal dysfunction, pathological changes, inflammation and zinc dyshomeostasis in streptozotocin-treated rats exposed to cadmium. Administration of Zn(II)-curcumin significantly alleviated the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and the changes of serum metabolite profiles in rats treated with streptozotocin in combination with cadmium. Notably, fecal microbial transplantation identified the ability of Zn(II)-curcumin to regulate renal function, inflammation and zinc homeostasis was partly dependent on the gut microbiota. Conclusion: These findings revealed that Zn(II)-curcumin alleviated cadmium-aggravated diabetic nephropathy by reshaping the gut microbiota and zinc homeostasis, which provided unique insights into the mechanisms of the treatment and prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Tang Y, Chen L, Yang J, et al (2024)

Gut microbes improve prognosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae pulmonary infection through the lung-gut axis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1392376.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in the development of sepsis and in protecting against pneumonia. Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of the gut-lung axis and the interaction between the gut and the lung, which is related to the prognosis of critically ill patients; however, most of these studies focused on chronic lung diseases and influenza virus infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on Klebsiella pneumoniae-related pulmonary infection via the gut-lung axis and to compare the effects of FMT with those of traditional antibiotics to identify new therapeutic strategies.

METHODS: We divided the mice into six groups: the blank control (PBS), pneumonia-derived sepsis (KP), pneumonia-derived sepsis + antibiotic (KP + PIP), pneumonia-derived sepsis + faecal microbiota transplantation(KP + FMT), antibiotic treatment control (KP+PIP+PBS), and pneumonia-derived sepsis+ antibiotic + faecal microbiota transplantation (KP + PIP + FMT) groups to compare the survival of mice, lung injury, inflammation response, airway barrier function and the intestinal flora, metabolites and drug resistance genes in each group.

RESULTS: Alterations in specific intestinal flora can occur in the gut of patients with pneumonia-derived sepsis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Compared with those in the faecal microbiota transplantation group, the antibiotic treatment group had lower levels of proinflammatory factors and higher levels of anti-inflammatory factors but less amelioration of lung pathology and improvement of airway epithelial barrier function. Additionally, the increase in opportunistic pathogens and drug resistance-related genes in the gut of mice was accompanied by decreased production of favourable fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, decanoic acid, and secondary bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate, isodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and 3-dehydrocholic acid; the levels of these metabolites were restored by faecal microbiota transplantation. Faecal microbiota transplantation after antibiotic treatment can gradually ameliorate gut microbiota disorder caused by antibiotic treatment and reduce the number of drug resistance genes induced by antibiotics.

CONCLUSION: In contrast to direct antibiotic treatment, faecal microbiota transplantation improves the prognosis of mice with pneumonia-derived sepsis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae by improving the structure of the intestinal flora and increasing the level of beneficial metabolites, fatty acids and secondary bile acids, thereby reducing systemic inflammation, repairing the barrier function of alveolar epithelial cells, and alleviating pathological damage to the lungs. The combination of antibiotics with faecal microbiota transplantation significantly alleviates intestinal microbiota disorder, reduces the selection for drug resistance genes caused by antibiotics, and mitigates lung lesions; these effects are superior to those following antibiotic monotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Xie Y, F Liu (2024)

The role of the gut microbiota in tumor, immunity, and immunotherapy.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1410928.

In recent years, with the deepening understanding of the gut microbiota, it has been recognized to play a significant role in the development and progression of diseases. Particularly in gastrointestinal tumors, the gut microbiota influences tumor growth by dysbiosis, release of bacterial toxins, and modulation of host signaling pathways and immune status. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have greatly improved cancer treatment efficacy by enhancing immune cell responses. Current clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota and its metabolites can enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Furthermore, certain gut microbiota can serve as biomarkers for predicting immunotherapy responses. Interventions targeting the gut microbiota for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, especially colorectal cancer (CRC), include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, engineered bacteria, and dietary interventions. These approaches not only improve the efficacy of ICIs but also hold promise for enhancing immunotherapy outcomes. In this review, we primarily discuss the role of the gut microbiota and its metabolites in tumors, host immunity, and immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Yang X, Huang J, Peng J, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota from B-cell-specific TLR9-deficient NOD mice promote IL-10[+] Breg cells and protect against T1D.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1413177.

INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a role in autoimmune diseases, and B cell-specific TLR9 deficiency delays T1D development. Gut microbiota are implicated in T1D, although the relationship is complex. However, the impact of B cell-specific deficiency of TLR9 on intestinal microbiota and the impact of altered intestinal microbiota on the development of T1D are unclear.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how gut microbiota and the intestinal barrier contribute to T1D development in B cell-specific TLR9-deficient NOD mice. Additionally, this study explored the role of microbiota in immune regulation and T1D onset.

METHODS: The study assessed gut permeability, gene expression related to gut barrier integrity, and gut microbiota composition. Antibiotics depleted gut microbiota, and fecal samples were transferred to germ-free mice. The study also examined IL-10 production, Breg cell differentiation, and their impact on T1D development.

RESULTS: B cell-specific TLR9-deficient NOD mice exhibited increased gut permeability and downregulated gut barrier-related gene expression. Antibiotics restored gut permeability, suggesting microbiota influence. Altered microbiota were enriched in Lachnospiraceae, known for mucin degradation. Transferring this microbiota to germ-free mice increased gut permeability and promoted IL-10-expressing Breg cells. Rag[-/-] mice transplanted with fecal samples from Tlr9 [fl/fl] Cd19-Cre[+] mice showed delayed diabetes onset, indicating microbiota's impact.

CONCLUSION: B cell-specific TLR9 deficiency alters gut microbiota, increasing gut permeability and promoting IL-10-expressing Breg cells, which delay T1D. This study uncovers a link between TLR9, gut microbiota, and immune regulation in T1D, with implications for microbiota-targeted T1D therapies.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Zhan H, Wan Y, Sun Y, et al (2024)

Gut mycobiome alterations in obesity in geographically different regions.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2367297.

The gut fungi play important roles in human health and are involved in energy metabolism. This study aimed to examine gut mycobiome composition in obese subjects in two geographically different regions in China and to identify specific gut fungi associated with obesity. A total of 217 subjects from two regions with different urbanization levels [Hong Kong (HK): obese, n = 59; lean, n = 59; Kunming (KM): obese, n = 50; lean, n = 49. Mean body mass index (BMI) for obesity = 33.7] were recruited. We performed deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples to compare gut mycobiome composition and trophic functions in lean and obese subjects across these two regions. The gut mycobiome of obese subjects in both HK and KM were altered compared to those of lean subjects, characterized by a decrease in the relative abundance of Nakaseomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida dubliniensis and an increase in the abundance of Lanchanceathermotolerans, Saccharomyces paradox, Parastagonospora nodorum and Myceliophthorathermophila. Reduced fungal - bacterial and fungal - fungal correlations as well as increased negative fungal-bacterial correlations were observed in the gut of obese subjects. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of fungus S. pombe was further validated using a mouse model. Supplementing high-fat diet-induced obese mice with the fungus for 12 weeks led to a significant reduction in body weight gain (p < 0.001), and an improvement in lipid and glucose metabolism compared to mice without intervention. In conclusion, the gut mycobiome composition and functionalities of obese subjects were altered. These data shed light on the potential of utilizing fungus-based therapeutics for the treatment of obesity. S. pombe may serve as a potential fungal probiotic in the prevention of diet-induced obesity and future human trials are needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Lin C, Song D, Wang S, et al (2024)

Polygonatum cyrtonema polysaccharides reshape the gut microbiota to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 15:1424328.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized inflammatory imbalance, intestinal epithelial mucosal damage, and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Polygonatum cyrtonema polysaccharides (PCPs) can regulate gut microbiota and inflammation. Here, the different doses of PCPs were administered to dextran sodium sulfate-induced UC mice, and the effects of the whole PCPs were compared with those of the fractionated fractions PCP-1 (19.9 kDa) and PCP-2 (71.6 and 4.2 kDa). Additionally, an antibiotic cocktail was administered to UC mice to deplete the gut microbiota, and PCPs were subsequently administered to elucidate the potential role of the gut microbiota in these mice. The results revealed that PCP treatment significantly optimized the lost weight and shortened colon, restored the balance of inflammation, mitigated oxidative stress, and restored intestinal epithelial mucosal damage. And, the PCPs exhibited superior efficacy in ameliorating these symptoms compared with PCP-1 and PCP-2. However, depletion of the gut microbiota diminished the therapeutic effects of PCPs in UC mice. Furthermore, fecal transplantation from PCP-treated UC mice to new UC-afflicted mice produced therapeutic effects similar to PCP treatment. So, PCPs significantly ameliorated the symptoms, inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal mucosal damage in UC mice, and gut microbiota partially mediated these effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Song J, Dong H, Wang T, et al (2024)

What is the impact of microbiota on dry eye: a literature review of the gut-eye axis.

BMC ophthalmology, 24(1):262.

BACKGROUND: Dry eye is a chronic and multifactorial ocular surface disease caused by tear film instability or imbalance in the microenvironment of the ocular surface. It can lead to various discomforts such as inflammation of the ocular surface and visual issues. However, the mechanism of dry eye is not clear, which results in dry eye being only relieved but not cured in clinical practice. Finding multiple environmental pathways for dry eye and exploring the pathogenesis of dry eye have become the focus of research. Studies have found that changes in microbiota may be related to the occurrence and development of dry eye disease.

METHODS: Entered the keywords "Dry eye", "Microbiota", "Bacteria" through PUBMED, summarised the articles that meet the inclusion criteria and then filtered them while the publication time range of the literature was defined in the past 5 years, with a deadline of 2023.A total of 13 clinical and 1 animal-related research articles were screened out and included in the summary.

RESULTS: Study found that different components of bacteria can induce ocular immune responses through different receptors present on the ocular surface, thereby leading to an imbalance in the ocular surface microenvironment. Changes in the ocular surface microbiota and gut microbiota were also found when dry eye syndrome occurs, including changes in diversity, an increase in pro-inflammatory bacteria, and a decrease in short-chain fatty acid-related bacterial genera that produce anti-inflammatory effects. Fecal microbiota transplantation or probiotic intervention can alleviate signs of inflammation on the ocular surface of dry eye animal models.

CONCLUSIONS: By summarizing the changes in the ocular surface and intestinal microbiota when dry eye occurs, it is speculated and concluded that the intestine may affect the occurrence of eye diseases such as dry eye through several pathways and mechanisms, such as the occurrence of abnormal immune responses, microbiota metabolites- intervention of short-chain fatty acids, imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and release of neurotransmitters, etc. Analyzing the correlation between the intestinal tract and the eyes from the perspective of microbiota can provide a theoretical basis and a new idea for relieving dry eyes in multiple ways in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Ma F, Zhang W, Zhou G, et al (2024)

Epimedii Folium decoction ameliorates osteoporosis in mice through NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β signalling pathway and gut-bone axis.

International immunopharmacology, 137:112472 pii:S1567-5769(24)00993-7 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to determine the effect of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (EF) on osteoporosis (OP) and its underlying molecular mechanisms, and to explore the existence of the "Gut-Bone Axis".

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The impact of EF decoction (EFD) on OP was evaluated using istopathological examination and biochemical assays. Targeted metabolomics was employed to identify key molecules and explore their molecular mechanisms. Alterations in the gut microbiota (GM) were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The role of the GM was clarified using an antibiotic cocktail and faecal microbiota transplantation.

RESULTS: EFD significantly increased the weight (14.06%), femur length (4.34%), abdominal fat weight (61.14%), uterine weight (69.86%), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels (59.48%), while reducing serum type I collagen cross-linked carboxy-terminal peptide (CTX-I) levels (15.02%) in osteoporotic mice. The mechanism of action may involve the regulation of the NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1/IL-1β signalling pathway in improving intestinal tight junction proteins and bone metabolism. Additionally, EFD modulated the abundance of related GM communities, such as Lactobacillus, Coriobacteriaceae, bacteria of family S24-7, Clostridiales, and Prevotella, and increased propionate and butyrate levels. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut bacteria disrupted OP regulation of bone metabolism, which was restored by the recovery of GM.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to demonstrate that EFD works in an OP mouse model by utilising GM and butyric acid. Thus, EF shows promise as a potential remedy for OP in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Agrawal G, Borody TJ, JM Aitken (2024)

Mapping Crohn's Disease Pathogenesis with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: A Hijacking by a Stealth Pathogen.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has been implicated in the development of Crohn's disease (CD) for over a century. Similarities have been noted between the (histo)pathological presentation of MAP in ruminants, termed Johne's disease (JD), and appearances in humans with CD. Analyses of disease presentation and pathology suggest a multi-step process occurs that consists of MAP infection, dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, and dietary influences. Each step has a role in the disease development and requires a better understanding to implementing combination therapies, such as antibiotics, vaccination, faecal microbiota transplants (FMT) and dietary plans. To optimise responses, each must be tailored directly to the activity of MAP, otherwise therapies are open to interpretation without microbiological evidence that the organism is present and has been influenced. Microscopy and histopathology enables studies of the mycobacterium in situ and how the associated disease processes manifest in the patient e.g., granulomas, fissuring, etc. The challenge for researchers has been to prove the relationship between MAP and CD with available laboratory tests and methodologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), MAP-associated DNA sequences and bacteriological culture investigations. These have, so far, been inconclusive in revealing the relationship of MAP in patients with CD. Improved and accurate methods of detection will add to evidence for an infectious aetiology of CD. Specifically, if the bacterial pathogen can be isolated, identified and cultivated, then causal relationships to disease can be confirmed, especially if it is present in human gut tissue. This review discusses how MAP may cause the inflammation seen in CD by relating its known pathogenesis in cattle, and from examples of other mycobacterial infections in humans, and how this would impact upon the difficulties with diagnostic tests for the organism.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Ju X, Jiang Z, Ma J, et al (2024)

Changes in Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids in IBS Patients and Effects of Different Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients, 16(11):.

CONTEXT: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the results are conflicting.

OBJECTIVE: Here, a systematic review of case-control studies detecting fecal SCFAs in IBS patients compared with healthy controls (HCs) and self-controlled studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating fecal SCFA alterations after interventions were identified from several databases.

DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase) identified 21 studies published before 24 February 2023. Data extractions: Three independent reviewers completed the relevant data extraction.

DATA ANALYSIS: It was found that the fecal propionate concentration in IBS patients was significantly higher than that in HCs, while the acetate proportion was significantly lower. Low-FODMAP diets significantly reduced the fecal propionate concentration in the IBS patients while fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic administration did not significantly change the fecal propionate concentration or acetate proportion.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the fecal propionate concentration and acetate proportion could be used as biomarkers for IBS diagnosis. A low-FODMAP diet intervention could potentially serve as a treatment for IBS while FMT and probiotic administration need more robust trials.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Popov J, Despot T, Avelar Rodriguez D, et al (2024)

Implications of Microbiota and Immune System in Development and Progression of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease.

Nutrients, 16(11):.

Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is the most prevalent type of liver disease worldwide. The exact pathophysiology behind MASLD remains unclear; however, it is thought that a combination of factors or "hits" act as precipitants for disease onset and progression. Abundant evidence supports the roles of diet, genes, metabolic dysregulation, and the intestinal microbiome in influencing the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent progression to inflammation and fibrosis. Currently, there is no cure for MASLD, but lifestyle changes have been the prevailing cornerstones of management. Research is now focusing on the intestinal microbiome as a potential therapeutic target for MASLD, with the spotlight shifting to probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, we provide an overview of how intestinal microbiota interact with the immune system to contribute to the pathogenesis of MASLD and metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH). We also summarize key microbial taxa implicated in the disease and discuss evidence supporting microbial-targeted therapies in its management.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Bose D, Saha P, Roy S, et al (2024)

A Double-Humanized Mouse Model for Studying Host Gut Microbiome-Immune Interactions in Gulf War Illness.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

Unraveling the multisymptomatic Gulf War Illness (GWI) pathology and finding an effective cure have eluded researchers for decades. The chronic symptom persistence and limitations for studying the etiologies in mouse models that differ significantly from those in humans pose challenges for drug discovery and finding effective therapeutic regimens. The GWI exposome differs significantly in the study cohorts, and the above makes it difficult to recreate a model closely resembling the GWI symptom pathology. We have used a double engraftment strategy for reconstituting a human immune system coupled with human microbiome transfer to create a humanized-mouse model for GWI. Using whole-genome shotgun sequencing and blood immune cytokine enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show that our double humanized mice treated with Gulf War (GW) chemicals show significantly altered gut microbiomes, similar to those reported in a Veteran cohort of GWI. The results also showed similar cytokine profiles, such as increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF R-1, in the double humanized model, as found previously in a human cohort. Further, a novel GWI Veteran fecal microbiota transfer was used to create a second alternative model that closely resembled the microbiome and immune-system-associated pathology of a GWI Veteran. A GWI Veteran microbiota transplant in humanized mice showed a human microbiome reconstitution and a systemic inflammatory pathology, as reflected by increases in interleukins 1β, 6, 8 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF R-1), and endotoxemia. In conclusion, though preliminary, we report a novel in vivo model with a human microbiome reconstitution and an engrafted human immune phenotype that may help to better understand gut-immune interactions in GWI.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Gavriilaki E, Christoforidi M, Ouranos K, et al (2024)

Alteration of Gut Microbiota Composition and Diversity in Acute and/or Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Prospective Cohort Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

Changes in gut microbiome composition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our objective was to explore the microbial abundance in patients with GvHD after allo-HSCT. We conducted a single-center, prospective study in patients who underwent allo-HSCT and developed grade II or higher acute GvHD and/or moderate or severe chronic GvHD, to explore the microbial abundance of taxa at the phylum, family, genus, and species level, and we utilized alpha and beta diversity indices to further describe our findings. We collected fecal specimens at -2 to +2 (T1), +11 to +17 (T2), +25 to +30 (T3), +90 (T4), and +180 (T5) days to assess changes in gut microbiota, with day 0 being the day of allo-HSCT. We included 20 allo-HSCT recipients in the study. Compared with timepoint T1, at timepoint T4 we found a significant decrease in the abundance of Proteobacteria phylum (14.22% at T1 vs. 4.07% at T4, p = 0.01) and Enterobacteriaceae family (13.3% at T1 vs. <0.05% at T4, p < 0.05), as well as a significant increase in Enterococcus species (0.1% at T1 vs. 12.8% at T4, p < 0.05) in patients who developed acute GvHD. Regarding patients who developed chronic GvHD after allo-HSCT, there was a significant reduction in the abundance of Eurobactereaceae family (1.32% at T1 vs. 0.53% at T4, p < 0.05) and Roseruria genus (3.97% at T1 vs. 0.09% at T4, p < 0.05) at T4 compared with T1. Alpha and beta diversity analyses did not reveal a difference in the abundance of bacteria at the genus level in GvHD patients at T4 compared with T1. Our study reinforces results from previous studies regarding changes in gut microbiota in patients with acute GvHD and provides new data regarding the gut microbiome changes in chronic GvHD. Future studies will need to incorporate clinical parameters in their analyses to establish their association with specific changes in gut microbiota in patients with GvHD after allo-HSCT.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Averina OV, Poluektova EU, Zorkina YA, et al (2024)

Human Gut Microbiota for Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

Nowadays, depressive disorder is spreading rapidly all over the world. Therefore, attention to the studies of the pathogenesis of the disease in order to find novel ways of early diagnosis and treatment is increasing among the scientific and medical communities. Special attention is drawn to a biomarker and therapeutic strategy through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. It is known that the symbiotic interactions between the gut microbes and the host can affect mental health. The review analyzes the mechanisms and ways of action of the gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of depression. The possibility of using knowledge about the taxonomic composition and metabolic profile of the microbiota of patients with depression to select gene compositions (metagenomic signature) as biomarkers of the disease is evaluated. The use of in silico technologies (machine learning) for the diagnosis of depression based on the biomarkers of the gut microbiota is given. Alternative approaches to the treatment of depression are being considered by balancing the microbial composition through dietary modifications and the use of additives, namely probiotics, postbiotics (including vesicles) and prebiotics as psychobiotics, and fecal transplantation. The bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is under consideration as a promising new-generation probiotic and auxiliary diagnostic biomarker of depression. The analysis conducted in this review may be useful for clinical practice and pharmacology.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Zhang H, Li C, Han L, et al (2024)

MUP1 mediates urolithin A alleviation of chronic alcohol-related liver disease via gut-microbiota-liver axis.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2367342.

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is recognized as a global health crisis, contributing to approximately 20% of liver cancer-associated fatalities. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is associated with the development of ALD, with the gut microbial metabolite urolithin A (UA) exhibiting a potential for alleviating liver symptoms. However, the protective efficacy of UA against ALD and its underlying mechanism mediated by microbiota remain elusive. In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that UA effectively ameliorates alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through a specific gut-microbiota-liver axis mediated by major urinary protein 1 (MUP1). Moreover, UA exhibited the potential to restore alcohol-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota by enriching the abundance of Bacteroides sartorii (B. sartorii), Parabacteroides distasonis (P. distasonis), and Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), along with their derived metabolite propionic acid. Partial attenuation of the hepatoprotective effects exerted by UA was observed upon depletion of gut microbiota using antibiotics. Subsequently, a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment was conducted to evaluate the microbiota-dependent effects of UA in ALD. FMT derived from mice treated with UA exhibited comparable efficacy to direct UA treatment, as it effectively attenuated ER stress through modulation of MUP1. It was noteworthy that strong associations were observed among the hepatic MUP1, gut microbiome, and metabolome profiles affected by UA. Intriguingly, oral administration of UA-enriched B. sartorii, P. distasonis, and A. muciniphila can enhance propionic acid production to effectively suppress ER stress via MUP1, mimicking UA treatment. Collectively, these findings elucidate the causal mechanism that UA alleviated ALD through the gut-microbiota-liver axis. This unique mechanism sheds light on developing novel microbiome-targeted therapeutic strategies against ALD.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Lin G, Zhang F, Weng X, et al (2024)

Role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of castration-resistant prostate cancer: a comprehensive study using sequencing and animal models.

Oncogene [Epub ahead of print].

CRPC remains a significant challenge in prostate cancer research. We aimed to elucidate the role of gut microbiota and its specific mechanisms in CRPC using a multidisciplinary approach. We analyzed 16S rRNA sequencing data from mouse fecal samples, revealing substantial differences in gut microbiota composition between CRPC and castration-sensitive prostate cancer mice, particularly in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Functional analysis suggested different bacteria may influence CRPC via the α-linolenic acid metabolism pathway. In vivo, experiments utilizing mouse models and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) demonstrated that FMT from healthy control mice could decelerate tumor growth in CRPC mice, reduce TNF-α levels, and inhibit the activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Transcriptome sequencing identified crucial genes and pathways, with rescue experiments confirming the gut microbiota's role in modulating CRPC progression through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. The activation of this pathway by TNF-α has been corroborated by in vitro cell experiments, indicating its role in promoting prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion while inhibiting apoptosis. Gut microbiota dysbiosis may promote CRPC development through TNF-α activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, potentially linked to α-linolenic acid metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Balasundaram D, Veerasamy V, Sylvia Singarayar M, et al (2024)

Therapeutic potential of probiotics in gut microbial homeostasis and Rheumatoid arthritis.

International immunopharmacology, 137:112501 pii:S1567-5769(24)01022-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and joint damage. Existing treatment options primarily focus on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression, often with side effects and limitations. The gut microbiome, a vast community of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a crucial role in health and disease. Recent research suggests a bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and RA, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic option. This review focuses on the interaction between the gut microbiome and RA development, by discussing how dysbiosis, an imbalance in gut bacteria, can contribute to RA through multiple mechanisms such as molecular mimicry, leaky gut, and metabolic dysregulation. Probiotics, live microorganisms with health benefits, are emerging as promising tools for managing RA. They can prevent the negative effects of dysbiosis by displacing harmful bacteria, producing anti-inflammatory metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), Directly influencing immune cells, and modifying host metabolism. animal and clinical studies demonstrate the potential of probiotics in improving RA symptoms and disease outcomes. However, further research is needed to optimize probiotic strains, dosages, and treatment protocols for personalized and effective management of RA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the gut microbiome and its role in RA and discusses future research directions. In addition to the established role of gut dysbiosis in RA, emerging strategies like fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, and postbiotics offer exciting possibilities. However, individual variations in gut composition necessitate personalized treatment plans. Long-term effects and clear regulations need to be established. Future research focusing on metagenomic analysis, combination therapies, and mechanistic understanding will unlock the full potential of gut microbiome modulation for effective RA management.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Ma X, Shin YJ, Yun SW, et al (2024)

Probiotic LB101 alleviates dry eye in mice by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the regulation of gut microbiota-involved NF-κB signaling.

PloS one, 19(6):e0303423.

Tear matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is an inflammatory signal in patients with dry eye (DE). In the present study, to understand the action mechanism of probiotic LB101 (Lactobacillus plantarum NK151 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NK175 [4:1] mix) against DE, we investigated its effect on tear amount and inflammatory marker expression levels in mice with unilateral exorbital lacrimal gland excision/atropine-benzalkonium chloride application (EB) or fecal microbiota transplantation from mice with EB (eFMT). Oral gavage of LB101 increased EB-suppressed tear amount and decreased EB-induced blinking number. Furthermore, LB101 decreased EB-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression, TNF-α+ and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell populations, and edema in the conjunctiva, while EB-suppressed IL-10 and occludin expression increased. LB101 also decreased EB-induced TNF-α and IL-1β expression and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell population in the colon. eFMT also decreased tear amount and increased blinking number in the transplanted mice. eFMT increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression and TNF-α+ and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell populations in the conjunctiva and TNF-α and IL-1β expression and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell populations in the colon. Oral gavage of LB101 increased eFMT-suppressed tear amount and decreased eFMT-induced blinking number. Furthermore, LB101 decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 expression, TNF-α+ and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell populations, and edema in the conjunctiva and TNF-α and IL-1β expression and NF-κB+CD11c+ cell population in the colon, while eFMT-suppressed IL-10 and occludin expression decreased. Furthermore, LB101 increased eFMT-suppressed Muribaculaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Lactobacillaceae populations in the gut microbiota, while eFMT-induced Bacteroidaceae population decreased. These findings suggest that DE may cause gut dysbiosis, which may be a risk factor for DE, and LB101 may alleviate DE with gut inflammation by suppressing the expression of MMP-9 and proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β with the regulation of gut microbiota-involved NF-κB signaling.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Hu L, Sun L, Yang C, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota-derived acetate attenuates lung injury induced by influenza infection via protecting airway tight junctions.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):570.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota (GM) have been implicated as important regulators of gastrointestinal symptom which is commonly occurred along with respiratory influenza A virus (IAV) infection, suggesting the involvement of the gut-to-lung axis in a host's response to IAV. IAV primarily destroys airway epithelium tight junctions (TJs) and consequently causes acute respiratory disease syndrome. It is known that GM and their metabolism produce an anti-influenza effect, but their role in IAV-induced airway epithelial integrity remains unknown.

METHODS: A mouse model of IAV infection was established. GM were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels were measured. GM depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were conducted to validate the role of GM in IAV infection. A pair-feeding experiment was conducted to reveal whether IAV-induced GM dysbiosis is attributed to impaired food intake. Furthermore, human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were cocultured with IAV in the presence or absence of acetate. TJs function was analyzed by paracellular permeability and transepithelial electronic resistance (TEER). The mechanism of how acetate affects TJs integrity was evaluated in HBE cells transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) short hairpin RNA (shRNA).

RESULTS: IAV-infected mice exhibited lower relative abundance of acetate-producing bacteria (Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia) and decreased acetate levels in gut and serum. These changes were partly caused by a decrease in food consumption (due to anorexia). GM depletion exacerbated and FMT restored IAV-induced lung inflammatory injury. IAV infection suppressed expressions of TJs (occludin, ZO-1) leading to disrupted airway epithelial barrier function as evidenced by decreased TEER and increased permeability. Acetate pretreatment activated GPR43, partially restored IAV-induced airway epithelial barrier function, and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β). Such protective effects of acetate were absent in HBE cells transfected with GPR43 shRNA. Acetate and GPR43 improved TJs in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrated that GM protected airway TJs by modulating GPR43-AMPK signaling in IAV-induced lung injury. Therefore, improving GM dysbiosis may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with IAV infection.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Wu J, Chen X, Qian J, et al (2024)

Clinical improvement effect of regulating gut microbiota on metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology pii:S2210-7401(24)00118-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is constantly rising globally. There are barely any effective medications or supplements for the management of MASLD. We aim to systematically evaluate the most current evidence for gut microbiota-regulating supplements in patients with MASLD.

METHODS: We searched multiple electronic data for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from January 1, 2012, to July 15, 2023. The intervention measures included probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The control group was treated with a placebo or usual care. The intervention duration was divided into two periods (>12 weeks and ≤12 weeks). Adequate evaluation data for antibiotics and FMT have not been obtained. Therefore, the other three microbiota regulators are the primary evaluation measures in this study.

RESULTS: We found that probiotics alone could not improve clinical indicators in MASLD patients. However, synbiotics exhibited an improvement in reducing liver steatosis, TNF-ɑ levels, and increasing HDL-c levels, and the inflammatory markers of liver cells (ALT and AST) were also improved. For the effective intervention duration, this systematic review suggested that around 12 weeks is an ideal intervention cycle for MASLD patients.

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supported the modulation of gut microbiota with synbiotics in the management of MASLD.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Mincic AM, Antal M, Filip L, et al (2024)

Modulation of gut microbiome in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: A systematic review.

Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 43(7):1832-1849 pii:S0261-5614(24)00182-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microbiota plays an essential role in maintaining body health, through positive influences on metabolic, defensive, and trophic processes and on intercellular communication. Imbalance in intestinal flora, with the proliferation of harmful bacterial species (dysbiosis) is consistently reported in chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Correcting dysbiosis can have a beneficial impact on the symptoms and evolution of ND. This review examines the effects of microbiota modulation through administration of probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, or prebiotics' metabolites (postbiotics) in patients with ND like multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Medline databases and registry searches were performed using pre-/pro-/postbiotics and ND-related terms. Further references were obtained by checking relevant articles.

RESULTS: Although few compared to animal studies, the human studies generally show positive effects on disease-specific symptoms, overall health, metabolic parameters, on oxidative stress and immunological markers. Therapy with probiotics in various forms (mixtures of bacterial strains, fecal microbiota transplant, diets rich in fermented foods) exert favorable effects on patients' mental health, cognition, and quality of life, targeting pathogenetic ND mechanisms and inducing reparatory mechanisms at the cellular level. More encouraging results have been observed in prebiotic/postbiotic therapy in some ND.

CONCLUSIONS: The effects of probiotic-related interventions depend on the patients' ND stage and pre-existing allopathic medication. Further studies on larger cohorts and long term comprehensive neuropsychiatric, metabolic, biochemical testing, and neuroimaging monitoring are necessary to optimize therapeutic protocols in ND.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Jia R, Shao S, Zhang P, et al (2024)

PRM1201 effectively inhibits colorectal cancer metastasis via shaping gut microbiota and short- chain fatty acids.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 132:155795 pii:S0944-7113(24)00453-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: PRM1201 is a traditional medicine with beneficial effects against colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of this action remains to be determined.

HYPOTHESIS: Remodeling microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolism might be a potential mechanism to explain the anti-metastatic action of PRM1201, as this gut-microbiota dependent effect involves downregulation of histone deacetylation and EMT.

METHODS: To investigate this possibility, clinical specimens were sequenced and the correlation between the anti-metastatic efficacy of PRM1201 and the restoration of SCFA-producing bacteria was studied. To obtain solid causal evidence, a mouse metastasis model was established to detect the influence of PRM1201 on cancer metastasis. Specifically, 16S amplicon sequencing, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, and bacterial manipulation were used to examine the gut microbiota-driven anti-metastatic action of PRM1201.

RESULTS: Clinical data showed that PRM1201 increased both the number of SCFA-producing bacteria and generation of SCFAs in the feces of CRC patients. A positive correlation between the anti-metastatic efficacy of PRM1201 and the restoration of SCFAs observed. The animal experiments demonstrated that PRM1201 effectively blocked CRC metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. PRM1201 treatment modulated the composition of gut microbiota, and promoted the proliferation of beneficial SCFAs producers such as Akkermansia, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Blautia, while simultaneously reducing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia-Shigella. In addition, PRM1201 led to augmentation of SCFAs content. Further results indicated that the anti-cancer metastatic mechanism of PRM1201 was linked to inhibition of histone deacetylation and suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in metastatic lesions. Microbiota depletion treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) underscored the microbiota-dependent nature of this phenomenon. Moreover, this anti-colorectal cancer metastatic effect and mechanism of total SCFAs and single SCFA were also confirmed.

CONCLUSION: In summary, PRM1201 exerts its anti-metastatic effects by modulating SCFA-producing bacteria and enhancing the production of SCFAs. Furthermore, the prebiotic-like actions of PRM1201, along with the PRM1201-treated bacteria, function as inhibitors of histone deacetylases (DHACs) thereby effectively suppressing EMT events.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Jawanda IK, Soni T, Kumari S, et al (2024)

The evolving facets of vaginal microbiota transplantation: reinvigorating the unexplored frontier amid complex challenges.

Archives of microbiology, 206(7):306.

In an age of cutting-edge sequencing methods and worldwide endeavors such as The Human Microbiome Project and MetaHIT, the human microbiome stands as a complex and diverse community of microorganisms. A central theme in current scientific inquiry revolves around reinstating a balanced microbial composition, referred to as "eubiosis," as a targeted approach for treating vast array of diseases. Vaginal Microbiota Transplantation (VMT), inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplantation, emerges as an innovative therapy addressing vaginal dysbacteriosis by transferring the complete microbiota from a healthy donor. Antibiotics, while effective, pose challenges with adverse effects, high recurrence rates, and potential harm to beneficial Lactobacillus strains. Continued antibiotic usage also sparks worries regarding the development of resistant strains. Probiotics, though showing promise, exhibit inconsistency in treating multifactorial diseases, and concerns linger about their suitability for diverse genetic backgrounds. Given the recurrent challenges associated with antibiotic and probiotic treatments, VMT emerges as an imperative alternative, offering a unique and promising avenue for efficiently and reliably managing vaginal dysbiosis among a majority of women. This review critically evaluates findings from both animal and human studies, offering nuanced insights into the efficacy and challenges of VMT. An extensive analysis of clinical trials, provides a current overview of ongoing and completed trials, shedding light on the evolving clinical landscape and therapeutic potential of VMT. Delving into the origins, mechanisms, and optimized protocols of VMT, the review underscores the imperative for sustained research efforts to advance this groundbreaking gynecological therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Mu YF, Gao ZX, Mao ZH, et al (2024)

Perspectives on the involvement of the gut microbiota in salt-sensitive hypertension.

Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension [Epub ahead of print].

Salt-sensitivity hypertension (SSH) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular event-related death. Despite the extensiveness of research on hypertension, which covers areas such as the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, the vascular system, and the immune system, its pathogenesis remains elusive, with sub-optimal blood pressure control in patients. The gut microbiota is an important component of nutritional support and constitutes a barrier in the host. Long-term high salt intake can lead to gut microbiota dysbiosis and cause significant changes in the expression of gut microbiota-related metabolites. Of these metabolites, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine oxide, amino acids, bile acids, and lipopolysaccharide are essential mediators of microbe-host crosstalk. These metabolites may contribute to the incidence and development of SSH via inflammatory, immune, vascular, and nervous pathways, among others. In addition, recent studies, including those on the histone deacetylase inhibitory mechanism of SCFAs and the blood pressure-decreasing effects of H2S via vascular activation, suggest that several proteins and factors in the classical pathway elicit their effects through multiple non-classical pathways. This review summarizes changes in the gut microbiota and its related metabolites in high-salt environments, as well as corresponding treatment methods for SSH, such as diet management, probiotic and prebiotic use, antibiotic use, and fecal transplantation, to provide new insights and perspectives for understanding SSH pathogenesis and the development of strategies for its treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Hazra R, Chattopadhyay S, Mallick A, et al (2024)

Revealing the therapeutic properties of gut microbiota: transforming cancer immunotherapy from basic to clinical approaches.

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 41(7):175.

The immune system plays a pivotal role in the battle against cancer, serving as a formidable guardian in the ongoing fight against malignant cells. To combat these malignant cells, immunotherapy has emerged as a prevalent approach leveraging antibodies and peptides such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4 to inhibit immune checkpoints and activate T lymphocytes. The optimization of gut microbiota plays a significant role in modulating the defense system in the body. This study explores the potential of certain gut-resident bacteria to amplify the impact of immunotherapy. Contemporary antibiotic treatments, which can impair gut flora, may diminish the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers. Conversely, probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation can help re-establish intestinal microflora equilibrium. Additionally, the gut microbiome has been implicated in various strategies to counteract immune resistance, thereby enhancing the success of cancer immunotherapy. This paper also acknowledges cutting-edge technologies such as nanotechnology, CAR-T therapy, ACT therapy, and oncolytic viruses in modulating gut microbiota. Thus, an exhaustive review of literature was performed to uncover the elusive link that could potentiate the gut microbiome's role in augmenting the success of cancer immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Cai L, Wang X, Zhu X, et al (2024)

Lactobacillus-derived protoporphyrin IX and SCFAs regulate the fiber size via glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of chickens.

mSystems, 9(6):e0021424.

The gut microbiota contributes to skeletal muscle energy metabolism and is an indirect factor affecting meat quality. However, the role of specific gut microbes in energy metabolism and fiber size of skeletal muscle in chickens remains largely unknown. In this study, we first performed cecal microbiota transplantation from Chinese indigenous Jingyuan chickens (JY) to Arbor Acres chickens (AA), to determine the effects of microbiota on skeletal muscle fiber and energy metabolism. Then, we used metagenomics, gas chromatography, and metabolomics analysis to identify functional microbes. Finally, we validated the role of these functional microbes in regulating the fiber size via glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle of chickens through feeding experiments. The results showed that the skeletal muscle characteristics of AA after microbiota transplantation tended to be consistent with that of JY, as the fiber diameter was significantly increased, and glucose metabolism level was significantly enhanced in the pectoralis muscle. L. plantarum, L. ingluviei, L. salivarius, and their mixture could increase the production of the microbial metabolites protoporphyrin IX and short-chain fatty acids, therefore increasing the expression levels of genes related to the oxidative fiber type (MyHC SM and MyHC FRM), mitochondrial function (Tfam and CoxVa), and glucose metabolism (PFK, PK, PDH, IDH, and SDH), thereby increasing the fiber diameter and density. These three Lactobacillus species could be promising probiotics to improve the meat quality of chicken.IMPORTANCEThis study revealed that the L. plantarum, L. ingluviei, and L. salivarius could enhance the production of protoporphyrin IX and short-chain fatty acids in the cecum of chickens, improving glucose metabolism, and finally cause the increase in fiber diameter and density of skeletal muscle. These three microbes could be potential probiotic candidates to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle to improve the meat quality of chicken in broiler production.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Liu H, Yan C, Teng Y, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota and D-ribose mediate the anti-colitic effect of punicalagin in DSS-treated mice.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasing health burden worldwide. Punicalagin, a bioactive component rich in pomegranate rind, has been shown to attenuate chemical or bacteria-induced experimental colitis in mice, but whether punicalagin exerts its function through modulating gut microbiota and metabolites remains unexplored. Results: Punicalagin (100 mg per kg per day) administered orally to mice alleviated dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Gut microbiota analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed that punicalagin altered gut microbiota by increasing the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Bifidobacterium abundance. To evaluate the effect of punicalagin-modulated microbiota and its metabolites in colitis mice, we transplanted fecal microbiota and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) to mice treated with oral antibiotics. The results of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) demonstrated that punicalagin's anti-colitic effect is transferable by transplanting punicalagin-modulated gut microbiota and its metabolites. Additionally, we discovered that punicalagin-modulated sterile fecal filtrate also exhibits anti-colitis effects, as evidenced by improved intestinal barrier integrity and decreased inflammation. Subsequently, fecal metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The analysis revealed that punicalagin significantly increased the level of D-ribose. In vitro experiments showed that D-ribose has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, D-ribose significantly mitigated DSS-induced colitis symptoms in mice. Conclusions: Overall, this study demonstrated that gut microbiota and its metabolites partly mediate the protective effect of punicalagin against DSS-induced colitis in mice. D-ribose is a key metabolite that contributes to the anti-colitic effect of punicalagin in mice.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Bulnes R, NS Utay (2024)

Therapeutic microbiome modulation: new frontiers in HIV treatment.

Current opinion in HIV and AIDS pii:01222929-990000000-00097 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis may be a key driver of systemic inflammation, which increases the risk of non-AIDS events in people living with HIV (PLWH). Modulation of the microbiome to reverse this dysbiosis may be a novel approach to decrease inflammation and therefore morbidity and mortality in PLWH.

RECENT FINDINGS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and dietary modifications have the potential to modulate the microbiome. These interventions have been well tolerated in clinical trials to date. However, these interventions have not resulted in consistent or lasting changes to the microbiome or consistent changes in biomarkers of intestinal permeability, microbial translocation, inflammation, immune activation, or CD4+ T cell counts. Sustained engraftment may require prebiotics and/or dietary modifications added to either probiotics or FMT.

SUMMARY: Adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate whether microbiome modulation can be achieved and impact systemic inflammation in PLWH.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Levy B, Fliss Isakov N, Ziv-Baran T, et al (2024)

Economic and Chronologic Optimization of Fecal Donors Screening Process.

MDM policy & practice, 9(1):23814683241254809.

UNLABELLED: Background. Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is the delivery of fecal microbiome, isolated from healthy donors, into a patient's gastrointestinal tract. FMT is a safe and efficient treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Donors undergo strict screening to avoid disease transmission. This consists of several blood and stool tests, which are performed in a multistage, costly process. We performed a cost-minimizing analysis to find the optimal order in which the tests should be performed. Methods. An algorithm to optimize the order of tests in terms of cost was defined. Performance analysis for disqualifying a potential healthy donor was carried out on data sets based on either the published literature or our real-life data. For both data sets, we calculated the total cost to qualify a single donor according to the optimal order of tests, suggested by the algorithm. Results. Applying the algorithm to the published literature revealed potential savings of 94.2% of the cost of screening a potential donor and 7.05% of the cost to qualify a single donor. In our cohort of 87 volunteers, 53 were not eligible for donation. Of 34 potential donors, 10 were disqualified due to abnormal lab tests. Applying our algorithm to optimize the order of tests, the average cost for screening a potential donor resulted in potential savings of 49.9% and a 21.3% savings in the cost to qualify a single donor. Conclusions. Improving the order and timing of the screening tests of potential FMT stool donors can decrease the costs by about 50% per subject.

HIGHLIGHTS: What is known:Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is the transfer of microbiome from healthy donors to patients.Fecal donors undergo multiple strict screening tests to exclude any transmissible disease.Screening tests of potential fecal donors is expensive and time consuming.FMT is the most efficient treatment for recurrent C difficile infection.What is new here:An algorithm to optimize the order of donors' screening tests in terms of cost was defined.Optimizing the order tests can save nearly 50% in costs of screening a potential donor.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Shang Z, Pai L, S Patil (2024)

Unveiling the dynamics of gut microbial interactions: a review of dietary impact and precision nutrition in gastrointestinal health.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1395664.

The human microbiome, a dynamic ecosystem within the gastrointestinal tract, plays a pivotal role in shaping overall health. This review delves into six interconnected sections, unraveling the intricate relationship between diet, gut microbiota, and their profound impact on human health. The dance of nutrients in the gut orchestrates a complex symphony, influencing digestive processes and susceptibility to gastrointestinal disorders. Emphasizing the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, the Brain-Gut Axis section highlights the crucial role of dietary choices in physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Autoimmune diseases, particularly those manifesting in the gastrointestinal tract, reveal the delicate balance disrupted by gut microbiome imbalances. Strategies for reconciling gut microbes through diets, precision nutrition, and clinical indications showcase promising avenues for managing gastrointestinal distress and revolutionizing healthcare. From the Low-FODMAP diet to neuro-gut interventions, these strategies provide a holistic understanding of the gut's dynamic world. Precision nutrition, as a groundbreaking discipline, holds transformative potential by tailoring dietary recommendations to individual gut microbiota compositions, reshaping the landscape of gastrointestinal health. Recent advancements in clinical indications, including exact probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and neuro-gut interventions, signify a new era where the gut microbiome actively participates in therapeutic strategies. As the microbiome takes center stage in healthcare, a paradigm shift toward personalized and effective treatments for gastrointestinal disorders emerges, reflecting the symbiotic relationship between the human body and its microbial companions.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Paaske SE, Dahl Baumwall SM, Rubak T, et al (2024)

Real-world effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation for first or second Clostridioides difficile infection.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(24)00514-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is associated with high mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an established treatment for recurrent CDI, but its use for first or second CDI remains experimental. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of FMT for first or second CDI in a real-world clinical setting.

METHODS: This multi-site Danish cohort study included patients with first or second CDI treated with FMT from June 2019 to February 2023. The primary outcome was cure of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) eight weeks after the last FMT treatment. Secondary outcomes included CDAD cure one and eight weeks after the first FMT treatment and 90-day mortality following positive C. difficile test.

RESULTS: We included 467 patients, with 187 (40%) having their first CDI. The median patient age was 73 years (interquartile range (IQR) 58-82 years). Notably, 167 (36%) had antibiotic-refractory CDI, 262 (56%) had severe CDI, and 89 (19%) suffered from fulminant CDI. Following the first FMT treatment, cure of CDAD was achieved in 353 patients (76%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71-79%) at week one. At week eight, 255 patients (55%, 95% CI 50-59%) maintained sustained effect. In patients without initial effect, repeated FMT treatments led to an overall cure of CDAD in 367 patients (79%, 95% CI 75-82%). The 90-day mortality was 10% (95% CI 8-14%).

CONCLUSION: Repeated FMT treatments demonstrate high effectiveness in managing patients with first or second CDI. Forwarding FMT in CDI treatment guidelines could improve patient survival.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Dubois L, Valles-Colomer M, Ponsero A, et al (2024)

Paternal and induced gut microbiota seeding complement mother-to-infant transmission.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):1011-1024.e4.

Microbial colonization of the neonatal gut involves maternal seeding, which is partially disrupted in cesarean-born infants and after intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, other physically close individuals could complement such seeding. To assess the role of both parents and of induced seeding, we analyzed two longitudinal metagenomic datasets (health and early life microbiota [HELMi]: N = 74 infants, 398 samples, and SECFLOR: N = 7 infants, 35 samples) with cesarean-born infants who received maternal fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that the father constitutes a stable source of strains for the infant independently of the delivery mode, with the cumulative contribution becoming comparable to that of the mother after 1 year. Maternal FMT increased mother-infant strain sharing in cesarean-born infants, raising the average bacterial empirical growth rate while reducing pathogen colonization. Overall, our results indicate that maternal seeding is partly complemented by that of the father and support the potential of induced seeding to restore potential deviations in this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Hu H, Tan Y, Li C, et al (2022)

StrainPanDA: Linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles via pangenome-based decomposition of metagenomic data.

iMeta, 1(3):e41.

Microbial strains of variable functional capacities coexist in microbiomes. Current bioinformatics methods of strain analysis cannot provide the direct linkage between strain composition and their gene contents from metagenomic data. Here we present Strain-level Pangenome Decomposition Analysis (StrainPanDA), a novel method that uses the pangenome coverage profile of multiple metagenomic samples to simultaneously reconstruct the composition and gene content variation of coexisting strains in microbial communities. We systematically validate the accuracy and robustness of StrainPanDA using synthetic data sets. To demonstrate the power of gene-centric strain profiling, we then apply StrainPanDA to analyze the gut microbiome samples of infants, as well as patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation. We show that the linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles is critical for understanding the relationship between microbial adaptation and strain-specific functions (e.g., nutrient utilization and pathogenicity). Finally, StrainPanDA has minimal requirements for computing resources and can be scaled to process multiple species in a community in parallel. In short, StrainPanDA can be applied to metagenomic data sets to detect the association between molecular functions and microbial/host phenotypes to formulate testable hypotheses and gain novel biological insights at the strain or subspecies level.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wang L, Tu YX, Chen L, et al (2024)

Black rice diet alleviates colorectal cancer development through modulating tryptophan metabolism and activating AHR pathway.

iMeta, 3(1):e165.

Consumption of dietary fiber and anthocyanin has been linked to a lower incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study scrutinizes the potential antitumorigenic attributes of a black rice diet (BRD), abundantly rich in dietary fiber and anthocyanin. Our results demonstrate notable antitumorigenic effects in mice on BRD, indicated by a reduction in both the size and number of intestinal tumors and a consequent extension in life span, compared to control diet-fed counterparts. Furthermore, fecal transplants from BRD-fed mice to germ-free mice led to a decrease in colonic cell proliferation, coupled with maintained integrity of the intestinal barrier. The BRD was associated with significant shifts in gut microbiota composition, specifically an augmentation in probiotic strains Bacteroides uniformis and Lactobacillus. Noteworthy changes in gut metabolites were also documented, including the upregulation of indole-3-lactic acid and indole. These metabolites have been identified to stimulate the intestinal aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway, inhibiting CRC cell proliferation and colorectal tumorigenesis. In summary, these findings propose that a BRD may modulate the progression of intestinal tumors by fostering protective gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. The study accentuates the potential health advantages of whole-grain foods, emphasizing the potential utility of black rice in promoting health.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Liu J, Ding M, Bai J, et al (2023)

Decoding the role of immune T cells: A new territory for improvement of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease.

iMeta, 2(1):e76.

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new emerging concept and is associated with metabolic dysfunction, generally replacing the name of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to heterogeneous liver condition and inaccuracies in definition. The prevalence of MAFLD is rising by year due to dietary changes, metabolic disorders, and no approved therapy, affecting a quarter of the global population and representing a major economic problem that burdens healthcare systems. Currently, in addition to the common causative factors like insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity, the role of immune cells, especially T cells, played in MAFLD is increasingly being emphasized by global scholars. Based on the diverse classification and pathophysiological effects of immune T cells, we comprehensively analyzed their bidirectional regulatory effects on the hepatic inflammatory microenvironment and MAFLD progression. This interaction between MAFLD and T cells was also associated with hepatic-intestinal immune crosstalk and gut microbiota homeostasis. Moreover, we pointed out several T-cell-based therapeutic approaches including but not limited to adoptive transfer of T cells, fecal microbiota transplantation, and drug therapy, especially for natural products and Chinese herbal prescriptions. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the important role of T cells played in MAFLD progression and corresponding therapeutic options and provides a potential reference for further drug development.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Chen AT, Zhang J, Y Zhang (2023)

Gut microbiota in heart failure and related interventions.

iMeta, 2(3):e125.

Heart failure (HF) is a sophisticated syndrome with structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood, either causing symptoms and signs or being asymptomatic. HF is a major global health issue affecting about 64.3 million people worldwide. The gut microbiota refers to the complex ecosystem of microorganisms, mainly bacteria, in the gut. Studies have revealed that the gut microbiota is associated with many diseases ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. The gut hypothesis of HF suggests that low cardiac output and systemic circulation congestion would cause insufficient intestinal perfusion, leading to ischemia and intestinal barrier dysfunction. The resulting bacterial translocation would contribute to inflammation. Recent studies have refined the hypothesis that changes of metabolites in the gut microbiota have a close relationship with HF. Thus, the gut microbiota has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for HF due to both its critical role in regulating host physiology and metabolism and its pivotal role in the development of HF. This review article aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of the gut microbiota's involvement in HF, including the introduction of the gut hypothesis of HF, its association with HF progression, the potential mechanisms involved mediated by the gut microbiota metabolites, and the impact of various interventions on the gut microbiota, including dietary interventions, probiotic therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, antibiotics, and so on. While the gut hypothesis of HF is refined with up-to-date knowledge and the gut microbiota presents a promising target for HF therapy, further research is still needed to further understand the underlying mechanisms between gut microbiota and HF, the efficacy of these interventions, and contribute to the health of HF patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Jia X, Wang Q, Liu M, et al (2024)

The interplay between gut microbiota and the brain-gut axis in Parkinson's disease treatment.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1415463.

This study delves into the pivotal role of the gut microbiota and the brain-gut axis in Parkinson's Disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder with significant motor and non-motor implications. It posits that disruptions in gut microbiota-dysbiosis-and alterations in the brain-gut axis contribute to PD's pathogenesis. Our findings highlight the potential of the gastrointestinal system's early involvement in PD, suggested by the precedence of gastrointestinal symptoms before motor symptoms emerge. This observation implies a possible gut-originated disease pathway. The analysis demonstrates that dysbiosis in PD patients leads to increased intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation, which in turn exacerbates neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Such insights into the interaction between gut microbiota and the brain-gut axis not only elucidate PD's underlying mechanisms but also pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions. We propose targeted treatment strategies, including dietary modifications and fecal microbiota transplantation, aimed at modulating the gut microbiota. These approaches hold promise for augmenting current PD treatment modalities by alleviating both motor and non-motor symptoms, thereby potentially improving patient quality of life. This research underscores the significance of the gut microbiota in the progression and treatment of PD, advocating for an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to develop personalized, efficacious management strategies for PD patients, combining insights from neurology, microbiology, and nutritional science.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ma C, Yin B, X Hu (2024)

Advances in clinical treatment of liver disease: fecal microbiota transplantation for liver disease.

Minerva medica pii:S0026-4806.24.09363-7 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wang XW, Wu L, Dai L, et al (2023)

Ecological dynamics imposes fundamental challenges in community-based microbial source tracking.

iMeta, 2(1):e75.

Quantifying the contributions of possible environmental sources ("sources") to a specific microbial community ("sink") is a classical problem in microbiology known as microbial source tracking (MST). Solving the MST problem will not only help us understand how microbial communities were formed, but also have far-reaching applications in pollution control, public health, and forensics. MST methods generally fall into two categories: target-based methods (focusing on the detection of source-specific indicator species or chemicals); and community-based methods (using community structure to measure similarity between sink samples and potential source environments). As next-generation sequencing becomes a standard community-assessment method in microbiology, numerous community-based computational methods, referred to as MST solvers hereafter have been developed and applied to various real datasets to demonstrate their utility across different contexts. Yet, those MST solvers do not consider microbial interactions and priority effects in microbial communities. Here, we revisit the performance of several representative MST solvers. We show compelling evidence that solving the MST problem using existing MST solvers is impractical when ecological dynamics plays a role in community assembly. In particular, we clearly demonstrate that the presence of either microbial interactions or priority effects will render the MST problem mathematically unsolvable for MST solvers. We further analyze data from fecal microbiota transplantation studies, finding that the state-of-the-art MST solvers fail to identify donors for most of the recipients. Finally, we perform community coalescence experiments to demonstrate that the state-of-the-art MST solvers fail to identify the sources for most of the sinks. Our findings suggest that ecological dynamics imposes fundamental challenges in MST. Interpretation of results of existing MST solvers should be done cautiously.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ma Y, Ke D, Li D, et al (2022)

Donors' experiences and attitudes of fecal microbiota transplantation: An empirical bioethics study from China.

iMeta, 1(4):e62.

Donor participation is a critical part of ensuring the development of human microbiome research and the clinical application of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Most FMT donors are still not sufficiently aware of the risks associated with the act of donating gut microbiota, especially the risk of data privacy disclosure. Enhanced awareness of the moral responsibility of the researchers and ethical oversight by ethics committees are needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Chen CY, Wang YF, Lei L, et al (2024)

Impacts of microbiota and its metabolites through gut-brain axis on pathophysiology of major depressive disorder.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(24)00405-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a high rate of recurrence and disability, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. That's why a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of MDD pathology is an urgent task, and some studies have found that intestinal symptoms accompany people with MDD. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system, which was found to have a strong association with the pathogenesis of MDD. Previous studies have focused more on the communication between the gut and the brain through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic pathways, and the role of gut microbes and their metabolites in depression is unclear. Metabolites of intestinal microorganisms (e.g., tryptophan, kynurenic acid, indole, and lipopolysaccharide) can participate in the pathogenesis of MDD through immune and inflammatory pathways or by altering the permeability of the gut and blood-brain barrier. In addition, intestinal microbes can communicate with intestinal neurons and glial cells to affect the integrity and function of intestinal nerves. However, the specific role of gut microbes and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of MDD is not well understood. Hence, the present review summarizes how gut microbes and their metabolites are directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of MDD.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Gopalarathinam R, Sankar R, SS Zhao (2024)

Role of Anti-Inflammatory Diet and Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Psoriatic Arthritis.

Clinical therapeutics pii:S0149-2918(24)00112-7 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory condition with complex and heterogenous manifestations. Although a myriad of treatment options including biologic medications are available to alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression, there is currently no cure for this condition. There has been a recent emergence of understanding about the relationship between the gut microbiome and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. This has generated interest in the potential role of dietary interventions, particularly anti-inflammatory diets, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) as novel therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the role of an anti-inflammatory diet and FMT in turn and whether their combination may offer alternate approaches for the management of PsA.

METHODS: Our non-systematic narrative review was informed by a literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms anti-inflammatory diet, FMT, nutrition supplements, and PsA. Preclinical studies and non-English language articles were excluded when synthesizing the narrative review.

FINDINGS: Current randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational evidence suggest that a hypocaloric diet or Mediterranean diet can help achieve weight loss among PsA patients who are overweight or obese, which in turn reduces inflammation and improves disease activity. However, there is no strong data to support the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting, vitamin supplements, turmeric supplements, probiotics, or omega-3 fatty acid supplements in PsA. Current evidence on the use of FMT in PsA is limited as only one small RCT has been conducted which did not demonstrate efficacy for improving clinical symptoms.

IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians can consider recommending hypocaloric or Mediterranean diets as an adjunct to standard management of PsA, possibly under the guidance of a dietician. Further research is needed to explore the beneficial effects of the synergistic role of combining an anti-inflammatory diet with FMT in PsA.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Lin D, Hu D, Song Y, et al (2024)

Long-term efficacy of washed microbiota transplantation in overweight patients.

European journal of clinical investigation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation holds promise in mitigating fat accumulation and improving obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) among overweight patients.

METHODS: The clinical data pertaining to the treatment of patients with WMT were collected retrospectively. Compared alterations in body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure prior to and following WMT treatment. Comprehensive efficacy evaluation and atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) grading evaluation were carried out, with an analysis of gut microbiota composition before and after WMT.

RESULTS: A total of 186 patients were included (80 overweight, 106 normal weight). WMT not only had the effect of improving overweight patients to the normal weight patients (p < .001), but also could significantly reduce BMI in the long term by restoring gut microbiota homeostasis (p < .001). In addition, the BMI improvement value of multi course was more significant than that of single course or double course. WMT had a significant ASCVD downgrade effect on the high-risk and medium-risk groups outside 1 year, while it did not increase the risk of upgrading ASCVD for low-risk group.

CONCLUSIONS: WMT could significantly reduce the BMI of overweight patients and still had an improvement effect in the long term.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Guo Q, Cheng Y, Li T, et al (2024)

The Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Development of LPS-Induced Orchitis by Disrupting the Blood-Testosterone Barrier in Mice.

Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) [Epub ahead of print].

Orchitis is a frequent inflammatory reproductive disease that causes male infertility and a decline in sperm quality. Gut microbiota can regulate systemic and local inflammation, spermatogenesis and blood-testosterone barrier (BTB). In this study, we investigated correlation between gut microbiota and orchitis by establishing a mouse gut microbiota imbalance model induced by antibiotics (ABX) treatment and orchitis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infection. Based on these two models, 16s rRNA sequencing and feces microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments were combined to examine the function and regulatory mechanisms of the gut microbiota in host defense against orchitis. Compared with control mice, gut microbiota imbalance resulted in increasing inflammatory responses, modulating oxidative stress related enzyme activity, testosterone levels and the permeability of blood testosterone barrier, which are restored after FMT. Subsequently, we tested the relationship between the gut microbiota imbalance and testicular inflammation severity in orchitis. It was found that the ABX and LPS co-treated mice had more severe inflammatory responses, lower testosterone levels and greater permeability of the BTB than the LPS-treated mice, but these changes could be partially recovered by gut microbiota transplantation. In conclusion, these above results proved for the first time that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of orchitis, which laid a good foundation for the subsequent development of anti-orchitis drugs and probiotic targeting intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Skjevling L, Goll R, Hanssen HM, et al (2024)

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in Norwegian outpatients with mild to severe myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): protocol for a 12-month randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

BMJ open, 14(6):e073275.

INTRODUCTION: The observed alteration of the intestinal microbiota in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and the effect of transferring a healthy gut flora from a faecal donor using a faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) will be explored in this trial.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre trial, with 12 months follow-up. 80 participants will be included and randomised (1:1:2) to either donor FMT (from two different donors) or placebo (autologous FMT). Participants will be included by the International Clinical Criteria for ME/CFS. The clinical measures of ME/CFS and disease activity include Modified DePaul Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), ROMA IV criteria, Food Frequency Questionnaire, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, heart rate variability testing and reports on the use of antibiotics and food supplements, as well as biobanking of blood, urine and faeces.The primary endpoint is proportion with treatment success in FSS score in donor versus autologous FMT group 3 months after treatment. Treatment success is defined as an FSS improvement of more than 1.2 points from baseline at 3 months after treatment. Adverse events will be registered throughout the study.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics Northern Norway has approved the study. The study has commenced in May 2019. Findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journal(s), submitted to relevant conferences, and trial participants will be informed via phone calls.


RevDate: 2024-06-10

Xu R, Feng N, Li Q, et al (2024)

Pectin supplementation accelerates post-antibiotic gut microbiome reconstitution orchestrated with reduced gut redox potential.

The ISME journal pii:7690738 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis (AID) is a big challenge for host health, and the recovery from this dysbiosis is often slow and incomplete. AID is typically featured by elevation in redox potential, Enterobacteriaceae load, and aerobic metabolism. In our previous study, pectin-enriched diet could decrease fecal redox potential and modulate gut microbiome. Therefore, we propose that pectin supplementation may modulate gut redox potential and favor post-antibiotic gut microbiome reconstitution from dysbiosis. In the present study, AID rats were applied to investigate the effects of pectin supplementation on post-antibiotic gut microbiome reconstitution from dysbiosis. The results showed that pectin supplementation accelerated post-antibiotic reconstitution of gut microbiome composition and function, and led to enhancement of anabolic reductive metabolism and weakening of catabolic oxidative pathways. These results were corroborated by the measurement of redox potential suggesting that pectin favors post-antibiotic recovery from dysbiosis. Transplantation of the pectin-modulated fecal microbiota (P-FMT) accelerated the decrease in antibiotics-elevated redox potential and Enterobacteriaceae load similarly to pectin supplementation. Moreover, both pectin supplementation and P-FMT enriched anaerobic members primarily from Lachnospiraceae orchestrating with enhancement on microbial reductive metabolism in post-antibiotic rats. The findings suggested that pectin supplementation accelerated post-antibiotic gut microbiome reconstitution orchestrated with reduced gut redox potential, and the effect of pectin on redox potential was mediated by intestinal microbiota remodeling.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Hazan S, Haroon J, Jordan S, et al (2024)

Correction to: Improvements in Gut Microbiome Composition and Clinical Symptoms Following Familial Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Nineteen-Year-Old Adolescent With Severe Autism.

Journal of medical cases, 15(6):115.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.14740/jmc4209.].

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Wanyi Z, Jiao Y, Wen H, et al (2024)

Bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis: new findings in Parkinson's disease and inflammatory bowel disease.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1407241.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are the two chronic inflammatory diseases that are increasingly affecting millions of people worldwide, posing a major challenge to public health. PD and IBD show similarities in epidemiology, genetics, immune response, and gut microbiota. Here, we review the pathophysiology of these two diseases, including genetic factors, immune system imbalance, changes in gut microbial composition, and the effects of microbial metabolites (especially short-chain fatty acids). We elaborate on the gut-brain axis, focusing on role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of PD and IBD. In addition, we discuss several therapeutic strategies, including drug therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, and probiotic supplementation, and their potential benefits in regulating intestinal microecology and relieving disease symptoms. Our analysis will provide a new understanding and scientific basis for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Ni S, Huang X, Li X, et al (2024)

METTL3 promotes nucleus pulposus cell senescence in intervertebral disc degeneration by regulating TLR2 m6A methylation and gut microbiota.

The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences pii:7690322 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) senescence in intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue is the major pathological cause during intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation and gut microbiota play important roles in the progression of IDD. This study investigated whether methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) regulates TLR2 m6A modification and gut microbiota to influence NPC senescence.

METHODS: An IDD rat model was established by lumbar intervertebral disc puncture and NPCs were challenged with IL-1β to mimic IVD injury. IDD rats and IL-1β-exposed NPCs were treated with METTL3-interfering lentivirus and the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Compositional changes in the rat gut microbiota were analyzed and fecal microbiota transplantation procedures were used. NPC senescence, cell cycle and the expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors were assessed. The m6A enrichment of TLR2 and the binding of IGF2BP1 to TLR2 mRNA were examined.

RESULTS: METTL3 and TLR2 were highly expressed in IDD rats. METTL3 silencing attenuated senescent phenotypes and reduced secretion of SASP factors. Pam3CSK4 reversed the beneficial effects of METTL3 silencing on NPC senescence and IVD injury. METTL3 stabilized TLR2 mRNA in an IGF2BP1-dependent manner. METTL3 silencing restored specific gut microbiota levels in IDD rats, which was further reversed by administration of Pam3CSK4. Fecal microbiota from METTL3 silenced IDD rats altered the pathological phenotypes of IDD rats.

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of METTL3 silencing on NPC senescence and amelioration of IVD injury, involving modulation of TLR2 m6A modification and gut microbiota. These findings support METTL3 silencing as a potential therapeutic target for IDD.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Liu L, Zhao Z, Liu H, et al (2024)

Haematococcus pluvialis polysaccharides improve microbiota-driven gut epithelial and vascular barrier and prevent alcoholic steatohepatitis development.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(24)03819-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Algal polysaccharides possess many biological activities and health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-coagulant, and immunomodulatory potential. Gut microbiota has emerged as one of the major contributor in mediating the health benefits of algal polysaccharides. In this study we showed that Haematococcus pluvialis polysaccharides (HPP) decreased serum transaminase levels and hepatic triglyceride content, alleviated inflammation and oxidative stress in the liver of chronic and binge ethanol diet-fed mice. Furthermore, HPP reduced endotoxemia, improved gut microbiota dysbiosis, inhibited epithelial barrier disruption and gut vascular barrier (GVB) damage in ethanol diet-fed mice. Co-housing vehicle-fed mice with HPP-fed mice alleviated ethanol-induced liver damage and endotoxemia. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation from HPP-fed mice into antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted recipients also alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and improved gut epithelial and vascular barrier. Our study demonstrated that HPP ameliorated ethanol-induced gut epithelial and vascular barrier dysfunction through alteration of gut microbiota, therefore preventing alcoholic liver damage.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Georgin-Lavialle S, Delplanque M, Bachmeyer C, et al (2024)

Clostridioides difficile infection as a potential trigger for Familial Mediterranean Fever attacks and fecal transplantation as a rescue.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Ye L, Chen H, Wang J, et al (2024)

Aflatoxin B1-induced liver pyroptosis is mediated by disturbing the gut microbial metabolites: The roles of pipecolic acid and norepinephrine.

Journal of hazardous materials, 474:134822 pii:S0304-3894(24)01401-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The disturbed gut microbiota is a key factor in activating the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver pyroptosis by promoting inflammatory hepatic injury; however, the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) from disturbed gut microbiota and its mechanism in activating liver pyroptosis remain undefined. By transplanting AFB1-originated fecal microbiota and sterile fecal microbial metabolites filtrate, we determined the association of PAMP in AFB1-induced liver pyroptosis. Notably, AFB1-originated sterile fecal microbial metabolites filtrate were more active in triggering liver pyroptosis in mice, as compared to parental fecal microbiota. This result supported a critical role of the metabolic homeostasis of gut microbiota in AFB1-induced liver pyroptosis, rather than an injurious response to direct exposure of AFB1 in liver. Among the gut-microbial metabolites, pipecolic acid and norepinephrine were proposed to bind TLR4 and NLRP3, the upstream proteins of pyroptosis signaling pathway. Besides, the activations of TLR4 and NLRP3 were linearly correlated with the concentrations of pipecolic acid and norepinephrine in the serum of mice. In silenced expression of TLR4 and NLRP3 in HepG2 cells, pipecolic acid or norepinephrine did not able to activate hepatocyte pyroptosis. These results demonstrated the necessity of gut microbial metabolism in sustaining liver homeostasis, as well as the potential to provide new insights into targeted intervention for AFB1 hepatotoxicity.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Zhou H, Wang X, She Z, et al (2024)

Combining bioinformatics and multiomics strategies to investigate the key microbiota and active components of Liupao tea ameliorating hyperlipidemia.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(24)00737-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hyperlipidemia as a major health issue has attracted much public attention. As a geographical indication product of China, Liupao tea (LPT) is a typical representative of traditional Chinese dark tea that has shown good potential in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. LPT has important medicinal value in hyperlipidemia prevention. However, the active ingredients and metabolic mechanisms by which LPT alleviates hyperlipidemia remain unclear.

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to systematically investigate the metabolic mechanisms and active ingredients of LPT extract in alleviating hyperlipidemia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, we developed a mouse model of hyperlipidemia to study the pharmacodynamics of LPT. Subsequently, network pharmacology and molecular docking were performed to predict the potential key active ingredients and core targets of LPT against hyperlipidemia. LC-MS/MS was used to validate the identity of key active ingredients in LPT with chemical standards. Finally, the effect and metabolic mechanisms of LPT extract in alleviating hyperlipidemia were investigated by integrating metabolomic, lipidomic, and gut microbiome analyses.

RESULTS: Results showed that LPT extract effectively improved hyperlipidemia by suppressing weight gain, remedying dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, and reducing hepatic damage. Network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking suggested that four potential active ingredients and seven potential core targets were closely associated with roles for hyperlipidemia treatment. Ellagic acid, catechin, and naringenin were considered to be the key active ingredients of LPT alleviating hyperlipidemia. Additionally, LPT extract modulated the mRNA expression levels of Fxr, Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Cyp27a1 associated with bile acid (BA) metabolism, mitigated the disturbances of bile acid (BA) and glycerophospholipid (GP) metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Combining fecal microbiota transplantation and correlation analysis, LPT extract effectively improved species diversity and abundance of gut microbiota, particularly the BA and GP metabolism-related gut microbiota, in the hyperlipidemia mice.

CONCLUSIONS: LPT extract ameliorated hyperlipidemia by modulating GP and BA metabolism by regulating Lactobacillus and Dubosiella, thereby alleviating hyperlipidemia. Three active ingredients of LPT served as the key factors in exerting an improvement on hyperlipidemia. These findings provide new insights into the active ingredients and metabolic mechanisms of LPT in improving hyperlipidemia, suggesting that LPT can be used to prevent and therapeutic hyperlipidemia.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Nguyen NN, Lin CY, Tsai WL, et al (2024)

Natural sweetener glycyrrhizin protects against precocious puberty by modulating the gut microbiome.

Life sciences, 350:122789 pii:S0024-3205(24)00379-5 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Precocious puberty (PP) may lead to many adverse outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that PP is a gut-brain disease. On the other hand, the use of glycyrrhizin, a natural sweetener, has become popular in the past decade. Glycyrrhizin possesses various health benefits, but its impact on PP has yet to be investigated. We aimed to explore the protective effects of glycyrrhizin against PP in both humans (observational) and animals (interventional).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the human cohort, we investigated the association between glycyrrhizin consumption and risk of PP. In the animal experiment, we observed puberty onset after feeding danazol-induced PP rats with glycyrrizin. Blood, fecal, and hypothalamic samples were harvested to evaluate potential mechanistic pathways. We also performed a fecal microbiota transplantation to confirm to causal relationship between glycyrrhizin and PP risk.

KEY FINDINGS: Glycyrrhizin exhibited a protective effect against PP in children (OR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.39-0.89, p = 0.013), primarily driven by its significance in girls, while no significant effect was observed in boys. This effect was consistent with findings in rodents. These benefits were achieved through the modulation of the gut microbiome, which functionally suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and prevented PP progression. A fecal microbiota transplantation indicated that the causal correlation between glycyrrhizin intake and PP is mediated by the gut microbiome alterations.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that glycyrrhizin can protect against PP by altering the gut microbiome. Long term use of glycyrrhizin is safe and tolerable. Therefore, glycyrrhizin can serve as a safe and affordable complementary therapy for PP.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Pfail J, Drobner J, Doppalapudi K, et al (2024)

The Role of Tumor and Host Microbiome on Immunotherapy Response in Urologic Cancers.

Journal of cancer immunology, 6(1):1-13.

INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVE: The role of the microbiome in the development and treatment of genitourinary malignancies is just starting to be appreciated. Accumulating evidence suggests that the microbiome can modulate immunotherapy through signaling in the highly dynamic tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, much is still unknown about the immuno-oncology-microbiome axis, especially in urologic oncology. The objective of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of the microbiome's role in modulating and predicting immunotherapy response to genitourinary malignancies.

METHODS: A literature search for peer-reviewed publications about the microbiome and immunotherapy response in bladder, kidney, and prostate cancer was conducted. All research available in PubMed, Google Scholar,, and bioRxiv up to September 2023 was analyzed.

RESULTS: Significant differences in urinary microbiota composition have been found in patients with genitourinary cancers compared to healthy controls. Lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera, may have value in augmenting BCG responsiveness to bladder cancer. BCG may also be a dynamic regulator of PD-L1. Thus, the combination of BCG and immune checkpoint inhibitors may be an effective strategy for bladder cancer management. In advanced renal cell carcinoma, studies show that recent antibiotic administration negatively impacts survival outcomes in patients undergoing immunotherapy, while administration of CBM588, a live bacterial product, is associated with improved progression-free survival. Specific bacterial taxa, such as Streptococcus salivarius, have been linked with response to pembrolizumab in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to overcome resistance and reduce toxicity to immunotherapy; it is currently being investigated for both kidney and prostate cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the exact mechanism is unclear, several studies identify a symbiotic relationship between microbiota-centered interventions and immunotherapy efficacy. It is possible to improve immunotherapy responsiveness in genitourinary malignancies using the microbiome, but further research with more standardized methodology is warranted.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Leng Y, Zhang X, Zhang Q, et al (2024)

Gallic acid attenuates murine ulcerative colitis by promoting group 3 innate lymphocytes, affecting gut microbiota, and bile acid metabolism.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry pii:S0955-2863(24)00110-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Gallic acid (GA), a plant phenol that is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and exhibits a protective role against ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is an inflammatory disease characterized by immune response disorders. However, the role and mechanism of action of GA in gut immunity remain unknown. Here, we observed that GA treatment improved enteritis symptoms, decreased the concentrations of cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-23, increased the concentrations of cytokines IL-10, TGF-β and IL-22, and increased the proportion of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in mesenteric lymph nodes and lamina propria. However, GA did not upregulate ILC3 or impair UC in antibody-treated sterile mice. Notably, transplantation of fecal bacteria derived from GA-treated UC mice, instead of UC mice, increased ILC3 levels. Therefore, we analyzed the gut microbiota and related metabolites to elucidate the mechanism promoting ILC3. We determined that GA treatment altered the diversity of the gut microbiota and activated the bile acid (BA) metabolic pathway. We evaluated three BAs, namely, UDCA, isoalloLCA, and 3-oxoLCA that were significantly upregulated after GA treatment, improved UC symptoms, and elevated the proportion of ILC3 in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that GA attenuates UC by elevating ILC3 proportion, regulating the gut microbiota, and impacting BA metabolism. Additionally, we highlight the modulatory effects of BAs on ILC3 for the first time. Our findings provide novel insights into the multiple roles of GA in alleviating UC and provide a mechanistic explanation that supports the dietary nutrition in UC therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

El-Salhy M, Gilja OH, JG Hatlebakk (2024)

Factors underlying the Long-term Efficacy of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation for Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Microbes and infection pii:S1286-4579(24)00108-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The long-term effects of the transplant dose, its administration route and repeated faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the outcomes of FMT for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are unknown. This study included 171 patients (125 females and 46 males): 90 g of donor feces was administered into the large intestine (LI) in 58, into the small intestine (SI) in 57, and into the SI twice (repeated SI) in 56. The patients provided a fecal sample and completed five questionnaires at the baseline and at 2 years after FMT. Fecal bacteria and the dysbiosis index were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene PCR DNA amplification/probe. The response rates at 2 years after FMT were 47.2%, 80.9%, and 76.6% in the LI, SI, and repeated-SI groups, respectively. The response rate was significantly higher in the SI and repeated SI groups than in the LI group. IBS symptoms at 2 years after FMT were less severe in the SI and repeated-SI groups than in the LI group. Fluorescent signals of several bacteria were significantly correlated with IBS symptoms and fatigue after FMT. No long-term adverse events were observed. In conclusion, administering the transplant to the SI increased the long-term response rate and reduced IBS symptom severity compared with administering it to the LI, and led to the long-term colonization of beneficial bacteria. There was no long-term difference between one and two FMT procedures. ( NCT04236843).

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Montrose JA, Kurada S, M Fischer (2024)

Current and future microbiome-based therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 40(4):258-267.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the microbiome and dysbiosis is increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Intestinal microbiota transplant (IMT), previously termed fecal microbiota transplant has demonstrated efficacy in restoring a healthy microbiome and promoting gut health in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Several randomized trials (RCTs) highlighted IMT's potential in treating ulcerative colitis, while smaller studies reported on its application in managing Crohn's disease and pouchitis.

RECENT FINDINGS: This review delves into the current understanding of dysbiosis in IBD, highlighting the distinctions in the microbiota of patients with IBD compared to healthy controls. It explores the mechanisms by which IMT can restore a healthy microbiome and provides a focused analysis of recent RCTs using IMT for inducing and maintaining remission in IBD. Lastly, we discuss the current knowledge gaps that limit its widespread use.

SUMMARY: The body of evidence supporting the use of IMT in IBD is growing. The lack of a standardized protocol impedes its application beyond clinical trials. Further research is needed to identify patient profile and disease phenotypes that benefit from IMT, to delineate key donor characteristics, optimize the delivery route, dosage, and frequency.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Luo ZQ, Huang YJ, Chen ZH, et al (2024)

A decade of insight: bibliometric analysis of gut microbiota's role in osteoporosis (2014-2024).

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1409534.

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis represents a profound challenge to public health, underscoring the critical need to dissect its complex etiology and identify viable targets for intervention. Within this context, the gut microbiota has emerged as a focal point of research due to its profound influence on bone metabolism. Despite this growing interest, the literature has yet to see a bibliometric study addressing the gut microbiota's contribution to both the development and management of osteoporosis. This study aims to fill this gap through an exhaustive bibliometric analysis. Our objective is to uncover current research hotspots, delineate key themes, and identify future research trends. In doing so, we hope to provide direction for future studies and the development of innovative treatment methods.

METHODS: Relevant publications in this field were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. We used VOSviewer, CiteSpace, an online analysis platform and the R package "Bibliometrix" for bibliometric analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 529 publications (including 351 articles and 178 reviews) from 61 countries, 881 institutions, were included in this study. China leads in publication volume and boast the highest cumulative citation. Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Southern Medical University are the leading research institutions in this field. Nutrients contributed the largest number of articles, and J Bone Miner Res is the most co-cited journal. Of the 3,166 scholars who participated in the study, Ohlsson C had the largest number of articles. Li YJ is the most co-cited author. "Probiotics" and "inflammation" are the keywords in the research.

CONCLUSION: This is the first bibliometric analysis of gut microbiota in osteoporosis. We explored current research status in recent years and identified frontiers and hot spots in this research field. We investigate the impact of gut microbiome dysregulation and its associated inflammation on OP progression, a topic that has garnered international research interest in recent years. Additionally, our study delves into the potential of fecal microbiota transplantation or specific dietary interventions as promising avenues for future research, which can provide reference for the researchers who focus on this research filed.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Karna R, M Babich (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplant in liver diseases: Current evidence and future directions.

Clinical liver disease, 23(1):e0154.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Qin H, Fu Y, Deng C, et al (2024)

The role of gut microbiota and the gut-lung axis in sepsis: A case study of a pregnant woman with severe rickettsial pneumonia and septic shock complicated by MODS.

Clinical case reports, 12(6):e8815.

KEY CLINICAL MESSAGE: In this case report, we describe the successful management of severe scrub typhus with pneumonia, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction in a pregnant woman. Despite initial challenges, the patient responded favorably to fecal microbiota transplantation and oral fecal microbiota capsule therapy.

ABSTRACT: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, can lead to severe multiorgan dysfunction and carries a mortality rate of up to 70% if not treated properly. In this report, we present the case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman at 18 + 6 weeks gestation whose symptoms worsened 15 days after onset and progressed to severe pneumonia with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. After the pathogen was confirmed by next-generation sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid and blood samples, the patient's treatment was switched to antiinfective chloramphenicol. The patient also underwent uterine evacuation due to a miscarriage. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was discontinued once the pulmonary infection significantly improved. Subsequently, the patient had recurrent diarrhea, abdominal distension, and difficulty eating. The antibiotic regimen was adjusted according to the drug sensitivity, but the diarrhea and abdominal distension still did not improve. Following a comprehensive multidisciplinary risk assessment, we initiated fecal microbiota transplantation and oral fecal microbiota capsule therapy. As a result, the patient's condition was effectively managed, and they were gradually discharged. Fecal microbiota transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for severe pneumonia and shock in pregnant women. This has significant implications for maternal health. However, further clinical cases are required to observe its long-term effectiveness.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Amati AL, Ebert R, Maier L, et al (2024)

Reduced preoperative serum choline esterase levels and fecal peritoneal contamination as potential predictors for the leakage of intestinal sutures after source control in secondary peritonitis.

World journal of emergency surgery : WJES, 19(1):21.

BACKGROUND: The high rate of stoma placement during emergency laparotomy for secondary peritonitis is a paradigm in need of change in the current fast-track surgical setting. Despite growing evidence for the feasibility of primary bowel reconstruction in a peritonitic environment, little data substantiate a surgeons' choice between a stoma and an anastomosis. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to identify pre- and intraoperative parameters that predict the leakage risk for enteric sutures placed during source control surgery (SCS) for secondary peritonitis.

METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2020, 497 patients underwent SCS for secondary peritonitis, of whom 187 received a primary reconstruction of the lower gastro-intestinal tract without a diverting stoma. In 47 (25.1%) patients postoperative leakage of the enteric sutures was directly confirmed during revision surgery or by computed tomography. Quantifiable predictors of intestinal suture outcome were detected by multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: Length of intensive care, in-hospital mortality and failure of release to the initial home environment were significantly higher in patients with enteric suture leakage following SCS compared to patients with intact anastomoses (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0026 and p =0.0009, respectively). Reduced serum choline esterase (sCHE) levels and a high extent of peritonitis were identified as independent risk factors for insufficiency of enteric sutures placed during emergency laparotomy.

CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative sCHE < 4.5 kU/L and generalized fecal peritonitis associate with a significantly higher incidence of enteric suture insufficiency after primary reconstruction of the lower gastro-intestinal tract in a peritonitic abdomen. These parameters may guide surgeons when choosing the optimal surgical procedure in the emergency setting.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Bedke T, Stumme F, Tomczak M, et al (2024)

Protective function of sclerosing cholangitis on IBD.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2023-330856 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: There is a strong clinical association between IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a chronic disease of the liver characterised by biliary inflammation that leads to strictures and fibrosis. Approximately 60%-80% of people with PSC will also develop IBD (PSC-IBD). One hypothesis explaining this association would be that PSC drives IBD. Therefore, our aim was to test this hypothesis and to decipher the underlying mechanism.

DESIGN: Colitis severity was analysed in experimental mouse models of colitis and sclerosing cholangitis, and people with IBD and PSC-IBD. Foxp3[+] Treg-cell infiltration was assessed by qPCR and flow cytometry. Microbiota profiling was carried out from faecal samples of people with IBD, PSC-IBD and mouse models recapitulating these diseases. Faecal microbiota samples collected from people with IBD and PSC-IBD were transplanted into germ-free mice followed by colitis induction.

RESULTS: We show that sclerosing cholangitis attenuated IBD in mouse models. Mechanistically, sclerosing cholangitis causes an altered intestinal microbiota composition, which promotes Foxp3[+] Treg-cell expansion, and thereby protects against IBD. Accordingly, sclerosing cholangitis promotes IBD in the absence of Foxp3[+] Treg cells. Furthermore, people with PSC-IBD have an increased Foxp3[+] expression in the colon and an overall milder IBD severity. Finally, by transplanting faecal microbiota into gnotobiotic mice, we showed that the intestinal microbiota of people with PSC protects against colitis.

CONCLUSION: This study shows that PSC attenuates IBD and provides a comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved in this effect.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Voth E, S Khanna (2024)

Rise to the Challenge: Master the Management of Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Mayo Clinic proceedings, 99(6):971-979.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a significant public health challenge in the developed world. Although previously CDI was primarily a health care-acquired infection, there are now rising numbers of community-acquired cases in patients without traditional risk factors, such as antibiotic exposure. The landscape for the treatment of CDI has changed significantly during the past decade, including newer diagnostic tests, novel antibiotic regimens, and strategies for microbiome restoration in the form of traditional fecal microbiota transplant and approved live biotherapeutics in an effort to address the underlying pathophysiologic process of gut microbial dysbiosis. We present a concise review for clinicians on the diagnosis and management of both primary and recurrent CDI.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Antman G, Ritzer L, Galor A, et al (2024)

The Relationship Between Dry Eye Disease and Human Microbiota: A Review of the Science.

Experimental eye research pii:S0014-4835(24)00172-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A complex relationship exists between human microbiota and the risk for ophthalmic disease. While the homeostatic composition of human microbiota is still being established, including what defines dysbiosis (i.e. changes in diversity and abundance), pilot research has begun to identify the potential influence of demographics, geography, and co-morbidities on the microbiota and describe their impact on ocular health. This review specifically focuses on the scientific relationships of the human oral and gut microbiota to dry eye disease (DED), a set of conditions impacting the tear film and ocular surface. Although data are sparse and often conflict across studies, the literature generally supports associations between microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) and DED and alterations in microbial diversity and abundance to specific aspects of DED. This review examines the relevant science and mechanistic relationships linking gut and oral dysbiosis and DED. Various physiochemical factors and therapeutic approaches that alter microbiota, including medications and fecal transplants are examined in relation to DED.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Meng Y, Sun J, G Zhang (2024)

A viable remedy for overcoming resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy: fecal microbiota transplantation.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology pii:S1040-8428(24)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is a cancer therapy that focuses explicitly on the PD-1 receptor found on the surface of immune cells. This targeted therapeutic strategy is specifically designed to amplify the immune system's innate capacity to detect and subsequently eliminate cells that have become cancerous. Nevertheless, it should be noted that not all patients exhibit a favourable response to this particular therapeutic modality, necessitating the exploration of novel strategies to augment the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Previous studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can enhance the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in advanced melanoma patients. To investigate this intriguing possibility further, we turned to PubMed and conducted a comprehensive search for studies that analyzed the interplay between FMT and anti-PD-1 therapy in the context of tumor treatment. Our search criteria were centred around two key phrases: "fecal microbiota transplantation" and "anti-PD-1 therapy." The studies we uncovered all echo a similar sentiment. They pointed towards the potential of FMT to improve the effectiveness of immunotherapy. FMT may enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy by altering the gut microbiota and boosting the patient's immunological response. Although promising, additional investigation is needed to improve the efficacy of FMT in the context of cancer therapy and attain a comprehensive understanding of the possible advantages and drawbacks associated with this therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Chen X, Mo X, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

A comprehensive analysis of the differential expression in the hippocampus of depression induced by gut microbiota compared to traditional stress.

Gene pii:S0378-1119(24)00514-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Depression, which is a disease of heterogeneous etiology, is characterized by high disability and mortality rates. Gut microbiota are associated with the development of depression. To further explore any differences in the mechanisms of depression induced by gut microbiota and traditional stresses, as well as facilitate the development of microbiota-based interventions, a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) depression model was made. This was achieved by transplanting feces from major depressive disorder (MDD) patients into germ-free mice. Second, the mechanisms of the depression induced by gut microbiota were analyzed in comparison with those of the depression caused by different forms of stress It turned out that mice exhibited depressive-like behavior after FMT. Then, PCR array analysis was performed on the hippocampus of the depressed mice to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The KEGG analysis revealed that the pathways of depression induced by gut microbes are closely associated with immuno-inflammation. To determine the pathogenic pathways of physiological stress and psychological stress-induced depression, raw data was extracted from several databases and KEGG analysis was performed. The results from the analysis revealed that the mechanisms of depression induced by physiological and psychological stress are closely related to the regulation of neurotransmitters and energy metabolism. Interestingly, the immunoinflammatory response was distinct across different etiologies that induced depression. The findings showed that gut microbiota dysbiosis-induced depression was mainly associated with adaptive immunity, while physiological stress-induced depression was more linked to innate immunity. This study compared the pathogenesis of depression caused by gut microbiota dysbiosis, and physiological and psychological stress. We explored new intervention methods for depression and laid the foundation for precise treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Han M, Liang J, Hou M, et al (2024)

Bifidobacterium bifidum Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice by Regulating Microbial Metabolome and Targeting Gut Microbiota.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a recurrent inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, and its clinical treatment remains suboptimal. Probiotics have shown effectiveness in alleviating dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis, exhibiting strain-specific anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we compared the therapeutic effects of five strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum isolated from healthy adult feces on DSS-induced colitis in mice. Additionally, we investigated the underlying mechanisms by examining gut microbiota composition and microbial metabolome. Our findings highlighted the superior efficacy of B. bifidum M1-3 compared to other strains. It significantly improved colitis symptoms, mitigated gut barrier disruption, and reduced colonic inflammation in DSS-treated mice. Moreover, gut microbiota composition analysis revealed that B. bifidum M1-3 treatment increased the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota. Specifically, it significantly increased the abundance of Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Enterorhabdus, while decreasing the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella. Furthermore, our nontargeted metabolomics analysis illustrated that B. bifidum M1-3 treatment had a regulatory effect on various metabolic pathways, including tyrosine metabolism, lysine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism. Importantly, we confirmed that the therapeutic efficiency of B. bifidum M1-3 was dependent on the gut microbiota. These results are conducive to the development of probiotic products for alleviating colitis.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Lyu W, Li DF, Li SY, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota modulation: a narrative review on a novel strategy for prevention and alleviation of ovarian aging.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The global rise in life expectancy corresponds with a delay in childbearing age among women. Ovaries, seen as the chronometers of female physiological aging, demonstrate features of sped up aging, evidenced by the steady decline in both the quality and quantity of ovarian follicles from birth. The multifaceted pathogenesis of ovarian aging has kindled intensive research interest from the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors. Novel studies underscore the integral roles of gut microbiota in follicular development, lipid metabolism, and hormonal regulation, forging a nexus with ovarian aging. In this review, we outline the role of gut microbiota in ovarian function (follicular development, oocyte maturation, and ovulation), compile and present gut microbiota alterations associated with age-related ovarian aging. We also discuss potential strategies for alleviating ovarian aging from the perspective of gut microbiota, such as fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Gu N, Yan J, Tang W, et al (2024)

Prevotella copri transplantation promotes neurorehabilitation in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 21(1):147.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a critical role in regulating brain function through the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with neurological impairment in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Our previous study found that TBI results in a decrease in the abundance of Prevotella copri (P. copri). P. copri has been shown to have antioxidant effects in various diseases. Meanwhile, guanosine (GUO) is a metabolite of intestinal microbiota that can alleviate oxidative stress after TBI by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of P. copri transplantation on TBI and its relationship with GUO-PI3K/Akt pathway.

METHODS: In this study, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was used to induce TBI in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Subsequently, P. copri was transplanted by intragastric gavage for 7 consecutive days. To investigate the effect of the GUO-PI3K/Akt pathway in P. copri transplantation therapy, guanosine (GUO) was administered 2 h after TBI for 7 consecutive days, and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was administered 30 min before TBI. Various techniques were used to assess the effects of these interventions, including quantitative PCR, neurological behavior tests, metabolite analysis, ELISA, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, Evans blue assays, transmission electron microscopy, FITC-dextran permeability assay, gastrointestinal transit assessment, and 16 S rDNA sequencing.

RESULTS: P. copri abundance was significantly reduced after TBI. P. copri transplantation alleviated motor and cognitive deficits tested by the NSS, Morris's water maze and open field test. P. copri transplantation attenuated oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier damage and reduced neuronal apoptosis after TBI. In addition, P. copri transplantation resulted in the reshaping of the intestinal flora, improved gastrointestinal motility and intestinal permeability. Metabolomics and ELISA analysis revealed a significant increase in GUO levels in feces, serum and injured brain after P. copri transplantation. Furthermore, the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt was found to be increased after P. copri transplantation and GUO treatment. Notably, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 treatment attenuated the observed improvements.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time that P. copri transplantation can improve GI functions and alter gut microbiota dysbiosis after TBI. Additionally, P. copri transplantation can ameliorate neurological deficits, possibly via the GUO-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway after TBI.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ma B, Wang D, Chen X, et al (2024)

Dietary α-linolenic acid supplementation enhances resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in chickens by altering the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity and cecal microbes.

Microbiological research, 285:127773 pii:S0944-5013(24)00174-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen. Given the ban on the use of antibiotics during the egg-laying period in China, finding safe and effective alternatives to antibiotics to reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infections in chickens is essential for the prevention and control of this pathogen and the protection of human health. Numerous studies have shown that unsaturated fatty acids have a positive effect on intestinal inflammation and resistance to infection by intestinal pathogens. Here we investigated the protective effect of α-linolenic acid (ALA) against S. Typhimurium infection in chickens and further explored its mechanism of action. We added different proportions of ALA to the feed and observed the effect of ALA on S. Typhimurium colonization using metagenomic sequencing technology and physiological index measurements. The role of gut flora on S. Typhimurium colonization was subsequently verified by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that ALA protects chickens from S. Typhimurium infection by reducing intestinal inflammation through remodeling the gut microbiota, up-regulating the expression of ileocecal barrier-related genes, and maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Our data suggest that supplementation of feed with ALA may be an effective strategy to alleviate S. Typhimurium infection in chickens.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Gao X, Zhu Z, Bao Y, et al (2024)

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat extract and probiotics combination ameliorates metabolic disorders through regulating gut microbiota and PPARα subcellular localization.

Chinese medicine, 19(1):76.

BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, a traditional Chinese medicine, has the effects on liver clearing, vision improving, and anti-inflammation. C. morifolium and probiotics have been individually studied for their beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms were not completely elucidated. This study aims to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms of C. morifolium and probiotics combination (CP) on alleviating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the dysregulation of glucose metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.

METHODS: The therapeutic effect of CP on metabolism was evaluated by liver histology and serum biochemical analysis, as well as glucose tolerance test. The impact of CP on gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation. Hepatic transcriptomic analysis was performed with the key genes and proteins validated by RT-qPCR and western blotting. In addition, whole body Pparα knockout (Pparα[-/-]) mice were used to confirm the CP-mediated pathway.

RESULTS: CP supplementation ameliorated metabolic disorders by reducing body weight and hepatic steatosis, and improving glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD fed mice. CP intervention mitigated the HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, which contributed at least in part, to the beneficial effect of improving glucose metabolism. In addition, hepatic transcriptomic analysis showed that CP modulated the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism. CP downregulated the mRNA level of lipid droplet-binding proteins, such as Cidea and Cidec in the liver, leading to more substrates for fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Meanwhile, the expression of CPT1α, the rate-limiting enzyme of FAO, was significantly increased upon CP treatment. Mechanistically, though CP didn't affect the total PPARα level, it promoted the nuclear localization of PPARα, which contributed to the reduced expression of Cidea and Cidec, and increased expression of CPT1α, leading to activated FAO. Moreover, whole body PPARα deficiency abolished the anti-NAFLD effect of CP, suggesting the importance of PPARα in CP-mediated beneficial effect.

CONCLUSION: This study revealed the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of CP by regulating gut microbiota composition and PPARα subcellular localization, highlighting its potential for therapeutic candidate for metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Raghani N, Postwala H, Shah Y, et al (2024)

From Gut to Brain: Unraveling the Intricate Link Between Microbiome and Stroke.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Stroke, a neurological disorder, is intricately linked to the gut microbiota, influencing microbial composition and elevating the risk of ischemic stroke. The neuroprotective impact of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from dietary fiber fermentation contrasts with the neuroinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gut bacteria. The pivotal role of the gut-brain axis, facilitating bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, is crucial in maintaining gastrointestinal equilibrium and influencing cognitive functions. An in-depth understanding of the interplay among the gut microbiota, immune system, and neurological outcomes in stroke is imperative for devising innovative preventive and therapeutic approaches. Strategies such as dietary adjustments, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, or fecal transplantation offer promise in modulating stroke outcomes. Nevertheless, comprehensive research is essential to unravel the precise mechanisms governing the gut microbiota's involvement in stroke and to establish effective therapeutic interventions. The initiation of large-scale clinical trials is warranted to assess the safety and efficacy of interventions targeting the gut microbiota in stroke management. Tailored strategies that reinstate eubiosis and foster a healthy gut microbiota hold potential for both stroke prevention and treatment. This review underscores the gut microbiota as a promising therapeutic target in stroke and underscores the need for continued research to delineate its precise role and develop microbiome-based interventions effectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Mao X, Larsen SB, Zachariassen LSF, et al (2024)

Transfer of modified gut viromes improves symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome in obese male mice.

Nature communications, 15(1):4704.

Metabolic syndrome encompasses amongst other conditions like obesity and type-2 diabetes and is associated with gut microbiome (GM) dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been explored to treat metabolic syndrome by restoring the GM; however, concerns on accidentally transferring pathogenic microbes remain. As a safer alternative, fecal virome transplantation (FVT, sterile-filtrated feces) has the advantage over FMT in that mainly bacteriophages are transferred. FVT from lean male donors have shown promise in alleviating the metabolic effects of high-fat diet in a preclinical mouse study. However, FVT still carries the risk of eukaryotic viral infections. To address this, recently developed methods are applied for removing or inactivating eukaryotic viruses in the viral component of FVT. Modified FVTs are compared with unmodified FVT and saline in a diet-induced obesity model on male C57BL/6 N mice. Contrasted with obese control, mice administered a modified FVT (nearly depleted for eukaryotic viruses) exhibits enhanced blood glucose clearance but not weight loss. The unmodified FVT improves liver pathology and reduces the proportions of immune cells in the adipose tissue with a non-uniform response. GM analysis suggests that bacteriophage-mediated GM modulation influences outcomes. Optimizing these approaches could lead to the development of safe bacteriophage-based therapies targeting metabolic syndrome through GM restoration.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Tan S, Zhang W, Zeng P, et al (2024)

Clinical effects of chemical drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary fiber, and acupuncture in the treatment of chronic functional constipation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 36(7):815-830.

Currently, there are increasingly diverse treatment modalities for chronic functional constipation (CFC). This study aims to compare the relative efficacy and safety of chemical drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics, dietary fiber, and acupuncture in the treatment of patients with CFC. We searched relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in five databases up to November 2023. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was carried out using R Studio 4.2.1. Cumulative ranking probability plots, assessed through the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA), were employed to rank the included drugs for various outcome measures. We included a total of 45 RCT studies with 17 118 patients with CFC. From the SUCRA values and NMA results FMT showed the best utility in terms of clinical efficacy, Bristol stool form scale scores, patient assessment of constipation quality of life scores, and the treatment modality with the lowest ranked incidence of adverse effects was electroacupuncture. Subgroup analysis of the chemotherapy group showed that sodium A subgroup analysis of the chemical group showed that sodium picosulfate 10 mg had the highest clinical efficacy. FMT is more promising in the treatment of CFC and may be more effective in combination with the relatively safe treatment of acupuncture.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Chasov V, Zmievskaya E, Ganeeva I, et al (2024)

Systemic lupus erythematosus therapeutic strategy: From immunotherapy to gut microbiota modulation.

Journal of biomedical research [Epub ahead of print].

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a systemic dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to an attack on healthy tissues of the body. During the development of SLE, pathogenic features, such as the formation of autoantibodies to self-nuclear antigens, caused tissue damage including necrosis and fibrosis, with an increased expression of type Ⅰ interferon (IFN) regulated genes. Treatment of lupus with immunosuppressants and glucocorticoids, which are used as the standard therapy, is not effective enough and causes side effects. As an alternative, more effective immunotherapies have been developed, including monoclonal and bispecific antibodies that target B cells, T cells, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokines or their receptors, and signaling molecules. Encouraging results have been observed in clinical trials with some of these therapies. Furthermore, a chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy has emerged as the most effective, safe, and promising treatment option for SLE, as demonstrated by successful pilot studies. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota dysbiosis may play a significant role in the severity of SLE, and the use of methods to normalize the gut microbiota, particularly fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), opens up new opportunities for effective treatment of SLE.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ravel SJ, VM Hollifield (2024)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Domestic Ferret Suffering from Chronic Diarrhea and Maldigestion-Fecal Microbiota and Clinical Outcome: A Case Report.

Veterinary medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 15:171-180.

This case report describes the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administered via enema in a 4-year-old spayed, champagne Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with chronic diarrhea, maldigestion and weight loss. We aimed to establish a protocol for FMT as a novel therapeutic treatment for chronic diarrhea in domestic ferrets. We mapped the fecal microbiome by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to track the patient's fecal microbiota throughout the treatment and observation period. Initial oral FMTs were associated with temporary weight improvement but subsequent treatments, via enema and oral delivery, showed varied outcomes. Molecular analysis highlighted distinct gut microbiota composition profiles between the healthy donor and the diseased ferret. The diseased ferret initially exhibited high abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia, and Enterobacter, which ultimately normalized to level like those found in the donor ferret. Overall, the gut microbiota of the recipient became more similar to the donor microbiota using a Yue-Clayton theta coefficients analysis. After a restoration of the gut microbiota and clinical improvement, the recipient's symptoms returned indicating that repeated FMTs might be required for long-term resolution of symptoms and complete restructuring of the gut microbiota. Future studies are warranted to map the microbiome of a larger population of domestic ferrets to investigate a potential correlation between fecal microbiota profiles and chronic/acute gastrointestinal disorders.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Sahle Z, Engidaye G, Shenkute Gebreyes D, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation and next-generation therapies: A review on targeting dysbiosis in metabolic disorders and beyond.

SAGE open medicine, 12:20503121241257486.

The human microbiome, particularly the gut microbiome, has emerged as a central determinant of health and disease. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the microbial composition of the gut, is associated with a variety of metabolic and other diseases, highlighting the potential for microbiota-targeted treatments. Fecal microbiota transplantation has received considerable attention as a promising therapy to modulate the gut microbiome and restore microbial homeostasis. However, challenges remain, including standardization, safety, and long-term efficacy. This review summarizes current knowledge on fecal microbiota transplantation and describes the next generation therapies targeting microbiome. This review looked at the mechanistic understanding of fecal microbiota transplantation and alternative strategies, elucidating their potential role in improving dysbiosis-associated metabolic disorders, such as obesity, and type 2 diabetes and others. Additionally, this review discussed the growing application of therapies targeting the gut microbiome. Insights from clinical trials, preclinical studies, and emerging technologies provide a comprehensive overview of the evolving landscape of microbiome-based interventions. Through a critical assessment of current advances and prospects, this review aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting gut microbiome and pave the way for innovative approaches in precision medicine and personalized treatments.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Wu L, Hu Z, Lv Y, et al (2024)

Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via gut microbiota and tryptophan metabolism regulation in an aged laying hen model.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(24)03540-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus (HEP) exhibit hepatoprotective activity in the alleviation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the mechanisms underlying whether and how HEP regulation of the gut microbiota to alleviate liver-associated metabolic disorders are not well understood. This study used an aged laying hen model to explore the mechanisms through which HEP alleviates NAFLD, with a focus on regulatory function of HEP in the gut microbiome. The results showed that HEP ameliorated hepatic damage and metabolic disorders by improving intestinal barrier function and shaping the gut microbiota and tryptophan metabolic profiles. HEP increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and certain tryptophan metabolites, including indole-3-carboxylic acid, kynurenic acid, and tryptamine in the cecum. These metabolites upregulated the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin by activating the AhR and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity. The increased intestinal barrier functions decreased LPS transferring from the intestine to the liver, inhibited hepatic LPS/TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway activation, and reduced hepatic inflammatory response and apoptosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation experiments further confirmed that the hepatoprotective effect is likely mediated by HEP-altered gut microbiota and their metabolites. Overall, dietary HEP could ameliorate the hepatic damage and metabolic disorders of NAFLD through regulating the "gut-liver" axis.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

He Z, Liu Y, Li Z, et al (2024)

Gut Microbiota-Mediated Alterations of Hippocampal CB1R Regulating the Diurnal Variation of Cognitive Impairment Induced by Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice.

Neurochemical research [Epub ahead of print].

Patients suffering from hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) frequently exhibit postoperative cognitive deficits. Our previous observations have emphasized the diurnal variation in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cognitive impairment, in which gut microbiota-associated hippocampal lipid metabolism plays an important role. Herein, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion surgery was performed under morning (ZT0, 08:00) and evening (ZT12, 20:00). Fecal microbiota transplantation was used to associate HIRI model with pseudo-germ-free mice. The novel object recognition test and Y-maze test were used to assess cognitive function. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis were used for microbial analysis. Western blotting was used for hippocampal protein analysis. Compared with the ZT0-HIRI group, ZT12-HIRI mice showed learning and short term memory impairment, accompanied by down-regulated expression of hippocampal CB1R, but not CB2R. Both gut microbiota composition and microbiota metabolites were significantly different in ZT12-HIRI mice compared with ZT0-HIRI. Fecal microbiota transplantation from the ZT12-HIRI was demonstrated to induce cognitive impairment behavior and down-regulated hippocampal CB1R and β-arrestin1. Intraperitoneal administration of CB1R inhibitor AM251 (1 mg/kg) down-regulated hippocampal CB1R and caused cognitive impairment in ZT0-HIRI mice. And intraperitoneal administration of CB1R agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) up-regulated hippocampal CB1R and improved cognitive impairment in ZT12-HIRI mice. In summary, the results suggest that gut microbiota may regulate the diurnal variation of HIRI-induced cognitive function by interfering with hippocampal CB1R.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Xu H, Li O, Kim D, et al (2024)

Aged microbiota exacerbates cardiac failure by PPARα/PGC1α pathway.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(24)00260-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The dysbiosis of gut microbiota with aging has been extensively studied, revealing its substantial contribution to variety of diseases. However, the impact of aged microbiota in heart failure (HF) remains unclear. In this study, we employed the method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from aged donors to investigate its role in the context of HF. Our results demonstrate that FMT from aged donors alters the recipient's gut microbiota composition and abundance. Furthermore, FMT impairs cardiac function and physical activity in HF mice. Aged FMT induces metabolic alterations, leading to body weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance, increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and enhanced fat accumulation. The epicardium of aged FMT recipients shows fat accumulation, accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and increased cellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, aged FMT suppresses the PPARα/PGC1α signaling pathway in HF. Notably, activation of PPARα effectively rescues the metabolic changes and myocardial injury caused by aged FMT. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the role of the PPARα/PGC1α signaling pathway in aged FMT-mediated HF.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Huang Y, Li Y, Guan D, et al (2024)

Acorus tatarinowii oils exert protective effects on microglia-mediated inflammatory injury via restoring gut microbiota composition in experimental stroke rats.

Brain research bulletin, 213:110990 pii:S0361-9230(24)00123-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Growing evidence has demonstrated that gut microbiota could be developed as a therapeutic target due to its contribution to microglia activation in the pathological process of ischemic stroke. Acorus tatarinowii oils (AT oils), which is considered as the active fraction of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Acorus tatarinowii, exerts various bioactivities and prebiotic effects. However, it remains unclear that the effect of AT oils on inflammatory response after ischemic stroke and whether its underlying mechanism is associated to gut microbiota and the intestinal barrier. In the current study, we aim to investigate the anti-microglial neuroinflammation mechanism of AT oils in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke. The compositions of AT oils were identified by GC-MS. Our results demonstrated that AT oils could effectively relieve cerebral infarction, inhibit neuronal apoptosis, degrade the release of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and IFN-γ), and mediate the polarization of microglia. Moreover, AT oils restored the composition and the balance of gut microbiota in stroke rats, and reduced abundance of opportunistic genera including Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia and Tenericutes, as well as increased beneficial bacteria abundance such as Tenericutes and Prevotella_copri. To investigate the role of gut microbiota on AT oils against ischemic stroke, we conducted the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments with gut microbiota consumption, which suggested that the depletion of gut microbiota took away the protective effect of AT oils, confirming the importance of gut microbiota in the protective effect of AT oils on ischemic stroke. FMT experiments have demonstrated that AT oils preserved the gut permeability and blood-brain barrier, as well as mediated the microglial phenotype under the intervention of gut microbiota. In summary, AT oils could efficaciously moderate neuronal damage and intervene microglial phenotype by reversing gut microbiota disorder in ischemic stroke rats.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Swisa A, Kieckhaefer J, Daniel SG, et al (2024)

The evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors shape the murine gut microbiome via control of epithelial glycosylation.

Developmental cell pii:S1534-5807(24)00323-X [Epub ahead of print].

Evolutionary adaptation of multicellular organisms to a closed gut created an internal microbiome differing from that of the environment. Although the composition of the gut microbiome is impacted by diet and disease state, we hypothesized that vertebrates promote colonization by commensal bacteria through shaping of the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we determine that the evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors control the composition of the gut microbiome by establishing favorable glycosylation on the colonic epithelial surface. FOXA proteins bind to regulatory elements of a network of glycosylation enzymes, which become deregulated when Foxa1 and Foxa2 are deleted from the intestinal epithelium. As a direct consequence, microbial composition shifts dramatically, and spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease ensues. Microbiome dysbiosis was quickly reversed upon fecal transplant into wild-type mice, establishing a dominant role for the host epithelium, in part mediated by FOXA factors, in controlling symbiosis in the vertebrate holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Zheng D, Ke X, Cai H, et al (2024)

Oral administration of RDP58 ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in intestinal microbiota dependent manner.

International immunopharmacology, 136:112325 pii:S1567-5769(24)00845-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), has not been fully elucidated, accumulating researches suggest that intestinal microbiota imbalance contributes to the development of IBD in patients and animal models. RDP58, a peptide-based computer-assisted rational design, has been demonstrated to be effective in protecting against a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism by which RDP58 protects against IBD mediated by intestinal microbiota has yet to be elucidated.

METHODS: The colitis model was induced by continuously administering 2.5 % (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days. The manifestations of colon inflammation were assessed via daily weight changes, colon length, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level, disease activity index (DAI) score, pathology score, and intestinal barrier permeability. Intestinal microbiota analysis was carried out by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also detected. To further confirm the protective effect of RDP58 on intestinal microbiota, broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (ABX) treatment and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) experiment were performed.

RESULTS: Oral administration of RDP58 ameliorated DSS-induced mice colitis by altering the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota. Notably, RDP58 significantly upregulated SCFAs-producing microbiota, thereby promoting the generation of Tregs. ABX and FMT were performed to verify the above mechanism.

CONCLUSIONS: RDP58 ameliorated DSS-induced colitis through altering intestinal microbiota and enhancing SCFAs and Tregs production in intestinal microbiota dependent manner, potentially provide a novel therapy for IBD.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Samanta A, M Sen Sarma (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy: A perspective.

World journal of hepatology, 16(5):678-683.

Due to its complex pathogenesis, treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) continues to be a therapeutic challenge. Of late, gut microbiome has garnered much attention for its role in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal and liver diseases and its potential therapeutic use. New evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a significant role in cerebral homeostasis. Alteration in the gut microbiota has been documented in patients with HE in a number of clinical and experimental studies. Research on gut dysbiosis in patients with HE has opened newer therapeutic avenues in the form of probiotics, prebiotics and the latest fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Recent studies have shown that FMT is safe and could be effective in improving outcomes in advanced liver disease patients presenting with HE. However, questions over the appropriate dose, duration and route of administration for best treatment outcome remains unsettled.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Li Y, Zhang XH, ZK Wang (2024)

Microbiota treatment of functional constipation: Current status and future prospects.

World journal of hepatology, 16(5):776-783.

Functional constipation (FC) is a common disorder that is characterized by difficult stool passage, infrequent bowel movement, or both. FC is highly prevalent, recurs often, accompanies severe diseases, and affects quality of life; therefore, safe and effective therapy with long-term benefits is urgently needed. Microbiota treatment has potential value for FC treatment. Microbiota treatments include modulators such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Some probiotics and prebiotics have been adopted, and the efficacy of other microbiota modulators is being explored. FMT is considered an emerging field because of its curative effects; nevertheless, substantial work must be performed before clinical implementation.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Wang L, Li Y, Zhang YJ, et al (2024)

Intestinal microecological transplantation for a patient with chronic radiation enteritis: A case report.

World journal of gastroenterology, 30(19):2603-2611.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is strongly associated with radiation-induced gut damage. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of intestinal microecological transplantation for treating patients with chronic radiation enteritis.

CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old female with cervical cancer developed abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood in the stool 1 year after radiotherapy. An electronic colonoscopy was performed to diagnose chronic radiation enteritis. Two courses of intestinal microecological transplantation and full-length 16S rRNA microbiological analysis were performed. The patient experienced short- and long-term relief from symptoms without adverse effects. Whole 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significant differences in the intestinal flora's composition between patient and healthy donors. Pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia fergusonii and Romboutsia timonensis, were more in the patient. Beneficial bacteria such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, Ruminococcus bromii, and Bifidobacterium longum were more in the healthy donors. Intestinal microbiota transplantation resulted in a significant change in the patient's intestinal flora composition. The composition converged with the donor's flora, with an increase in core beneficial intestinal bacteria, such as Eubacterium rectale, and a decrease in pathogenic bacteria. Changes in the intestinal flora corresponded with the patients' alleviating clinical symptoms.

CONCLUSION: Intestinal microecological transplantation is an effective treatment for relieving the clinical symptoms of chronic radiation enteritis by altering the composition of the intestinal flora. This study provides a new approach for treating patients with chronic radiation enteritis.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Li Y, Sun R, Lai C, et al (2024)

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates intestinal and systematic inflammation by modulating dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in Crohn's disease.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):518.

BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is pivotal in Crohn's disease (CD) and modulated by host physiological conditions. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising treatment for CD that can regulate gut microbiota. The relationship between HBOT and the gut microbiota in CD remains unknown.

METHODS: CD patients were divided into an HBOT group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10) in this open-label prospective interventional study. The fecal samples before and after HBOT were used for 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). A colitis mouse model was constructed using dextran sulfate sodium, and intestinal and systematic inflammation was evaluated. The safety and long-term effect of HBOT were observed.

RESULTS: HBOT significantly reduced the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) (80.79 ± 42.05 mg/L vs. 33.32 ± 18.31 mg/L, P = 0.004) and the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (274.87 ± 65.54 vs. 221.54 ± 41.89, P = 0.044). HBOT elevated the declined microbial diversity and ameliorated the altered composition of gut microbiota in patients with CD. The relative abundance of Escherichia decreased, and that of Bifidobacterium and Clostridium XIVa increased after HBOT. Mice receiving FMT from donors after HBOT had significantly less intestinal inflammation and serum CRP than the group before HBOT. HBOT was safe and well-tolerated by patients with CD. Combined with ustekinumab, more patients treated with HBOT achieved clinical response (30%vs.70%, P = 0.089) and remission (20%vs.50%, P = 0.160) at week 4.

CONCLUSIONS: HBOT modulates the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in CD and ameliorates intestinal and systematic inflammation. HBOT is a safe option for CD and exhibits a promising auxiliary effect to ustekinumab.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2200061193. Registered 15 June 2022, .

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Li H, Liu S, Chen H, et al (2024)

Gut dysbiosis contributes to SCFAs reduction-associated adipose tissue macrophage polarization in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Life sciences, 350:122744 pii:S0024-3205(24)00334-5 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has spurred investigations into various interconnected factors, among which gut dysbiosis is notably prominent. Although gut dysbiosis is strongly associated with GDM, the specific role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of GDM remains unknown. This study aims to explore the pathogenesis of GDM from gut microbiota.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, we constructed two GDM mice models: one induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and the other through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from GDM patients. In vitro, we used a co-culture system of RAW264.7 and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

KEY FINDINGS: We induced a GDM-like state in pregnant mice by FMT from GDM patients, which was consistent with the HFD model. A potential mechanism identified involves the diminished abundance of SCFA-producing microbiota, which reduces SCFAs, particularly propionic acid and butyric acid. In vitro, butyric and propionic acids were observed to alleviate LPS-induced TLR4-NF-κB activation, thereby reducing inflammation levels and inhibiting adipose insulin resistance via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This reduction appears to trigger the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages toward M1 and promote insulin resistance in adipose tissue.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our study fills this knowledge gap by finding that alterations in gut microbiota have an independent impact on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the GDM state. In vivo and in vitro, gut dysbiosis is linked to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance via the bacterial product SCFAs in the GDM state, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of GDM.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Feng R, Wang Q, Yu T, et al (2024)

Quercetin ameliorates bone loss in OVX rats by modulating the intestinal flora-SCFAs-inflammatory signaling axis.

International immunopharmacology, 136:112341 pii:S1567-5769(24)00861-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common systemic skeletal disorder characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis, involving increased osteoclastic bone formation and decreased osteoblastic bone resorption. Quercetin is a plant polyphenol that has been found to exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. Previous studies have demonstrated its potential to improve postmenopausal OP, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the anti-osteoporotic mechanism of quercetin based on the "intestinal flora - short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) - inflammatory" signaling axis.

METHODS: In this study, we established an ovariectomized (OVX)-induced rat model, quercetin intervention and evaluated the effects on rats following antibiotic (ABX) treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). After 6 weeks of intervention, the rats were euthanized, and samples from their femur, tibia, lumbar spine, serum, colon and feces were collected, and bone strength, intestinal flora structure, SCFAs levels and cytokine levels were assessed.

RESULTS: Quercetin modulates the intestinal flora by increasing potentially probiotic bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillales, Prevotellaceae, and Blautia) and decreasing potentially pathogenic bacteria (Desulfobacterota, Erysipelotrichales, Romboutsia, and Butyricoccaceae). It also increases SCFAs content and reduces colonic permeability by enhancing tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin). Furthermore, quercetin lowers proinflammatory cytokine levels (LPS, IL-1β, and TNF-α), which enhances bone strength and prevents OVX-induced bone loss.

CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin may effectively reduce bone loss in OVX rats via the "intestinal flora - SCFAs - inflammatory" signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Kardan R, Hemmati J, Nazari M, et al (2024)

Novel therapeutic strategy for obesity through the gut microbiota-brain axis: A review article.

Caspian journal of internal medicine, 15(2):215-227.

Background: The interaction between commensal bacteria and the host is essential for health and the gut microbiota-brain axis plays a vital role in this regard. Obesity as a medical problem not only affect the health of the individuals, but also the economic and social aspects of communities. The presence of any dysbiosis in the composition of the gut microbiota disrupts in the gut microbiota-brain axis, which in turn leads to an increase in appetite and then obesity. Because common treatments for obesity have several drawbacks, the use of microbiota-based therapy in addition to treatment and prevention of obesity can have other numerous benefits for the individual. In this review, we intend to investigate the relationship between obesity and the gut microbiota-brain axis as well as novel treatment strategies based on this axis with an emphasis on gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Gao T, Li Y, Wang X, et al (2024)

Alginate oligosaccharide-mediated butyrate-HIF-1α axis improves skin aging in mice.

Journal of pharmaceutical analysis, 14(5):100911.

The "gut-skin" axis has been proved and is considered as a novel therapy for the prevention of skin aging. The antioxidant efficacy of oligomannonic acid (MAOS) make it an intriguing target for use to improve skin aging. The present study further explored whereby MAOS-mediated gut-skin axis balance prevented skin aging in mice. The data indicated the skin aging phenotypes, oxidative stress, skin mitochondrial dysfunction, and intestinal dysbiosis (especially the butyrate and HIF-1α levels decreased) in aging mice. Similarly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from aging mice rebuild the aging-like phenotypes. Further, we demonstrated MAOS-mediated colonic butyrate-HIF-1α axis homeostasis promoted the entry of butyrate into the skin, upregulated mitophagy level and ultimately improving skin aging via HDAC3/PHD/HIF-1α/mitophagy loop in skin of mice. Overall, our study offered a better insights of the effectiveness of alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), promised to become a personalized targeted therapeutic agents, on gut-skin axis disorder inducing skin aging.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Hubert M (2024)

[Not Available].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 166(10):70.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Smith A, T Roy (2024)

Fecal Microbiota Spores, Live-Brpk (Vowst) to Prevent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

American family physician, 109(5):472-473.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Zhao L, Zhang Z, Wang P, et al (2024)

NHH promotes Sepsis-associated Encephalopathy with the expression of AQP4 in astrocytes through the gut-brain Axis.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 21(1):138.

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with sepsis. Despite extensive research, its exact cause remains unclear. Our previous research indicated a relationship between non-hepatic hyperammonemia (NHH) and SAE. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between NHH and SAE and the potential mechanisms causing cognitive impairment. In the in vivo experimental results, there were no significant abnormalities in the livers of mice with moderate cecal ligation and perforation (CLP); however, ammonia levels were elevated in the hippocampal tissue and serum. The ELISA study suggest that fecal microbiota transplantation in CLP mice can reduce ammonia levels. Reduction in ammonia levels improved cognitive dysfunction and neurological impairment in CLP mice through behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular biology studies. Further studies have shown that ammonia enters the brain to regulate the expression of aquaporins-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes, which may be the mechanism underlying brain dysfunction in CLP mice. The results of the in vitro experiments showed that ammonia up-regulated AQP4 expression in astrocytes, resulting in astrocyte damage. The results of this study suggest that ammonia up-regulates astrocyte AQP4 expression through the gut-brain axis, which may be a potential mechanism for the occurrence of SAE.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

DuPont HL, DuPont AW, GS Tillotson (2024)

Microbiota restoration therapies for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection reach an important new milestone.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 17:17562848241253089.

Microbiota restoration therapy has become a standard treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). In this article, we review the studies supporting the licensure of two live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) designed to prevent rCDI and to provide clinicians with a perspective on their differences. PubMed was reviewed on 1 October 2023, for all papers published concerning the current Food and Drug Administration allowance of the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the studies that led to the licensure of RBX2660 (REBYOTA™), generic name, fecal microbiota, live-jslm, and SER-109 (VOWST™), generic name, fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk. OpenBiome continues to produce fecal products for patients with rCDI at their treatment sites, and the American Gastroenterology Association has a National Registry focused on long-term safety of administering fecal microbiota products. The science behind the licensing of fecal microbiota, live-jslm, a consortium of fecal anaerobes found in stool augmented with strains of Bacteroidetes and fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk, a mixture of 50 species of purified Firmicutes spores is reviewed. Both products appear to be safe in clinical trials and effective in reducing rCDI episodes by mechanisms established for FMT, including normalization of α- and β-diversity of the microbiome and by increasing fecal secondary bile acids. The different makeup of the two LBPs suggests that rCDI responds to a variety of engrafting microbiota which explains why nearly all donors in FMT of rCDI are generally effective. Fecal microbiota, live-jslm has also been shown to successfully treat rCDI in elderly patients with advanced comorbidities. With the licensure of two novel LBPs, we are entering a new phase of microbiota replacement therapy. Having standardized manufacturing and proper monitoring of products, harnessing the microbiome to control and prevent disease has a new beginning.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Meng Q, Guo J, Lv K, et al (2024)

5S-Heudelotinone alleviates experimental colitis by shaping the immune system and enhancing the intestinal barrier in a gut microbiota-dependent manner.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 14(5):2153-2176.

Aberrant changes in the gut microbiota are implicated in many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbes produce diverse metabolites that can shape the immune system and impact the intestinal barrier integrity, indicating that microbe-mediated modulation may be a promising strategy for preventing and treating IBD. Although fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotic supplementation are well-established IBD therapies, novel chemical agents that are safe and exert strong effects on the gut microbiota are urgently needed. Herein, we report the total synthesis of heudelotinone and the discovery of 5S-heudelotinone (an enantiomer) as a potent agent against experimental colitis that acts by modulating the gut microbiota. 5S-Heudelotinone alters the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota and increases the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs); thus, it regulates the intestinal immune system by reducing proinflammatory immune cell numbers, and maintains intestinal mucosal integrity by modulating tight junctions (TJs). Moreover, 5S-heudelotinone (2) ameliorates colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in situ carcinoma model. Together, these findings reveal the potential of a novel natural product, namely, 5S-heudelotinone, to control intestinal inflammation and highlight that this product is a safe and effective candidate for the treatment of IBD and CAC.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Bourragat A, Escoula Q, Bellenger S, et al (2024)

The transplantation of the gut microbiome of fat-1 mice protects against colonic mucus layer disruption and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by high fat diet.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2356270.

High-fat diets alter gut barrier integrity, leading to endotoxemia by impacting epithelial functions and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory goblet cells. Indeed, ER stress, which is an important contributor to many chronic diseases such as obesity and obesity-related disorders, leads to altered synthesis and secretion of mucins that form the protective mucus barrier. In the present study, we investigated the relative contribution of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs)-modified microbiota to alleviating alterations in intestinal mucus layer thickness and preserving gut barrier integrity. Male fat-1 transgenic mice (exhibiting endogenous omega-3 PUFAs tissue enrichment) and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed either an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet. Unlike WT mice, HFD-fed fat-1 mice were protected against mucus layer alterations as well as an ER stress-mediated decrease in mucin expression. Moreover, cecal microbiota transferred from fat-1 to WT mice prevented changes in the colonic mucus layer mainly through colonic ER stress downregulation. These findings highlight a novel feature of the preventive effects of omega-3 fatty acids against intestinal permeability in obesity-related conditions.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )