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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Mar 2019 at 01:38 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Ohara T (2019)

Identification of the microbial diversity after fecal microbiota transplantation therapy for chronic intractable constipation using 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing.

PloS one, 14(3):e0214085 pii:PONE-D-18-34661.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disease by restoring gut microbiota; however, there is a lack of sufficient understanding regarding which microbial populations successfully colonize the recipient gut. This study characterized microbial composition and diversity in patients diagnosed with chronic constipation at 1 month and 1 year after FMT.

METHODS: We explored the microbial diversity of pre- and posttransplant stool specimens from patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, followed by functional analysis.

RESULTS: The results identified 22 species of microorganisms colonized in the recipients from the donors at 1 month after FMT. One-year follow-up of the patient identified the colonization of 18 species of microorganisms, resulting in identification of species in significant abundance, including Bacteroides fragilis and Hungatella hathewayi in the recipient at 1 month after FMT and Dialister succinatiphilus, Coprococcus catus, and Sutterella stercoricanis at 1 year after FMT. The majority of the colonized species belong to the phylum Firmicutes and carry genes related to polysaccharide metabolism and that enhance the energy-harvesting efficiency of the host.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FMT is effective for the treatment of chronic constipation through the restoration and colonization of donor microbiota in the recipient gut up to 1 year after FMT.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Liu Z, Wang N, Ma Y, et al (2019)

Hydroxytyrosol Improves Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Modulating Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:390.

Obesity is a common chronic metabolic disease that is harmful to human health and predisposes the affected individuals to a cluster of pathologies. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most frequent complications of obesity. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) may reduce obesity and IR in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice; however, the mechanism underlying is still unknown. Systemic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysfunction are thought to be associated with obesity and IR. In this study, we found that HFD feeding for 8 weeks altered the intestinal microbiota, injured intestinal barrier function, increased endotoxin release into the blood, enhanced the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and lipid accumulation in liver, caused obesity, and aggravated IR via the JNK/IRS (Ser 307) pathway in HFD mice. We also found that HT gavage could reverse those effects and the beneficial effects of HT were transferable through fecal microbiota transplantation. Our data indicate that HT can improve obesity and IR by altering the composition of the intestinal microbiota and improving integrity of the intestinal wall. We propose that HT replenishment may be used as a dietary intervention strategy to prevent obesity and IR.

RevDate: 2019-03-19
CmpDate: 2019-03-19

Tominaga K, Tsuchiya A, Yokoyama J, et al (2019)

How do you treat this diversion ileitis and pouchitis?.

Gut, 68(4):593-758.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Allegretti JR, Kassam Z, Fischer M, et al (2019)

Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Symptoms Following Successful Eradication of Clostridium difficile by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

Journal of clinical gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Many patients report altered bowel habits including constipation, bloating, gas and loose stool post-FMT despite resolution of CDI, and the etiology remains unclear.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of adult patients with recurrent CDI who underwent FMT (1) via colonoscopy with patient-selected donor stool, (2) via colonoscopy from a universal stool bank donor, or (3) via capsules from a universal stool bank. Reassessment occurred 8 weeks post-FMT. Those cured were assessed for gastrointestinal symptoms (bloating, loose stools, constipation). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of post-FMT gastrointestinal symptoms.

RESULTS: A total of 150 subjects underwent FMT for recurrent CDI, of which 68.7% (103) were female, mean age was 61.5 years±18.1 and 31 patients (20.7%) had preexisting irritable bowel syndrome. Thirty-six had FMT via colonoscopy with a patient-selected donor, 67 via colonoscopy with stool bank donors, and 47 via FMT capsules from stool bank donors. Among those cured, 41 (31.2%) had gastrointestinal symptoms post-FMT. The factors associated with symptoms included younger age (57.2 vs. 64.1 y, P=0.03), a baseline history of irritable bowel syndrome (36.6% vs. 13.3%, P=0.002) and preexisting inflammatory bowel disease (31.7% vs. 10%, P=0.002). Small bowel exposure to donor stool was not related to symptoms (63.4% vs. 62.2%, P=0.89).

CONCLUSIONS: Altered bowel habits are a consequence of CDI and are common after FMT. This study suggests that donor type and FMT delivery modality are not related to the presence of irregular gastrointestinal symptoms after FMT.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Davido B, Batista R, Dinh A, et al (2019)

Fifty shades of graft: how to improve efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) for decolonization of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB)?.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous decolonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) takes time: about 25% after 30 days for Carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) or ESBL. Currently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proposed as a new strategy to promote decolonization, in order to reduce the risk of superinfection due to these ARB. We discuss the literature about FMT in this indication, and the improvement levers we have to promote its efficacy.

METHODS: We browsed the relevant literature available up to day concerning the use of FMT to eradicate ARB and evaluated the different factors that may have influenced the efficacy of decolonization.

RESULTS: We found 4 axes that could have led a major role in the efficacy of FMT: i) the bowel preparation before FMT ii) the donor, iii) the dose and iv) the thermal conditioning of feces. We discuss their positive or negative impact on the outcome of the FMT.

CONCLUSION: Although FMT is very efficient in the eradication of Clostridium difficile infection, the same recipe cannot be applied for the eradication of ARB. Working hand-in-hand with expert centers might help to improve its efficacy in such indication, and allow reducing in-hospital isolation precautions.

RevDate: 2019-03-16

Uchiyama K, Naito Y, T Takagi (2019)

Intestinal microbiome as a novel therapeutic target for local and systemic inflammation.

Pharmacology & therapeutics pii:S0163-7258(19)30045-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic inflammatory arthritis, asthma, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported to be related to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The contribution of special bacteria for the development of those diseases has been elucidated by disease animal models such as germ-free mice. Besides, the contribution by several bacteria for the pathogenesis of those diseases has been suggested by detailed analysis of the 16 small ribosomal subunit RNA (16S rRNA) from stool samples of the patients. Gut microbiota-targeted treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases such as fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and probiotics has been now reported. Though there are several issues to be understood, these treatments have been highlighted as an innovative approach to intractable systemic inflammatory disease. In the present review, recent reports regarding the relation between gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory diseases are discussed with treatments to target gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-03-16

Ramesh MS, J Yee (2019)

Clostridioides difficile Infection in Chronic Kidney Disease/End-Stage Renal Disease.

Advances in chronic kidney disease, 26(1):30-34.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major health-care burden and increasingly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increased antibiotic use, alteration in host defenses, and gastric acid suppression are some of the etiologies for increased risk of CDI in these populations. Patients with CKD/ESRD have a higher risk of initial episode, recurrence, and development of severe CDI than those without CKD or ESRD. Diagnosis and management of CDI in patients with CKD/ESRD are similar to that in the general population. The mortality, length of stay, and health-care costs are higher in patients with CDI and CKD/ESRD. Antimicrobial stewardship with reduction in antibiotic use along with infection-control measures such as contact isolation and hand hygiene with soap and water is essential in the control and prevention of CDI in patients with CKD/ESRD.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Sood A, Mahajan R, Singh A, et al (2019)

Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Maintenance of Remission in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Pilot Study.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:5381070 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To study the role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis (UC).

METHODS: In this pilot study, patients with UC in clinical remission after multi-session FMT were randomly allocated to either maintenance FMT or placebo colonoscopic infusion every 8 weeks, for 48 weeks. The standard of care (SOC) therapy was continued in all patients. The primary end point was maintenance of steroid-free clinical remission (Mayo score ≤2, all sub scores ≤ 1) at week 48. Secondary end points were achievement of endoscopic remission (endoscopic Mayo score 0) and histological remission (Nancy grade 0, 1) at week 48.

RESULTS: Sixty one patients in clinical remission were randomized to receive either FMT n=31) or placebo (n=30). The primary outcome was achieved in 27/31 (87.1%) patients allocated FMT versus 20/30 (66.7%) patients assigned placebo (p=0.111). Secondary end points of endoscopic remission [FMT: 18/31 (58.1%) versus placebo: 8/30 (26.7%), p=0.026] and histological remission [FMT: 14/31 (45.2%) versus placebo: 5/30 (16.7%), p=0. 033] were achieved in significantly higher number of patients with FMT. Three patients receiving FMT (9.7%) and 8 patients on placebo (26.7%) relapsed. There were no serious adverse events necessitating discontinuation in patients on FMT, 1 patient who relapsed on placebo required colectomy.

CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance FMT in patients who are in clinical remission may help sustain clinical, endoscopic and histological remission in patients with UC. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Clinical remission; Endoscopic remission; Histological remission.

RevDate: 2019-03-15
CmpDate: 2019-03-15

Hwang IY, Lee HL, Huang JG, et al (2018)

Engineering microbes for targeted strikes against human pathogens.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 75(15):2719-2733.

Lack of pathogen specificity in antimicrobial therapy causes non-discriminant microbial cell killing that disrupts the microflora present. As a result, potentially helpful microbial cells are killed along with the pathogen, altering the biodiversity and dynamic interactions within the population. Moreover, the unwarranted exposure of antibiotics to microbes increases the likelihood of developing resistance and perpetuates the emergence of multidrug resistance. Synthetic biology offers an alternative solution where specificity can be conferred to reduce the non-specific, non-targeted activity of currently available antibiotics, and instead provides targeted therapy against specific pathogens and minimising collateral damage to the host's inherent microbiota. With a greater understanding of the microbiome and the available genetic engineering tools for microbial cells, it is possible to devise antimicrobial strategies for novel antimicrobial therapy that are able to precisely and selectively remove infectious pathogens. Herein, we review the strategies developed by unlocking some of the natural mechanisms used by the microbes and how these may be utilised in targeted antimicrobial therapy, with the promise of reducing the current global bane of multidrug antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2019-03-14

Xu X, Fukui H, Ran Y, et al (2019)

Alteration of GLP-1/GPR43 expression and gastrointestinal motility in dysbiotic mice treated with vancomycin.

Scientific reports, 9(1):4381 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-40978-9.

Gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in various aspects of host physiology, including metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) motility and hormonal secretion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-associated dysbiosis on metabolism and GI motility in relation to colonic expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and G protein coupled receptor (GPR)43. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice (ICR, 6 weeks old, female) were orally administered vancomycin (0.2 mg/ml) in drinking water for 7 days. In another experiment, germ-free (GF) mice (ICR, 6 weeks old, female) were subjected to oral fecal transplantation (FT) using a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from SPF mice that had received vancomycin treatment (FT-V) or one from untreated control SPF mice (FT-C). The gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red (6% w/v) solution. The expression of GLP-1 and GPR43 was examined by immunohistochemistry and realtime RT-PCR, and the plasma GLP-1 level was measured by ELISA. In vancomycin-treated SPF mice, the diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly reduced and the abundance of Lactobacillus was markedly increased. Significant increases in body weight, cecum weight, plasma GLP-1 level and colonic GLP-1/GPR43 expression were also noted relative to the controls. These alterations were reproducible in GF mice with FT-V. Moreover, FT-V GF mice showed a significantly increased food intake and a significantly prolonged GITT in comparison with FT-C GF mice. Vancomycin-induced dysbiosis promotes body weight gain and prolongs GITT, accompanied by an increase of colonic GLP-1/GPR43 expression.

RevDate: 2019-03-14
CmpDate: 2019-03-14

Polívková S, Vojtilová L, Husa P, et al (2018)

[Guideline for fecal bacteriotherapy to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis].

Klinicka mikrobiologie a infekcni lekarstvi, 24(2):57-64.

We present a case of a 17-year-old female with anti-NMDAR encephalitis probably associated with vaccination against yellow fever. Her symptoms occurred 27 days after vaccination against yellow fever. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis manifested as acute psychosis, memory loss and catatonia following fever with complex partial epileptic seizures. Interictal electroencephalogram showed slow-wave delta background activity with "delta brushes". The diagnosis was confirmed by NMDAR antibody positivity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Since ovarian teratoma, as the most common cause of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, did not develop within five years from its onset, the association with vaccination against yellow fever seems to be highly probable.

RevDate: 2019-03-14
CmpDate: 2019-03-14

Geng S, Cheng S, Li Y, et al (2018)

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation Reduces Susceptibility to Epithelial Injury and Modulates Tryptophan Metabolism of the Microbial Community in a Piglet Model.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis, 12(11):1359-1374.

Background and Aims: Faecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using a piglet model, our previous study indicated that exogenous faecal microbiota can increase the expressions of tight junction proteins, mucin and antimicrobial peptide in the intestinal mucosa, suggesting a beneficial effect of FMT on gut barrier and gastrointestinal health. However, specific connections between FMT-induced microbial changes and modulation of the intestinal barrier remain to be fully illustrated. Here, we aimed to determine the potential role of metabolic function of gut microbiota in the beneficial effects of FMT.

Methods: The influence of FMT on the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis was assessed by early-life gut microbiota intervention on newborn piglets and subsequent lipopolysaccharide [LPS] challenge. Analysis of the gut microbiome and metabolome was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multiple mass spectrometry platforms.

Results: FMT modulated the diversity and composition of colonic microbiota and reduced the susceptibility to LPS-induced destruction of epithelial integrity and severe inflammatory response. Metabolomic analysis revealed functional changes of the gut metabolome along with a significant increase of the typical microbiota-derived tryptophan catabolite indole-3-acetic acid in the colonic lumen. In concordance with the metabolome data, metagenomics prediction analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing also demonstrated that FMT modulated the metabolic functions of gut microbiota associated with indole alkaloid biosynthesis, cytochrome P450 and intestinal homeostasis, which coincided with up-regulation of cytokine interleukin-22 and enhanced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the recipient colon.

Conclusions: Our data reveal a regulatory effect of FMT on tryptophan metabolism of gut microbiota in the recipient colon, which may play a potential role in maintenance of the intestinal barrier.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Roggenbrod S, Schuler C, Haller B, et al (2019)

[Patient perception and approval of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an alternative treatment option for ulcerative colitis].

Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, 57(3):296-303.

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a treatment option for recurring Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. However, there is also evidence that FMT can be effective in treating ulcerative colitis. This study examined the approval and willingness of affected patients who underwent FMT.

METHODS: A standardized questionnaire containing 27 polar and open questions was dispatched to a cohort of 262 patients suffering from UC. It included questions regarding the FMT process, donors, and possible concerns. Additionally, aspects of social background and disease activity were addressed.

RESULTS: The response rate was 31.3 % (n = 82). Forty-eight (58.5 %) patients were already aware of FMT. Forty-six (56.1 %) were willing to undergo FMT if given a respective indication. The effectiveness of the procedure (40.2 %), followed by failure of all other therapies (17.1 %), formed the principal motivation. The transmission of possible infectious agents (26.8 %), and the potential contamination of the stool graft leading to a deterioration of clinical symptoms, raised the most concerns. (20.7 %).The preferred delivery system of FMT was capsules (67.1 %), followed by colonoscopic application (47.6 %). The patients were in favour of a donor proposed by the physician (52,4 %). Willingness to undergo FMT did not differ significantly between genders (56.4 % women vs. 57.1 % men). Smokers (88.9 %), patients who did not watch television at all (77.8 %) and those with private health insurance, showed an increased willingness to undergo FMT.

CONCLUSION: For the majority of the UC patients surveyed, FMT represents a feasible treatment option. Approximately half of the respondents would consider FMT as an alternative treatment option, even inspite of a satisfactory disease response to current standard therapies. Unsurprisingly, there are concerns regarding the transmission of possible infectious agents and the hygienic implementation of FMT itself.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Joseph J, Saha S, AJ Greenberg-Worisek (2019)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: An Ambiguous Translational Pathway for a Promising Treatment.

Clinical and translational science [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Wang J, Wang P, Li D, et al (2019)

Beneficial effects of ginger on prevention of obesity through modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

European journal of nutrition pii:10.1007/s00394-019-01938-1 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Recent evidence has demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a critical role in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), one of the most commonly used spices and dietary supplements, has been shown to exert beneficial effects against obesity and related disorders. However, to date, the mechanisms linking these effects to the gut microbiota remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota and the metabolic adaptations resulting from ginger supplementation in mice.

METHODS: Four groups of mice were fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without ginger supplementation for 16 weeks. Lipid profiles, proinflammatory cytokines, glucose tolerance, microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were analyzed at the end of the experiment. In addition, microbiota-depleted mice were transplanted with the fecal microbiota of mice fed a HFD or mice fed a HFD along with ginger supplementation. Glucose tolerance and microbiota composition were assessed after a 8-week fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: We observed marked decreases in body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as amelioration of insulin resistance in the HFD-fed mice treated with ginger. Furthermore, ginger supplementation modulated the gut microbiota composition and increased species belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus and SCFA-producing bacteria (Alloprevotella and Allobaculum), along with increases in fecal SCFA concentrations. The FMT experiment showed anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects similar to those observed in the oral ginger-feeding experiment.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota as a result of ginger supplementation has a therapeutic effect on obesity in mice.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Sartelli M, Di Bella S, McFarland LV, et al (2019)

2019 update of the WSES guidelines for management of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in surgical patients.

World journal of emergency surgery : WJES, 14:8 pii:228.

In the last three decades, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in incidence and severity in many countries worldwide. The increase in CDI incidence has been particularly apparent among surgical patients. Therefore, prevention of CDI and optimization of management in the surgical patient are paramount. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts from the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) updated its guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients according to the most recent available literature. The update includes recent changes introduced in the management of this infection.

RevDate: 2019-03-10

Hirten RP, Grinspan A, Fu SC, et al (2019)

Microbial Engraftment and Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium Difficile in Patients With and Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5372769 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Recurrent and severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are treated with fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). Uncertainty exists regarding FMT effectiveness for CDI with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and regarding its effects on disease activity and effectiveness in transferring the donor microbiota to patients with and without IBD.

METHODS: Subjects with and without IBD who underwent FMT for recurrent or severe CDI between 2013 and 2016 at The Mount Sinai Hospital were followed for up to 6 months. The primary outcome was CDI recurrence 6 months after FMT. Secondary outcomes were (1) CDI recurrence 2 months after FMT; (2) frequency of IBD flare after FMT; (3) microbiota engraftment after FMT; (and 4) predictors of CDI recurrence.

RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four patients, 46 with IBD, were treated with FMT. Follow-up was available in 83 and 118 patients at 6 and 2 months, respectively. There was no difference in recurrence in patients with and without IBD at 6 months (38.7% vs 36.5%; P > 0.99) and 2 months (22.5% vs 17.9%; P = 0.63). Proton pump inhibitor use, severe CDI, and comorbid conditions were predictors of recurrence. Pre-FMT microbiota was not predictive of CDI recurrence. Subjects with active disease requiring medication escalation had reduced engraftment, with no difference in engraftment based on CDI recurrence or IBD endoscopic severity at FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory bowel disease did not affect CDI recurrence rates 6 months after FMT. Pre-FMT microbiota was not predictive of recurrence, and microbial engraftment was impacted in those requiring IBD treatment escalation, though not by CDI recurrence or IBD disease severity.

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Hibbard J, Jiang ZD, HL DuPont (2019)

Fecal Calprotectin and Fecal Indole Predicts Outcome of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Subjects with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(19)30045-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal calprotectin and indole were studied in 134 subjects with recurrent CDI before and after FMT. Reduced fecal calprotectin (p=0.0353, 95% CI 0.1305-0.1439) and rising levels of indole (p<0.0001, 95% CI <0.0001-0.0003) predicted successful treatment. A ratio of recal calprotectin/indole may provide prognostic value for FMT (p=0.0004, 95% CI 0.22-0.87).

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Chen CC, Chen YN, Liou JM, et al (2019)

From germ theory to germ therapy.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences, 35(2):73-82.

Germ theory of disease and Koch's postulates has been governing our understanding of the role of microbes in human health since 19th century. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and H. pylori associated diseases has typically represented the concept and framework of Koch's postulates. Eradication of H. pylori to prevent peptic ulcers recurrence and gastric cancer is the triumph of this microbiology paradigm. Advances of next generation sequencing provide great insight into the unculturable microbes and show trillions of microbes have evolved with human beings. Research into the microbiome-the microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit-has changed our understanding about microbes in human health and disease. The gut microbiota, the largest reservoir of the microbiome in human, plays a critical role in our catabolic-metabolism and immunity. This review will show the changes of the view of microbes on human health. We will briefly discuss dysbiosis, the disruption of symbiotic relationship between the host and microbiota, and the associated diseases. This leads to an idea to manipulate the microbiota, either by restoring missing functions or by eliminating harmful functions, to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Current evidences of two common germ therapies, fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics, in treating diseases will be reviewed.

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Olmedo M, Reigadas E, Valerio M, et al (2019)

Is it reasonable to perform Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in patients with liver cirrhosis?.

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Biagi E, Zama D, Rampelli S, et al (2019)

Early gut microbiota signature of aGvHD in children given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological disorders.

BMC medical genomics, 12(1):49 pii:10.1186/s12920-019-0494-7.

BACKGROUND: The onset of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) has been correlated with the gut microbiota (GM) composition, but experimental observations are still few, mainly involving cohorts of adult patients. In the current scenario where fecal microbiota transplantation has been used as a pioneer therapeutic approach to treat steroid-refractory aGvHD, there is an urgent need to expand existing observational studies of the GM dynamics in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Aim of the present study is to explore the GM trajectory in 36 pediatric HSCT recipients in relation to aGvHD onset.

METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric patients, from four transplantation centers, undergoing HSCT were enrolled in the study. Stools were collected at three time points: before HSCT, at time of engraftment and > 30 days following HSCT. Changes in the GM phylogenetic structure were studied by 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic assignation.

RESULTS: Children developing gut aGvHD had a dysbiotic GM layout before HSCT occurred. This putative aGvHD-predisposing ecosystem state was characterized by (i) reduced diversity, (ii) lower Blautia content, (iii) increase in Fusobacterium abundance. At time of engraftment, the GM structure underwent a deep rearrangement in all patients but, regardless of the occurrence of aGvHD and its treatment, it reacquired a eubiotic configuration from day 30.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a specific GM signature before HSCT predictive of subsequent gut aGvHD occurrence. Our data may open the way to a GM-based stratification of the risk of developing aGvHD in children undergoing HSCT, potentially useful also to identify patients benefiting from prophylactic fecal transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-03-08
CmpDate: 2019-03-08

Ganesan K, Chung SK, Vanamala J, et al (2018)

Causal Relationship between Diet-Induced Gut Microbiota Changes and Diabetes: A Novel Strategy to Transplant Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in Preventing Diabetes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(12): pii:ijms19123720.

The incidence of metabolic disorders, including diabetes, has elevated exponentially during the last decades and enhanced the risk of a variety of complications, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present review, we have highlighted the new insights on the complex relationships between diet-induced modulation of gut microbiota and metabolic disorders, including diabetes. Literature from various library databases and electronic searches (ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar) were randomly collected. There exists a complex relationship between diet and gut microbiota, which alters the energy balance, health impacts, and autoimmunity, further causes inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, including diabetes. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a butyrate-producing bacterium, which plays a vital role in diabetes. Transplantation of F. prausnitzii has been used as an intervention strategy to treat dysbiosis of the gut's microbial community that is linked to the inflammation, which precedes autoimmune disease and diabetes. The review focuses on literature that highlights the benefits of the microbiota especially, the abundant of F. prausnitzii in protecting the gut microbiota pattern and its therapeutic potential against inflammation and diabetes.

RevDate: 2019-03-07

Chang CS, Ruan JW, CY Kao (2019)

An overview of microbiome based strategies on anti-obesity.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences, 35(1):7-16.

With the significant global obesity epidemic and emerging strong scientific evidence that connected gut microbiota to obesity, intervening obesity by targeting gut microbiota has become a trendy strategy. Particularly the application of probiotics has become remarkably popular because of their expected association with gut microbiota modulation. Although there are many literatures on the effects of probiotics in obese animal models, most of them reported the effects of probiotic bacteria on metabolic indications with limited information on anti-obesity itself. Besides, some probiotics have been shown to reduce certain metabolic symptoms but they failed to achieve weight loss. This report reviewed the current literatures on the anti-obesity effects of next-generation probiotics in various animal obesity models and discussed the beneficial potential of fecal microbiota transplantation in treating obesity in humans. The purpose of this article is to help guide further research improve the probiotic bacteria experiments in more precise animal obesity models by standardizing the anti-obesogenesis, obesity control, and treatment assays and hopefully the evidence-based investigations on harnessing gut microbiota through next-generation probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation will develop new interventions to promote and achieve anti-obesity.

RevDate: 2019-03-07

Cammarota G, Gallo A, Ianiro G, et al (2019)

Emerging drugs for the treatment of Clostridium difficile.

Expert opinion on emerging drugs [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction Clostridium difficile, or Clostridioides difficile, (C difficile) infection represents the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection. Over the last decades, the incidence and severity of C difficile infection is rapidly increasing, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality, and burden on health care system. Orally administered vancomycin and fidaxomicin are the therapeutic options of choice for initial C difficile infection and fecal microbiota transplant for the recurrence infection. Furthermore, in recent years several new antibiotics with narrow-spectrum activity and low intestinal resorption have been developed, including surotomycin, cadazolid, and ridinilazol, and novel toxoid vaccines are expected to be efficacious in the prevention of C difficile infection. Areas covered Literature review was performed to select publications about current guidelines and phase II/III trials on emerging drugs. These include novel antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Expert opinion We have today a wide spectrum of promising therapeutic possibilities against infection. Pivotal future clinical trials may be crucial in developing effective strategies to optimize outcomes, mainly in high-risk population.

RevDate: 2019-03-07
CmpDate: 2019-03-07

Bajaj JS, Kakiyama G, Savidge T, et al (2018)

Antibiotic-Associated Disruption of Microbiota Composition and Function in Cirrhosis Is Restored by Fecal Transplant.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 68(4):1549-1558.

Patients with cirrhosis are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in restoring gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In a Food and Drug Administration-monitored phase 1 clinical safety trial, patients with decompensated cirrhosis on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. Microbial composition (diversity, family-level relative abundances), function (fecal bile acid [BA] deconjugation, 7α-dehydroxylation, short-chain fatty acids [SCFAs]), and correlations between Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and clinical variables were analyzed at baseline, postantibiotics, and 15 days post-FMT. FMT was well tolerated. Postantibiotics, there was a reduced microbial diversity and autochthonous taxa relative abundance. This was associated with an altered fecal SCFA and BA profile. Correlation linkage changes from beneficial at baseline to negative after antibiotics. All of these parameters became statistically similar post-FMT to baseline levels. No changes were seen in the SOC group.

CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced cirrhosis on lactulose and rifaximin, FMT restored antibiotic-associated disruption in microbial diversity and function. (Hepatology 2018; 00:000-000).

RevDate: 2019-03-06

Petito V, Fiore L, Lopetuso LR, et al (2019)

Commentary to "Safety, Clinical Response, and Microbiome Findings Following Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease".

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5370426 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-03-06
CmpDate: 2019-03-06

Amedei A, F Boem (2018)

I've Gut A Feeling: Microbiota Impacting the Conceptual and Experimental Perspectives of Personalized Medicine.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(12): pii:ijms19123756.

In recent years, the human microbiota has gained increasing relevance both in research and clinical fields. Increasing studies seem to suggest the centrality of the microbiota and its composition both in the development and maintenance of what we call "health" and in generating and/or favoring (those cases in which the microbiota's complex relational architecture is dysregulated) the onset of pathological conditions. The complex relationships between the microbiota and human beings, which invest core notions of biomedicine such as "health" and "individual," do concern not only problems of an empirical nature but seem to require the need to adopt new concepts and new perspectives in order to be properly analysed and utilized, especially for their therapeutic implementation. In this contribution we report and discuss some of the theoretical proposals and innovations (from the ecological component to the notion of polygenomic organism) aimed at producing this change of perspective. In conclusion, we summarily analyze what impact and what new challenges these new approaches might have on personalized/person centred/precision medicine.

RevDate: 2019-03-05

Lin P (2019)

Importance of the intestinal microbiota in ocular inflammatory diseases: a review.

Clinical & experimental ophthalmology [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this article is to review the literature on relationships between the intestinal microbiota and ocular inflammatory disease, specifically non-infectious uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. The findings show the importance of the intestinal microbiota in uveitis pathogenesis has been shown by multiple groups demonstrating that alterations in the microbiota induced by certain oral antibiotics results in reduced uveitis severity, and another group demonstrating that a commensal intestinal bacterial antigen activates retina-specific autoreactive T cells, potentially indicating a commensal trigger for uveitis. Additionally, commensal intestinal bacterial metabolite short chain fatty acids can be utilized to suppress autoimmune uveitis. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with intestinal dysbiosis, which is partially influenced by genetic risk alleles and AREDS supplementation. Strategies for therapeutically targeting the intestinal microbiota might involve several approaches, including the use of antibiotics, dietary changes, drugs that supplement beneficial bacterial metabolites or target causative bacterial strains, dietary strategies, or fecal microbial transplantation. In summary, the intestinal microbiota are at the cross-roads of genetic and environmental factors that can promote ocular conditions such as non-infectious uveitis and age-related macular degeneration, partially via its dynamic influence on mucosal and systemic immunity. The intestinal microbiome thus represents a salient potential target for therapeutic modulation to treat these potentially blinding conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-03-05

Kim P, Gadani A, Abdul-Baki H, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: A retrospective single-center chart review.

JGH open : an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 3(1):4-9 pii:JGH312093.

Background and Aim: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proposed as a treatment option for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection but remains a novel option. We examined if FMT is an effective means of treating recurrent C. difficile infection.

Methods: A retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent FMT was completed. Demographics and other variables, including the use of proton pump inhibitor therapy and history of inflammatory bowel disease, were collected.

Results: Twenty-five patients (71.4%) belonged to a high-risk population (working in a hospital setting, rehabilitation center, or nursing facility) and a total of 74.3% of patients (n = 26 patients) had no history of proton pump inhibitor use. Twenty-five patients (71.4%) had used metronidazole prior to transplantation, 35 patients (100%) had used vancomycin, and 7 patients (20%) had used fidaxomicin for prior infection. Four patients (11.4%) had used all three antibiotics during prior treatment. Of the eight patients who had a history of inflammatory bowel disease, six (75%) experienced resolution of symptoms after transplantation. A total of 30 patients (85.7%) had resolution of their symptoms 6-8 weeks' posttransplant, while 5 patients (14.3%) continued to have symptoms.

Conclusions: Our retrospective chart review supports that patients benefit from FMT in the setting of recurrent C. difficile infection.

RevDate: 2019-03-05

Álvarez-Mercado AI, Navarro-Oliveros M, Robles-Sánchez C, et al (2019)

Microbial Population Changes and Their Relationship with Human Health and Disease.

Microorganisms, 7(3): pii:microorganisms7030068.

Specific microbial profiles and changes in intestinal microbiota have been widely demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of a number of extra-intestinal (obesity and metabolic syndrome) and intestinal (inflammatory bowel disease) diseases as well as other metabolic disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Thus, maintaining a healthy gut ecosystem could aid in avoiding the early onset and development of these diseases. Furthermore, it is mandatory to evaluate the alterations in the microbiota associated with pathophysiological conditions and how to counteract them to restore intestinal homeostasis. This review highlights and critically discusses recent literature focused on identifying changes in and developing gut microbiota-targeted interventions (probiotics, prebiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation, among others) for the above-mentioned pathologies. We also discuss future directions and promising approaches to counteract unhealthy alterations in the gut microbiota. Altogether, we conclude that research in this field is currently in its infancy, which may be due to the large number of factors that can elicit such alterations, the variety of related pathologies, and the heterogeneity of the population involved. Further research on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantations on the composition of the human gut microbiome is necessary.

RevDate: 2019-03-04

Bakke D, Chatterjee I, Agrawal A, et al (2018)

Regulation of Microbiota by Vitamin D Receptor: A Nuclear Weapon in Metabolic Diseases.

Nuclear receptor research, 5:.

Metabolic syndrome is a multi-faceted disease. The microbiota, as a newly discovered organ, contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have demonstrated that nuclear receptors play critical roles in metabolic diseases. In the current review, we discuss the general role of the microbiome in health and metabolic syndrome. We summarize the functions of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) in metabolism. The focus of this review is the novel roles of vitamin D/VDR signaling in regulating inflammation and the microbiome, especially in obesity. Furthermore, we extend our discussion of potential gut-liver axis mediated by VDR signaling and microbiota in obesity. Finally, we discuss the potential clinical application of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Insights into nuclear receptors in metabolism and metabolic diseases will allow us to develop new strategies for fighting metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2019-03-04

Albarrak AA, Romana BS, Uraz S, et al (2019)

Clostridium difficile infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets pii:EMIDDT-EPUB-96975 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the general population has been recognized by health care organizations worldwide. The emergence of hypervirulent strains has made CDI more challenging to understand and treat. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at higher risk of infection, including CDI.

OBJECTIVE: A diagnostic approach for recurrent CDI has yet to be validated, particularly for IBD patients. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxins A and B, as well as glutamate dehydrogenase EIA, are both rapid testing options for the identification of CDI. Without a high index of suspicion, it is challenging to initially differentiate CDI from an IBD flare based on clinical evaluation alone.

METHOD/RESULTS: Here, we provide and up-to-date review on CDI in IBD patients. When caring for an IBD patient with suspected CDI, it is appropriate to empirically treat the presumed infection while awaiting further test results. Treatment with vancomycin or fidaxomicin, but not oral metronidazole, has been advocated by an expert review from the clinical practice update committee of the American Gastroenterology Association. Recurrent CDI is more common in IBD patients compared to non-IBD patients (32% versus 24%), thus more aggressive treatment is recommended for IBD patients along with early consideration of fecal microbiota transplant.

CONCLUSION: Although the use of infliximab during CDI has been debated, clinical experience exists supporting its use in an IBD flare, even with active CDI when needed.

RevDate: 2019-03-01

Grace E, EB Chahine (2019)

Updates on Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile Infection With Emphasis on Long-Term Care.

The Senior care pharmacist, 34(1):29-42.

OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of the classification, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) with an emphasis on longterm care.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature using a combination of the following terms: C. difficile, classification, epidemilogy, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and long-term care. Sources were limited to human data.

The main article reviewed was the 2017 CDI guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Other articles were reviewed for relevance to CDI in long-term care settings.

DATA SYNTHESIS: CDI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adults. The primary risk factors are advanced age and receipt of antibiotics. Diagnosis is suspected based on signs and symptoms and confirmed by laboratory tests. Vancomycin and fidaxomicin have replaced metronidazole as the drugs of choice for CDI. Fidaxomicin is associated with a lower risk of recurrence than vancomycin. Fecal microbiota transplantation is reserved for patients with multiple recurrences. Bezlotoxumab can be used in addition to standard therapy to prevent CDIs in patients at high risk for recurrence. Infection control strategies and antibiotic stewardship programs are known to reduce the rates of CDIs in institutional settings.

CONCLUSION: CDI is largely iatrogenic, and diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and laboratory tests. Treatment options include vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Prevention centers around infection control and antibiotic stewardship. More research is needed in long-term care settings.

RevDate: 2019-03-01

Lam TJ, Y Ye (2019)

CRISPRs for Strain Tracking and Their Application to Microbiota Transplantation Data Analysis.

The CRISPR journal, 2(1):41-50.

CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems naturally found in bacteria and archaea. Prokaryotes use these immune systems to defend against invaders, which include phages, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Relying on the integration of spacers derived from invader sequences (protospacers) into CRISPR loci (forming spacers flanked by repeats), CRISPR-Cas systems are able to store the memory of past immunological encounters. While CRISPR-Cas systems have evolved in response to invading mobile genetic elements, invaders have also developed mechanisms to avoid detection. As a result of an arms race between CRISPR-Cas systems and their targets, CRISPR arrays typically undergo rapid turnover of spacers through the acquisition and loss events. Additionally, microbiomes of different individuals rarely share spacers. Here, we present a computational pipeline, CRISPRtrack, for strain tracking based on CRISPR spacer content, and we applied it to fecal transplantation microbiome data to study the retention of donor strains in recipients. Our results demonstrate the potential use of CRISPRs as a simple yet effective tool for donor-strain tracking in fecal transplantation and as a general purpose tool for quantifying microbiome similarity.

RevDate: 2019-03-01

Gundling F, Roggenbrod S, Schleifer S, et al (2019)

Patient perception and approval of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an alternative treatment option for obesity.

Obesity science & practice, 5(1):68-74 pii:OSP4302.

Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a treatment option for some diseases, e.g. recurring Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. However, there is also evidence that FMT can be effective in treating obesity. This pilot study established the approval and willingness of obese patients to undergo FMT.

Methods: We conducted a survey of adults with obesity using a questionnaire containing 21 both multiple choice and open questions was dispatched to a cohort of 101 persons with obesity. It included questions aiming at the process of FMT itself, donors as well as possible concerns. Additionally aspects of social background and disease activity were dealt with.

Results: The response rate amounted to 30.1% (n = 31). In our population, mean BMI was 40.5 kg/m2 while the vast majority already tried out treatment modalities to lose weight before. 25.8% of persons with obesity were aware of FMT. 62.1% were willing to undergo FMT if the donor was healthy and anonymous while only 6.9% clearly refused this option. Sixty preferred an anonymous donor or a person proposed by their doctor while colonoscopy was the preferred application by 76.7%. The absence of risks of the procedure (47.8%) formed the principal motivation while reduction of medication was considered as least important reason (in 26.1). Insufficient testing of the faeces concerning infections raised the most concerns (in 61.6%).

Conclusion: For the majority of the persons with obesity surveyed FMT represents a treatment option. Approximately two thirds of the questionees would consider FMT as an alternative treatment option, even in spite of a satisfactory disease response to current standard therapies. Unsurprisingly there are concerns in regard to the transmission of possible infectious agents as well as to the hygieneic implementation of FMT itself.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Kay E, Hawramee S, Pollani S, et al (2019)

Nonpharmacologic options for treating irritable bowel syndrome.

JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 32(3):38-42.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder with no organic cause. Risk factors are multifactorial and treatment typically consists of antimotility or stimulant laxatives and antidepressants. This article reviews several newer areas of interest: probiotics, fecal microbiota transplant, a low FODMAP diet, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Zhou ZL, Jia XB, Sun MF, et al (2019)

Neuroprotection of Fasting Mimicking Diet on MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Mice via Gut Microbiota and Metabolites.

Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics pii:10.1007/s13311-019-00719-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongly associated with life style, especially dietary habits, which have gained attention as disease modifiers. Here, we report a fasting mimicking diet (FMD), fasting 3 days followed by 4 days of refeeding for three 1-week cycles, which accelerated the retention of motor function and attenuated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), known to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons, were increased in PD mice after FMD, suggesting an involvement of BDNF in FMD-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, FMD decreased the number of glial cells as well as the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in PD mice, showing that FMD also inhibited neuro-inflammation. 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing of fecal microbiota showed that FMD treatment modulated the shifts in gut microbiota composition, including higher abundance of Firmicutes, Tenericutes, and Opisthokonta and lower abundance of Proteobacteria at the phylum level in PD mice. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that FMD modulated the MPTP-induced lower propionic acid and isobutyric acid, and higher butyric acid and valeric acid and other metabolites. Transplantation of fecal microbiota, from normal mice with FMD treatment to antibiotic-pretreated PD mice increased dopamine levels in the recipient PD mice, suggesting that gut microbiota contributed to the neuroprotection of FMD for PD. These findings demonstrate that FMD can be a new means of preventing and treating PD through promoting a favorable gut microbiota composition and metabolites.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Abu-Sbeih H, Ali FS, Y Wang (2019)

Clinical Review on the Utility of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Immunocompromised Patients.

Current gastroenterology reports, 21(4):8 pii:10.1007/s11894-019-0677-6.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a promising management modality for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). In immunocompromised patients, FMT is utilized for CDI as well as emerging non-CDI indications such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft versus host disease. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to shed light on the safety and efficacy of FMT in immunocompromised patients, including patients suffering for human immunodeficiency virus infection, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, cancer patients, and patients on immunosuppressive therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Though the body of evidence concerning the use of FMT in immunocompromised is growing, no clinical trials exist to date. Present literature weighs in favor of FMT in immunocompromised patients, with an acceptable adverse effect profile and minimal risk of infectious adverse events. Further large scale studies and randomized controlled trials to validate the utility of FMT in immunocompromised individuals will be a welcomed endeavor.

RevDate: 2019-02-27

Ohkusa T, Koido S, Nishikawa Y, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiota and Chronic Constipation: A Review and Update.

Frontiers in medicine, 6:19.

Background: Chronic constipation, including functional constipation and constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome, is a prevalent, multifactorial gastrointestinal disorder, and its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Recently studies using 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling have demonstrated dysbiosis of gut microbiota in chronic constipation. Aims: To provide an overview of recent studies for microbiota in chronic constipation and treatments for chronic constipation using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Methods: PubMed searches were performed up to 1 August 2018 using keywords: "IBS," "IBS-C," "irritable bowel syndrome," "irritable bowel syndrome with constipation," "functional constipation," "chronic constipation" in combination with "gut microbiota," "dysbiosis," "gut microflora" for microbiota in chronic constipation, and in combination with "probiotics," "prebiotics," "synbiotics," "antibiotics," and "fecal microbiota transplantation." Results: The findings of gut microbiota in functional constipation are inconsistent, and currently no consensus exists. Although no clear consensus exists, compared with healthy subjects, IBS-C patients have a lower level of Actinobacteria, including Bifidobacteria, in their fecal samples and a higher level of Bacteroidetes in their mucosa. In most randomized controlled and parallel-group trials, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and FMT therapy for chronic constipation were effective with few side effects. However, there are many studies in a small number and the types of probiotics are different, it is difficult to evaluate the effect. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to functional constipation and constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome. Targeting treatments for the dysbiosis of constipation by probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and FMT may be a new option, especially for refractory constipation to conventional therapies.

RevDate: 2019-02-27

Li Y, Zou Z, Bian X, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation research output from 2004 to 2017: a bibliometric analysis.

PeerJ, 7:e6411 pii:6411.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the therapy has gained prominence, there has been no bibliometric analysis of FMT.

Methods: Studies published from 2004 to 2017 were extracted from the Science Citation Index Expanded. Bibliometric analysis was used to evaluate the number or cooperation network of publications, countries, citations, references, journals, authors, institutions and keywords.

Results: A total of 796 items were included, showing an increasing trend annually. Publications mainly came from 10 countries, led by the US (n = 363). In the top 100 articles ranked by the number of citations (range 47-1,158), American Journal of Gastroenterology (2017 IF = 10.231) took the top spot. The co-citation network had 7 co-citation clusters headed by 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection'. The top 7 keywords with the strongest citation bursts had three parts, 'microbiota', ' diarrhea ', and 'case series'. All keywords were divided into four domains, 'disease', 'nosogenesis', 'trial', and 'therapy'.

Conclusions: This study shows the research performance of FMT from 2004 to 2017 and helps investigators master the trend of FMT, which is also an ongoing hotspot of research.

RevDate: 2019-02-27
CmpDate: 2019-02-27

Kragsnaes MS, Kjeldsen J, Horn HC, et al (2018)

Efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with psoriatic arthritis: protocol for a 6-month, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

BMJ open, 8(4):e019231.

INTRODUCTION: An unbalanced intestinal microbiota may mediate activation of the inflammatory pathways seen in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A randomised, placebo-controlled trial of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) infused into the small intestine of patients with PsA with active peripheral disease who are non-responsive to methotrexate (MTX) treatment will be conducted. The objective is to explore clinical aspects associated with FMT performed in patients with PsA.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This trial is a randomised, two-centre stratified, double-blind (patient, care provider and outcome assessor), placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Eighty patients will be included and randomised (1:1) to either placebo (saline) or FMT provided from an anonymous healthy donor. Throughout the study, both groups will continue the weekly self-administered subcutaneous MTX treatment, remaining on the preinclusion dosage (15-25 mg/week). The clinical measures of psoriasis and PsA disease activity used include the Short (2-page) Health Assessment Questionnaire, the Dermatology Quality of Life Index, the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Enthesitis Index, the Psoriasis Area Severity Index, a dactylitis digit count, a swollen/tender joint count (66/68), plasma C reactive protein as well as visual analogue scales for pain, fatigue and patient and physician global assessments. The primary end point is the proportion of patients who experience treatment failure during the 6-month trial period. The number of adverse events will be registered throughout the study.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a proof-of-concept clinical trial and will be performed in agreement with Good Clinical Practice standards. Approvals have been obtained from the local Ethics Committee (DK-S-20150080) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (15/41684). The study has commenced in May 2017. Dissemination will be through presentations at national and international conferences and through publications in international peer-reviewed journal(s).

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03058900; Pre-results.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Sougiannis AT, VanderVeen BN, Enos RT, et al (2019)

Impact of 5 Fluorouracil Chemotherapy on Gut Inflammation, Functional Parameters, and Gut Microbiota.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(18)31227-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota may influence the response to chemotherapy. We sought to characterize the effects of 5 fluorouracil (5FU) chemotherapy on colon inflammation and functional measures in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to further determine whether gut microbiota can influence this response. 50 C57BL/6 were randomized into four groups; Control + Vehicle (n=10), Control + 5FU (n=10), AOM/DSS + Vehicle (n=15), and AOM/DSS + 5FU (n=15). CRC was induced chemically by a single 10 mg/kg injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by two cycles (2% and 1%) of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were then treated with 3 cycles of vehicle or 5FU (cycle 1: 40 mg/kg, cycle 2+3: 20 mg/kg). Functional tests (grip strength and run-to-fatigue) were performed prior to 5FU treatment (baseline) and at the completion of the second cycle of 5FU. Following the third 5FU cycle, mice were euthanized and the colon was evaluated for expression of inflammatory genes using RT-qPCR and stool samples were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing. A second experiment used fecal microbiota transplantation from 5FU treated mice to control mice (n=10-15/group) to determine whether 5FU associated changes in the microbiota could influence functional measures and colon inflammation. 5FU reduced grip strength (p<0.05) and caused a trending decrease in run-to-fatigue performance in cancer mice (p=0.06). Select intestinal inflammatory genes were significantly elevated with 5FU treatment and this was further exacerbated with cancer (p<0.05). Microbiota analysis revealed increased dissimilarity and alterations in bacterial taxonomy in 5FU and AOM/DSS-treated mice (p<0.05). Fecal transplant from 5FU treated mice reduced functional performance (p<0.05) and altered select colon inflammatory markers (p<0.05). This study provides evidence of an effect of 5FU on inflammatory responses and functional measures in a mouse model of CRC and suggests that gut microbes may play a role in some, but not all, 5FU related perturbations.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Cheung SG, Goldenthal AR, Uhlemann AC, et al (2019)

Systematic Review of Gut Microbiota and Major Depression.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 10:34.

Background: Recently discovered relationships between the gastrointestinal microbiome and the brain have implications for psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Bacterial transplantation from MDD patients to rodents produces depression-like behaviors. In humans, case-control studies have examined the gut microbiome in healthy and affected individuals. We systematically reviewed existing studies comparing gut microbial composition in MDD and healthy volunteers. Methods: A PubMed literature search combined the terms "depression," "depressive disorder," "stool," "fecal," "gut," and "microbiome" to identify human case-control studies that investigated relationships between MDD and microbiota quantified from stool. We evaluated the resulting studies, focusing on bacterial taxa that were different between MDD and healthy controls. Results: Six eligible studies were found in which 50 taxa exhibited differences (p < 0.05) between patients with MDD and controls. Patient characteristics and methodologies varied widely between studies. Five phyla-Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Protobacteria-were represented; however, divergent results occurred across studies for all phyla. The largest number of differentiating taxa were within phylum Firmicutes, in which nine families and 12 genera differentiated the diagnostic groups. The majority of these families and genera were found to be statistically different between the two groups in two identified studies. Family Lachnospiraceae differentiated the diagnostic groups in four studies (with an even split in directionality). Across all five phyla, nine genera were higher in MDD (Anaerostipes, Blautia, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Parabacteroides, Parasutterella, Phascolarctobacterium, and Streptococcus), six were lower (Bifidobacterium, Dialister, Escherichia/Shigella, Faecalibacterium, and Ruminococcus), and six were divergent (Alistipes, Bacteroides, Megamonas, Oscillibacter, Prevotella, and Roseburia). We highlight mechanisms and products of bacterial metabolism as they may relate to the etiology of depression. Conclusions: No consensus has emerged from existing human studies of depression and gut microbiome concerning which bacterial taxa are most relevant to depression. This may in part be due to differences in study design. Given that bacterial functions are conserved across taxonomic groups, we propose that studying microbial functioning may be more productive than a purely taxonomic approach to understanding the gut microbiome in depression.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Mo R, Ren RR, Zhang XW, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a Meta-analysis].

Zhonghua nei ke za zhi, 58(3):202-208.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in this Meta-analysis. Methods: Literature related to FMT for the treatment of UC from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data were searched and screened with update study in May 2018. Two independent investigators extracted information according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Meta-analysis was conducted by Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 19 non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) including 536 participants met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed that FMT significantly increased the clinical remission rate (OR=2.47, 95%CI 1.40-4.33, P=0.02) and clinical response rate (OR=1.86, 95%CI 1.15-3.02, P=0.01) in UC patients without increasing the incidence of severe adverse effects (OR=1.40, 95%CI 0.51-3.79, P=0.51). The results from 19 non-RCTs showed that clinical remission rate in UC patients with FMT treatment was 20%(95%CI 13%-28%) and the clinical response rate was 50%(95%CI 36%-65%). All adverse events were graded as mild and self-resolving. No FMT-related severe adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that FMT is a safe and effective method for the treatment of UC. Considering several limitations of this Meta-analysis and previous clinical trials, further large-scale multicenter RCTs are still required to further verify the conclusion.

RevDate: 2019-02-25
CmpDate: 2019-02-25

Mushtaq A (2018)

New clinical recommendations for Clostridium difficile.

The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 18(4):384.

RevDate: 2019-02-23

Papanicolas LE, Choo JM, Wang Y, et al (2019)

Bacterial viability in faecal transplants: Which bacteria survive?.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(19)30095-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic potential of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is under investigation for a range of inflammatory conditions. While mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood, most models rely on the viability of transplanted microbes. We hypothesised that protocols commonly used in the preparation of faecal transplants will substantially reduce the number, diversity and functional potential of viable microbes.

METHODS: Stools from eight screened donors were processed under strict anaerobic conditions, in ambient air, and freeze-thawed. Propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment was combined with quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) analysis to define the viable microbiota composition and functional potential.

FINDINGS: Approximately 50% of bacterial content of stool processed immediately under strict anaerobic conditions was non-viable. Homogenisation in ambient air or freeze-thaw reduced viability to 19% and 23% respectively. Processing of samples in ambient air resulted in up to 12-fold reductions in the abundance of important commensal taxa, including the highly butyrogenic species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Subdoligranulum variable, and Eubacterium hallii. The adverse impact of atmospheric oxygen exposure on the capacity of the transplanted microbiota to support SCFA biosynthesis was demonstrated by significantly reduced butyrate and acetate production by faecal slurries processed in ambient air. In contrast, while reducing overall levels of viable bacteria, freeze-thaw did not significantly alter viable microbiota composition.

INTERPRETATION: The practice of preparing material for faecal transplantation in ambient air profoundly affects viable microbial content, disproportionately reducing the abundance of anaerobic commensals and the capacity for biosynthesis of important anti-inflammatory metabolites. FUND: This work was supported by the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. LP is supported by a scholarship from the Flinders Foundation. GR is supported by a Matthew Flinders Research Fellowship.

RevDate: 2019-02-22

Shin W, Wu A, Massidda MW, et al (2019)

A Robust Longitudinal Co-culture of Obligate Anaerobic Gut Microbiome With Human Intestinal Epithelium in an Anoxic-Oxic Interface-on-a-Chip.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 7:13.

The majority of human gut microbiome is comprised of obligate anaerobic bacteria that exert essential metabolic functions in the human colon. These anaerobic gut bacteria constantly crosstalk with the colonic epithelium in a mucosal anoxic-oxic interface (AOI). However, in vitro recreation of the metabolically mismatched colonic AOI has been technically challenging. Furthermore, stable co-culture of the obligate anaerobic commensal microbiome and epithelial cells in a mechanically dynamic condition is essential for demonstrating the host-gut microbiome crosstalk. Here, we developed an anoxic-oxic interface-on-a-chip (AOI Chip) by leveraging a modified human gut-on-a-chip to demonstrate a controlled oxygen gradient in the lumen-capillary transepithelial interface by flowing anoxic and oxic culture medium at various physiological milieus. Computational simulation and experimental results revealed that the presence of the epithelial cell layer and the flow-dependent conditioning in the lumen microchannel is necessary and sufficient to create the steady-state vertical oxygen gradient in the AOI Chip. We confirmed that the created AOI does not compromise the viability, barrier function, mucin production, and the expression and localization of tight junction proteins in the 3D intestinal epithelial layer. Two obligate anaerobic commensal gut microbiome, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Eubacterium hallii, that exert metabolic cross-feeding in vivo, were independently co-cultured with epithelial cells in the AOI Chip for up to a week without compromising any cell viability. Our new protocol for creating an AOI in a microfluidic gut-on-a-chip may enable to demonstrate the key physiological interactions of obligate anaerobic gut microbiome with the host cells associated with intestinal metabolism, homeostasis, and immune regulation.

RevDate: 2019-02-22

Suk KT, DJ Kim (2019)

Gut microbiota: novel therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, 13(3):193-204.

INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common and increasing liver diseases worldwide with a prevalence of 20-33%. NAFLD may progress to fibrosis, compensated cirrhosis, advanced cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, definitive medical treatment has not been established, with the exception of lifestyle modification with exercise. Because of the direct connection via portal vein between the intestines and the liver (gut-gut microbiota-liver axis), gut microbiota and associated dysbiosis have been known as regulators in the pathophysiology of NAFLD. Area covered: New therapeutic approaches for modulation of gut microbiota have been proposed and the effectiveness of new therapies including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, bile acid regulation, absorbent, and fecal microbiota transplantation have been demonstrated in recent several studies. This review focuses on the available evidences for new therapies modulating gut microbiota in the management and the prevention of NAFLD. Expert commentary: Gut-gut microbiota-liver axis may play an important role in the etiology of many liver diseases, including NAFLD. It is logical to seek the manipulation of this axis, and further studies are required to understand the underlying precise mechanisms of microbiota-modulation on NAFLD.

RevDate: 2019-02-21
CmpDate: 2019-02-21

Coryell M, McAlpine M, Pinkham NV, et al (2018)

The gut microbiome is required for full protection against acute arsenic toxicity in mouse models.

Nature communications, 9(1):5424 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-07803-9.

Arsenic poisons an estimated 200 million people worldwide through contaminated food and drinking water. Confusingly, the gut microbiome has been suggested to both mitigate and exacerbate arsenic toxicity. Here, we show that the microbiome protects mice from arsenic-induced mortality. Both antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice excrete less arsenic in stool and accumulate more arsenic in organs compared to control mice. Mice lacking the primary arsenic detoxification enzyme (As3mt) are hypersensitive to arsenic after antibiotic treatment or when derived germ-free, compared to wild-type and/or conventional counterparts. Human microbiome (stool) transplants protect germ-free As3mt-KO mice from arsenic-induced mortality, but protection depends on microbiome stability and the presence of specific bacteria, including Faecalibacterium. Our results demonstrate that both a functional As3mt and specific microbiome members are required for protection against acute arsenic toxicity in mouse models. We anticipate that the gut microbiome will become an important explanatory factor of disease (arsenicosis) penetrance in humans, and a novel target for prevention and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Khan N, Mendonca L, Dhariwal A, et al (2019)

Intestinal dysbiosis compromises alveolar macrophage immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mucosal immunology pii:10.1038/s41385-019-0147-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are effective in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, yet have significant side effects and do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, it is critical to understand why our host defense system is unable to generate permanent immunity to Mtb despite prolonged anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Here, we demonstrate that treatment of mice with the most widely used anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RIF) or isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PYZ), significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiota. Unexpectedly, treatment of mice with the pro-Mtb drugs INH and PYZ, but not RIF, prior to Mtb infection resulted in an increased bacterial burden, an effect that was reversible by fecal transplantation from untreated animals. Mechanistically, susceptibility of INH/PYZ-treated mice was associated with impaired metabolism of alveolar macrophages and defective bactericidal activity. Collectively, these data indicate that dysbiosis induced by ATT administered to millions of individuals worldwide may have adverse effects on the anti-Mtb response of alveolar macrophages.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Cai T, Shi X, Yuan LZ, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in an elderly patient with mental depression.

International psychogeriatrics pii:S1041610219000115 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-02-19

Allegretti JR, Fischer M, Sagi SV, et al (2019)

Correction to: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Capsules with Targeted Colonic Versus Gastric Delivery in Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comparative Cohort Analysis of High and Low Dose.

The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error in article title. The corrected title is 'Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Capsules with Targeted Colonic Versus Gastric Delivery in Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comparative Cohort Analysis of High and Low Dose'.

RevDate: 2019-02-19
CmpDate: 2019-02-18

Hochman J (2018)

Immunoassay helps limit overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

The Journal of pediatrics, 199:283.

RevDate: 2019-02-14

Gogokhia L, Buhrke K, Bell R, et al (2019)

Expansion of Bacteriophages Is Linked to Aggravated Intestinal Inflammation and Colitis.

Cell host & microbe, 25(2):285-299.e8.

Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the microbiota and have the potential to shape gut bacterial communities. Changes to bacteriophage composition are associated with disease, but how phages impact mammalian health remains unclear. We noted an induction of host immunity when experimentally treating bacterially driven cancer, leading us to test whether bacteriophages alter immune responses. Treating germ-free mice with bacteriophages leads to immune cell expansion in the gut. Lactobacillus, Escherichia, and Bacteroides bacteriophages and phage DNA stimulated IFN-γ via the nucleotide-sensing receptor TLR9. The resultant immune responses were both phage and bacteria specific. Additionally, increasing bacteriophage levels exacerbated colitis via TLR9 and IFN-γ. Similarly, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients responsive to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have reduced phages compared to non-responders, and mucosal IFN-γ positively correlates with bacteriophage levels. Bacteriophages from active UC patients induced more IFN-γ compared to healthy individuals. Collectively, these results indicate that bacteriophages can alter mucosal immunity to impact mammalian health.

RevDate: 2019-02-14

Li X, Song L, Zhu S, et al (2019)

Two Strains of Lactobacilli Effectively Decrease the Colonization of VRE in a Mouse Model.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:6.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection is a serious challenge for clinical management and there is no effective treatment at present. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotic intervention have been shown to be promising approaches for reducing the colonization of certain pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, however, no such studies have been done on VRE. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FMT and two Lactobacillus strains (Y74 and HT121) on the colonization of VRE in a VRE-infection mouse model. We found that both Lactobacilli strains reduced VRE colonization rapidly. Fecal microbiota and colon mRNA expression analyses further showed that mice in FMT and the two Lactobacilli treatment groups restored their intestinal microbiota diversity faster than those in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) treated group. Administration of Lactobacilli restored Firmicutes more quickly to the normal level, compared to FMT or PBS treatment, but restored Bacteroides to their normal level less quickly than FMT did. Furthermore, these treatments also had an impact on the relative abundance of intestinal microbiota composition from phylum to species level. RNA-seq showed that FMT treatment induced the expression of more genes in the colon, compared to the Lactobacilli treatment. Defense-related genes such as defensin α, Apoa1, and RegIII were down-regulated in both FMT and the two Lactobacilli treatment groups. Taken together, our findings indicate that both FMT and Lactobacilli treatments were effective in decreasing the colonization of VRE in the gut.

RevDate: 2019-02-14

Heimesaat MM, Escher U, Grunau A, et al (2019)

Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Accelerate Intestinal, Extra-Intestinal, and Systemic Inflammatory Responses in Human Microbiota-Associated Mice With Subacute Ileitis.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:49.

The globally rising incidences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) in humans and live-stock animals has prompted the World Health Organization to rate MDR Psae as serious threat for human health. Only little is known, however, regarding factors facilitating gastrointestinal Psae-acquisition by the vertebrate host and subsequently induced inflammatory sequelae. In the present study, we addressed whether subacute ileitis predisposed mice harboring a human gut microbiota for intestinal MDR Psae carriage and whether inflammatory responses might be induced following peroral challenge with the opportunistic pathogen. To accomplish this, secondary abiotic mice were associated with a human gut microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation. Ten days later (i.e., on day 0), subacute ileitis was induced in human microbiota associated (hma) mice by peroral low-dose Toxoplasma gondii infection. On day 5 post-infection, mice were perorally challenged with 109 colony forming units of a clinical MDR Psae isolate by gavage and the fecal bacterial loads surveyed thereafter. Four days post-peroral challenge, only approximately one third of mice with a human gut microbiota and subacute ileitis harbored the opportunistic pathogen in the intestinal tract. Notably, the gut microbiota composition was virtually unaffected by the Psae-carriage status during subacute ileitis of hma mice. The Psae challenge resulted, however, in more pronounced intestinal epithelial apoptotic cell and T lymphocyte responses upon ileitis induction that were not restricted to the ileum, but also affected the large intestines. Higher Psae-induced abundances of T cells could additionally be observed in extra-intestinal compartments including liver, kidney, lung, and heart of hma mice with subacute ileitis. Furthermore, higher apoptotic cell numbers, but lower anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentrations were assessed in the liver of Psae as compared to mock treated mice with ileitis. Remarkably, Psae-challenge was accompanied by even more pronounced systemic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6 at day 9 post ileitis induction. In conclusion, whereas in one third of hma mice with subacute ileitis Psae could be isolated from the intestines upon peroral challenge, the opportunistic pathogen was responsible for inflammatory sequelae in intestinal, extra-intestinal, and even systemic compartments and thus worsened subacute ileitis outcome irrespective of the Psae-carrier status.

RevDate: 2019-02-10

Qi L, F Li (2019)

[Current Advances in the Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Application in the Hematologic Diseases--Review].

Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi, 27(1):306-310.

Intestinal microbiome closely relates with human health and disease, which plays a critical role in the immune response, homeostasis, drug metabolism and tumorigenesis. Imbalances in the composition and function of these intestinal microbes associate with diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series. The literature on the use of FMT for hematologic diseases is very limited, however, immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP), CDI and aGVHD after HSCT were reported to be improved by FMT. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the research current state, procedures and clinical application of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-02-08

Battipaglia G, Malard F, Rubio MT, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation before or after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies carrying multidrug-resistance bacteria.

Haematologica pii:haematol.2018.198549 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Promising results to eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria have also been reported with this procedure, but there are safety concerns in immunocompromised patients. We report results in 10 adult patients colonized with multidrug-resistant bacteria, undergoing fecal microbiota transplantation before (n=4) or after (n=6) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Stools were obtained from healthy related or unrelated donors. Fecal material was delivered either by enema or via nasogastric tube. Patients were colonized or had infections from either carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n=8) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (n=2). The median age at fecal microbiota transplantation was 48 (range 16-64) years. Three patients needed a second transplant from the same donor, due to initial failure of the procedure. With a median follow-up of 13 (range 4-40) months, decolonization was achieved in seven out of ten patients. In all patients, fecal microbiota transplantation was safe: one patient presented with constipation during the first 5 days after FMT and 2 patients had grade I diarrhea. One case of gut grade III acute graft-versus-host disease occurred after fecal microbiota transplantation. In patients carrying or infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria, fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective and safe decolonization strategy, even in those with hematologic malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Bekker V, Zwittink RD, Knetsch CW, et al (2019)

Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Children Receiving Selective or Total Gut Decontamination Treatment During Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation pii:S1083-8791(19)30095-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Bloodstream infections and Graft-versus-Host disease (GvHD) are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota which acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, since studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remain subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these to the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single-center study, fecal samples were longitudinally collected from nineteen children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD n=12, SGD n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from three family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, while it showed high inter- and intra-individual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children, TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving a stem cell transplant did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Allegretti JR, Kassam Z, Carrellas M, et al (2019)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Pilot Clinical Trial.

The American journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease with no effective medical therapies. A perturbation of the gut microbiota has been described in association with PSC, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported to restore the microbiome in other disease states. Accordingly, we aimed at evaluating the safety, change in liver enzymes, microbiota, and metabolomic profiles in patients with PSC after FMT.

METHODS: An open-label pilot study of patients with PSC with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) > 1.5× the upper limit of normal was conducted. The patients underwent a single FMT by colonoscopy. Liver enzyme profiles and stool microbiome and metabolomic analysis were conducted at baseline and weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 post-FMT. The primary outcome was safety, and the secondary outcome was a decrease in ALP levels ≥50% from baseline by week 24 post-FMT; stool microbiota (by 16S rRNA gene profiling) and metabonomic dynamics were assessed.

RESULTS: Ten patients underwent FMT. Nine patients had ulcerative colitis, and 1 had Crohn's colitis. The mean baseline ALP level was 489 U/L. There were no related adverse events. Overall, 30% (3/10) experienced a ≥50% decrease in ALP levels. The diversity increased in all patients post-FMT, as early as week 1 (P < 0.01). Importantly, abundance of engrafter operational taxonomic units in patients post-FMT correlated with decreased ALP levels (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that FMT in PSC is safe. In addition, increases in bacterial diversity and engraftment may correlate with an improvement in ALP among patients with PSC.

RevDate: 2019-02-06

Cruz R, Monrroy H, Flandez J, et al (2018)

[Practical clues for a fecal microbiota transplantation by colonoscopy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Experience in a University center].

Revista chilena de infectologia : organo oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia, 35(5):566-573.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy in recurrent Clostridium difficile. The best route to administrate the fecal matter has not been established yet. However, the lower gastrointestinal route by colonoscopy is effective and safe, presenting a higher acceptance by patients. In addition, this route allows an evaluation of colonic mucosa seeking for differential diagnostics. We present a case series of FMT performed in our institution by colonoscopy, highlighting outcomes and practical aspects for its implementation.

RevDate: 2019-02-10

Cuevas-Sierra A, Ramos-Lopez O, Riezu-Boj JI, et al (2019)

Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Obesity: Links with Host Genetics and Epigenetics and Potential Applications.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 10(suppl_1):S17-S30.

Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features. Moreover, microbial metabolites can induce epigenetic modifications (i.e., changes in DNA methylation and micro-RNA expression), with potential implications for health status and susceptibility to obesity. Also, microbial products, such as short-chain fatty acids or membrane proteins, may affect host metabolism by regulating appetite, lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, inflammation, and other functions. Metabolomic approaches are being used to identify new postbiotics with biological activity in the host, allowing discovery of new targets and tools for incorporation into personalized therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relations between the human gut microbiota and the onset and development of obesity. These scientific insights are paving the way to understanding the complex relation between obesity and microbiota. Among novel approaches, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiome transplantation could be useful to restore gut dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Wilson BC, Vatanen T, Cutfield WS, et al (2019)

The Super-Donor Phenomenon in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:2.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a highly effective bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Meanwhile the efficacy of FMT for treating chronic diseases associated with microbial dysbiosis has so far been modest with a much higher variability in patient response. Notably, a number of studies suggest that FMT success is dependent on the microbial diversity and composition of the stool donor, leading to the proposition of the existence of FMT super-donors. The identification and subsequent characterization of super-donor gut microbiomes will inevitably advance our understanding of the microbial component of chronic diseases and allow for more targeted bacteriotherapy approaches in the future. Here, we review the evidence for super-donors in FMT and explore the concept of keystone species as predictors of FMT success. Possible effects of host-genetics and diet on FMT engraftment and maintenance are also considered. Finally, we discuss the potential long-term applicability of FMT for chronic disease and highlight how super-donors could provide the basis for dysbiosis-matched FMTs.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Harsch IA, PC Konturek (2019)

Adhesion Ileus after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Long-Standing Radiation Colitis.

Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine, 2019:2543808.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel strategy for the therapy of dysbiosis-associated disorders via modulation of the gut microbiota. Intestinal dysbiosis is associated not only with digestive disorders, but also with a variety of extra-digestive disorders. A worldwide increasing number of FMT can be expected in the future as well as an increase in adverse events. We describe the case of a patient with chronic radiation colitis that developed adhesion ileus 2 days after FMT. Since these problems never occured before and the short time interval favours a causality, we speculate about FMT-induced alterations in gut motility causing a "trapping" of the small intestine in an adhesion and other mechanisms beyond "pure" coincidence.

RevDate: 2019-02-02

Evrensel A, Önen Ünsalver B, ME Ceylan (2019)

Therapeutic Potential of the Microbiome in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Medical sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 7(2): pii:medsci7020021.

The search for rational treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in 1951 and continues to evolve. Day by day, new details of the intestinal microbiota⁻brain axis are coming to light. As the role of microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders is more clearly understood, microbiota-based (or as we propose, "fecomodulation") treatment options are increasingly discussed in the context of treatment. Although their history dates back to ancient times, the importance of psychobiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has only recently been recognized. Despite there being few preclinical and clinical studies, the evidence gathered to this point suggests that consideration of the microbiome in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders represents an area of significant therapeutic potential. It is increasingly hoped that such treatment options will be more reliable in terms of their side effects, cost, and ease of implementation. However, there remains much to be researched. Questions will be answered through germ-free animal experiments and randomized controlled trials. In this article, the therapeutic potential of microbiota-based options in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed in light of recent research.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Yang C, Fang X, Zhan G, et al (2019)

Key role of gut microbiota in anhedonia-like phenotype in rodents with neuropathic pain.

Translational psychiatry, 9(1):57 pii:10.1038/s41398-019-0379-8.

Patients with chronic neuropathic pain frequently suffer from symptoms of anhedonia, which is a core symptom of depression. Accumulating studies suggest that gut microbiota may play a role in depression via gut-microbiota-brain axis. However, it is unknown whether gut microbiota plays a role in neuropathic pain-associated anhedonia. Here, we used a rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI). Hierarchical cluster analysis of sucrose preference test (SPT) results was used to classify the SNI rats with or without anhedonia-like phenotype. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis showed abnormal composition of gut microbiota in the anhedonia susceptible compared to sham-operated rats and resilient rats. Furthermore, antibiotics-treated mice showed pain as well as depression-like and anhedonia-like phenotypes, suggesting a role of gut microbiota in these abnormal behaviors. Transplantation of fecal microbiota from anhedonia susceptible rats into antibiotics-treated pseudo-germ-free mice significantly exaggerated pain and depression-like phenotypes, including anhedonia. In contrast, transplantation of fecal microbiota from resilient rats into antibiotics-treated pseudo-germ-free mice significantly improved pain and depression-like phenotypes, including anhedonia. In conclusion, this study suggests that abnormal composition of gut microbiota may contribute to anhedonia susceptibility post SNI surgery, and that gut microbiota also plays a role in the pain as well as depression-like phenotypes. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation from SNI rats with or without anhedonia can alter pain, depression-like and anhedonia-like phenotypes in the pseudo-germ-free mice. Therefore, it is likely that gut microbiota plays a key role in the pain as well as depression-like phenotypes including anhedonia in rodents with neuropathic pain.

RevDate: 2019-02-01

Sun SS, Wang K, Ma K, et al (2019)

An insoluble polysaccharide from the sclerotium of Poria cocos improves hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice via modulation of gut microbiota.

Chinese journal of natural medicines, 17(1):3-14.

Metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis is becoming prevalent all over the world. Herein, a water insoluble polysaccharide (WIP) was isolated and identified from the sclerotium of Poria cocos, a widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. WIP was confirmed to be a (1-3)-β-D-glucan with an average Mw of 4.486 × 106 Da by NMR and SEC-RI-MALLS analyses. Furthermore, oral treatment with WIP from P. cocos significantly improved glucose and lipid metabolism and alleviated hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. 16S DNA sequencing analysis of cecum content from WIP-treated mice indicated the increase of butyrate-producing bacteria Lachnospiracea, Clostridium. It was also observed that WIP treatment elevated the level of butyrate in gut, improved the gut mucosal integrity and activated the intestinal PPAR-γ pathway. Fecal transplantation experiments definitely confirmed the causative role of gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of WIP. It is the first report that the water insoluble polysaccharide from the sclerotium of P. cocos modulates gut microbiota to improve hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Thereby, WIP from P. cocos, as a prebiotic, has the potential for the prevention or cure of metabolic diseases and may elucidate new mechanism for the efficacies of this traditional herbal medicine on the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism.

RevDate: 2019-01-31

Marchukov D, B Misselwitz (2019)

[Insights into the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Genetics and Microbiota].

Therapeutische Umschau. Revue therapeutique, 75(5):273-279.

Insights into the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Genetics and Microbiota Abstract. An inadequate immune response against bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract is the basic mechanism mediating the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The risk of IBD is partially heritable and approximately 12 % of patients have a family history of IBD. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were able to identify 240 genetic regions associated with IBD. Many of the implicated genes have a function in the immune system, are associated with primary immunodeficiencies or the defense against mycobacteria. Together these 240 genetic regions form an excellent framework for further investigations into the pathogenesis and therapy of IBD. However, GWAS so far were able to unravel only a fraction of the genetic IBD risk. New strategies like genome wide sequencing are currently used to identify additional (rare) genetic variants. In rare cases, IBD is also inherited as a monogenetic disease. Moreover, there likely is significant interaction between genes and environmental factors which can only be unraveled if both, genes and the environment are simultaneously considered. Interestingly, the information provided by genetic risk factors for IBD is unable to predict the clinical course of IBD. New GWAS therefore focus on IBD prognosis and first insights have already been made. The gastrointestinal tract harbors a huge number of microorganisms (microbiota). It remains an enormous challenge for the immune system to contain this bacterial load while enabling the host to benefit from the many essential contributions of the microbiota. In IBD, the microbiota is altered to a dysfunctional (dysbiotic) state showing reduced diversity and a higher amount of potential pathogenic Proteobacteriae, such as Escherichia coli. In IBD, the microbiota is also more dynamic in its composition over time compared to health. Further, IBD dysbiosis is more pronounced in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis. In animal experiments, dysbiosis could be transferred by fecal microbiota transplantation from one mouse to another, triggering inflammation in the recipient. In contrast, a healthy microbiota can downregulate the immune response of the host, for instance by bacterial short chain fatty acids (SCFA) synthesis. In addition, some bacteria with close physical contact to the intestinal wall also have specific immunosuppressive properties. So far, the highly complex network of microbiota, genetics, immune system and environment is only partially understood. The microbiota is a potential therapeutic target which up to now can only be non-specifically influenced by antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. A better understanding of the microbiota will likely yield in the discovery of new therapeutic options in the future.

RevDate: 2019-02-01

Jianguo L, Xueyang J, Cui W, et al (2019)

Altered gut metabolome contributes to depression-like behaviors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

Translational psychiatry, 9(1):40 pii:10.1038/s41398-019-0391-z.

The gut microbiota has been increasingly correlated with depressive disorder. It was recently shown that the transplantation of the gut microbiota from depressed patients to animals can produce depressive-like behaviors, suggesting that the gut microbiota plays a causal role in the development of depression. In addition, metabolic disorder, which is strongly associated with depression, is exacerbated by changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and is alleviated by treatment with antidepressants. However, the key players and pathways that link the gut microbiota to the pathogenesis of depression remain largely unknown. To evaluate the relationships between depression and metabolic disorders in feces and plasma, we monitored changes in fecal and plasma metabolomes during the development of depressive-like behaviors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). In these animals, the fecal metabolome was altered first and subjected to changes in the plasma metabolome. Changes in the abundance of fecal metabolites were associated with depressive-like behaviors and with altered levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the analysis of the fecal metabolome and the fecal microbiota in CUMS rats demonstrated consistent changes in the levels of several amino acids, including L-threonine, isoleucine, alanine, serine, tyrosine, and oxidized proline. Finally, we observed significant correlations between these amino acids and the altered fecal microbiota. The results of this study suggest that changes in amino acid metabolism by the gut microbiota contribute to changes in circulating amino acids and are associated with the behavior indices of depression.

RevDate: 2019-02-01

Le Roy T, Debédat J, Marquet F, et al (2018)

Comparative Evaluation of Microbiota Engraftment Following Fecal Microbiota Transfer in Mice Models: Age, Kinetic and Microbial Status Matter.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3289.

The intestinal microbiota and its functions are intricately interwoven with host physiology. Colonizing rodents with donor microbiota provides insights into host-microbiota interactions characterization and the understanding of disease physiopathology. However, a better assessment of inoculation methods and recipient mouse models is needed. Here, we compare the engraftment at short and long term of genetically obese mice microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice and juvenile and adult specific pathogen free (SPF) mice. We also tested the effects of initial microbiota depletion before microbiota transfer. In the present work, donor microbiota engraftment was better in juvenile SPF mice than in adult SPF mice. In juvenile mice, initial microbiota depletion using laxatives or antibiotics improved donor microbiota engraftment 9 weeks but not 3 weeks after microbiota transfer. Microbiota-depleted juvenile mice performed better than GF mice 3 weeks after the microbiota transfer. However, 9 weeks after transfer, colonized GF mice microbiota had the lowest Unifrac distance to the donor microbiota. Colonized GF mice were also characterized by a chronic alteration in intestinal absorptive function. With these collective results, we show that the use of juvenile mice subjected to initial microbiota depletion constitutes a valid alternative to GF mice in microbiota transfer studies.

RevDate: 2019-01-28

Dinleyici M, Y Vandenplas (2019)

Clostridium difficile Colitis Prevention and Treatment.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. This spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus is becoming responsible for an increasing number of infections worldwide, both in community and in hospital settings, whose severity can vary widely from an asymptomatic infection to a lethal disease. While discontinuation of antimicrobial agents and antibiotic treatment of the infection remain the cornerstone of therapy, the use of probiotics, especially Saccharomyces boulardii, and more recently of fecal microbiota transplantation have become valid forms of prevention and/or therapy and are here critically examined.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Basso PJ, Câmara NOS, H Sales-Campos (2018)

Microbial-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease - An Overview of Human Studies.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 9:1571.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of multifactorial and inflammatory infirmities comprised of two main entities: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Classic strategies to treat IBD are focused on decreasing inflammation besides inducing and extending disease remission. However, these approaches have several limitations such as low responsiveness, excessive immunosuppression, and refractoriness. Despite the multifactorial causality of IBD, immune disturbances and intestinal dysbiosis have been suggested as the central players in disease pathogenesis. Hence, therapies aiming at modulating intestinal microbial composition may represent a promising strategy in IBD control. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotics have been explored as promising candidates to reestablish microbial balance in several immune-mediated diseases such as IBD. These microbial-based therapies have demonstrated the ability to reduce both the dysbiotic environment and production of inflammatory mediators, thus inducing remission, especially in UC. Despite these promising results, there is still no consensus on the relevance of such treatments in IBD as a potential clinical strategy. Thus, this review aims to critically review and describe the use of FMT and probiotics to treat patients with IBD.

RevDate: 2019-01-25

Fukuda T, Naganuma M, T Kanai (2019)

Current new challenges in the management of ulcerative colitis.

Intestinal research, 17(1):36-44.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the cause of UC is postulated to be multifactorial in nature, including genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulation of immune responses, and environmental factors, the specific pathogenesis of UC is still incompletely understood. In the treatment of UC so far, a method of suppressing immunity and treating it has been mainstream. Immunosuppressant drugs, including thiopurines (azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine), anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) antibody (infliximab and adalimumab), and calcineurin inhibitor, can be used in treat patients with corticosteroid-dependent and/or corticosteroid-refractory moderateto- severe UC. Recently, in addition to such a conventional therapeutic agent, golimumab, which is the first transgenic human monoclonal anti-TNF-α antibody to be fabricated, anti α-4/β-7 integrin antibody, and Janus kinase inhibitor have been reported to novel immunosuppressant therapy. Furthermore, other treatments with unique mechanisms different from immunosuppression, have also been suggested, including fecal microbiota transplantation and Indigo naturalis, which is a Chinese herbal medicine. We compared the features and efficacy of these new treatments. In this issue, the features and treatment options for these new treatments is reviewed.

RevDate: 2019-01-25

Cho YS (2019)

Multi-session fecal microbiota transplantation using colonoscopy has favorable outcomes for the treatment of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.

Intestinal research, 17(1):6-8.

RevDate: 2019-02-03

Hui W, Li T, Liu W, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection: An updated randomized controlled trial meta-analysis.

PloS one, 14(1):e0210016 pii:PONE-D-18-19847.

OBJECTIVES: Although systematic evaluation has confirmed the efficacy of fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treatment of recurrent and/or refractory and/or relapse C. difficile infection (RCDI), it lacks the support of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and the latest guidelines do not optimize the management of FMT. In this paper, we focus on an in-depth study of fresh FMT and fecal infusion times to guide clinical practice.

METHODS: We reviewed studies in PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and Cochrane Central written in English. The retrieval period was from the establishment of the databases to September 20th, 2018. The retrieval objects were published RCTs of RCDI treated by fresh FMT. The intervention group was fresh FMT group, while the control group included antibiotic therapy or placebo or frozen FMT or capsule. The primary and secondary outcomes were the clinical remission of diarrhea without relapse after 8-17 weeks and the occurrence of severe adverse events, respectively. Subgroup analysis analyzed the effect of single and multiple fecal infusions. Two authors independently completed the information extraction and assessed risk of bias and overall quality of the evidence.

RESULTS: 8 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 537 patients (273 in the fresh FMT group and 264 in the control group). The recurrence rate of clinical diarrhea in the fresh FMT group was 11.0% (30/273), which was significantly lower than the control group (24.6%, 65/264; P < 0.05); the pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.38 (95%CI:0.16-0.87; I2 = 67%; P = 0.02) in the fresh FMT group, and the clinical heterogeneity was significant and random effects model was used; However, there was no significant difference neither for the effect of antibiotic treatment/frozen feces transplanted by enema (RR = 1.07; 95%CI: 0.64-1.80; I2 = 0%; P = 0.79) or capsule/frozen feces transplanted by colonoscopy (RR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.05-3.94; I2 = 43%; P = 0.45) compared with fresh FMT. The subgroup analysis showed that FMT by multiple infusions could effectively and significantly (RR = 0.24; 95%CI:0.10-0.58; I2 = 0%; P = 0.001) improve the clinical diarrhea remission rate. Most mild to moderate adverse events caused by FMT were self-limited and could be quickly alleviated; no severe adverse events happened because of FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the use of fresh feces for bacterial transplantation was the best efficiency for RCDI compared to antibiotic therapy or placebo. The fecal transmission method by enema was not ideal, but capsules or frozen feces transported by colonoscopy could be an alternative treatment compared to fresh FMT. For patients with severe RCDI, multiple fecal transplants can effectively improve their diarrhea remission rate. The focus of future research should be on how to standardize the production of capsules or frozen feces to better guide the clinical management of RCDI patients by FMT.

RevDate: 2019-01-22

De Sire R, Talocco C, Petito V, et al (2018)

[Microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease: an update.].

Recenti progressi in medicina, 109(12):570-573.

Over the last few years, the gut microbiota has been the focus of countless studies conducted both on mouse models and human population, aimed at analyzing its functions and interactions with the host, including nutrition, metabolic homeostasis, protection from infections and development of systemic and mucosal immunity both in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as other intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. In IBD microbiota is impaired in overall composition and biodiversity, stability as well as functions. Microbial signature of IBD can be considered also a decrease in F. prausnitzii, increase of Proteonbacteria as well as the described increase of Candida albicans, Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio over Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of the Caudovirales over Microviridae. The indirect (through antibiotics, probiotics) and direct (through fecal microbiota transplantation) modulation of gut microbiota has relevant clinical implication in IBD management. In the near future role and clinical implication of gut microbiota characterization in the therapeutic personalized approach to IBD patients will eventually become clear.

RevDate: 2019-01-27

Contijoch EJ, Britton GJ, Yang C, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota density influences host physiology and is shaped by host and microbial factors.

eLife, 8: pii:40553.

To identify factors that regulate gut microbiota density and the impact of varied microbiota density on health, we assayed this fundamental ecosystem property in fecal samples across mammals, human disease, and therapeutic interventions. Physiologic features of the host (carrying capacity) and the fitness of the gut microbiota shape microbiota density. Therapeutic manipulation of microbiota density in mice altered host metabolic and immune homeostasis. In humans, gut microbiota density was reduced in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The gut microbiota in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection had lower density and reduced fitness that were restored by fecal microbiota transplantation. Understanding the interplay between microbiota and disease in terms of microbiota density, host carrying capacity, and microbiota fitness provide new insights into microbiome structure and microbiome targeted therapeutics.

Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).

RevDate: 2019-01-21

Bajaj JS, Fagan A, Gavis EA, et al (2019)

Long-term Outcomes after Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Cirrhosis.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(19)30093-9 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-01-21

Ihekweazu FD, Fofanova TY, Queliza K, et al (2019)

Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483 monotherapy is superior to traditional fecal transplant and multi-strain bacteriotherapy in a murine colitis model.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacteriotherapy aimed at addressing dysbiosis may be therapeutic for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). We sought to determine if defined Bacteroides-based bacteriotherapy could be an effective and consistent alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a murine model of IBD.

METHODS: We induced experimental colitis in 8- 12-week-old C57BL/6 mice using 2-3% dextran sodium sulfate. Mice were simultaneously treated by oral gavage with a triple-Bacteroides cocktail, individual Bacteroides strains, FMT using stool from healthy donor mice, or their own stool as a control. Survival, weight loss and markers of inflammation (histology, serum amyloid A, cytokine production) were correlated to 16S rRNA gene profiling of fecal and mucosal microbiomes.

RESULTS: Triple-Bacteroides combination therapy was more protective against weight loss and mortality than traditional FMT therapy. B. ovatus ATCC8483 was more effective than any individual strain, or a combination of strains, in preventing weight loss, decreasing histological damage, dampening inflammatory response, and stimulating epithelial recovery. Irrespective of the treatment group, overall Bacteroides abundance associated with treatment success and decreased cytokine production while the presence of Akkermansia correlated with treatment failure. However, the therapeutic benefit associated with high Bacteroides abundance was negated in the presence of Streptococcus.

CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroides ovatus monotherapy was more consistent and effective than traditional FMT at ameliorating colitis and stimulating epithelial recovery in a murine model of IBD. Given the tolerability of Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483 in an active, on-going human study, this therapy may be repurposed for the management of IBD in a clinically expedient timeline.

RevDate: 2019-01-23

Xiao J, Peng Z, Liao Y, et al (2018)

Organ transplantation and gut microbiota: current reviews and future challenges.

American journal of translational research, 10(11):3330-3344.

Organ transplantation is often the only effective treatment for patients with end-stage diseases, such as heart, liver, kidney and small bowel failure and is carried out frequently worldwide. Still the post-transplantation complications remain health- and life-threatening outcome that needed to be resolved. With the rapid development of molecular technologies in recent years, more and more researchers realize that the gut microbiota may play a critical role in human diseases. The intestinal microbiome has been proved to provide a lot of functions to the host, such as digesting food, modulating metabolism, promoting angiogenesis and regulating the immune system. Several studies have investigated the alteration of intestinal microbiota in post-transplantation patients and observed significant changes in the intestinal microbiome compared to the pre-transplant condition. Due to the abovementioned features that the gut microbiota may be used in the prognosis of clinical outcome of organ transplantation. In addition, the FMT (fecal microbiota transplantation), probiotics and prebiotics as the newest therapy methods, effectiveness of which has been verified in some diseases, such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease and other chronic disorders, might be used as the prognosis tool in organ transplantation as well. The purpose of this present review is to elucidate the relationship between gut microbiota and organ transplantation as well as the potential use of new therapies like fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotic and prebiotic administration after the transplantation, and provide some ideas for future researches in field of organ transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-01-20

Knox NC, Forbes JD, Van Domselaar G, et al (2019)

The Gut Microbiome as a Target for IBD Treatment: Are We There Yet?.

Current treatment options in gastroenterology pii:10.1007/s11938-019-00221-w [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to highlight recent research on the gut microbiome in IBD and the application of microbiome-modulating therapies for the treatment of IBD including the use of the microbiome as an indicator for disease severity and treatment response.

RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the high number of gut microbiome studies and emerging evidence supporting the gut microbiome's involvement in disease pathogenesis, no single microorganism has been identified as a pathogenic agent in IBD. Retrospective studies and meta-analyses on antibiotic use in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and long-term outcomes are conflicting. Similarly, the use of probiotics for the treatment of IBD remains inconclusive; however, some encouraging results are emerging as microbial concoctions are optimized to include beneficial bacterial strains. Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is currently emerging as one of the more promising microbiome-modulating IBD therapies. FMT studies in ulcerative colitis have shown improved remission rates compared to placebo; however, relatively small study sample sizes and varied treatment methods, limit definitive conclusions. With clear evidence of an IBD gut dysbiosis, novel therapies to treat and prevent disease relapse will undoubtedly require a microbiome-modulating approach. The complexity and variability of IBD disease pathogenesis (disease phenotype, gut microbiome, host genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors) will likely require a personalized and multidimensional treatment approach where microbiome-modulating therapy is coupled with other therapies to target other IBD disease components.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Milosevic I, Vujovic A, Barac A, et al (2019)

Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(2): pii:ijms20020395.

The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called "the new virtual metabolic organ", makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as kidneys, brain, cardiovascular, and the bone system. The gut-liver axis has attracted greater attention in recent years. GM communication is bi-directional and involves endocrine and immunological mechanisms. In this way, gut-dysbiosis and composition of "ancient" microbiota could be linked to pathogenesis of numerous chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), development of liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this paper, we discuss the current evidence supporting a GM role in the management of different chronic liver diseases and potential new therapeutic GM targets, like fecal transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics. We conclude that population-level shifts in GM could play a regulatory role in the gut-liver axis and, consequently, etiopathogenesis of chronic liver diseases. This could have a positive impact on future therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2019-02-03

Markowski MC, Boorjian SA, Burton JP, et al (2019)

The Microbiome and Genitourinary Cancer: A Collaborative Review.

European urology pii:S0302-2838(18)31051-0 [Epub ahead of print].

CONTEXT: The recent discovery of the existence of a human genitourinary microbiome has led to the investigation of its role in mediating the pathogenesis of genitourinary malignancies, including bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers. Furthermore, although it is largely recognized that members of the gastrointestinal microbiota are actively involved in drug metabolism, new studies demonstrate additional roles and the potential necessity of the gastrointestinal microbiota in dictating cancer treatment response.

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current evidence of a mechanistic role for the genitourinary and gastrointestinal microbiome in genitourinary cancer initiation and treatment response.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a literature search up to October 2018. Search terms included microbiome, microbiota, urinary microbiome, bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, and prostate cancer.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There is preliminary evidence to implicate the members of the genitourinary microbiota as causative factors or cofactors in genitourinary malignancy. Likewise, the current evidence for gastrointestinal microbes in dictating cancer treatment response is mainly correlative; however, we provide examples where therapeutic agents used for the treatment of genitourinary cancers are affected by the human-associated microbiota, or vice versa. Clinical trials, such as fecal microbiota transplant to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy, are currently underway.

CONCLUSIONS: The role of the microbiome in genitourinary cancer is an emerging field that merits further studies. Translating microbiome research into clinical action will require incorporation of microbiome surveillance into ongoing and future clinical trials as well as expansion of studies to include metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics.

PATIENT SUMMARY: This review covers recent evidence that microbial populations that reside in the genitourinary tract-and were previously not known to exist-may influence the development of genitourinary malignancies including bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers. Furthermore, microbial populations that exist at sites outside of the genitourinary tract, such as those that reside in our gut, may influence cancer development and/or treatment response.

RevDate: 2019-01-17

Goethel A, Turpin W, Rouquier S, et al (2019)

Nod2 influences microbial resilience and susceptibility to colitis following antibiotic exposure.

Mucosal immunology pii:10.1038/s41385-018-0128-y [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) etiology involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, and the gut microbiome. Antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD, both in early life and adulthood. Here, we investigated whether Nod2-deficiency influenced response of the gut microbiota to antibiotics and subsequent colitis susceptibility. Wild-type and Nod2-/- littermate mice were treated with amoxicillin as adults or neonates, and fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing. Five weeks after antibiotic exposure, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis was induced. Antibiotic treatment altered the microbiota of adult WT and Nod2-/- mice, but recovery was delayed in Nod2-/- mice. Neonatal antibiotic treatment significantly changed the microbiota at weaning in WT and Nod2-/- littermates; however, Nod2-/- mice maintained reduced microbial diversity 14 days after cessation of antibiotics. Although treatment of adult mice did not influence susceptibility to colitis, neonatally treated Nod2-/- mice developed a more severe colitis. Moreover, the colitis phenotype was transferable through fecal transplantation into germ-free Nod2-/- recipients, and was associated with changes in intestinal T cells and the cytokine milieu following inflammation. These data demonstrate that neonatal antibiotic exposure has long-lasting influence on the microbiota and mucosal immunity, and may explain how NOD2 contributes to the risk of intestinal inflammation.

RevDate: 2019-01-18

Torres Soto M, Hammond S, Elshaboury RH, et al (2019)

Recurrent Relatively Resistant Salmonella infantis Infection in 2 Immunocompromised Hosts Cleared With Prolonged Antibiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(1):ofy334 pii:ofy334.

Two immunocompromised patients with relapsing gastrointestinal infection with relatively resistant Salmonella infantis were cured with prolonged ertapenem followed by encapsulated fecal transplant.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Costello SP, Hughes PA, Waters O, et al (2019)

Effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on 8-Week Remission in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA, 321(2):156-164.

Importance: High-intensity, aerobically prepared fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating active ulcerative colitis (UC). FMT protocols involving anaerobic stool processing methods may enhance microbial viability and allow efficacy with a lower treatment intensity.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short duration of FMT therapy to induce remission in UC using anaerobically prepared stool.

A total of 73 adults with mild to moderately active UC were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial in 3 Australian tertiary referral centers between June 2013 and June 2016, with 12-month follow-up until June 2017.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either anaerobically prepared pooled donor FMT (n = 38) or autologous FMT (n = 35) via colonoscopy followed by 2 enemas over 7 days. Open-label therapy was offered to autologous FMT participants at 8 weeks and they were followed up for 12 months.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was steroid-free remission of UC, defined as a total Mayo score of ≤2 with an endoscopic Mayo score of 1 or less at week 8. Total Mayo score ranges from 0 to 12 (0 = no disease and 12 = most severe disease). Steroid-free remission of UC was reassessed at 12 months. Secondary clinical outcomes included adverse events.

Results: Among 73 patients who were randomized (mean age, 39 years; women, 33 [45%]), 69 (95%) completed the trial. The primary outcome was achieved in 12 of the 38 participants (32%) receiving pooled donor FMT compared with 3 of the 35 (9%) receiving autologous FMT (difference, 23% [95% CI, 4%-42%]; odds ratio, 5.0 [95% CI, 1.2-20.1]; P = .03). Five of the 12 participants (42%) who achieved the primary end point at week 8 following donor FMT maintained remission at 12 months. There were 3 serious adverse events in the donor FMT group and 2 in the autologous FMT group.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary study of adults with mild to moderate UC, 1-week treatment with anaerobically prepared donor FMT compared with autologous FMT resulted in a higher likelihood of remission at 8 weeks. Further research is needed to assess longer-term maintenance of remission and safety.

Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12613000236796.

RevDate: 2019-02-08

Kelly CR, AN Ananthakrishnan (2019)

Manipulating the Microbiome With Fecal Transplantation to Treat Ulcerative Colitis.

JAMA, 321(2):151-152.

RevDate: 2019-01-18

Tran V, Phan J, Nulsen B, et al (2018)

Severe Ileocolonic Crohn's Disease Flare Associated with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Requiring Diverting Ileostomy.

ACG case reports journal, 5:e97 pii:crj.2018.97.

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy with a high success rate in preventing recurrent CDI. However, patients with IBD have decreased response to FMT for recurrent CDI, with several reports also suggesting potential IBD flare post-FMT. We present a case of mild ileocolonic Crohn's disease in a patient treated with FMT for recurrent CDI who subsequently developed severe steroid-refractory flare requiring surgical intervention 1 week post-FMT. Greater understanding of risk factors associated with post-FMT IBD flare is indicated.

RevDate: 2019-01-18

Zhang K, Beckett P, Abouanaser S, et al (2019)

Prolonged oral vancomycin for secondary prophylaxis of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection.

BMC infectious diseases, 19(1):51 pii:10.1186/s12879-019-3676-1.

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of diarrhea and continues to be a major burden within healthcare institutions and in the community. For a small subset of patients with frequently relapsing CDI who do not have access to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), or fail FMT, there are no clear treatment recommendations. We review our experience with prolonged oral vancomycin for secondary prophylaxis of relapsing CDI.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of cases from the C. difficile consultation service at our institution since 2013. The service had three primary physicians providing consultations and performing over 1000 FMTs over the five-year period. Patients with relapsing CDI who were not candidates for FMT, refused, or relapsed after FMT were treated with vancomycin, followed by long-term oral vancomycin at a dose of 125 mg once daily.

RESULTS: Twenty patients received at least 8 weeks of once-daily oral vancomycin for prophylaxis of relapsing CDI. Patients had a median age of 80 years, and experienced a median of four episodes of CDI prior to long-term vancomycin. Most were female and 75% had received FMT. Only a single case of C. difficile relapse occurred while on long-term vancomycin during 200 patient-months of follow-up. Amongst those who stopped long-term vancomycin, 31% relapsed within 6 weeks. No adverse events were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: For elderly patients with frequently relapsing C. difficile, prolonged vancomycin once daily at a dose of 125 mg orally was effective in preventing further relapse. Vancomycin secondary prophylaxis may be considered in patients who have failed FMT, or in cases where FMT is not available.

RevDate: 2019-02-11

Felizardo RJF, Watanabe IKM, Dardi P, et al (2019)

The interplay among gut microbiota, hypertension and kidney diseases: The role of short-chain fatty acids.

Pharmacological research, 141:366-377 pii:S1043-6618(18)31684-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The bacteria community living in the gut maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host and its unbalance has been associated with progression of a wide range of intestinal and extra intestinal conditions. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely associated diseases with high incidence rates all over the world. Increasing data have supported the involvement of gut microbiome in the blood pressure regulation and the impairment of CKD prognosis. In hypertension, the reduced number of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacteria is associated with modifications in gut environment, involving reduction of the hypoxic gut profile and worsening of the microbial balance, leading to a loss of epithelial barrier integrity, development of gut inflammation and the reduction of SCFAs plasma levels. These modifications compromise the blood pressure regulation and, as a consequence, favor the end organ damage, also affecting the kidneys. In CKD, impaired renal function leads to accumulation of high levels of uremic toxins that reach the intestine and cause alterations in bacteria composition and fecal metabolite profile, inducing a positive feedback that allows translocation of endotoxins into the bloodstream, which enhances local kidney inflammation and exacerbate kidney injury, compromising even more CKD prognosis. In line with these data, the use of prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation are becoming efficient therapies to improve the gut dysbiosis aiming hypertension and CKD treatment. This review describes how changes in gut microbiota composition can affect the development of hypertension and the progression of kidney diseases, highlighting the importance of the gut microbial composition uncovering to improve human health maintenance and, especially, for the development of new alternative therapies.

RevDate: 2019-01-16

Philips CA, Augustine P, N Phadke (2018)

Healthy Donor Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Bacterial Cholangitis in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis - A Single Case Report.

Journal of clinical and translational hepatology, 6(4):438-441.

Recurrent acute bacterial cholangitis is a unique indication for liver transplantation in primary sclerosing cholangitis. We present the first report on utility of healthy donor fecal transplantation for management of recurrent acute bacterial cholangitis in a primary sclerosing cholangitis patient. We demonstrate the striking liver biochemistry, bile acid and bacterial community changes following intestinal microbiota transplantation associated with amelioration of recurrent cholangitis.

RevDate: 2019-02-12

Moutinho BD, Baima JP, Rigo FF, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in refractory ulcerative colitis - a case report.

The Journal of international medical research, 47(2):1072-1079.

Studies comparing gut microbiota profiles of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have shown several changes in microbiota composition, with marked reduction of local biodiversity relative to that of healthy controls. Modulation of the bacterial community is a promising strategy to reduce the proportion of harmful microorganisms and increase the proportion of beneficial bacteria; this is expected to prevent or treat IBD. The exact mechanism of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) remains unknown; however, replacing the host microbiota can reestablish gut microbial composition and function in IBD patients. The present report describes an ulcerative colitis patient who underwent FMT. A 17-year-old male with moderate to severe clinical activity, which was refractory to mesalazine, azathioprine, and infliximab, underwent FMT as alternative therapy. The patient exhibited clinical improvement after the procedure; however, the symptoms returned. A second FMT was performed 8 months after the first procedure, but the patient did not improve. In conclusion, despite the FMT failure observed in this patient, the procedure is a promising therapeutic option for IBD patients, and more in-depth studies of this method are needed.

RevDate: 2019-01-11

Allegretti JR, Kao D, Phelps E, et al (2019)

Risk of Clostridium difficile Infection with Systemic Antimicrobial Therapy Following Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplant: Should We Recommend Anti-Clostridium difficile Antibiotic Prophylaxis?.

Digestive diseases and sciences pii:10.1007/s10620-018-5450-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The risk of a new Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) after FMT is unknown if non-CDI antibiotics are required. It is uncertain if anti-CDI prophylaxis or probiotics would reduce risk. We therefore aimed to compare the risk of CDI with and without antibiotic exposure and the benefit of concomitant anti-CDI antibiotic or probiotic prophylaxis.

METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study carried out at three large FMT referral centers of patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI. Patients were assessed for antibiotic use, as well as concomitant use of prophylactic anti-CDI antibiotics or probiotics. Time to CDI recurrence after FMT was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS: A total of 404 patients were included: 63% were females, with a mean age of 61.3 ± 18.8 years. Mean length of post-FMT follow-up was 18.1 ± 11.9 months (range 2.2-45.2). Among the entire cohort 8.1% (n = 33) experienced a CDI recurrence. Overall, 111 patients (27.4%) used a non-CDI antibiotic, of which 16.2% (n = 18) experienced a CDI recurrence. Patients who used non-CDI antibiotics were more likely to develop CDI (HR 8.44, 95% CI 4.21-16.93, p < 0.001). The risk of CDI recurrence was not different between patients who received anti-CDI antibiotic prophylaxis to those who did not (HR = 1.88, 95% CI 0.72-4.86, p = 0.2); however, probiotic prophylaxis was associated with a greater risk of CDI recurrence (HR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.02-6.86, p = 0.045).

CONCLUSION: Non-CDI antibiotic use was not uncommon after successful FMT and significantly increased the risk of a new episode of CDI. In this study, we found that the prophylactic use of anti-CDI antibiotics or probiotics was not protective.

RevDate: 2019-02-11

Jiang X, Hall AB, Arthur TD, et al (2019)

Invertible promoters mediate bacterial phase variation, antibiotic resistance, and host adaptation in the gut.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 363(6423):181-187.

Phase variation, the reversible alternation between genetic states, enables infection by pathogens and colonization by commensals. However, the diversity of phase variation remains underexplored. We developed the PhaseFinder algorithm to quantify DNA inversion-mediated phase variation. A systematic search of 54,875 bacterial genomes identified 4686 intergenic invertible DNA regions (invertons), revealing an enrichment in host-associated bacteria. Invertons containing promoters often regulate extracellular products, underscoring the importance of surface diversity for gut colonization. We found invertons containing promoters regulating antibiotic resistance genes that shift to the ON orientation after antibiotic treatment in human metagenomic data and in vitro, thereby mitigating the cost of antibiotic resistance. We observed that the orientations of some invertons diverge after fecal microbiota transplant, potentially as a result of individual-specific selective forces.

RevDate: 2019-01-13

Tabbaa OM, Aboelsoud MM, MC Mattar (2018)

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With and Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Tertiary Care Center's Experience.

Gastroenterology research, 11(6):397-403.

Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) carries a large burden on the national public health with its high morbidity and mortality rates. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are generally at higher risk of infection, recurrence and complications. Therefore, the need for more reliable and safe therapy is necessary. Our study aims to evaluate long-term fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) outcomes in the general population compared to patients with IBD.

Methods: A single center long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of FMT in patients with and without IBD. Prior to FMT data including demographics, prior treatment of CDI and severity of symptoms were gathered via chart review. Post FMT, all patients were surveyed after 2 days, 30 days and > 1 year to assess clinical and laboratory response. Our study outcomes included primary cure rate (negative CDI testing > 1 year after single FMT), and secondary cure rate (negative CDI testing > 1 year after repeat FMT or after an additional course of antibiotic with or without repeat FMT).

Results: Seventy-eight patients with recurrent or refractory CDI and subsequent FMT treatment were included. Mean age was 57 years, and 69% were females and twenty-one (27%) had IBD. Primary cure rate was achieved in 77% of the cases while secondary cure rate reached 100% at the end of the study. IBD patients were younger with an average age of 47 years, and had more complains of abdominal pain (71%), and required escalation of therapy in 50% of patients.

Conclusions: FMT was effective in the eradication of CDI in patients with and without IBD, but with no significant symptoms improvement in patients with IBD. Future randomized control studies are needed to examine the long-term progression of IBD and quality of life in patients treated with FMT compared to standard therapy of antibiotics for recurrent CDI.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

de Clercq NC, Frissen MN, Davids M, et al (2019)

Weight Gain after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient with Recurrent Underweight following Clinical Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Yang H, Xiang Y, Robinson K, et al (2018)

Gut Microbiota Is a Major Contributor to Adiposity in Pigs.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3045.

Different breeds of pigs vary greatly in their propensity for adiposity. Gut microbiota is known to play an important role in modulating host physiology including fat metabolism. However, the relative contribution of gut microbiota to lipogenic characteristics of pigs remains elusive. In this study, we transplanted fecal microbiota of adult Jinhua and Landrace pigs, two breeds of pigs with distinct lipogenic phenotypes, to antibiotic-treated mice. Our results indicated that, 4 weeks after fecal transplantation, the mice receiving Jinhua pigs' "obese" microbiota (JM) exhibited a different intestinal bacterial community structure from those receiving Landrace pigs' "lean" microbiota (LM). Notably, an elevated ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and a significant diminishment of Akkermansia were observed in JM mice relative to LM mice. Importantly, mouse recipients resembled their respective porcine donors in many of the lipogenic characteristics. Similar to Jinhua pig donors, JM mice had elevated lipid and triglyceride levels and the lipoprotein lipase activity in the liver. Enhanced expression of multiple key lipogenic genes and reduced angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) mRNA expression were also observed in JM mice, relative to those in LM mice. These results collectively suggested that gut microbiota of Jinhua pigs is more capable of enhancing lipogenesis than that of Landrace pigs. Transferability of the lipogenic phenotype across species further indicated that gut microbiota plays a major role in contributing to adiposity in pigs. Manipulation of intestinal microbiota will, therefore, have a profound impact on altering host metabolism and adipogenesis, with an important implication in the treatment of human overweight and obesity.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Porras D, Nistal E, Martínez-Flórez S, et al (2018)

Intestinal Microbiota Modulation in Obesity-Related Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Frontiers in physiology, 9:1813.

Obesity and associated comorbidities, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are a major concern to public well-being worldwide due to their high prevalence among the population, and its tendency on the rise point to as important threats in the future. Therapeutic approaches for obesity-associated disorders have been circumscribed to lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies have demonstrated limited efficacy. Over the last few years, different studies have shown a significant role of intestinal microbiota (IM) on obesity establishment and NAFLD development. Therefore, modulation of IM emerges as a promising therapeutic strategy for obesity-associated diseases. Administration of prebiotic and probiotic compounds, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and exercise protocols have shown a modulatory action over the IM. In this review we provide an overview of current approaches targeting IM which have shown their capacity to counteract NAFLD and metabolic syndrome features in human patients and animal models.

RevDate: 2019-01-24
CmpDate: 2019-01-24

Sugita K, Yanuma N, Ohno H, et al (2019)

Oral faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a dog: a case report.

BMC veterinary research, 15(1):11 pii:10.1186/s12917-018-1754-z.

BACKGROUND: Successful clinical outcomes of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection have been reported in humans and a marmoset. However, it has been unclear whether oral FMT was effective for the treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea in dogs.

CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-month-old, intact male French bulldog was presented with a 4-month history of intermittent large bowel diarrhoea. Physical and clinical examinations did not identify any specific causes for diarrhoea. Real-time PCR analysis and immunochromatography detected C. difficile antigen and toxin A&B genes and proteins in a faecal sample. Based on these findings, diarrhoea in the dog was considered to be induced by C. difficile-associated colitis. The dog was treated with oral FMT, in which a faecal solution obtained from a healthy beagle was orally administered to the subject. Stool consistency and frequency and faecal blood and mucus became normal 2-3 days after oral FMT, and real-time PCR analysis and immunochromatography was negative for C. difficile antigen and toxin A&B genes and proteins. No adverse events were observed.

CONCLUSION: The present case report demonstrated that oral FMT was an effective treatment for C. difficile-associated diarrhoea in a dog. The findings in this report provide a rationale to evaluate clinical efficacy of oral FMT for other gastrointestinal diseases in dogs.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Zhang XY, Wang YZ, Li XL, et al (2018)

Safety of fecal microbiota transplantation in Chinese children: A single-center retrospective study.

World journal of clinical cases, 6(16):1121-1127.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of fecal bacterial liquid from healthy donors to a recipient's digestive tract, which is recommended as a therapeutic method for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Many clinical trials focusing on different diseases are in progress. To date, scarce research and long-term follow-up have been conducted on FMT in children or on the proper guidelines. Our center first performed FMT to treat a 13-month-old boy with severe CDI in 2013. Until February 2018, our center had performed 114 pediatric FMT procedures in 49 subjects.

AIM: To investigate the safety of FMT in children.

METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 49 patients who underwent 114 FMT treatments at our hospital. All FMT processes followed uniform standards. Adverse events (AEs) related to FMT were divided into short-term (48 h post-FMT) and long-term (3 mo). All potential influencing factors for AEs, such as gender, age, time of FMT infusion, route of administration, disease type, immune function state, and donor relative genetic background, were analyzed as independent factors. The significant independent factors and risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (mean age 68.1 mo, range 4 to 193 mo) were recruited. Their average follow-up time after the first FMT was 23.1 mo. The incidence of short-term AEs was 26.32% (30/114). The most common short-term AEs were abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and vomiting, which were all self-limited and symptom-free within 48 h. Two severe AEs occurred, and one patient died in the fourth week after FMT. All-cause mortality was 2.04%. As independent factors, age (P = 0.006) and immune state (P = 0.002) had significant effects. Age greater than 72 mo seemed to be correlated with more AEs than age 13 to 36 mo (P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, immune state was an independent risk factor for AE occurrence (P = 0.035), and the risk ratio in immunodeficient patients was 3.105 (95%CI: 1.080-8.923).

CONCLUSION: Although FMT was proven to be tolerated in children, we need to be more cautious with immunodeficient patients. The effect on children's long-term health is unpredictable.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )