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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2018 at 01:36 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Wang Y, Wiesnoski DH, Helmink BA, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis.

Nature medicine pii:10.1038/s41591-018-0238-9 [Epub ahead of print].

We report the first case series of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI)-associated colitis successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation, with reconstitution of the gut microbiome and a relative increase in the proportion of regulatory T-cells within the colonic mucosa. These preliminary data provide evidence that modulation of the gut microbiome may abrogate ICI-associated colitis.

RevDate: 2018-11-12
CmpDate: 2018-11-12

Reardon S (2018)

Faecal transplants could help preserve vulnerable species.

Nature, 558(7709):173-174.

RevDate: 2018-11-12
CmpDate: 2018-11-12

Kreft JU (2018)

Editorial: The microbiome as a source of new enterprises and job creation.

Microbial biotechnology, 11(1):145-148.

RevDate: 2018-11-12
CmpDate: 2018-11-12

Haw J, Chuong K, KC O'Doherty (2017)

FMT Regulatory Challenges and the Lived Experiences of People With IBD.

The American journal of bioethics : AJOB, 17(5):59-61.

RevDate: 2018-11-12
CmpDate: 2018-11-12

Huss J (2017)

Fecal Transplant Bioethics: Beyond Chicken Little.

The American journal of bioethics : AJOB, 17(5):48-50.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Fang X (2018)

Microbial treatment: the potential application for Parkinson's disease.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology pii:10.1007/s10072-018-3641-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Alterations in the composition of the intestinal flora are associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). More importantly, the possible cause-effect links between gut flora and PD pathogenesis have been identified using PD animal models. Recent studies have found that probiotics improve the symptoms associated with constipation in PD patients. In addition, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was recently shown to provide a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Effective microbial therapy for PD includes probiotics and FMT. Therefore, microbial therapy may be a useful and novel approach for treatment of PD. In this review, I discuss the use of microbial treatment in PD.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Prado C, Michels M, Ávila P, et al (2018)

The protective effects of fecal microbiota transplantation in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Journal of pediatric surgery pii:S0022-3468(18)30668-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious disease that affects premature neonates, causing high mortality. In the search for new options of treatment it was investigated whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) decreased the inflammatory response during NEC development in experimental model.

METHODS: Wistar rats were used and divided as follows: naïve, control (NEC induction), FMT-before (transplantation of microbiota before insult) and FMT-after (microbiota transplantation after insult). The microbiota transplantation was performed by administering a feces solution obtained from an adult donor rat. The induction of enterocolitis involves feeding by artificial formula, hypothermia, hypoxia and endotoxin administration. MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, oxidative and nitrosative damage and the grade of intestinal mucosa lesion were analyzed.

RESULTS: The control group had a significant increase of inflammatory and oxidative parameters when compared to naive animals. Both FMT-before and after decreased all inflammatory and oxidative damage parameters when compared to control group. This was also true to the intestinal mucosa damage.

CONCLUSION: FMT administered just before or after NEC induction improved gut and systemic inflammation, and gut oxidative damage and intestinal injury.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Ma C, Sun Z, Zeng B, et al (2018)

Cow-to-mouse fecal transplantations suggest intestinal microbiome as one cause of mastitis.

Microbiome, 6(1):200 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0578-1.

BACKGROUND: Mastitis, which affects nearly all lactating mammals including human, is generally thought to be caused by local infection of the mammary glands. For treatment, antibiotics are commonly prescribed, which however are of concern in both treatment efficacy and neonate safety. Here, using bovine mastitis which is the most costly disease in the dairy industry as a model, we showed that intestinal microbiota alone can lead to mastitis.

RESULTS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from mastitis, but not healthy cows, to germ-free (GF) mice resulted in mastitis symptoms in mammary gland and inflammations in serum, spleen, and colon. Probiotic intake in parallel with FMT from diseased cows led to relieved mastitis symptoms in mice, by shifting the murine intestinal microbiota to a state that is functionally distinct from either healthy or diseased microbiota yet structurally similar to the latter. Despite conservation in mastitis symptoms, diseased cows and mice shared few mastitis-associated bacterial organismal or functional markers, suggesting striking divergence in mastitis-associated intestinal microbiota among lactating mammals. Moreover, an "amplification effect" of disease-health distinction in both microbiota structure and function was apparent during the cow-to-mouse FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Hence, dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota may be one cause of mastitis, and probiotics that restore intestinal microbiota function are an effective and safe strategy to treat mastitis.

RevDate: 2018-11-09
CmpDate: 2018-11-09

Kates AE, Tischendorf JS, Schweizer M, et al (2018)

Research Agenda for Microbiome Based Research for Multidrug-resistant Organism Prevention in the Veterans Health Administration System.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 39(2):202-209.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

DeFilipp Z, Hohmann E, Jenq RR, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation: restoring the injured microbiome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation pii:S1083-8791(18)30693-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Disruption of the intestinal microbiome early after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has been linked to adverse outcomes in transplant recipients. To date, it remains unknown as to whether microbiome-directed interventions will be able to impact important clinical endpoints. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a compelling intervention to restore healthy diversity to the intestinal microenvironment after allo-HCT, but currently has no established role in transplant recipients. In this review, we examine the utilization of FMT as treatment for Clostridium difficile infections and acute graft-versus-host disease, as well as a restorative intervention early after allo-HCT. Ongoing and planned studies will help determine the ultimate role of FMT in recipients of allo-HCT.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

Niccum BA, Stein DJ, Behm BW, et al (2018)

Zinc Deficiency and the Recurrence of Clostridium difficile Infection after Fecal Microbiota Transplant: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2018:9682975.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, in 12% of patients treated with FMT, CDI recurs within one month. Zinc deficiency predicts increased diarrheal frequency in malnourished children, but little is known about its association with FMT outcome. We hypothesized that zinc levels were an independent predictor of CDI recurrence after FMT.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients (mean age, 66; 59 women) receiving FMT for CDI from 9/2013-9/2016 at a tertiary care center. Zinc levels were measured within 90 days before FMT. The primary outcome was CDI recurrence within 90 days after FMT. We controlled for risk factors for FMT failure using Cox regression. We also analyzed the effect of zinc supplementation in individuals with deficiency.

Results: Forty-nine subjects had a normal zinc level, and 31 had a low level (<0.66 µg/mL). CDI recurred in 3/49 (6%) patients with normal zinc and 5/31 (16%) patients with low zinc (HR = 11.327, 95% CI = 2.162-59.336, p=0.004). Among low zinc subjects, 2 of 25 (8%) that received zinc supplements and 3 of 6 (50%) that did not receive zinc supplements had recurrence of CDI (HR = 0.102, 95% CI = 0.015-0.704, p=0.021).

Conclusion: Zinc deficiency was associated with increased CDI recurrence after FMT. Among zinc-deficient patients, supplementation was associated with reduced recurrence. Further study is needed to determine whether zinc deficiency represents a pathophysiologic mechanism and target for therapy.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

Morand A, Cornu F, Dufour JC, et al (2018)

Human bacterial repertoire of the urinary tract: a potential paradigm shift.

Journal of clinical microbiology pii:JCM.00675-18 [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this article is to review the human repertoire of bacteria already described by culture and metagenomic techniques in urine, and published in the literature. Our study led us to compare this repertoire with other human repertoires available.We followed automatic and manual bibliographical methods and found 562 bacterial species reported in the literature as part of the human urinary microbiota. Of the 562 species, 322 were described only by culture, 101 by both culture and metagenomics, and 139 only by metagenomic. Three hundred and fifty-two species (62.6%) have been associated with at least one case report of human infection, of which 225 (40.0%) have been described as causative agents of urinary tract infection. The urinary tract bacterial repertoire contains 21.4% of the known prokaryotic diversity associated with human beings (464 in common) and share 23.6% species with the human gut microbiota (350 in common, 62.3% of the urine species). Urinary repertoire shares a significant difference in aero-intolerant species compared with gut microbiota (100/562; 17.8% and 505/1484; 34.0% respectively; p<0.001; OR=9.0 [7.0-11.4]). Studies using high-throughput sequencing show a higher proportion of aero-intolerant bacteria in urine (74/240, 30.8%).Most pathogenic bacteria are part of the commensal human urinary tract bacteria and their pathogenicity may occur following any imbalance of this microbiota. The restoration of urinary tract health can occur following a fecal transplantation. The potential gut origin of the human bacterial microbiota has to be explored.

RevDate: 2018-11-07

Ooijevaar RE, Terveer EM, Verspaget HW, et al (2018)

Clinical Application and Potential of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Annual review of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a well-established treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. FMT has become a more readily available and useful new treatment option as a result of stool banks. The current state of knowledge indicates that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is implicated in several disorders in addition to C. difficile. Randomized controlled studies have shown FMT to be somewhat effective in treating ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, FMT has been beneficial in treating several other conditions, such as the eradication of multidrug-resistant organisms and graft-versus-host disease. We expect that FMT will soon be implemented as a treatment strategy for several new indications, although further studies are needed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 70 is January 27, 2019. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2018-11-07

Song JH, YS Kim (2018)

Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: Risk Factors, Treatment, and Prevention.

Gut and liver pii:gnl18071 [Epub ahead of print].

The most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) often occurs after successful treatment of CDI. Due to the increased incidence and the difficulty in treating rCDI, it is becoming an important clinical issue. Identifying risk factors is helpful for early detection, treatment, and prevention of rCDI. Advanced age, use of antibiotics, gastric acid suppression, and infection with a hypervirulent strain are currently regarded as the major risk factors for rCDI. Several treatment modalities, including vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), are suggested for rCDI treatment. However, there is currently no definitive treatment method with sufficient evidence for rCDI. Recent studies have focused on FMT and have shown positive results for rCDI. Prevention of rCDI by measures such as hand washing and isolation of patients is very important. However, these preventive measures are often overlooked in clinical practice. Here, we review the risk factors, treatment, and prevention of rCDI.

RevDate: 2018-11-05
CmpDate: 2018-11-05

Mullish BH, Quraishi MN, Segal JP, et al (2018)

The use of faecal microbiota transplant as treatment for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection and other potential indications: joint British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Healthcare Infection Society (HIS) guidelines.

Gut, 67(11):1920-1941.

Interest in the therapeutic potential of faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has been increasing globally in recent years, particularly as a result of randomised studies in which it has been used as an intervention. The main focus of these studies has been the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but there is also an emerging evidence base regarding potential applications in non-CDI settings. The key clinical stakeholders for the provision and governance of FMT services in the UK have tended to be in two major specialty areas: gastroenterology and microbiology/infectious diseases. While the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance (2014) for use of FMT for recurrent or refractory CDI has become accepted in the UK, clear evidence-based UK guidelines for FMT have been lacking. This resulted in discussions between the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Healthcare Infection Society (HIS), and a joint BSG/HIS FMT working group was established. This guideline document is the culmination of that joint dialogue.

RevDate: 2018-11-05
CmpDate: 2018-11-05

Ruppé E, Martin-Loeches I, Rouzé A, et al (2018)

What's new in restoring the gut microbiota in ICU patients? Potential role of faecal microbiota transplantation.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 24(8):803-805.

RevDate: 2018-11-05
CmpDate: 2018-11-05

Vila J (2018)

Microbiota transplantation and/or CRISPR/Cas in the battle against antimicrobial resistance.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 24(7):684-686.

RevDate: 2018-11-02

Jiang ZD, Jenq RR, Ajami NJ, et al (2018)

Safety and preliminary efficacy of orally administered lyophilized fecal microbiota product compared with frozen product given by enema for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: A randomized clinical trial.

PloS one, 13(11):e0205064 pii:PONE-D-18-09615.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) via colonoscopy or enema has become a commonly used treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI).

AIMS: To compare the safety and preliminary efficacy of orally administered lyophilized microbiota product compared with frozen product by enema.

METHODS: In a single center, adults with ≥ 3 episodes of recurrent CDI were randomized to receive encapsulated lyophilized fecal microbiota from 100-200 g of donor feces (n = 31) or frozen FMT from 100 g of donor feces (n = 34) by enema. Safety during the three months post FMT was the primary study objective. Prevention of CDI recurrence during the 60 days after FMT was a secondary objective. Fecal microbiome changes were examined in first 39 subjects studied.

RESULTS: Adverse experiences were commonly seen in equal frequency in both groups and did not appear to relate to the route of delivery of FMT. CDI recurrence was prevented in 26 of 31 (84%) subjects randomized to capsules and in 30 of 34 (88%) receiving FMT by enema (p = 0.76). Both products normalized fecal microbiota diversity while the lyophilized orally administered product was less effective in repleting Bacteroidia and Verrucomicrobia classes compared to frozen product via enema.

CONCLUSIONS: The route of delivery, oral or rectal, did not influence adverse experiences in FMT. In preliminary evaluation, both routes appeared to show equivalent efficacy, although the dose may need to be higher for lyophilized product. Spore-forming bacteria appear to be the most important engrafting organisms in FMT by the oral route using lyophilized product.


RevDate: 2018-11-02

Gopalsamy SN, Woodworth MH, Wang T, et al (2018)

The Use of Microbiome Restoration Therapeutics to Eliminate Intestinal Colonization With Multidrug-Resistant Organisms.

The American journal of the medical sciences, 356(5):433-440.

Antibiotic resistance (AR) has been described by the World Health Organization as an increasingly serious threat to global public health. Many mechanisms of AR have become widespread due to global selective pressures such as widespread antibiotic use. The intestinal tract is an important reservoir for many multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), and next-generation sequencing has expanded understanding of the resistome, defined as the comprehensive sum of genetic determinants of AR. Intestinal decolonization has been explored as a strategy to eradicate MDROs with selective digestive tract decontamination and probiotics being notable examples with mixed results. This review focuses on fecal microbiota transplantation and the early evidence supporting its efficacy in decolonizing MDROs and potential mechanisms of action to reduce AR genes. Current evidence suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation may have promise in restoring healthy microbial diversity and reducing AR, and clinical trials are underway to better characterize its safety and efficacy.

RevDate: 2018-11-02

Stripling J, M Rodriguez (2018)

Current Evidence in Delivery and Therapeutic Uses of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Human Diseases-Clostridium difficile Disease and Beyond.

The American journal of the medical sciences, 356(5):424-432.

The use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was first described in China in the 4th century by Ge Hong when "yellow soup," a fecal slurry, was administered for the treatment of severe food poisoning and diarrhea, a practice that continued for centuries. Bedouin groups also consumed stools of their camels as a remedy for dysentery. FMT was also applied in veterinary medicine in Europe in the 16th century. Additional therapeutic use of human excretions was described in Europe in the 18th and 19th century and in World War II, when gut bacteria were administered to German soldiers suffering from dysentery in the North African campaign. More scientifically, Eismann, in 1958, utilized fecal transplantation via enema in 4 patients for the treatment of severe pseudomembranous colitis with success. Following this report a number of isolated cases were published describing the use of FMT by different delivery routes for the treatment of a variety of illnesses.

RevDate: 2018-11-01
CmpDate: 2018-11-01

Samarkos M, Mastrogianni E, O Kampouropoulou (2018)

The role of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile infection.

European journal of internal medicine, 50:28-32.

Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota. Data from human studies have shown that the presence of C. difficile, either as a colonizer or as a pathogen, is associated with reduced microbiota diversity. C. difficile infection per se seems to be associated with changes in the representation of specific microbial populations (e.g. taxa) which either may act protectively against C. difficile colonization of the gut or may increase susceptibility for C. difficile infection. Therapeutic gut microbiota manipulation can be achieved by faecal microbiota transplantation, which is highly effective for the treatment of CDI.

RevDate: 2018-10-31

Khoruts A (2018)

Targeting the microbiome: from probiotics to fecal microbiota transplantation.

Genome medicine, 10(1):80 pii:10.1186/s13073-018-0592-8.

The modern techniques of microbiome science can be applied to the development and evaluation of all microbiota-directed products, including probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2018-10-31
CmpDate: 2018-10-31

Moayyedi P, R Jaeschke (2017)

Microbiome: fecal transplant in Clostridium difficile and ulcerative colitis. Dr. Paul Moayyedi in an interview with Dr. Roman Jaeschke: part 2.

Polish archives of internal medicine, 127(2):137-138.

RevDate: 2018-10-29

Sun W, Guo Y, Zhang S, et al (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Can Alleviate Gastrointestinal Transit in Rats with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity via Regulation of Serotonin Biosynthesis.

BioMed research international, 2018:8308671.

Aim: We tested the hypothesis that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could regulate the biotransformation of bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and cholic acid (CA), which in turn regulate the biosynthesis of serotonin in the gut and relieve gastrointestinal dysmotility in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity in rats.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control diet group, HFD group, and HFD-fed with receiving FMT. HFD was fed for 12 weeks. At the end of two-week HFD, FMT was carried out for two weeks. The gastrointestinal transit, serotonin concentration, the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and the levels of bile acids in intestinal contents were examined.

Results: Compared with the control group, the gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal serotonin concentration of HFD-fed rats were increased. In HFD-fed rats, TPH1 protein expression was increased significantly, while SERT protein expression was decreased, but not significant. The levels of CA and DCA in intestinal contents were also significantly increased in HFD-fed rats compared with the control group. After HFD-fed rats receiving FMT treatment, the gastrointestinal transit, small intestinal serotonin concentration, and TPH1 expression were decreased, while SERT expression was not affected. Moreover, the levels of CA and DCA in intestinal contents were also decreased.

Conclusions: FMT could alleviate small intestinal transit in the HFD-fed rats by regulating the serotonin biosynthesis. In this process, CA and DCA may be related to the regulation of synthesis of serotonin.

RevDate: 2018-10-27

Brunse A, Martin L, Rasmussen TS, et al (2018)

Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation route of administration on gut colonization and host response in preterm pigs.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-018-0301-z [Epub ahead of print].

This study examined gut colonization patterns and host responses to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by different administration routes after preterm birth. In two separate experiments, cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were administered combined oral + rectal, or exclusively rectal donor feces, and compared with saline controls. After 5 days, stomach and colon bacterial compositions were determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and organic acid metabolites measured. Further, gut pathology, mucosa bacterial adherence, and goblet cell density were assessed. FMT increased the relative abundance of obligate anaerobes in the colon without affecting total bacterial load. Bacteroides colonized recipients despite low abundance in the donor feces, whereas highly abundant Prevotella and Ruminococcaceae did not. Further, FMT changed carbohydrate metabolism from lactate to propionate production thereby increasing colonic pH. Besides, FMT preserved goblet cell mucin stores and reduced necrotizing enterocolitis incidence. Only rectal FMT increased the stomach-to-colon pH gradient and resistance to mucosa bacterial adhesion. Conversely, oral + rectal FMT increased bacterial adhesion, internal organ colonization, and overall mortality. Our results uncovered distinctions in bacterial colonization patterns along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as host tolerability between oral and rectal FMT administration in preterm newborns. Besides, FMT showed the potential to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis.

RevDate: 2018-10-26
CmpDate: 2018-10-26

Chen T, Zhou Q, Zhang D, et al (2018)

Effect of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis, 12(6):710-717.

Background: Evidence concerning the effect of faecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] in Clostridium difficile infection [CDI] patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] has not been firmly established. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate FMT treatment outcomes in patients with IBD treated for CDI.

Methods: An electronic search of four databases was conducted until November 1, 2017. Cohort studies of FMT efficacy and safety in CDI patients with IBD were included. Pooled effect sizes were calculated with 95% confidence intervals [CI] using a random-effects model.

Results: Nine cohort studies comprising a total of 346 CDI patients with IBD were included. The initial cure rate was 81% [95% CI = 76%-85%] and the overall cure rate was up to 89% [95% CI = 83%-93%], both with no significant heterogeneity. The recurrence rate was 19% [95% CI = 13%-27%] with moderate heterogeneity [Cochran's Q, p = 0.19; I2 = 33%]. There was no significant difference in the CDI cure rate after FMT in patients with and without IBD (risk ratio [RR] = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; Cochran's Q, p = 0.06; I2 = 53%). Subgroup analysis revealed a similar CDI treatment effects after FMT in patients with Crohn's disease and in those with ulcerative colitis [p = 0.1804]. Four studies reported adverse events of IBD flares.

Conclusions: FMT is an effective therapy for CDI in patients with IBD. Well-designed randomised controlled trials and well-conducted microbiological studies are needed to validate its efficacy and safety.

RevDate: 2018-10-25

Kiouptsi K, Ruf W, C Reinhardt (2018)

Microbiota-Derived Trimethylamine.

Circulation research, 123(10):1112-1114.

RevDate: 2018-10-25

Skye SM, Zhu W, Romano KA, et al (2018)

Microbial Transplantation With Human Gut Commensals Containing CutC Is Sufficient to Transmit Enhanced Platelet Reactivity and Thrombosis Potential.

Circulation research, 123(10):1164-1176.

RATIONALE: Gut microbes influence cardiovascular disease and thrombosis risks through the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Microbiota-dependent generation of trimethylamine (TMA)-the precursor to TMAO-is rate limiting in the metaorganismal TMAO pathway in most humans and is catalyzed by several distinct microbial choline TMA-lyases, including the proteins encoded by the cutC/D (choline utilization C/D) genes in multiple human commensals.

OBJECTIVE: Direct demonstration that the gut microbial cutC gene is sufficient to transmit enhanced platelet reactivity and thrombosis potential in a host via TMA/TMAO generation has not yet been reported.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Herein, we use gnotobiotic mice and a series of microbial colonization studies to show that microbial cutC-dependent TMA/TMAO production is sufficient to transmit heightened platelet reactivity and thrombosis potential in a host. Specifically, we examine in vivo thrombosis potential employing germ-free mice colonized with either high TMA-producing stable human fecal polymcrobial communities or a defined CutC-deficient background microbial community coupled with a CutC-expressing human commensal±genetic disruption of its cutC gene (ie, Clostridium sporogenes Δ cutC).

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these studies point to the microbial choline TMA-lyase pathway as a rational molecular target for the treatment of atherothrombotic heart disease.

RevDate: 2018-10-25

Li P, Zhang T, Xiao Y, et al (2018)

Timing for the second fecal microbiota transplantation to maintain the long-term benefit from the first treatment for Crohn's disease.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-018-9447-x [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing evidence has shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be a promising treatment option for Crohn's disease (CD). However, the frequency of FMT for CD treatment remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the optimal timing for administering the second course of FMT to maintain the long-term clinical effects from the first FMT for patients with CD. Sixty-nine patients with active CD who underwent FMT twice and benefited from the first FMT were enrolled in this study. Clinical response, stool microbiota, and urine metabolome of patients were assessed during the follow-up. The median time of maintaining clinical response to the first FMT in total 69 patients was 125 days (IQR, 82.5-225.5). The time of maintaining clinical response to the second FMT in 56 of 69 patients was 176.5 days (IQR, 98.5-280). The fecal microbiota composition of each patient post the first FMT was closer to that of his/her donor. Compared to that of the baseline, patients prior to the second course of FMT showed significant differences in urinary metabolic profiles characterized by increased indoxyl sulfate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, creatinine, dimethylamine, glycylproline, hippurate, and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). This study demonstrated that patients with CD could be administered the second course of FMT less than 4 months after the first FMT for maintaining the clinical benefits from the first FMT. This was supported by the host-microbial metabolism changes in patients with active CD. Trial registration: , NCT01793831. Registered 18 February 2013.

RevDate: 2018-10-25

Battaglioli EJ, Hale VL, Chen J, et al (2018)

Clostridioides difficile uses amino acids associated with gut microbial dysbiosis in a subset of patients with diarrhea.

Science translational medicine, 10(464):.

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in pathogen defense. Studies using antibiotic-treated mice reveal mechanisms that increase susceptibility to Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), but risk factors associated with CDI in humans extend beyond antibiotic use. Here, we studied the dysbiotic gut microbiota of a subset of patients with diarrhea and modeled the gut microbiota of these patients by fecal transplantation into germ-free mice. When challenged with C. difficile, the germ-free mice transplanted with fecal samples from patients with dysbiotic microbial communities showed increased gut amino acid concentrations and greater susceptibility to CDI. A C. difficile mutant that was unable to use proline as an energy source was unable to robustly infect germ-free mice transplanted with a dysbiotic or healthy human gut microbiota. Prophylactic dietary intervention using a low-proline or low-protein diet in germ-free mice colonized by a dysbiotic human gut microbiota resulted in decreased expansion of wild-type C. difficile after challenge, suggesting that amino acid availability might be important for CDI. Furthermore, a prophylactic fecal microbiota transplant in mice with dysbiosis reduced proline availability and protected the mice from CDI. Last, we identified clinical risk factors that could potentially predict gut microbial dysbiosis and thus greater susceptibility to CDI in a retrospective cohort of patients with diarrhea. Identifying at-risk individuals and reducing their susceptibility to CDI through gut microbiota-targeted therapies could be a new approach to preventing C. difficile infection in susceptible patients.

RevDate: 2018-10-24

Lai ZL, Tseng CH, Ho HJ, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation confers beneficial metabolic effects of diet and exercise on diet-induced obese mice.

Scientific reports, 8(1):15625 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-33893-y.

Diet and exercise are conventional methods for controlling body weight and are linked to alterations in gut microbiota. However, the associations of diet, exercise, and gut microbiota in the control of obesity remain largely unknown. In the present study, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), normal fat diet (NFD), exercise and their combination resulted in improved metabolic profiles in comparison to sedentary lifestyle with high fat diet (HFD). Moreover, diet exerted more influence than exercise in shaping the gut microbiota. HFD-fed mice receiving FMT from NFD-exercised donors not only showed remarkably reduced food efficacy, but also mitigated metabolic profiles (p < 0.05). The transmissible beneficial effects of FMT were associated with bacterial genera Helicobacter, Odoribacter and AF12 and overrepresentation of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis genes. Our findings demonstrate that the beneficial effects of diet and exercise are transmissible via FMT, suggesting a potential therapeutic treatment for obesity.

RevDate: 2018-10-24
CmpDate: 2018-10-24

Brown JR, Flemer B, Joyce SA, et al (2018)

Changes in microbiota composition, bile and fatty acid metabolism, in successful faecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridioides difficile infection.

BMC gastroenterology, 18(1):131 pii:10.1186/s12876-018-0860-5.

BACKGROUND: Alteration of the gut microbiota by repeated antibiotic treatment increases susceptibility to Clostridioides difficile infection. Faecal microbiota transplantation from donors with a normal microbiota effectively treats C. difficile infection.

METHODS: The study involved 10 patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, nine of whom received transplants from individual donors and one who received a donor unit from a stool bank (OpenBiome).

RESULTS: All individuals demonstrated enduring post-transplant resolution of C. difficile- associated diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota diversity of recipients significantly increased, and the composition of the microbiota resembled that of the donor. Patients with C. difficile infection exhibited significantly lower faecal levels of secondary/ bile acids and higher levels of primary bile acids. Levels of secondary bile acids were restored in all transplant recipients, but to a lower degree with the OpenBiome transplant. The abundance increased of bacterial genera known from previous studies to confer resistance to growth and germination of C. difficile. These were significantly negatively associated with primary bile acid levels and positively related with secondary bile acid levels. Although reduced levels of the short chain fatty acids, butyrate, propionate and acetate, have been previously reported, here we report elevations in SCFA, pyruvic and lactic fatty acids, saturated, ω-6, monounsaturated, ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in C. difficile infection. This potentially indicates one or a combination of increased dietary FA intake, microbial modification of FAs or epithelial cell damage and inflammatory cell recruitment. No reversion to donor FA profile occurred post-FMT but ω-3 to ω-6 PUFA ratios were altered in the direction of the donor. Archaeal metabolism genes were found in some samples post FMT.

CONCLUSION: A consistent metabolic signature was identified in the post-transplant microbiota, with reduced primary bile acids and substantial restoration of secondary bile acid production capacity. Total FA levels were unchanged but the ratio of inflammatory to non-inflammatory FAs decreased.

RevDate: 2018-10-23
CmpDate: 2018-10-23

Tirandaz H, Ebrahim-Habibi MB, Moradveisi B, et al (2018)

Microbiota potential for the treatment of sexual dysfunction.

Medical hypotheses, 115:46-49.

Inability to have a satisfactory sexual intercourse is a serious problem affecting many people. Despite enormous efforts for developing effective treatments for pathologic conditions associated with sexual malfunction, still a lot of patients do not respond well to such treatments. Microbiota has been shown to affect obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stress/anxiety and sex hormonal disturbances. Nevertheless, no research has concentrated on the link between microbiota and human sexuality or sexual dysfunction. We propose another line of enquiry into sexual dysfunction by hypothesizing a relationship between microbiota and factors affecting human sexuality. Hence, it can be assumed that microbiota manipulation may improve sexual behavior and reduce sexual dysfunction. We also discuss the evidence to back up this hypothesis, and present some predictions.

RevDate: 2018-10-23
CmpDate: 2018-10-23

Davido B, Batista R, Fessi H, et al (2017)

Impact of faecal microbiota transplantation to eradicate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization in humans.

The Journal of infection, 75(4):376-377.

RevDate: 2018-10-23
CmpDate: 2018-10-23

Mahieu R, Cassisa V, Hilliquin D, et al (2017)

Impact of faecal microbiota transplantation on mouse digestive colonization with two extensively resistant bacteria.

The Journal of infection, 75(1):75-77.

RevDate: 2018-10-22

Yodoshi T, TL Hurt (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Patients with Refractory Very Early Onset Ulcerative Colitis.

Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition, 21(4):355-360.

Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been attracting attention as a possible medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). A randomized controlled trial of FMT for children with UC is currently underway. Therapeutic effects of FMT for adults with UC remain controversial. We report two cases of early-onset UC in children. A patient was diagnosed with UC at age 1-year 9-month and underwent FMT at age 2-year 3-month. He attained clinical remission for three weeks after FMT, but then relapsed at four weeks, ultimately undergoing a total colectomy. Another child was diagnosed with UC at 2-year 10-month and she underwent FMT at age 5 years. She has remained in clinical remission following FMT for 24 months and her UC has been maintained without complications with tacrolimus and azathioprine. We report that FMT for early-onset UC appears to be safe and potentially effective.

RevDate: 2018-10-22
CmpDate: 2018-10-22

Dinh A, Fessi H, Duran C, et al (2018)

Clearance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae vs vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage after faecal microbiota transplant: a prospective comparative study.

The Journal of hospital infection, 99(4):481-486.

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage are increasing worldwide. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be an attractive option for decolonization. This study aimed to evaluate CRE vs VRE clearance by FMT among carriers.

METHODS: A multi-centre trial was undertaken on patients with CRE or VRE digestive tract colonization who received FMT between January 2015 and April 2017. Adult patients with CRE or VRE colonization, confirmed by three consecutive rectal swabs at weekly intervals, including one in the week prior to FMT, were included in the study. Patients with immunosuppression or concomitant antibiotic prescription at the time of FMT were excluded. Successful decolonization was determined by at least two consecutive negative rectal swabs [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture] on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28, and monthly for three months following FMT.

RESULTS: Seventeen patients were included, with a median age of 73 years [interquartile range (IQR) 64.3-79.0]. Median duration of carriage of CRE or VRE before FMT was 62.5 days (IQR 57.0-77.5). One week after FMT, three of eight patients were free of CRE colonization and three of nine patients were free of VRE colonization. After three months, four of eight patients were free of CRE colonization and seven of eight patients were free of VRE colonization. Qualitative PCR results were concordant with culture. Six patients received antibiotics during follow-up, three in each group. No adverse events were reported.

CONCLUSION: CRE and VRE clearance rates were not significantly different in this study, possibly due to the small sample size, but a trend was observed. These data should be confirmed by larger cohorts and randomized trials.

RevDate: 2018-10-20

Vallianou NG, Stratigou T, S Tsagarakis (2018)

Microbiome and diabetes: Where are we now?.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(18)30913-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Alterations in the diversity or structure of gut microbiota known as dysbiosis, may affect metabolic activities, resulting in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. The development of more sophisticated methods, such as metagenomics sequencing, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization, has expanded our knowledge on gut microbiome. Dysbiosis has been related to increased plasma concentrations of gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which triggers the production of a variety of cytokines and the recruitment of inflammatory cells. Metabolomics have demonstrated that butyrate and propionate suppress weight gain in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity, and acetate has been proven to reduce food intake in healthy mice. The role of prebiotics, probiotics, genetically modified bacteria and fecal microbiota transplantation, as potential therapeutic challenges for type 2 diabetes will be discussed in this review.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Elkrief A, Derosa L, Zitvogel L, et al (2018)

The intimate relationship between gut microbiota and cancer immunotherapy.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Immunotherapy is widely used to treat a large variety of malignancies and has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to cancer. Major efforts are ongoing to identify biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy as well as new strategies to improve ICI efficacy and clinical outcomes. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome determines the extent to which ICIs may invigorate the anticancer immune response. Here, the authors review recent studies that have described the effects of the gut microbiota on the efficacy of CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors and outline potential future clinical directions of these findings.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Chen X, S Devaraj (2018)

Gut Microbiome in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes.

Current diabetes reports, 18(12):129 pii:10.1007/s11892-018-1104-3.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and diabetes are worldwide epidemics. There is also a growing body of evidence relating the gut microbiome composition to insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to delineate the studies linking gut microbiota to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies as well as proof of concept studies using fecal transplantation demonstrate the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in regulating insulin resistance states and inflammation. While we still need to standardize methodologies to study the microbiome, there is an abundance of evidence pointing to the link between gut microbiome, inflammation, and insulin resistance, and future studies should be aimed at identifying unifying mechanisms.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Pesce M, Borrelli O, Saliakellis E, et al (2018)

Gastrointestinal Neuropathies: New Insights and Emerging Therapies.

Gastroenterology clinics of North America, 47(4):877-894.

The bewildering complexity of the enteric nervous system makes it susceptible to develop a wide array of motility disorders, collectively called enteric neuropathies. These gastrointestinal conditions are among the most challenging to manage, mainly given poor characterization of their etiopathophysiology and outcomes. Not surprisingly, therefore, targeted or curative therapies for enteric neuropathies are lacking and management is largely symptomatic. Nonetheless, recent advances in neurogastroenterology have witnessed improvements in established strategies, such as intestinal transplantation and the emergence of new treatments including novel drugs, electrical pacing, and manipulation of fecal microbiota, as well as stem cell and gene therapy.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Lee P, Yacyshyn BR, MB Yacyshyn (2018)

Gut microbiota and obesity: An opportunity to alter obesity through Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT).

Diabetes, obesity & metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity is a global pandemic with immense health consequences for individuals and societies. Multiple factors including environmental influences and genetic predispositions are known to influence the development of obesity. Despite an increasing understanding of the factors driving the obesity episdemic, therapeutic interventions to prevent or reverse obesity are limited in their impact. Manipulation of the human gut microbiome provides a new potential therapeutic approach in the fight against obesity. Specific gut bacteria and their metabolites are known to affect host metabolism and feeding behavior, and dysbiosis of this biosystem may lead to metabolic syndrome. Potential therapies to alter the gut microbiota to treat obesity include dietary changes, supplementation of the diet with probiotic organisms and prebiotic compounds that influence bacterial growth, and the use of fecal microbiota transplant, in which gut microbiota from healthy indiviudals are introduced into the gut. In this review, we will examine the growing scientific evidence supporting the mechanisms by which the human gut microbiota may influence carbohydrate metabolism and obesity and the various possible therapies that may utilize the gut microbiota to help correct metabolic dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Wang H, Cui B, Li Q, et al (2018)

The Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Crohn's Disease: Findings from A Long-Term Study.

Advances in therapy pii:10.1007/s12325-018-0800-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as a potential treatment option for Crohn's disease (CD). However, there is still lack of safety and efficacy evidence based on large samples of CD undergoing FMT. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of adverse event (AE) in the long term and the efficacy of FMT in the short term for patients with CD.

METHODS: FMT via mid-gut for mild to severe CD in a single center trial (NCT01793831) was performed from October 2012 to December 2016. The possible factors with AE and efficacy after FMT were prospectively recorded.

RESULTS: A total of 184 frequencies of FMT were performed for 139 patients who received FMT. During 1 month after FMT, 13.6% of mild AEs occurred, including increased frequency of defecation, fever, abdominal pain, flatulence, hematochezia, vomiturition, bloating and herpes zoster. No AE beyond 1 month was observed. Therefore, a 1 month cut-off could be suggested to define short-term and long-term AEs of FMT. Among the possible risk factors, only fecal microbiota purification methods were closely associated with the occurrence of AEs. The rate of AEs in patients undergoing manual methods for the preparation of fecal microbiota was 21.7%, which was significantly higher than the 8.7% in those experiencing an automatic method. The manual or automatic purification of fecal microbiota had no correlation with the efficacy of FMT.

CONCLUSION: This cohort study based on the largest size of cases demonstrated that improved fecal microbiota preparation reduced the rates of AEs, but did not affect the clinical efficacy in patients with CD.

RevDate: 2018-10-16

Li J, Cui H, Cai Y, et al (2018)

Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang Regulates 5-HT Level in Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Through Gut Microbiota Modulation.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 9:1110.

Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) has been widely used for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its mechanism of action in the treatment of IBS-D remains to be fully understood. Recent reports have shown that Clostridium species in the gut can induce 5-HT production in the colon, which then contributes to IBS-D. Due to the wide use of TXYF in the clinical treatment of IBS-D and the close relationship between gut microbiota and IBS-D, we hypothesize that TXYF treats IBS-D by modulating gut microbiota and regulating colonic 5-HT levels. In this study, variation analysis of 16S rRNA was conducted to evaluate changes in the distribution of gut microbiota in IBS-D model rats after TXYF treatment. Moreover, we investigated whether TXYF could affect colonic 5-HT levels in IBS-D model rats. We then performed fecal transplantation experiments to confirm the effects of TXYF on gut microbiota and 5-HT levels. We found that TXYF treatment can ameliorate IBS-D and regulate 5-HT levels in colon tissue homogenates. TXYF treatment also affected the diversity of gut microbiota and altered the relative abundance of Akkermansia and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 in gut flora populations. Finally, we showed that fecal transplantation from TXYF-treated rats could relieve IBS-D and regulate 5-HT levels in colon tissue homogenates. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that TXYF treatment diminishes colonic 5-HT levels and alleviates the symptoms of IBS-D by favorably affecting microbiota levels in gut flora communities.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Cho S, Spencer E, Hirten R, et al (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) increases morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is known to be very effective for RCDI in non-IBD patients with cure rates up to 91%. The same success rates of FMT have not been reported in IBD patients with RCDI, and the data in pediatrics is limited. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of FMT for RCDI in established pediatric IBD patients.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with IBD and RCDI (≥3 episodes) who underwent FMT via colonoscopy at a tertiary care IBD center. The primary outcome was the rate of RCDI within 60 days post-FMT. The secondary outcomes were recurrence rate by 6 months, rate of colectomy, and time to recurrence.

RESULTS: Of the 8 eligible patients, 6 had ulcerative colitis, 1 had IBD-unspecified, and 1 had Crohn's disease. Median [interquartile range] age was 13 [11-14] years. All patients were on vancomycin at FMT. Two patients (25%) had RCDI by 60 days post-FMT and another 3 patients had RCDI between 60 days and 6 months. The median time to recurrence was 101 [40-139] days. Two patients (25%) who developed recurrence went to colectomy after FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: With a cure rate of 75% at 60 days, FMT administered for the treatment of RCDI may be an effective treatment option in pediatric IBD. However, there appears to be a significant rate of late recurrence of CDI after 60 days in these patients.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Cheng S, Ma X, Geng S, et al (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Beneficially Regulates Intestinal Mucosal Autophagy and Alleviates Gut Barrier Injury.

mSystems, 3(5): pii:mSystems00137-18.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most effective ways to regulate the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of exogenous fecal microbiota on gut function from the perspective of analysis of the mucosal proteomes in a piglet model. A total of 289 differentially expressed proteins were annotated with 4,068 gene ontology (GO) function entries in the intestinal mucosa, and the levels of autophagy-related proteins in the forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway were increased whereas the levels of proteins related to inflammation response were decreased in the recipient. Then, to assess the alleviation of epithelial injury in the Escherichia coli K88-infected piglets following FMT, intestinal microbiome-metabolome responses were determined. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the abundances of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Succinivibrio, were increased whereas those of Enterobacteriaceae and Proteobacteria bacteria were decreased in the infected piglets following FMT. Metabolomic analysis revealed that levels of 58 metabolites, such as lactic acid and succinic acid, were enhanced in the intestinal lumen and that seven metabolic pathways, such as branched-chain amino acid metabolism pathways, were upregulated in the infected piglets following FMT. In concordance with the metabolome data, results of metagenomics prediction analysis also demonstrated that FMT modulated the metabolic functions of gut microbiota associated with linoleic acid metabolism. In addition, intestinal morphology was improved, a result that coincided with the decrease of intestinal permeability and the enhancement of mucins and mucosal expression of tight junction proteins in the recipient. Taken together, the results showed that FMT triggered intestinal mucosal protective autophagy and alleviated gut barrier injury through alteration of the gut microbial structure. IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in human and animal health, and its disorder causes multiple diseases. Over the past decade, FMT has gained increasing attention due to the success in treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although FMT appears to be effective, how FMT functions in the recipient remains unknown. Whether FMT exerts this beneficial effect through a series of changes in the host organism caused by alteration of gut microbial structure is also not known. In the present study, newborn piglets and E. coli K88-infected piglets were selected as models to explore the interplay between host and gut microbiota following FMT. Our results showed that FMT triggered intestinal mucosal autophagy and alleviated gut barrier injury caused by E. coli K88. This report provides a theoretical basis for the use of FMT as a viable therapeutic method for gut microbial regulation.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Qi X, Li X, Zhao Y, et al (2018)

Treating Steroid Refractory Intestinal Acute Graft-vs.-Host Disease With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Pilot Study.

Frontiers in immunology, 9:2195.

Patients with steroid refractory gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft- vs.-host disease (GvHD) face a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. To accurately assess the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating steroid refractory GI tract GvHD, we conducted a pilot study involving eight patients. Having received FMTs, all patients' clinical symptoms relieved, bacteria enriched, and microbiota composition reconstructed. Compared to those who did not receive FMT, these eight patients achieved a higher progression-free survival. FMT can serve as a therapeutic option for GI tract aGVHD, but its effectiveness and safety need further evaluations. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03148743.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Zuo T, SC Ng (2018)

The Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2247.

In the twenty first century, the changing epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) globally with increasing disease incidence across many countries relates to the altered gut microbiota, due to a combinatorial effect of environmental factors, human immune responses and genetics. IBD is a gastrointestinal disease associated with a gut microbial dysbiosis, including an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Advances in high-throughput sequencing enable us to entangle the gut microbiota in human health and IBD beyond the gut bacterial microbiota, expanding insights into the mycobiota, virobiota and helminthes. Caudovirales (viruses) and Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Candida albicans (fungi) are revealed to be increased in IBD. The deconvolution of the gut microbiota in IBD lays the basis for unveiling the roles of these various gut microbiota components in IBD pathogenesis and being conductive to instructing on future IBD diagnosis and therapeutics. Here we comprehensively elucidate the alterations in the gut microbiota in IBD, discuss the effect of diets in the gut microbiota in relation to IBD, and illustrate the potential of manipulation of gut microbiota for IBD therapeutics. The therapeutic strategy of antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation will benefit the effective application of precision microbiome manipulation in IBD.

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Mahieu R, Cassisa V, Sanderink D, et al (2017)

Iterative Fecal Microbiota Transplantations for Eradicating Digestive Colonization With Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Is It Worth It?.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 38(10):1265-1266.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Camara-Lemarroy CR, Metz LM, VW Yong (2018)

Focus on the gut-brain axis: Multiple sclerosis, the intestinal barrier and the microbiome.

World journal of gastroenterology, 24(37):4217-4223.

The brain-gut axis serves as the bidirectional connection between the gut microbiome, the intestinal barrier and the immune system that might be relevant for the pathophysiology of inflammatory demyelinating diseases. People with multiple sclerosis have been shown to have an altered microbiome, increased intestinal permeability and changes in bile acid metabolism. Experimental evidence suggests that these changes can lead to profound alterations of peripheral and central nervous system immune regulation. Besides being of pathophysiological interest, the brain-gut axis could also open new avenues of therapeutic targets. Modification of the microbiome, the use of probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, supplementation with bile acids and intestinal barrier enhancers are all promising candidates. Hopefully, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials will soon yield significant results.

RevDate: 2018-10-10

Fang H, Fu L, J Wang (2018)

Protocol for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

BioMed research international, 2018:8941340.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The donor selection, the separation of fecal bacteria, the frequency of FMT, the way of infusion, the long-term safety, and efficacy are still uncertain.

Aim: To further study the efficacy and safety and protocol of FMT for IBD.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted until February, 2018. Clinical remission was established as the primary outcome.

Results: A total of 596 paediatric and adult IBD patients were enrolled, and 459 patients received FMT therapy. 28.8% (132/459) patients achieved clinical remission during follow-up. 53% (241/459) patients achieved clinical response. The pooled estimated clinical remission for ulcerative colitis (UC) was 21% (95% CI: 8%-37%) and 30% (95% CI: 11%-52%) for Crohn's disease (CD), both with a risk of heterogeneity; 10% (95% CI: 0%-43%) for paediatric UC; 26% (95% CI: 10%-48%) for adult UC; 45% for paediatric CD (95% CI: 24%-66%); 22% (95% CI: 3%-52%) for adult CD. Meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that moderate-severe IBD patients could achieve more significant remission from FMT than mild-moderate patients (P=0.037). Delivery route has no impact on the efficacy of FMT in UC and CD. Based on current available evidence, a trend was observed towards higher clinical remission rate of frozen stool FMT than that of fresh stool for UC, while there was no significant difference between fresh and frozen FMT for CD. The optimal donor stool for FMT is still uncertain. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed that FMT treatment achieved significantly higher clinical remission rate than placebo for UC (28% versus 9%, P=0.0003).

Conclusion: FMT is an effective and safe therapy for both paediatric and adult IBD; fresh or frozen donor stool, delivery route, and antibiotic pretreatment or not have no impact on the efficacy of FMT in IBD. FMT might be a potential rescue therapy and even an initial standardized therapy for IBD. However, few data exist on long-term safety and efficacy and further validation is needed.

RevDate: 2018-10-10

Paule A, Frezza D, M Edeas (2018)

Microbiota and Phage Therapy: Future Challenges in Medicine.

Medical sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 6(4): pii:medsci6040086.

An imbalance of bacterial quantity and quality of gut microbiota has been linked to several pathologies. New strategies of microbiota manipulation have been developed such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); the use of pre/probiotics; an appropriate diet; and phage therapy. The presence of bacteriophages has been largely underestimated and their presence is a relevant component for the microbiome equilibrium. As a promising treatment, phage therapy has been extensively used in Eastern Europe to reduce pathogenic bacteria and has arisen as a new method to modulate microbiota diversity. Phages have been selected and "trained" to infect a wide spectrum of bacteria or tailored to infect specific antibiotic resistant bacteria present in patients. The new development of genetically modified phages may be an efficient tool to treat the gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with different pathologies and increased production of bacterial metabolites and subsequently decrease systemic low-grade chronic inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Microbiota quality and mitochondria dynamics can be remodulated and manipulated by phages to restore the equilibrium and homeostasis of the system. Our aim is to highlight the great interest for phages not only to eliminate and control pathogenic bacterial infection but also in the near future to modulate the microbiota by adding new functions to selected bacteria species and rebalance the dynamic among phages and bacteria. The challenge for the medicine of tomorrow is to re-think and redesign strategies differently and far from our traditional thinking.

RevDate: 2018-10-10
CmpDate: 2018-10-10

Bhutiani N, Schucht JE, Miller KR, et al (2018)

Technical Aspects of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT).

Current gastroenterology reports, 20(7):30 pii:10.1007/s11894-018-0636-7.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has become established as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of antibiotic-refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. A number of formulations and methods of delivery of FMT are currently available, each with distinct advantages. This review aims to review donor and patient selection for FMT as well as procedural aspects of FMT to help guide clinical practice.

RECENT FINDINGS: FMT can be obtained in fresh, frozen, lyophilized, and capsule-based formulations for delivery by oral ingestion, nasoenteric tube, colonoscopy, or enema (depending on the formulation used). Choosing the optimal method relies heavily on patient-related factors, including underlying pathology and severity of illness. As potential applications for FMT expand, careful donor screening and patient selection are critical to minimizing risk to patients and physicians. FMT represents an excellent therapeutic option for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis and holds promise as a possible treatment modality in a variety of other conditions. The wide array of delivery methods allows for its application in various disease states in both the inpatient and outpatient setting.

RevDate: 2018-10-09

Paknikar R, J Pekow (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Management of Clostridium difficile Infection.

Surgical infections [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) continues to grow. Despite the multitude of treatment options that have been developed and tested to combat the morbidity and death associated with CDI, recurrence remains common. As such, treatment modalities such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have become studied increasingly; FMT serves to transplant stool from carefully selected healthy subjects into C. difficile positive patients through a variety of delivery routes. In doing so, FMT is hypothesized to correct dysbiosis of the recipient gut microbiome addressing the root cause of the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection. A growing body of evidence shows FMT to be efficacious in this setting, and the study of FMT accordingly continues to evolve to identify novel indications for its utilization.

RevDate: 2018-10-09
CmpDate: 2018-10-09

Goyal H, Perisetti A, Rehman MR, et al (2018)

New and emerging therapies in treatment of Clostridium difficile infection.

European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 30(6):589-597.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most serious nosocomial infections that have grown dramatically over the past decade. Vancomycin and metronidazole are currently used as a standard therapy for CDI. Metronidazole is recommended as a first-line therapy for mild-to-moderate infections and vancomycin is mainly used for severe and/or refractory cases. However, studies have demonstrated that there are quite high CDI relapse rates with both of these medications, which represents a challenge for clinicians. Over the last decade, a number of newer and novel therapeutic options have emerged as promising alternatives to these standard CDI therapies. The following review provides the updated summaries of these newer therapeutic agents and their status in the treatment of CDI.

RevDate: 2018-10-09
CmpDate: 2018-10-08

McClain C, S Barve (2017)

A tale of two institutions.

Journal of hepatology, 66(4):682-684.

RevDate: 2018-10-06

Wen W, Zhang H, Shen J, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A meta-analysis protocol.

Medicine, 97(40):e12661.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Many patients with IBS have a poor quality of life due to abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and the presence of other diseases. At present, intestinal motility inhibitors, adsorbents, astringents, intestinal mucosal protective agents, and antidepressants have been combined to treat IBS, but the treatment process is long, which results in a large economic burden to patients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment involving the transplantation of functional bacteria from healthy human feces into the gastrointestinal tract of patients; thus, replacing the intestinal flora and modulating intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. In recent years, the efficacy and economic benefits of FMT in the treatment of IBS have received increasing attention from researchers.A search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on treating IBS with FMT will be performed using 9 databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrails, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sino Med, ScienceDirect, VIP, and Wanfang Data. Two reviewers will independently screen data extraction studies and assess study quality and risk of bias. The risk of bias for each RCT will be assessed against the Cochrane Handbook standards to assess methodological quality. RevMan V.5.3 software will be used to calculate data synthesis when meta-analysis is allowed.This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of FMT in the treatment of IBS.This study will determine if FMT is an effective and safe intervention for IBS.PROSPERO registration number is PROSPERO CRD42018108080.

RevDate: 2018-10-04

Warner BB (2018)

The contribution of the gut microbiome to neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Pediatric research pii:10.1038/s41390-018-0191-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain is well recognized, with data now accruing for a specific role of the gut microbiota in that link, referred to as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. This review will discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiota in brain development and behavior. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on gene expression and neurochemical metabolism impacting behavior and performance. Based on these changes, a modulating role of the gut microbiota has been demonstrated for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and movement including Parkinson's, and importantly for the pediatric population autism. Critical developmental windows that influence early behavioral outcomes have been identified that include both the prenatal environment and early postnatal colonization periods. The clearest data regarding the role of the gut microbiota on neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders is from animal studies; however, human data have begun to emerge, including an association between early colonization patterns and cognition. The importance of understanding the contribution of the gut microbiota to the development and functioning of the nervous system lies in the potential to intervene using novel microbial-based approaches to treating neurologic conditions. While pathways of communication between the gut and brain are well established, the gut microbiome is a new component of this axis. The way in which organisms that live in the gut influence the central nervous system (CNS) and host behavior is likely to be multifactorial in origin. This includes immunologic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms, all of which are pathways used for other microbial-host interactions. Germ-free (GF) mice are an important model system for understanding the impact of gut microbes on development and function of the nervous system. Alternative animal model systems have further clarified the role of the gut microbiota, including antibiotic treatment, fecal transplantation, and selective gut colonization with specific microbial organisms. Recently, researchers have started to examine the human host as well. This review will examine the components of the CNS potentially influenced by the gut microbiota, and the mechanisms mediating these effects. Links between gut microbial colonization patterns and host behavior relevant to a pediatric population will be examined, highlighting important developmental windows in utero or early in development.

RevDate: 2018-10-04

Bromberg JS, Hittle L, Xiong Y, et al (2018)

Gut microbiota-dependent modulation of innate immunity and lymph node remodeling affects cardiac allograft outcomes.

JCI insight, 3(19): pii:121045 [Epub ahead of print].

We hypothesized that the gut microbiota influences survival of murine cardiac allografts through modulation of immunity. Antibiotic pretreated mice received vascularized cardiac allografts and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), along with tacrolimus immunosuppression. FMT source samples were from normal, pregnant (immune suppressed), or spontaneously colitic (inflammation) mice. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum (B. pseudolongum) in pregnant FMT recipients was associated with prolonged allograft survival and lower inflammation and fibrosis, while normal or colitic FMT resulted in inferior survival and worse histology. Transfer of B. pseudolongum alone resulted in reduced inflammation and fibrosis. Stimulation of DC and macrophage lines with B. pseudolongum induced the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 and homeostatic chemokine CCL19 but induced lesser amounts of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. In contrast, LPS and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (D. desulfuricans), more abundant in colitic FMT, induced a more inflammatory cytokine response. Analysis of mesenteric and peripheral lymph node structure showed that B. pseudolongum gavage resulted in a higher laminin α4/α5 ratio in the lymph node cortical ridge, indicative of a suppressive environment, while D. desulfuricans resulted in a lower laminin α4/α5 ratio, supportive of inflammation. Discrete gut bacterial species alter immunity and may predict graft outcomes through stimulation of myeloid cells and shifts in lymph node structure and permissiveness.

RevDate: 2018-10-03

Li X, Li Z, Chang Y, et al (2018)

Successful transplantation of guinea pig gut microbiota in mice and its effect on pneumonic plague sensitivity.

PeerJ, 6:e5637 pii:5637.

Microbiota-driven variations in the inflammatory response are predicted to regulate host responses to infection. Increasing evidence indicates that the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts have an intimate relationship with each other. Gut microbiota can influence lung immunity whereby gut-derived injurious factors can reach the lungs and systemic circulation via the intestinal lymphatics. The intestinal microbiota's ability to resist colonization can be extended to systemic infections or to pathogens infecting distant sites such as the lungs. Unlike the situation with large mammals, the microtus Yersinia pestis 201 strain exhibits strong virulence in mice, but nearly no virulence to large mammals (such as guinea pigs). Hence, to assess whether the intestinal microbiota from guinea pigs was able to affect the sensitivity of mice to challenge infection with the Y. pestis 201 strain, we fed mice with guinea pig diets for two months, after which they were administered 0.5 ml of guinea pig fecal suspension for 30 days by oral gavage. The stools from each mouse were collected on days 0, 15, and 30, DNA was extracted from them, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to assess the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota. We found that the intestinal microbiota transplants from the guinea pigs were able to colonize the mouse intestines. The mice were then infected with Yersinia pestis 201 by lung invasion, but no statistical difference was found in the survival rates of the mice that were colonized with the guinea pig's gut microbiota and the control mice. This indicates that the intestinal microbiota transplantation from the guinea pigs did not affect the sensitivity of the mice to pneumonic plague.

RevDate: 2018-10-01

Liang S, Wu X, F Jin (2018)

Gut-Brain Psychology: Rethinking Psychology From the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 12:33.

Mental disorders and neurological diseases are becoming a rapidly increasing medical burden. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the progress in developing effective therapies for these diseases has still been slow. The current dilemma reminds us that the human being is a superorganism. Only when we take the human self and its partner microbiota into consideration at the same time, can we better understand these diseases. Over the last few centuries, the partner microbiota has experienced tremendous change, much more than human genes, because of the modern transformations in diet, lifestyle, medical care, and so on, parallel to the modern epidemiological transition. Existing research indicates that gut microbiota plays an important role in this transition. According to gut-brain psychology, the gut microbiota is a crucial part of the gut-brain network, and it communicates with the brain via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota almost develops synchronously with the gut-brain, brain, and mind. The gut microbiota influences various normal mental processes and mental phenomena, and is involved in the pathophysiology of numerous mental and neurological diseases. Targeting the microbiota in therapy for these diseases is a promising approach that is supported by three theories: the gut microbiota hypothesis, the "old friend" hypothesis, and the leaky gut theory. The effects of gut microbiota on the brain and behavior are fulfilled by the microbiota-gut-brain axis, which is mainly composed of the nervous pathway, endocrine pathway, and immune pathway. Undoubtedly, gut-brain psychology will bring great enhancement to psychology, neuroscience, and psychiatry. Various microbiota-improving methods including fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, a healthy diet, and healthy lifestyle have shown the capability to promote the function of the gut-brain, microbiota-gut-brain axis, and brain. It will be possible to harness the gut microbiota to improve brain and mental health and prevent and treat related diseases in the future.

RevDate: 2018-10-01
CmpDate: 2018-09-28

Allen JM, Mailing LJ, Cohrs J, et al (2018)

Exercise training-induced modification of the gut microbiota persists after microbiota colonization and attenuates the response to chemically-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice.

Gut microbes, 9(2):115-130.

Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory disease by modulating a variety of tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Recent data indicates that exercise can also alter the gut microbiota, but little is known as to whether these changes affect host function. Here, we use a germ-free (GF) animal model to test whether exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can directly affect host responses to microbiota colonization and chemically-induced colitis. Donor mice (n = 19) received access to a running wheel (n = 10) or remained without access (n = 9) for a period of six weeks. After euthanasia, cecal contents were pooled by activity treatment and transplanted into two separate cohorts of GF mice. Two experiments were then conducted. First, mice were euthanized five weeks after the microbiota transplant and tissues were collected for analysis. A second cohort of GF mice were colonized by donor microbiotas for four weeks before dextran-sodium-sulfate was administered to induce acute colitis, after which mice were euthanized for tissue analysis. We observed that microbial transplants from donor (exercised or control) mice led to differences in microbiota β-diversity, metabolite profiles, colon inflammation, and body mass in recipient mice five weeks after colonization. We also demonstrate that colonization of mice with a gut microbiota from exercise-trained mice led to an attenuated response to chemical colitis, evidenced by reduced colon shortening, attenuated mucus depletion and augmented expression of cytokines involved in tissue regeneration. Exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can mediate host-microbial interactions with potentially beneficial outcomes for the host.

RevDate: 2018-09-30

Krajicek E, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, et al (2018)

Nuts and Bolts of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(18)31020-6 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-09-28

Martinez C, Edwards J, A Hassoun (2018)

Commercialized fecal microbiota transplantation provides efficacious treatment of Clostridium difficile infection.

Infectious diseases (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-09-27

Taur Y, Coyte K, Schluter J, et al (2018)

Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant.

Science translational medicine, 10(460):.

Antibiotic treatment can deplete the commensal bacteria of a patient's gut microbiota and, paradoxically, increase their risk of subsequent infections. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), antibiotic administration is essential for optimal clinical outcomes but significantly disrupts intestinal microbiota diversity, leading to loss of many beneficial microbes. Although gut microbiota diversity loss during allo-HSCT is associated with increased mortality, approaches to reestablish depleted commensal bacteria have yet to be developed. We have initiated a randomized, controlled clinical trial of autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) versus no intervention and have analyzed the intestinal microbiota profiles of 25 allo-HSCT patients (14 who received auto-FMT treatment and 11 control patients who did not). Changes in gut microbiota diversity and composition revealed that the auto-FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition that the patient had before antibiotic treatment and allo-HSCT. These results demonstrate the potential for fecal sample banking and posttreatment remediation of a patient's gut microbiota after microbiota-depleting antibiotic treatment during allo-HSCT.

RevDate: 2018-09-27
CmpDate: 2018-09-27

Salzberger B, Lehnert H, J Mössner (2017)

[The human microbiome].

Der Internist, 58(5):427-428.

RevDate: 2018-09-25

Hughes HK, Rose D, P Ashwood (2018)

The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 18(11):81 pii:10.1007/s11910-018-0887-6.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing body of evidence indicating the gut microbiota influence neurodevelopment and behavior. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of studies analyzing the microbiota and their metabolites in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to discuss the possible mechanisms of action involved in microbial influence on the brain and behavior.

RECENT FINDINGS: The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis has been extensively studied in animal models, and it is clear that alterations in the composition of microbiota alter neurological and behavioral outcomes. However, findings in human studies are less abundant. Although there are several studies so far showing altered microbiota (dysbiosis) in ASD, the results are heterogeneous and often contradictory. Intervention studies such as fecal microbiota transplant therapies show promise and lend credence to the involvement of the microbiota in ASD. A role for the microbiota in ASD is likely; however, further studies elucidating microbial or metabolomic signatures and mechanisms of action are needed. Future research should focus on intervention studies that can identify specific metabolites and immune mediators that improve with treatment to help identify etiologies and pathological mechanisms of ASD.

RevDate: 2018-09-25

Haak BW, Prescott HC, WJ Wiersinga (2018)

Therapeutic Potential of the Gut Microbiota in the Prevention and Treatment of Sepsis.

Frontiers in immunology, 9:2042.

Alongside advances in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis, there have been tremendous strides in understanding the pervasive role of the gut microbiota in systemic host resistance. In pre-clinical models, a diverse and balanced gut microbiota enhances host immunity to both enteric and systemic pathogens. Disturbance of this balance increases susceptibility to sepsis and sepsis-related organ dysfunction, while restoration of the gut microbiome is protective. Patients with sepsis have a profoundly distorted composition of the intestinal microbiota, but the impact and therapeutic potential of the microbiome is not well-established in human sepsis. Modulation of the microbiota consists of either resupplying the pool of beneficial microbes by administration of probiotics, improving the intestinal microenvironment to enhance the growth of beneficial species by dietary interventions and prebiotics, or by totally recolonizing the gut with a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We propose that there are three potential opportunities to utilize these treatment modalities over the course of sepsis: to decrease sepsis incidence, to improve sepsis outcome, and to decrease late mortality after sepsis. Exploring these three avenues will provide insight into how disturbances of the microbiota can predispose to, or even perpetuate the dysregulated immune response associated with this syndrome, which in turn could be associated with improved sepsis management.

RevDate: 2018-09-25

Plantamura E, Dzutsev A, Chamaillard M, et al (2018)

MAVS deficiency induces gut dysbiotic microbiota conferring a proallergic phenotype.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1722372115 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-09-26
CmpDate: 2018-09-26

Gupta A, Cifu AS, S Khanna (2018)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection.

JAMA, 320(10):1031-1032.

RevDate: 2018-09-26
CmpDate: 2018-09-26

The Lancet (2018)

A new approach to treating infection.

Lancet (London, England), 391(10122):714.

RevDate: 2018-09-26
CmpDate: 2018-09-26

Radovanovic-Dinic B, Tesic-Rajkovic S, Grgov S, et al (2018)

Irritable bowel syndrome - from etiopathogenesis to therapy.

Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, 162(1):1-9.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and relapsing functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 9-23% of the population across the world. Patients with IBS are often referred to gastroenterology, undergo various investigations, take various medicines, take time off work and have a poor quality of life. The pathophysiology of IBS is not yet completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Many pathogenetic factors, in various combinations, and not all necessarily present in each patient, can play an important role. Discomfort or abdominal pain relieived by defacation, asociated with a change in stool form, is a typical clinical manifestation of IBS. Many factors, such as emotional stress and eating, may exacerbate the symptoms. A timely diagnosis of IBS is important so that treatment which will provide adequate symptomatic relief (diarrhoea, constipation, pain and boaring) can be introduced. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria IV is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Treatment of patients with IBS requires a multidisciplinary approach. Some patients respond well to non-pharmacological treatment, while others also require pharmacological treatment. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and therapies for IBS.

RevDate: 2018-09-25
CmpDate: 2018-09-25

Johnsen PH, Hilpüsch F, Cavanagh JP, et al (2018)

Faecal microbiota transplantation versus placebo for moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre trial.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 3(1):17-24.

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by abdominal pain, bloating, and poor quality of life. IBS might be caused by a gut dysbiosis. We aimed to compare faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with placebo in patients with IBS.

METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre study, we enrolled patients with IBS with diarrhoea or with diarrhoea and constipation (excluding dominating constipation) defined by the ROME III criteria, scored as moderate to severe according to the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS; a score of ≥175). Eligible participants were aged 18-75 years and were recruited locally by general practitioners in northern Norway. We randomly assigned participants (2:1) in blocks of six to active or placebo FMT. Personnel not involved in the clinical performance of the trial generated the randomisation sequence using a randomisation website. Non-study personnel performed the final allocation and standardised the active and placebo transplants to make them identical in appearance and temperature. The faeces were freshly processed, and were used the same day (fresh transplant) or were stored in a freezer for later use (frozen transplant); participants' own faeces served as placebo. A dose of 8 mg loperamide was administered orally 2 h before endoscopy to retain the transplant. The transplant (50-80 g of faeces mixed with 200 mL of isotonic saline and 50 mL of 85% glycerol) was administered by a colonoscope to the caecum. The primary endpoint was symptom relief of more than 75 points assessed by IBS-SSS, 3 months after FMT. The primary analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat population, excluding participants who did not undergo treatment or who were diagnosed with any other disease by pinch biopsies obtained during the treatment procedure. For the safety analysis, only participants who did not undergo treatment were excluded. The study is registered with, number NCT02154867. The trial has been extended with an open-labelled study treating the placebo group with frozen FMT for further exploratory studies.

FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, and Oct 30, 2015, we recruited 90 participants and randomly assigned them to active treatment (n=60) or placebo (n=30). Three participants did not undergo FMT and four were excluded after diagnosis of microscopic colitis, leaving 83 for final modified intention-to-treat analysis (55 in the active treatment group and 28 in the placebo group). 36 (65%) of 55 participants receiving active treatment versus 12 (43%) of 28 receiving the placebo showed response at 3 months (p=0·049). One participant had transient nausea and vertigo (active group) and was observed at the hospital for a few hours after the procedure. Two participants had soiling of transplant on their way home from treatment (one in each group) and three experienced self-limiting intermittent abdominal pain (one in the active group and two in the placebo group). No serious adverse events could be attributed to FMT.

INTERPRETATION: FMT induced significant symptom relief in patients with IBS. However, larger multicentre studies are needed to confirm the results.

FUNDING: HelseNord and the Norwegian Centre of Rural Medicine, University of Tromsø.

RevDate: 2018-09-24

Shogbesan O, Poudel DR, Victor S, et al (2018)

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile Infection in Immunocompromised Patients.

Canadian journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 2018:1394379.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile (CD) infection, with resolution in 80% to 90% of patients. However, immunosuppressed patients were often excluded from FMT trials, so safety and efficacy in this population are unknown.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for English language articles published on FMT for treatment of CD infection in immunocompromised patients (including patients on immunosuppressant medications, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inherited or primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cancer undergoing chemotherapy, or organ transplant, including-bone marrow transplant) of all ages. We excluded inflammatory bowel disease patients that were not on immunosuppressant medications. Resolution and adverse event rates (including secondary infection, rehospitalization, and death) were calculated.

Results: Forty-four studies were included, none of which were randomized designs. A total of 303 immunocompromised patients were studied. Mean patient age was 57.3 years. Immunosuppressant medication use was the reason for the immunocompromised state in the majority (77.2%), and 19.2% had greater than one immunocompromising condition. Seventy-six percent were given FMT via colonoscopy. Of the 234 patients with reported follow-up outcomes, 207/234 (87%) reported resolution after first treatment, with 93% noting success after multiple treatments. There were 2 reported deaths, 2 colectomies, 5 treatment-related infections, and 10 subsequent hospitalizations.

Conclusion: We found evidence that supports the use of FMT for treatment of CD infection in immunocompromised patients, with similar rates of serious adverse events to immunocompetent patients.

RevDate: 2018-09-24
CmpDate: 2018-09-24

Kang Y, Y Cai (2018)

Future prospect of faecal microbiota transplantation as a potential therapy in asthma.

Allergologia et immunopathologia, 46(3):307-309.

There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of asthma. Certain intestinal microbial strains have been demonstrated to suppress or impair immune responsiveness in asthma experimental models, suggesting that specific species among gut commensal microbiota may play either a morbific or phylactic role in the progression of asthma. Evidence to date suggests that the intestinal microbiota represent fertile targets for prevention or management of asthma. The faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. The FMT may therefore represent a therapeutic approach for asthma treatment in the foreseeable future. At present, FMT therapy for asthma is very limited and should be actively studied. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of FMT therapy for asthma. In this review, we aimed to provide several insights into the development of FMT therapy for asthma.

RevDate: 2018-09-21
CmpDate: 2018-09-21

Dunwoody R, Steel A, Landy J, et al (2018)

Clostridium difficile and cystic fibrosis: management strategies and the role of faecal transplantation.

Paediatric respiratory reviews, 26:16-18.

Clostridium difficile is a bacterial infection that colonises the gut in susceptible hosts. It is associated with exposure to healthcare settings and antibiotic use. It could be assumed that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are a high-risk group for C.difficile. However, despite high carriage rates, CF patients have low rates of active disease. There are guidelines for the treatment of C.difficile, however little is published specific to treating C.difficile in CF. This article provides an overview of the current management strategies for C.difficile in CF, including a description of the first faecal transplantation in this patient population.

RevDate: 2018-09-21
CmpDate: 2018-09-21

Van Laethem Y (2016)


Revue medicale de Bruxelles, 37(3):133-134.

RevDate: 2018-09-20

Fortier LC (2018)

Bacteriophages Contribute to Shaping Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile Species.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2033.

Bacteriophages (phages) are bacterial viruses that parasitize bacteria. They are highly prevalent in nature, with an estimated 1031 viral particles in the whole biosphere, and they outnumber bacteria by at least 10-fold. Hence, phages represent important drivers of bacterial evolution, although our knowledge of the role played by phages in the mammalian gut is still embryonic. Several pathogens owe their virulence to the integrated phages (prophages) they harbor, which encode diverse virulence factors such as toxins. Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is an important opportunistic pathogen and several phages infecting this species have been described over the last decade. However, their exact contribution to the biology and virulence of this pathogen remains elusive. Current data have shown that C. difficile phages can alter virulence-associated phenotypes, in particular toxin production, by interfering with bacterial regulatory circuits through crosstalk with phage proteins for example. One phage has also been found to encode a complete binary toxin locus. Multiple regulatory genes have also been identified in phage genomes, suggesting that their impact on the host can be complex and often subtle. In this minireview, the current state of knowledge, major findings, and pending questions regarding C. difficile phages will be presented. In addition, with the apparent role played by phages in the success of fecal microbiota transplantation and the perspective of phage therapy for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection, it has become even more crucial to understand what C. difficile phages do in the gut, how they impact their host, and how they influence the epidemiology and evolution of this clinically important pathogen.

RevDate: 2018-09-20

Lu M, Z Wang (2018)

Microbiota and Aging.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1086:141-156.

The human gut microbiota is a huge ecosystem that provides lots of functions for host development, immune system, and metabolism. Gut microbiota is linked to lots of diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), irritable bowel syndrome, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies, however, have noted the relationship between aging and microbiota; the connection between aging and microbiota remains largely to be researched. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut microbiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in antiaging medicine.

RevDate: 2018-09-20
CmpDate: 2018-09-20

Diamond C, T McNeilly (2017)

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium Difficile - a local perspective.

The Ulster medical journal, 86(2):108-110.

Clostridium Difficile represents one of the major challenges of the antimicrobial era with associated significant morbidity. Treatment options are limited to a number of specific antibiotics with significant failure rates. Faecal Microbiota Transplantation has been recognised as a possible treatment option when standard therapy fails. We report a local case of Clostridium Difficile Infection ultimately requiring Faecal Microbiota Transplantation with good success. While no formal service providing the treatment is available within Northern Ireland it is a feasible treatment option for Clostridium Difficile Infection.

RevDate: 2018-09-20
CmpDate: 2018-09-20

Nishimura N, Tanabe H, Komori E, et al (2018)

Transplantation of High Hydrogen-Producing Microbiota Leads to Generation of Large Amounts of Colonic Hydrogen in Recipient Rats Fed High Amylose Maize Starch.

Nutrients, 10(2): pii:nu10020144.

The hydrogen molecule (H₂), which has low redox potential, is produced by colonic fermentation. We examined whether increased hydrogen (H₂) concentration in the portal vein in rats fed high amylose maize starch (HAS) helped alleviate oxidative stress, and whether the transplantation of rat colonic microbiota with high H₂ production can shift low H₂-generating rats (LG) to high H₂-generating rats (HG). Rats were fed a 20% HAS diet for 10 days and 13 days in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. After 10 days (experiment 1), rats underwent a hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) operation. Rats were then categorized into quintiles of portal H₂ concentration. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatic oxidized glutathione concentration were significantly lower as portal H₂ concentration increased. In experiment 2, microbiota derived from HG (the transplantation group) or saline (the control group) were orally inoculated into LG on days 3 and 4. On day 13, portal H₂ concentration in the transplantation group was significantly higher compared with the control group, and positively correlated with genera Bifidobacterium, Allobaculum, and Parabacteroides, and negatively correlated with genera Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Escherichia. In conclusion, the transplantation of microbiota derived from HG leads to stable, high H₂ production in LG, with the resultant high production of H₂ contributing to the alleviation of oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2018-09-19

Staley C, Kaiser T, Vaughn BP, et al (2018)

Predicting recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection following encapsulated fecal microbiota transplantation.

Microbiome, 6(1):166 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0549-6.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). The use of freeze-dried, encapsulated donor material for FMT (cap-FMT) allows for an easy route of administration and remains clinically effective in the majority of rCDI patients. We hypothesized that specific shifts in the microbiota in response to cap-FMT could predict clinical outcome. We further evaluated the degree of donor microbiota engraftment to determine the extent that donor transfer contributed to recovery.

RESULTS: In total, 89 patients were treated with 100 separate cap-FMTs, with a success rate (no rCDI 60 days post cap-FMT) of 80%. Among responders, the lower alpha diversity (ANOVA P < 0.05) observed among patient's pre-FMT samples was restored following cap-FMT. At 1 week post-FMT, community composition varied by clinical outcome (ANOSIM P < 0.001), with similar abundances among families (Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroidaceae) in responder and donor samples. Families that showed differential abundances by outcome (response vs. recurrence) from samples collected 7 days following cap-FMT were used to construct a regression tree-based model to predict recurrence. Results showed a training accuracy of 100% to predict recurrence and the model was 97% accurate against a test data set of samples collected 8-20 days following cap-FMT. Evaluation of the extent of engraftment using the Bayesian algorithm SourceTracker revealed that approximately 50% of the post-FMT communities of responders were attributable to donor microbiota, while an additional 20-30% of the communities were similar to a composite healthy microbiota consisting of all donor samples.

CONCLUSIONS: Regression tree-based analyses of microbial communities identified taxa significantly related to clinical response after 7 days, which can be targeted to improve microbial therapeutics. Furthermore, reinstatement of a healthy assemblage following cap-FMT was only partially attributable to explicit donor engraftment and continued to develop towards an overall healthy assemblage, independent of donor.

RevDate: 2018-09-18

Tariq R, Weatherly RM, Kammer PP, et al (2017)

Experience and Outcomes at a Specialized Clostridium difficile Clinical Practice.

Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes, 1(1):49-56 pii:S2542-4548(17)30012-7.

Objective: To report our experience with and outcomes among patients referred to a specialized Clostridium difficile clinical practice.

Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified consecutive patients referred for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management from January 1, 2013, through May 30, 2015. Data were collected for demographic characteristics, CDI history, final diagnoses, and management.

Results: Overall, 211 patients (median age, 65 years; 66.4% women) were included. The most common indications for referral were recurrent CDI in 199 patients (94.3%), first CDI episode in 5 patients (2.4%), and chronic diarrhea in 7 patients (3.3%). After evaluation, the diagnoses were recurrent CDI in 127 patients (60.2%), resolved CDI in 36 patients (17.1%), first-episode CDI in 5 patients (2.4%), and non-CDI in 43 patients (20.4%). The most common non-CDI diagnoses were postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in 32 patients (15.2% overall), inflammatory bowel disease (n=3), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (n=2), microscopic colitis (n=1), and asymptomatic C difficile colonization (n=2). Two patients had diabetic gastroparesis and food intolerances, and 1 had chronic constipation with overflow diarrhea. Of 127 patients with recurrent CDI, 30 (23.6%) received antibiotics; of these 30, 12 had antibiotic treatment failure and received fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent CDI. Among 97 patients (76.4%) who underwent FMT, 85 (87.6%) were cured after the first FMT, 5 were cured after the second FMT, and 7 were treated with antibiotics for FMT failure, with resolution of symptoms.

Conclusion: A substantial proportion of patients referred for CDI subsequently received alternative diagnoses; PI-IBS was the most common. Patients being referred for recurrent CDI should be evaluated carefully for alternative diagnoses.

RevDate: 2018-09-19
CmpDate: 2018-09-19

Akrami K, DA Sweeney (2018)

The microbiome of the critically ill patient.

Current opinion in critical care, 24(1):49-54.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the understanding of the human microbiome outside of the ICU have led investigators to consider the role of the microbiome in critical illness. The picture that is being elucidated is one of dysbiosis occurring at multiple sites in the critically ill patient. This review describes the changes that occur in the various microbiomes of a critically ill patient, the implications of these changes and shows how advances in the understanding of dysbiosis may lead to microbiome-targeted therapies.

RECENT FINDINGS: Critically ill patients undergo dysbiosis at several organ sites including the skin, gastrointestinal system and the lungs with loss of microbial diversity and a propensity for potentially pathogenic organisms to dominate a particular microbiome. These microbiome changes appear to be predictive of clinical outcome. While the use of fecal microbial transplantation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, the use of fecal microbial transplantation and other microbiome modifying therapies may have a role in managing critical illness in the ICU.

SUMMARY: A growing understanding of the microbiome in the critically ill may modify current dogma regarding the pathogenesis of sepsis and other life-threatening conditions seen in the ICU, thereby fundamentally changing antibiotic stewardship and the management of the critically ill patient.

RevDate: 2018-09-18

Drastich P, Bajer L, M Kverka (2018)

Possibilities of therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota.

Vnitrni lekarstvi, 64(6):665-671.

Human gut microbiota, complex ecosystem of microbes associated with human gut, is essential for the development of the host's immune system and many other physiological functions. Recently, numerous diseases and syndromes were associated with disruption of this ecosystem thus stressing its importance in maintaining the host's health. Growing evidence suggests that by manipulating the gut microbiota, some of these diseases could be treated or even prevented. These manipulations include changes in diet, use of probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The successes in FMT treatment of recurrent infection of Clostridium difficile led recently to a great interest in extending this treatment modality to other diseases with proven disruption of gut microbiota, such as ulcerative colitis or metabolic syndrome. Key words: Clostridium difficile - dysbiosis - fecal microbial transplantation - microbiota - prebiotics - probiotics.

RevDate: 2018-09-18
CmpDate: 2018-09-18

Ooijevaar RE, van Beurden YH, Terveer EM, et al (2018)

Update of treatment algorithms for Clostridium difficile infection.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 24(5):452-462.

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, both in healthcare facilities and in the community. The recurrence rate of C. difficile infection (CDI) remains high, up to 20%. Since the publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) guidance document on CDI treatment in 2014, new therapeutic approaches have been developed and tested to achieve higher sustained clinical cure in CDI.

AIM: To review novel treatments and approaches for CDI, except probiotics and vaccines. We focused on new antibiotics, antibiotic inactivators, monoclonal antibodies and gut microbiota modulating therapies.

SOURCES: A literature review was performed for clinical trials published in PubMed, Embase or Cochrane Library between January 2013 and November 2017.

CONTENT: We analysed 28 clinical trials and identified 14 novel agents. Completed phase 2 studies were found for cadazolid, LFF571, ridinilazole and nontoxigenic C. difficile strains. Four phase 3 active comparator studies comparing vancomycin with bezlotoxumab, surotomycin (n = 2) and rifaximin have been published. Seven clinical trials for treatment of multiple recurrent CDI with faecal microbiota transplantation were analysed, describing faecal microbiota transplantation by upper or lower gastrointestinal route (n = 5) or by capsules (n = 2).

IMPLICATIONS: Metronidazole is mentioned in the ESCMID guideline as first-line therapy, but we propose that oral vancomycin will become the first choice when antibiotic treatment for CDI is necessary. Fidaxomicin is a good alternative, especially in patients at risk of relapse. Vancomycin combined with faecal microbiota transplantation remains the primary therapy for multiple recurrent CDI. We anticipate that new medication that protects the gut microbiota will be further developed and tested to prevent CDI during antibiotic therapy.

RevDate: 2018-09-18
CmpDate: 2018-09-18

Chilton CH, Pickering DS, J Freeman (2018)

Microbiologic factors affecting Clostridium difficile recurrence.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 24(5):476-482.

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may affect quality of life, leaving patients in an rCDI cycle and dependant on antibiotic therapy.

AIMS: To discuss the importance of microbiologic factors in the development of rCDI.

SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection' and further references cited within these articles.

CONTENT: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that CDI and rCDI risk factors are similar. Development of rCDI is attendant on many factors, including immune status or function, comorbidities and concomitant treatments. Studies suggest that poor bacterial diversity is correlated with clinical rCDI. Narrow-spectrum gut microflora-sparing antimicrobials (e.g. surotomycin, cadazolid, ridinilazole) are in development for CDI treatment, while microbiota therapeutics (faecal microbiota transplantation, nontoxigenic C. difficile, stool substitutes) are increasingly being explored. rCDI can only occur when viable C. difficile spores are present, either within the gut lumen after infection or when reacquired from the environment. C. difficile spore germination can be influenced by gut environmental factors resulting from dysbiosis, and spore outgrowth may be affected stage by some antimicrobials (e.g. fidaxomicin, ramoplanin, oritavancin).

IMPLICATIONS: rCDI is a significant challenge for healthcare professionals, requiring a multifaceted approach; optimized infection control to minimize reinfection; C. difficile-targeted antibiotics to minimize dysbiosis; and gut microflora restoration to promote colonization resistance. These elements should be informed by our understanding of the microbiologic factors involved in both C. difficile itself and the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-09-17

Reigadas E, Olmedo M, Valerio M, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: Experience, protocol, and results.

Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia pii:reigadas14sep2018 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI). Despite its excellent efficacy, it is still not a routine procedure in most European centers. FMT has not been widely used in Spain to date. We describe our experience with FMT, including a novel approach based on oral fecal capsules.

METHODS: We analyzed a prospectively recorded case series of patients with R-CDI treated with FMT at a single center (June 2014-July 2017). Primary outcome was defined as resolution of CDI without recurrence in a two-month period. FMT was administered via colonoscopy, nasojejunal tube, or oral capsules. All stool donors were rigorously screened.

RESULTS: FMT was performed in 13 patients with R-CDI. Median age was 75.0 years and 76.9% were females. Six FMT were performed via nasojejunal tube, 5 via oral capsules, and 2 by colonoscopy. There were no procedure-related adverse events, except for bacteremia in one patient. During follow-up, R- CDI was observed in one patient at one month after FMT. The primary resolution rate was 83.3% and the overall resolution rate was 91.7%. FMT by capsules achieved a 100% resolution rate, colonoscopy 100%, and nasojejunal tube 80.0%.

CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, FMT proved to be safe and effective, even in high risk patients. Oral administration in capsules also proved to be safe, well-tolerated, and highly effective for R-CDI. In our experience, the FMT capsule formulation seems feasible in the routine of a hospital. This administration method will allow FMT to be more widely used.

RevDate: 2018-09-17

Daniels LM, WD Kufel (2018)

Clinical review of Clostridium difficile infection: an update on treatment and prevention.

Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a significant healthcare-associated infection and is strongly associated with antibiotic use. Practice guidelines have recently been revised incorporating updated recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Areas Covered: This review discusses updated aspects of CDI management. New and emerging pharmacologic options for treatment and prevention are reviewed. Expert opinion: Metronidazole is associated with lower rates of treatment success compared to vancomycin and should no longer be used as primary therapy for the first episode of CDI or recurrent disease. Vancomycin or fidaxomicin are now recommended for first line therapy for most cases of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplant is effective and safe for the treatment of recurrent CDI. Evidence supports the use of fidaxomicin and bezlotoxumab for prevention of recurrent CDI; however, the costs associated with these therapies may limit their use. Validated risk prediction tools are needed to identify patients most likely to benefit from these treatments. Future advancements in microbiota targeting treatments will emerge as promising alternatives to standard CDI treatments. Antibiotic stewardship and infection control measures will remain essential components for CDI management.

RevDate: 2018-09-17
CmpDate: 2018-09-17

Arab JP, Martin-Mateos RM, VH Shah (2018)

Gut-liver axis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension: the chicken and the egg.

Hepatology international, 12(Suppl 1):24-33.

The term gut-liver axis is used to highlight the close anatomical and functional relationship between the intestine and the liver. The intestine has a highly specialized epithelial membrane which regulates transport across the mucosa. Due to dysbiosis, impairment of the intestinal barrier and altered immunity status, bacterial products can reach the liver through the portal vein, where they are recognized by specific receptors, activate the immune system and lead to a proinflammatory response. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications, such as portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopaty. The gut microbiota also plays a critical role as a modulator of bile acid metabolism which can also influence intestinal permeability and portal hypertension through the farnesoid-X receptor. On the other hand, cirrhosis and portal hypertension affect the microbiota and increase translocation, leading to a "chicken and egg" situation, where translocation increases portal pressure, and vice versa. A myriad of therapies targeting gut microbiota have been evaluated specifically in patients with chronic liver disease. Further studies targeting intestinal microbiota and its possible hemodynamic and metabolic effects are needed. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension.

RevDate: 2018-09-15

Schmulson M, M Bashashati (2018)

Fecal microbiota transfer for bowel disorders: efficacy or hype?.

Current opinion in pharmacology, 43:72-80 pii:S1471-4892(18)30074-2 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis has been related to the pathophysiology of disorders of - gut-brain interaction (DGBI) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC). Accordingly, modulation of gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential treatment for these disorders. Gut microbiota modulation can be effected by probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantation (FMT) or bacteriotherapy. The latter is currently used for recurrent or severe Clostridium difficile colitis and has been the focus of recent research in IBS and FC.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several case series reported promising results for FMT in patients with IBS and FC, which prompted the conduction of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in these DGBI.

SUMMARY: Both case series and RCTs are herein discussed. To the best of our knowledge, as of yet, 5 RCTs have been published on IBS and one in FC with slow colonic transit. In IBS, the majority of studies have used the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) as an outcome measure; however, the selection criteria were different among the trials as well as the route and form of administration of the FMT. Therefore, the results are inconsistent and no conclusion can be drawn. Some studies suggest that the presence of post-infection (PI)-IBS and the baseline microbiota status in the donors could be predictor factors of successful FMT in IBS. In constipation with slow colonic transit, the FMT seems to be more effective, although the data is based on only one RCT. We believe that larger RCTs, controlled with true placebos and considering baseline intestinal microbiota of the study subjects as well as donors' microbiota are still needed before recommending FMT in IBS and/or FC. History of previous GI infection (e.g. PI-IBS) and IBS subtypes should also be taken into account.

RevDate: 2018-09-14

Diorio C, Robinson PD, Ammann RA, et al (2018)

Guideline for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Children and Adolescents With Cancer and Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a clinical practice guideline for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children and adolescents with cancer and pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Methods An international multidisciplinary panel of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases with patient advocate representation was convened. We performed systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for the prevention or treatment of CDI in any population and considered the directness of the evidence to children with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to generate recommendations. Results The panel made strong recommendations to administer either oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin for the initial treatment of nonsevere CDI and oral vancomycin for the initial treatment of severe CDI. Fidaxomicin may be considered in the setting of recurrent CDI. The panel suggested that probiotics not be routinely used for the prevention of CDI, and that monoclonal antibodies and probiotics not be routinely used for the treatment of CDI. A strong recommendation to not use fecal microbiota transplantation was made in this population. We identified key knowledge gaps and suggested directions for future research. Conclusion We present a guideline for the prevention and treatment of CDI in children and adolescents with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients. Future research should include randomized controlled trials that involve children with cancer and pediatric HSCT patients to improve the management of CDI in this population.

RevDate: 2018-09-14

Sunkara T, Rawla P, Ofosu A, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplant - a new frontier in inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of inflammation research, 11:321-328 pii:jir-11-321.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic multifactorial disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract and results from an aberrant immune response toward luminal antigens in genetically susceptible people. Most of the current therapies for IBD focus on the management of the inflammation by using corticosteroids, immune modulators, and more recently, monoclonal antibodies (biological therapy). Although these therapies provide benefit in most cases, there are still a significant number of patients who do not respond or become refractory over time, suggesting the need for alternative therapeutic options. In the last decade, it has been recognized that "dysbiosis," an imbalanced gut microbiota, is a key element in IBD suggesting microbiome-based therapies as an attractive approach. Recently, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has been successfully used for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, and it is now under investigation for the treatment of IBD. Clinical trials data are still poor but strongly support a future introduction of FMT in therapy to manage IBD microbiome. More studies are needed to assess the optimal route of administration and the frequency of FMT, the best matched donor for each patient as well as the risks associated with FMT in IBD.

RevDate: 2018-09-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-14

Frossard JL, D Moradpour (2016)


Revue medicale suisse, 12(528):1403.

RevDate: 2018-09-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-14

Biedermann L (2017)

Vancomycin in Very-Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Dysbiosis: Fight Fire with Fire?.

Digestion, 95(4):327-328.

RevDate: 2018-09-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-14

Hecker MT, Ho E, CJ Donskey (2017)

Fear of Failure: Engaging Patients in Antimicrobial Stewardship after Fecal Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 38(1):127-129.

RevDate: 2018-09-13

Ossorio PN, Y Zhou (2018)

Regulating stool for microbiota transplantation.

Gut microbes [Epub ahead of print].

In 2017 Gut Microbes published "A proposed definition of microbiota transplantation for regulatory purposes," in which the authors suggest that regulators should draw a line between microbiota transplants and biologic drugs composed of microbial communities (or other products derived from the human microbiome). They develop a definition of microbiota transplantation (MT) to help regulators draw such a line, and suggest that MT need not be, and cannot be, regulated as a biologic drug (a live biotherapeutic product). However, an agency's regulatory scrutiny of a medical product should be commensurate with that product's degree of risk to patients. Products for MT, such as stool, are likely to be as or more dangerous than more highly manipulated microbial products that scientists and regulators agree should be regulated as biologic drugs. Therefore, we argue that MT, as defined by the authors, should receive the same regulatory oversight as any other biologic product intended to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease. We also suggest that regulators might not be able to operationalize the proposed definition of MT.

RevDate: 2018-09-13

Wang Z, Lou H, Wang Y, et al (2018)

GePMI: A statistical model for personal intestinal microbiome identification.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 4:20 pii:65.

Human gut microbiomes consist of a large number of microbial genomes, which vary by diet and health conditions and from individual to individual. In the present work, we asked whether such variation or similarity could be measured and, if so, whether the results could be used for personal microbiome identification (PMI). To address this question, we herein propose a method to estimate the significance of similarity among human gut metagenomic samples based on reference-free, long k-mer features. Using these features, we find that pairwise similarities between the metagenomes of any two individuals obey a beta distribution and that a p value derived accordingly well characterizes whether two samples are from the same individual or not. We develop a computational framework called GePMI (Generating inter-individual similarity distribution for Personal Microbiome Identification) and apply it to several human gut metagenomic datasets (>300 individuals and >600 samples in total). From the results of GePMI, most of the human gut microbiomes can be identified (auROC = 0.9470, auPRC = 0.8702). Even after antibiotic treatment or fecal microbiota transplantation, the individual k-mer signature still maintains a certain specificity.

RevDate: 2018-09-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-13

Digby-Bell J, Williams A, Irving P, et al (2018)

Successful faecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection delivered by colonoscopy through a diverted ileostomy in a patient with severe perianal Crohn's disease.

BMJ case reports, 2018: pii:bcr-2017-222958.

We present the first reported case of successful treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with faecal microbiota transplantation delivered antegrade with a colonoscope through a diverting ileostomy.

RevDate: 2018-09-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-13

Quraishi MN, Critchlow T, Bhala N, et al (2017)

Faecal transplantation for IBD management-pitfalls and promises.

British medical bulletin, 124(1):181-190.

Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.

Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published.

Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising.

Areas of controversy: Methodology, underlying mechanisms and questions regarding safety of FMT remain controversial.

Growing points: Many trials of FMT in adults and children are currently recruiting.

Future trials of FMT will likely revisit Crohn's disease and patients undergoing pouch surgery. Advances in microbial culture complementing genetic sequencing and investigations into the virome and mycobiome in IBD will be of great future interest.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )