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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 24 Aug 2019 at 01:36 Created: 


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-08-23

Wallace E, Howard L, Liu M, et al (2019)

Long QT Syndrome: Genetics and Future Perspective.

Pediatric cardiology pii:10.1007/s00246-019-02151-x [Epub ahead of print].

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited primary arrhythmia syndrome that may present with malignant arrhythmia and, rarely, risk of sudden death. The clinical symptoms include palpitations, syncope, and anoxic seizures secondary to ventricular arrhythmia, classically torsade de pointes. This predisposition to malignant arrhythmia is from a cardiac ion channelopathy that results in delayed repolarization of the cardiomyocyte action potential. The QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram is a summation of the individual cellular ventricular action potential durations, and hence is a surrogate marker of the abnormal cellular membrane repolarization. Severely affected phenotypes administered current standard of care therapies may not be fully protected from the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. There are 17 different subtypes of LQTS associated with monogenic mutations of 15 autosomal dominant genes. It is now possible to model the various LQTS phenotypes through the generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. RNA interference can silence or suppress the expression of mutant genes. Thus, RNA interference can be a potential therapeutic intervention that may be employed in LQTS to knock out mutant mRNAs which code for the defective proteins. CRISPR/Cas9 is a genome editing technology that offers great potential in elucidating gene function and a potential therapeutic strategy for monogenic disease. Further studies are required to determine whether CRISPR/Cas9 can be employed as an efficacious and safe rescue of the LQTS phenotype. Current progress has raised opportunities to generate in vitro human cardiomyocyte models for drug screening and to explore gene therapy through genome editing.

RevDate: 2019-08-23

Lee J, Mou H, Ibraheim R, et al (2019)

Tissue-restricted Genome Editing in vivo Specified by MicroRNA-repressible Anti-CRISPR Proteins.

RNA (New York, N.Y.) pii:rna.071704.119 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune pathways that have revolutionized biotechnology and biomedical applications. Despite the potential for human therapeutic development, there are many hurdles that must be overcome before its use in clinical settings. Some clinical safety concerns arise from editing activity in unintended cell types or tissues upon in vivo delivery [e.g. by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors]. Although tissue-specific promoters and serotypes with tissue tropisms can be used, suitably compact promoters are not always available for desired cell types, and AAV tissue tropism specificities are not absolute. To reinforce tissue-specific editing, we exploited anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) that have evolved as natural countermeasures against CRISPR immunity. To inhibit Cas9 in all ancillary tissues without compromising editing in the target tissue, we established a flexible platform in which an Acr transgene is repressed by endogenous, tissue-specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We demonstrate that miRNAs regulate the expression of an Acr transgene bearing miRNA-binding sites in its 3' UTR and control subsequent genome editing outcomes in a cell-type specific manner. We also show that the strategy is applicable to multiple Cas9 orthologs and their respective anti-CRISPRs. Furthermore, we validate this approach in vivo by demonstrating that AAV9 delivery of Nme2Cas9, along with an AcrIIC3Nme construct that is targeted for repression by liver-specific miR-122, allows editing in the liver while repressing editing in an unintended tissue (heart muscle) in adult mice. This strategy provides safeguards against off-tissue genome editing by confining Cas9 activity to selected cell types.

RevDate: 2019-08-23

Meyer MB, Lee SM, Carlson AH, et al (2019)

A chromatin-based mechanism controls differential regulation of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp24a1 in renal and non-renal tissues.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:RA119.010173 [Epub ahead of print].

Cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) and CYP24A1 function maintain physiological levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney. Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression levels are transcriptionally regulated in a highly reciprocal manner by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3 In contrast, Cyp24a1 regulation in non-renal target cells (NRTCs) is limited to induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 Herein, we used ChIP-Seq analyses of mouse tissues to identify regulatory regions within the Cyp24a1 gene locus. We found an extended region downstream of Cyp24a1 containing a cluster of sites, termed C24-DS1, binding PTH-sensitive cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and a cluster termed C24-DS2 binding the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR-occupied sites were present in both the kidney and in NRTCs, but pCREB sites were occupied only in the kidney. We deleted each segment in the mouse and observed that although the overt phenotypes of both cluster deletions were unremarkable, RNA analysis in the C24-DS1-deleted strain revealed a loss of basal renal Cyp24a1 expression, total resistance to FGF23 and PTH regulation, and secondary suppression of renal Cyp27b1; 1,25(OH)2D3 induction remained unaffected in all tissues. In contrast, loss of the VDR cluster in the C24-DS2-deleted strain did not affect 1,25(OH)2D3 induction of renal Cyp24a1 expression, yet reduced but did not eliminate Cyp24a1 responses in NRTCs. We conclude that a chromatin-based mechanism differentially regulates Cyp24a1 in the kidney and NRTCs and is essential for the specific functions of Cyp24a1 in these two tissue types.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Guest M, Goodchild JA, Bristow JA, et al (2019)

RDL A301S alone does not confer high levels of resistance to cyclodiene organochlorine or phenyl pyrazole insecticides in Plutella xylostella.

Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 158:32-39.

Mutations in the GABA-gated chloride channel are associated with resistance to cyclodiene organochlorine and phenyl pyrazole insecticides. The best characterised of these is A301S, which was initially identified in a Dieldrin resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster. The orthologous mutation has been found in a variety of different crop pests including the diamond back moth Plutella xylostella. However, the contribution of this mutation to resistance in this species remains unclear. We have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system in order to edit Plutella xylostella PxGABARalpha1 to Serine at the 301 orthologous position (282 in PxGABARalpha1) in an insecticide sensitive strain isolated from Vero Beach (VB) USA. In this edited line, no high level of resistance is conferred to Dieldrin, Endosulfan or Fipronil, rather only a subtle shift in sensitivity which could not confer commercially important resistance. We conclude that the high level of commercial resistance to cyclodiene organochlorine and phenyl pyrazole insecticides observed in some field isolates of Plutella xylostella cannot arise from A282S in PxGABARalpha1 alone.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Zhou Y, Hui W, Zhang H, et al (2019)

[Establishment of a stable HEK293T cell line with c.392G>T (p.131G>V) mutation site knockout in G6PD gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technique].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 39(3):320-327.

OBJECTIVE: To establish a stable HEK293T cell line with c.392G>T (p.131G>V) mutation site knockout in G6PD gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

METHODS: We designed 4 pairs of small guide RNA (sgRNA) for G6PD c.392G>T(p.131G>V) mutation site, and constructed exogenous PX458 plasmids expressing Cas9-sgRNA. The plasmids were transfected into HEK293T cells, and the cells expressing GFP fluorescent protein were separated by flow cytometry for further culture. After verification of the knockout efficiency using T7 endonuclease Ⅰ, the monoclonal cells were screened by limiting dilution and DNA sequencing to confirm the knockout. We detected the expressions of G6PD mRNA and protein and examined functional changes of the genetically modified cells.

RESULTS: We successfully constructed the Cas9-sgRNA exogenous PX458 plasmid based on the c.392G>T(p.131G>V) mutation site of G6PD gene. The editing efficiency of the 4 pairs of sgRNA, as detected by T7E1 enzyme digestion, was 6.74%, 12.36%, 12.54% and 2.94%. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the HEK293T cell line with stable knockout of G6PD c.392G>T(p.131G>V) was successfully constructed. The genetically modified cells expressed lower levels of G6PD mRNA and G6PD protein and showed reduced G6PD enzyme activity and proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis in response to vitamin K3 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: We successfully constructed a stable HEK293T cell model with G6PD gene c.392G>T(p.131G>V) mutation site knockout to facilitate future study of gene repair.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Cohen J (2019)

Tests identify HIV's final redoubt.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 363(6433):1260-1261.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Haldeman JM, Conway AE, Arlotto ME, et al (2019)

Creation of versatile cloning platforms for transgene expression and dCas9-based epigenome editing.

Nucleic acids research, 47(4):e23.

Genetic manipulation via transgene overexpression, RNAi, or Cas9-based methods is central to biomedical research. Unfortunately, use of these tools is often limited by vector options. We have created a modular platform (pMVP) that allows a gene of interest to be studied in the context of an array of promoters, epitope tags, conditional expression modalities, and fluorescent reporters, packaged in 35 custom destination vectors, including adenovirus, lentivirus, PiggyBac transposon, and Sleeping Beauty transposon, in aggregate >108,000 vector permutations. We also used pMVP to build an epigenetic engineering platform, pMAGIC, that packages multiple gRNAs and either Sa-dCas9 or x-dCas9(3.7) fused to one of five epigenetic modifiers. Importantly, via its compatibility with adenoviral vectors, pMAGIC uniquely enables use of dCas9/LSD1 fusions to interrogate enhancers within primary cells. To demonstrate this, we used pMAGIC to target Sa-dCas9/LSD1 and modify the epigenetic status of a conserved enhancer, resulting in altered expression of the homeobox transcription factor PDX1 and its target genes in pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells. In sum, the pMVP and pMAGIC systems empower researchers to rapidly generate purpose-built, customized vectors for manipulation of gene expression, including via targeted epigenetic modification of regulatory elements in a broad range of disease-relevant cell types.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Palermo G, Chen JS, Ricci CG, et al (2018)

Key role of the REC lobe during CRISPR-Cas9 activation by 'sensing', 'regulating', and 'locking' the catalytic HNH domain.

Quarterly reviews of biophysics, 51:.

Understanding the conformational dynamics of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is of the utmost importance for improving its genome editing capability. Here, molecular dynamics simulations performed using Anton-2 - a specialized supercomputer capturing micro-to-millisecond biophysical events in real time and at atomic-level resolution - reveal the activation process of the endonuclease Cas9 toward DNA cleavage. Over the unbiased simulation, we observe that the spontaneous approach of the catalytic domain HNH to the DNA cleavage site is accompanied by a remarkable structural remodeling of the recognition (REC) lobe, which exerts a key role for DNA cleavage. Specifically, the significant conformational changes and the collective conformational dynamics of the REC lobe indicate a mechanism by which the REC1-3 regions 'sense' nucleic acids, 'regulate' the HNH conformational transition, and ultimately 'lock' the HNH domain at the cleavage site, contributing to its catalytic competence. By integrating additional independent simulations and existing experimental data, we provide a solid validation of the activated HNH conformation, which had been so far poorly characterized, and we deliver a comprehensive understanding of the role of REC1-3 in the activation process. Considering the importance of the REC lobe in the specificity of Cas9, this study poses the basis for fully understanding how the REC components control the cleavage of off-target sequences, laying the foundation for future engineering efforts toward improved genome editing.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Chae YC, Kim JY, Park JW, et al (2019)

FOXO1 degradation via G9a-mediated methylation promotes cell proliferation in colon cancer.

Nucleic acids research, 47(4):1692-1705.

Posttranslational modifications of the Forkhead family transcription factor, FOXO1, have been known to have important regulatory implications in its diverse activities. Several types of modifications of FOXO1, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, have been reported. However, lysine methylation of FOXO1 has not yet been identified. Here, we reported that FOXO1 is methylated by G9a at K273 residue in vitro and in vivo. Methylation of FOXO1 by G9a increased interaction between FOXO1 and a specific E3 ligase, SKP2, and decreased FOXO1 protein stability. In addition, G9a expression was increased by insulin and resulted in insulin-mediated FOXO1 degradation by K273 methylation. Tissue array analysis indicated that G9a was overexpressed and FOXO1 levels decreased in human colon cancer. Cell proliferation assays revealed that G9a-mediated FOXO1 methylation increased colon cancer cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis indicated that apoptosis rates were higher in the presence of FOXO1 than in FOXO1 knock-out cells. Furthermore, we found that G9a protein levels were elevated and FOXO1 protein levels were decreased in human colon cancer patients tissue samples. Here, we report that G9a specific inhibitor, BIX-01294, can regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis by inhibiting G9a-mediated FOXO1 methylation.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Sim SB, Kauwe AN, Ruano REY, et al (2019)

The ABCs of CRISPR in Tephritidae: developing methods for inducing heritable mutations in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis.

Insect molecular biology, 28(2):277-289.

Tephritid fruit flies are destructive agricultural pests that are the targets of expensive population eradication and suppression efforts. Genetic pest management is one of the strategies for reducing or eliminating tephritid populations, relying upon the genetic manipulation of insects to render them sterile or capable of transmitting deleterious traits through gene drive. Currently, radiation, chemical mutagenesis, and transgenic techniques are employed to generate agents for genetic pest management, but new methods must be explored and developed for all tephritid pest species. Targeted mutagenesis induced by nonhomologous end join repair of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and the CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) (commonly known as CRISPR/Cas9) has been demonstrated to be an efficient method for creating knock-out mutants and can be utilized to create germline mutations in Tephritidae. In this paper, we describe detailed methods to knockout the white gene in three tephritid species in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis, including the first demonstration of CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutations in the genus Anastrepha. Lastly, we discuss the variables in tephritid systems that directed method development as well as recommendations for performing injections in remote containment facilities with little molecular biology capabilities. These methods and recommendations combined can serve as a guide for others to use in pursuit of developing CRISPR/Cas9 methods in tephritid systems.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Zheng W, Li Q, Sun H, et al (2019)

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9-mediated mutagenesis of the multiple edematous wings gene induces muscle weakness and flightlessness in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Insect molecular biology, 28(2):222-234.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system is a versatile, efficient and heritable gene editing tool that can be useful for genome engineering. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of agriculture that causes great economic losses. We used the B. dorsalis multiple edematous wings (Bdmew) gene as the target gene to explore the effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9 for B. dorsalis genome manipulation. We studied the physiological functions of the Bdmew gene, particularly those related to muscle development. Site-specific genome editing was feasible using direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and the Cas9-plasmid into B. dorsalis embryos. Mutation frequencies ranged from 12.1 to 30.2% in the injected generation. Mosaic G0, with the mew mutation, was heritable to the next generation. The G1 displayed a series of defective phenotypes including muscle weakness, flightlessness, failure to eclose, wing folds and unbalanced movement. These results demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 can act as a highly specific, efficient, heritable tool for genome manipulation in B. dorsalis and this has significance for gene function research and genetic control of pests. The Bdmew gene possesses key functions in muscle development of B. dorsalis. Bdmew mutations cause a series of serious defects by interfering with muscle development and may provide a means for controlling B. dorsalis via a gene-based method such as gene drive.

RevDate: 2019-08-23
CmpDate: 2019-08-23

Ridler C (2018)

CRISPR therapy shows promise in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Nature reviews. Neurology, 14(11):632-633.

RevDate: 2019-08-21

Park S, PA Beal (2019)

Off-target Editing by CRISPR-guided DNA base editors.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Base editing is a genome editing strategy that induces specific single nucleotide changes within genomic DNA. Two major DNA base editors, Cytosine base editors (CBEs) and Adenine base editors (ABEs), have been developed that consist of a Cas9 protein linked to a deaminase enzyme that catalyzes targeted base conversion directed by a sgRNA. This strategy has been used widely for precise genome editing because, unlike CRISPR-Cas nuclease-based genome editing systems, this strategy does not create double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) that often result in high levels of undesirable indels. However, recent papers have reported that DNA base editors can cause substantial off-target editing in both genomic DNA and RNA. The off-target editing described in these studies is primarily guide RNA-independent arising from promiscuous reactivity of the deaminase enzymes used in DNA base editors. In this perspective, we discuss the development of DNA base editors, the guide RNA independent off-target activity reported in recent studies, and strategies that improve the selectivity of DNA base editors.

RevDate: 2019-08-21

Kalinina NO, Khromov A, Love AJ, et al (2019)

CRISPR applications in plant virology: virus resistance and beyond.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system which has been reprogrammed into a precise, simple and efficient gene targeting technology. This emerging technology is revolutionizing various areas of life sciences, medicine, biotechnology and has raised significant interest among plant biologists, both in basic science and in plant protection and breeding. In this review, we describe the basic principles of CRISPR/Cas systems, and how they can be deployed to model plants and crops for the control, monitoring and study of the mechanistic aspects of plant virus infections. We discuss how Cas endonucleases can be used to engineer plant virus resistance by directly targeting viral DNA or RNA, as well as how they can inactivate host susceptibility genes. Additionally, other applications of CRISPR/Cas in plant virology such as virus diagnostics and imaging are reviewed. The review also provides a systemic comparison between CRISPR/Cas technology and RNA interference approaches, the latter of which has also been used for development of virus resistant plants. Finally, we outline challenges to be solved before CRISPR/Cas can produce virus-resistant crop plants which can be marketed.

RevDate: 2019-08-22
CmpDate: 2019-08-22

Lee B, Lee K, Panda S, et al (2018)

Nanoparticle delivery of CRISPR into the brain rescues a mouse model of fragile X syndrome from exaggerated repetitive behaviours.

Nature biomedical engineering, 2(7):497-507.

Technologies that can safely edit genes in the brains of adult animals may revolutionize the treatment of neurological diseases and the understanding of brain function. Here, we demonstrate that intracranial injection of CRISPR-Gold, a nonviral delivery vehicle for the CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein, can edit genes in the brains of adult mice in multiple mouse models. CRISPR-Gold can deliver both Cas9 and Cpf1 ribonucleoproteins, and can edit all of the major cell types in the brain, including neurons, astrocytes and microglia, with undetectable levels of toxicity at the doses used. We also show that CRISPR-Gold designed to target the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) gene can efficiently reduce local mGluR5 levels in the striatum after an intracranial injection. The effect can also rescue mice from the exaggerated repetitive behaviours caused by fragile X syndrome, a common single-gene form of autism spectrum disorders. CRISPR-Gold may significantly accelerate the development of brain-targeted therapeutics and enable the rapid development of focal brain-knockout animal models.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Sauter EJ, Kutsche LK, Klapper SD, et al (2019)

Induced Neurons for the Study of Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1942:101-121.

Patient-derived or genomically modified human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the opportunity to study neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Overexpression of certain neurogenic transcription factors (TFs) in iPSCs can induce efficient differentiation into homogeneous populations of the disease-relevant neuronal cell types. Here we provide protocols for genomic manipulations of iPSCs by CRISPR/Cas9. We also introduce two methods, based on lentiviral delivery and the piggyBac transposon system, to stably integrate neurogenic TFs into human iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the TF-mediated neuronal differentiation and maturation in combination with astrocyte cocultures.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Li M, Hunt JFVS, Bhattacharyya A, et al (2019)

One-Step Generation of Seamless Luciferase Gene Knockin Using CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1942:61-69.

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer powerful platforms for studying mechanisms of human diseases and for evaluating potential treatments. Genome editing, particularly the CRISPR/Cas9-based method, is highly effective for generating cell and animal models to study genetic human diseases. However, the procedure for generating gene-edited hPSCs is laborious, time consuming and unintentional genetic changes may confound the consequent experiments and conclusions. Here we describe one-step knockin of the NanoLuc luciferase gene (Nluc) to the fragile X syndrome gene, FMR1, in a human embryonic stem cell line (hESC), H1, and a fragile X disease model human induced pluripotent stem cell line (hiPSC), FX-iPSC. The luciferase reporter cell lines provide new platforms for exploring potential treatments for fragile X syndrome. The shortened and scarless targeting method described here can be effectively applied to other genes.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Sun N, Petiwala S, Wang R, et al (2019)

Development of drug-inducible CRISPR-Cas9 systems for large-scale functional screening.

BMC genomics, 20(1):225 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5601-9.

BACKGROUND: Large-scale genetic screening using CRISPR-Cas9 technology has emerged as a powerful approach to uncover and validate gene functions. The ability to control the timing of genetic perturbation during CRISPR screens will facilitate precise dissection of dynamic and complex biological processes. Here, we report the optimization of a drug-inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system that allows high-throughput gene interrogation with a temporal control.

RESULTS: We designed multiple drug-inducible sgRNA expression vectors and measured their activities using an EGFP gene disruption assay in 11 human and mouse cell lines. The optimal design allows for a tight and inducible control of gene knockout in vitro, and in vivo during a seven-week-long experiment following hematopoietic reconstitution in mice. We next performed parallel genome-wide loss-of-function screens using the inducible and constitutive CRISPR-Cas9 systems. In proliferation-based dropout screens, these two approaches have similar performance in discriminating essential and nonessential genes. In a more challenging phenotypic assay that requires cytokine stimulation and cell staining, we observed similar sensitivity of the constitutive and drug-induced screening approaches in detecting known hits. Importantly, we demonstrate minimal leakiness of our inducible CRISPR screening platforms in the absence of chemical inducers in large-scale settings.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have developed a drug-inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system that shows high cleavage efficiency upon induction but low background activity. Using this system, we have achieved inducible gene disruption in a wide range of cell types both in vitro and in vivo. For the first time, we present a systematic side-by-side comparison of constitutive and drug-inducible CRISPR-Cas9 platforms in large-scale functional screens. We demonstrate the tightness and efficiency of our drug-inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system in genome-wide pooled screening. Our design increases the versatility of CRISPR-based genetic screening and represents a significant upgrade on existing functional genomics toolbox.

RevDate: 2019-08-22
CmpDate: 2019-08-22

Shen CC, Hsu MN, Chang CW, et al (2019)

Synthetic switch to minimize CRISPR off-target effects by self-restricting Cas9 transcription and translation.

Nucleic acids research, 47(3):e13.

CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing system but uncontrolled Cas9 nuclease expression triggers off-target effects and even in vivo immune responses. Inspired by synthetic biology, here we built a synthetic switch that self-regulates Cas9 expression not only in the transcription step by guide RNA-aided self-cleavage of cas9 gene, but also in the translation step by L7Ae:K-turn repression system. We showed that the synthetic switch enabled simultaneous transcriptional and translational repression, hence stringently attenuating the Cas9 expression. The restricted Cas9 expression induced high efficiency on-target indel mutation while minimizing the off-target effects. Furthermore, we unveiled the correlation between Cas9 expression kinetics and on-target/off-target mutagenesis. The synthetic switch conferred detectable Cas9 expression and concomitant high frequency on-target mutagenesis at as early as 6 h, and restricted the Cas9 expression and off-target effects to minimal levels through 72 h. The synthetic switch is compact enough to be incorporated into viral vectors for self-regulation of Cas9 expression, thereby providing a novel 'hit and run' strategy for in vivo genome editing.

RevDate: 2019-08-22
CmpDate: 2019-08-22

Bose P, Armstrong GAB, P Drapeau (2019)

Neuromuscular junction abnormalities in a zebrafish loss-of-function model of TDP-43.

Journal of neurophysiology, 121(1):285-297.

Almost 90% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are characterized by the presence of aggregates of insoluble, misfolded cytoplasmic TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). Distal axonopathy with impaired neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) before motor neuron degeneration or clinical onset of symptoms has been hypothesized as an early pathology in ALS. However, synaptic defects at the NMJ caused by TDP-43 mutations have not been characterized. In this study, we examined a previously reported zebrafish line expressing the tardbpY220X/Y220X variant, which results in an unstable and degraded protein. These tardbp-/- larvae, however, mature normally due to the upregulated expression of an alternative splice variant of the tardbp paralog tardbp-like, or tardbpl. We generated a mutant line with a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated 5-base pair deletion encompassing the ATG start codon of tardbpl and in-crossed these with tardbp-/- mutants to obtain tardbp-/- and tardbpl-/- double mutants, herein referred to as hom/hom. We subsequently characterized morphological, coiling, locomotor, synaptic, and NMJ structural abnormalities in the hom/hom mutants and in their genotypic controls. We observed that hom/hom mutants displayed gross morphological defects, early lethality, reduced locomotor function, aberrant quantal transmission, and perturbed synapse architecture at the NMJ. We further employed pharmacological manipulations in an effort to rescue phenotypic defects and observed that tardbp+/-; tardbpl-/- (herein referred to as het/hom) mutants, but not hom/hom mutants, were sensitive to chronic treatments of BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. This result highlights the importance of partial vs. complete loss of allelic functions of TDP-43. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study highlights the importance of partial vs. complete loss of allelic functions of TDP-43 in a zebrafish loss of function model, thus making it an attractive tool for drug screening approaches.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Zhang B, Xia Q, Wang Q, et al (2018)

Detecting and typing target DNA with a novel CRISPR-typing PCR (ctPCR) technique.

Analytical biochemistry, 561-562:37-46.

This study develops a new method for detecting and typing the interested DNAs based on CRISPR, which was named as ctPCR3.0, representing CRISPR- or Cas9/sgRNA-typing PCR, version 3.0. This technique detects target DNA in just one homogeneous step: quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplifying the Cas9/sgRNA-cleaved DNA samples. By directly adding Cas9 and sgRNA into the qPCR reaction and giving an additional isothermal incubation before qPCR program, the target DNA can be homogeneously detected in as few as 2 h. Without opening the detecting tube in the whole detection process, ctPCR3.0 can be used to detect target DNA as the traditional qPCR detection. The technique was fully verified by detecting the cloned HPV L1 genes of 10 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes. The technique also successfully detected the L1 and E6-E7 genes of two highest-risk HPVs, HPV16 and HPV18, in the genomic DNA of two HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells, HeLa and SiHa. Finally, the ctPCR3.0 method was validated by successfully detecting HPVs in many clinical samples. By performing these detections, this study thus provides a new CRISPR-based DNA detection and typing platform and a ready-to-use HPV clinical detection technique. The platform has wide application in clinical diagnosis.

RevDate: 2019-08-22
CmpDate: 2019-08-22

Lee J, Lim H, Jang H, et al (2019)

CRISPR-Cap: multiplexed double-stranded DNA enrichment based on the CRISPR system.

Nucleic acids research, 47(1):e1.

Existing methods to enrich target regions of genomic DNA based on PCR, hybridization capture, or molecular inversion probes have various drawbacks, including long experiment times and low throughput and/or enrichment quality. We developed CRISPR-Cap, a simple and scalable CRISPR-based method to enrich target regions of dsDNA, requiring only two short experimental procedures that can be completed within two hours. We used CRISPR-Cap to enrich 10 target genes 355.7-fold on average from Escherichia coli genomic DNA with a maximum on-target ratio of 81% and high enrichment uniformity. We also used CRISPR-Cap to measure gene copy numbers and detect rare alleles with frequencies as low as 1%. Finally, we enriched coding sequence regions of 20 genes from the human genome. We envision that CRISPR-Cap can be used as an alternative to other widely used target-enrichment methods, which will broaden the scope of CRISPR applications to the field of target enrichment field.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Liu X, Y Zhao (2018)

CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing: Fueling the revolution in cancer immunotherapy.

Current research in translational medicine, 66(2):39-42.

The development of genomic editing technologies expands the landscape of T cell engineering for adoptive cell therapy. Among the multiple tools that can be used, CRISPR/Cas9 has been shown to be relatively easy to use, simple to design and cost effective with highly efficient multiplex genome engineering capabilities. Allogeneic universal chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can be produced by disrupting T cell receptor (TCR) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) in CAR T cells or by directly knocking in a CAR at the disrupted TRAC locus. The anti-tumor function can be further boosted by simultaneous ablation of PD-1 and CTLA-4. The anti-tumor activities and safety of TCR-transferred T cells can be improved by knocking out endogenous TCR, which avoids the use of affinity-enhanced TCRs that may lose specificity and cause severe adverse effects. Therefore, CRISPR/Cas9 technology holds enormous promise to advance the field of adoptive cell therapy.

RevDate: 2019-08-20

Wu Q, Wang B, Zhou C, et al (2019)

Bacterial Type I CRISPR-Cas systems influence inflammasome activation in mammalian host by promoting autophagy.

Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

The CRISPR-Cas systems in prokaryotes function at defending against foreign DNAs, providing adaptive immunity to maintain homeostasis. CRISPR-Cas may also influence immune regulation ability in mammalian cells through alterations of pathogenic extent and nature. Recent research has implied that Type I CRISPR-Cas systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 strain impede the recognition by toll-like receptor 4, and decreasing pro-inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas systems affect host immunity is largely undemonstrated. Here, we explored whether CRISPR-Cas systems can influence autophagy to alter the activation of inflammasome. Using the wild-type (WT) PA14 and total CRISPR-Cas region deletion (∆TCR) mutant strain, we elucidated the role and underlying mechanism of Type I CRISPR-Cas systems in bacterial infection, and showed that CRISPR-Cas systems impacted the release of mitochondrial DNA and induction of autophagy. CRISPR-Cas deficiency led to the increase of mitochondrial DNA release, decrease in autophagy, increase of inflammasome activation and ultimately elevation of pro-inflammatory response. Our findings illustrate a new important mechanism by which Type I CRISPR-Cas systems control their virulence potency to evade the host defense. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-08-20

Birkholz N, Fagerlund RD, Smith LM, et al (2019)

The autoregulator Aca2 mediates anti-CRISPR repression.

Nucleic acids research pii:5552068 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems are widespread bacterial adaptive defence mechanisms that provide protection against bacteriophages. In response, phages have evolved anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate CRISPR-Cas systems of their hosts, enabling successful infection. Anti-CRISPR genes are frequently found in operons with genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators. The role, if any, of these anti-CRISPR-associated (aca) genes in anti-CRISPR regulation is unclear. Here, we show that Aca2, encoded by the Pectobacterium carotovorum temperate phage ZF40, is an autoregulator that represses the anti-CRISPR-aca2 operon. Aca2 is a helix-turn-helix domain protein that forms a homodimer and interacts with two inverted repeats in the anti-CRISPR promoter. The inverted repeats are similar in sequence but differ in their Aca2 affinity, and we propose that they have evolved to fine-tune, and downregulate, anti-CRISPR production at different stages of the phage life cycle. Specific, high-affinity binding of Aca2 to the first inverted repeat blocks the promoter and induces DNA bending. The second inverted repeat only contributes to repression at high Aca2 concentrations in vivo, and no DNA binding was detectable in vitro. Our investigation reveals the mechanism by which an Aca protein regulates expression of its associated anti-CRISPR.

RevDate: 2019-08-20

Lin P, Pu Q, Wu Q, et al (2019)

High-throughput screen reveals sRNAs regulating crRNA biogenesis by targeting CRISPR leader to repress Rho termination.

Nature communications, 10(1):3728 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-11695-8.

Discovery of CRISPR-Cas systems is one of paramount importance in the field of microbiology. Currently, how CRISPR-Cas systems are finely regulated remains to be defined. Here we use small regulatory RNA (sRNA) library to screen sRNAs targeting type I-F CRISPR-Cas system through proximity ligation by T4 RNA ligase and find 34 sRNAs linking to CRISPR loci. Among 34 sRNAs for potential regulators of CRISPR, sRNA pant463 and PhrS enhance CRISPR loci transcription, while pant391 represses their transcription. We identify PhrS as a regulator of CRISPR-Cas by binding CRISPR leaders to suppress Rho-dependent transcription termination. PhrS-mediated anti-termination facilitates CRISPR locus transcription to generate CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and subsequently promotes CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity against bacteriophage invasion. Furthermore, this also exists in type I-C/-E CRISPR-Cas, suggesting general regulatory mechanisms in bacteria kingdom. Our findings identify sRNAs as important regulators of CRISPR-Cas, extending roles of sRNAs in controlling bacterial physiology by promoting CRISPR-Cas adaptation priming.

RevDate: 2019-08-20

Shelake RM, Pramanik D, JY Kim (2019)

Exploration of Plant-Microbe Interactions for Sustainable Agriculture in CRISPR Era.

Microorganisms, 7(8): pii:microorganisms7080269.

Plants and microbes are co-evolved and interact with each other in nature. Plant-associated microbes, often referred to as plant microbiota, are an integral part of plant life. Depending on the health effects on hosts, plant-microbe (PM) interactions are either beneficial or harmful. The role of microbiota in plant growth promotion (PGP) and protection against various stresses is well known. Recently, our knowledge of community composition of plant microbiome and significant driving factors have significantly improved. So, the use of plant microbiome is a reliable approach for a next green revolution and to meet the global food demand in sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture. An application of the multifaceted PM interactions needs the use of novel tools to know critical genetic and molecular aspects. Recently discovered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas-mediated genome editing (GE) tools are of great interest to explore PM interactions. A systematic understanding of the PM interactions will enable the application of GE tools to enhance the capacity of microbes or plants for agronomic trait improvement. This review focuses on applying GE techniques in plants or associated microbiota for discovering the fundamentals of the PM interactions, disease resistance, PGP activity, and future implications in agriculture.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Zhang X, Zhang Y, Dai J, et al (2019)

[Construction of a new isovalerylspiramycin I producing strain by CRISPR-Cas9 system].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 35(3):472-481.

Isovalerylspiramycin (ISP)Ⅰ, as a major component of bitespiramycin (BT), exhibits similar antimicrobial activities with BT and has advantages in quality control and dosage forms. It has been under preclinical studies. The existing ISPⅠ producing strain, undergoing three genetic modifications, carries two resistant gene markers. Thus, it is hard for further genetic manipulation. It is a time-consuming and unsuccessful work to construct a new ISPⅠ strain without resistant gene marker by means of the classical homologous recombination in our preliminary experiments. Fortunately, construction of the markerless ISPⅠ strain, in which the bsm4 (responsible for acylation at 3 of spiramycin) gene was replaced by the Isovaleryltansferase gene (ist) under control of the constitutive promoter ermEp*, was efficiently achieved by using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system. The mutant of bsm4 deletion can only produce SPⅠ. Isovaleryltransferase coded by ist catalyzes the isovalerylation of the SPⅠat C-4" hydroxyl group to produce ISPⅠ. As anticipated, ISPⅠ was the sole ISP component of the resultant strain (ΔEI) when detected by HPLC and mass spectrometry. The ΔEI mutant is suitable for further genetic engineering to obtain improved strains by reusing CRISPR-Cas9 system.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Demirci S, Leonard A, Haro-Mora JJ, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas9 for Sickle Cell Disease: Applications, Future Possibilities, and Challenges.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1144:37-52.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited monogenic disorder resulting in serious mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although the disease was characterized more than a century ago, there are only two FDA approved medications to lessen disease severity, and a definitive cure available to all patients with SCD is lacking. Rapid and substantial progress in genome editing approaches have proven valuable as a curative option given plausibility to either correct the underlying mutation in patient-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), induce fetal hemoglobin expression to circumvent sickling of red blood cells (RBCs), or create corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) among other approaches. Recent discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 has not only revolutionized genome engineering but has also brought the possibility of translating these concepts into a clinically meaningful reality. Here we summarize genome engineering applications using CRISPR/Cas9, addressing challenges and future perspectives of CRISPR/Cas9 as a curative option for SCD.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Gorter de Vries AR, Couwenberg LGF, van den Broek M, et al (2019)

Allele-specific genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 is associated with loss of heterozygosity in diploid yeast.

Nucleic acids research, 47(3):1362-1372.

Targeted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with CRISPR-Cas9 have revolutionized genetic modification by enabling efficient genome editing in a broad range of eukaryotic systems. Accurate gene editing is possible with near-perfect efficiency in haploid or (predominantly) homozygous genomes. However, genomes exhibiting polyploidy and/or high degrees of heterozygosity are less amenable to genetic modification. Here, we report an up to 99-fold lower gene editing efficiency when editing individual heterozygous loci in the yeast genome. Moreover, Cas9-mediated introduction of a DSB resulted in large scale loss of heterozygosity affecting DNA regions up to 360 kb and up to 1700 heterozygous nucleotides, due to replacement of sequences on the targeted chromosome by corresponding sequences from its non-targeted homolog. The observed patterns of loss of heterozygosity were consistent with homology directed repair. The extent and frequency of loss of heterozygosity represent a novel mutagenic side-effect of Cas9-mediated genome editing, which would have to be taken into account in eukaryotic gene editing. In addition to contributing to the limited genetic amenability of heterozygous yeasts, Cas9-mediated loss of heterozygosity could be particularly deleterious for human gene therapy, as loss of heterozygous functional copies of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic genes is a known path to cancer.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

O'Reilly D, Kartje ZJ, Ageely EA, et al (2019)

Extensive CRISPR RNA modification reveals chemical compatibility and structure-activity relationships for Cas9 biochemical activity.

Nucleic acids research, 47(2):546-558.

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) endonucleases are at the forefront of biotechnology, synthetic biology and gene editing. Methods for controlling enzyme properties promise to improve existing applications and enable new technologies. CRISPR enzymes rely on RNA cofactors to guide catalysis. Therefore, chemical modification of the guide RNA can be used to characterize structure-activity relationships within CRISPR ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes and identify compatible chemistries for controlling activity. Here, we introduce chemical modifications to the sugar-phosphate backbone of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to probe chemical and structural requirements. Ribose sugars that promoted or accommodated A-form helical architecture in and around the crRNA 'seed' region were tolerated best. A wider range of modifications were acceptable outside of the seed, especially D-2'-deoxyribose, and we exploited this property to facilitate exploration of greater chemical diversity within the seed. 2'-fluoro was the most compatible modification whereas bulkier O-methyl sugar modifications were less tolerated. Activity trends could be rationalized for selected crRNAs using RNP stability and DNA target binding experiments. Cas9 activity in vitro tolerated most chemical modifications at predicted 2'-hydroxyl contact positions, whereas editing activity in cells was much less tolerant. The biochemical principles of chemical modification identified here will guide CRISPR-Cas9 engineering and enable new or improved applications.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Coley WD, Zhao Y, Benck CJ, et al (2018)

Loss of Zbtb32 in NOD mice does not significantly alter T cell responses.

F1000Research, 7:318.

Background: We previously identified the transcriptional regulator Zbtb32 as a factor that can promote T cell tolerance in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse, a model of Type 1 diabetes. Antigen targeted to DCIR2 + dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo inhibited both diabetes and effector T cell expansion in NOD mice. Furthermore, Zbtb32 was preferentially induced in autoreactive CD4 T cells stimulated by these tolerogenic DCIR2 + DCs, and overexpression of Zbtb32 in islet-specific T cells inhibited the diabetes development by limiting T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Methods: To further understand the role of Zbtb32 in T cell tolerance induction, we have now used CRISPR to target the Zbtb32 gene for deletion directly in NOD mice and characterized the mutant mice. We hypothesized that the systemic loss of Zbtb32 in NOD mice would lead to increased T cell activation and increased diabetes pathogenesis. Results: Although NOD.Zbtb32 -/- male NOD mice showed a trend towards increased diabetes incidence compared to littermate controls, the difference was not significant. Furthermore, no significant alteration in lymphocyte number or function was observed. Importantly, in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes from NOD.Zbtb32 -/- mice did not produce the expected hypersensitive phenotype observed in other genetic strains, potentially due to compensation by homologous genes. Conclusions: The loss of Zbtb32 in the NOD background does not result in the expected T cell activation phenotype.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Loutre R, Heckel AM, Smirnova A, et al (2018)

Can Mitochondrial DNA be CRISPRized: Pro and Contra.

IUBMB life, 70(12):1233-1239.

Mitochondria represent a chimera of macromolecules encoded either in the organellar genome, mtDNA, or in the nuclear one. If the pathway of protein targeting to different sub-compartments of mitochondria was relatively well studied, import of small noncoding RNAs into mammalian mitochondria still awaits mechanistic explanations and its functional issues are often not understood thus raising polemics. At the same time, RNA mitochondrial import pathway has an obvious attractiveness as it appears as a unique natural mechanism permitting to address nucleic acids into the organelles. Deciphering the function(s) of imported RNAs inside the mitochondria is extremely complicated due to their relatively low abundance, which suggests their regulatory role. We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial targeting of small noncoding RNAs able to specifically anneal with the mutant mitochondrial DNA led to a decrease of the mtDNA heteroplasmy level by inhibiting mutant mtDNA replication. We then demonstrated that increasing level of expression of such antireplicative recombinant RNAs increases significantly the antireplicative effect. In this report, we present a new data investigating the possibility to establish a CRISPR-Cas9 system targeting mtDNA exploiting of the pathway of RNA import into mitochondria. Mitochondrially addressed Cas9 versions and a set of mitochondrially targeted guide RNAs were tested in vitro and in vivo and their effect on mtDNA copy number was demonstrated. So far, the system appeared as more complicated for use than previously found for nuclear DNA, because only application of a pair of guide RNAs produced the effect of mtDNA depletion. We discuss, in a critical way, these results and put them in a broader context of polemics concerning the possibilities of manipulation of mtDNA in mammalians. The findings described here prove the potential of the RNA import pathway as a tool for studying mtDNA and for future therapy of mitochondrial disorders. © The Authors. IUBMB Life published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 70(12):1233-1239, 2018.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Fang X, Wu L, Yang L, et al (2018)

Nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) knockouts resulted in subfertility in male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 182:62-71.

It was documented that 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), a fish specific progestin, might play critical roles in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and spermiation partially through activating nuclear receptor (Pgr). However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate the functions of DHP in fish spermatogenesis. To further elucidate the roles of DHP in teleosts, we generated a pgr homozygous mutant line in XY Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pgr gene mutation resulted in the development of a smaller, thinner testis and a lower GSI compared with normal testis. Pgr gene knockout led to irregular arrangement of spermatogenic cysts, decline of sperm count and sperm motility. Significant decrease of spermatocytes and spermatozoa was observed, which was further proved by the PCNA and Ph3 staining. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that mutation of pgr gene resulted in a significant up-regulation of steroidogenesis-related genes of cyp17a, cyp11b2, StAR, scc, 20β-HSD, and sf1, and down-regulation of fshb, fshr, oct4, sycp3, cdk1, prm, cyclinB1, cyclinB2 and cdc25 genes. Furthermore, both Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting experiments revealed a remarkable increase of Cyp17a1, Cyp17a2 and Cyp11b2 expressions in the pgr-/- testis. EIA measurement showed that an evident increase of 11-KT level was found in the pgr-/- XY fish. There was a significant increase in the mortality of offspring when crossing pgr-/- XY fish with wild type XX fish. Increased TUNEL staining and enhanced apoptosis maker gene (bax) expressions were also observed. Taken together, our data suggested that DHP-activated physiology via pgr is crucial for the fertility in the XY tilapia.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Moore KS, Yagci N, van Alphen F, et al (2018)

Csde1 binds transcripts involved in protein homeostasis and controls their expression in an erythroid cell line.

Scientific reports, 8(1):2628.

Expression of the RNA-binding protein Csde1 (Cold shock domain protein e1) is strongly upregulated during erythropoiesis compared to other hematopoietic lineages. Csde1 expression is impaired in the severe congenital anemia Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), and reduced expression of Csde1 in healthy erythroblasts impaired their proliferation and differentiation. To investigate the cellular pathways controlled by Csde1 in erythropoiesis, we identified the transcripts that physically associate with Csde1 in erythroid cells. These mainly encoded proteins involved in ribogenesis, mRNA translation and protein degradation, but also proteins associated with the mitochondrial respiratory chain and mitosis. Crispr/Cas9-mediated deletion of the first cold shock domain of Csde1 affected RNA expression and/or protein expression of Csde1-bound transcripts. For instance, protein expression of Pabpc1 was enhanced while Pabpc1 mRNA expression was reduced indicating more efficient translation of Pabpc1 followed by negative feedback on mRNA stability. Overall, the effect of reduced Csde1 function on mRNA stability and translation of Csde1-bound transcripts was modest. Clones with complete loss of Csde1, however, could not be generated. We suggest that Csde1 is involved in feed-back control in protein homeostasis and that it dampens stochastic changes in mRNA expression.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Lane S, Xu H, Oh EJ, et al (2018)

Glucose repression can be alleviated by reducing glucose phosphorylation rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Scientific reports, 8(1):2613.

Microorganisms commonly exhibit preferential glucose consumption and diauxic growth when cultured in mixtures of glucose and other sugars. Although various genetic perturbations have alleviated the effects of glucose repression on consumption of specific sugars, a broadly applicable mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report that a reduction in the rate of glucose phosphorylation alleviates the effects of glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Through adaptive evolution under a mixture of xylose and the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose, we isolated a mutant strain capable of simultaneously consuming glucose and xylose. Genome sequencing of the evolved mutant followed by CRISPR/Cas9-based reverse engineering revealed that mutations in the glucose phosphorylating enzymes (Hxk1, Hxk2, Glk1) were sufficient to confer simultaneous glucose and xylose utilization. We then found that varying hexokinase expression with an inducible promoter led to the simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose. Interestingly, no mutations in sugar transporters occurred during the evolution, and no specific transporter played an indispensable role in simultaneous sugar utilization. Additionally, we demonstrated that slowing glucose consumption also enabled simultaneous utilization of glucose and galactose. These results suggest that the rate of intracellular glucose phosphorylation is a decisive factor for metabolic regulations of mixed sugars.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Yamauchi T (2019)

[Exploration of novel therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia via genome-wide CRISPR screening].

[Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology, 60(7):810-817.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a devasting disease. Progress has been made to define molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis due, in part, to the near-complete understanding of AML genome. Nonetheless, functional studies are necessary to assess the significance of AML-associated mutations and devise urgently needed therapies. Genome-wide knockout screening, employing CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, is a powerful tool in functional genomics. In this study, genome-wide CRISPR screening was performed using mouse leukemia cell lines developed in our Center, followed by in vivo screening. Among 20,611 genes, 130 AML essential genes were identified, including clinically actionable candidates. It was shown that mRNA decapping enzyme scavenger (DCPS), an enzyme implicated in mRNA decay pathway, is essential for AML survival. ShRNA-mediated gene knockdown and DCPS inhibitor (RG3039) were employed to validate findings. RG3039 induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis revealed an association between DCPS and RNA metabolic pathways, and RNA-Seq showed that RG3039 treatment induced aberrant mRNA splicing in AML cells. Importantly, RG3039 exhibited anti-leukemia effects in PDX models. These findings identify DCPS as a novel therapeutic target for AML, shedding new light on the nuclear RNA metabolic pathway in leukemogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Xie J, Ge W, Li N, et al (2019)

Efficient base editing for multiple genes and loci in pigs using base editors.

Nature communications, 10(1):2852 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10421-8.

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) enable programmable C-to-T conversion without DNA double-stranded breaks and homology-directed repair in a variety of organisms, which exhibit great potential for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, all reported cases only involved C-to-T substitution at a single targeted genomic site. Whether C-to-T substitution is effective in multiple sites/loci has not been verified in large animals. Here, by using pigs, an important animal for agriculture and biomedicine, as the subjective animal, we showed that CBEs could efficiently induce C-to-T conversions at multiple sites/loci with the combination of three genes, including DMD, TYR, and LMNA, or RAG1, RAG2, and IL2RG, simultaneously, at the embryonic and cellular levels. CBEs also could disrupt genes (pol gene of porcine endogenous retrovirus) with dozens of copies by introducing multiple premature stop codons. With the CBEs, pigs carrying single gene or multiple gene point mutations were generated through embryo injection or nuclear transfer approach.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Kildegaard KR, Tramontin LRR, Chekina K, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas9-RNA interference system for combinatorial metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Yeast (Chichester, England), 36(5):237-247.

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, food and beverages, and pharmaceuticals. To obtain high-performing strains for such bioprocesses, it is often necessary to test tens or even hundreds of metabolic engineering targets, preferably in combinations, to account for synergistic and antagonistic effects. Here, we present a method that allows simultaneous perturbation of multiple selected genetic targets by combining the advantage of CRISPR/Cas9, in vivo recombination, USER assembly and RNA interference. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces a double-strand break in a specific genomic region, where multiexpression constructs combined with the knockdown constructs are simultaneously integrated by homologous recombination. We show the applicability of the method by improving cis,cis-muconic acid production in S. cerevisiae through simultaneous manipulation of several metabolic engineering targets. The method can accelerate metabolic engineering efforts for the construction of future cell factories.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Jordan B (2019)

[CRISPR babies: technology and transgression].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 35(3):266-270.

Analysing the data recently presented by Jiankui He and assuming that it is authentic shows that the goal of abolishing the expression of CCR5 may have been reached for one of the resulting twins, although this remains to be proven. However, the canonical delta32 mutation has not been achieved. The various preliminary experiments and controls give some confidence that major off-target modifications have not occurred; again, this is difficult to exclude. Clearly, the requirements of perfect technical mastery of the process have not been met, to say nothing of the requirements for complete transparency and full societal approval.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Chneiweiss H (2019)

[Back from Hong Kong or ethics at the time of a genetic increase of the human person].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 35(3):263-265.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Allison SJ (2018)

Targeting methylation.

Nature reviews. Nephrology, 14(11):658.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Anonymous (2018)

Study Explains Specificity of CRISPR/Cas12a.

Cancer discovery, 8(10):1201-1202.

A recent study reveals why the Cas12a genome-editing enzyme is more specific than the widely used Cas9. For Cas12a to cut, the guide RNA it carries must more closely match the sequence of the DNA target than with Cas9. The enzyme's specificity may make it a better choice for gene-editing applications.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Baumann K (2018)

Not so CRISP(R).

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, 19(10):619.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Mason DM, Weber CR, Parola C, et al (2018)

High-throughput antibody engineering in mammalian cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed mutagenesis.

Nucleic acids research, 46(14):7436-7449.

Antibody engineering is often performed to improve therapeutic properties by directed evolution, usually by high-throughput screening of phage or yeast display libraries. Engineering antibodies in mammalian cells offer advantages associated with expression in their final therapeutic format (full-length glycosylated IgG); however, the inability to express large and diverse libraries severely limits their potential throughput. To address this limitation, we have developed homology-directed mutagenesis (HDM), a novel method which extends the concept of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR). HDM leverages oligonucleotides with degenerate codons to generate site-directed mutagenesis libraries in mammalian cells. By improving HDR to a robust efficiency of 15-35% and combining mammalian display screening with next-generation sequencing, we validated this approach can be used for key applications in antibody engineering at high-throughput: rational library construction, novel variant discovery, affinity maturation and deep mutational scanning (DMS). We anticipate that HDM will be a valuable tool for engineering and optimizing antibodies in mammalian cells, and eventually enable directed evolution of other complex proteins and cellular therapeutics.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Gao C (2018)

The future of CRISPR technologies in agriculture.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology, 19(5):275-276.

RevDate: 2019-08-16

Keough KC, Lyalina S, Olvera MP, et al (2019)

AlleleAnalyzer: a tool for personalized and allele-specific sgRNA design.

Genome biology, 20(1):167 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1783-3.

The CRISPR/Cas system is a highly specific genome editing tool capable of distinguishing alleles differing by even a single base pair. Target sites might carry genetic variations that are not distinguishable by sgRNA designing tools based on one reference genome. AlleleAnalyzer is an open-source software that incorporates single-nucleotide variants and short insertions and deletions to design sgRNAs for precisely editing 1 or multiple haplotypes of a sequenced genome, currently supporting 11 Cas proteins. It also leverages patterns of shared genetic variation to optimize sgRNA design for different human populations. AlleleAnalyzer is available at .

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

Saeinasab M, Bahrami AR, González J, et al (2019)

SNHG15 is a bifunctional MYC-regulated noncoding locus encoding a lncRNA that promotes cell proliferation, invasion and drug resistance in colorectal cancer by interacting with AIF.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 38(1):172 pii:10.1186/s13046-019-1169-0.

BACKGROUND: Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers, however our understanding of their role in the disease is still very limited.

METHODS: We applied RNAseq analysis from patient-derived data with validation in independent cohort of patients. We followed these studies with gene regulation analysis as well as experimental dissection of the role of the identified lncRNA by multiple in vitro and in vivo methods.

RESULTS: We analyzed RNA-seq data from tumors of 456 CRC patients compared to normal samples, and identified SNHG15 as a potentially oncogenic lncRNA that encodes a snoRNA in one of its introns. The processed SNHG15 is overexpressed in CRC tumors and its expression is highly correlated with poor survival of patients. Interestingly, SNHG15 is more highly expressed in tumors with high levels of MYC expression, while MYC protein binds to two E-box motifs on SNHG15 sequence, indicating that SNHG15 transcription is directly regulated by the oncogene MYC. The depletion of SNHG15 by siRNA or CRISPR-Cas9 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, decreases colony formation as well as the tumorigenic capacity of CRC cells, whereas its overexpression leads to opposite effects. Gene expression analysis performed upon SNHG15 inhibition showed changes in multiple relevant genes implicated in cancer progression, including MYC, NRAS, BAG3 or ERBB3. Several of these genes are functionally related to AIF, a protein that we found to specifically interact with SNHG15, suggesting that the SNHG15 acts, at least in part, by regulating the activity of AIF. Interestingly, ROS levels, which are directly regulated by AIF, show a significant reduction in SNHG15-depleted cells. Moreover, knockdown of SNHG15 increases the sensitiveness of the cells to 5-FU, while its overexpression renders them more resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug.

CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results describe an important role of SNHG15 in promoting colon cancer and mediating drug resistance, suggesting its potential as prognostic marker and target for RNA-based therapies.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

Dong Z, Wu S, Zhu C, et al (2019)

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated kif15 mutations accelerate axonal outgrowth during neuronal development and regeneration in zebrafish.

Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark), 20(1):71-81.

KIF15, the vertebrate kinesin-12, is best known as a mitotic motor protein, but continues to be expressed in neurons. Like KIF11 (the vertebrate kinesin-5), KIF15 interacts with microtubules in the axon to limit their sliding relative to one another. Unlike KIF11, KIF15 also regulates interactions between microtubules and actin filaments at sites of axonal branch formation and in growth cones. Our original work on these motors was done on cultured rat neurons, but we are now using zebrafish to extend these studies to an in vivo model. We previously studied kif15 in zebrafish by injecting splice-blocking morpholinos injected into embryos. Consistent with the cell culture work, these studies demonstrated that axons grow faster and longer when KIF15 levels are reduced. In the present study, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout technology to create kif15 mutants and labeled neurons with Tg(mnx1:GFP) transgene or transient expression of elavl3:EGFP-alpha tubulin. We then compared by live imaging the homozygotic, heterozygotic mutants to their wildtype siblings to ascertain the effects of depletion of kif15 during Caudal primary motor neuron and Rohon-Beard (R-B) sensory neuron development. The results showed, compared to the kif15 wildtype, the number of branches was reduced while axon outgrowth was accelerated in kif15 homozygotic and heterozygotic mutants. In R-B sensory neurons, after laser irradiation, injured axons with loss of kif15 displayed significantly greater regenerative velocity. Given these results and the fact that kif15 drugs are currently under development, we posit kif15 as a novel target for therapeutically augmenting regeneration of injured axons.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

Batool S, Argyropoulos KV, Azad R, et al (2019)

Dimerization of an aptamer generated from Ligand-guided selection (LIGS) yields a high affinity scaffold against B-cells.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, 1863(1):232-240.

Nucleic Acid Aptamers (NAAs) are a class of synthetic DNA or RNA molecules that bind specifically to their target. We recently introduced an aptamer termed R1.2 against membrane Immunoglobulin M (mIgM) expressing B-cell neoplasms using Ligand Guided Selection (LIGS). While LIGS-generated aptamers are highly specific, their lower affinity prevents aptamers from being used for translational applications. Highly specific aptamers with higher affinity can increase targetability, boosting the application of aptamers as diagnostic and therapeutic molecules. Herein, we report that dimerization of R1.2, an aptamer generated from LIGS, leads to high affinity variants without compromising the specificity. Three dimeric aptamer analogues with variable linker lengths were designed to evaluate the effect of linker length in affinity. The optimized dimeric R1.2 against cultured B-cell neoplasms, four donor B-cell samples and mIgM-positive Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM) showed specificity. Furthermore, confocal imaging of dimeric aptamer and anti-IgM antibody in purified B-cells suggests co-localization. Binding assays against IgM knockout Burkitt's Lymphoma cells utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 further validated specificity of dimeric R1.2. Collectively, our findings show that LIGS-generated aptamers can be re-engineered into dimeric aptamers with high specificity and affinity, demonstrating wide-range of applicability of LIGS in developing clinically practical diagnostic and therapeutic aptamers.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

Ivaldi MS, Diaz LF, Chakalova L, et al (2018)

Fetal γ-globin genes are regulated by the BGLT3 long noncoding RNA locus.

Blood, 132(18):1963-1973.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly being appreciated as participants in regulation of important cellular processes, including transcription. Because lncRNAs are highly cell type specific, they have the potential to contribute to the unique transcriptional repertoire of diverse cells, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. We studied BGLT3, an erythroid lncRNA encoded downstream of Aγ-globin (HBG1). BGLT3 and γ-globin genes are dynamically cotranscribed in erythroid cells in vivo. Deletion of BGLT3 using CRISPR/Cas9 editing shows that it specifically contributes to regulation of γ-globin genes. We used reduction or overexpression of the RNA and inhibition of transcription through the locus by CRISPRi to distinguish functions of the transcript vs the underlying sequence. Transcription of the BGLT3 locus is critical for looping between the γ-globin genes and BGLT3 sequences. In contrast, the BGLT3 transcript is dispensable for γ-globin/BGLT3 looping but interacts with the mediator complex on chromatin. Manipulation of the BGLT3 locus does not compromise γ-globin gene long-range looping interactions with the β-globin locus control region (LCR). These data reveal that BGLT3 regulates γ-globin transcription in a developmental stage-specific fashion together with the LCR by serving as a separate means to increase RNA Pol II density at the γ-globin promoters.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

Anonymous (2018)

CRISPR Causes Unexpected Genomic Damage.

Cancer discovery, 8(9):OF2.

A study in four cell lines concludes that CRISPR/Cas9 editing causes unanticipated genomic alterations, including large deletions, translocations, and insertions. Some of these changes could be the first hits that cause cells to eventually become neoplastic.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 2019-08-16

van der Els S, James JK, Kleerebezem M, et al (2018)

Versatile Cas9-Driven Subpopulation Selection Toolbox for Lactococcus lactis.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 84(8):.

CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been exploited for the removal or replacement of genetic elements in a wide range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the extension of the Cas9 application toolbox to the industrially important dairy species Lactococcus lactis The Cas9 expression vector pLABTarget, encoding the Streptocccus pyogenes Cas9 under the control of a constitutive promoter, was constructed, allowing plug and play introduction of short guide RNA (sgRNA) sequences to target specific genetic loci. Introduction of a pepN-targeting derivative of pLABTarget into L. lactis strain MG1363 led to a strong reduction in the number of transformants obtained, which did not occur in a pepN deletion derivative of the same strain, demonstrating the specificity and lethality of the Cas9-mediated double-strand breaks in the lactococcal chromosome. Moreover, the same pLABTarget derivative allowed the selection of a pepN deletion subpopulation from its corresponding single-crossover plasmid integrant precursor, accelerating the construction and selection of gene-specific deletion derivatives in L. lactis Finally, pLABTarget, which contained sgRNAs designed to target mobile genetic elements, allowed the effective curing of plasmids, prophages, and integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). These results establish that pLABTarget enables the effective exploitation of Cas9 targeting in L. lactis, while the broad-host-range vector used suggests that this toolbox could readily be expanded to other Gram-positive bacteria.IMPORTANCE Mobile genetic elements in Lactococcus lactis and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in dairy fermentation, having both positive and detrimental effects during the production of fermented dairy products. The pLABTarget vector offers an efficient cloning platform for Cas9 application in lactic acid bacteria. Targeting Cas9 toward mobile genetic elements enabled their effective curing, which is of particular interest in the context of potentially problematic prophages present in a strain. Moreover, Cas9 targeting of other mobile genetic elements enables the deciphering of their contribution to dairy fermentation processes and further establishment of their importance for product characteristics.

RevDate: 2019-08-14

Tang Z, Chen S, Chen A, et al (2019)

CasPDB: an integrated and annotated database for Cas proteins from bacteria and archaea.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2019:.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated proteins (Cas) constitute CRISPR-Cas systems, which are antiphage immune systems present in numerous bacterial and most archaeal species. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas systems have been developed into reliable and powerful genome editing tools. Nevertheless, finding similar or better tools from bacteria or archaea remains crucial. This requires the exploration of different CRISPR systems, identification and characterization new Cas proteins. Archives tailored for Cas proteins are urgently needed and necessitate the prediction and grouping of Cas proteins into an information center with all available experimental evidence. Here, we constructed Cas Protein Data Bank (CasPDB), an integrated and annotated online database for Cas proteins from bacteria and archaea. The CasPDB database contains 287 reviewed Cas proteins, 257 745 putative Cas proteins and 3593 Cas operons from 32 023 bacteria species and 1802 archaea species. The database can be freely browsed and searched. The CasPDB web interface also represents all the 3593 putative Cas operons and its components. Among these operons, 328 are members of the type II CRISPR-Cas system.

RevDate: 2019-08-14

Hullahalli K, Rodrigues M, Nguyen UT, et al (2019)

Erratum for Hullahalli et al., "An Attenuated CRISPR-Cas System in Enterococcus faecalis Permits DNA Acquisition".

mBio, 10(4): pii:mBio.01775-19.

RevDate: 2019-08-14

Gloag ES, Marshall CW, Snyder D, et al (2019)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Interstrain Dynamics and Selection of Hyperbiofilm Mutants during a Chronic Infection.

mBio, 10(4): pii:mBio.01698-19.

Opportunistic pathogens establishing new infections experience strong selection to adapt, often favoring mutants that persist. Capturing this initial dynamic is critical for identifying the first adaptations that drive pathogenesis. Here we used a porcine full-thickness burn wound model of chronic infection to study the evolutionary dynamics of diverse Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Wounds were infected with a mixed community of six P. aeruginosa strains, including the model PA14 strain (PA14-1), and biopsies taken at 3, 14, and 28 days postinfection. Hyperbiofilm-forming rugose small-colony variants (RSCVs) were the earliest and predominant phenotypic variant. These variants were detected on day 3 and persisted, with the majority evolved from PA14-1. Whole-genome sequencing of PA14-1 RSCV isolates revealed driver mutations exclusively in the wsp pathway, conferring hyperbiofilm phenotypes. Several of the wsp mutant RSCVs also acquired CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity to prophages isolated from the P. aeruginosa wound isolate (B23-2) that was also present in the inoculum. These observations emphasize the importance of interstrain dynamics and the role of lysogenic phages in the survival of an invading pathogen. Rather than being a side effect of chronicity, the rapid rise of RSCVs in wounds is evidence of positive selection on the Wsp chemosensory system to produce mutants with elevated biofilm formation capacity. We predict that RSCVs provide a level of phenotypic diversity to the infecting bacterial community and are common, early adaptations during infections. This would likely have significant consequences for clinical outcomes.IMPORTANCE Bacteria adapt to infections by evolving variants that are more fit and persistent. These recalcitrant variants are typically observed in chronic infections. However, it is unclear when and why these variants evolve. To address these questions, we used a porcine chronic wound model to study the evolutionary dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mixed-strain infection. We isolated hyperbiofilm variants that persisted early in the infection. Interstrain interactions were also observed, where adapted variants acquired CRISPR-mediated immunity to phages. We show that when initiating infection, P. aeruginosa experiences strong positive selection for hyperbiofilm phenotypes produced by mutants of a single chemosensory system, the Wsp pathway. We predict that hyperbiofilm variants are early adaptations to infection and that interstrain interactions may influence bacterial burden and infection outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-08-14
CmpDate: 2019-08-14

Niu XR, Yin SM, Chen X, et al (2019)

[Gene editing technology and its recent progress in disease therapy].

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 41(7):582-598.

Gene editing is a genetic manipulation technology which utilizes bacterial nucleases to accurately and efficiently modify DNA or RNA. Gene editing has broad applications in basic research, breeding, and drug screening, and it is gaining validity and applicability to the therapy of many diseases especially genetic-based disease. In this review, we summarize the development of gene editing technology, its different strategies and applications in the treatment of disease, and the research of gene editing therapy for genetic diseases (including base editor and epigenetic regulation) in the treatment of disorders and diseases of the blood system, liver, muscle and nervous system. Finally, we discuss the future development prospects of gene editing therapy.

RevDate: 2019-08-14
CmpDate: 2019-08-14

Wang J, Huang J, R Xu (2019)

[Seamless genome editing in Drosophila by combining CRISPR/Cas9 and piggyBac technologies].

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 41(5):422-429.

The type2 CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR- associated protein 9) is an efficient RNA-guided genome-editing technique. Guided by sgRNA, the Cas9 endonuclease generates site-specific double-stranded breaks (DSB) at specific site, which is amenable to repair by homology-directed repair (HDR) to generate a designed knock-out or knock-in transgene. In combination with CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/loxP or FLP/FRT system, efficient gene targeting can be achieved, and meanwhile screening markers introduced can be readily removed except a 34-base pair residual fragment. Thus, difficulties remain in accurate editing of the genome without introducing any extraneous sequences. In human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a two-step strategy has been developed using CRISPR/Cas9 and the piggyBac system to establish a seamless genomic editing, in which CRISPR/Cas9 is initially used to introduce mutations along with screening markers by HDR, then the markers are precisely excised by piggyBac transposase. Using this strategy, we have successfully transformed the tyrosine to cysteine at position 21 within the 18th exon of the CG4894 gene in the Drosophila genome without introducing any extraneous sequence. Hence, this strategy provides more options for precise and seamless editing of the Drosophila genome.

RevDate: 2019-08-14
CmpDate: 2019-08-14

Bellin M (2018)

Crispr/Cas9 homologous recombination (HR).

Drug discovery today. Technologies, 28:1-2.

RevDate: 2019-08-14
CmpDate: 2019-08-14

Cromer MK, Vaidyanathan S, Ryan DE, et al (2018)

Global Transcriptional Response to CRISPR/Cas9-AAV6-Based Genome Editing in CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 26(10):2431-2442.

Genome-editing technologies are currently being translated to the clinic. However, cellular effects of the editing machinery have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we performed global microarray-based gene expression measurements on human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that underwent editing. We probed effects of the entire editing process as well as each component individually, including electroporation, Cas9 (mRNA or protein) with chemically modified sgRNA, and AAV6 transduction. We identified differentially expressed genes relative to control treatments, which displayed enrichment for particular biological processes. All editing machinery components elicited immune, stress, and apoptotic responses. Cas9 mRNA invoked the greatest amount of transcriptional change, eliciting a distinct viral response and global transcriptional downregulation, particularly of metabolic and cell cycle processes. Electroporation also induced significant transcriptional change, with notable downregulation of metabolic processes. Surprisingly, AAV6 evoked no detectable viral response. We also found Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein treatment to be well tolerated, in spite of eliciting a DNA damage signature. Overall, this data establishes a benchmark for cellular tolerance of CRISPR/Cas9-AAV6-based genome editing, ensuring that the clinical protocol is as safe and efficient as possible.

RevDate: 2019-08-14
CmpDate: 2019-08-14

Zhan T, Rindtorff N, Betge J, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer research and therapy.

Seminars in cancer biology, 55:106-119.

CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organisms. First discovered in bacteria as part of an adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 and modified versions have found a widespread use to engineer genomes and to activate or to repress the expression of genes. As such, CRISPR/Cas9 promises to accelerate cancer research by providing an efficient technology to dissect mechanisms of tumorigenesis, identify targets for drug development, and possibly arm cells for cell-based therapies. Here, we review current applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for cancer research and therapy. We describe novel Cas9 variants and how they are used in functional genomics to discover novel cancer-specific vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we highlight the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 in generating organoid and mouse models of cancer. Finally, we provide an overview of the first clinical trials that apply CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic approach against cancer.

RevDate: 2019-08-13

Li QV, Rosen BP, D Huangfu (2019)

Decoding pluripotency: Genetic screens to interrogate the acquisition, maintenance, and exit of pluripotency.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Pluripotent stem cells have the ability to unlimitedly self-renew and differentiate to any somatic cell lineage. A number of systems biology approaches have been used to define this pluripotent state. Complementary to systems level characterization, genetic screens offer a unique avenue to functionally interrogate the pluripotent state and identify the key players in pluripotency acquisition and maintenance, exit of pluripotency, and lineage differentiation. Here we review how genetic screens have helped us decode pluripotency regulation. We will summarize results from RNA interference (RNAi) based screens, discuss recent advances in CRISPR/Cas-based genetic perturbation methods, and how these advances have made it possible to more comprehensively interrogate pluripotency and differentiation through genetic screens. Such investigations will not only provide a better understanding of this unique developmental state, but may enhance our ability to use pluripotent stem cells as an experimental model to study human development and disease progression. Functional interrogation of pluripotency also provides a valuable roadmap for utilizing genetic perturbation to gain systems level understanding of additional cellular states, from later stages of development to pathological disease states. This article is categorized under: Developmental Biology > Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration Developmental Biology > Developmental Processes in Health and Disease Biological Mechanisms > Cell Fates.

RevDate: 2019-08-12

Hanewich-Hollatz MH, Chen Z, Hochrein LM, et al (2019)

Conditional Guide RNAs: Programmable Conditional Regulation of CRISPR/Cas Function in Bacterial and Mammalian Cells via Dynamic RNA Nanotechnology.

ACS central science, 5(7):1241-1249.

A guide RNA (gRNA) directs the function of a CRISPR protein effector to a target gene of choice, providing a versatile programmable platform for engineering diverse modes of synthetic regulation (edit, silence, induce, bind). However, the fact that gRNAs are constitutively active places limitations on the ability to confine gRNA activity to a desired location and time. To achieve programmable control over the scope of gRNA activity, here we apply principles from dynamic RNA nanotechnology to engineer conditional guide RNAs (cgRNAs) whose activity is dependent on the presence or absence of an RNA trigger. These cgRNAs are programmable at two levels, with the trigger-binding sequence controlling the scope of the effector activity and the target-binding sequence determining the subject of the effector activity. We demonstrate molecular mechanisms for both constitutively active cgRNAs that are conditionally inactivated by an RNA trigger (ON → OFF logic) and constitutively inactive cgRNAs that are conditionally activated by an RNA trigger (OFF → ON logic). For each mechanism, automated sequence design is performed using the reaction pathway designer within NUPACK to design an orthogonal library of three cgRNAs that respond to different RNA triggers. In E. coli expressing cgRNAs, triggers, and silencing dCas9 as the protein effector, we observe a median conditional response of ≈4-fold for an ON → OFF "terminator switch" mechanism, ≈15-fold for an ON → OFF "splinted switch" mechanism, and ≈3-fold for an OFF → ON "toehold switch" mechanism; the median crosstalk within each cgRNA/trigger library is <2%, ≈2%, and ≈20% for the three mechanisms. To test the portability of cgRNA mechanisms prototyped in bacteria to mammalian cells, as well as to test generalizability to different effector functions, we implemented the terminator switch in HEK 293T cells expressing inducing dCas9 as the protein effector, observing a median ON → OFF conditional response of ≈4-fold with median crosstalk of ≈30% for three orthogonal cgRNA/trigger pairs. By providing programmable control over both the scope and target of protein effector function, cgRNA regulators offer a promising platform for synthetic biology.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Huang Y, Xuan H, Yang C, et al (2019)

GmHsp90A2 is involved in soybean heat stress as a positive regulator.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 285:26-33.

Heat shock protein 90 s (Hsp90s), one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones, is an essential component of the protective stress response. A previous study reported at least 12 genes in the GmHsp90s family in soybean and that GmHsp90A2 overexpression enhanced thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigate the roles of GmHsp90A2 in soybean by utilizing stable transgenic soybean lines overexpressing GmHsp90A2 and mutant lines generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The results showed that compared with wild-type plants (WT) and empty vector control plants (VC), T3 transgenic soybean plants overexpressing GmHsp90A2 exhibited increased tolerance to heat stress through higher chlorophyll and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in plants. Conversely, reduced chlorophyll and increased MDA contents in T2 homozygous GmHsp90A2-knockout mutants indicated decreased tolerance to heat stress. GmHsp90A2 was found to interact with GmHsp90A1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, subcellular localization analyses revealed that GmHsp90A2 was localized to the cytoplasm and cell membrane; as shown by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, GmHsp90A2 interacted with GmHsp90A1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm and cell membrane. Hence, we conclude that GmHsp90A1 is able to bind to GmHsp90A2 to form a complex and that this complex enters the nucleus. In summary, GmHsp90A2 might respond to heat stress and positively regulate thermotolerance by interacting with GmHsp90A1.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Albrechtsen R, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, Gnosa S, et al (2019)

Identification of ADAM12 as a Novel Basigin Sheddase.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(8): pii:ijms20081957.

The transmembrane glycoprotein basigin, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, stimulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and thereby drives cancer cell invasion. Basigin is proteolytically shed from the cell surface and high concentrations of soluble basigin in the blood dictates poor prognosis in cancer patients. A positive correlation between basigin and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-12 in serum from prostate cancer patients has been reported. Yet, the functional relevance of this correlation is unknown. Here, we show that ADAM12 interacts with basigin and cleaves it in the juxtamembrane region. Specifically, overexpression of ADAM12 increases ectodomain shedding of an alkaline phosphatase-tagged basigin reporter protein from the cell surface. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of ADAM12 in human HeLa carcinoma cells results in reduced shedding of the basigin reporter, which can be rescued by ADAM12 re-expression. We detected endogenous basigin fragments, corresponding to the expected size of the ADAM12-generated ectodomain, in conditioned media from ADAM12 expressing cancer cell-lines, as well as serum samples from a healthy pregnant donor and five bladder cancer patients, known to contain high ADAM12 levels. Supporting the cancer relevance of our findings, we identified several cancer-associated mutations in the basigin membrane proximal region. Subsequent in vitro expression showed that some of these mutants are more prone to ADAM12-mediated shedding and that the shed ectodomain can enhance gelatin degradation by cancer cells. In conclusion, we identified ADAM12 as a novel basigin sheddase with a potential implication in cancer.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Zhai Y, Cai S, Hu L, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing reveals differences in the contribution of INDEHISCENT homologues to pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus L.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 132(7):2111-2123.

The INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) gene homologues have been reported to be essential for dehiscence of fruits in Brassica species. But their functions for pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus, an important oil crops, are not well understood. Here, we assessed the functions of these two genes in rapeseed using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The induced mutations were stably transmitted to successive generations, and a variety of homozygous mutants with loss-of-function alleles of the target genes were obtained for phenotyping. The results showed that the function of BnIND gene is essential for pod shatter and highly conserved in Brassica species, whereas the BnALC gene appears to have limited potential for rapeseed shatter resistance. The homoeologous copies of the BnIND gene have partially redundant roles in rapeseed pod shatter, with BnA03.IND exhibiting higher contributions than BnC03.IND. Analysis of data obtained from the gene expression and sequence variations of gene copies revealed that cis-regulatory divergences alter gene expression and underlie the functional differentiation of BnIND homologues. Collectively, our results generate valuable resources for rapeseed breeding programs, and more importantly provide a strategy to improve polyploid crops.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Cyranoski D (2019)

The CRISPR-baby scandal: what's next for human gene-editing.

Nature, 566(7745):440-442.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Kuil LE, Oosterhof N, Geurts SN, et al (2019)

Reverse genetic screen reveals that Il34 facilitates yolk sac macrophage distribution and seeding of the brain.

Disease models & mechanisms, 12(3): pii:dmm.037762.

Microglia are brain-resident macrophages, which have specialized functions important in brain development and in disease. They colonize the brain in early embryonic stages, but few factors that drive the migration of yolk sac macrophages (YSMs) into the embryonic brain, or regulate their acquisition of specialized properties, are currently known. Here, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-based in vivo reverse genetic screening pipeline to identify new microglia regulators using zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae are particularly suitable due to their external development, transparency and conserved microglia features. We targeted putative microglia regulators, by Cas9/gRNA complex injections, followed by Neutral-Red-based visualization of microglia. Microglia were quantified automatically in 3-day-old larvae using a software tool we called SpotNGlia. We identified that loss of zebrafish colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r) ligand, Il34, caused reduced microglia numbers. Previous studies on the role of IL34 in microglia development in vivo were ambiguous. Our data, and a concurrent paper, show that, in zebrafish, il34 is required during the earliest seeding of the brain by microglia. Our data also indicate that Il34 is required for YSM distribution to other organs. Disruption of the other Csf1r ligand, Csf1, did not reduce microglia numbers in mutants, whereas overexpression increased the number of microglia. This shows that Csf1 can influence microglia numbers, but might not be essential for the early seeding of the brain. In all, we identified il34 as a modifier of microglia colonization, by affecting distribution of YSMs to target organs, validating our reverse genetic screening pipeline in zebrafish.This article has an associated First Person interview with the joint first authors of the paper.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Hayashi A, K Tanaka (2019)

Short-Homology-Mediated CRISPR/Cas9-Based Method for Genome Editing in Fission Yeast.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.), 9(4):1153-1163 pii:g3.118.200976.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system enables the editing of genomes of numerous organisms through the induction of the double-strand breaks (DSB) at specific chromosomal targets. We improved the CRISPR/Cas9 system to ease the direct introduction of a point mutation or a tagging sequence into the chromosome by combining it with the noncanonical homology-directed DNA repair (HDR) based genome editing in fission yeast. We constructed convenient cloning vectors, which possessed a guide RNA (gRNA) expression module, or the humanized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 gene that is expressed under the control of an inducible promoter to avoid the needless expression, or both a gRNA and Cas9 gene. Using this system, we attempted the short-homology-mediated genome editing and found that the HDR pathway provides high-frequency genome editing at target loci without the need of a long donor DNA. Using short oligonucleotides, we successfully introduced point mutations into two target genes at high frequency. We also precisely integrated the sequences for epitope and GFP tagging using donor DNA possessing short homology into the target loci, which enabled us to obtain cells expressing N-terminally tagged fusion proteins. This system could expedite genome editing in fission yeast, and could be applicable to other organisms.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Hollerer I, Barker JC, Jorgensen V, et al (2019)

Evidence for an Integrated Gene Repression Mechanism Based on mRNA Isoform Toggling in Human Cells.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.), 9(4):1045-1053 pii:g3.118.200802.

We recently described an unconventional mode of gene regulation in budding yeast by which transcriptional and translational interference collaborate to down-regulate protein expression. Developmentally timed transcriptional interference inhibited production of a well translated mRNA isoform and resulted in the production of an mRNA isoform containing inhibitory upstream open reading frames (uORFs) that prevented translation of the main ORF. Transcriptional interference and uORF-based translational repression are established mechanisms outside of yeast, but whether this type of integrated regulation was conserved was unknown. Here we find that, indeed, a similar type of regulation occurs at the locus for the human oncogene MDM2 We observe evidence of transcriptional interference between the two MDM2 promoters, which produce a poorly translated distal promoter-derived uORF-containing mRNA isoform and a well-translated proximal promoter-derived transcript. Down-regulation of distal promoter activity markedly up-regulates proximal promoter-driven expression and results in local reduction of histone H3K36 trimethylation. Moreover, we observe that this transcript toggling between the two MDM2 isoforms naturally occurs during human embryonic stem cell differentiation programs.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Voutev R, RS Mann (2019)

TP901-1 Phage Recombinase Facilitates Genome Engineering in Drosophila melanogaster.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.), 9(4):983-986 pii:g3.119.0002.

Molecular biology techniques have a large impact on biomedical research and the availability of diverse tools to perform genome manipulations advances the ease of executing complicated genetic research. Here, we introduce in the fruit fly another such tool by harnessing the phage recombinase TP901-1 to perform site-directed recombination that leads to recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). The TP901-1 system complements already existing recombination systems and enhances genome engineering in the fruit fly and other organisms.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Liu H, Li DM, Zhu LY, et al (2019)

[Research on the knockout of LMNA gene by CRISPR/Cas9 system in human cell lines].

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 41(1):66-75.

The LMNA gene encodes the nuclear Lamin A and Lamin C proteins, and is related to nuclear membrane organization, genome stability and cell differentiation. Abnormal expression of LMNA is ubiquitous in human tumors, and its mutation leads to various forms of laminopathies, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and Hutchinson-Gliford progeria syndrome (HGPS). To further determine the functions of the LMNA gene in cellular physiology, the present study used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to edit the LMNA gene of 293T and HepG2 cells in vitro, which resulted in two stable LMNA gene knockout (LMNA KO) cell lines. Compared to the respective wild type cells, the LMNA KO cell lines showed decrease in proliferation ability, increase in apoptosis, alteration in cellular morphology and uneven structures in the nucleus membrane. In this study, we report for the first time the results on the construction of LMNA KO immortalized cell lines and characterization of their morphological changes, thereby laying the foundation for the further studies of the LMNA gene functions and pathogenic mutations.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Durand GA, Raoult D, G Dubourg (2019)

Antibiotic discovery: history, methods and perspectives.

International journal of antimicrobial agents, 53(4):371-382.

Antimicrobial resistance is considered a major public-health issue. Policies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) include research on new antibiotics. No new class has been discovered since daptomycin and linezolid in the 1980s, and only optimisation or combination of already known compounds has been recently commercialised. Antibiotics are natural products of soil-living organisms. Actinobacteria and fungi are the source of approximately two-thirds of the antimicrobial agents currently used in human medicine; they were mainly discovered during the golden age of antibiotic discovery. This era declined after the 1970s owing to the difficulty of cultivating fastidious bacterial species under laboratory conditions. Various strategies, such as rational drug design, to date have not led to the discovery of new antimicrobial agents. However, new promising approaches, e.g. genome mining or CRISPR-Cas9, are now being developed. The recent rebirth of culture methods from complex samples has, as a matter of fact, permitted the discovery of teixobactin from a new species isolated from soil. Recently, many biosynthetic gene clusters were identified from human-associated microbiota, especially from the gut and oral cavity. For example, the antimicrobial lugdunin was recently discovered in the oral cavity. The repertoire of human gut microbiota has recently substantially increased, with the discovery of hundreds of new species. Exploration of the repertoire of prokaryotes associated with humans using genome mining or newer culture approaches could be promising strategies for discovering new classes of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Lavender P, Kelly A, Hendy E, et al (2018)

CRISPR-based reagents to study the influence of the epigenome on gene expression.

Clinical and experimental immunology, 194(1):9-16.

The use of epigenome editing is set to expand our knowledge of how epigenetic landscapes facilitate gene expression capacity within a given cell. As epigenetic landscape profiling in health and disease becomes more commonplace, so does the requirement to assess the functional impact that particular regulatory domains and DNA methylation profiles have upon gene expression capacity. That functional assessment is particularly pertinent when analysing epigenomes in disease states where the reversible nature of histone and DNA modification might yield plausible therapeutic targets. In this review we discuss first the nature of the epigenetic landscape, secondly the types of factors that deposit and erase the various modifications, consider how modifications transduce their signals, and lastly address current tools for experimental epigenome editing with particular emphasis on the immune system.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Dastidar S, Ardui S, Singh K, et al (2018)

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of trinucleotide repeat expansion in myotonic dystrophy patient-derived iPS and myogenic cells.

Nucleic acids research, 46(16):8275-8298.

CRISPR/Cas9 is an attractive platform to potentially correct dominant genetic diseases by gene editing with unprecedented precision. In the current proof-of-principle study, we explored the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene-editing in myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), an autosomal-dominant muscle disorder, by excising the CTG-repeat expansion in the 3'-untranslated-region (UTR) of the human myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) gene in DM1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (DM1-iPSC), DM1-iPSC-derived myogenic cells and DM1 patient-specific myoblasts. To eliminate the pathogenic gain-of-function mutant DMPK transcript, we designed a dual guide RNA based strategy that excises the CTG-repeat expansion with high efficiency, as confirmed by Southern blot and single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Correction efficiencies up to 90% could be attained in DM1-iPSC as confirmed at the clonal level, following ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transfection of CRISPR/Cas9 components without the need for selective enrichment. Expanded CTG repeat excision resulted in the disappearance of ribonuclear foci, a quintessential cellular phenotype of DM1, in the corrected DM1-iPSC, DM1-iPSC-derived myogenic cells and DM1 myoblasts. Consequently, the normal intracellular localization of the muscleblind-like splicing regulator 1 (MBNL1) was restored, resulting in the normalization of splicing pattern of SERCA1. This study validates the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene editing of repeat expansions.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Takahashi T, Nakano Y, Onomoto K, et al (2018)

LGP2 virus sensor regulates gene expression network mediated by TRBP-bound microRNAs.

Nucleic acids research, 46(17):9134-9147.

Here we show that laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) virus sensor protein regulates gene expression network of endogenous genes mediated by TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP)-bound microRNAs (miRNAs). TRBP is an enhancer of RNA silencing, and functions to recruit precursor-miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) to Dicer that processes pre-miRNA into mature miRNA. Viral infection activates the antiviral innate immune response in mammalian cells. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), and LGP2, function as cytoplasmic virus sensor proteins during viral infection. RIG-I and MDA5 can distinguish between different types of RNA viruses to produce antiviral cytokines, including type I interferon. However, the role of LGP2 is controversial. We found that LGP2 bound to the double-stranded RNA binding sites of TRBP, resulting in inhibition of pre-miRNA binding and recruitment by TRBP. Furthermore, although it is unclear whether TRBP binds to specific pre-miRNA, we found that TRBP bound to particular pre-miRNAs with common structural characteristics. Thus, LGP2 represses specific miRNA activities by interacting with TRBP, resulting in selective regulation of target genes. Our findings show that a novel function of LGP2 is to modulate RNA silencing, indicating the crosstalk between RNA silencing and RLR signaling in mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Sturm Á, Saskoi É, Tibor K, et al (2018)

Highly efficient RNAi and Cas9-based auto-cloning systems for C. elegans research.

Nucleic acids research, 46(17):e105.

RNA interference (RNAi) technology used for the functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans genes frequently leads to phenotypes with low penetrance or even proves completely ineffective. The methods previously developed to solve this problem were built on mutant genetic backgrounds, such as those defective for rrf-3, in which endogenous RNAi pathways are overexpressed. These mutations, however, interferes with many other genetic pathways so that the detected phenotype cannot always be clearly linked to the RNAi-exposed gene. In addition, using RNAi-overexpressing mutant backgrounds requires time-consuming genetic crossing. Here, we present an improved RNAi vector that produces specific double-stranded RNA species only, and thereby significantly stronger phenotypes than the standard gene knockdown vector. The further advantage of the new RNAi vector is that the detected phenotype can be specifically linked to the gene silenced. We also created a new all-in-one C. elegans Cas9 vector whose spacer sequence is much easier to replace. Both new vectors include a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based auto-cloning vector system rendering needless the use of restriction and ligase enzymes in generating DNA constructs. This novel, efficient RNAi and auto-cloning Cas9 systems can be easily adapted to any other genetic model.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Tasan I, Sustackova G, Zhang L, et al (2018)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in of an optimized TetO repeat for live cell imaging of endogenous loci.

Nucleic acids research, 46(17):e100.

Nuclear organization has an important role in determining genome function; however, it is not clear how spatiotemporal organization of the genome relates to functionality. To elucidate this relationship, a method for tracking any locus of interest is desirable. Recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) or transcription activator-like effectors were adapted for imaging endogenous loci; however, they are mostly limited to visualization of repetitive regions. Here, we report an efficient and scalable method named SHACKTeR (Short Homology and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knock-in of a TetO Repeat) for live cell imaging of specific chromosomal regions without the need for a pre-existing repetitive sequence. SHACKTeR requires only two modifications to the genome: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in of an optimized TetO repeat and its visualization by TetR-EGFP expression. Our simplified knock-in protocol, utilizing short homology arms integrated by polymerase chain reaction, was successful at labeling 10 different loci in HCT116 cells. We also showed the feasibility of knock-in into lamina-associated, heterochromatin regions, demonstrating that these regions prefer non-homologous end joining for knock-in. Using SHACKTeR, we were able to observe DNA replication at a specific locus by long-term live cell imaging. We anticipate the general applicability and scalability of our method will enhance causative analyses between gene function and compartmentalization in a high-throughput manner.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Vasquez JJ, Wedel C, Cosentino RO, et al (2018)

Exploiting CRISPR-Cas9 technology to investigate individual histone modifications.

Nucleic acids research, 46(18):e106.

Despite their importance for most DNA-templated processes, the function of individual histone modifications has remained largely unknown because in vivo mutational analyses are lacking. The reason for this is that histone genes are encoded by multigene families and that tools to simultaneously edit multiple genomic loci with high efficiency are only now becoming available. To overcome these challenges, we have taken advantage of the power of CRISPR-Cas9 for precise genome editing and of the fact that most DNA repair in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei occurs via homologous recombination. By establishing an episome-based CRISPR-Cas9 system for T. brucei, we have edited wild type cells without inserting selectable markers, inserted a GFP tag between an ORF and its 3'UTR, deleted both alleles of a gene in a single transfection, and performed precise editing of genes that exist in multicopy arrays, replacing histone H4K4 with H4R4 in the absence of detectable off-target effects. The newly established genome editing toolbox allows for the generation of precise mutants without needing to change other regions of the genome, opening up opportunities to study the role of individual histone modifications, catalytic sites of enzymes or the regulatory potential of UTRs in their endogenous environments.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Prykhozhij SV, Fuller C, Steele SL, et al (2018)

Optimized knock-in of point mutations in zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9.

Nucleic acids research, 46(17):e102.

We have optimized point mutation knock-ins into zebrafish genomic sites using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 reagents and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. The efficiency of knock-ins was assessed by a novel application of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by high-throughput sequencing. Anti-sense asymmetric oligo design was found to be the most successful optimization strategy. However, cut site proximity to the mutation and phosphorothioate oligo modifications also greatly improved knock-in efficiency. A previously unrecognized risk of off-target trans knock-ins was identified that we obviated through the development of a workflow for correct knock-in detection. Together these strategies greatly facilitate the study of human genetic diseases in zebrafish, with additional applicability to enhance CRISPR-based approaches in other animal model systems.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Couvin D, Bernheim A, Toffano-Nioche C, et al (2018)

CRISPRCasFinder, an update of CRISRFinder, includes a portable version, enhanced performance and integrates search for Cas proteins.

Nucleic acids research, 46(W1):W246-W251.

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typing tool updated to match the latest classification scheme of these systems. CRISPRCasFinder can either be used online or as a standalone tool compatible with Linux operating system. All third-party software packages employed by the program are freely available. CRISPRCasFinder is available at

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Concordet JP, M Haeussler (2018)

CRISPOR: intuitive guide selection for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments and screens.

Nucleic acids research, 46(W1):W242-W245. is a web tool for genome editing experiments with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. It finds guide RNAs in an input sequence and ranks them according to different scores that evaluate potential off-targets in the genome of interest and predict on-target activity. The list of genomes is continuously expanded, with more 150 genomes added in the last two years. CRISPOR tries to provide a comprehensive solution from selection, cloning and expression of guide RNA as well as providing primers needed for testing guide activity and potential off-targets. Recent developments include batch design for genome-wide CRISPR and saturation screens, creating custom oligonucleotides for guide cloning and the design of next generation sequencing primers to test for off-target mutations. CRISPOR is available from, including the full source code of the website and a stand-alone, command-line version.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Lieberman J (2018)

Tapping the RNA world for therapeutics.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 25(5):357-364.

A recent revolution in RNA biology has led to the identification of new RNA classes with unanticipated functions, new types of RNA modifications, an unexpected multiplicity of alternative transcripts and widespread transcription of extragenic regions. This development in basic RNA biology has spawned a corresponding revolution in RNA-based strategies to generate new types of therapeutics. Here, I review RNA-based drug design and discuss barriers to broader applications and possible ways to overcome them. Because they target nucleic acids rather than proteins, RNA-based drugs promise to greatly extend the domain of 'druggable' targets beyond what can be achieved with small molecules and biologics.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Joseph B, Kondo S, EC Lai (2018)

Short cryptic exons mediate recursive splicing in Drosophila.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 25(5):365-371.

Many long Drosophila introns are processed by an unusual recursive strategy. The presence of ~200 adjacent splice acceptor and splice donor sites, termed ratchet points (RPs), were inferred to reflect 'zero-nucleotide exons', whose sequential processing subdivides removal of long host introns. We used CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt several intronic RPs in Drosophila melanogaster, some of which recapitulated characteristic loss-of-function phenotypes. Unexpectedly, selective disruption of RP splice donors revealed constitutive retention of unannotated short exons. Assays using functional minigenes confirm that unannotated cryptic splice donor sites are critical for recognition of intronic RPs, demonstrating that recursive splicing involves the recognition of cryptic RP exons. This appears to be a general mechanism, because canonical, conserved splice donors are specifically enriched in a 40-80-nt window downstream of known and newly annotated intronic RPs and exhibit similar properties to a broadly expanded class of expressed RP exons. Overall, these studies unify the mechanism of Drosophila recursive splicing with that in mammals.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Tang L, Zeng Y, Zhou X, et al (2018)

Highly efficient ssODN-mediated homology-directed repair of DSBs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in human 3PN zygotes.

Molecular reproduction and development, 85(6):461-463.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Cheng L, Tang Y, Chen X, et al (2018)

Deletion of MBD2 inhibits proliferation of chronic myeloid leukaemia blast phase cells.

Cancer biology & therapy, 19(8):676-686.

Aberrant methylation of tumour suppressor genes is associated with the progression to a blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) has been studied as a "reader" of DNA methylation in many cancers, but its role in CML is unclear. We constructed cell models of a homozygous deletion mutation of MBD2 using gene-editing technology in K562 cells and BV173 cells. Here, we demonstrated that the deletion of MBD2 inhibited cell proliferation capacity in vitro. MBD2 deletion also significantly inhibited K562 cell proliferation in a xenograft tumour model in vivo. Additionally, the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway, which is abnormally active in CML, was inhibited by MBD2 deletion, and MBD2 deletion could up-regulate the expression of SHP1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MBD2 is a candidate therapeutic strategy for the CML blast phase.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Baylis F (2018)

Counterpoint: The Potential Harms of Human Gene Editing Using CRISPR-Cas9.

Clinical chemistry, 64(3):489-491.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Katsanis N (2018)

Point: Treating Human Genetic Disease One Base Pair at a Time: The Benefits of Gene Editing.

Clinical chemistry, 64(3):486-488.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Schinazi RF, Ehteshami M, Bassit L, et al (2018)

Towards HBV curative therapies.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, 38 Suppl 1:102-114.

Tremendous progress has been made over the last 2 decades to discover and develop approaches to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma using various interferons and small molecules as antiviral agents. However, none of these agents have significant impact on eliminating HBV from infected cells. Currently the emphasis is on silencing or eliminating cccDNA, which could lead to a cure for HBV. Various approaches are being developed including the development of capsid effectors, CRISPR/Cas9, TALENS, siRNA, entry and secretion inhibitors, as well as immunological approaches. It is very likely that a combination of these modalities will need to be employed to successfully eliminate HBV or prevent virus rebound on discontinuation of therapy. In the next 5 years clinical data will emerge which will provide insight on the safety and feasibility of these approaches and if they can be applied to eradicate HBV infections globally. In this review, we summarize current treatments and we highlight and examine recent therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated at the preclinical and clinical stage.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Vilarino M, Rashid ST, Suchy FP, et al (2017)

CRISPR/Cas9 microinjection in oocytes disables pancreas development in sheep.

Scientific reports, 7(1):17472.

One of the ultimate goals of regenerative medicine is the generation of patient-specific organs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Sheep are potential hosts for growing human organs through the technique of blastocyst complementation. We report here the creation of pancreatogenesis-disabled sheep by oocyte microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting PDX1, a critical gene for pancreas development. We compared the efficiency of target mutations after microinjecting the CRISPR/Cas9 system in metaphase II (MII) oocytes and zygote stage embryos. MII oocyte microinjection reduced lysis, improved blastocyst rate, increased the number of targeted bi-allelic mutations, and resulted in similar degree of mosaicism when compared to zygote microinjection. While the use of a single sgRNA was efficient at inducing mutated fetuses, the lack of complete gene inactivation resulted in animals with an intact pancreas. When using a dual sgRNA system, we achieved complete PDX1 disruption. This PDX1-/- fetus lacked a pancreas and provides the basis for the production of gene-edited sheep as a host for interspecies organ generation. In the future, combining gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9 and PSCs complementation could result in a powerful approach for human organ generation.

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Dampier W, Sullivan NT, Chung CH, et al (2017)

Designing broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 gRNAs to target patient-derived variants.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14413.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), including specific guide RNAs (gRNAs), can excise integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) provirus from host chromosomes. To date, anti-HIV-1 gRNAs have been designed to account for off-target activity, however, they seldom account for genetic variation in the HIV-1 genome within and between patients, which will be crucial for therapeutic application of this technology. This analysis tests the ability of published anti-HIV-1 gRNAs to cleave publicly available patient-derived HIV-1 sequences to inform gRNA design and provides basic computational tools to researchers in the field.

RevDate: 2019-07-29
CmpDate: 2019-07-29

Bashir S, R Kühn (2017)

Enhanced precision and efficiency.

Nature biomedical engineering, 1(11):856-857.

RevDate: 2019-07-29
CmpDate: 2019-07-29

Anonymous (2017)

The expanding toolbox for genome engineering.

Nature biomedical engineering, 1(11):853.

RevDate: 2019-08-11

Hsu CT, Cheng YJ, Yuan YH, et al (2019)

Application of Cas12a and nCas9-activation-induced cytidine deaminase for genome editing and as a non-sexual strategy to generate homozygous/multiplex edited plants in the allotetraploid genome of tobacco.

Plant molecular biology pii:10.1007/s11103-019-00907-w [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: Protoplasts can be used for genome editing using several different CRISPR systems, either separately or simultaneously, and that the resulting mutations can be recovered in regenerated non-chimaeric plants. Protoplast transfection and regeneration systems are useful platforms for CRISPR/Cas mutagenesis and genome editing. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Cpf1 (Cas12a) and nCas9-activation-induced cytidine deaminase (nCas9-Target-AID) systems to mutagenize Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts and to regenerate plants harboring the resulting mutations. We analyzed 20 progeny plants of Cas12a-mediated phytoene desaturase (PDS) mutagenized regenerants, as well as regenerants from wild-type protoplasts, and confirmed that their genotypes were inherited in a Mendelian manner. We used a Cas9 nickase (nCas9)-cytidine deaminase to conduct C to T editing of the Ethylene receptor 1 (ETR1) gene in tobacco protoplasts and obtained edited regenerates. It is difficult to obtain homozygous edits of polyploid genomes when the editing efficiency is low. A second round of mutagenesis of partially edited regenerants (a two-step transfection protocol) allowed us to derive ETR1 fully edited regenerants without the need for sexual reproduction. We applied three different Cas systems (SaCas9, Cas12a, and nCas9-Traget AID) using either a one-step or a two-step transfection platform to obtain triply mutated and/or edited tobacco regenerants. Our results indicate that these three Cas systems can function simultaneously within a single cell.

RevDate: 2019-08-10

Liu X, Li G, Zhou X, et al (2019)

Improving Editing Efficiency for the Sequences with NGH PAM Using xCas9-Derived Base Editors.

Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids, 17:626-635 pii:S2162-2531(19)30189-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The development of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated base editors (BEs) provided a versatile tool for precise genome editing. The recently developed xCas9-derived base editors (xBEs) that recognize the NG PAM substantially expand the targeting scope in the genome, while their editing efficiency needs to be improved. Here, we described an improved version of xBEs by fusing the BPNLS and Gam to the N terminus of xBEs (BPNLS-Gam-xBE3 and BPNLS-xABE), and this version of base editor displayed higher targeting efficiency for the majority of detected sites. By using this improved version of xBEs, we successfully created and corrected pathogenic mutations at genomic sites with the NGN protospacer-adjacent motif in human cells. Lastly, we used BPNLS-Gam-xBE3 to model pathogenic mutations in discarded human tripronuclear (3PN) zygotes, and no obvious off-targets and indels were detected. Taken together, the data in our study offer an efficient tool for precise genome editing and, thus, an enriched base editing toolkit.

RevDate: 2019-08-10

Maikova A, Kreis V, Boutserin A, et al (2019)

Using endogenous CRISPR-Cas system for genome editing in the human pathogen Clostridium difficile.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01416-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Human enteropathogen Clostridium difficile constitutes a key public health issue in industrialized countries. Many aspects of C. difficile pathophysiology and adaptation inside the host remain poorly understood. We have recently reported that this bacterium possesses an active CRISPR-Cas system of subtype I-B for defence against phages and other mobile genetic elements that could contribute to its success during infection. In this paper, we demonstrate that redirecting this endogenous CRISPR-Cas system towards autoimmunity allows efficient genome editing in C. difficile We provide detailed description of this newly developed approach and show, as a proof of principle, its efficient application for deletion of a specific gene in reference 630Δerm and in epidemic R20291 C. difficile strains. The new method expands the arsenal of the currently limiting set of gene engineering tools available for investigation of C. difficile and may serve as the basis for new strategies to control C. difficile infections.ImportanceClostridium difficile represents today a real danger for human and animal health. It is the leading cause of diarrhoea associated with healthcare in adults in industrialized countries. The incidence of these infections continues to increase and this trend is accentuated by the general aging of the population. Many questions remain unanswered on the mechanisms contributing to C. difficile success inside the host. The set of genetic tools available for this pathogen is limited and new developments are badly needed. C. difficile has developed efficient defence systems that are directed against foreign DNA and could contribute to its survival in phage-rich gut communities. We show how one of such defence systems, named CRISPR-Cas, can be hijacked for C. difficile genome editing. Our results also show a great potential of CRISPR-Cas system for development of new therapeutic strategies against C. difficile infections.

RevDate: 2019-08-10

Kruse T, Ratnadevi CM, Erikstad HA, et al (2019)

Complete genome sequence analysis of the thermoacidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph "Candidatus Methylacidiphilum kamchatkense" strain Kam1 and comparison with its closest relatives.

BMC genomics, 20(1):642 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5995-4.

BACKGROUND: The candidate genus "Methylacidiphilum" comprises thermoacidophilic aerobic methane oxidizers belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum. These are the first described non-proteobacterial aerobic methane oxidizers. The genes pmoCAB, encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase do not originate from horizontal gene transfer from proteobacteria. Instead, the "Ca. Methylacidiphilum" and the sister genus "Ca. Methylacidimicrobium" represent a novel and hitherto understudied evolutionary lineage of aerobic methane oxidizers. Obtaining and comparing the full genome sequences is an important step towards understanding the evolution and physiology of this novel group of organisms.

RESULTS: Here we present the closed genome of "Ca. Methylacidiphilum kamchatkense" strain Kam1 and a comparison with the genomes of its two closest relatives "Ca. Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum" strain SolV and "Ca. Methylacidiphilum infernorum" strain V4. The genome consists of a single 2,2 Mbp chromosome with 2119 predicted protein coding sequences. Genome analysis showed that the majority of the genes connected with metabolic traits described for one member of "Ca. Methylacidiphilum" is conserved between all three genomes. All three strains encode class I CRISPR-cas systems. The average nucleotide identity between "Ca. M. kamchatkense" strain Kam1 and strains SolV and V4 is ≤95% showing that they should be regarded as separate species. Whole genome comparison revealed a high degree of synteny between the genomes of strains Kam1 and SolV. In contrast, comparison of the genomes of strains Kam1 and V4 revealed a number of rearrangements. There are large differences in the numbers of transposable elements found in the genomes of the three strains with 12, 37 and 80 transposable elements in the genomes of strains Kam1, V4 and SolV respectively. Genomic rearrangements and the activity of transposable elements explain much of the genomic differences between strains. For example, a type 1h uptake hydrogenase is conserved between strains Kam1 and SolV but seems to have been lost from strain V4 due to genomic rearrangements.

CONCLUSIONS: Comparing three closed genomes of "Ca. Methylacidiphilum" spp. has given new insights into the evolution of these organisms and revealed large differences in numbers of transposable elements between strains, the activity of these explains much of the genomic differences between strains.

RevDate: 2019-08-09

Knott GJ, Cress BF, Liu JJ, et al (2019)

Structural basis for AcrVA4 inhibition of specific CRISPR-Cas12a.

eLife, 8: pii:49110 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with programmable immunity against mobile genetic elements. Evolutionary pressure by CRISPR-Cas has driven bacteriophage to evolve small protein inhibitors, anti-CRISPRs (Acrs), that block Cas enzyme function by wide-ranging mechanisms. We show here that the inhibitor AcrVA4 uses a previously undescribed strategy to recognize the L. bacterium Cas12a (LbCas12a) pre-crRNA processing nuclease, forming a Cas12a dimer, and allosterically inhibiting DNA binding. The A. species Cas12a (AsCas12a) enzyme, widely used for genome editing applications, contains an ancestral helical bundle that blocks AcrVA4 binding and allows it to escape anti-CRISPR recognition. Using biochemical, microbiological, and human cell editing experiments, we show that Cas12a orthologs can be rendered either sensitive or resistant to AcrVA4 through rational structural engineering informed by evolution. Together, these findings explain a new mode of CRISPR-Cas inhibition and illustrate how structural variability in Cas effectors can drive opportunistic co-evolution of inhibitors by bacteriophage.

RevDate: 2019-08-09
CmpDate: 2019-08-09

Wang C, Cheng W, Yu Q, et al (2018)

Toxoplasma Chinese 1 Strain of WH3Δrop16I/III /gra15II Genetic Background Contributes to Abnormal Pregnant Outcomes in Murine Model.

Frontiers in immunology, 9:1222.

Toxoplasma gondii infection evokes a strong Th1-type response with interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. Recent studies suggest that the infection of pregnant mice with T. gondii may lead to adverse pregnancy results caused by subversion of physiological immune tolerance at maternofetal interface rather than direct invasion of the parasite. Genotype-associated dense granule protein GRA15II tends to induce classically activated macrophage (M1) differentiation and subsequently activating NK, Th1, and Th17 cells whereas rhoptry protein ROP16I/III drives macrophages to alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization and elicits Th2 immune response. Unlike the archetypal strains of types I, II, and III, type Chinese 1 strains possess both GRA15II and ROP16I/III, suggesting a distinct pathogenesis of Toxoplasma-involved adverse pregnancies. We constructed T. gondii type Chinese 1 strain of WH3Δrop16 based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology to explore the ROP16I/III-deficient/GRA15II-dominant parasites in induction of trophoblast apoptosis in vitro and abnormal pregnant outcomes of mice in vivo. Our study showed that Toxoplasma WH3Δrop16 remarkably induced apoptosis of trophoblasts. C57BL/6 pregnant mice injected with the tachyzoites of WH3Δrop16 presented increased absorptivity of fetuses in comparison with the mice infected with WH3 wild type (WH3 WT) parasites although no remarkable difference of virulence to mice was seen between the two strains. Additionally, the mice inoculated with WH3Δrop16 tachyzoites exhibited a notable expression of both IL-17A and IFN-γ, while the percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3 [T regulatory cells (Tregs)] were diminished in splenocytes and placenta tissues compared to those infected with WH3 WT parasites. Accordingly, expressions of IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1, the pivotal cytokines of Th2 and Tregs response, were significantly dampened whereas IFN-γ and IL-12 expressions were upregulated in WH3Δrop16-infected mice, which gave rise to more prominent outcomes of abnormal pregnancies. Our results indicated that the WH3Δrop16 parasites with gra15II background of T. gondii type Chinese 1 strains may cause miscarriage and stillbirth due to subversion of the maternal immune tolerance and system immunity of the animals and the GRA15II effector contributes to the process of adverse pregnant consequences.

RevDate: 2019-08-09
CmpDate: 2019-08-09

Lane-Reticker SK, Manguso RT, WN Haining (2018)

Pooled in vivo screens for cancer immunotherapy target discovery.

Immunotherapy, 10(3):167-170.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Click Covers to Order from Amazon


By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )