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Bibliography on: Holobiont

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Jun 2024 at 01:31 Created: 


Holobionts are assemblages of different species that form ecological units. Lynn Margulis proposed that any physical association between individuals of different species for significant portions of their life history is a symbiosis. All participants in the symbiosis are bionts, and therefore the resulting assemblage was first coined a holobiont by Lynn Margulis in 1991 in the book Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Holo is derived from the Ancient Greek word ὅλος (hólos) for “whole”. The entire assemblage of genomes in the holobiont is termed a hologenome.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( holobiont OR hologenome OR holospecies ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhang L, Vaccari F, Bandini F, et al (2024)

The short-term effect of microplastics in lettuce involves size- and dose-dependent coordinate shaping of root metabolome, exudation profile and rhizomicrobiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04149-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Micro- and nano-plastics (MNPs) in the soil can impact the microbial diversity within rhizospheres and induce modifications in plants' morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters. However, a significant knowledge gap still needs to be addressed regarding the specific effects of varying particle sizes and concentrations on the comprehensive interplay among soil dynamics, root exudation, and the overall plant system. In this sense, different omics techniques were employed to clarify the mechanisms of the action exerted by four different particle sizes of polyethylene plastics considering four different concentrations on the soil-roots exudates-plant system was studied using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) as a model plant. The impact of MNPs was investigated using a multi-omics integrated approach, focusing on the tripartite interaction between the root metabolic process, exudation pattern, and rhizosphere microbial modulation. Our results showed that particle size and their concentrations significantly modulated the soil-roots exudates-plant system. Untargeted metabolomics highlighted that fatty acids, amino acids, and hormone biosynthesis pathways were significantly affected by MNPs. Additionally, they were associated with the reduction of rhizosphere bacterial α-diversity, following a size-dependent trend for specific taxa. The omics data integration highlighted a correlation between Pseudomonadata and Actinomycetota phyla and Bacillaceae family (Peribacillus simplex) and the exudation of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and lignans in lettuce exposed to increasing sizes of MNPs. This study provides a novel insight into the potential effects of different particle sizes and concentrations of MNPs on the soil-plant continuum, providing evidence about size- and concentration-dependent effects, suggesting the need for further investigation focused on medium- to long-term exposure.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

McCaw BA, Leonard AM, Stevenson TJ, et al (2024)

A role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating female reproductive responses to temperature in a pest beetle.

Insect molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Many species are threatened by climate change and must rapidly respond to survive in changing environments. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, can facilitate plastic responses by regulating gene expression in response to environmental cues. Understanding epigenetic responses is therefore essential for predicting species' ability to rapidly adapt in the context of global environmental change. Here, we investigated the functional significance of different methylation-associated cellular processes on temperature-dependent life history in seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). We assessed changes under thermal stress in (1) DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt1 and Dnmt2) expression levels, (2) genome-wide methylation and (3) reproductive performance, with (2) and (3) following treatment with 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and zebularine (Zeb) over two generations. These drugs are well-documented to alter DNA methylation across the tree of life. We found that Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 were expressed throughout the body in males and females, but were highly expressed in females compared with males and exhibited temperature dependence. However, whole-genome methylation did not significantly vary with temperature, and only marginally or inconclusively with drug treatment. Both 3AB and Zeb led to profound temperature-dependent shifts in female reproductive life history trade-off allocation, often increasing fitness compared with control beetles. Mismatch between magnitude of treatment effects on DNA methylation versus life history effects suggest potential of 3AB and Zeb to alter reproductive trade-offs via changes in DNA repair and recycling processes, rather than or in addition to (subtle) changes in DNA methylation. Together, our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms relating to Dnmt expression, DNA repair and recycling pathways, and possibly DNA methylation, are strongly implicated in modulating insect life history trade-offs in response to temperature change.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Brüssow F, Bruessow F, H Brüssow (2024)

The role of the plant microbiome for forestry, agriculture and urban greenspace in times of environmental change.

Microbial biotechnology, 17(6):e14482.

This Lilliput article provides a literature overview on ecological effects of the plant microbiome with a focus on practical application in forestry, agriculture and urban greenspace under the spectre of climate change. After an overview of the mostly bacterial microbiome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, worldwide data from forests reveal ecological differentiation with respect to major guilds of predominantly fungal plant root symbionts. The plant-microbiome association forms a new holobiont, an integrated unit for ecological adaptation and evolutionary selection. Researchers explored the impact of the microbiome on the capacity of plants to adapt to changing climate conditions. They investigated the impact of the microbiome in reforestation programs, after wildfire, drought, salination and pollution events in forestry, grasslands and agriculture. With increasing temperatures plant populations migrate to higher latitudes and higher altitudes. Ecological studies compared the dispersal capacity of plant seeds with that of soil microbes and the response of soil and root microbes to experimental heating of soils. These studies described a succession of microbiome associations and the kinetics of a release of stored soil carbon into the atmosphere enhancing global warming. Scientists explored the impact of synthetic microbial communities (SynComs) on rice productivity or tea quality; of whole soil addition in grassland restoration; or single fungal inoculation in maize fields. Meta-analyses of fungal inoculation showed overall a positive effect, but also a wide variation in effect sizes. Climate change will be particularly prominent in urban areas ("urban heat islands") where more than half of the world population is living. Urban landscape architecture will thus have an important impact on human health and studies started to explore the contribution of the microbiome from urban greenspace to ecosystem services.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Spooren J, van Bentum S, Thomashow LS, et al (2024)

Plant-Driven Assembly of Disease-Suppressive Soil Microbiomes.

Annual review of phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants have coevolved together with the microbes that surround them and this assemblage of host and microbes functions as a discrete ecological unit called a holobiont. This review outlines plant-driven assembly of disease-suppressive microbiomes. Plants are colonized by microbes from seed, soil, and air but selectively shape the microbiome with root exudates, creating microenvironment hot spots where microbes thrive. Using plant immunity for gatekeeping and surveillance, host-plant genetic properties govern microbiome assembly and can confer adaptive advantages to the holobiont. These advantages manifest in disease-suppressive soils, where buildup of specific microbes inhibits the causal agent of disease, that typically develop after an initial disease outbreak. Based on disease-suppressive soils such as take-all decline, we developed a conceptual model of how plants in response to pathogen attack cry for help and recruit plant-protective microbes that confer increased resistance. Thereby, plants create a soilborne legacy that protects subsequent generations and forms disease-suppressive soils.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Paix B, van der Valk E, NJ de Voogd (2024)

Dynamics, diversity, and roles of bacterial transmission modes during the first asexual life stages of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):37.

BACKGROUND: Sponge-associated bacteria play important roles in the physiology of their host, whose recruitment processes are crucial to maintain symbiotic associations. However, the acquisition of bacterial communities within freshwater sponges is still under explored. Spongilla lacustris is a model sponge widely distributed in European rivers and lakes, producing dormant cysts (named gemmules) for their asexual reproduction, before winter. Through an in vitro experiment, this study aims to describe the dynamics of bacterial communities and their transmission modes following the hatching of these gemmules.

RESULTS: An overall change of bacterial β-diversity was observed through the ontology of the juvenile sponges. These temporal differences were potentially linked, first to the osculum acquisition and the development of a canal system, and then, the increasing colonization of the Chlorella-like photosymbionts. Gemmules hatching with a sterilized surface were found to have a more dispersed and less diverse microbiome, revealing the importance of gemmule epibacteria for the whole holobiont stability. These epibacteria were suggested to be vertically transmitted from the maternal tissues to the gemmule surface. Vertical transmission through the incorporation of bacterial communities inside of the gemmule, was also found as a dominant transmission mode, especially with the nitrogen fixers Terasakiellaceae. Finally, we showed that almost no ASVs were shared between the free-living community and the juveniles, suggesting that horizontal recruitment is unlikely to happen during the first stages of development. However, the free-living bacteria filtered are probably used as a source of nutrients, allowing an enrichment of copiotrophic bacteria already present within its microbiome.

CONCLUSIONS: This study brings new insight for a better understanding of the microbiome acquisition during the first stages of freshwater sponge development. We showed the importance of epibacterial communities on gemmules for the whole holobiont stability, and demonstrated the near absence of recruitment of free-living bacteria during the first stages.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Yakovleva E, Danilova I, Maximova I, et al (2024)

Salt concentration in substrate modulates the composition of bacterial and yeast microbiomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

Microbiome research reports, 3(2):19.

Aim: Microbiomes influence the physiology and behavior of multicellular organisms and contribute to their adaptation to changing environmental conditions. However, yeast and bacterial microbiota have usually been studied separately; therefore, the interaction between bacterial and yeast communities in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) is often overlooked. In this study, we investigate the correlation between bacterial and yeast communities in the gut of D. melanogaster. Methods: We studied the shifts in the joint microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster, encompassing both yeasts and bacteria, during adaptation to substrate with varying salt concentrations (0%, 2%, 4%, and 7%) using plating for both yeasts and bacteria and NGS-sequencing of variable 16S rRNA gene regions for bacteria. Results: The microbiome of flies and their substrates was gradually altered at moderate NaCl concentrations (2% and 4% compared with the 0% control) and completely transformed at high salt concentrations (7%). The relative abundance of Acetobacter, potentially beneficial to D. melanogaster, decreased as NaCl concentration increased, whereas the relative abundance of the more halotolerant lactobacilli first increased, peaking at 4% NaCl, and then declined dramatically at 7%. At this salinity level, potentially pathogenic bacteria of the genera Leuconostoc and Providencia were dominant. The yeast microbiome of D. melanogaster also undergoes significant changes with an increase in salt concentration in the substrate. The total yeast abundance undergoes nonlinear changes: it is lowest at 0% salt concentration and highest at 2%-4%. At a 7% concentration, the yeast abundance in flies and their substrate is lower than at 2%-4% but significantly higher than at 0%. Conclusions: The abundance and diversity of bacteria that are potentially beneficial to the flies decreased, while the proportion of potential pathogens, Leuconostoc and Providencia, increased with an increase in salt concentration in the substrate. In samples with a relatively high abundance and/or diversity of yeasts, the corresponding indicators for bacteria were often lowered, and vice versa. This may be due to the greater halotolerance of yeasts compared to bacteria and may also indicate antagonism between these groups of microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Pepke ML, Hansen SB, MT Limborg (2024)

Unraveling host regulation of gut microbiota through the epigenome-microbiome axis.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00137-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies of dynamic interactions between epigenetic modifications of a host organism and the composition or activity of its associated gut microbiota suggest an opportunity for the host to shape its microbiome through epigenetic alterations that lead to changes in gene expression and noncoding RNA activity. We use insights from microbiota-induced epigenetic changes to review the potential of the host to epigenetically regulate its gut microbiome, from which a bidirectional 'epigenome-microbiome axis' emerges. This axis embeds environmentally induced variation, which may influence the adaptive evolution of host-microbe interactions. We furthermore present our perspective on how the epigenome-microbiome axis can be understood and investigated within a holo-omic framework with potential applications in the applied health and food sciences.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Koll R, Theilen J, Hauten E, et al (2024)

Network-based integration of omics, physiological and environmental data in real-world Elbe estuarine Zander.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03803-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal and estuarine environments are under endogenic and exogenic pressures jeopardizing survival and diversity of inhabiting biota. Information of possible synergistic effects of multiple (a)biotic stressors and holobiont interaction are largely missing in estuaries like the Elbe but are of importance to estimate unforeseen effects on animals' physiology. Here, we seek to leverage host-transcriptional RNA-seq and gill mucus microbial 16S rRNA metabarcoding data coupled with physiological and abiotic measurements in a network analysis approach to decipher the impact of multiple stressors on the health of juvenile Sander lucioperca along one of the largest European estuaries. We find mesohaline areas characterized by gill tissue specific transcriptional responses matching osmosensing and tissue remodeling. Liver transcriptomes instead emphasized that zander from highly turbid areas were undergoing starvation which was supported by compromised body condition. Potential pathogenic bacteria, including Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Chryseobacterium, dominated the gill microbiome along the freshwater transition and oxygen minimum zone. Their occurrence coincided with a strong adaptive and innate transcriptional immune response in host gill and enhanced energy demand in liver tissue supporting their potential pathogenicity. Taken together, we show physiological responses of a fish species and its microbiome to abiotic factors whose impact is expected to increase with consequences of climate change. We further present a method for the close-meshed detection of the main stressors and bacterial species with disease potential in a highly productive ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Hernández M, Ancona S, Hereira-Pacheco S, et al (2024)

Seasonal dietary changes relate to gut microbiota composition depending on the host species but do not correlate with gut microbiota diversity in arthropod-eating lizards.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The animal gut microbiota is strongly influenced by environmental factors that shape their temporal dynamics. Although diet is recognized as a major driver of gut microbiota variation, dietary patterns have seldom been linked to gut microbiota dynamics in wild animals. Here, we analysed the gut microbiota variation between dry and rainy seasons across four Sceloporus species (S. aeneus, S. bicanthalis, S. grammicus and S. spinosus) from central Mexico in light of temporal changes in diet composition. The lizard microbiota was dominated by Firmicutes (now Bacillota) and Bacteroidota, and the closely related species S. aeneus and S. bicanthalis shared a great number of core bacterial taxa. We report species-specific seasonal changes in gut microbiota diversity and composition: greater alpha diversity during the dry compared to the rainy season in S. bicanthalis, the opposite pattern in S. aeneus, and no seasonal differences in S. grammicus and S. spinosus. Our findings indicated a positive association between gut bacterial composition and dietary composition for S. bicanthalis and S. grammicus, but bacterial diversity did not increase linearly with dietary richness in any lizard species. In addition, seasonality affected bacterial composition, and microbial community similarity increased between S. aeneus and S. bicanthalis, as well as between S. grammicus and S. spinosus. Together, our results illustrate that seasonal variation and dietary composition play a role in shaping gut microbiota in lizard populations, but this is not a rule and other ecological factors influence microbiota variation.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Herlemann DPR, Tammert H, Kivistik C, et al (2024)

Distinct biogeographical patterns in snail gastrointestinal tract bacterial communities compared with sediment and water.

MicrobiologyOpen, 13(3):e13.

The factors that influence the distribution of bacterial community composition are not well understood. The role of geographical patterns, which suggest limited dispersal, is still a topic of debate. Bacteria associated with hosts face unique dispersal challenges as they often rely on their hosts, which provide specific environments for their symbionts. In this study, we examined the effect of biogeographic distances on the bacterial diversity and composition of bacterial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of Ampullaceana balthica. We compared the effects on the host-associated bacterial community to those on bacterial communities in water and sediment. This comparison was made using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that the bacterial communities we sampled in Estonia, Denmark, and Northern Germany varied between water, sediment, and the gastrointestinal tract. They also varied between countries within each substrate. This indicates that the type of substrate is a dominant factor in determining bacterial community composition. We separately analyzed the turnover rates of water, sediment, and gastrointestinal bacterial communities over increasing geographic distances. We observed that the turnover rate was lower for gastrointestinal bacterial communities compared to water bacterial communities. This implies that the composition of gastrointestinal bacteria remains relatively stable over distances, while water bacterial communities exhibit greater variability. However, the gastrointestinal tract had the lowest percentage of country-specific amplicon sequence variants, suggesting bacterial colonization from local bacterial communities. Since the overlap between the water and gastrointestinal tract was highest, it appears that the gastrointestinal bacterial community is colonized by the water bacterial community. Our study confirmed that biogeographical patterns in host-associated communities differ from those in water and sediment bacterial communities. These host-associated communities consist of numerous facultative symbionts derived from the water bacterial community.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Swisa A, Kieckhaefer J, Daniel SG, et al (2024)

The evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors shape the murine gut microbiome via control of epithelial glycosylation.

Developmental cell pii:S1534-5807(24)00323-X [Epub ahead of print].

Evolutionary adaptation of multicellular organisms to a closed gut created an internal microbiome differing from that of the environment. Although the composition of the gut microbiome is impacted by diet and disease state, we hypothesized that vertebrates promote colonization by commensal bacteria through shaping of the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we determine that the evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors control the composition of the gut microbiome by establishing favorable glycosylation on the colonic epithelial surface. FOXA proteins bind to regulatory elements of a network of glycosylation enzymes, which become deregulated when Foxa1 and Foxa2 are deleted from the intestinal epithelium. As a direct consequence, microbial composition shifts dramatically, and spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease ensues. Microbiome dysbiosis was quickly reversed upon fecal transplant into wild-type mice, establishing a dominant role for the host epithelium, in part mediated by FOXA factors, in controlling symbiosis in the vertebrate holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Gerna D, Clara D, Antonielli L, et al (2022)

Seed Imbibition and Metabolism Contribute Differentially to Initial Assembly of the Soybean Holobiont.

Phytobiomes journal, 8(1):21-33.

Seed germination critically determines successful plant establishment and agricultural productivity. In the plant holobiont's life cycle, seeds are hubs for microbial communities' assembly, but what exactly shapes the holobiont during germination remains unknown. Here, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing characterized the bacterial communities in embryonic compartments (cotyledons and axes) and on seed coats pre- and post-germination of four soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, in the presence or absence of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), which prevented germination and associated metabolism of seeds that had imbibed. Embryonic compartments were metabolically profiled during germination to design minimal media mimicking the seed endosphere for bacterial growth assays. The distinction between embryonic and seed coat bacterial microbiomes of dry seeds weakened during germination, resulting in the plumule, radicle, cotyledon, and seed coat all hosting the same most abundant and structurally influential genera in germinated seeds of every cultivar. Treatment with ABA prevented the increase of bacterial microbiomes' richness, but not taxonomic homogenization across seed compartments. Growth assays on minimal media containing the most abundant metabolites that accumulated in germinated seeds revealed that seed reserve mobilization promoted enrichment of copiotrophic bacteria. Our data show that seed imbibition enabled distribution of seed-coat-derived epiphytes into embryos irrespective of germination, while germinative metabolism promoted proliferation of copiotrophic taxa, which predominated in germinated seeds.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Filek K, Vuković BB, Žižek M, et al (2024)

Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Hosts of Diverse Bacterial and Fungal Communities.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):79.

Research on microbial communities associated with wild animals provides a valuable reservoir of knowledge that could be used for enhancing their rehabilitation and conservation. The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a globally distributed species with its Mediterranean population categorized as least concern according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as a result of robust conservation efforts. In our study, we aimed to further understand their biology in relation to their associated microorganisms. We investigated epi- and endozoic bacterial and endozoic fungal communities of cloaca, oral mucosa, carapace biofilm. Samples obtained from 18 juvenile, subadult, and adult turtles as well as 8 respective enclosures, over a 3-year period, were analysed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal gene. Our results reveal a trend of decreasing diversity of distal gut bacterial communities with the age of turtles. Notably, Tenacibaculum species show higher relative abundance in juveniles than in adults. Differential abundances of taxa identified as Tenacibaculum, Moraxellaceae, Cardiobacteriaceae, and Campylobacter were observed in both cloacal and oral samples in addition to having distinct microbial compositions with Halioglobus taxa present only in oral samples. Fungal communities in loggerheads' cloaca were diverse and varied significantly among individuals, differing from those of tank water. Our findings expand the known microbial diversity repertoire of loggerhead turtles, highlighting interesting taxa specific to individual body sites. This study provides a comprehensive view of the loggerhead sea turtle bacterial microbiota and marks the first report of distal gut fungal communities that contributes to establishing a baseline understanding of loggerhead sea turtle holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Stephens D, Faghihi Z, M Moniruzzaman (2024)

Widespread occurrence and diverse origins of polintoviruses influence lineage-specific genome dynamics in stony corals.

Virus evolution, 10(1):veae039 pii:veae039.

Stony corals (Order: Scleractinia) are central to vital marine habitats known as coral reefs. Numerous stressors in the Anthropocene are contributing to the ongoing decline in coral reef health and coverage. While viruses are established modulators of marine microbial dynamics, their interactions within the coral holobiont and impact on coral health and physiology remain unclear. To address this key knowledge gap, we investigated diverse stony coral genomes for 'endogenous' viruses. Our study uncovered a remarkable number of integrated viral elements recognized as 'Polintoviruses' (Class Polintoviricetes) in thirty Scleractinia genomes; with several species harboring hundreds to thousands of polintoviruses. We reveal massive paralogous expansion of polintoviruses in stony coral genomes, alongside the presence of integrated elements closely related to Polinton-like viruses (PLVs), a group of viruses that exist as free virions. These results suggest multiple integrations of polintoviruses and PLV-relatives, along with paralogous expansions, shaped stony coral genomes. Re-analysis of existing gene expression data reveals all polintovirus structural and non-structural hallmark genes are expressed, providing support for free virion production from polintoviruses. Our results, revealing a significant diversity of polintovirus across the Scleractinia order, open a new research avenue into polintovirus and their possible roles in disease, genomic plasticity, and environmental adaptation in this key group of organisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Lima LFO, Alker AT, Morris MM, et al (2024)

Pre-Bleaching Coral Microbiome Is Enriched in Beneficial Taxa and Functions.

Microorganisms, 12(5): pii:microorganisms12051005.

Coral reef health is tightly connected to the coral holobiont, which is the association between the coral animal and a diverse microbiome functioning as a unit. The coral holobiont depends on key services such as nitrogen and sulfur cycling mediated by the associated bacteria. However, these microbial services may be impaired in response to environmental changes, such as thermal stress. A perturbed microbiome may lead to coral bleaching and disease outbreaks, which have caused an unprecedented loss in coral cover worldwide, particularly correlated to a warming ocean. The response mechanisms of the coral holobiont under high temperatures are not completely understood, but the associated microbial community is a potential source of acquired heat-tolerance. Here we investigate the effects of increased temperature on the taxonomic and functional profiles of coral surface mucous layer (SML) microbiomes in relationship to coral-algal physiology. We used shotgun metagenomics in an experimental setting to understand the dynamics of microbial taxa and genes in the SML microbiome of the coral Pseudodiploria strigosa under heat treatment. The metagenomes of corals exposed to heat showed high similarity at the level of bacterial genera and functional genes related to nitrogen and sulfur metabolism and stress response. The coral SML microbiome responded to heat with an increase in the relative abundance of taxa with probiotic potential, and functional genes for nitrogen and sulfur acquisition. Coral-algal physiology significantly explained the variation in the microbiome at taxonomic and functional levels. These consistent and specific microbial taxa and gene functions that significantly increased in proportional abundance in corals exposed to heat are potentially beneficial to coral health and thermal resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Marcos AT, Rus MJ, Areal-Quecuty V, et al (2024)

Distinct Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Microbial Patterns in Female Holobiont of Infertility.

Microorganisms, 12(5): pii:microorganisms12050989.

The microbiota is in symbiosis with the human body as a holobiont. Infertility conditions affect the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its resident microbiota. However, a disturbance in homeostasis could influence the FRT and other distal body sites, such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We included 21 patients with endometriosis and other infertility-associated diseases with clinical profiles and biological samples from the FRT (endometrium, endometrial fluid, and vagina), and GIT samples (oral and feces). We performed a 16S rRNA analysis of site-specific microbial communities and estimated diversity metrics. The study found body site-specific microbial patterns in the FRT-GIT. In both study groups, Lactobacillus was the most shared Amplicon Sequence Variant (ASV), a precise identifier of microbial sequences, between endometrial and vagina samples. However, shared Gardnerella and Enterobacteriaceae ASVs were linked to other conditions but not endometriosis. Remarkably, Haemophilus was a specific GIT-shared taxon in endometriosis cases. In conclusion, infertility influences distinctly the FRT and GIT microbiomes, with endometriosis showing unique microbial characteristics. We proposed the concept of 'female holobiont' as a community that comprises the host and microbes that must maintain overall homeostasis across all body sites to ensure a woman's health. Insights into these microbial patterns not only advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of infertility but also open new avenues for developing microbe-based therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring microbial balance, thereby enhancing fertility prospects.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Dietert RR, JM Dietert (2024)

Examining Sound, Light, and Vibrations as Tools to Manage Microbes and Support Holobionts, Ecosystems, and Technologies.

Microorganisms, 12(5): pii:microorganisms12050905.

The vast array of interconnected microorganisms across Earth's ecosystems and within holobionts has been called the "Internet of Microbes." Bacteria and archaea are masters of energy and information collection, storage, transformation, and dissemination using both "wired" and wireless (at a distance) functions. Specific tools affecting microbial energy and information functions offer effective strategies for managing microbial populations within, between, and beyond holobionts. This narrative review focuses on microbial management using a subset of physical modifiers of microbes: sound and light (as well as related vibrations). These are examined as follows: (1) as tools for managing microbial populations, (2) as tools to support new technologies, (3) as tools for healing humans and other holobionts, and (4) as potential safety dangers for microbial populations and their holobionts. Given microbial sensitivity to sound, light, and vibrations, it is critical that we assign a higher priority to the effects of these physical factors on microbial populations and microbe-laden holobionts. We conclude that specific sound, light, and/or vibrational conditions are significant therapeutic tools that can help support useful microbial populations and help to address the ongoing challenges of holobiont disease. We also caution that inappropriate sound, light, and/or vibration exposure can represent significant hazards that require greater recognition.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Schwarcz S, Kovács P, Nyerges P, et al (2024)

The bacterial metabolite, lithocholic acid, has antineoplastic effects in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Cell death discovery, 10(1):248.

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid. LCA enters the circulation after bacterial synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract, reaches distantly located cancer cells, and influences their behavior. LCA was considered carcinogenic, but recent studies demonstrated that LCA has antitumor effects. We assessed the possible role of LCA in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. At the serum reference concentration, LCA induced a multi-pronged antineoplastic program in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. LCA inhibited cancer cell proliferation and induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transition that reduced cell invasion capacity. LCA induced oxidative/nitrosative stress by decreasing the expression of nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) and inducing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The oxidative/nitrosative stress increased protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Suppression of oxidative stress by glutathione (GSH) or pegylated catalase (pegCAT) blunted LCA-induced MET. Antioxidant genes were overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and decreased antioxidant levels correlated with better survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, LCA treatment decreased the proportions of cancer stem cells. Finally, LCA induced total and ATP-linked mitochondrial oxidation and fatty acid oxidation. LCA exerted effects through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). LCA did not interfere with cytostatic agents used in the chemotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Taken together, LCA is a non-toxic compound and has antineoplastic effects in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Yee SW, Ferrández-Peral L, Alentorn-Moron P, et al (2024)

Illuminating the function of the orphan transporter, SLC22A10, in humans and other primates.

Nature communications, 15(1):4380.

SLC22A10 is an orphan transporter with unknown substrates and function. The goal of this study is to elucidate its substrate specificity and functional characteristics. In contrast to orthologs from great apes, human SLC22A10, tagged with green fluorescent protein, is not expressed on the plasma membrane. Cells expressing great ape SLC22A10 orthologs exhibit significant accumulation of estradiol-17β-glucuronide, unlike those expressing human SLC22A10. Sequence alignments reveal a proline at position 220 in humans, which is a leucine in great apes. Replacing proline with leucine in SLC22A10-P220L restores plasma membrane localization and uptake function. Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes show proline at position 220, akin to modern humans, indicating functional loss during hominin evolution. Human SLC22A10 is a unitary pseudogene due to a fixed missense mutation, P220, while in great apes, its orthologs transport sex steroid conjugates. Characterizing SLC22A10 across species sheds light on its biological role, influencing organism development and steroid homeostasis.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Yang Q, Ling J, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Microbial Nitrogen Removal in Reef-building Corals: a Light-sensitive Process.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01287-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Scleractinian corals are the main framework-building groups in tropical coral reefs. In the coral holobiont, nitrogen-cycling mediated by microbes is fundamental for sustaining the coral reef ecosystems. However, little direct evidence characterizing the activities of microbial nitrogen removal via complete denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in stony corals has been presented. In this study, multiple incubation experiments using [15]N-tracer were conducted to identify and characterize N2 production by denitrification and anammox in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis. The rates of denitrification and anammox were recorded up to 0.765 ± 0.162 and 0.078 ± 0.009 nmol N2 cm[-2] h[-1] respectively. Denitrification contributed the majority (∼90%) of N2 production by microbial nitrogen removal in stony corals. The microbial nitrogen removal activities showed diel rhythms, which might correspond to photosynthetic oxygen production. The N2 production rates of anammox and denitrification increased with incubation time. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to confirm and characterize the activities of complete denitrification and anammox in stony corals via stable isotope techniques. This study extends the understanding on nitrogen-cycling in coral reefs and how it participates in corals' resilience to environmental stressors.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Leonard A, Earth Hologenome Initiative Consortium, A Alberdi (2024)

A global initiative for ecological and evolutionary hologenomics.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(24)00074-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The Earth Hologenome Initiative (EHI) is a global collaboration to generate and analyse hologenomic data from wild animals and associated microorganisms using standardised methodologies underpinned by open and inclusive research principles. Initially focused on vertebrates, it aims to re-examine ecological and evolutionary questions by studying host-microbiota interactions from a systemic perspective.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Aires T, Cúcio C, Brakel J, et al (2024)

Impact of persistently high sea surface temperatures on the rhizobiomes of Zostera marina in a Baltic Sea benthocosms.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17337.

Persistently high marine temperatures are escalating and threating marine biodiversity. The Baltic Sea, warming faster than other seas, is a good model to study the impact of increasing sea surface temperatures. Zostera marina, a key player in the Baltic ecosystem, faces susceptibility to disturbances, especially under chronic high temperatures. Despite the increasing number of studies on the impact of global warming on seagrasses, little attention has been paid to the role of the holobiont. Using an outdoor benthocosm to replicate near-natural conditions, this study explores the repercussions of persistent warming on the microbiome of Z. marina and its implications for holobiont function. Results show that both seasonal warming and chronic warming, impact Z. marina roots and sediment microbiome. Compared with roots, sediments demonstrate higher diversity and stability throughout the study, but temperature effects manifest earlier in both compartments, possibly linked to premature Z. marina die-offs under chronic warming. Shifts in microbial composition, such as an increase in organic matter-degrading and sulfur-related bacteria, accompany chronic warming. A higher ratio of sulfate-reducing bacteria compared to sulfide oxidizers was found in the warming treatment which may result in the collapse of the seagrasses, due to toxic levels of sulfide. Differentiating predicted pathways for warmest temperatures were related to sulfur and nitrogen cycles, suggest an increase of the microbial metabolism, and possible seagrass protection strategies through the production of isoprene. These structural and compositional variations in the associated microbiome offer early insights into the ecological status of seagrasses. Certain taxa/genes/pathways may serve as markers for specific stresses. Monitoring programs should integrate this aspect to identify early indicators of seagrass health. Understanding microbiome changes under stress is crucial for the use of potential probiotic taxa to mitigate climate change effects. Broader-scale examination of seagrass-microorganism interactions is needed to leverage knowledge on host-microbe interactions in seagrasses.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Li Z (2024)

Editorial: Marine microbial symbioses: host-microbe interaction, holobiont's adaptation to niches and global climate change.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1416897.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Sivaprakasam S, Mohd Azim Khan NA, Yee Fan T, et al (2024)

Complete genome sequence of potential plant growth-promoting Bacillus altitudinis strain AIMST-CREST03 isolated from paddy field bulk soil.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We present the complete genome of a potential plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus altitudinis AIMST-CREST03 isolated from a high-yielding paddy plot. The genome is 3,669,202 bp in size with a GC content of 41%. Annotation predicted 3,327 coding sequences, including several genes required for plant growth promotion.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Galià-Camps C, Junkin L, Borrallo X, et al (2024)

Navigating spatio-temporal microbiome dynamics: Environmental factors and trace elements shape the symbiont community of an invasive marine species.

Marine pollution bulletin, 203:116477 pii:S0025-326X(24)00454-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of marine invasive species is a mounting concern. While the role of microbial communities in invasive ascidian species is recognized, the role of seasonal shifts in microbiome composition remains largely unexplored. We sampled five individuals of the invasive ascidian Styela plicata quarterly from January 2020 to October 2021 in two harbours, examining gills, tunics, and surrounding water. By analysing Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and seawater trace elements, we found that compartment (seawater, tunic, or gills) was the primary differentiating factor, followed by harbour. Clear seasonal patterns were evident in seawater bacteria, less so in gills, and absent in tunics. We identified compartment-specific bacteria, as well as seasonal indicator ASVs and ASVs correlated with trace element concentrations. Among these bacteria, we found that Endozoicomonas, Hepatoplasma and Rhodobacteraceae species had reported functions which might be necessary for overcoming seasonality and trace element shifts. This study contributes to understanding microbiome dynamics in invasive holobiont systems, and the patterns found indicate a potential role in adaptation and invasiveness.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Roughgarden J (2024)

Lytic/Lysogenic Transition as a Life-History Switch.

Virus evolution, 10(1):veae028.

The transition between lytic and lysogenic life cycles is the most important feature of the life-history of temperate viruses. To explain this transition, an optimal life-history model is offered based a discrete-time formulation of phage/bacteria population dynamics that features infection of bacteria by Poisson sampling of virions from the environment. The time step is the viral latency period. In this model, density-dependent viral absorption onto the bacterial surface produces virus/bacteria coexistence and density dependence in bacterial growth is not needed. The formula for the transition between lytic and lysogenic phases is termed the 'fitness switch'. According to the model, the virus switches from lytic to lysogenic when its population grows faster as prophage than as virions produced by lysis of the infected cells, and conversely for the switch from lysogenic to lytic. A prophage that benefits the bacterium it infects automatically incurs lower fitness upon exiting the bacterial genome, resulting in its becoming locked into the bacterial genome in what is termed here as a 'prophage lock'. The fitness switch qualitatively predicts the ecogeographic rule that environmental enrichment leads to microbialization with a concomitant increase in lysogeny, fluctuating environmental conditions promote virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer, and prophage-containing bacteria can integrate into the microbiome of a eukaryotic host forming a functionally integrated tripartite holobiont. These predictions accord more with the 'Piggyback-the-Winner' hypothesis than with the 'Kill-the-Winner' hypothesis in virus ecology.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Standish CD, Trend J, Kleboe J, et al (2024)

Correlative geochemical imaging of Desmophyllum dianthus reveals biomineralisation strategy as a key coral vital effect.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11121.

The chemical and isotopic composition of stony coral skeletons form an important archive of past climate. However, these reconstructions are largely based on empirical relationships often complicated by "vital effects" arising from uncertain physiological processes of the coral holobiont. The skeletons of deep-sea corals, such as Desmophyllum dianthus, are characterised by micron-scale or larger geochemical heterogeneity associated with: (1) centres of calcification (COCs) where nucleation of new skeleton begins, and (2) fibres that thicken the skeleton. These features are difficult to sample cleanly using traditional techniques, resulting in uncertainty surrounding both the causes of geochemical differences and their influence on environmental signals. Here we combine optical, and in-situ chemical and isotopic, imaging tools across a range of spatial resolutions (~ 100 nm to 10 s of μm) in a correlative multimodal imaging (CMI) approach to isolate the microstructural geochemistry of each component. This reveals COCs are characterised by higher organic content, Mg, Li and Sr and lower U, B and δ[11]B compared to fibres, reflecting the contrasting biomineralisation mechanisms employed to construct each feature. CMI is rarely applied in Environmental/Earth Sciences, but here we illustrate the power of this approach to unpick the "vital effects" in D. dianthus, and by extension, other scleractinian corals.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Nanes Sarfati D, Xue Y, Song ES, et al (2024)

Coordinated wound responses in a regenerative animal-algal holobiont.

Nature communications, 15(1):4032.

Animal regeneration involves coordinated responses across cell types throughout the animal body. In endosymbiotic animals, whether and how symbionts react to host injury and how cellular responses are integrated across species remain unexplored. Here, we study the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura, which hosts symbiotic Tetraselmis sp. green algae and can regenerate entire bodies from tissue fragments. We show that animal injury causes a decline in the photosynthetic efficiency of the symbiotic algae, alongside two distinct, sequential waves of transcriptional responses in acoel and algal cells. The initial algal response is characterized by the upregulation of a cohort of photosynthesis-related genes, though photosynthesis is not necessary for regeneration. A conserved animal transcription factor, runt, is induced after injury and required for acoel regeneration. Knockdown of Cl-runt dampens transcriptional responses in both species and further reduces algal photosynthetic efficiency post-injury. Our results suggest that the holobiont functions as an integrated unit of biological organization by coordinating molecular networks across species through the runt-dependent animal regeneration program.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Bogza A, King IL, CF Maurice (2024)

Worming into infancy: Exploring helminth-microbiome interactions in early life.

Cell host & microbe, 32(5):639-650.

There is rapidly growing awareness of microbiome assembly and function in early-life gut health. Although many factors, such as antibiotic use and highly processed diets, impinge on this process, most research has focused on people residing in high-income countries. However, much of the world's population lives in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where, in addition to erratic antibiotic use and suboptimal diets, these groups experience unique challenges. Indeed, many children in LMICs are infected with intestinal helminths. Although helminth infections are strongly associated with diverse developmental co-morbidities and induce profound microbiome changes, few studies have directly examined whether intersecting pathways between these components of the holobiont shape health outcomes in early life. Here, we summarize microbial colonization within the first years of human life, how helminth-mediated changes to the gut microbiome may affect postnatal growth, and why more research on this relationship may improve health across the lifespan.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Zhang Y, Chen H, Lian C, et al (2024)

Insights into phage-bacteria interaction in cold seep Gigantidas platifrons through metagenomics and transcriptome analyses.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10540.

Viruses are crucial for regulating deep-sea microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles. However, their roles are still less characterized in deep-sea holobionts. Bathymodioline mussels are endemic species inhabiting cold seeps and harboring endosymbionts in gill epithelial cells for nutrition. This study unveiled a diverse array of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels and analyzed the viral metagenome and transcriptome from the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels collected from a cold seep in the South Sea. The mussel gills contained various viruses including Baculoviridae, Rountreeviridae, Myoviridae and Siphovirdae, but the active viromes were Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae belonging to the order Caudovirales. The overall viral community structure showed significant variation among environments with different methane concentrations. Transcriptome analysis indicated high expression of viral structural genes, integrase, and restriction endonuclease genes in a high methane concentration environment, suggesting frequent virus infection and replication. Furthermore, two viruses (GP-phage-contig14 and GP-phage-contig72) interacted with Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts (bathymodiolin mussels host intracellular methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria in their gills), showing high expression levels, and have huge different expression in different methane concentrations. Additionally, single-stranded DNA viruses may play a potential auxiliary role in the virus-host interaction using indirect bioinformatics methods. Moreover, the Cro and DNA methylase genes had phylogenetic similarity between the virus and Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts. This study also explored a variety of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons and revealed that bacteria interacted with the viruses during the symbiosis with Gigantidas platifrons. This study provides fundamental insights into the interplay of microorganisms within Gigantidas platifrons mussels in deep sea.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Næsborg-Nielsen C, Mounsey K, Wilkinson V, et al (2024)

Changes in the Skin Microbiota in Two Bare-nosed Wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with Differing Recovery Trajectories following Treatment for Sarcoptic Mange.

Journal of wildlife diseases pii:500642 [Epub ahead of print].

We report tracking of bacterial skin microbiota for two bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) following in situ treatment for sarcoptic mange. Sarcoptes scabiei, the etiologic agent, has dramatic effects on skin microbiota. Our case reports show differing disease trajectory and bacterial beta diversity between the two treated individuals.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Tsang CTT, Hui TKL, Chung NM, et al (2024)

Comparative analysis of gut microbiome of mangrove brachyuran crabs revealed patterns of phylosymbiosis and codiversification.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The acquisition of microbial symbionts enables animals to rapidly adapt to and exploit novel ecological niches, thus significantly enhancing the evolutionary fitness and success of their hosts. However, the dynamics of host-microbe interactions and their evolutionary implications remain largely underexplored in marine invertebrates. Crabs of the family Sesarmidae (Crustacea: Brachyura) are dominant inhabitants of mangrove forests and are considered keystone species there. Their rapid diversification, particularly after adopting a plant-feeding lifestyle, is believed to have been facilitated by symbiotic gut microbes, enabling successful colonization of intertidal and terrestrial environments. To investigate the patterns and mechanisms shaping the microbial communities and the role of microbes in the evolution of Sesarmidae, we characterized and compared the gut microbiome compositions across 43 crab species from Sesarmidae and other mangrove-associated families using 16S metabarcoding. We found that the gut microbiome assemblages in crabs are primarily determined by host identity, with a secondary influence from environmental factors such as microhabitat and sampling location, and to a lesser extent influenced by biological factors such as sex and gut region. While patterns of phylosymbiosis (i.e. when microbial community relationships recapitulate the phylogeny of their hosts) were consistently observed in all beta-diversity metrics analysed, the strength of phylosymbiosis varied across crab families. This suggests that the bacterial assemblages in each family were differentially shaped by different degrees of host filtering and/or other evolutionary processes. Notably, Sesarmidae displayed signals of cophylogeny with its core gut bacterial genera, which likely play crucial functional roles in their hosts by providing lignocellulolytic enzymes, essential amino acids, and fatty acids supplementation. Our results support the hypothesis of microbial contribution to herbivory and terrestrialization in mangrove crabs, highlighting the tight association and codiversification of the crab holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Zhao J, Nair S, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Macroalgal virosphere assists with host-microbiome equilibrium regulation and affects prokaryotes in surrounding marine environments.

The ISME journal pii:7665618 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiomes in macroalgal holobionts play vital roles in regulating macroalgal growth and ocean carbon cycling. However, the virospheres in macroalgal holobionts remain largely underexplored, representing a critical knowledge gap. Here we unveil that the holobiont of kelp (Saccharina japonica) harbors highly specific and unique epiphytic/endophytic viral species, with novelty (99.7% unknown) surpassing even extreme marine habitats (e.g., deep-sea and hadal zones), indicating that macroalgal virospheres, despite being closest to us, are among the least understood. These viruses potentially maintain microbiome equilibrium critical for kelp health via lytic-lysogenic infections and the expression of folate biosynthesis genes. In-situ kelp mesocosm cultivation and metagenomic mining revealed that kelp holobiont profoundly reshaped surrounding seawater and sediment virus-prokaryote pairings through changing surrounding environmental conditions and virus-host migrations. Some kelp epiphytic viruses could even infect sediment autochthonous bacteria after deposition. Moreover, the presence of ample viral auxiliary metabolic genes for kelp polysaccharide (e.g., laminarin) degradation underscores the underappreciated viral metabolic influence on macroalgal carbon cycling. This study provides key insights into understanding the previously overlooked ecological significance of viruses within macroalgal holobionts and the macroalgae-prokaryotes-virus tripartite relationship.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Maire J, Collingro A, Horn M, et al (2024)

Chlamydiae in corals: shared functional potential despite broad taxonomic diversity.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae054.

Cnidarians, such as corals and sea anemones, associate with a wide range of bacteria that have essential functions, including nutrient cycling and the production of antimicrobial compounds. Within cnidarians, bacteria can colonize all microhabitats including the tissues. Among them are obligate intracellular bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiota (chlamydiae) whose impact on cnidarian hosts and holobionts, especially corals, remain unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of previously published 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data from cnidarians (e.g. coral, jellyfish, and anemones), eight metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of coral-associated chlamydiae, and one MAG of jellyfish-associated chlamydiae to decipher their diversity and functional potential. While the metabarcoding dataset showed an enormous diversity of cnidarian-associated chlamydiae, six out of nine MAGs were affiliated with the Simkaniaceae family. The other three MAGs were assigned to the Parasimkaniaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, and Anoxychlamydiaceae, respectively. All MAGs lacked the genes necessary for an independent existence, lacking any nucleotide or vitamin and most amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Hallmark chlamydial genes, such as a type III secretion system, nucleotide transporters, and genes for host interaction, were encoded in all MAGs. Together these observations suggest an obligate intracellular lifestyle of coral-associated chlamydiae. No unique genes were found in coral-associated chlamydiae, suggesting a lack of host specificity. Additional studies are needed to understand how chlamydiae interact with their coral host, and other microbes in coral holobionts. This first study of the diversity and functional potential of coral-associated chlamydiae improves our understanding of both the coral microbiome and the chlamydial lifestyle and host range.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Yang K, Zheng Y, Sun K, et al (2024)

Rhizosphere microbial markers (micro-markers): A new physical examination indicator for traditional Chinese medicines.

Chinese herbal medicines, 16(2):180-189.

Rhizosphere microorganisms, as one of the most important components of the soil microbiota and plant holobiont, play a key role in the medicinal plant-soil ecosystem, which are closely related to the growth, adaptability, nutrient absorption, stress tolerance and pathogen resistance of host plants. In recent years, with the wide application of molecular biology and omics technologies, the outcomes of rhizosphere microorganisms on the health, biomass production and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of medicinal plants have received extensive attention. However, whether or to what extent rhizosphere microorganisms can contribute to the construction of the quality evaluation system of Chinese medicinal materials is still elusive. Based on the significant role of rhizosphere microbes in the survival and quality formation of medicinal plants, this paper proposed a new concept of rhizosphere microbial markers (micro-markers), expounded the relevant research methods and ideas of applying the new concept, highlighted the importance of micro-markers in the quality evaluation and control system of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), and introduced the potential value in soil environmental assessment, plant pest control and quality assessment of TCMs. It provides reference for developing ecological planting of TCMs and ensuring the production of high quality TCMs by regulating rhizosphere microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

McGrath AH, Lema K, Egan S, et al (2024)

Publisher Correction: Disentangling direct vs indirect effects of microbiome manipulations in a habitat-forming marine holobiont.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 10(1):43 pii:10.1038/s41522-024-00515-7.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Ranke PS, Pepke ML, Søraker JS, et al (2024)

Long-distance dispersal in the short-distance dispersing house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11356 pii:ECE311356.

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a small passerine known to be highly sedentary. Throughout a 30-year capture-mark-recapture study, we have obtained occasional reports of recoveries far outside our main metapopulation study system, documenting unusually long dispersal distances. Our records constitute the highest occurrence of long-distance dispersal events recorded for this species in Scandinavia. Such long-distance dispersals radically change the predicted distribution of dispersal distances and connectedness for our study metapopulation. Moreover, it reveals a much greater potential for colonization than formerly recorded for the house sparrow, which is an invasive species across four continents. These rare and occasional long-distance dispersal events are challenging to document but may have important implications for the genetic composition of small and isolated populations and for our understanding of dispersal ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Moon S, Han S, Jang IH, et al (2024)

Airway epithelial CD47 plays a critical role in inducing influenza virus-mediated bacterial super-infection.

Nature communications, 15(1):3666.

Respiratory viral infection increases host susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, yet the precise dynamics within airway epithelia remain elusive. Here, we elucidate the pivotal role of CD47 in the airway epithelium during bacterial super-infection. We demonstrated that upon influenza virus infection, CD47 expression was upregulated and localized on the apical surface of ciliated cells within primary human nasal or bronchial epithelial cells. This induced CD47 exposure provided attachment sites for Staphylococcus aureus, thereby compromising the epithelial barrier integrity. Through bacterial adhesion assays and in vitro pull-down assays, we identified fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBP) of S. aureus as a key component that binds to CD47. Furthermore, we found that ciliated cell-specific CD47 deficiency or neutralizing antibody-mediated CD47 inactivation enhanced in vivo survival rates. These findings suggest that interfering with the interaction between airway epithelial CD47 and pathogenic bacterial FnBP holds promise for alleviating the adverse effects of super-infection.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Glasl B, Luter HM, Damjanovic K, et al (2024)

Co-occurring nitrifying symbiont lineages are vertically inherited and widespread in marine sponges.

The ISME journal pii:7658920 [Epub ahead of print].

Ammonia-oxidising archaea and nitrite-oxidising bacteria are common members of marine sponge microbiomes. They derive energy for carbon fixation and growth from nitrification - the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and further to nitrate - and are proposed to play essential roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycling of sponge holobionts. In this study, we characterise two novel nitrifying symbiont lineages, Candidatus Nitrosokoinonia and Candidatus Nitrosymbion in the marine sponge Coscinoderma matthewsi using a combination of molecular tools, in situ visualisation, and physiological rate measurements. Both represent a new genus in the ammonia-oxidising archaeal class Nitrososphaeria and the nitrite-oxidising bacterial order Nitrospirales, respectively. Furthermore, we show that larvae of this viviparous sponge are densely colonised by representatives of Ca. Nitrosokoinonia and Ca. Nitrosymbion indicating vertical transmission. In adults, the representatives of both symbiont genera are located extracellularly in the mesohyl. Comparative metagenome analyses and physiological data suggest that ammonia-oxidising archaeal symbionts of the genus Ca. Nitrosokoinonia strongly rely on endogenously produced nitrogenous compounds (i.e., ammonium, urea, nitriles/cyanides, and creatinine) rather than on exogenous ammonium sources taken up by the sponge. Additionally, the nitrite-oxidising bacterial symbionts of the genus Ca. Nitrosymbion may reciprocally support the ammonia-oxidisers with ammonia via the utilisation of sponge-derived urea and cyanate. Comparative analyses of published environmental 16S rRNA gene amplicon data revealed that Ca. Nitrosokoinonia and Ca. Nitrosymbion are widely distributed and predominantly associated with marine sponges and corals, suggesting a broad relevance of our findings.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Tan W, Nian H, Tran LP, et al (2024)

Small peptides: novel targets for modulating plant-rhizosphere microbe interactions.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00085-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The crucial role of rhizosphere microbes in plant growth and their resilience to environmental stresses underscores the intricate communication between microbes and plants. Plants are equipped with a diverse set of signaling molecules that facilitate communication across different biological kingdoms, although our comprehension of these mechanisms is still evolving. Small peptides produced by plants (SPPs) and microbes (SPMs) play a pivotal role in intracellular signaling and are essential in orchestrating various plant development stages. In this review, we posit that SPPs and SPMs serve as crucial signaling agents for the bidirectional cross-kingdom communication between plants and rhizosphere microbes. We explore several potential mechanistic pathways through which this communication occurs. Additionally, we propose that leveraging small peptides, inspired by plant-rhizosphere microbe interactions, represents an innovative approach in the field of holobiont engineering.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Williams A (2024)

Multiomics data integration, limitations, and prospects to reveal the metabolic activity of the coral holobiont.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7656959 [Epub ahead of print].

Since their radiation in the Middle Triassic period ∼ 240 million years ago, stony corals have survived past climate fluctuations and five mass extinctions. Their long-term survival underscores the inherent resilience of corals, particularly when considering the nutrient-poor marine environments in which they have thrived. However, coral bleaching has emerged as a global threat to coral survival, requiring rapid advancements in coral research to understand holobiont stress responses and allow for interventions before extensive bleaching occurs. This review encompasses the potential, as well as the limits, of multiomics data applications when applied to the coral holobiont. Synopses for how different omics tools have been applied to date and their current restrictions are discussed, in addition to ways these restrictions may be overcome, such as recruiting new technology to studies, utilizing novel bioinformatics approaches, and generally integrating omics data. Lastly, this review presents considerations for the design of holobiont multiomics studies to support lab-to-field advancements of coral stress marker monitoring systems. Although much of the bleaching mechanism has eluded investigation to date, multiomic studies have already produced key findings regarding the holobiont's stress response, and have the potential to advance the field further.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Michelle JiaMin L, Karthikeyan P, Kumaresan R, et al (2024)

Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis phage EF_RCK.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

A lytic bacteriophage EF_RCK infecting Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from a water sample collected in a raw cockle storage container at Taman Ria market, Sungai Petani, Malaysia. The phage has a 57,848-bp double-stranded DNA genome harboring 107 protein-encoding genes and shares 90.9% nucleotide similarity with Enterococcus phage EFKL (Saphexavirus genus).

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Addison SL, Rúa MA, Smaill SJ, et al (2024)

Partner or perish: tree microbiomes and climate change.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(24)00064-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the complex relationships between plants, their microbiomes, and environmental changes is crucial for improving growth and survival, especially for long-lived tree species. Trees, like other plants, maintain close associations with a multitude of microorganisms on and within their tissues, forming a 'holobiont'. However, a comprehensive framework for detailed tree-microbiome dynamics, and the implications for climate adaptation, is currently lacking. This review identifies gaps in the existing literature, emphasizing the need for more research to explore the coevolution of the holobiont and the full extent of climate change impact on tree growth and survival. Advancing our knowledge of plant-microbial interactions presents opportunities to enhance tree adaptability and mitigate adverse impacts of climate changes on trees.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Williams J, Pettorelli N, Hartmann AC, et al (2024)

Decline of a distinct coral reef holobiont community under ocean acidification.

Microbiome, 12(1):75.

BACKGROUND: Microbes play vital roles across coral reefs both in the environment and inside and upon macrobes (holobionts), where they support critical functions such as nutrition and immune system modulation. These roles highlight the potential ecosystem-level importance of microbes, yet most knowledge of microbial functions on reefs is derived from a small set of holobionts such as corals and sponges. Declining seawater pH - an important global coral reef stressor - can cause ecosystem-level change on coral reefs, providing an opportunity to study the role of microbes at this scale. We use an in situ experimental approach to test the hypothesis that under such ocean acidification (OA), known shifts among macrobe trophic and functional groups may drive a general ecosystem-level response extending across macrobes and microbes, leading to reduced distinctness between the benthic holobiont community microbiome and the environmental microbiome.

RESULTS: We test this hypothesis using genetic and chemical data from benthic coral reef community holobionts sampled across a pH gradient from CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. We find support for our hypothesis; under OA, the microbiome and metabolome of the benthic holobiont community become less compositionally distinct from the sediment microbiome and metabolome, suggesting that benthic macrobe communities are colonised by environmental microbes to a higher degree under OA conditions. We also find a simplification and homogenisation of the benthic photosynthetic community, and an increased abundance of fleshy macroalgae, consistent with previously observed reef microbialisation.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a novel structural shift in coral reefs involving macrobes and microbes: that the microbiome of the benthic holobiont community becomes less distinct from the sediment microbiome under OA. Our findings suggest that microbialisation and the disruption of macrobe trophic networks are interwoven general responses to environmental stress, pointing towards a universal, undesirable, and measurable form of ecosystem changed. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Pillai P, TC Gouhier (2024)

Metamicrobiome diversity promotes the evolution of host-microbial mutualisms.

Journal of evolutionary biology, 37(4):414-428.

Ecological theory suggests that a host organism's internal spatial structure can promote the persistence of mutualistic microbes by allowing for the turnover of tissue occupied by non-beneficial or cheating microbes. This type of regulation, whereby a host preferentially rewards tissue occupied by beneficial members of its microbiome but sanctions tissue occupied by non-beneficial cheaters, is expected to generate a competition-extinction trade-off by allowing beneficial microbes to experience a lower extinction rate than competitively dominant cheaters. Using an adaptive dynamics approach, we demonstrate that although ecologically stable, microbial regulation via sanctioning is not stable in any evolutionary sense, as each individual host will be under pressure to reduce the costs incurred from cheater suppression in order to maximize its own fitness at the expense of the rest of the host population. However, increasing the diversity of non-beneficial cheaters in the host population metamicrobiome can lead to an increase in the relative fitness of hosts that actively sanction non-performing tissue, thus facilitating the evolutionary emergence and persistence of such strategies in host-microbial systems. These counter-intuitive results demonstrate how diversity at multiple levels of biological organization and spatiotemporal scales can interact to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of mutualistic relationships.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Partida-Martínez LP (2024)

Fungal holobionts as blueprints for synthetic endosymbiotic systems.

PLoS biology, 22(4):e3002587 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-24-00045.

Rhizopus microsporus is an example of a fungal holobiont. Strains of this species can harbor bacterial and viral endosymbionts inherited by the next generation. These microbial allies increase pathogenicity and defense and control asexual and sexual reproduction.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Cardoso PM, Hill LJ, Villela HDM, et al (2024)

Localization and symbiotic status of probiotics in the coral holobiont.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Corals establish symbiotic relationships with microorganisms, especially endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae. Although other microbes have been commonly detected in coral tissues, their identity and beneficial functions for their host are unclear. Here, we confirm the beneficial outcomes of the inoculation of bacteria selected as probiotics and use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to define their localization in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Our results show the first evidence of the inherent presence of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in native coral tissues, even before their inoculation. Furthermore, the relative enrichment of these coral tissue-associated bacteria through their inoculation in corals correlates with health improvements, such as increases in photosynthetic potential, and productivity. Our study suggests the symbiotic status of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in corals by indicating their localization within coral gastrodermis and epidermis and correlating their increased relative abundance through active inoculation with beneficial outcomes for the holobiont. This knowledge is crucial to facilitate the screening and application of probiotics that may not be transient members of the coral microbiome.

IMPORTANCE: Despite the promising results indicating the beneficial outcomes associated with the application of probiotics in corals and some scarce knowledge regarding the identity of bacterial cells found within the coral tissue, the correlation between these two aspects is still missing. This gap limits our understanding of the actual diversity of coral-associated bacteria and whether these symbionts are beneficial. Some researchers, for example, have been suggesting that probiotic screening should only focus on the very few known tissue-associated bacteria, such as Endozoicomonas sp., assuming that the currently tested probiotics are not tissue-associated. Here, we provide specific FISH probes for Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp., expand our knowledge of the identity of coral-associated bacteria and confirm the probiotic status of the tested probiotics. The presence of these beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMCs) inside host tissues and gastric cavities also supports the notion that direct interactions with the host may underpin their probiotic role. This is a new breakthrough; these results argue against the possibility that the positive effects of BMCs are due to factors that are not related to a direct symbiotic interaction, for example, that the host simply feeds on inoculated bacteria or that the bacteria change the water quality.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Garrido M, Minard G, Veiga J, et al (2024)

Editorial: Ecological interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiota: implications for pathogen transmission.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1395348.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Maslin M, Paix B, van der Windt N, et al (2024)

Prokaryotic communities of the French Polynesian sponge Dactylospongia metachromia display a site-specific and stable diversity during an aquaculture trial.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 117(1):65.

Dynamics of microbiomes through time are fundamental regarding survival and resilience of their hosts when facing environmental alterations. As for marine species with commercial applications, such as marine sponges, assessing the temporal change of prokaryotic communities allows us to better consider the adaptation of sponges to aquaculture designs. The present study aims to investigate the factors shaping the microbiome of the sponge Dactylospongia metachromia, in a context of aquaculture development in French Polynesia, Rangiroa, Tuamotu archipelago. A temporal approach targeting explants collected during farming trials revealed a relative high stability of the prokaryotic diversity, meanwhile a complementary biogeographical study confirmed a spatial specificity amongst samples at different longitudinal scales. Results from this additional spatial analysis confirmed that differences in prokaryotic communities might first be explained by environmental changes (mainly temperature and salinity), while no significant effect of the host phylogeny was observed. The core community of D. metachromia is thus characterized by a high spatiotemporal constancy, which is a good prospect for the sustainable exploitation of this species towards drug development. Indeed, a microbiome stability across locations and throughout the farming process, as evidenced by our results, should go against a negative influence of sponge translocation during in situ aquaculture.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Sherwani MK, S Gopalakrishnan (2024)

A systematic literature review: deep learning techniques for synthetic medical image generation and their applications in radiotherapy.

Frontiers in radiology, 4:1385742.

The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether Deep Learning (DL) algorithms can provide a clinically feasible alternative to classic algorithms for synthetic Computer Tomography (sCT). The following categories are presented in this study: ∙ MR-based treatment planning and synthetic CT generation techniques. ∙ Generation of synthetic CT images based on Cone Beam CT images. ∙ Low-dose CT to High-dose CT generation. ∙ Attenuation correction for PET images. To perform appropriate database searches, we reviewed journal articles published between January 2018 and June 2023. Current methodology, study strategies, and results with relevant clinical applications were analyzed as we outlined the state-of-the-art of deep learning based approaches to inter-modality and intra-modality image synthesis. This was accomplished by contrasting the provided methodologies with traditional research approaches. The key contributions of each category were highlighted, specific challenges were identified, and accomplishments were summarized. As a final step, the statistics of all the cited works from various aspects were analyzed, which revealed that DL-based sCTs have achieved considerable popularity, while also showing the potential of this technology. In order to assess the clinical readiness of the presented methods, we examined the current status of DL-based sCT generation.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Liu F, Ryu T, Ravasi T, et al (2024)

Niche-dependent sponge hologenome expression profiles and the host-microbes interplay: a case of the hawaiian demosponge Mycale Grandis.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):22.

BACKGROUND: Most researches on sponge holobionts focus primarily on symbiotic microbes, yet data at the level of the sponge hologenome are still relatively scarce. Understanding of the sponge host and its microbial gene expression profiles and the host-microbes interplay in different niches represents a key aspect of sponge hologenome. Using the Hawaiian demosponge Mycale grandis in different niches as a model, i.e. on rocks, on the surface of coral Porites compressa, under alga Gracilaria salicornia, we compared the bacterial and fungal community structure, functional gene diversity, expression pattern and the host transcriptome by integrating open-format (deep sequencing) and closed-format (GeoChip microarray) high-throughput techniques.

RESULTS: Little inter-niche variation in bacterial and fungal phylogenetic diversity was detected for M. grandis in different niches, but a clear niche-dependent variability in the functional gene diversity and expression pattern of M. grandis host and its symbiotic microbiota was uncovered by GeoChip microarray and transcriptome analyses. Particularly, sponge host genes related to innate immunity and microbial recognition showed a strong correlation with the microbial symbionts' functional gene diversity and transcriptional richness in different niches. The cross-niche variability with respect to the symbiont functional gene diversity and the transcriptional richness of M. grandis holobiont putatively reflects the interplay of niche-specific selective pressure and the symbiont functional diversity.

CONCLUSIONS: Niche-dependent gene expression profiles of M. grandis hologenome and the host-microbes interplay were suggested though little inter-niche variation in bacterial and fungal diversity was detected, particularly the sponge innate immunity was found to be closely related to the symbiotic microbes. Altogether, these findings provide novel insights into the black box of one sponge holobiont in different niches at the hologenome level.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Mazzella V, Dell'Anno A, Etxebarría N, et al (2024)

High microbiome and metabolome diversification in coexisting sponges with different bio-ecological traits.

Communications biology, 7(1):422.

Marine Porifera host diverse microbial communities, which influence host metabolism and fitness. However, functional relationships between sponge microbiomes and metabolic signatures are poorly understood. We integrate microbiome characterization, metabolomics and microbial predicted functions of four coexisting Mediterranean sponges -Petrosia ficiformis, Chondrosia reniformis, Crambe crambe and Chondrilla nucula. Microscopy observations reveal anatomical differences in microbial densities. Microbiomes exhibit strong species-specific trends. C. crambe shares many rare amplicon sequence variants (ASV) with the surrounding seawater. This suggests important inputs of microbial diversity acquired by selective horizontal acquisition. Phylum Cyanobacteria is mainly represented in C. nucula and C. crambe. According to putative functions, the microbiome of P. ficiformis and C. reniformis are functionally heterotrophic, while C. crambe and C. nucula are autotrophic. The four species display distinct metabolic profiles at single compound level. However, at molecular class level they share a "core metabolome". Concurrently, we find global microbiome-metabolome association when considering all four sponge species. Within each species still, sets of microbe/metabolites are identified driving multi-omics congruence. Our findings suggest that diverse microbial players and metabolic profiles may promote niche diversification, but also, analogous phenotypic patterns of "symbiont evolutionary convergence" in sponge assemblages where holobionts co-exist in the same area.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Van Gerrewey T, HS Chung (2024)

MAPK Cascades in Plant Microbiota Structure and Functioning.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) [Epub ahead of print].

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signaling modules that coordinate diverse biological processes such as plant innate immunity and development. Recently, MAPK cascades have emerged as pivotal regulators of the plant holobiont, influencing the assembly of normal plant microbiota, essential for maintaining optimal plant growth and health. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge on MAPK cascades, from upstream perception of microbial stimuli to downstream host responses. Synthesizing recent findings, we explore the intricate connections between MAPK signaling and the assembly and functioning of plant microbiota. Additionally, the role of MAPK activation in orchestrating dynamic changes in root exudation to shape microbiota composition is discussed. Finally, our review concludes by emphasizing the necessity for more sophisticated techniques to accurately decipher the role of MAPK signaling in establishing the plant holobiont relationship.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Messer LF, Bourne DG, Robbins SJ, et al (2024)

A genome-centric view of the role of the Acropora kenti microbiome in coral health and resilience.

Nature communications, 15(1):2902.

Microbial diversity has been extensively explored in reef-building corals. However, the functional roles of coral-associated microorganisms remain poorly elucidated. Here, we recover 191 bacterial and 10 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the coral Acropora kenti (formerly A. tenuis) and adjacent seawater, to identify microbial functions and metabolic interactions within the holobiont. We show that 82 MAGs were specific to the A. kenti holobiont, including members of the Pseudomonadota, Bacteroidota, and Desulfobacterota. A. kenti-specific MAGs displayed significant differences in their genomic features and functional potential relative to seawater-specific MAGs, with a higher prevalence of genes involved in host immune system evasion, nitrogen and carbon fixation, and synthesis of five essential B-vitamins. We find a diversity of A. kenti-specific MAGs encode the biosynthesis of essential amino acids, such as tryptophan, histidine, and lysine, which cannot be de novo synthesised by the host or Symbiodiniaceae. Across a water quality gradient spanning 2° of latitude, A. kenti microbial community composition is correlated to increased temperature and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, with corresponding enrichment in molecular chaperones, nitrate reductases, and a heat-shock protein. We reveal mechanisms of A. kenti-microbiome-symbiosis on the Great Barrier Reef, highlighting the interactions underpinning the health of this keystone holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Chatterjee S, Leach ST, Lui K, et al (2024)

Symbiotic symphony: Understanding host-microbiota dialogues in a spatial context.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 161-162:22-30 pii:S1084-9521(24)00030-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Modern precision sequencing techniques have established humans as a holobiont that live in symbiosis with the microbiome. Microbes play an active role throughout the life of a human ranging from metabolism and immunity to disease tolerance. Hence, it is of utmost significance to study the eukaryotic host in conjunction with the microbial antigens to obtain a complete picture of the host-microbiome crosstalk. Previous attempts at profiling host-microbiome interactions have been either superficial or been attempted to catalogue eukaryotic transcriptomic profile and microbial communities in isolation. Additionally, the nature of such immune-microbial interactions is not random but spatially organised. Hence, for a holistic clinical understanding of the interplay between hosts and microbiota, it's imperative to concurrently analyze both microbial and host genetic information, ensuring the preservation of their spatial integrity. Capturing these interactions as a snapshot in time at their site of action has the potential to transform our understanding of how microbes impact human health. In examining early-life microbial impacts, the limited presence of communities compels analysis within reduced biomass frameworks. However, with the advent of spatial transcriptomics we can address this challenge and expand our horizons of understanding these interactions in detail. In the long run, simultaneous spatial profiling of host-microbiome dialogues can have enormous clinical implications especially in gaining mechanistic insights into the disease prognosis of localised infections and inflammation. This review addresses the lacunae in host-microbiome research and highlights the importance of profiling them together to map their interactions while preserving their spatial context.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Stiller J, Feng S, Chowdhury AA, et al (2024)

Complexity of avian evolution revealed by family-level genomes.

Nature pii:10.1038/s41586-024-07323-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite tremendous efforts in the past decades, relationships among main avian lineages remain heavily debated without a clear resolution. Discrepancies have been attributed to diversity of species sampled, phylogenetic method, and the choice of genomic regions [1-3]. Here, we address these issues by analyzing genomes of 363 bird species [4] (218 taxonomic families, 92% of total). Using intergenic regions and coalescent methods, we present a well-supported tree but also a remarkable degree of discordance. The tree confirms that Neoaves experienced rapid radiation at or near the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Sufficient loci rather than extensive taxon sampling were more effective in resolving difficult nodes. Remaining recalcitrant nodes involve species that challenge modeling due to extreme GC content, variable substitution rates, incomplete lineage sorting, or complex evolutionary events such as ancient hybridization. Assessment of the impacts of different genomic partitions showed high heterogeneity across the genome. We discovered sharp increases in effective population size, substitution rates, and relative brain size following the K-Pg extinction event, supporting the hypothesis that emerging ecological opportunities catalyzed the diversification of modern birds. The resulting phylogenetic estimate offers novel insights into the rapid radiation of modern birds and provides a taxon-rich backbone tree for future comparative studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Auclert LZ, Chhanda MS, N Derome (2024)

Interwoven processes in fish development: microbial community succession and immune maturation.

PeerJ, 12:e17051 pii:17051.

Fishes are hosts for many microorganisms that provide them with beneficial effects on growth, immune system development, nutrition and protection against pathogens. In order to avoid spreading of infectious diseases in aquaculture, prevention includes vaccinations and routine disinfection of eggs and equipment, while curative treatments consist in the administration of antibiotics. Vaccination processes can stress the fish and require substantial farmer's investment. Additionally, disinfection and antibiotics are not specific, and while they may be effective in the short term, they have major drawbacks in the long term. Indeed, they eliminate beneficial bacteria which are useful for the host and promote the raising of antibiotic resistance in beneficial, commensal but also in pathogenic bacterial strains. Numerous publications highlight the importance that plays the diversified microbial community colonizing fish (i.e., microbiota) in the development, health and ultimately survival of their host. This review targets the current knowledge on the bidirectional communication between the microbiota and the fish immune system during fish development. It explores the extent of this mutualistic relationship: on one hand, the effect that microbes exert on the immune system ontogeny of fishes, and on the other hand, the impact of critical steps in immune system development on the microbial recruitment and succession throughout their life. We will first describe the immune system and its ontogeny and gene expression steps in the immune system development of fishes. Secondly, the plurality of the microbiotas (depending on host organism, organ, and development stage) will be reviewed. Then, a description of the constant interactions between microbiota and immune system throughout the fish's life stages will be discussed. Healthy microbiotas allow immune system maturation and modulation of inflammation, both of which contribute to immune homeostasis. Thus, immune equilibrium is closely linked to microbiota stability and to the stages of microbial community succession during the host development. We will provide examples from several fish species and describe more extensively the mechanisms occurring in zebrafish model because immune system ontogeny is much more finely described for this species, thanks to the many existing zebrafish mutants which allow more precise investigations. We will conclude on how the conceptual framework associated to the research on the immune system will benefit from considering the relations between microbiota and immune system maturation. More precisely, the development of active tolerance of the microbiota from the earliest stages of life enables the sustainable establishment of a complex healthy microbial community in the adult host. Establishing a balanced host-microbiota interaction avoids triggering deleterious inflammation, and maintains immunological and microbiological homeostasis.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

McGrath AH, Lema K, Egan S, et al (2024)

Disentangling direct vs indirect effects of microbiome manipulations in a habitat-forming marine holobiont.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 10(1):33.

Host-associated microbiota are critical for eukaryotic host functioning, to the extent that hosts and their associated microbial communities are often considered "holobionts". Most studies of holobionts have focused on descriptive approaches or have used model systems, usually in the laboratory, to understand host-microbiome interactions. To advance our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their wider ecological impacts, we need experimental frameworks that can explore causation in non-model hosts, which often have highly diverse microbiota, and in their natural ecological setting (i.e. in the field). We used a dominant habitat-forming seaweed, Hormosira banksii, to explore these issues and to experimentally test host-microbiota interactions in a non-model holobiont. The experimental protocols were aimed at trying to disentangle microbially mediated effects on hosts from direct effects on hosts associated with the methods employed to manipulate host-microbiota. This was done by disrupting the microbiome, either through removal/disruption using a combination of antimicrobial treatments, or additions of specific taxa via inoculations, or a combination of thew two. The experiments were done in mesocosms and in the field. Three different antibiotic treatments were used to disrupt seaweed-associated microbiota to test whether disturbances of microbiota, particularly bacteria, would negatively affect host performance. Responses of bacteria to these disturbances were complex and differed substantially among treatments, with some antibacterial treatments having little discernible effect. However, the temporal sequence of responses antibiotic treatments, changes in bacterial diversity and subsequent decreases in host performance, strongly suggested an effect of the microbiota on host performance in some treatments, as opposed to direct effects of the antibiotics. To further test these effects, we used 16S-rRNA-gene sequencing to identify bacterial taxa that were either correlated, or uncorrelated, with poor host performance following antibiotic treatment. These were then isolated and used in inoculation experiments, independently or in combination with the previously used antibiotic treatments. Negative effects on host performance were strongest where specific microbial antimicrobials treatments were combined with inoculations of strains that were correlated with poor host performance. For these treatments, negative host effects persisted the entire experimental period (12 days), even though treatments were only applied at the beginning of the experiment. Host performance recovered in all other treatments. These experiments provide a framework for exploring causation and disentangling microbially mediated vs. direct effects on hosts for ecologically important, non-model holobionts in the field. This should allow for better predictions of how these systems will respond to, and potentially mitigate, environmental disturbances in their natural context.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Friedländer MR, MTP Gilbert (2024)

How ancient RNA survives and what we can learn from it.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Tosado-Rodríguez E, Alvarado-Vélez I, Romaguera J, et al (2024)

Vaginal Microbiota and HPV in Latin America: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 12(3): pii:microorganisms12030619.

With the expansion of human microbiome studies in the last 15 years, we have realized the immense implications of microbes in human health. The human holobiont is now accepted, given the commensal relationships with bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and human cells. The cervicovaginal microbiota is a specific case within the human microbiome where diversity is lower to maintain a chemical barrier of protection against infections. This narrative review focuses on the vaginal microbiome. It summarizes key findings on how native bacteria protect women from disease or predispose them to damaging inflammatory processes with an emphasis on the role of HPV infections in Latin America, one of the world's regions with the highest cervical cancer prevalence.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Beza-Beza CF, Wiegmann BM, Ware JA, et al (2024)

Chewing through challenges: Exploring the evolutionary pathways to wood-feeding in insects.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Decaying wood, while an abundant and stable resource, presents considerable nutritional challenges due to its structural rigidity, chemical recalcitrance, and low nitrogen content. Despite these challenges, certain insect lineages have successfully evolved saproxylophagy (consuming and deriving sustenance from decaying wood), impacting nutrient recycling in ecosystems and carbon sequestration dynamics. This study explores the uneven phylogenetic distribution of saproxylophagy across insects and delves into the evolutionary origins of this trait in disparate insect orders. Employing a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiome data, from both saproxylophagous insects and their non-saproxylophagous relatives, including new data from unexplored wood-feeding insects, this Hypothesis paper discusses the broader phylogenetic context and potential adaptations necessary for this dietary specialization. The study proposes the "Detritivore-First Hypothesis," suggesting an evolutionary pathway to saproxylophagy through detritivory, and highlights the critical role of symbiotic gut microbiomes in the digestion of decaying wood.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Kriaa A, Mariaule V, De Rudder C, et al (2024)

From animal models to gut-on-chip: the challenging journey to capture inter-individual variability in chronic digestive disorders.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2333434.

Chronic digestive disorders are of increasing incidence worldwide with expensive treatments and no available cure. Available therapeutic schemes mainly rely on symptom relief, with large degrees of variability in patients' response to such treatments, underlining the need for new therapeutic strategies. There are strong indications that the gut microbiota's contribution seems to be a key modulator of disease activity and patients' treatment responses. Hence, efforts have been devoted to understanding host-microbe interactions and the mechanisms underpinning such variability. Animal models, being the gold standard, provide valuable mechanistic insights into host-microbe interactions. However, they are not exempt from limitations prompting the development of alternative methods. Emerging microfluidic technologies and gut-on-chip models were shown to mirror the main features of gut physiology and disease state, reflect microbiota modification, and include functional readouts for studying host responses. In this commentary, we discuss the relevance of animal models in understanding host-microbe interactions and how gut-on-chip technology holds promises for addressing patient variability in responses to chronic digestive disease treatment.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Arnholdt-Schmitt B, Sircar D, Aziz S, et al (2024)

Transcriptome Analyses in Adult Olive Trees Indicate Acetaldehyde Release and Cyanide-Mediated Respiration Traits as Critical for Tolerance against Xylella fastidiosa and Suggest AOX Gene Family as Marker for Multiple-Resilience.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:pathogens13030227.

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a global bacterial threat for a diversity of plants, including olive trees. However, current understanding of host responses upon Xf-infection is limited to allow early disease prediction, diagnosis, and sustainable strategies for breeding on plant tolerance. Recently, we identified a major complex trait for early de novo programming, named CoV-MAC-TED, by comparing early transcriptome data during plant cell survival with SARS-CoV-2-infected human cells. This trait linked ROS/RNS balancing during first hours of stress perception with increased aerobic fermentation connected to alpha-tubulin-based cell restructuration and control of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, our group had advanced concepts and strategies for breeding on plant holobionts. Here, we studied tolerance against Xf-infection by applying a CoV-MAC-TED-related gene set to (1) progress proof-of-principles, (2) highlight the importance of individual host responses for knowledge gain, (3) benefit sustainable production of Xf-threatened olive, (4) stimulate new thinking on principle roles of secondary metabolite synthesis and microbiota for system equilibration and, (5) advance functional marker development for resilience prediction including tolerance to Xf-infections. We performed hypothesis-driven complex analyses in an open access transcriptome of primary target xylem tissues of naturally Xf-infected olive trees of the Xf-tolerant cv. Leccino and the Xf-susceptible cv. Ogliarola. The results indicated that cyanide-mediated equilibration of oxygen-dependent respiration and carbon-stress alleviation by the help of increased glycolysis-driven aerobic fermentation paths and phenolic metabolism associate to tolerance against Xf. Furthermore, enhanced alternative oxidase (AOX) transcript levels through transcription Gleichschaltung linked to quinic acid synthesis appeared as promising trait for functional marker development. Moreover, the results support the idea that fungal endophytes strengthen Xf-susceptible genotypes, which lack efficient AOX functionality. Overall, this proof-of-principles approach supports the idea that efficient regulation of the multi-functional AOX gene family can assist selection on multiple-resilience, which integrates Xf-tolerance, and stimulates future validation across diverse systems.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Fan MZ, SW Kim (2024)

Modulation of Porcine Gut Microbiota and Microbiome: Hologenomic, Dietary, and Endogenous Factors.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:pathogens13030225.

Global pig production contributes to about 35% of the world's meat production and consumption [...].

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Andrews K, Landeryou T, Sicheritz-Pontén T, et al (2024)

Diverse Prophage Elements of Salmonella enterica Serovars Show Potential Roles in Bacterial Pathogenicity.

Cells, 13(6): pii:cells13060514.

Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is an important foodborne and zoonotic infection that causes significant global public health concern. Diverse serovars are multidrug-resistant and encode several virulence indicators; however, little is known on the role prophages play in driving these traits. Here, we extracted prophages from seventy-five Salmonella genomes which represent the fifteen important serovars in the United Kingdom. We analyzed the intact prophages for the presence of virulence genes and established their genomic relationships. We identified 615 prophages from the Salmonella strains, from which 195 prophages are intact, 332 are incomplete, while 88 are questionable. The average prophage carriage was found to be 'extreme' in S. Heidelberg, S. Inverness, and S. Newport (10.2-11.6 prophages/strain), 'high' in S. Infantis, S. Stanley, S. Typhimurium, and S. Virchow (8.2-9.0 prophages/strain), 'moderate' in S. Agona, S. Braenderup, S. Bovismorbificans, S. Choleraesuis, S. Dublin, and S. Java (6.0-7.8 prophages/strain), and 'low' in S. Javiana and S. Enteritidis (5.8 prophages/strain). Cumulatively, 61 virulence genes (1500 gene copies) were detected from representative intact prophages and linked to Salmonella delivery/secretion system (42.62%), adherence (32.7%), magnesium uptake (3.88%), regulation (5%), stress/survival (1.6%), toxins (10%), and antivirulence (1.6%). Diverse clusters were formed among the intact prophages and with bacteriophages of other enterobacteria, suggesting different lineages and associations. Our work provides a strong body of data to support the contributions diverse prophages make to the pathogenicity of Salmonella, including thirteen previously unexplored serovars.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Pankey MS, Gochfeld DJ, Gastaldi M, et al (2024)

Phylosymbiosis and metabolomics resolve phenotypically plastic and cryptic sponge species in the genus Agelas across the Caribbean basin.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Fundamental to holobiont biology is recognising how variation in microbial composition and function relates to host phenotypic variation. Sponges often exhibit considerable phenotypic plasticity and also harbour dense microbial communities that function to protect and nourish hosts. One of the most prominent sponge genera on Caribbean coral reefs is Agelas. Using a comprehensive set of morphological (growth form, spicule), chemical and molecular data on 13 recognised species of Agelas in the Caribbean basin, we were able to define only five species (=clades) and found that many morphospecies designations were incongruent with phylogenomic and population genetic analyses. Microbial communities were also strongly differentiated between phylogenetic species, showing little evidence of cryptic divergence and relatively low correlation with morphospecies assignment. Metagenomic analyses also showed strong correspondence to phylogenetic species, and to a lesser extent, geographical and morphological characters. Surprisingly, the variation in secondary metabolites produced by sponge holobionts was explained by geography and morphospecies assignment, in addition to phylogenetic species, and covaried significantly with a subset of microbial symbionts. Spicule characteristics were highly plastic, under greater impact from geographical location than phylogeny. Our results suggest that while phenotypic plasticity is rampant in Agelas, morphological differences within phylogenetic species affect functionally important ecological traits, including the composition of the symbiotic microbial communities and metabolomic profiles.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Duchêne DA, Duchêne S, Stiller J, et al (2024)

ClockstaRX: Testing molecular clock hypotheses with genomic data.

Genome biology and evolution pii:7634482 [Epub ahead of print].

Phylogenomic data provide valuable opportunities for studying evolutionary rates and timescales. These analyses require theoretical and statistical tools based on molecular clocks. We present ClockstaRX, a flexible platform for exploring and testing evolutionary rate signals in phylogenomic data. Here, information about evolutionary rates in branches across gene trees is placed in Euclidean space, allowing data transformation, visualization, and hypothesis testing. ClockstaRX implements formal tests for identifying groups of loci and branches that make a large contribution to patterns of rate variation. This information can then be used to test for drivers of genomic evolutionary rates or to inform models for molecular dating. Drawing on the results of a simulation study, we recommend forms of data exploration and filtering that might be useful prior to molecular-clock analyses.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Pineda-Mendoza RM, Gutiérrez-Ávila JL, Salazar KF, et al (2024)

Comparative metabarcoding and biodiversity of gut-associated fungal assemblages of Dendroctonus species (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1360488.

The genus Dendroctonus is a Holarctic taxon composed of 21 nominal species; some of these species are well known in the world as disturbance agents of forest ecosystems. Under the bark of the host tree, these insects are involved in complex and dynamic associations with phoretic ectosymbiotic and endosymbiotic communities. Unlike filamentous fungi and bacteria, the ecological role of yeasts in the bark beetle holobiont is poorly understood, though yeasts were the first group to be recorded as microbial symbionts of these beetles. Our aim was characterize and compare the gut fungal assemblages associated to 14 species of Dendroctonus using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. A total of 615,542 sequences were recovered yielding 248 fungal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). The fungal diversity was represented by 4 phyla, 16 classes, 34 orders, 54 families, and 71 genera with different relative abundances among Dendroctonus species. The α-diversity consisted of 32 genera of yeasts and 39 genera of filamentous fungi. An analysis of β-diversity indicated differences in the composition of the gut fungal assemblages among bark beetle species, with differences in species and phylogenetic diversity. A common core mycobiome was recognized at the genus level, integrated mainly by Candida present in all bark beetles, Nakazawaea, Cladosporium, Ogataea, and Yamadazyma. The bipartite networks confirmed that these fungal genera showed a strong association between beetle species and dominant fungi, which are key to maintaining the structure and stability of the fungal community. The functional variation in the trophic structure was identified among libraries and species, with pathotroph-saprotroph-symbiotroph represented at the highest frequency, followed by saprotroph-symbiotroph, and saprotroph only. The overall network suggested that yeast and fungal ASVs in the gut of these beetles showed positive and negative associations among them. This study outlines a mycobiome associated with Dendroctonus nutrition and provides a starting point for future in vitro and omics approaches addressing potential ecological functions and interactions among fungal assemblages and beetle hosts.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Paulay A, Grimaud GM, Caballero R, et al (2024)

Design of a proteolytic module for improved metabolic modeling of Bacteroides caccae.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in health and is significantly modulated by human diets. In addition to Western diets which are rich in proteins, high-protein diets are used for specific populations or indications, mainly weight loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of protein supplementation on Bacteroides caccae, a Gram-negative gut symbiont. The supplementation with whey proteins led to a significant increase in growth rate, final biomass, and short-chain fatty acids production. A comprehensive genomic analysis revealed that B. caccae possesses a set of 156 proteases with putative intracellular and extracellular localization and allowed to identify amino acid transporters and metabolic pathways. We developed a fully curated genome-scale metabolic model of B. caccae that incorporated its proteolytic activity and simulated its growth and production of fermentation-related metabolites in response to the different growth media. We validated the model by comparing the predicted phenotype to experimental data. The model accurately predicted B. caccae's growth and metabolite production (R[2] = 0.92 for the training set and R[2] = 0.89 for the validation set). We found that accounting for both ATP consumption related to proteolysis, and whey protein accessibility is necessary for accurate predictions of metabolites production. These results provide insights into B. caccae's adaptation to a high-protein diet and its ability to utilize proteins as a source of nutrition. The proposed model provides a useful tool for understanding the feeding mechanism of B. caccae in the gut microbiome.IMPORTANCEMicrobial proteolysis is understudied despite the availability of dietary proteins for the gut microbiota. Here, the proteolytic potential of the gut symbiont Bacteroides caccae was analyzed for the first time using pan-genomics. This sketches a well-equipped bacteria for protein breakdown, capable of producing 156 different proteases with a broad spectrum of cleavage targets. This functional potential was confirmed by the enhancement of growth and metabolic activities at high protein levels. Proteolysis was included in a B. caccae metabolic model which was fitted with the experiments and validated on external data. This model pinpoints the links between protein availability and short-chain fatty acids production, and the importance for B. caccae to gain access to glutamate and asparagine to promote growth. This integrated approach can be generalized to other symbionts and upscaled to complex microbiota to get insights into the ecological impact of proteins on the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Sivaprakasam S, Mohd Azim Khan NA, Yee Fan T, et al (2024)

Complete genome sequence of plant growth-promoting Bacillus stratosphericus AIMST-CREST02 isolated from bulk soil of a paddy field.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we present the complete genome of a plant growth-promoting strain, Bacillus stratosphericus AIMST-CREST02 isolated from the bulk soil of a high-yielding paddy plot. The genome is 3,840,451 bp in size with a GC content of 41.25%. Annotation predicted the presence of 3,907 coding sequences, including genes involved in auxin biosynthesis regulation and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Chakraborty N (2024)

Metabolites: a converging node of host and microbe to explain meta-organism.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1337368.

Meta-organisms encompassing the host and resident microbiota play a significant role in combatting diseases and responding to stress. Hence, there is growing traction to build a knowledge base about this ecosystem, particularly to characterize the bidirectional relationship between the host and microbiota. In this context, metabolomics has emerged as the major converging node of this entire ecosystem. Systematic comprehension of this resourceful omics component can elucidate the organism-specific response trajectory and the communication grid across the ecosystem embodying meta-organisms. Translating this knowledge into designing nutraceuticals and next-generation therapy are ongoing. Its major hindrance is a significant knowledge gap about the underlying mechanisms maintaining a delicate balance within this ecosystem. To bridge this knowledge gap, a holistic picture of the available information has been presented with a primary focus on the microbiota-metabolite relationship dynamics. The central theme of this article is the gut-brain axis and the participating microbial metabolites that impact cerebral functions.

RevDate: 2024-03-19

Jiang W, Cheng Z, Zhai W, et al (2024)

Oxytetracycline Increases the Residual Risk of Imidacloprid in Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Disturbs the Plant-Rhizosphere Microbiome Holobiont Homeostasis.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics can be accidentally introduced into farmland by wastewater irrigation, and the environmental effects are still unclear. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on the residue of imidacloprid in soil and radishes were investigated. Besides, the rhizosphere microbiome and radish metabolome were analyzed. It showed that the persistence of imidacloprid in soil was unchanged, but the content of olefin-imidacloprid was increased by oxytetracycline. The residue of imidacloprid in radishes was increased by nearly 1.5 times, and the hazard index of imidacloprid was significantly raised by 1.5-4 times. Oxytetracycline remodeled the rhizosphere microbiome, including Actinobe, Elusimic, and Firmicutes, and influenced the metabolome of radishes. Especially, some amino acid metabolic pathways in radish were downregulated, which might be involved in imidacloprid degradation. It can be assumed that oxytetracycline increased the imidacloprid residue in radish through disturbing the plant-rhizosphere microbiome holobiont and, thus, increased the pesticide dietary risk.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Piccini C, Martínez de la Escalera G, Segura A, et al (2024)

The Microcystis-microbiome interactions: origins of the colonial lifestyle.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7631344 [Epub ahead of print].

Species of the Microcystis genus are the most common bloom-forming toxic cyanobacteria worldwide. They belong to a clade of unicellular cyanobacteria whose ability to reach high biomasses during blooms is linked to the formation of colonies. Colonial lifestyle provides several advantages under stressing conditions of light intensity, ultraviolet light, toxic substances and grazing. The progression from a single-celled organism to multicellularity in Microcystis has usually been interpreted as individual phenotypic responses of the cyanobacterial cells to the environment. Here, we synthesize current knowledge about Microcystis colonial lifestyle and its role in the organism ecology. We then briefly review the available information on Microcystis microbiome and propose that changes leading from single cells to colonies are the consequence of specific and tightly regulated signals between the cyanobacterium and its microbiome through a biofilm-like mechanism. The resulting colony is a multi-specific community of interdependent microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Destoumieux-Garzón D, Montagnani C, Dantan L, et al (2024)

Cross-talk and mutual shaping between the immune system and the microbiota during an oyster's life.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1901):20230065.

The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas lives in microbe-rich marine coastal systems subjected to rapid environmental changes. It harbours a diversified and fluctuating microbiota that cohabits with immune cells expressing a diversified immune gene repertoire. In the early stages of oyster development, just after fertilization, the microbiota plays a key role in educating the immune system. Exposure to a rich microbial environment at the larval stage leads to an increase in immune competence throughout the life of the oyster, conferring a better protection against pathogenic infections at later juvenile/adult stages. This beneficial effect, which is intergenerational, is associated with epigenetic remodelling. At juvenile stages, the educated immune system participates in the control of the homeostasis. In particular, the microbiota is fine-tuned by oyster antimicrobial peptides acting through specific and synergistic effects. However, this balance is fragile, as illustrated by the Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome, a disease causing mass mortalities in oysters worldwide. In this disease, the weakening of oyster immune defences by OsHV-1 µVar virus induces a dysbiosis leading to fatal sepsis. This review illustrates the continuous interaction between the highly diversified oyster immune system and its dynamic microbiota throughout its life, and the importance of this cross-talk for oyster health. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sculpting the microbiome: how host factors determine and respond to microbial colonization'.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Klimovich A, TCG Bosch (2024)

Novel technologies uncover novel 'anti'-microbial peptides in Hydra shaping the species-specific microbiome.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1901):20230058.

The freshwater polyp Hydra uses an elaborate innate immune machinery to maintain its specific microbiome. Major components of this toolkit are conserved Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune pathways and species-specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Our study harnesses advanced technologies, such as high-throughput sequencing and machine learning, to uncover a high complexity of the Hydra's AMPs repertoire. Functional analysis reveals that these AMPs are specific against diverse members of the Hydra microbiome and expressed in a spatially controlled pattern. Notably, in the outer epithelial layer, AMPs are produced mainly in the neurons. The neuron-derived AMPs are secreted directly into the glycocalyx, the habitat for symbiotic bacteria, and display high selectivity and spatial restriction of expression. In the endodermal layer, in contrast, endodermal epithelial cells produce an abundance of different AMPs including members of the arminin and hydramacin families, while gland cells secrete kazal-type protease inhibitors. Since the endodermal layer lines the gastric cavity devoid of symbiotic bacteria, we assume that endodermally secreted AMPs protect the gastric cavity from intruding pathogens. In conclusion, Hydra employs a complex set of AMPs expressed in distinct tissue layers and cell types to combat pathogens and to maintain a stable spatially organized microbiome. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sculpting the microbiome: how host factors determine and respond to microbial colonization'.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Maritan E, Quagliariello A, Frago E, et al (2024)

The role of animal hosts in shaping gut microbiome variation.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1901):20230071.

Millions of years of co-evolution between animals and their associated microbial communities have shaped and diversified the nature of their relationship. Studies continue to reveal new layers of complexity in host-microbe interactions, the fate of which depends on a variety of different factors, ranging from neutral processes and environmental factors to local dynamics. Research is increasingly integrating ecosystem-based approaches, metagenomics and mathematical modelling to disentangle the individual contribution of ecological factors to microbiome evolution. Within this framework, host factors are known to be among the dominant drivers of microbiome composition in different animal species. However, the extent to which they shape microbiome assembly and evolution remains unclear. In this review, we summarize our understanding of how host factors drive microbial communities and how these dynamics are conserved and vary across taxa. We conclude by outlining key avenues for research and highlight the need for implementation of and key modifications to existing theory to fully capture the dynamics of host-associated microbiomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sculpting the microbiome: how host factors determine and respond to microbial colonization'.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Yang L, Guo Y, Yang H, et al (2024)

Distinct microbiota assembly and functional patterns in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties of tobacco.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1361883.

The plant microbiota is believed to be an accessory genome that extends plant functions, forming holobionts together with the host plant. Plant disease resistance, therefore, is inextricably linked with plant microbiota, which play important roles in plant growth and health. To explore the relationship between plant microbiota and disease resistance, we investigated the tobacco microbiome of two varieties with contrasting disease-resistance levels to bacterial wilt and black shank diseases. Comparative microbiome analysis indicated that the resistant variety assembled a distinct microbiota with higher network complexity and diversity. While Pseudomonas and Ensifer, which contain biocontrol and beneficial members, were enriched in the rhizosphere of the resistant variety, Ralstonia, a genus including the known causative pathogen, was enriched in the susceptible variety. Metagenome sequencing revealed that biocontrol functions, such as hydrogen cyanide synthase, pyochelin biosynthesis, and arthrofactin-type cyclic lipopeptide synthetase, were more abundant in the resistant variety. Further analysis indicated that contigs encoding the corresponding genes were mostly assigned to Pseudomonas. Among all the metagenome-assembled genomes, positive selection was suggested in the genome assigned to Pseudomonas only in the rhizosphere of the resistant variety. The search of biosynthetic gene clusters in the Pseudomonas genome revealed a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, the compound of which was brabantamide A, with known antimicrobial activity. Collectively, our study suggests that the plant microbiota might be involved in microbe-mediated disease resistance. Particularly, our results highlight Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of the disease-resistant variety as a promising biocontrol candidate. Our study may facilitate further screening of bacterial isolates and the targeted design of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-03-18
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Moreno-Pino M, Manrique-de-la-Cuba MF, López-Rodríguez M, et al (2024)

Unveiling microbial guilds and symbiotic relationships in Antarctic sponge microbiomes.

Scientific reports, 14(1):6371.

Marine sponges host diverse microbial communities. Although we know many of its ecological patterns, a deeper understanding of the polar sponge holobiont is still needed. We combine high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal genes, including the largest taxonomic repertoire of Antarctic sponge species analyzed to date, functional metagenomics, and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Our findings show that sponges harbor more exclusive bacterial and archaeal communities than seawater, while microbial eukaryotes are mostly shared. Furthermore, bacteria in Antarctic sponge holobionts establish more cooperative interactions than in sponge holobionts from other environments. The bacterial classes that established more positive relations were Bacteroidia, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Antarctic sponge microbiomes contain microbial guilds that encompass ammonia-oxidizing archaea, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The retrieved MAGs showed a high level of novelty and streamlining signals and belong to the most abundant members of the main microbial guilds in the Antarctic sponge holobiont. Moreover, the genomes of these symbiotic bacteria contain highly abundant functions related to their adaptation to the cold environment, vitamin production, and symbiotic lifestyle, helping the holobiont survive in this extreme environment.

RevDate: 2024-03-16

Wentzien NM, Fernández-González AJ, Valverde-Corredor A, et al (2024)

Pitting the olive seed microbiome.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):17.

BACKGROUND: The complex and co-evolved interplay between plants and their microbiota is crucial for the health and fitness of the plant holobiont. However, the microbiota of the seeds is still relatively unexplored and no studies have been conducted with olive trees so far. In this study, we aimed to characterize the bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities present in seeds of ten olive genotypes growing in the same orchard through amplicon sequencing to test whether the olive genotype is a major driver in shaping the seed microbial community, and to identify the origin of the latter. Therefore, we have developed a methodology for obtaining samples from the olive seed's endosphere under sterile conditions.

RESULTS: A diverse microbiota was uncovered in olive seeds, the plant genotype being an important factor influencing the structure and composition of the microbial communities. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Actinobacteria, accounting for an average relative abundance of 41%. At genus level, Streptomyces stood out because of its potential influence on community structure. Within the fungal community, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were the most abundant phyla, including the genera Malassezia, Cladosporium, and Mycosphaerella. The shared microbiome was composed of four bacterial (Stenotrophomonas, Streptomyces, Promicromonospora and Acidipropionibacterium) and three fungal (Malassezia, Cladosporium and Mycosphaerella) genera. Furthermore, a comparison between findings obtained here and earlier results from the root endosphere of the same trees indicated that genera such as Streptomyces and Malassezia were present in both olive compartments.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first insights into the composition of the olive seed microbiota. The highly abundant fungal genus Malassezia and the bacterial genus Streptomyces reflect a unique signature of the olive seed microbiota. The genotype clearly shaped the composition of the seed's microbial community, although a shared microbiome was found. We identified genera that may translocate from the roots to the seeds, as they were present in both organs of the same trees. These findings set the stage for future research into potential vertical transmission of olive endophytes and the role of specific microbial taxa in seed germination, development, and seedling survival.

RevDate: 2024-03-18
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Freddi S, Rajabal V, Tetu SG, et al (2024)

Microbial biofilms on macroalgae harbour diverse integron gene cassettes.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 170(3):.

Integrons are genetic platforms that capture, rearrange and express mobile modules called gene cassettes. The best characterized gene cassettes encode antibiotic resistance, but the function of most integron gene cassettes remains unknown. Functional predictions suggest that many gene cassettes could encode proteins that facilitate interactions with other cells and with the extracellular environment. Because cell interactions are essential for biofilm stability, we sequenced gene cassettes from biofilms growing on the surface of the marine macroalgae Ulva australis and Sargassum linearifolium. Algal samples were obtained from coastal rock platforms around Sydney, Australia, using seawater as a control. We demonstrated that integrons in microbial biofilms did not sample genes randomly from the surrounding seawater, but harboured specific functions that potentially provided an adaptive advantage to both the bacterial cells in biofilm communities and their macroalgal host. Further, integron gene cassettes had a well-defined spatial distribution, suggesting that each bacterial biofilm acquired these genetic elements via sampling from a large but localized pool of gene cassettes. These findings suggest two forms of filtering: a selective acquisition of different integron-containing bacterial species into the distinct biofilms on Ulva and Sargassum surfaces, and a selective retention of unique populations of gene cassettes at each sampling location.

RevDate: 2024-03-15
CmpDate: 2024-03-15

Zenteno-Alegría CO, Yarzábal Rodríguez LA, Ciancas Jiménez J, et al (2024)

Fungi beyond limits: The agricultural promise of extremophiles.

Microbial biotechnology, 17(3):e14439.

Global climate changes threaten food security, necessitating urgent measures to enhance agricultural productivity and expand it into areas less for agronomy. This challenge is crucial in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger). Plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM), bacteria and fungi, emerge as a promising solution to mitigate the impact of climate extremes on agriculture. The concept of the plant holobiont, encompassing the plant host and its symbiotic microbiota, underscores the intricate relationships with a diverse microbial community. PGPM, residing in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere, play vital roles in nutrient solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and biocontrol of pathogens. Novel ecological functions, including epigenetic modifications and suppression of virulence genes, extend our understanding of PGPM strategies. The diverse roles of PGPM as biofertilizers, biocontrollers, biomodulators, and more contribute to sustainable agriculture and environmental resilience. Despite fungi's remarkable plant growth-promoting functions, their potential is often overshadowed compared to bacteria. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with many terrestrial plants, enhancing plant nutrition, growth, and stress resistance. Other fungi, including filamentous, yeasts, and polymorphic, from endophytic, to saprophytic, offer unique attributes such as ubiquity, morphology, and endurance in harsh environments, positioning them as exceptional plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF). Crops frequently face abiotic stresses like salinity, drought, high UV doses and extreme temperatures. Some extremotolerant fungi, including strains from genera like Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, and others, have been studied for their beneficial interactions with plants. Presented examples of their capabilities in alleviating salinity, drought, and other stresses underscore their potential applications in agriculture. In this context, extremotolerant and extremophilic fungi populating extreme natural environments are muchless investigated. They represent both new challenges and opportunities. As the global climate evolves, understanding and harnessing the intricate mechanisms of fungal-plant interactions, especially in extreme environments, is paramount for developing effective and safe plant probiotics and using fungi as biocontrollers against phytopathogens. Thorough assessments, comprehensive methodologies, and a cautious approach are crucial for leveraging the benefits of extremophilic fungi in the changing landscape of global agriculture, ensuring food security in the face of climate challenges.

RevDate: 2024-03-12

Xu M, Cai Z, Cheng K, et al (2024)

Mitigation of Vibrio coralliilyticus-induced coral bleaching through bacterial dysbiosis prevention by Ruegeria profundi.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Vibrio species are prevalent in ocean ecosystems, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus, and pose a threat to corals and other marine organisms under global warming conditions. While microbiota manipulation is considered for coral disease management, understanding the role of commensal bacteria in stress resilience remains limited. Here, a single bacterial species (Ruegeria profundi) rather than a consortium of native was used to combat pathogenic V. coralliilyticus and protect corals from bleaching. R. profundi showed therapeutic activity in vivo, preventing a significant reduction in bacterial diversity in bleached corals. Notably, the structure of the bacterial community differed significantly among all the groups. In addition, compared with the bleached corals caused by V. coralliilyticus, the network analysis revealed that complex interactions and positive correlations in the bacterial community of the R. profundi protected non-bleached corals, indicating R. profundi's role in fostering synergistic associations. Many genera of bacteria significantly increased in abundance during V. coralliilyticus infection, including Vibrio, Alteromonas, Amphritea, and Nautella, contributing to the pathogenicity of the bacterial community. However, R. profundi effectively countered the proliferation of these genera, promoting potential probiotic Endozoicomonas and other taxa, while reducing the abundance of betaine lipids and the type VI section system of the bacterial community. These changes ultimately influenced the interactive relationships among symbionts and demonstrated that probiotic R. profundi intervention can modulate coral-associated bacterial community, alleviate pathogenic-induced dysbiosis, and preserve coral health. These findings elucidated the relationship between the behavior of the coral-associated bacterial community and the occurrence of pathological coral bleaching.IMPORTANCEChanges in the global climate and marine environment can influence coral host and pathogen repartition which refers to an increased likelihood of pathogen infection in hosts. The risk of Vibrio coralliilyticus-induced coral disease is significantly heightened, primarily due to its thermos-dependent expression of virulent and populations. This study investigates how coral-associated bacterial communities respond to bleaching induced by V. coralliilyticus. Our findings demonstrate that Ruegeria profundi exhibits clear evidence of defense against pathogenic bacterial infection, contributing to the maintenance of host health and symbiont homeostasis. This observation suggests that bacterial pathogens could cause dysbiosis in coral holobionts. Probiotic bacteria display an essential capability in restructuring and manipulating coral-associated bacterial communities. This restructuring effectively reduces bacterial community virulence and enhances the pathogenic resistance of holobionts. The study provides valuable insights into the correlation between the health status of corals and how coral-associated bacterial communities may respond to both pathogens and probiotics.

RevDate: 2024-03-12
CmpDate: 2024-03-12

Libertini G (2023)

Phenoptosis and the Various Types of Natural Selection.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 88(12):2007-2022.

In the first description of evolution, the fundamental mechanism is the natural selection favoring the individuals best suited for survival and reproduction (selection at the individual level or classical Darwinian selection). However, this is a very reductive description of natural selection that does not consider or explain a long series of known phenomena, including those in which an individual sacrifices or jeopardizes his life on the basis of genetically determined mechanisms (i.e., phenoptosis). In fact, in addition to (i) selection at the individual level, it is essential to consider other types of natural selection such as those concerning: (ii) kin selection and some related forms of group selection; (iii) the interactions between the innumerable species that constitute a holobiont; (iv) the origin of the eukaryotic cell from prokaryotic organisms; (v) the origin of multicellular eukaryotic organisms from unicellular organisms; (vi) eusociality (e.g., in many species of ants, bees, termites); (vii) selection at the level of single genes, or groups of genes; (viii) the interactions between individuals (or more precisely their holobionts) of the innumerable species that make up an ecosystem. These forms of natural selection, which are all effects and not violations of the classical Darwinian selection, also show how concepts as life, species, individual, and phenoptosis are somewhat not entirely defined and somehow arbitrary. Furthermore, the idea of organisms selected on the basis of their survival and reproduction capabilities is intertwined with that of organisms also selected on the basis of their ability to cooperate and interact, even by losing their lives or their distinct identities.

RevDate: 2024-03-11
CmpDate: 2024-03-11

Lavecchia A, Fosso B, Engelen AH, et al (2024)

Macroalgal microbiomes unveil a valuable genetic resource for halogen metabolism.

Microbiome, 12(1):47.

BACKGROUND: Macroalgae, especially reds (Rhodophyta Division) and browns (Phaeophyta Division), are known for producing various halogenated compounds. Yet, the reasons underlying their production and the fate of these metabolites remain largely unknown. Some theories suggest their potential antimicrobial activity and involvement in interactions between macroalgae and prokaryotes. However, detailed investigations are currently missing on how the genetic information of prokaryotic communities associated with macroalgae may influence the fate of organohalogenated molecules.

RESULTS: To address this challenge, we created a specialized dataset containing 161 enzymes, each with a complete enzyme commission number, known to be involved in halogen metabolism. This dataset served as a reference to annotate the corresponding genes encoded in both the metagenomic contigs and 98 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from the microbiome of 2 red (Sphaerococcus coronopifolius and Asparagopsis taxiformis) and 1 brown (Halopteris scoparia) macroalgae. We detected many dehalogenation-related genes, particularly those with hydrolytic functions, suggesting their potential involvement in the degradation of a wide spectrum of halocarbons and haloaromatic molecules, including anthropogenic compounds. We uncovered an array of degradative gene functions within MAGs, spanning various bacterial orders such as Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, Caulobacterales, Geminicoccales, Sphingomonadales, Granulosicoccales, Microtrichales, and Pseudomonadales. Less abundant than degradative functions, we also uncovered genes associated with the biosynthesis of halogenated antimicrobial compounds and metabolites.

CONCLUSION: The functional data provided here contribute to understanding the still largely unexplored role of unknown prokaryotes. These findings support the hypothesis that macroalgae function as holobionts, where the metabolism of halogenated compounds might play a role in symbiogenesis and act as a possible defense mechanism against environmental chemical stressors. Furthermore, bacterial groups, previously never connected with organohalogen metabolism, e.g., Caulobacterales, Geminicoccales, Granulosicoccales, and Microtrichales, functionally characterized through MAGs reconstruction, revealed a biotechnologically relevant gene content, useful in synthetic biology, and bioprospecting applications. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-03-07

Eisenhofer R, Nesme J, Santos-Bay L, et al (2024)

A comparison of short-read, HiFi long-read, and hybrid strategies for genome-resolved metagenomics.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Shotgun metagenomics enables the reconstruction of complex microbial communities at a high level of detail. Such an approach can be conducted using both short-read and long-read sequencing data, as well as a combination of both. To assess the pros and cons of these different approaches, we used 22 fecal DNA extracts collected weekly for 11 weeks from two respective lab mice to study seven performance metrics over four combinations of sequencing depth and technology: (i) 20 Gbp of Illumina short-read data, (ii) 40 Gbp of short-read data, (iii) 20 Gbp of PacBio HiFi long-read data, and (iv) 40 Gbp of hybrid (20 Gbp of short-read +20 Gbp of long-read) data. No strategy was best for all metrics; instead, each one excelled across different metrics. The long-read approach yielded the best assembly statistics, with the highest N50 and lowest number of contigs. The 40 Gbp short-read approach yielded the highest number of refined bins. Finally, the hybrid approach yielded the longest assemblies and the highest mapping rate to the bacterial genomes. Our results suggest that while long-read sequencing significantly improves the quality of reconstructed bacterial genomes, it is more expensive and requires deeper sequencing than short-read approaches to recover a comparable amount of reconstructed genomes. The most optimal strategy is study-specific and depends on how researchers assess the trade-off between the quantity and quality of recovered genomes.IMPORTANCEMice are an important model organism for understanding the gut microbiome. When studying these gut microbiomes using DNA techniques, researchers can choose from technologies that use short or long DNA reads. In this study, we perform an extensive benchmark between short- and long-read DNA sequencing for studying mice gut microbiomes. We find that no one approach was best for all metrics and provide information that can help guide researchers in planning their experiments.

RevDate: 2024-03-06

Chen B, Wei Y, Yu K, et al (2024)

The microbiome dynamics and interaction of endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae and fungi are associated with thermal bleaching susceptibility of coral holobionts.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The thermal bleaching percentage of coral holobionts shows interspecific differences under heat-stress conditions, which are closely related to the coral-associated microbiome. However, the ecological effects of community dynamics and interactions between Symbiodiniaceae and fungi on coral thermal bleaching susceptibility remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the diversity, community structure, functions, and potential interaction of Symbiodiniaceae and fungi among 18 coral species from a high thermal bleaching risk atoll using next-generation sequencing. The results showed that heat-tolerant C3u sub-clade and Durusdinium dominated the Symbiodiniaceae community of corals and that there were no core amplicon sequence variants in the coral-associated fungal community. Fungal richness and the abundance of confirmed functional animal-plant pathogens were significantly positively correlated with the coral thermal bleaching percentage. Fungal indicators, including Didymellaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Schizophyllum, and Colletotrichum, were identified in corals. Each coral species had a complex Symbiodiniaceae-fungi interaction network (SFIN), which was driven by the dominant Symbiodiniaceae sub-clades. The SFINs of coral holobionts with low thermal bleaching susceptibility exhibited low complexity and high betweenness centrality. These results indicate that the extra heat tolerance of coral in Huangyan Island may be linked to the high abundance of heat-tolerant Symbiodiniaceae. Fungal communities have high interspecific flexibility, and the increase of fungal diversity and pathogen abundance was correlated with higher thermal bleaching susceptibility of corals. Moreover, fungal indicators were associated with the degrees of coral thermal bleaching susceptibility, including both high and intermediate levels. The topological properties of SFINs suggest that heat-tolerant coral have limited fungal parasitism and strong microbial network resilience.IMPORTANCEGlobal warming and enhanced marine heatwaves have led to a rapid decline in coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Several studies have focused on the impact of coral-associated microbiomes on thermal bleaching susceptibility in corals; however, the ecological functions and interactions between Symbiodiniaceae and fungi remain unclear. We investigated the microbiome dynamics and potential interactions of Symbiodiniaceae and fungi among 18 coral species in Huangyan Island. Our study found that the Symbiodiniaceae community of corals was mainly composed of heat-tolerant C3u sub-clade and Durusdinium. The increase in fungal diversity and pathogen abundance has close associations with higher coral thermal bleaching susceptibility. We first constructed an interaction network between Symbiodiniaceae and fungi in corals, which indicated that restricting fungal parasitism and strong interaction network resilience would promote heat acclimatization of corals. Accordingly, this study provides insights into the role of microorganisms and their interaction as drivers of interspecific differences in coral thermal bleaching.

RevDate: 2024-03-08
CmpDate: 2024-03-07

Iguchi A, Iijima M, Mizusawa N, et al (2024)

Single-polyp metabolomics for coral health assessment.

Scientific reports, 14(1):3369.

Coral reef ecosystems supported by environmentally sensitive reef-building corals face serious threats from human activities. Our understanding of these reef threats is hampered by the lack of sufficiently sensitive coral environmental impact assessment systems. In this study, we established a platform for metabolomic analysis at the single-coral-polyp level using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (probe electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry; PESI/MS/MS) capable of fine-scale analysis. We analyzed the impact of the organic UV filter, benzophenone (BP), which has a negative impact on corals. We also analyzed ammonium and nitrate samples, which affect the environmental sensitivity of coral-zooxanthella (Symbiodiniaceae) holobionts, to provide new insights into coral biology with a focus on metabolites. The method established in this study breaks new ground by combining PESI/MS/MS with a technique for coral polyps that can control the presence or absence of zooxanthellae in corals, enabling functions of zooxanthellae to be assessed on a polyp-by-polyp basis for the first time. This system will clarify biological mechanisms of corals and will become an important model system for environmental impact assessment using marine organisms.

RevDate: 2024-03-05

Schwob G, Cabrol L, Saucède T, et al (2024)

Unveiling the co-phylogeny signal between plunderfish Harpagifer spp. and their gut microbiomes across the Southern Ocean.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Understanding the factors that sculpt fish gut microbiome is challenging, especially in natural populations characterized by high environmental and host genomic complexity. However, closely related hosts are valuable models for deciphering the contribution of host evolutionary history to microbiome assembly, through the underscoring of phylosymbiosis and co-phylogeny patterns. Here, we propose that the recent diversification of several Harpagifer species across the Southern Ocean would allow the detection of robust phylogenetic congruence between the host and its microbiome. We characterized the gut mucosa microbiome of 77 individuals from four field-collected species of the plunderfish Harpagifer (Teleostei, Notothenioidei), distributed across three biogeographic regions of the Southern Ocean. We found that seawater physicochemical properties, host phylogeny, and geography collectively explained 35% of the variation in bacterial community composition in Harpagifer gut mucosa. The core microbiome of Harpagifer spp. gut mucosa was characterized by a low diversity, mostly driven by selective processes, and dominated by a single Aliivibrio Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) detected in more than 80% of the individuals. Nearly half of the core microbiome taxa, including Aliivibrio, harbored co-phylogeny signal at microdiversity resolution with host phylogeny, indicating an intimate symbiotic relationship and a shared evolutionary history with Harpagifer. The clear phylosymbiosis and co-phylogeny signals underscore the relevance of the Harpagifer model in understanding the role of fish evolutionary history in shaping the gut microbiome assembly. We propose that the recent diversification of Harpagifer may have led to the diversification of Aliivibrio, exhibiting patterns that mirror the host phylogeny.

IMPORTANCE: Although challenging to detect in wild populations, phylogenetic congruence between marine fish and its microbiome is critical, as it highlights intimate associations between hosts and ecologically relevant microbial symbionts. Our study leverages a natural system of closely related fish species in the Southern Ocean to unveil new insights into the contribution of host evolutionary trajectory on gut microbiome assembly, an underappreciated driver of the global marine fish holobiont. Notably, we unveiled striking evidence of co-diversification between Harpagifer and its microbiome, demonstrating both phylosymbiosis of gut bacterial communities and co-phylogeny of some specific bacterial symbionts, mirroring the host diversification patterns. Given Harpagifer's significance as a trophic resource in coastal areas and its vulnerability to climatic and anthropic pressures, understanding the potential evolutionary interdependence between the hosts and its microbiome provides valuable microbial candidates for future monitoring, as they may play a pivotal role in host species acclimatization to a rapidly changing environment.

RevDate: 2024-03-04

Voolstra CR, Raina JB, Dörr M, et al (2024)

The coral microbiome in sickness, in health and in a changing world.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Stony corals, the engines and engineers of reef ecosystems, face unprecedented threats from anthropogenic environmental change. Corals are holobionts that comprise the cnidarian animal host and a diverse community of bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. Recent research shows that the bacterial microbiome has a pivotal role in coral biology. A healthy bacterial assemblage contributes to nutrient cycling and stress resilience, but pollution, overfishing and climate change can break down these symbiotic relationships, which results in disease, bleaching and, ultimately, coral death. Although progress has been made in characterizing the spatial-temporal diversity of bacteria, we are only beginning to appreciate their functional contribution. In this Review, we summarize the ecological and metabolic interactions between bacteria and other holobiont members, highlight the biotic and abiotic factors influencing the structure of bacterial communities and discuss the impact of climate change on these communities and their coral hosts. We emphasize how microbiome-based interventions can help to decipher key mechanisms underpinning coral health and promote reef resilience. Finally, we explore how recent technological developments may be harnessed to address some of the most pressing challenges in coral microbiology, providing a road map for future research in this field.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Abd El-Daim IA, MM Saad (2024)

Editorial: Holobionts cross talks during microbial-mediated stress tolerance in plants.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1377919.

RevDate: 2024-03-04
CmpDate: 2024-03-04

Toullec G, Rädecker N, Pogoreutz C, et al (2024)

Host starvation and in hospite degradation of algal symbionts shape the heat stress response of the Cassiopea-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis.

Microbiome, 12(1):42.

BACKGROUND: Global warming is causing large-scale disruption of cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses fundamental to major marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. However, the mechanisms by which heat stress perturbs these symbiotic partnerships remain poorly understood. In this context, the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea has emerged as a powerful experimental model system.

RESULTS: We combined a controlled heat stress experiment with isotope labeling and correlative SEM-NanoSIMS imaging to show that host starvation is a central component in the chain of events that ultimately leads to the collapse of the Cassiopea holobiont. Heat stress caused an increase in catabolic activity and a depletion of carbon reserves in the unfed host, concurrent with a reduction in the supply of photosynthates from its algal symbionts. This state of host starvation was accompanied by pronounced in hospite degradation of algal symbionts, which may be a distinct feature of the heat stress response of Cassiopea. Interestingly, this loss of symbionts by degradation was concealed by body shrinkage of the starving animals, resulting in what could be referred to as "invisible" bleaching.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study highlights the importance of the nutritional status in the heat stress response of the Cassiopea holobiont. Compared with other symbiotic cnidarians, the large mesoglea of Cassiopea, with its structural sugar and protein content, may constitute an energy reservoir capable of delaying starvation. It seems plausible that this anatomical feature at least partly contributes to the relatively high stress tolerance of these animals in rapidly warming oceans. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-03-18
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Prathapan P (2024)

Characterisation of the fig-fig wasp holobiont.

Bio Systems, 237:105162.

Plants and animals have long been considered distinct kingdoms, yet here a 'plant-animal' is described. An extraordinary symbiosis in which neither organism can reproduce without the other, the fig tree (Ficus) provides the habitat for its exclusive pollinator: the fig wasp (Agaonidae). Characterising the 'fig-fig wasp holobiont' acknowledges, for the first time, 'plant-animal symbiogenesis'.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Bech PK, Jarmusch SA, Rasmussen JA, et al (2024)

Succession of microbial community composition and secondary metabolism during marine biofilm development.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae006.

In nature, secondary metabolites mediate interactions between microorganisms residing in complex microbial communities. However, the degree to which community dynamics can be linked to secondary metabolite potential remains largely unknown. In this study, we address the relationship between community succession and secondary metabolism variation. We used 16S and 18S rRNA gene and adenylation domain amplicon sequencing, genome-resolved metagenomics, and untargeted metabolomics to track the taxons, biosynthetic gene clusters, and metabolome dynamics in situ of microorganisms during marine biofilm succession over 113 days. Two phases were identified during the community succession, with a clear shift around Day 29, where the alkaloid secondary metabolites, pseudanes, were also detected. The microbial secondary metabolite potential changed between the phases, and only a few community members, including Myxococotta spp., were responsible for the majority of the biosynthetic gene cluster potential in the early succession phase. In the late phase, bryozoans and benthic copepods were detected, and the microbial nonribosomal peptide potential drastically decreased in association with a reduction in the relative abundance of the prolific secondary metabolite producers. Conclusively, this study provides evidence that the early succession of the marine biofilm community favors prokaryotes with high nonribosomal peptide synthetase potential. In contrast, the late succession is dominated by multicellular eukaryotes and a reduction in bacterial nonribosomal peptide synthetase potential.

RevDate: 2024-03-14
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Xiao Y, Gao L, Z Li (2024)

Unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms of zoochlorellae Symbiochlorum hainanensis derived from scleractinian coral Porites lutea.

mBio, 15(3):e0278023.

UNLABELLED: Global warming is a key issue that causes coral bleaching mainly because of the thermosensitivity of zooxanthellae. Compared with the well-studied zooxanthellae Symbiodiniaceae in coral holobionts, we rarely know about other coral symbiotic algae, let alone their thermal tolerance. In this study, a zoochlorellae, Symbiochlorum hainanensis, isolated from the coral Porites lutea, was proven to have a threshold temperature of 38°C. Meanwhile, unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms were suggested by integrated transcriptomics and real-time quantitative PCR, physiological and biochemical analyses, and electron microscopy observation. Under heat stress, S. hainanensis shared some similar response strategies with zooxanthellae Effrenium sp., such as increased ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activities and chlorophyll a, thiamine, and thiamine phosphate contents. In particular, more chloroplast internal layered structure, increased CAT activity, enhanced selenate reduction, and thylakoid assembly pathways were highlighted for S. hainanensis's high-temperature tolerance. Notably, it is the first time to reveal a whole selenate reduction pathway from SeO4[2-] to Se[2-] and its contribution to the high-temperature tolerance of S. hainanensis. These unique mechanisms, including antioxidation and maintaining photosynthesis homeostasis, efficiently ensure the high-temperature tolerance of S. hainanensis than Effrenium sp. Compared with the thermosensitivity of coral symbiotic zooxanthellae Symbiodiniaceae, this study provides novel insights into the high-temperature tolerance mechanisms of coral symbiotic zoochlorellae S. hainanensis, which will contribute to corals' survival in the warming oceans caused by global climate change.

IMPORTANCE: The increasing ocean temperature above 31°C-32°C might trigger a breakdown of the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses or coral bleaching because of the thermosensitivity of Symbiodiniaceae; therefore, the exploration of alternative coral symbiotic algae with high-temperature tolerance is important for the corals' protection under warming oceans. This study proves that zoochlorellae Symbiochlorum hainanensis can tolerate 38°C, which is the highest temperature tolerance known for coral symbiotic algae to date, with unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms. Particularly, for the first time, an internal selenium antioxidant mechanism of coral symbiotic S. hainanensis to high temperature was suggested.

RevDate: 2024-03-15
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Hassani MA, Cui Z, LaReau J, et al (2024)

Inter-species interactions between two bacterial flower commensals and a floral pathogen reduce disease incidence and alter pathogen activity.

mBio, 15(3):e0021324.

UNLABELLED: Flowers are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms that can alter plant health and interact with floral pathogens. Erwinia amylovora is a flower-inhabiting bacterium and a pathogen that infects different plant species, including Malus × domestica (apple). Previously, we showed that the co-inoculation of two bacterial strains, members of the genera Pseudomonas and Pantoea, isolated from apple flowers, reduced disease incidence caused by this floral pathogen. Here, we decipher the ecological interactions between the two flower-associated bacteria and E. amylovora in field experimentation and in vitro co-cultures. The two flower commensal strains did not competitively exclude E. amylovora from the stigma habitat, as both bacteria and the pathogen co-existed on the stigma of apple flowers and in vitro. This suggests that plant protection might be mediated by other mechanisms than competitive niche exclusion. Using a synthetic stigma exudation medium, ternary co-culture of the bacterial strains led to a substantial alteration of gene expression in both the pathogen and the two microbiota members. Importantly, the gene expression profiles for the ternary co-culture were not just additive from binary co-cultures, suggesting that some functions only emerged in multipartite co-culture. Additionally, the ternary co-culture of the strains resulted in a stronger acidification of the growth milieu than mono- or binary co-cultures, pointing to another emergent property of co-inoculation. Our study emphasizes the critical role of emergent properties mediated by inter-species interactions within the plant holobiont and their potential impact on plant health and pathogen behavior.

IMPORTANCE: Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important plant diseases of pome fruits. Previous work largely suggested plant microbiota commensals suppressed disease by antagonizing pathogen growth. However, inter-species interactions of multiple flower commensals and their influence on pathogen activity and behavior have not been well studied. Here, we show that co-inoculating two bacterial strains that naturally colonize the apple flowers reduces disease incidence. We further demonstrate that the interactions between these two microbiota commensals and the floral pathogen led to the emergence of new gene expression patterns and a strong alteration of the external pH, factors that may modify the pathogen's behavior. Our findings emphasize the critical role of emergent properties mediated by inter-species interactions between plant microbiota and plant pathogens and their impact on plant health.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

McLaughlin MS, Yurgel SN, Abbasi PA, et al (2024)

The effects of chemical fungicides and salicylic acid on the apple microbiome and fungal disease incidence under changing environmental conditions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1342407.

Epiphytic and endophytic micro-organisms associated with plants form complex communities on or in their host plant. These communities influence physiological traits, development, and host susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses, and these communities are theorized to have evolved alongside their hosts, forming a unit of selection known as the holobiont. The microbiome is highly variable and can be influenced by abiotic factors, including applied exogenous agents. In this study, we compared the impact of chemical fungicide and salicylic acid treatments on the fungal communities of "Honeycrisp" apples at harvest over two consecutive growing years. We demonstrated variations in fungal community structure and composition by tissue type, growing season, and treatment regimes and that fungicide treatments were associated with reduced network complexity. Finally, we show that the inclusion of salicylic acid with 50% less chemical fungicides in an integrated spray program allowed a reduction in fungicide use while maintaining effective control of disease at harvest and following storage.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ghitti E, Rolli E, Vergani L, et al (2024)

Flavonoids influence key rhizocompetence traits for early root colonization and PCB degradation potential of Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1325048.

INTRODUCTION: Flavonoids are among the main plant root exudation components, and, in addition to their role in symbiosis, they can broadly affect the functionality of plant-associated microbes: in polluted environments, for instance, flavonoids can induce the expression of the enzymatic degradative machinery to clean-up soils from xenobiotics like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, their involvement in root community recruitment and assembly involving non-symbiotic beneficial interactions remains understudied and may be crucial to sustain the holobiont fitness under PCB stress.

METHODS: By using a set of model pure flavonoid molecules and a natural blend of root exudates (REs) with altered flavonoid composition produced by Arabidopsis mutant lines affected in flavonoid biosynthesis and abundance (null mutant tt4, flavonoid aglycones hyperproducer tt8, and flavonoid conjugates hyperaccumulator ttg), we investigated flavonoid contribution in stimulating rhizocompetence traits and the catabolic potential of the model bacterial strain for PCB degradation Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400.

RESULTS: Flavonoids influenced the traits involved in bacterial recruitment in the rhizoplane by improving chemotaxis and motility responses, by increasing biofilm formation and by promoting the growth and activation of the PCB-degradative pathway of strain LB400, being thus potentially exploited as carbon sources, stimulating factors and chemoattractant molecules. Indeed, early rhizoplane colonization was favored in plantlets of the tt8 Arabidopsis mutant and reduced in the ttg line. Bacterial growth was promoted by the REs of mutant lines tt4 and tt8 under control conditions and reduced upon PCB-18 stress, showing no significant differences compared with the WT and ttg, indicating that unidentified plant metabolites could be involved. PCB stress presumably altered the Arabidopsis root exudation profile, although a sudden "cry-for-help" response to recruit strain LB400 was excluded and flavonoids appeared not to be the main determinants. In the in vitro plant-microbe interaction assays, plant growth promotion and PCB resistance promoted by strain LB400 seemed to act through flavonoid-independent mechanisms without altering bacterial colonization efficiency and root adhesion pattern.

DISCUSSIONS: This study further contributes to elucidate the vast array of functions provided by flavonoids in orchestrating the early events of PCB-degrading strain LB400 recruitment in the rhizosphere and to support the holobiont fitness by stimulating the catabolic machinery involved in xenobiotics decomposition and removal.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Chuang PS, Yu SP, Liu PY, et al (2024)

A gauge of coral physiology: re-examining temporal changes in Endozoicomonas abundance correlated with natural coral bleaching.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae001.

Bacteria contribute to many physiological functions of coral holobionts, including responses to bleaching. The bacterial genus, Endozoicomonas, dominates the microbial flora of many coral species and its abundance appears to be correlated with coral bleaching. However, evidences for decoupling of bleaching and Endozoicomonas abundance changes have also been reported. In 2020, a severe bleaching event was recorded at reefs in Taiwan, providing a unique opportunity to re-examine bleaching-Endozoicomonas association using multiple stony corals in natural environments. In this study, we monitored tissue color and microbiome changes in three coral species (Montipora sp., Porites sp., and Stylophora pistillata) in Kenting National Park, following the bleaching event. All tagged Montipora sp. and Porites sp. recovered from bleaching within 1 year, while high mortality occurred in S. pistillata. Microbiome analysis found no correlation of Endozoicomonas relative abundance and bleaching severity during the sampling period, but found a stronger correlation when the month in which bleaching occurred was excluded. Moreover, Endozoicomonas abundance increased during recovery months in Montipora sp. and Porites sp., whereas in S. pistillata it was nearly depleted. These results suggest that Endozoicomonas abundance may represent a gauge of coral health and reflect recovery of some corals from stress. Interestingly, even though different Endozoicomonas strains predominated in the three corals, these Endozoicomonas strains were also shared among coral taxa. Meanwhile, several Endozoicomonas strains showed secondary emergence during coral recovery, suggesting possible symbiont switching in Endozoicomonas. These findings indicate that it may be possible to introduce Endozoicomonas to non-native coral hosts as a coral probiotic.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Maire J, Tsang Min Ching SJ, Damjanovic K, et al (2024)

Tissue-associated and vertically transmitted bacterial symbiont in the coral Pocillopora acuta.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Coral microhabitats are colonized by a myriad of microorganisms, including diverse bacteria which are essential for host functioning and survival. However, the location, transmission, and functions of individual bacterial species living inside the coral tissues remain poorly studied. Here, we show that a previously undescribed bacterial symbiont of the coral Pocillopora acuta forms cell-associated microbial aggregates (CAMAs) within the mesenterial filaments. CAMAs were found in both adults and larval offspring, suggesting vertical transmission. In situ laser capture microdissection of CAMAs followed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics produced a near complete metagenome-assembled genome. We subsequently cultured the CAMA bacteria from Pocillopora acuta colonies, and sequenced and assembled their genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CAMA bacteria belong to an undescribed Endozoicomonadaceae genus and species, which we propose to name Candidatus Sororendozoicomonas aggregata gen. nov sp. nov. Metabolic pathway reconstruction from its genome sequence suggests this species can synthesize most amino acids, several B vitamins, and antioxidants, and participate in carbon cycling and prey digestion, which may be beneficial to its coral hosts. This study provides detailed insights into a new member of the widespread Endozoicomonadaceae family, thereby improving our understanding of coral holobiont functioning. Vertically transmitted, tissue-associated bacteria, such as Sororendozoicomonas aggregata may be key candidates for the development of microbiome manipulation approaches with long-term positive effects on the coral host.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Berg G, Dorador C, Egamberdieva D, et al (2024)

Shared governance in the plant holobiont and implications for one health.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 100(3):.

The holobiont Holobiont theory is more than 80 years old, while the importance of microbial communities for plant holobionts was already identified by Lorenz Hiltner more than a century ago. Both concepts are strongly supported by results from the new field of microbiome research. Here, we present ecological and genetic features of the plant holobiont that underpin principles of a shared governance between hosts and microbes and summarize the relevance of plant holobionts in the context of global change. Moreover, we uncover knowledge gaps that arise when integrating plant holobionts in the broader perspective of the holobiome as well as one and planetary health concepts. Action is needed to consider interacting holobionts at the holobiome scale, for prediction and control of microbiome function to improve human and environmental health outcomes.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )