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Bibliography on: Holobiont

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 19 Nov 2018 at 01:30 Created: 


Holobionts are assemblages of different species that form ecological units. Lynn Margulis proposed that any physical association between individuals of different species for significant portions of their life history is a symbiosis. All participants in the symbiosis are bionts, and therefore the resulting assemblage was first coined a holobiont by Lynn Margulis in 1991 in the book Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Holo is derived from the Ancient Greek word ὅλος (hólos) for “whole”. The entire assemblage of genomes in the holobiont is termed a hologenome.

Created with PubMed® Query: holobiont OR hologenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2018-11-16

O'Brien PA, Smith HA, Fallon S, et al (2018)

Elevated CO2 Has Little Influence on the Bacterial Communities Associated With the pH-Tolerant Coral, Massive Porites spp.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2621.

Ocean acidification (OA) as a result of increased anthropogenic CO2 input into the atmosphere carries consequences for all ocean life. Low pH can cause a shift in coral-associated microbial communities of pCO2-sensitive corals, however, it remains unknown whether the microbial community is also influenced in corals known to be more tolerant to high pCO2/low pH. This study profiles the bacterial communities associated with the tissues of the pCO2-tolerant coral, massive Porites spp., from two natural CO2 seep sites in Papua New Guinea. Amplicon sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that microbial communities remained stable across CO2 seep sites (pH = 7.44-7.85) and adjacent control sites (ambient pH = 8.0-8.1). Microbial communities were more significantly influenced by reef location than pH, with the relative abundance of dominant microbial taxa differing between reefs. These results directly contrast with previous findings that increased CO2 has a strong effect on structuring microbial communities. The stable structure of microbial communities associated with the tissues of massive Porites spp. under high pCO2/low pH conditions confirms a high degree of tolerance by the whole Porites holobiont to OA, and suggest that pH tolerant corals such as Porites may dominate reef assemblages in an increasingly acidic ocean.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Goüy de Bellocq J, Uddin W, Ribas A, et al (2018)

Holobiont suture zones: Parasite evidence across the European house mouse hybrid zone.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Parasite hybrid zones resulting from host secondary contact have never been described in nature although parasite hybridization is well known and secondary contact should affect them similarly to free-living organisms. When host populations are isolated, diverge, and re-contact, intimate parasites (host specific, direct life cycle) carried during isolation will also meet and so may form parasite hybrid zones. If so, we hypothesize these should be narrower than the host's hybrid zone as shorter parasite generation time allows potentially higher divergence. We investigate multilocus genetics of two parasites across the European house mouse hybrid zone. We find each host taxon harbours its own parasite taxa. These also hybridize: parasite hybrid zones are significantly narrower than the host's. Here we show a host hybrid zone is a suture zone for a subset of its parasite community and highlight the potential of such systems as windows on the evolutionary processes of host-parasite interactions and recombinant pathogen emergence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Castillo-Álvarez F, ME Marzo-Sola (2018)

Disease of the holobiont, the example of multiple sclerosis.

Medicina clinica pii:S0025-7753(18)30568-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years there has been a revolution regarding the role of the microbiota in different diseases, most of them within the spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, associated with the development of metagenomics and the concept of holobiont, a large organism together with its microbiota. Specifically, in Multiple Sclerosis, multiple evidence points to the role of the microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, animal model of the disease, and several articles have been published in recent years about differences in intestinal microbiota among patients with multiple sclerosis and control subjects. We review in this article the concept of holobiont and the gut microbiota functions, as well as the evidence accumulated about the role of the microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Nowadays, there is a lot of evidence showing the role of the microbiota in the genesis, prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis based mainly on three immunological pillars, the Th1-Th17 / Th2 balance, the Treg cells and the humoral immunity. It is also well documented that there are differences in the microbiota of patients with MS that are associated with a different expression of genes related to inflammation.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Galand PE, Chapron L, Meistertzheim AL, et al (2018)

The Effect of Captivity on the Dynamics of Active Bacterial Communities Differs Between Two Deep-Sea Coral Species.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2565.

Microbes play a crucial role in sustaining the coral holobiont's functions and in particular under the pressure of environmental stressors. The effect of a changing environment on coral health is now a major branch of research that relies heavily on aquarium experiments. However, the effect of captivity on the coral microbiome remains poorly known. Here we show that different cold-water corals species have different microbiome responses to captivity. For both the DNA and the RNA fraction, Madrepora oculata bacterial communities were maintained for at least 6 months of aquarium rearing, while Lophelia pertusa bacteria changed within a day. Interestingly, bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas, a ubiquitous symbiont of numerous marine hosts, were resilient and remained active in M. oculata for several months. Our results demonstrate that a good knowledge of the coral microbiome and an understanding of the ecological strategy of the holobiont is needed before designing aquarium experiments.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Ochsenkühn MA, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Harir M, et al (2018)

Coral metabolite gradients affect microbial community structures and act as a disease cue.

Communications biology, 1:184 pii:189.

Corals are threatened worldwide due to prevalence of disease and bleaching. Recent studies suggest the ability of corals to resist disease is dependent on maintaining healthy microbiomes that span coral tissues and surfaces, the holobiont. Although our understanding of the role endosymbiotic microbes play in coral health has advanced, the role surface-associated microbes and their chemical signatures play in coral health is limited. Using minimally invasive water sampling, we show that the corals Acropora and Platygyra harbor unique bacteria and metabolites at their surface, distinctly different from surrounding seawater. The surface metabolites released by the holobiont create concentration gradients at 0-5 cm away from the coral surface. These molecules are identified as chemo-attractants, antibacterials, and infochemicals, suggesting they may structure coral surface-associated microbes. Further, we detect surface-associated metabolites characteristic of healthy or white syndrome disease infected corals, a finding which may aid in describing effects of diseases.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Mazel F, Davis KM, Loudon A, et al (2018)

Is Host Filtering the Main Driver of Phylosymbiosis across the Tree of Life?.

mSystems, 3(5): pii:mSystems00097-18.

Host-associated microbiota composition can be conserved over evolutionary time scales. Indeed, closely related species often host similar microbiota; i.e., the composition of their microbiota harbors a phylogenetic signal, a pattern sometimes referred to as "phylosymbiosis." Elucidating the origins of this pattern is important to better understand microbiota ecology and evolution. However, this is hampered by our lack of theoretical expectations and a comprehensive overview of phylosymbiosis prevalence in nature. Here, we use simulations to provide a simple expectation for when we should expect this pattern to occur and then review the literature to document the prevalence and strength of phylosymbiosis across the host tree of life. We demonstrate that phylosymbiosis can readily emerge from a simple ecological filtering process, whereby a given host trait (e.g., gut pH) that varies with host phylogeny (i.e., harbors a phylogenetic signal) filters preadapted microbes. We found marked differences between methods used to detect phylosymbiosis, so we proposed a series of practical recommendations based on using multiple best-performing approaches. Importantly, we found that, while the prevalence of phylosymbiosis is mixed in nature, it appears to be stronger for microbiotas living in internal host compartments (e.g., the gut) than those living in external compartments (e.g., the rhizosphere). We show that phylosymbiosis can theoretically emerge without any intimate, long-term coevolutionary mechanisms and that most phylosymbiosis patterns observed in nature are compatible with a simple ecological process. Deviations from baseline ecological expectations might be used to further explore more complex hypotheses, such as codiversification. IMPORTANCE Phylosymbiosis is a pattern defined as the tendency of closely related species to host microbiota whose compositions resemble each other more than host species drawn at random from the same tree. Understanding the mechanisms behind phylosymbiosis is important because it can shed light on rules governing the assembly of host-associated microbiotas and, potentially, their coevolutionary dynamics with hosts. For example, is phylosymbiosis a result of coevolution, or can it be generated by simple ecological filtering processes? Beyond qualitative theoretical models, quantitative theoretical expectations can provide new insights. For example, deviations from a simple baseline of ecological filtering may be used to test more-complex hypotheses (e.g., coevolution). Here, we use simulations to provide evidence that simple host-related ecological filtering can readily generate phylosymbiosis, and we contrast these predictions with real-world data. We find that while phylosymbiosis is widespread in nature, phylosymbiosis patterns are compatible with a simple ecological model in the majority of taxa. Internal compartments of hosts, such as the animal gut, often display stronger phylosymbiosis than expected from a purely ecological filtering process, suggesting that other mechanisms are also involved.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Villegas-Plazas M, Wos-Oxley ML, Sanchez JA, et al (2018)

Variations in Microbial Diversity and Metabolite Profiles of the Tropical Marine Sponge Xestospongia muta with Season and Depth.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-018-1285-y [Epub ahead of print].

Xestospongia muta is among the most emblematic sponge species inhabiting coral reefs of the Caribbean Sea. Besides being the largest sponge species growing in the Caribbean, it is also known to produce secondary metabolites. This study aimed to assess the effect of depth and season on the symbiotic bacterial dynamics and major metabolite profiles of specimens of X. muta thriving in a tropical marine biome (Portobelo Bay, Panamá), which allow us to determine whether variability patterns are similar to those reported for subtropical latitudes. The bacterial assemblages were characterized using Illumina deep-sequencing and metabolomic profiles using UHPLC-DAD-ELSD from five depths (ranging 9-28 m) across two seasons (spring and autumn). Diverse symbiotic communities, representing 24 phyla with a predominance of Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi, were found. Although several thousands of OTUs were determined, most of them belong to the rare biosphere and only 23 to a core community. There was a significant difference between the structure of the microbial communities in respect to season (autumn to spring), with a further significant difference between depths only in autumn. This was partially mirrored in the metabolome profile, where the overall metabolite composition did not differ between seasons, but a significant depth gradient was observed in autumn. At the phyla level, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaete showed a mild-moderate correlation with the metabolome profile. The metabolomic profiles were mainly characterized by known brominated polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work presents findings about the composition and dynamics of the microbial assemblages of X. muta expanding and confirming current knowledge about its remarkable diversity and geographic variability as observed in this tropical marine biome.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Morris JJ (2018)

What is the hologenome concept of evolution?.

F1000Research, 7:.

All multicellular organisms are colonized by microbes, but a gestalt study of the composition of microbiome communities and their influence on the ecology and evolution of their macroscopic hosts has only recently become possible. One approach to thinking about the topic is to view the host-microbiome ecosystem as a "holobiont". Because natural selection acts on an organism's realized phenotype, and the phenotype of a holobiont is the result of the integrated activities of both the host and all of its microbiome inhabitants, it is reasonable to think that evolution can act at the level of the holobiont and cause changes in the "hologenome", or the collective genomic content of all the individual bionts within the holobiont. This relatively simple assertion has nevertheless been controversial within the microbiome community. Here, I provide a review of recent work on the hologenome concept of evolution. I attempt to provide a clear definition of the concept and its implications and to clarify common points of disagreement.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

Backer R, Rokem JS, Ilangumaran G, et al (2018)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Context, Mechanisms of Action, and Roadmap to Commercialization of Biostimulants for Sustainable Agriculture.

Frontiers in plant science, 9:1473.

Microbes of the phytomicrobiome are associated with every plant tissue and, in combination with the plant form the holobiont. Plants regulate the composition and activity of their associated bacterial community carefully. These microbes provide a wide range of services and benefits to the plant; in return, the plant provides the microbial community with reduced carbon and other metabolites. Soils are generally a moist environment, rich in reduced carbon which supports extensive soil microbial communities. The rhizomicrobiome is of great importance to agriculture owing to the rich diversity of root exudates and plant cell debris that attract diverse and unique patterns of microbial colonization. Microbes of the rhizomicrobiome play key roles in nutrient acquisition and assimilation, improved soil texture, secreting, and modulating extracellular molecules such as hormones, secondary metabolites, antibiotics, and various signal compounds, all leading to enhancement of plant growth. The microbes and compounds they secrete constitute valuable biostimulants and play pivotal roles in modulating plant stress responses. Research has demonstrated that inoculating plants with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or treating plants with microbe-to-plant signal compounds can be an effective strategy to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, these strategies can improve crop tolerance for the abiotic stresses (e.g., drought, heat, and salinity) likely to become more frequent as climate change conditions continue to develop. This discovery has resulted in multifunctional PGPR-based formulations for commercial agriculture, to minimize the use of synthetic fertilizers and agrochemicals. This review is an update about the role of PGPR in agriculture, from their collection to commercialization as low-cost commercial agricultural inputs. First, we introduce the concept and role of the phytomicrobiome and the agricultural context underlying food security in the 21st century. Next, mechanisms of plant growth promotion by PGPR are discussed, including signal exchange between plant roots and PGPR and how these relationships modulate plant abiotic stress responses via induced systemic resistance. On the application side, strategies are discussed to improve rhizosphere colonization by PGPR inoculants. The final sections of the paper describe the applications of PGPR in 21st century agriculture and the roadmap to commercialization of a PGPR-based technology.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

Pasquaretta C, Gómez-Moracho T, Heeb P, et al (2018)

Exploring Interactions between the Gut Microbiota and Social Behavior through Nutrition.

Genes, 9(11): pii:genes9110534.

Microbes influence a wide range of host social behaviors and vice versa. So far, however, the mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions remain poorly understood. In social animals, where individuals share microbes and interact around foods, the gut microbiota may have considerable consequences on host social interactions by acting upon the nutritional behavior of individual animals. Here we illustrate how conceptual advances in nutritional ecology can help the study of these processes and allow the formulation of new empirically testable predictions. First, we review key evidence showing that gut microbes influence the nutrition of individual animals, through modifications of their nutritional state and feeding decisions. Next, we describe how these microbial influences and their social consequences can be studied by modelling populations of hosts and their gut microbiota into a single conceptual framework derived from nutritional geometry. Our approach raises new perspectives for the study of holobiont nutrition and will facilitate theoretical and experimental research on the role of the gut microbiota in the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior.

RevDate: 2018-11-02

Sewell AK, Han M, B Qi (2018)

An unexpected benefit from E. coli: how enterobactin benefits host health.

Microbial cell (Graz, Austria), 5(10):469-471 pii:MIC0178E160.

Iron plays many critical roles in human biology, such as aiding the transport of oxygen and mediating redox reactions. Iron is essential for life, yet little is known about how iron is taken up into mitochondria to impact the labile iron pool. Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent human nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world and is a major cause of anemia that affects >25% of the world's population, but unfortunately the current treatment (oral iron supplementation) is inefficient and has many side effects. A greater understanding of iron uptake, and discovery of molecules that aid in this process, may lead to more effective treatments for iron deficiency. In this study, we uncovered a unique and surprising role for an Escherichia coli-produced siderophore enterobactin (Ent) that facilitates iron uptake by the host, observed in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. Although siderophores are well-known Fe+3 scavengers, this activity has previously been described to only benefit iron acquisition by bacteria, not the host. This unexpected function is dependent on the binding of Ent to the host's ATP synthase α-subunit but is independent of other subunits of the ATP synthase. This finding marks a major shift regarding the role of this siderophore in the "iron tug-of-war" paradigm, which is often used to describe the fight between the bacteria and the host for this essential micronutrient. Instead, this study presents E. coli as a commensal "friend" that provides a molecule that supports the host's iron homeostasis. This work reveals a novel, beneficial role of a bacteria-generated molecule in aiding the host's iron homeostasis, and points to surprising new benefits from commensal bacteria.

RevDate: 2018-10-18

Miller WB, Torday JS, F Baluška (2018)

Biological Evolution as Defense of 'Self'.

Progress in biophysics and molecular biology pii:S0079-6107(18)30151-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Although the origin of self-referential consciousness is unknown, it can be argued that the instantiation of self-reference was the commencement the living state as phenomenal experientiality. As self-referential cognition is demonstrated by all living organisms, life can be equated with the sustenance of cellular homeostasis in the continuous defense of 'self'. It is proposed that the epicenter of 'self' is perpetually embodied within the basic cellular form in which it was instantiated. Cognition-Based Evolution argues that all of biological and evolutionary development represents the perpetual autopoietic defense of self-referential basal cellular states of homeostatic preference. The means by which these states are attained and maintained is through self-referential measurement of information and its communication. The multicellular forms, either as biofilms or holobionts, represent the cellular attempt to achieve maximum states of informational distinction and energy efficiency through individual and collective means. In this frame, consciousness, self-consciousness and intelligence can be identified as forms of collective cellular phenotype directed towards the defense of fundamental cellular self-reference.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Thomashow LS, LeTourneau MK, Kwak YS, et al (2018)

The soil-borne legacy in the age of the holobiont.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Future efforts to increase agricultural productivity will focus on crops as functional units comprised of plants and their associated microflora in the context of the various environments in which they are grown. It is suggested that future efforts to increase agricultural productivity will focus on crops as functional units comprised of plants and their associated beneficial microorganisms in the context in which they are grown. Scientists, industry, and farmers must work closely together to develop, adapt, and apply new technologies to a wide range of cropping systems. Consumer education is needed help grow public awareness that 'plant probiotics' offer a safe and environmentally friendly alternative to dependence on the use of chemical pesticides.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Leftwich PT, Hutchings MI, T Chapman (2018)

Diet, Gut Microbes and Host Mate Choice: Understanding the significance of microbiome effects on host mate choice requires a case by case evaluation.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

All organisms live in close association with microbes. However, not all such associations are meaningful in an evolutionary context. Current debate concerns whether hosts and microbes are best described as communities of individuals or as holobionts (selective units of hosts plus their microbes). Recent reports that assortative mating of hosts by diet can be mediated by commensal gut microbes have attracted interest as a potential route to host reproductive isolation (RI). Here, the authors discuss logical problems with this line of argument. The authors briefly review how microbes can affect host mating preferences and evaluate recent findings from fruitflies. Endosymbionts can potentially influence host RI given stable and recurrent co-association of hosts and microbes over evolutionary time. However, observations of co-occurrence of microbes and hosts are ripe for misinterpretation and such associations will rarely represent a meaningful holobiont. A framework in which hosts and their microbes are independent evolutionary units provides the only satisfactory explanation for the observed range of effects and associations.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Cernava T, Aschenbrenner IA, Soh J, et al (2018)

Plasticity of a holobiont: desiccation induces fasting-like metabolism within the lichen microbiota.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-018-0286-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The role of host-associated microbiota in enduring dehydration and drought is largely unknown. We have used lichens to study this increasingly important problem because they are the organisms that are optimally adapted to reoccurring hydration/dehydration cycles, and they host a defined and persistent bacterial community. The analysis of metatranscriptomic datasets from bacterial communities of the lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.), sampled under representative hydration stages, revealed significant structural shifts and functional specialization to host conditions. The hydrated samples showed upregulated transcription of transport systems, tRNA modification and various porins (Omp2b by Rhizobiales), whereas the desiccated samples showed different functions related to stress adaption prominently. Carbohydrate metabolism was activated under both conditions. Under dry conditions, upregulation of a specialized ketone metabolism indicated a switch to lipid-based nutrition. Several bacterial lineages were involved in a functional transition that was reminiscent of a 'fasting metaorganism'. Similar functional adaptions were assigned to taxonomically unrelated groups, indicating hydration-related specialization of the microbiota. We were able to show that host-associated bacterial communities are well adapted to dehydration by stress protection and changes of the metabolism. Moreover, our results indicate an intense interplay in holobiont functioning under drought stress.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Zepeda Mendoza ML, Roggenbuck M, Manzano Vargas K, et al (2018)

Protective role of the vulture facial skin and gut microbiomes aid adaptation to scavenging.

Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 60(1):61 pii:10.1186/s13028-018-0415-3.

BACKGROUND: Vultures have adapted the remarkable ability to feed on carcasses that may contain microorganisms that would be pathogenic to most other animals. The holobiont concept suggests that the genetic basis of such adaptation may not only lie within their genomes, but additionally in their associated microbes. To explore this, we generated shotgun DNA sequencing datasets of the facial skin and large intestine microbiomes of the black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura). We characterized the functional potential and taxonomic diversity of their microbiomes, the potential pathogenic challenges confronted by vultures, and the microbial taxa and genes that could play a protective role on the facial skin and in the gut.

RESULTS: We found microbial taxa and genes involved in diseases, such as dermatitis and pneumonia (more abundant on the facial skin), and gas gangrene and food poisoning (more abundant in the gut). Interestingly, we found taxa and functions with potential for playing beneficial roles, such as antilisterial bacteria in the gut, and genes for the production of antiparasitics and insecticides on the facial skin. Based on the identified phages, we suggest that phages aid in the control and possibly elimination, as in phage therapy, of microbes reported as pathogenic to a variety of species. Interestingly, we identified Adineta vaga in the gut, an invertebrate that feeds on dead bacteria and protozoans, suggesting a defensive predatory mechanism. Finally, we suggest a colonization resistance role through biofilm formation played by Fusobacteria and Clostridia in the gut.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of complementing genomic analyses with metagenomics in order to obtain a clearer understanding of the host-microbial alliance and show the importance of microbiome-mediated health protection for adaptation to extreme diets, such as scavenging.

RevDate: 2018-10-11

Guyomar C, Legeai F, Jousselin E, et al (2018)

Multi-scale characterization of symbiont diversity in the pea aphid complex through metagenomic approaches.

Microbiome, 6(1):181 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0562-9.

BACKGROUND: Most metazoans are involved in durable relationships with microbes which can take several forms, from mutualism to parasitism. The advances of NGS technologies and bioinformatics tools have opened opportunities to shed light on the diversity of microbial communities and to give some insights into the functions they perform in a broad array of hosts. The pea aphid is a model system for the study of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It is organized in a complex of biotypes, each adapted to specific host plants. It harbors both an obligatory symbiont supplying key nutrients and several facultative symbionts bringing additional functions to the host, such as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known on how the symbiont genomic diversity is structured at different scales: across host biotypes, among individuals of the same biotype, or within individual aphids, which limits our understanding on how these multi-partner symbioses evolve and interact.

RESULTS: We present a framework well adapted to the study of genomic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of the pea aphid holobiont from metagenomic read sets, based on mapping to reference genomes and whole genome variant calling. Our results revealed that the pea aphid microbiota is dominated by a few heritable bacterial symbionts reported in earlier works, with no discovery of new microbial associates. However, we detected a large and heterogeneous genotypic diversity associated with the different symbionts of the pea aphid. Partitioning analysis showed that this fine resolution diversity is distributed across the three considered scales. Phylogenetic analyses highlighted frequent horizontal transfers of facultative symbionts between host lineages, indicative of flexible associations between the pea aphid and its microbiota. However, the evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic associations strongly varied depending on the symbiont, reflecting different histories and possible constraints. In addition, at the intra-host scale, we showed that different symbiont strains may coexist inside the same aphid host.

CONCLUSIONS: We present a methodological framework for the detailed analysis of NGS data from microbial communities of moderate complexity and gave major insights into the extent of diversity in pea aphid-symbiont associations and the range of evolutionary trajectories they could take.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Hernandez-Agreda A, Leggat W, Bongaerts P, et al (2018)

Rethinking the Coral Microbiome: Simplicity Exists within a Diverse Microbial Biosphere.

mBio, 9(5): pii:mBio.00812-18.

Studies of the coral microbiome predominantly characterize the microbial community of the host species as a collective, rather than that of the individual. This ecological perspective on the coral microbiome has led to the conclusion that the coral holobiont is the most diverse microbial biosphere studied thus far. However, investigating the microbiome of the individual, rather than that of the species, highlights common and conserved community attributes which can provide insights into the significance of microbial associations to the host. Here, we show there are consistent characteristics between individuals in the proposed three components of the coral microbiome (i.e., "environmentally responsive community," "resident or individual microbiome," and "core microbiome"). We found that the resident microbiome of a photoendosymbiotic coral harbored <3% (∼605 phylotypes) of the 16S rRNA phylotypes associated with all investigated individuals of that species ("species-specific microbiome") (∼21,654 phylotypes; individuals from Pachyseris speciosa [n = 123], Mycedium elephantotus [n = 95], and Acropora aculeus [n = 91] from 10 reef locations). The remaining bacterial phylotypes (>96%) (environmentally responsive community) of the species-specific microbiome were in fact not found in association with the majority of individuals of the species. Only 0.1% (∼21 phylotypes) of the species-specific microbiome of each species was shared among all individuals of the species (core microbiome), equating to ∼3.4% of the resident microbiome. We found taxonomic redundancy and consistent patterns of composition, structure, and taxonomic breadth across individual microbiomes from the three coral species. Our results demonstrate that the coral microbiome is structured at the individual level.IMPORTANCE We propose that the coral holobiont should be conceptualized as a diverse transient microbial community that is responsive to the surrounding environment and encompasses a simple, redundant, resident microbiome and a small conserved core microbiome. Most importantly, we show that the coral microbiome is comparable to the microbiomes of other organisms studied thus far. Accurately characterizing the coral-microbe interactions provides an important baseline from which the functional roles and the functional niches within which microbes reside can be deciphered.

RevDate: 2018-10-16

Mancini MV, Damiani C, Accoti A, et al (2018)

Estimating bacteria diversity in different organs of nine species of mosquito by next generation sequencing.

BMC microbiology, 18(1):126 pii:10.1186/s12866-018-1266-9.

BACKGROUND: Symbiosis in insects is accumulating significant amount of studies: the description of a wide array of mutualistic associations across the evolutionary history of insects suggests that resident microbiota acts as a driving force by affecting several aspects of hosts biology. Among arthropods, mosquito midgut microbiota has been largely investigated, providing crucial insights on the role and implications of host-symbiont relationships. However, limited amount of studies addressed their efforts on the investigation of microbiota colonizing salivary glands and reproductive tracts, crucial organs for pathogen invasion and vertical transmission of symbiotic microorganisms. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based approach, we analysed the microbiota of gut, salivary glands and reproductive tracts of several mosquito species, representing some of the main vectors of diseases, aiming at describing the dynamics of bacterial communities within the individual.

RESULTS: We identified a shared core microbiota between different mosquito species, although interesting inter- and intra-species differences were detected. Additionally, our results showed deep divergences between genera, underlining microbiota specificity and adaptation to their host.

CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive landscape of the bacterial microbiota components may ultimately provide crucial insights and novel targets for possible application of symbionts in innovative strategies for the control of vector borne diseases, globally named Symbiotic Control (SC), and suggesting that the holobiont of different mosquito species may significantly vary. Moreover, mosquito species are characterized by distinctive microbiota in different organs, likely reflecting different functions and/or adaptation processes.

RevDate: 2018-10-03

Palmer CV (2018)

Immunity and the coral crisis.

Communications biology, 1:91 pii:97.

Climate change is killing coral at an unprecedented rate. As immune systems promote homeostasis and survival of adverse conditions I propose we explore coral health in the context of holobiont immunity.

RevDate: 2018-09-26

Løvendahl P, Difford GF, Li B, et al (2018)

Review: Selecting for improved feed efficiency and reduced methane emissions in dairy cattle.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience pii:S1751731118002276 [Epub ahead of print].

It may be possible for dairy farms to improve profitability and reduce environmental impacts by selecting for higher feed efficiency and lower methane (CH4) emission traits. It remains to be clarified how CH4 emission and feed efficiency traits are related to each other, which will require direct and accurate measurements of both of these traits in large numbers of animals under the conditions in which they are expected to perform. The ranking of animals for feed efficiency and CH4 emission traits can differ depending upon the type and duration of measurement used, the trait definitions and calculations used, the period in lactation examined and the production system, as well as interactions among these factors. Because the correlation values obtained between feed efficiency and CH4 emission data are likely to be biased when either or both are expressed as ratios, therefore researchers would be well advised to maintain weighted components of the ratios in the selection index. Nutrition studies indicate that selecting low emitting animals may result in reduced efficiency of cell wall digestion, that is NDF, a key ruminant characteristic in human food production. Moreover, many interacting biological factors that are not measured directly, including digestion rate, passage rate, the rumen microbiome and rumen fermentation, may influence feed efficiency and CH4 emission. Elucidating these mechanisms may improve dairy farmers ability to select for feed efficiency and reduced CH4 emission.

RevDate: 2018-09-28

Cavalcanti GS, Shukla P, Morris M, et al (2018)

Rhodoliths holobionts in a changing ocean: host-microbes interactions mediate coralline algae resilience under ocean acidification.

BMC genomics, 19(1):701 pii:10.1186/s12864-018-5064-4.

BACKGROUND: Life in the ocean will increasingly have to contend with a complex matrix of concurrent shifts in environmental properties that impact their physiology and control their life histories. Rhodoliths are coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) that are photosynthesizers, calcifiers, and ecosystem engineers and therefore represent important targets for ocean acidification (OA) research. Here, we exposed live rhodoliths to near-future OA conditions to investigate responses in their photosynthetic capacity, calcium carbonate production, and associated microbiome using carbon uptake, decalcification assays, and whole genome shotgun sequencing metagenomic analysis, respectively. The results from our live rhodolith assays were compared to similar manipulations on dead rhodolith (calcareous skeleton) biofilms and water column microbial communities, thereby enabling the assessment of host-microbiome interaction under climate-driven environmental perturbations.

RESULTS: Under high pCO2 conditions, live rhodoliths exhibited positive physiological responses, i.e. increased photosynthetic activity, and no calcium carbonate biomass loss over time. Further, whereas the microbiome associated with live rhodoliths remained stable and resembled a healthy holobiont, the microbial community associated with the water column changed after exposure to elevated pCO2.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a tightly regulated microbial-host interaction, as evidenced by the stability of the rhodolith microbiome recorded here under OA-like conditions, is important for host resilience to environmental stress. This study extends the scarce comprehension of microbes associated with rhodolith beds and their reaction to increased pCO2, providing a more comprehensive approach to OA studies by assessing the host holobiont.

RevDate: 2018-09-21

Stencel A, DM Wloch-Salamon (2018)

Correction to: Some theoretical insights into the hologenome theory of evolution and the role of microbes in speciation.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.

RevDate: 2018-09-23

Clerissi C, Brunet S, Vidal-Dupiol J, et al (2018)

Protists Within Corals: The Hidden Diversity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2043.

Previous observations suggested that microbial communities contribute to coral health and the ecological resilience of coral reefs. However, most studies of coral microbiology focused on prokaryotes and the endosymbiotic algae Symbiodinium. In contrast, knowledge concerning diversity of other protists is still lacking, possibly due to methodological constraints. As most eukaryotic DNA in coral samples was derived from hosts, protist diversity was missed in metagenome analyses. To tackle this issue, we designed blocking primers for Scleractinia sequences amplified with two primer sets that targeted variable loops of the 18S rRNA gene (18SV1V2 and 18SV4). These blocking primers were used on environmental colonies of Pocillopora damicornis sensu lato from two regions with contrasting thermal regimes (Djibouti and New Caledonia). In addition to Symbiodinium clades A/C/D, Licnophora and unidentified coccidia genera were found in many samples. In particular, coccidian sequences formed a robust monophyletic clade with other protists identified in Agaricia, Favia, Montastraea, Mycetophyllia, Porites, and Siderastrea coral colonies. Moreover, Licnophora and coccidians had different distributions between the two geographic regions. A similar pattern was observed between Symbiodinium clades C and A/D. Although we were unable to identify factors responsible for this pattern, nor were we able to confirm that these taxa were closely associated with corals, we believe that these primer sets and the associated blocking primers offer new possibilities to describe the hidden diversity of protists within different coral species.

RevDate: 2018-09-18

Carthey AJR, Gillings MR, DT Blumstein (2018)

The Extended Genotype: Microbially Mediated Olfactory Communication.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(18)30203-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes are now known to influence inter- and intraspecific olfactory signaling systems. They do so by producing metabolites that function as odorants. A unique attribute of such odorants is that they arise as a product of microbial-host interactions. These interactions need not be mutualistic, and indeed can be antagonistic. We develop an integrated ecoevolutionary model to explore microbially mediated olfactory communication and a process model that illustrates the various ways that microbial products might contribute to odorants. This novel approach generates testable predictions, including that selection to incorporate microbial products should be a common feature of infochemicals that communicate identity but not those that communicate fitness or quality. Microbes extend an individual's genotype, but also enhance vulnerability to environmental change.

RevDate: 2018-09-21

Bredon M, Dittmer J, Noël C, et al (2018)

Lignocellulose degradation at the holobiont level: teamwork in a keystone soil invertebrate.

Microbiome, 6(1):162 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0536-y.

BACKGROUND: Woodlice are recognized as keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems due to their role in the decomposition of organic matter. Thus, they contribute to lignocellulose degradation and nutrient cycling in the environment together with other macroarthropods. Lignocellulose is the main component of plants and is composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Its digestion requires the action of multiple Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (called CAZymes), typically acting together as a cocktail with complementary, synergistic activities and modes of action. Some invertebrates express a few endogenous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes but in most species, an efficient degradation and digestion of lignocellulose can only be achieved through mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Similar to termites, it has been suspected that several bacterial symbionts may be involved in lignocellulose degradation in terrestrial isopods, by completing the CAZyme repertoire of their hosts.

RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, host transcriptomic and microbiome shotgun metagenomic datasets were obtained and investigated from the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare. Many genes of bacterial and archaeal origin coding for CAZymes were identified in the metagenomes of several host tissues and the gut content of specimens from both laboratory lineages and a natural population of A. vulgare. Some of them may be involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Reconstructing a lignocellulose-degrading microbial community based on the prokaryotic taxa contributing relevant CAZymes revealed two taxonomically distinct but functionally redundant microbial communities depending on host origin. In parallel, endogenous CAZymes were identified from the transcriptome of the host and their expression in digestive tissues was demonstrated by RT-qPCR, demonstrating a complementary enzyme repertoire for lignocellulose degradation from both the host and the microbiome in A. vulgare.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into the role of the microbiome in the evolution of terrestrial isopods and their adaptive radiation in terrestrial habitats.

RevDate: 2018-09-21

Sitaraman R (2018)

Prokaryotic horizontal gene transfer within the human holobiont: ecological-evolutionary inferences, implications and possibilities.

Microbiome, 6(1):163 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0551-z.

The ubiquity of horizontal gene transfer in the living world, especially among prokaryotes, raises interesting and important scientific questions regarding its effects on the human holobiont i.e., the human and its resident bacterial communities considered together as a unit of selection. Specifically, it would be interesting to determine how particular gene transfer events have influenced holobiont phenotypes in particular ecological niches and, conversely, how specific holobiont phenotypes have influenced gene transfer events. In this synthetic review, we list some notable and recent discoveries of horizontal gene transfer among the prokaryotic component of the human microbiota, and analyze their potential impact on the holobiont from an ecological-evolutionary viewpoint. Finally, the human-Helicobacter pylori association is presented as an illustration of these considerations, followed by a delineation of unresolved questions and avenues for future research.

RevDate: 2018-09-15

Bernasconi R, Stat M, Koenders A, et al (2018)

Global Networks of Symbiodinium-Bacteria Within the Coral Holobiont.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-018-1255-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Scleractinian corals form the framework of coral reefs and host abundant and diverse microbial communities that are fundamental to their success. A very limited number of studies have examined the co-occurrence of multiple partners within the coral 'holobiont' and their pattern of specificity over different geographical scales. In this study, we explored two molecular sequence datasets representing associations between corals and dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium and between corals and bacteria, across the globe. Through a network theory approach, we characterised patterns of co-occurrences between bacteria and Symbiodinium with 13 coral genera across six water basins. The majority of the bacteria-Symbiodinium co-occurrences were specific to either a coral genus or water basin, emphasising both coral host and environment as important factors driving the diversity of coral assemblages. Yet, results also identified bacteria and Symbiodinium that were shared by multiple coral genera across several water basins. The analyses indicate that shared co-occurrences are independent of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationship of coral hosts.

RevDate: 2018-09-18

Wenzel MA, Douglas A, SB Piertney (2018)

Microbiome composition within a sympatric species complex of intertidal isopods (Jaera albifrons).

PloS one, 13(8):e0202212 pii:PONE-D-18-05560.

The increasingly recognised effects of microbiomes on the eco-evolutionary dynamics of their hosts are promoting a view of the "hologenome" as an integral host-symbiont evolutionary entity. For example, sex-ratio distorting reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are well-studied pivotal drivers of invertebrate reproductive processes, and more recent work is highlighting novel effects of microbiome assemblages on host mating behaviour and developmental incompatibilities that underpin or reinforce reproductive isolation processes. However, examining the hologenome and its eco-evolutionary effects in natural populations is challenging because microbiome composition is considerably influenced by environmental factors. Here we illustrate these challenges in a sympatric species complex of intertidal isopods (Jaera albifrons spp.) with pervasive sex-ratio distortion and ecological and behavioural reproductive isolation mechanisms. We deep-sequence the bacterial 16S rRNA gene among males and females collected in spring and summer from two coasts in north-east Scotland, and examine microbiome composition with a particular focus on reproductive parasites. Microbiomes of all species were diverse (overall 3,317 unique sequences among 3.8 million reads) and comprised mainly Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes taxa typical of the marine intertidal zone, in particular Vibrio spp. However, we found little evidence of the reproductive parasites Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium, suggesting alternative causes of sex-ratio distortion. Notwithstanding, a significant proportion of the variance in microbiome composition among samples was explained by sex (14.1 %), nested within geographic (26.9 %) and seasonal (39.6 %) variance components. The functional relevance of this sex signal was difficult to ascertain given the absence of reproductive parasites, the ephemeral nature of the species assemblages and substantial environmental variability. These results establish the Jaera albifrons species complex as an intriguing system for examining the effects of microbiomes on reproductive processes and speciation, and highlight the difficulties associated with snapshot assays of microbiome composition in dynamic and complex environments.

RevDate: 2018-08-29

Basso V, De Freitas Pereira M, Maillard F, et al (2018)

Facing global change: the millennium challenge for plant scientists: 41st New Phytologist Symposium 'Plant sciences for the future', Nancy, France, April 2018.

The New phytologist, 220(1):25-29.

RevDate: 2018-10-10

Allard SM, Ottesen AR, Brown EW, et al (2018)

Insect exclusion limits variation in bacterial microbiomes of tomato flowers and fruit.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The effect of insect exclusion via netting on bacterial microbiota associated with field-grown tomato fruit and flowers was evaluated.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Amplicon-based bacterial community profiling from insect-exposed plants and plants wrapped in nylon mosquito netting was conducted on total DNA extracted from tomato flower and mature unripe fruit washes. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq and analysed using qiime ver. 1.8. The carposphere supported significantly more phylogenetic diversity (PD) compared to the anthosphere, as measured by operational taxonomic unit richness (P = 0·001) and Faith's PD (P = 0·004). Flowers and fruit hosted distinct bacterial community structures (R2 = 0·27, P = 0·001), with specific taxonomic differences in taxa that included the Xanthomonadaceae (higher in flowers), and the Pseudomonadaceae, Methylobacteriaceae and Rhizobiales (higher in fruit) (FDR-P < 0·05). Bacterial community profiles of netted plants were overall statistically similar to non-netted plants for both flowers and fruit (P > 0·10). However, less variation between samples was observed among flowers (~50% less, P = 0·004) and green fruit (~10% less, P = 0·038) collected from netted than non-netted plants.

CONCLUSION: Insects may introduce or augment variability in bacterial diversity associated with tomato flowers and potentially green fruit surfaces.

This work contributes to knowledge on microbiome dynamics of the tomato holobiont. Deciphering drivers of bacterial diversity and community structure of fruit crops could reveal processes important to agricultural management, such as competitive exclusion of pathogens and priming of plant defense mechanisms.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Stabili L, Parisi MG, Parrinello D, et al (2018)

Cnidarian Interaction with Microbial Communities: From Aid to Animal's Health to Rejection Responses.

Marine drugs, 16(9): pii:md16090296.

The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient branch in the tree of metazoans. Several species exert a remarkable longevity, suggesting the existence of a developed and consistent defense mechanism of the innate immunity capable to overcome the potential repeated exposure to microbial pathogenic agents. Increasing evidence indicates that the innate immune system in Cnidarians is not only involved in the disruption of harmful microorganisms, but also is crucial in structuring tissue-associated microbial communities that are essential components of the Cnidarian holobiont and useful to the animal's health for several functions, including metabolism, immune defense, development, and behavior. Sometimes, the shifts in the normal microbiota may be used as "early" bio-indicators of both environmental changes and/or animal disease. Here the Cnidarians relationships with microbial communities and the potential biotechnological applications are summarized and discussed.

RevDate: 2018-08-23

Van Duyl FC, Mueller B, EH Meesters (2018)

Spatio-temporal variation in stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of sponges on the Saba Bank.

PeerJ, 6:e5460 pii:5460.

Sponges are ubiquitous on coral reefs, mostly long lived and therefore adaptive to changing environmental conditions. They feed on organic matter withdrawn from the passing water and they may harbor microorganisms (endosymbionts), which contribute to their nutrition. Their diets and stable isotope (SI) fractionation determine the SI signature of the sponge holobiont. Little is known of spatio-temporal variations in SI signatures of δ13C and δ15N in tropical sponges and whether they reflect variations in the environment. We investigated the SI signatures of seven common sponge species with different functional traits and their potential food sources between 15 and 32 m depth along the S-SE and E-NE side of the Saba Bank, Eastern Caribbean, in October 2011 and October 2013. SI signatures differed significantly between most sponge species, both in mean values and in variation, indicating different food preferences and/or fractionation, inferring sponge species-specific isotopic niche spaces. In 2011, all sponge species at the S-SE side were enriched in d13C compared to the E-NE side. In 2013, SI signatures of sponges did not differ between the two sides and were overall lighter in δ13C and δ15N than in 2011. Observed spatio-temporal changes in SI in sponges could not be attributed to changes in the SI signatures of their potential food sources, which remained stable with different SI signatures of pelagic (particulate organic matter (POM): δ13C -24.9‰, δ15N +4.3‰) and benthic-derived food (macroalgae: δ13C -15.4‰, δ15N +0.8‰). Enriched δ13C signatures in sponges at the S-SE side in 2011 are proposed to be attributed to predominantly feeding on benthic-derived C. This interpretation was supported by significant differences in water mass constituents between sides in October 2011. Elevated NO3 and dissolved organic matter concentrations point toward a stronger reef signal in reef overlying water at the S-SE than N-NE side of the Bank in 2011. The depletions of δ13C and δ15N in sponges in October 2013 compared to October 2011 concurred with significantly elevated POM concentrations. The contemporaneous decrease in δ15N suggests that sponges obtain their N mostly from benthic-derived food with a lower δ15N than pelagic food. Average proportional feeding on available sources varied between sponge species and ranged from 20% to 50% for benthic and 50% to 80% for pelagic-derived food, assuming trophic enrichment factors of 0.5‰ ± sd 0.5 for δ13C and 3‰ ± sd 0.5 for δ15N for sponges. We suggest that observed variation of SI in sponges between sides and years were the result of shifts in the proportion of ingested benthic- and pelagic-derived organic matter driven by environmental changes. We show that sponge SI signatures reflect environmental variability in space and time on the Saba Bank and that SI of sponges irrespective of their species-specific traits move in a similar direction in response to these environmental changes.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Kranabetter JM, Harman-Denhoed R, BJ Hawkins (2018)

Saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp stoichiometry (C : N : P) across temperate rainforests as evidence of shared nutrient constraints among symbionts.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Quantifying nutritional dynamics of free-living saprotrophs and symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field is challenging, but the stoichiometry of fruiting bodies (sporocarps) may be an effective methodology for this purpose. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of soils, foliage and 146 sporocarp collections were analyzed from 14 Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii stands across a podzolization gradient on Vancouver Island (Canada). N and P concentrations were considerably higher in saprotrophic fungi. Fungal N% increased with soil N content at a greater rate for saprotrophs than ectomycorrhizal fungi, while fungal P% of saprotrophs was more constrained. Fungal N : P was more responsive to soil N : P for ectomycorrhizal fungi (homeostatic regulation coefficient 'H' = 2.9) than saprotrophs (H = 5.9), while N : P of ectomycorrhizal fungi and host tree foliage scaled almost identically. Results underscore the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi as nutrient conduits, supporting host trees, whereas saprotrophs maintain a greater degree of nutritional homeostasis. Site nutrient constraints were shared in equal measure between ectomycorrhizal fungi and host trees, particularly for P, suggesting neither partner benefits from enhanced nutrition at the expense of the other. Sporocarp stoichiometry provides new insights into mycorrhizal relationships and illustrates pervasive P deficiencies across temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest.

RevDate: 2018-09-06

Godoy-Vitorino F, C Toledo-Hernandez (2018)

Reef-Building Corals as a Tool for Climate Change Research in the Genomics Era.

Results and problems in cell differentiation, 65:529-546.

Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biodiverse habitats in the marine realm. They not only contribute with a plethora of ecosystem services, but they also are beneficial to humankind via nurturing marine fisheries and sustaining recreational activities. We will discuss the biology of coral reefs and their ecophysiology including the complex bacterial microbiota associated with them.

RevDate: 2018-09-21

Stencel A, DM Wloch-Salamon (2018)

Some theoretical insights into the hologenome theory of evolution and the role of microbes in speciation.

Theory in biosciences = Theorie in den Biowissenschaften pii:10.1007/s12064-018-0268-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Research on symbiotic communities (microbiomes) of multicellular organisms seems to be changing our understanding of how species of plants and animals have evolved over millions of years. The quintessence of these discoveries is the emergence of the hologenome theory of evolution, founded on the concept that a holobiont (a host along with all of its associated symbiotic microorganisms) acts a single unit of selection in the process of evolution. Although the hologenome theory has become very popular among certain scientific circles, its principles are still being debated. In this paper, we argue, firstly, that only a very small number of symbiotic microorganisms are sufficiently integrated into multicellular organisms to act in concert with them as units of selection, thus rendering claims that holobionts are units of selection invalid. Secondly, even though holobionts are not units of selection, they can still constitute genuine units from an evolutionary perspective, provided we accept certain constraints: mainly, they should be considered units of co-operation. Thirdly, we propose a reconciliation of the role of symbiotic microorganisms with the theory of speciation through the use of a developed framework. Mainly, we will argue that, in order to understand the role of microorganisms in the speciation of multicellular organisms, it is not necessary to consider holobionts units of selection; it is sufficient to consider them units of co-operation.

RevDate: 2018-09-28

Armstrong EJ, Roa JN, Stillman JH, et al (2018)

Symbiont photosynthesis in giant clams is promoted by V-type H+-ATPase from host cells.

The Journal of experimental biology, 221(Pt 18): pii:jeb.177220.

Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are the largest living bivalves and, like reef-building corals, host symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) that significantly contribute to their energy budget. In turn, Symbiodinium rely on the host to supply inorganic carbon (Ci) for photosynthesis. In corals, host 'proton pump' vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) is part of a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis. Here, we report that VHA in the small giant clam (Tridacna maxima) similarly promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis. VHA was abundantly expressed in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of T. maxima's siphonal mantle tubule system, which harbors Symbiodinium Furthermore, application of the highly specific pharmacological VHA inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and concanamycin A significantly reduced photosynthetic O2 production by ∼40%. Together with our observation that exposure to light increased holobiont aerobic metabolism ∼5-fold, and earlier estimates that translocated fixed carbon exceeds metabolic demand, we conclude that VHA activity in the siphonal mantle confers strong energetic benefits to the host clam through increased supply of Ci to algal symbionts and subsequent photosynthetic activity. The convergent role of VHA in promoting Symbiodinium photosynthesis in the giant clam siphonal mantle tubule system and coral symbiosome suggests that VHA-driven CCM is a common exaptation in marine photosymbioses that deserves further investigation in other taxa.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Berg M, B Koskella (2018)

Nutrient- and Dose-Dependent Microbiome-Mediated Protection against a Plant Pathogen.

Current biology : CB, 28(15):2487-2492.e3.

Plant-associated microbial communities can promote plant nutrient uptake, growth, and resistance to pathogens [1-3]. Host resistance to infection can increase directly through commensal-pathogen interactions or indirectly through modulation of host defenses [4-6], the mechanisms of which are best described for rhizosphere-associated bacteria. For example, Arabidopsis plants infected with the foliar pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst), increase their root secretion of malate, which attracts Bacillus subtillis to the roots and leads to a stronger host response against Pst [7]. Although there are numerous examples of individual defensive symbionts (e.g., [8]), it is less clear whether this type of protection is an emergent property of whole microbial communities. In particular, relatively little is known about whether and how the presence of phyllosphere (above-ground) microbial communities can increase host resistance against pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability of augmented tomato phyllosphere microbiomes to confer resistance against the causal agent of bacterial speck, Pst. Across five independent experiments, the augmented phyllosphere microbiome was found to decrease pathogen colonization. Furthermore, the dose of commensal bacteria applied affected the degree of protection conferred, and although the effect is dependent on microbial composition, it is not clearly related to overall bacterial diversity. Finally, our results suggest that resources available to the phyllosphere microbial community may play an important role in protection, as the addition of fertilizer abolished the observed microbiome-mediated protection. Together, these results have clear relevance to microbiome-mediated protection within agricultural settings and the use of plant probiotics to increase disease resistance.

RevDate: 2018-07-29

Garcia J, J Kao-Kniffin (2018)

Microbial Group Dynamics in Plant Rhizospheres and Their Implications on Nutrient Cycling.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:1516.

Plant rhizospheres encompass a dynamic zone of interactions between microorganisms and their respective plant hosts. For decades, researchers have worked to understand how these complex interactions influence different aspects of plant growth, development, and evolution. Studies of plant-microbial interactions in the root zone have typically focused on the effect of single microbial species or strains on a plant host. These studies, however, provide only a snapshot of the complex interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, leaving researchers with a limited understanding of how the complex microbiome influences the biology of the plant host. To better understand how rhizosphere interactions influence plant growth and development, novel frameworks and research methodologies could be implemented. In this perspective, we propose applying concepts in evolutionary biology to microbiome experiments for improved understanding of group-to-group and community-level microbial interactions influencing soil nutrient cycling. We also put forth simple experimental designs utilizing -omics techniques that can reveal important changes in the rhizosphere impacting the plant host. A greater focus on the components of complexity of the microbiome and how these impact plant host biology could yield more insight into previously unexplored aspects of host-microbe biology relevant to crop production and protection.

RevDate: 2018-07-26

Klassen JL (2018)

Defining microbiome function.

Nature microbiology, 3(8):864-869.

Why does a microorganism associate with a host? What function does it perform? Such questions are difficult to unequivocally address and remain hotly debated. This is partially because scientists often use different philosophical definitions of 'function' ambiguously and interchangeably, as exemplified by the controversy surrounding the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project. Here, I argue that research studying host-associated microbial communities and their genomes (that is, microbiomes) faces similar pitfalls and that unclear or misapplied conceptions of function underpin many controversies in this field. In particular, experiments that support phenomenological models of function can inappropriately be used to support functional models that instead require specific measurements of evolutionary selection. Microbiome research also requires uniquely clear definitions of 'who the function is for', in contrast to most single-organism systems where this is implicit. I illustrate how obscuring either of these issues can lead to substantial confusion and misinterpretation of microbiome function, using the varied conceptions of the holobiont as a current and cogent example. Using clear functional definitions and appropriate types of evidence are essential to effectively communicate microbiome research and foster host health.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Karimi K, Wuitchik DM, Oldach MJ, et al (2018)

Distinguishing Species Using GC Contents in Mixed DNA or RNA Sequences.

Evolutionary bioinformatics online, 14:1176934318788866 pii:10.1177_1176934318788866.

With the advent of whole transcriptome and genome analysis methods, classifying samples containing multiple origins has become a significant task. Nucleotide sequences can be allocated to a genome or transcriptome by aligning sequences to multiple target sequence sets, but this approach requires extensive computational resources and also depends on target sequence sets lacking contaminants, which is often not the case. Here, we demonstrate that raw sequences can be rapidly sorted into groups, in practice corresponding to genera, by exploiting differences in nucleotide GC content. To do so, we introduce GCSpeciesSorter, which uses classification, specifically Support Vector Machines (SVM) and the C4.5 decision tree generator, to differentiate sequences. It also implements a secondary BLAST feature to identify known outliers. In the test case presented, a hermatypic coral holobiont, the cnidarian host includes various endosymbionts. The best characterized and most common of these symbionts are zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium. GCSpeciesSorter separates cnidarian from Symbiodinium sequences with a high degree of accuracy. We show that if the GC contents of the species differ enough, this method can be used to accurately distinguish the sequences of different species when using high-throughput sequencing technologies.

RevDate: 2018-07-19

Li Y, Liles MR, KM Halanych (2018)

Endosymbiont genomes yield clues of tubeworm success.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-018-0220-z [Epub ahead of print].

Forty years after discovery of chemosynthetic symbiosis in the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, how organisms maintain their unique host-symbiont associations at the cellular level is still largely unknown. Previous studies primarily focus on symbionts associated with host lineages living in hydrothermal vents. To understand physiological adaptations and evolution in these holobiont systems in markedly different habitats, we characterized four novel siboglinid-symbiont genomes spanning deep-sea seep and sedimented environments. Our comparative analyses suggest that all sampled siboglinid chemoautotrophic symbionts, except for frenulate symbionts, can use both rTCA and Calvin cycle for carbon fixation. We hypothesize that over evolutionary time siboglinids have been able to utilize different bacterial lineages allowing greater metabolic flexibility of carbon fixation (e.g., rTCA) enabling tubeworms to thrive in more reducing habitats, such as vents and seeps. Moreover, we show that sulfur metabolism and molecular mechanisms related to initial infection are remarkably conserved across chemoautotrophic symbionts in different habitats. Unexpectedly, we find that the ability to use hydrogen, as an additional energy source, is potentially more widespread than previously recognized. Our comparative genomic results help elucidate potential mechanisms used to allow chemosynthetically dependent holobionts adapt to, and evolve in, different environments.

RevDate: 2018-07-13

Lorimer J (2018)

Hookworms Make Us Human: The Microbiome, Eco-immunology, and a Probiotic Turn in Western Health Care.

Medical anthropology quarterly [Epub ahead of print].

Historians of science have identified an ecological turn underway in immunology, driven by the mapping of the human microbiome and wider environmentalist anxieties. A figure is emerging of the human as a holobiont, composed of microbes and threatened by both microbial excess and microbial absence. Antimicrobial approaches to germ warfare are being supplemented by probiotic approaches to restoring microbial life. This article examines the political ecology of this probiotic turn in Western health care. It focuses on Necator americanus-a species of human hookworm-and its relations with immunologists. The analysis moves from a history of human disentanglement from hookworm, to contemporary anxieties about their absence. It examines the reintroduction of worms for helminthic therapy and explores emerging trajectories for probiotic health care involving the synthesis, modification, and/or restoration of worms and their salutary ecologies. The conclusion differentiates these trajectories and identifies an emerging model of "post-paleo" microbiopolitics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-08-22

Klimovich AV, TCG Bosch (2018)

Rethinking the Role of the Nervous System: Lessons From the Hydra Holobiont.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 40(9):e1800060.

Here we evaluate our current understanding of the function of the nervous system in Hydra, a non-bilaterian animal which is among the first metazoans that contain neurons. We highlight growing evidence that the nervous system, with its rich repertoire of neuropeptides, is involved in controlling resident beneficial microbes. We also review observations that indicate that microbes affect the animal's behavior by directly interfering with neuronal receptors. These findings provide new insight into the original role of the nervous system, and suggest that it emerged to orchestrate multiple functions including host-microbiome interactions. The excitement of future research in the Hydra model now relies on uncovering the common rules and principles that govern the interaction between neurons and microbes and the extent to which such laws might apply to other and more complex organisms.

RevDate: 2018-09-06

Lian J, Wijffels RH, Smidt H, et al (2018)

The effect of the algal microbiome on industrial production of microalgae.

Microbial biotechnology, 11(5):806-818.

Microbes are ubiquitously distributed, and they are also present in algae production systems. The algal microbiome is a pivotal part of the alga holobiont and has a key role in modulating algal populations in nature. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the role of bacteria in artificial systems ranging from laboratory flasks to industrial ponds. Coexisting microorganisms, and predominantly bacteria, are often regarded as contaminants in algal research, but recent studies manifested that many algal symbionts not only promote algal growth but also offer advantages in downstream processing. Because of the high expectations for microalgae in a bio-based economy, better understanding of benefits and risks of algal-microbial associations is important for the algae industry. Reducing production cost may be through applying specific bacteria to enhance algae growth at large scale as well as through preventing the growth of a broad spectrum of algal pathogens. In this review, we highlight the latest studies of algae-microbial interactions and their underlying mechanisms, discuss advantages of large-scale algal-bacterial cocultivation and extend such knowledge to a broad range of biotechnological applications.

RevDate: 2018-06-27

Kutschera U (2018)

Systems biology of eukaryotic superorganisms and the holobiont concept.

Theory in biosciences = Theorie in den Biowissenschaften pii:10.1007/s12064-018-0265-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The founders of modern biology (Jean Lamarck, Charles Darwin, August Weismann etc.) were organismic life scientists who attempted to understand the morphology and evolution of living beings as a whole (i.e., the phenotype). However, with the emergence of the study of animal and plant physiology in the nineteenth century, this "holistic view" of the living world changed and was ultimately replaced by a reductionistic perspective. Here, I summarize the history of systems biology, i.e., the modern approach to understand living beings as integrative organisms, from genotype to phenotype. It is documented that the physiologists Claude Bernard and Julius Sachs, who studied humans and plants, respectively, were early pioneers of this discipline, which was formally founded 50 years ago. In 1968, two influential monographs, authored by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and Mihajlo D. Mesarović, were published, wherein a "systems theory of biology" was outlined. Definitions of systems biology are presented with reference to metabolic or cell signaling networks, analyzed via genomics, proteomics, and other methods, combined with computer simulations/mathematical modeling. Then, key insights of this discipline with respect to epiphytic microbes (Methylobacterium sp.) and simple bacteria (Mycoplasma sp.) are described. The principles of homeostasis, molecular systems energetics, gnotobiology, and holobionts (i.e., complexities of host-microbiota interactions) are outlined, and the significance of systems biology for evolutionary theories is addressed. Based on the microbe-Homo sapiens-symbiosis, it is concluded that human biology and health should be interpreted in light of a view of the biomedical sciences that is based on the holobiont concept.

RevDate: 2018-06-29

Münger E, Montiel-Castro AJ, Langhans W, et al (2018)

Reciprocal Interactions Between Gut Microbiota and Host Social Behavior.

Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 12:21.

Animals harbor an extensive, dynamic microbial ecosystem in their gut. Gut microbiota (GM) supposedly modulate various host functions including fecundity, metabolism, immunity, cognition and behavior. Starting by analyzing the concept of the holobiont as a unit of selection, we highlight recent findings suggesting an intimate link between GM and animal social behavior. We consider two reciprocal emerging themes: (i) that GM influence host social behavior; and (ii) that social behavior and social structure shape the composition of the GM across individuals. We propose that, throughout a long history of coevolution, GM may have become involved in the modulation of their host's sociality to foster their own transmission, while in turn social organization may have fine-tuned the transmission of beneficial endosymbionts and prevented pathogen infection. We suggest that investigating these reciprocal interactions can advance our understanding of sociality, from healthy and impaired social cognition to the evolution of specific social behaviors and societal structure.

RevDate: 2018-07-20

Marchesi JR (2018)

Advancing microbiome research.

RevDate: 2018-08-01

Marchesi JR (2018)

Advancing microbiome research.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 164(8):1005-1006.

RevDate: 2018-06-22

Yurgel SN, Douglas GM, Dusault A, et al (2018)

Dissecting Community Structure in Wild Blueberry Root and Soil Microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:1187.

A complex network of functions and symbiotic interactions between a eukaryotic host and its microbiome is a the foundation of the ecological unit holobiont. However, little is known about how the non-fungal eukaryotic microorganisms fit in this complex network of host-microbiome interactions. In this study, we employed a unique wild blueberry ecosystem to evaluate plant-associated microbiota, encompassing both eukaryotic and bacterial communities. We found that, while soil microbiome serves as a foundation for root microbiome, plant-influenced species sorting had stronger effect on eukaryotes than on bacteria. Our study identified several fungal and protist taxa, which are correlated with decreased fruit production in wild blueberry agricultural ecosystems. The specific effect of species sorting in root microbiome resulted in an increase in relative abundance of fungi adapted to plant-associated life-style, while the relative abundance of non-fungal eukaryotes was decreased along the soil-endosphere continuum in the root, probably because of low adaptation of these microorganisms to host-plant defense responses. Analysis of community correlation networks indicated that bacterial and eukaryotic interactions became more complex along the soil-endosphere continuum and, in addition to extensive mutualistic interactions, co-exclusion also played an important role in shaping wild blueberry associated microbiome. Our study identified several potential hub taxa with important roles in soil fertility and/or plant-microbe interaction, suggesting the key role of these taxa in the interconnection between soils and plant health and overall microbial community structure. This study also provides a comprehensive view of the role of non-fungal eukaryotes in soil ecosystem.

RevDate: 2018-08-17

Celis JS, Wibberg D, Ramírez-Portilla C, et al (2018)

Binning enables efficient host genome reconstruction in cnidarian holobionts.

GigaScience, 7(7):.

Background: Many cnidarians, including stony corals, engage in complex symbiotic associations, comprising the eukaryotic host, photosynthetic algae, and highly diverse microbial communities-together referred to as holobiont. This taxonomic complexity makes sequencing and assembling coral host genomes extremely challenging. Therefore, previous cnidarian genomic projects were based on symbiont-free tissue samples. However, this approach may not be applicable to the majority of cnidarian species for ecological reasons. We therefore evaluated the performance of an alternative method based on sequence binning for reconstructing the genome of the stony coral Porites rus from a hologenomic sample and compared it to traditional approaches.

Results: Our results demonstrate that binning performs well for hologenomic data, producing sufficient reads for assembling the draft genome of P. rus. An assembly evaluation based on operational criteria showed results that were comparable to symbiont-free approaches in terms of completeness and usefulness, despite a high degree of fragmentation in our assembly. In addition, we found that binning provides sufficient data for exploratory k-mer estimation of genomic features, such as genome size and heterozygosity.

Conclusions: Binning constitutes a powerful approach for disentangling taxonomically complex coral hologenomes. Considering the recent decline of coral reefs on the one hand and previous limitations to coral genome sequencing on the other hand, binning may facilitate rapid and reliable genome assembly. This study also provides an important milestone in advancing binning from the metagenomic to the hologenomic and from the prokaryotic to the eukaryotic level.

RevDate: 2018-07-12

van Oppen MJH, Bongaerts P, Frade P, et al (2018)

Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome.

Molecular ecology, 27(14):2956-2971.

Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction site-associated sequencing) and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont- and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using metabarcoding) of a reef flat and slope population of the reef-building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, at two locations on Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Reef flat and slope populations were separated by <100 m horizontally and ~5 m vertically, and the two study locations were separated by ~1 km. For the coral host, genetic divergence between habitats was much greater than between locations, suggesting limited gene flow between the flat and slope populations. Consistent with environmental selection, outlier loci primarily belonged to the conserved, minimal cellular stress response, likely reflecting adaptation to the different temperature and irradiance regimes on the reef flat and slope. The prokaryote community differed across both habitat and, to a lesser extent, location, whereas the dinoflagellate photosymbionts differed by habitat but not location. The observed intraspecific diversity associated with divergent habitats supports that environmental adaptation involves multiple members of the coral holobiont. Adaptive alleles or microbial associations present in coral populations from the environmentally variable reef flat may provide a source of adaptive variation for assisted evolution approaches, through assisted gene flow, artificial cross-breeding or probiotic inoculations, with the aim to increase climate resilience in the slope populations.

RevDate: 2018-07-12

Vančurová L, Muggia L, Peksa O, et al (2018)

The complexity of symbiotic interactions influences the ecological amplitude of the host: A case study in Stereocaulon (lichenized Ascomycota).

Molecular ecology, 27(14):3016-3033.

Symbiosis plays a fundamental role in nature. Lichens are among the best known, globally distributed symbiotic systems whose ecology is shaped by the requirements of all symbionts forming the holobiont. The widespread lichen-forming fungal genus Stereocaulon provides a suitable model to study the ecology of microscopic green algal symbionts (i.e., phycobionts) within the lichen symbiosis. We analysed 282 Stereocaulon specimens, collected in diverse habitats worldwide, using the algal ITS rDNA and actin gene sequences and fungal ITS rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a great diversity among the predominant phycobionts. The algal genus Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae) was recovered in most sampled thalli, but two additional genera, Vulcanochloris and Chloroidium, were also found. We used variation-partitioning analyses to investigate the effects of climatic conditions, substrate/habitat characteristic, spatial distribution and mycobionts on phycobiont distribution. Based on an analogy, we examined the effects of climate, substrate/habitat, spatial distribution and phycobionts on mycobiont distribution. According to our analyses, the distribution of phycobionts is primarily driven by mycobionts and vice versa. Specificity and selectivity of both partners, as well as their ecological requirements and the width of their niches, vary significantly among the species-level lineages. We demonstrated that species-level lineages, which accept more symbiotic partners, have wider climatic niches, overlapping with the niches of their partners. Furthermore, the survival of lichens on substrates with high concentrations of heavy metals appears to be supported by their association with toxicity-tolerant phycobionts. In general, low specificity towards phycobionts allows the host to associate with ecologically diversified algae, thereby broadening its ecological amplitude.

RevDate: 2018-07-10

R L Morlighem JÉ, Huang C, Liao Q, et al (2018)

The Holo-Transcriptome of the Zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): A Plentiful Source of Enzymes for Potential Application in Green Chemistry, Industrial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

Marine drugs, 16(6): pii:md16060207.

Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals), form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides. In the present study, we analyzed the entire holo-transcriptome of P. variabilis, looking for enzyme precursors expressed in the zoantharian-microbiota assemblage that are potentially useful as industrial biocatalysts and biopharmaceuticals. In addition to hundreds of predicted enzymes that fit into the classes of hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases that were found, novel enzyme precursors with multiple activities in single structures and enzymes with incomplete Enzyme Commission numbers were revealed. Our results indicated the predictive expression of thirteen multifunctional enzymes and 694 enzyme sequences with partially characterized activities, distributed in 23 sub-subclasses. These predicted enzyme structures and activities can prospectively be harnessed for applications in diverse areas of industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology.

RevDate: 2018-06-13

Nguyen MTHD, T Thomas (2018)

Diversity, host-specificity and stability of sponge-associated fungal communities of co-occurring sponges.

PeerJ, 6:e4965 pii:4965.

Fungi play a critical role in a range of ecosystems; however, their interactions and functions in marine hosts, and particular sponges, is poorly understood. Here we assess the fungal community composition of three co-occurring sponges (Cymbastela concentrica, Scopalina sp., Tedania anhelans) and the surrounding seawater over two time points to help elucidate host-specificity, stability and potential core members, which may shed light into the ecological function of fungi in sponges. The results showed that ITS-amplicon-based community profiling likely provides a more realistic assessment of fungal diversity in sponges than cultivation-dependent approaches. The sponges studied here were found to contain phylogenetically diverse fungi (eight fungal classes were observed), including members of the family Togniniaceae and the genus Acrostalagmus, that have so far not been reported to be cultured from sponges. Fungal communities within any given sponge species were found to be highly variable compared to bacterial communities, and influenced in structure by the community of the surrounding seawater, especially considering temporal variation. Nevertheless, the sponge species studied here contained a few "variable/core" fungi that appeared in multiple biological replicates and were enriched in their relative abundance compared to seawater communities. These fungi were the same or highly similar to fungal species detected in sponges around the world, which suggests a prevalence of horizontal transmission where selectivity and enrichment of some fungi occur for those that can survive and/or exploit the sponge environment. Our current sparse knowledge about sponge-associated fungi thus indicate that fungal communities may perhaps not play as an important ecological role in the sponge holobiont compared to bacterial or archaeal symbionts.

RevDate: 2018-06-11

Hall ER, Muller EM, Goulet T, et al (2018)

Eutrophication may compromise the resilience of the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata to global change.

Marine pollution bulletin, 131(Pt A):701-711.

Environmental stressors are adversely affecting coral reef ecosystems. There is ample evidence that scleractinian coral growth and physiology may be compromised by reduced pH, and elevated temperature, and that this is exacerbated by local environmental stressors. The Gulf of Aqaba is considered a coral reef refuge from acidification and warming but coastal development and nutrient effluent may pose a local threat. This study examined the effects of select forecasted environmental changes (acidification, warming, and increased nutrients) individually and in combination on the coral holobiont Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Aqaba to understand how corals in a potential global climate change refugia may fare in the face of local eutrophication. The results indicate interactions between all stressors, with elevated nutrient concentrations having the broadest individual and additive impacts upon the performance of S. pistillata. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining oligotrophic conditions to secure these reefs as potential refugia.

RevDate: 2018-07-06

Meng A, Marchet C, Corre E, et al (2018)

A de novo approach to disentangle partner identity and function in holobiont systems.

Microbiome, 6(1):105 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0481-9.

BACKGROUND: Study of meta-transcriptomic datasets involving non-model organisms represents bioinformatic challenges. The production of chimeric sequences and our inability to distinguish the taxonomic origins of the sequences produced are inherent and recurrent difficulties in de novo assembly analyses. As the study of holobiont meta-transcriptomes is affected by challenges invoked above, we propose an innovative bioinformatic approach to tackle such difficulties and tested it on marine models as a proof of concept.

RESULTS: We considered three holobiont models, of which two transcriptomes were previously published and a yet unpublished transcriptome, to analyze and sort their raw reads using Short Read Connector, a k-mer based similarity method. Before assembly, we thus defined four distinct categories for each holobiont meta-transcriptome: host reads, symbiont reads, shared reads, and unassigned reads. Afterwards, we observed that independent de novo assemblies for each category led to a diminution of the number of chimeras compared to classical assembly methods. Moreover, the separation of each partner's transcriptome offered the independent and comparative exploration of their functional diversity in the holobiont. Finally, our strategy allowed to propose new functional annotations for two well-studied holobionts (a Cnidaria-Dinophyta, a Porifera-Bacteria) and a first meta-transcriptome from a planktonic Radiolaria-Dinophyta system forming widespread symbiotic association for which our knowledge is considerably limited.

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to classical assembly approaches, our bioinformatic strategy generates less de novo assembled chimera and allows biologists to study separately host and symbiont data from a holobiont mixture. The pre-assembly separation of reads using an efficient tool as Short Read Connector is an effective way to tackle meta-transcriptomic challenges and offers bright perpectives to study holobiont systems composed of either well-studied or poorly characterized symbiotic lineages and ultimately expand our knowledge about these associations.

RevDate: 2018-05-25

Rädecker N, Raina JB, Pernice M, et al (2018)

Corrigendum: Using Aiptasia as a Model to Study Metabolic Interactions in Cnidarian-Symbiodinium Symbioses.

Frontiers in physiology, 9:449.

[This corrects the article on p. 214 in vol. 9, PMID: 29615919.].

RevDate: 2018-05-16

García-Bonilla E, Brandão PFB, Pérez T, et al (2018)

Stable and Enriched Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Uncultured Betaproteobacteria HF1 in the Microbiome of the Mediterranean Sponge Haliclona fulva (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-018-1201-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Sponges harbor characteristic microbiomes derived from symbiotic relationships shaping their lifestyle and survival. Haliclona fulva is encrusting marine sponge species dwelling in coralligenous accretions or semidark caves of the Mediterranean Sea and the near Atlantic Ocean. In this work, we characterized the abundance and core microbial community composition found in specimens of H. fulva by means of electron microscopy and 16S amplicon Illumina sequencing. We provide evidence of its low microbial abundance (LMA) nature. We found that the H. fulva core microbiome is dominated by sequences belonging to the orders Nitrosomonadales and Cenarchaeales. Seventy percent of the reads assigned to these phylotypes grouped in a very small number of high-frequency operational taxonomic units, representing niche-specific species Cenarchaeum symbiosum and uncultured Betaproteobacteria HF1, a new eubacterial ribotype variant found in H. fulva. The microbial composition of H. fulva is quite distinct from those reported in sponge species of the same Haliclona genus. We also detected evidence of an excretion/capturing loop between these abundant microorganisms and planktonic microbes by analyzing shifts in seawater planktonic microbial content exposed to healthy sponge specimens maintained in aquaria. Our results suggest that horizontal transmission is very likely the main mechanism for symbionts' acquisition by H. fulva. So far, this is the first shallow water sponge species harboring such a specific and predominant assemblage composed of these eubacterial and archaeal ribotypes. Our data suggests that this symbiotic relationship is very stable over time, indicating that the identified core microbial symbionts may play key roles in the holobiont functioning.

RevDate: 2018-05-18

Houdek P (2018)

Economic Holobiont: Influence of Parasites, Microbiota and Chemosignals on Economic Behavior.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 12:77.

The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i.e., "human holobiont") could causally influence risk-seeking behavior, impulsivity, social dominance, empathy, political views and gender differences. As a case study, the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its influence on economic preferences, personal characteristics and human appearance are examined. I also briefly review how chemosignals influence decision-making, particularly in the social preferences domain. I mention some predictions that arise from the paradigm of economic holobiont for the economic science. The conclusion summarizes limitations of the discussed findings and the stated speculations.

RevDate: 2018-05-15

Bourrat P, PE Griffiths (2018)

Multispecies individuals.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 40(2):33 pii:10.1007/s40656-018-0194-1.

We assess the arguments for recognising functionally integrated multispecies consortia as genuine biological individuals, including cases of so-called 'holobionts'. We provide two examples in which the same core biochemical processes that sustain life are distributed across a consortium of individuals of different species. Although the same chemistry features in both examples, proponents of the holobiont as unit of evolution would recognize one of the two cases as a multispecies individual whilst they would consider the other as a compelling case of ecological dependence between separate individuals. Some widely used arguments in support of the 'holobiont' concept apply equally to both cases, suggesting that those arguments have misidentified what is at stake when seeking to identify a new level of biological individuality. One important aspect of biological individuality is evolutionary individuality. In line with other work on the evolution of individuality, we show that our cases can be distinguished by focusing on the fitness alignment between the partners of the consortia. We conclude that much of the evidence currently presented for the ubiquity and importance of multi-species individuals is simply not to the point, at least unless the issue of biological individuality is firmly divorced from the question of evolutionary individuality.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

León-Palmero E, Joglar V, Álvarez PA, et al (2018)

Diversity and antimicrobial potential in sea anemone and holothurian microbiomes.

PloS one, 13(5):e0196178 pii:PONE-D-17-34144.

Marine invertebrates, as holobionts, contain symbiotic bacteria that coevolve and develop antimicrobial substances. These symbiotic bacteria are an underexplored source of new bioactive molecules to face the emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Here, we explored the antimicrobial activity of bacteria retrieved from the microbiota of two sea anemones (Anemonia sulcata, Actinia equina) and two holothurians (Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria forskali). We tested the antimicrobial activity of the isolated bacteria against pathogens with interest for human health, agriculture and aquaculture. We isolated 27 strains with antibacterial activity and 12 of these isolates also showed antifungal activity. We taxonomically identified these strains being Bacillus and Vibrio species the most representative producers of antimicrobial substances. Microbiome species composition of the two sea anemones was similar between them but differed substantially of seawater bacteria. In contrast, microbiome species composition of the two holothurian species was different between them and in comparison with the bacteria in holothurian feces and seawater. In all the holobiont microbiomes Bacteroidetes was the predominant phylum. For each microbiome, we determined diversity and the rank-abundance dominance using five fitted models (null, pre-emption, log-Normal, Zipf and Zipf-Mandelbrot). The models with less evenness (i.e. Zipf and Zipf-Mandelblot) showed the best fits in all the microbiomes. Finally, we tracked (using the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene) the relative abundance of these 27 isolates with antibacterial activity in the total pool of sequences obtained for the microbiome of each holobiont. Coincidences, although with extremely low frequencies, were detected only in the microbiome of H. forskali. This fact suggests that these isolated bacteria belong to the long tail of rare symbiotic bacteria. Therefore, more and more sophisticated culture techniques are necessary to explore this apparently vast pool of rare symbiontic bacteria and to determine their biotechnological potentiality.

RevDate: 2018-05-11

Domin H, Zurita-Gutiérrez YH, Scotti M, et al (2018)

Predicted Bacterial Interactions Affect in Vivo Microbial Colonization Dynamics in Nematostella.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:728.

The maintenance and resilience of host-associated microbiota during development is a fundamental process influencing the fitness of many organisms. Several host properties were identified as influencing factors on bacterial colonization, including the innate immune system, mucus composition, and diet. In contrast, the importance of bacteria-bacteria interactions on host colonization is less understood. Here, we use bacterial abundance data of the marine model organism Nematostella vectensis to reconstruct potential bacteria-bacteria interactions through co-occurrence networks. The analysis indicates that bacteria-bacteria interactions are dynamic during host colonization and change according to the host's developmental stage. To assess the predictive power of inferred interactions, we tested bacterial isolates with predicted cooperative or competitive behavior for their ability to influence bacterial recolonization dynamics. Within 3 days of recolonization, all tested bacterial isolates affected bacterial community structure, while only competitive bacteria increased bacterial diversity. Only 1 week after recolonization, almost no differences in bacterial community structure could be observed between control and treatments. These results show that predicted competitive bacteria can influence community structure for a short period of time, verifying the in silico predictions. However, within 1 week, the effects of the bacterial isolates are neutralized, indicating a high degree of resilience of the bacterial community.

RevDate: 2018-05-15

Sorek M, Schnytzer Y, Ben-Asher HW, et al (2018)

Setting the pace: host rhythmic behaviour and gene expression patterns in the facultatively symbiotic cnidarian Aiptasia are determined largely by Symbiodinium.

Microbiome, 6(1):83 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0465-9.

BACKGROUND: All organisms employ biological clocks to anticipate physical changes in the environment; however, the integration of biological clocks in symbiotic systems has received limited attention. In corals, the interpretation of rhythmic behaviours is complicated by the daily oscillations in tissue oxygen tension resulting from the photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the associated algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium. In order to better understand the integration of biological clocks in cnidarian hosts of Symbiodinium, daily rhythms of behaviour and gene expression were studied in symbiotic and aposymbiotic morphs of the sea-anemone Aiptasia diaphana.

RESULTS: The results showed that whereas circatidal (approx. 12-h) cycles of activity and gene expression predominated in aposymbiotic morphs, circadian (approx. 24-h) patterns were the more common in symbiotic morphs, where the expression of a significant number of genes shifted from a 12- to 24-h rhythm. The behavioural experiments on symbiotic A. diaphana displayed diel (24-h) rhythmicity in body and tentacle contraction under the light/dark cycles, whereas aposymbiotic morphs showed approximately 12-h (circatidal) rhythmicity. Reinfection experiments represent an important step in understanding the hierarchy of endogenous clocks in symbiotic associations, where the aposymbiotic Aiptasia morphs returned to a 24-h behavioural rhythm after repopulation with algae.

CONCLUSION: Whilst some modification of host metabolism is to be expected, the extent to which the presence of the algae modified host endogenous behavioural and transcriptional rhythms implies that it is the symbionts that influence the pace. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of the endosymbiotic algae in determining the timing and the duration of the extension and contraction of the body and tentacles and temporal gene expression.

RevDate: 2018-05-08

Faure D, Simon JC, T Heulin (2018)

Holobiont: a conceptual framework to explore the eco-evolutionary and functional implications of host-microbiota interactions in all ecosystems.

The New phytologist, 218(4):1321-1324.

RevDate: 2018-06-25

Nobori T, Mine A, K Tsuda (2018)

Molecular networks in plant-pathogen holobiont.

FEBS letters, 592(12):1937-1953.

Plant immune receptors enable detection of a multitude of microbes including pathogens. The recognition of microbes activates various plant signaling pathways, such as those mediated by phytohormones. Over the course of coevolution with microbes, plants have expanded their repertoire of immune receptors and signaling components, resulting in highly interconnected plant immune networks. These immune networks enable plants to appropriately respond to different types of microbes and to coordinate immune responses with developmental programs and environmental stress responses. However, the interconnectivity in plant immune networks is exploited by microbial pathogens to promote pathogen fitness in plants. Analogous to plant immune networks, virulence-related pathways in bacterial pathogens are also interconnected. Accumulating evidence implies that some plant-derived compounds target bacterial virulence networks. Thus, the plant immune and bacterial virulence networks intimately interact with each other. Here, we highlight recent insights into the structures of the plant immune and bacterial virulence networks and the interactions between them. We propose that small molecules derived from plants and/or bacterial pathogens connect the two molecular networks, forming supernetworks in the plant-bacterial pathogen holobiont.

RevDate: 2018-05-25

Karimi E, Slaby BM, Soares AR, et al (2018)

Metagenomic binning reveals versatile nutrient cycling and distinct adaptive features in alphaproteobacterial symbionts of marine sponges.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 94(6):.

Marine sponges are early-branched metazoans known to harbor dense and diverse microbial communities. Yet the role of the so far uncultivable alphaproteobacterial lineages that populate these sessile invertebrates remains unclear. We applied a sequence composition-dependent binning approach to assemble one Rhodospirillaceae genome from the Spongia officinalis microbial metagenome and contrast its functional features with those of closely related sponge-associated and free-living genomes. Both symbiotic and free-living Rhodospirillaceae shared a suite of common features, possessing versatile carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus metabolisms. Symbiotic genomes could be distinguished from their free-living counterparts by the lack of chemotaxis and motility traits, enrichment of genes required for the uptake and utilization of organic sulfur compounds-particularly taurine-, higher diversity and abundance of ABC transporters, and a distinct repertoire of genes involved in natural product biosynthesis, plasmid stability, cell detoxification and oxidative stress remediation. These sessile symbionts may more effectively contribute to host fitness via nutrient exchange, and also host detoxification and chemical defense. Considering the worldwide occurrence and high diversity of sponge-associated Rhodospirillaceae verified here using a tailored in silico approach, we suggest that these organisms are not only relevant to holobiont homeostasis but also to nutrient cycling in benthic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2018-05-08

Rosenberg E, I Zilber-Rosenberg (2018)

The hologenome concept of evolution after 10 years.

Microbiome, 6(1):78 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0457-9.

The holobiont (host with its endocellular and extracellular microbiome) can function as a distinct biological entity, an additional organismal level to the ones previously considered, on which natural selection operates. The holobiont can function as a whole: anatomically, metabolically, immunologically, developmentally, and during evolution. Consideration of the holobiont with its hologenome as an independent level of selection in evolution has led to a better understanding of underappreciated modes of genetic variation and evolution. The hologenome is comprised of two complimentary parts: host and microbiome genomes. Changes in either genome can result in variations that can be selected for or against. The host genome is highly conserved, and genetic changes within it occur slowly, whereas the microbiome genome is dynamic and can change rapidly in response to the environment by increasing or reducing particular microbes, by acquisition of novel microbes, by horizontal gene transfer, and by mutation. Recent experiments showing that microbiota can play an initial role in speciation have been suggested as an additional mode of enhancing evolution. Some of the genetic variations can be transferred to offspring by a variety of mechanisms. Strain-specific DNA analysis has shown that at least some of the microbiota can be maintained across hundreds of thousands of host generations, implying the existence of a microbial core. We argue that rapid changes in the microbiome genome could allow holobionts to adapt and survive under changing environmental conditions thus providing the time necessary for the host genome to adapt and evolve. As Darwin wrote, "It is not the strongest of the species that survives but the most adaptable".

RevDate: 2018-05-01

Vannier N, Mony C, Bittebiere AK, et al (2018)

A microorganisms' journey between plant generations.

Microbiome, 6(1):79 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0459-7.

BACKGROUND: Plants are colonized by a great diversity of microorganisms which form a microbiota and perform additional functions for their host. This microbiota can thus be considered a toolbox enabling plants to buffer local environmental changes, with a positive influence on plant fitness. In this context, the transmission of the microbiota to the progeny represent a way to ensure the presence of beneficial symbionts within the habitat. Examples of such transmission have been mainly described for seed transmission and concern a few pathogenic microorganisms. We investigated the transmission of symbiotic partners to plant progeny within clonal plant network.

METHODS: We used the clonal plant Glechoma hederacea as plant model and forced newly emitted clonal progeny to root in separated pots while controlling the presence of microorganisms. We used an amplicon sequencing approach of 16S and 18S rRNA targeting bacteria/archaea and fungi respectively to describe the root microbiota of mother and clonal-plant offspring.

RESULTS: We demonstrated the vertical transmission of a significant proportion of the mother plants' symbiotic bacteria and fungi to the daughters. Interestingly, archaea were not transmitted to the daughter plants. Transmitted communities had lower richness, suggesting a filtration during transmission. We found that the transmitted pool of microorganisms was similar among daughters, constituting the heritability of a specific cohort of microorganisms, opening a new understanding of the plant holobiont. We also found significant effects of distance to the mother plant and of growth time on the richness of the microbiota transmitted.

CONCLUSIONS: In this clonal plant, microorganisms are transmitted between individuals through connections, thereby ensuring the availability of microbe partners for the newborn plants as well as the dispersion between hosts for the microorganisms. This previously undescribed ecological process allows the dispersal of microorganisms in space and across plant generations. As the vast majority of plants are clonal, this process might be therefore a strong driver of ecosystem functioning and assembly of plant and microorganism communities in a wide range of ecosystems.

RevDate: 2018-04-22

Mortzfeld BM, Taubenheim J, Fraune S, et al (2018)

Stem Cell Transcription Factor FoxO Controls Microbiome Resilience in Hydra.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:629.

The aging process is considered to be the result of accumulating cellular deterioration in an individual organism over time. It can be affected by the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors including life-style-associated events. In the non-senescent freshwater polyp Hydra, one of the classical model systems for evolutionary developmental biology and regeneration, transcription factor FoxO modulates both stem cell proliferation and innate immunity. This provides strong support for the role of FoxO as a critical rate-of-aging regulator. However, how environmental factors interact with FoxO remains unknown. Here, we find that deficiency in FoxO signaling in Hydra leads to dysregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and that FoxO loss-of-function polyps are impaired in selection for bacteria resembling the native microbiome and more susceptible to colonization of foreign bacteria. These findings reveal a key role of FoxO signaling in the communication between host and microbiota and embed the evolutionary conserved longevity factor FoxO into the holobiont concept.

RevDate: 2018-04-18

Theis KR (2018)

Hologenomics: Systems-Level Host Biology.

mSystems, 3(2): pii:mSystems00164-17.

The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations. Regardless of the conclusion on the hologenome concept as an evolutionary hypothesis, a hologenomic perspective has applied value as a systems-level framework for host biology, including in medicine. Specifically, it emphasizes investigating the multivarious and dynamic interactions between patient genomes and the genomes of their diverse microbiota when attempting to elucidate etiologies of complex, noninfectious diseases.

RevDate: 2018-04-13

Vigliotti C, Bicep C, Bapteste E, et al (2018)

Tracking the Rules of Transmission and Introgression with Networks.

Microbiology spectrum, 6(2):.

Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs. One interest of these networks is that they can consider a rich diversity of important players in microbial evolution that are usually excluded from evolutionary studies, like plasmids and viruses. These methods bring forward the notion of "gene externalization," which is defined as the presence of redundant copies of prokaryotic genes on mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and therefore emphasizes a related although distinct process from lateral gene transfer between microbial cells. This chapter introduces guidelines to the construction of these networks, reviews their analysis, and illustrates their possible biological interpretations and uses. The application to human gut microbiomes shows that sequences present in a higher diversity of MGEs have both biased functions and a broader microbial and human host range. These results suggest that an "externalized gut metagenome" is partly common to humans and benefits the gut microbial community. We conclude that testing relationships between microbial genes, microbes, and their animal hosts, using network-based methods, could help to unravel additional mechanisms of transmission in holobionts.

RevDate: 2018-10-09
CmpDate: 2018-10-09

Allemand D, P Furla (2018)

How does an animal behave like a plant? Physiological and molecular adaptations of zooxanthellae and their hosts to symbiosis.

Comptes rendus biologies, 341(5):276-280.

Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation. In addition, this intracellular localization imposes that they rely completely upon the host for their nutrient supply (nitrogen, CO2). Symbiotic-dependent adaptations imposed to the animal host by phototrophic symbiosis are more relevant to photosynthetic organisms than to metazoans: indeed, the cnidarian host often harbours diurnal changes of morphology to adapt itself to the amount of light and possesses carbon-concentrating mechanisms, antioxidative defences and UV sunscreens similar to that present in phototrophs. These adaptations and the contrasting fragility of the association are discussed from both ecological and evolutionary points of view.

RevDate: 2018-07-04

Wille L, Messmer MM, Studer B, et al (2018)

Insights to plant-microbe interactions provide opportunities to improve resistance breeding against root diseases in grain legumes.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Root and foot diseases severely impede grain legume cultivation worldwide. Breeding lines with resistance against individual pathogens exist, but these resistances are often overcome by the interaction of multiple pathogens in field situations. Novel tools allow to decipher plant-microbiome interactions in unprecedented detail and provide insights into resistance mechanisms that consider both simultaneous attacks of various pathogens and the interplay with beneficial microbes. Although it has become clear that plant-associated microbes play a key role in plant health, a systematic picture of how and to what extent plants can shape their own detrimental or beneficial microbiome remains to be drawn. There is increasing evidence for the existence of genetic variation in the regulation of plant-microbe interactions that can be exploited by plant breeders. We propose to consider the entire plant holobiont in resistance breeding strategies in order to unravel hidden parts of complex defence mechanisms. This review summarizes (a) the current knowledge of resistance against soil-borne pathogens in grain legumes, (b) evidence for genetic variation for rhizosphere-related traits, (c) the role of root exudation in microbe-mediated disease resistance and elaborates (d) how these traits can be incorporated in resistance breeding programmes.

RevDate: 2018-04-08

Rädecker N, Raina JB, Pernice M, et al (2018)

Using Aiptasia as a Model to Study Metabolic Interactions in Cnidarian-Symbiodinium Symbioses.

Frontiers in physiology, 9:214.

The symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium provides the foundation of coral reefs in oligotrophic waters. Understanding the nutrient-exchange between these partners is key to identifying the fundamental mechanisms behind this symbiosis, yet has proven difficult given the endosymbiotic nature of this relationship. In this study, we investigated the respective contribution of host and symbiont to carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the coral model anemone Aiptaisa. For this, we combined traditional measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling to investigate patterns of nutrient uptake and translocation both at the organismal scale and at the cellular scale. Our results show that the rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in Aiptasia depends on the identity of the host and the symbiont. NanoSIMS analysis confirmed that both host and symbiont incorporated carbon and nitrogen into their cells, implying a rapid uptake and cycling of nutrients in this symbiotic relationship. Gross carbon fixation was highest in Aiptasia associated with their native Symbiodinium communities. However, differences in fixation rates were only reflected in the δ13C enrichment of the cnidarian host, whereas the algal symbiont showed stable enrichment levels regardless of host identity. Thereby, our results point toward a "selfish" character of the cnidarian-Symbiodinium association in which both partners directly compete for available resources. Consequently, this symbiosis may be inherently instable and highly susceptible to environmental change. While questions remain regarding the underlying cellular controls of nutrient exchange and the nature of metabolites involved, the approach outlined in this study constitutes a powerful toolset to address these questions.

RevDate: 2018-05-27

Wang J, Chen L, Zhao N, et al (2018)

Of genes and microbes: solving the intricacies in host genomes.

Protein & cell, 9(5):446-461.

Microbiome research is a quickly developing field in biomedical research, and we have witnessed its potential in understanding the physiology, metabolism and immunology, its critical role in understanding the health and disease of the host, and its vast capacity in disease prediction, intervention and treatment. However, many of the fundamental questions still need to be addressed, including the shaping forces of microbial diversity between individuals and across time. Microbiome research falls into the classical nature vs. nurture scenario, such that host genetics shape part of the microbiome, while environmental influences change the original course of microbiome development. In this review, we focus on the nature, i.e., the genetic part of the equation, and summarize the recent efforts in understanding which parts of the genome, especially the human and mouse genome, play important roles in determining the composition and functions of microbial communities, primarily in the gut but also on the skin. We aim to present an overview of different approaches in studying the intricate relationships between host genetic variations and microbes, its underlying philosophy and methodology, and we aim to highlight a few key discoveries along this exploration, as well as current pitfalls. More evidence and results will surely appear in upcoming studies, and the accumulating knowledge will lead to a deeper understanding of what we could finally term a "hologenome", that is, the organized, closely interacting genome of the host and the microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-04-08

van de Water JAJM, Allemand D, C Ferrier-Pagès (2018)

Host-microbe interactions in octocoral holobionts - recent advances and perspectives.

Microbiome, 6(1):64 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0431-6.

Octocorals are one of the most ubiquitous benthic organisms in marine ecosystems from the shallow tropics to the Antarctic deep sea, providing habitat for numerous organisms as well as ecosystem services for humans. In contrast to the holobionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, the holobionts of octocorals have received relatively little attention, despite the devastating effects of disease outbreaks on many populations. Recent advances have shown that octocorals possess remarkably stable bacterial communities on geographical and temporal scales as well as under environmental stress. This may be the result of their high capacity to regulate their microbiome through the production of antimicrobial and quorum-sensing interfering compounds. Despite decades of research relating to octocoral-microbe interactions, a synthesis of this expanding field has not been conducted to date. We therefore provide an urgently needed review on our current knowledge about octocoral holobionts. Specifically, we briefly introduce the ecological role of octocorals and the concept of holobiont before providing detailed overviews of (I) the symbiosis between octocorals and the algal symbiont Symbiodinium; (II) the main fungal, viral, and bacterial taxa associated with octocorals; (III) the dominance of the microbial assemblages by a few microbial species, the stability of these associations, and their evolutionary history with the host organism; (IV) octocoral diseases; (V) how octocorals use their immune system to fight pathogens; (VI) microbiome regulation by the octocoral and its associated microbes; and (VII) the discovery of natural products with microbiome regulatory activities. Finally, we present our perspectives on how the field of octocoral research should move forward, and the recognition that these organisms may be suitable model organisms to study coral-microbe symbioses.

RevDate: 2018-05-22
CmpDate: 2018-05-22

Bang C, Dagan T, Deines P, et al (2018)

Metaorganisms in extreme environments: do microbes play a role in organismal adaptation?.

Zoology (Jena, Germany), 127:1-19.

From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host-microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the interactions within a metaorganism are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown. In this perspective article, we outline some of the issues in interspecies interactions and in particular address the question of how metaorganisms react and adapt to inputs from extreme environments such as deserts, the intertidal zone, oligothrophic seas, and hydrothermal vents.

RevDate: 2018-04-01

Hassani MA, Durán P, S Hacquard (2018)

Microbial interactions within the plant holobiont.

Microbiome, 6(1):58 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0445-0.

Since the colonization of land by ancestral plant lineages 450 million years ago, plants and their associated microbes have been interacting with each other, forming an assemblage of species that is often referred to as a "holobiont." Selective pressure acting on holobiont components has likely shaped plant-associated microbial communities and selected for host-adapted microorganisms that impact plant fitness. However, the high microbial densities detected on plant tissues, together with the fast generation time of microbes and their more ancient origin compared to their host, suggest that microbe-microbe interactions are also important selective forces sculpting complex microbial assemblages in the phyllosphere, rhizosphere, and plant endosphere compartments. Reductionist approaches conducted under laboratory conditions have been critical to decipher the strategies used by specific microbes to cooperate and compete within or outside plant tissues. Nonetheless, our understanding of these microbial interactions in shaping more complex plant-associated microbial communities, along with their relevance for host health in a more natural context, remains sparse. Using examples obtained from reductionist and community-level approaches, we discuss the fundamental role of microbe-microbe interactions (prokaryotes and micro-eukaryotes) for microbial community structure and plant health. We provide a conceptual framework illustrating that interactions among microbiota members are critical for the establishment and the maintenance of host-microbial homeostasis.

RevDate: 2018-04-01

Gobet A, Mest L, Perennou M, et al (2018)

Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

Microbiome, 6(1):60 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0430-7.

BACKGROUND: Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding.

RESULTS: Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides.

CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to products assimilable by the host or (ii) may have acquired these functions through gene transfer from the aerobic algal microbiota.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Pootakham W, Mhuantong W, Putchim L, et al (2018)

Dynamics of coral-associated microbiomes during a thermal bleaching event.

MicrobiologyOpen, 7(5):e00604.

Coral-associated microorganisms play an important role in their host fitness and survival. A number of studies have demonstrated connections between thermal tolerance in corals and the type/relative abundance of Symbiodinium they harbor. More recently, the shifts in coral-associated bacterial profiles were also shown to be linked to the patterns of coral heat tolerance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of Porites lutea-associated bacterial and algal communities throughout a natural bleaching event, using full-length 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) obtained from PacBio circular consensus sequencing. We provided evidence of significant changes in the structure and diversity of coral-associated microbiomes during thermal stress. The balance of the symbiosis shifted from a predominant association between corals and Gammaproteobacteria to a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria and to a lesser extent Betaproteobacteria following the bleaching event. On the contrary, the composition and diversity of Symbiodinium communities remained unaltered throughout the bleaching event. It appears that the switching and/or shuffling of Symbiodinium types may not be the primary mechanism used by P. lutea to cope with increasing seawater temperature. The shifts in the structure and diversity of associated bacterial communities may contribute more to the survival of the coral holobiont under heat stress.

RevDate: 2018-07-15

Rahman MM, Flory E, Koyro HW, et al (2018)

Consistent associations with beneficial bacteria in the seed endosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

Systematic and applied microbiology, 41(4):386-398.

The importance of the plant microbiome for host fitness has led to the concept of the "plant holobiont". Seeds are reservoirs and vectors for beneficial microbes, which are very intimate partners of higher plants with the potential to connect plant generations. In this study, the endophytic seed microbiota of numerous barley samples, representing different cultivars, geographical sites and harvest years, was investigated. Cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses, microscopy, functional plate assays, greenhouse assays and functional prediction were used, with the aim of assessing the composition, stability and function of the barley seed endophytic bacterial microbiota. Associations were consistently detected in the seed endosphere with Paenibacillus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas spp., which were able to colonize the root with a notable rhizocompetence after seed germination. In greenhouse assays, enrichment with these bacteria promoted barley growth, improved mineral nutrition and induced resistance against the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. We demonstrated here that barley, an important crop plant, was consistently associated with beneficial bacteria inside the seeds. The results have relevant implications for plant microbiome ecology and for the holobiont concept, as well as opening up new possibilities for research and application of seed endophytes as bioinoculants in sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2018-03-28

Callens M, Watanabe H, Kato Y, et al (2018)

Microbiota inoculum composition affects holobiont assembly and host growth in Daphnia.

Microbiome, 6(1):56 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0444-1.

BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbiota is often acquired by horizontal transmission of microbes present in the environment. It is hypothesized that differences in the environmental pool of colonizers can influence microbiota community assembly on the host and as such affect holobiont composition and host fitness. To investigate this hypothesis, the host-associated microbiota of the invertebrate eco(toxico)logical model Daphnia was experimentally disturbed using different concentrations of the antibiotic oxytetracycline. The community assembly and host-microbiota interactions when Daphnia were colonized by the disturbed microbiota were investigated by inoculating germ-free individuals with the microbiota.

RESULTS: Antibiotic-induced disturbance of the microbiota had a strong effect on the subsequent colonization of Daphnia by affecting ecological interactions between members of the microbiota. This resulted in differences in community assembly which, in turn, affected Daphnia growth.

CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the composition of the pool of colonizing microbiota can be an important structuring factor of the microbiota assembly on Daphnia, affecting holobiont composition and host growth. These findings contribute to a better understanding of how the microbial environment can shape the holobiont composition and affect host-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2018-03-28

Ravanbakhsh M, Sasidharan R, Voesenek LACJ, et al (2018)

Microbial modulation of plant ethylene signaling: ecological and evolutionary consequences.

Microbiome, 6(1):52 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0436-1.

The plant hormone ethylene is one of the central regulators of plant development and stress resistance. Optimal ethylene signaling is essential for plant fitness and is under strong selection pressure. Plants upregulate ethylene production in response to stress, and this hormone triggers defense mechanisms. Due to the pleiotropic effects of ethylene, adjusting stress responses to maximize resistance, while minimizing costs, is a central determinant of plant fitness. Ethylene signaling is influenced by the plant-associated microbiome. We therefore argue that the regulation, physiology, and evolution of the ethylene signaling can best be viewed as the interactive result of plant genotype and associated microbiota. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on ethylene signaling and recapitulate the multiple ways microorganisms interfere with it. We present ethylene signaling as a model system for holobiont-level evolution of plant phenotype: this cascade is tractable, extremely well studied from both a plant and a microbial perspective, and regulates fundamental components of plant life history. We finally discuss the potential impacts of ethylene modulation microorganisms on plant ecology and evolution. We assert that ethylene signaling cannot be fully appreciated without considering microbiota as integral regulatory actors, and we more generally suggest that plant ecophysiology and evolution can only be fully understood in the light of plant-microbiome interactions.

RevDate: 2018-03-22

Wegley Kelly L, Haas AF, CE Nelson (2018)

Ecosystem Microbiology of Coral Reefs: Linking Genomic, Metabolomic, and Biogeochemical Dynamics from Animal Symbioses to Reefscape Processes.

mSystems, 3(2): pii:mSystems00162-17.

Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to broaden our understanding of the ecological roles of environmental microbes. Studies on coral reefs are actively integrating these data streams at multiple levels, from the symbiotic habitat of the coral holobiont to microbially mediated interactions between corals and algae to the effects of these interactions on the microbial community structure, metabolism, and organic geochemistry of the reef ecosystem. Coral reefs endure multiple anthropogenic impacts, including pollution, overfishing, and global change. In this context, we must develop ecosystem microbiology with an eye to providing managers with microbial indicators of reef ecosystem processes, coral health, and resilience to both local and global stressors.

RevDate: 2018-03-22

Guégan M, Zouache K, Démichel C, et al (2018)

The mosquito holobiont: fresh insight into mosquito-microbiota interactions.

Microbiome, 6(1):49 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0435-2.

The holobiont concept was first developed for coral ecosystems but has been extended to multiple organisms, including plants and other animals. Studies on insect-associated microbial communities have produced strong evidence that symbiotic bacteria play a major role in host biology. However, the understanding of these symbiotic relationships has mainly been limited to phytophagous insects, while the role of host-associated microbiota in haematophagous insect vectors remains largely unexplored. Mosquitoes are a major global public health concern, with a concomitant increase in people at risk of infection. The global emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne diseases has led many researchers to study both the mosquito host and its associated microbiota. Although most of these studies have been descriptive, they have led to a broad description of the bacterial communities hosted by mosquito populations. This review describes key advances and progress in the field of the mosquito microbiota research while also encompassing other microbes and the environmental factors driving their composition and diversity. The discussion includes recent findings on the microbiota functional roles and underlines their interactions with the host biology and pathogen transmission. Insight into the ecology of multipartite interactions, we consider that conferring the term holobiont to the mosquito and its microbiota is useful to get a comprehensive understanding of the vector pathosystem functioning so as to be able to develop innovative and efficient novel vector control strategies.

RevDate: 2018-09-07

Rua CPJ, de Oliveira LS, Froes A, et al (2018)

Microbial and Functional Biodiversity Patterns in Sponges that Accumulate Bromopyrrole Alkaloids Suggest Horizontal Gene Transfer of Halogenase Genes.

Microbial ecology, 76(3):825-838.

Marine sponge holobionts harbor complex microbial communities whose members may be the true producers of secondary metabolites accumulated by sponges. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a typical class of secondary metabolites isolated from sponges that very often display biological activities. Bromine incorporation into secondary metabolites can be catalyzed by either halogenases or haloperoxidases. The diversity of the metagenomes of sponge holobiont species containing bromopyrrole alkaloids (Agelas spp. and Tedania brasiliensis) as well as holobionts devoid of bromopyrrole alkaloids spanning in a vast biogeographic region (approx. Seven thousand km) was studied. The origin and specificity of the detected halogenases was also investigated. The holobionts Agelas spp. and T. brasiliensis did not share microbial halogenases, suggesting a species-specific pattern. Bacteria of diverse phylogenetic origins encoding halogenase genes were found to be more abundant in bromopyrrole-containing sponges. The sponge holobionts (e.g., Agelas spp.) with the greatest number of sequences related to clustered, interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) exhibited the fewest phage halogenases, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from phage infection by the sponge host. This study highlights the potential of phages to transport halogenases horizontally across host sponges, particularly in more permissive holobiont hosts, such as Tedania spp.

RevDate: 2018-03-23

Sevellec M, Derome N, L Bernatchez (2018)

Holobionts and ecological speciation: the intestinal microbiota of lake whitefish species pairs.

Microbiome, 6(1):47 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0427-2.

BACKGROUND: It is well established that symbionts have considerable impact on their host, yet the investigation of the possible role of the holobiont in the host's speciation process is still in its infancy. In this study, we compared the intestinal microbiota among five sympatric pairs of dwarf (limnetic) and normal (benthic) lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis representing a continuum in the early stage of ecological speciation. We sequenced the 16s rRNA gene V3-V4 regions of the intestinal microbiota present in a total of 108 wild sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish as well as the water bacterial community from five lakes to (i) test for differences between the whitefish intestinal microbiota and the water bacterial community and (ii) test for parallelism in the intestinal microbiota of dwarf and normal whitefish.

RESULTS: The water bacterial community was distinct from the intestinal microbiota, indicating that intestinal microbiota did not reflect the environment, but rather the intrinsic properties of the host microbiota. Our results revealed a strong influence of the host (dwarf or normal) on the intestinal microbiota with pronounced conservation of the core intestinal microbiota (mean ~ 44% of shared genera). However, no clear evidence for parallelism was observed, whereby non-parallel differences between dwarf and normal whitefish were observed in three of the lakes while similar taxonomic composition was observed for the two other species pairs.

CONCLUSIONS: This absence of parallelism across dwarf vs. normal whitefish microbiota highlighted the complexity of the holobiont and suggests that the direction of selection could be different between the host and its microbiota.

RevDate: 2018-03-16

Pita L, Rix L, Slaby BM, et al (2018)

The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems.

Microbiome, 6(1):46 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0428-1.

The recognition that all macroorganisms live in symbiotic association with microbial communities has opened up a new field in biology. Animals, plants, and algae are now considered holobionts, complex ecosystems consisting of the host, the microbiota, and the interactions among them. Accordingly, ecological concepts can be applied to understand the host-derived and microbial processes that govern the dynamics of the interactive networks within the holobiont. In marine systems, holobionts are further integrated into larger and more complex communities and ecosystems, a concept referred to as "nested ecosystems." In this review, we discuss the concept of holobionts as dynamic ecosystems that interact at multiple scales and respond to environmental change. We focus on the symbiosis of sponges with their microbial communities-a symbiosis that has resulted in one of the most diverse and complex holobionts in the marine environment. In recent years, the field of sponge microbiology has remarkably advanced in terms of curated databases, standardized protocols, and information on the functions of the microbiota. Like a Russian doll, these microbial processes are translated into sponge holobiont functions that impact the surrounding ecosystem. For example, the sponge-associated microbial metabolisms, fueled by the high filtering capacity of the sponge host, substantially affect the biogeochemical cycling of key nutrients like carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Since sponge holobionts are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic stressors that jeopardize the stability of the holobiont ecosystem, we discuss the link between environmental perturbations, dysbiosis, and sponge diseases. Experimental studies suggest that the microbial community composition is tightly linked to holobiont health, but whether dysbiosis is a cause or a consequence of holobiont collapse remains unresolved. Moreover, the potential role of the microbiome in mediating the capacity for holobionts to acclimate and adapt to environmental change is unknown. Future studies should aim to identify the mechanisms underlying holobiont dynamics at multiple scales, from the microbiome to the ecosystem, and develop management strategies to preserve the key functions provided by the sponge holobiont in our present and future oceans.

RevDate: 2018-03-09

Brüwer JD, CR Voolstra (2018)

First insight into the viral community of the cnidarian model metaorganism Aiptasia using RNA-Seq data.

PeerJ, 6:e4449 pii:4449.

Current research posits that all multicellular organisms live in symbioses with associated microorganisms and form so-called metaorganisms or holobionts. Cnidarian metaorganisms are of specific interest given that stony corals provide the foundation of the globally threatened coral reef ecosystems. To gain first insight into viruses associated with the coral model system Aiptasia (sensu Exaiptasia pallida), we analyzed an existing RNA-Seq dataset of aposymbiotic, partially populated, and fully symbiotic Aiptasia CC7 anemones with Symbiodinium. Our approach included the selective removal of anemone host and algal endosymbiont sequences and subsequent microbial sequence annotation. Of a total of 297 million raw sequence reads, 8.6 million (∼3%) remained after host and endosymbiont sequence removal. Of these, 3,293 sequences could be assigned as of viral origin. Taxonomic annotation of these sequences suggests that Aiptasia is associated with a diverse viral community, comprising 116 viral taxa covering 40 families. The viral assemblage was dominated by viruses from the families Herpesviridae (12.00%), Partitiviridae (9.93%), and Picornaviridae (9.87%). Despite an overall stable viral assemblage, we found that some viral taxa exhibited significant changes in their relative abundance when Aiptasia engaged in a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium. Elucidation of viral taxa consistently present across all conditions revealed a core virome of 15 viral taxa from 11 viral families, encompassing many viruses previously reported as members of coral viromes. Despite the non-random selection of viral genetic material due to the nature of the sequencing data analyzed, our study provides a first insight into the viral community associated with Aiptasia. Similarities of the Aiptasia viral community with those of corals corroborate the application of Aiptasia as a model system to study coral holobionts. Further, the change in abundance of certain viral taxa across different symbiotic states suggests a role of viruses in the algal endosymbiosis, but the functional significance of this remains to be determined.

RevDate: 2018-05-06

Haag KL (2018)

Holobionts and their hologenomes: Evolution with mixed modes of inheritance.

Genetics and molecular biology, 41(1 suppl 1):189-197.

Symbioses are ubiquitous and have played an influential role in the evolution of life on Earth. Genomic studies are now revealing a huge diversity of associations among hosts and their microbiotas, allowing us to characterize their complex ecological and evolutionary dynamics. The different transmission modes and the asynchronous cell proliferation of the numerous symbionts associated with one host generate a genomic conflict ought to be solved. Two disputing views have been used to model and predict the outcome of such conflicts. The traditional view is based on community ecology, and considers that selection at the level of individuals is sufficient to explain longstanding associations among species. A new perspective considers that the host and its associated microbiota constitute a biological entity called holobiont, and that regarding it as a higher-level unit of selection is unavoidable to understand phenotypic evolution. Novel extended phenotypes are often built through symbiotic interactions, allowing the holobiont to explore and survive in distinct environmental conditions, and may evolve in a Lamarckian fashion.

RevDate: 2018-05-23

Tetreau G, Grizard S, Patil CD, et al (2018)

Bacterial microbiota of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae is altered by intoxication with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.

Parasites & vectors, 11(1):121 pii:10.1186/s13071-018-2741-8.

BACKGROUND: Insect microbiota is a dynamic microbial community that can actively participate in defense against pathogens. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural entomopathogen widely used as a bioinsecticide for pest control. Although Bt's mode of action has been extensively studied, whether the presence of microbiota is mandatory for Bt to effectively kill the insect is still under debate. An association between a higher tolerance and a modified microbiota was already evidenced but a critical point remained to be solved: is the modified microbiota a cause or a consequence of a higher tolerance to Bt?

METHODS: In this study we focused on the mosquito species Aedes aegypti, as no work has been performed on Diptera on this topic to date, and on B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), which is used worldwide for mosquito control. To avoid using antibiotics to cure bacterial microbiota, mosquito larvae were exposed to an hourly increasing dose of Bti during 25 hours to separate the most susceptible larvae dying quickly from more tolerant individuals, with longer survival.

RESULTS: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting revealed that mosquito larval bacterial microbiota was strongly affected by Bti infection after only a few hours of exposure. Bacterial microbiota from the most tolerant larvae showed the lowest diversity but the highest inter-individual differences. The proportion of Bti in the host tissue was reduced in the most tolerant larvae as compared to the most susceptible ones, suggesting an active control of Bti infection by the host.

CONCLUSIONS: Here we show that a modified microbiota is associated with a higher tolerance of mosquitoes to Bti, but that it is rather a consequence of Bti infection than the cause of the higher tolerance. This study paves the way to future investigations aiming at unraveling the role of host immunity, inter-species bacterial competition and kinetics of host colonization by Bti that could be at the basis of the phenotype observed in this study.

RevDate: 2018-03-01

Grasis JA (2018)

Host-Associated Bacteriophage Isolation and Preparation for Viral Metagenomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1746:1-25.

Prokaryotic viruses, or bacteriophages, are viruses that infect bacteria and archaea. These viruses have been known to associate with host systems for decades, yet only recently have their influence on the regulation of host-associated bacteria been appreciated. These studies have been conducted in many host systems, from the base of animal life in the Cnidarian phylum to mammals. These prokaryotic viruses are useful for regulating the number of bacteria in a host ecosystem and for regulating the strains of bacteria useful for the microbiome. These viruses are likely selected by the host to maintain bacterial populations. Viral metagenomics allows researchers to profile the communities of viruses associating with animal hosts, and importantly helps to determine the functional role these viruses play. Further, viral metagenomics show the sphere of viral involvement in gene flow and gene shuffling in an ever-changing host environment. The influence of prokaryotic viruses could, therefore, have a clear impact on host health.

RevDate: 2018-05-04

Ramsby BD, Hoogenboom MO, Whalan S, et al (2018)

Elevated seawater temperature disrupts the microbiome of an ecologically important bioeroding sponge.

Molecular ecology, 27(8):2124-2137.

Bioeroding sponges break down calcium carbonate substratum, including coral skeleton, and their capacity for reef erosion is expected to increase in warmer and more acidic oceans. However, elevated temperature can disrupt the functionally important microbial symbionts of some sponge species, often with adverse consequences for host health. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the microbial community of the bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis and assess how the community responds to seawater temperatures incrementally increasing from 23°C to 32°C. The microbiome, identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, including a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU; Rhodothalassium sp.) that represented 21% of all sequences. The "core" microbial community (taxa present in >80% of samples) included putative nitrogen fixers and ammonia oxidizers, suggesting that symbiotic nitrogen metabolism may be a key function of the C. orientalis holobiont. The C. orientalis microbiome was generally stable at temperatures up to 27°C; however, a community shift occurred at 29°C, including changes in the relative abundance and turnover of microbial OTUs. Notably, this microbial shift occurred at a lower temperature than the 32°C threshold that induced sponge bleaching, indicating that changes in the microbiome may play a role in the destabilization of the C. orientalis holobiont. C. orientalis failed to regain Symbiodinium or restore its baseline microbial community following bleaching, suggesting that the sponge has limited ability to recover from extreme thermal exposure, at least under aquarium conditions.

RevDate: 2018-10-05

Pogoreutz C, Rädecker N, Cárdenas A, et al (2018)

Dominance of Endozoicomonas bacteria throughout coral bleaching and mortality suggests structural inflexibility of the Pocillopora verrucosa microbiome.

Ecology and evolution, 8(4):2240-2252 pii:ECE33830.

The importance of Symbiodinium algal endosymbionts and a diverse suite of bacteria for coral holobiont health and functioning are widely acknowledged. Yet, we know surprisingly little about microbial community dynamics and the stability of host-microbe associations under adverse environmental conditions. To gain insight into the stability of coral host-microbe associations and holobiont structure, we assessed changes in the community structure of Symbiodinium and bacteria associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa under excess organic nutrient conditions. Pocillopora-associated microbial communities were monitored over 14 days in two independent experiments. We assessed the effect of excess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and excess dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Exposure to excess nutrients rapidly affected coral health, resulting in two distinct stress phenotypes: coral bleaching under excess DOC and severe tissue sloughing (>90% tissue loss resulting in host mortality) under excess DON. These phenotypes were accompanied by structural changes in the Symbiodinium community. In contrast, the associated bacterial community remained remarkably stable and was dominated by two Endozoicomonas phylotypes, comprising on average 90% of 16S rRNA gene sequences. This dominance of Endozoicomonas even under conditions of coral bleaching and mortality suggests the bacterial community of P. verrucosa may be rather inflexible and thereby unable to respond or acclimatize to rapid changes in the environment, contrary to what was previously observed in other corals. In this light, our results suggest that coral holobionts might occupy structural landscapes ranging from a highly flexible to a rather inflexible composition with consequences for their ability to respond to environmental change.

RevDate: 2018-02-23

Brener-Raffalli K, Clerissi C, Vidal-Dupiol J, et al (2018)

Thermal regime and host clade, rather than geography, drive Symbiodinium and bacterial assemblages in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis sensu lato.

Microbiome, 6(1):39 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0423-6.

BACKGROUND: Although the term holobiont has been popularized in corals with the advent of the hologenome theory of evolution, the underlying concepts are still a matter of debate. Indeed, the relative contribution of host and environment and especially thermal regime in shaping the microbial communities should be examined carefully to evaluate the potential role of symbionts for holobiont adaptation in the context of global changes. We used the sessile, long-lived, symbiotic and environmentally sensitive reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis to address these issues.

RESULTS: We sampled Pocillopora damicornis colonies corresponding to two different mitochondrial lineages in different geographic areas displaying different thermal regimes: Djibouti, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Taiwan. The community composition of bacteria and the algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium were characterized using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer, ITS2, respectively. Bacterial microbiota was very diverse with high prevalence of Endozoicomonas, Arcobacter, and Acinetobacter in all samples. While Symbiodinium sub-clade C1 was dominant in Taiwan and New Caledonia, D1 was dominant in Djibouti and French Polynesia. Moreover, we also identified a high background diversity (i.e., with proportions < 1%) of A1, C3, C15, and G Symbiodinum sub-clades. Using redundancy analyses, we found that the effect of geography was very low for both communities and that host genotypes and temperatures differently influenced Symbiodinium and bacterial microbiota. Indeed, while the constraint of host haplotype was higher than temperatures on bacterial composition, we showed for the first time a strong relationship between the composition of Symbiodinium communities and minimal sea surface temperatures.

CONCLUSION: Because Symbiodinium assemblages are more constrained by the thermal regime than bacterial communities, we propose that their contribution to adaptive capacities of the holobiont to temperature changes might be higher than the influence of bacterial microbiota. Moreover, the link between Symbiodinium community composition and minimal temperatures suggests low relative fitness of clade D at lower temperatures. This observation is particularly relevant in the context of climate change, since corals will face increasing temperatures as well as much frequent abnormal cold episodes in some areas of the world.

RevDate: 2018-10-02

Romano S (2018)

Ecology and Biotechnological Potential of Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Pseudovibrio.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 84(8): pii:AEM.02516-17.

Members of the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marine sources as both free-living and host-associated bacteria. So far, the available data depict a group of alphaproteobacteria characterized by a versatile metabolism, which allows them to use a variety of substrates to meet their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous requirements. Additionally, Pseudovibrio-related bacteria have been shown to proliferate under extreme oligotrophic conditions, tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations, and metabolize potentially toxic compounds. Considering this versatility, it is not surprising that they have been detected from temperate to tropical regions and are often the most abundant isolates obtained from marine invertebrates. Such an association is particularly recurrent with marine sponges and corals, animals that play a key role in benthic marine systems. The data so far available indicate that these bacteria are mainly beneficial to the host, and besides being involved in major nutrient cycles, they could provide the host with both vitamins/cofactors and protection from potential pathogens via the synthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In fact, the biosynthetic abilities of Pseudovibrio spp. have been emerging in recent years, and both genomic and analytic studies have underlined how these organisms promise novel natural products of biotechnological value.

RevDate: 2018-02-18

Bonthond G, Merselis DG, Dougan KE, et al (2018)

Inter-domain microbial diversity within the coral holobiont Siderastrea siderea from two depth habitats.

PeerJ, 6:e4323 pii:4323.

Corals host diverse microbial communities that are involved in acclimatization, pathogen defense, and nutrient cycling. Surveys of coral-associated microbes have been particularly directed toward Symbiodinium and bacteria. However, a holistic understanding of the total microbiome has been hindered by a lack of analyses bridging taxonomically disparate groups. Using high-throughput amplicon sequencing, we simultaneously characterized the Symbiodinium, bacterial, and fungal communities associated with the Caribbean coral Siderastrea siderea collected from two depths (17 and 27 m) on Conch reef in the Florida Keys. S. siderea hosted an exceptionally diverse Symbiodinium community, structured differently between sampled depth habitats. While dominated at 27 m by a Symbiodinium belonging to clade C, at 17 m S. siderea primarily hosted a mixture of clade B types. Most fungal operational taxonomic units were distantly related to available reference sequences, indicating the presence of a high degree of fungal novelty within the S. siderea holobiont and a lack of knowledge on the diversity of fungi on coral reefs. Network analysis showed that co-occurrence patterns in the S. siderea holobiont were prevalent among bacteria, however, also detected between fungi and bacteria. Overall, our data show a drastic shift in the associated Symbiodinium community between depths on Conch Reef, which might indicate that alteration in this community is an important mechanism facilitating local physiological adaptation of the S. siderea holobiont. In contrast, bacterial and fungal communities were not structured differently between depth habitats.

RevDate: 2018-10-05

Leite DCA, Salles JF, Calderon EN, et al (2018)

Specific plasmid patterns and high rates of bacterial co-occurrence within the coral holobiont.

Ecology and evolution, 8(3):1818-1832 pii:ECE33717.

Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns. Proxies for two broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid groups, IncP-1β and PromA, were screened. Both groups were significantly (up to 252 and 100%, respectively) more abundant in coral mucus than in seawater. Notably, the PromA plasmid group was detected only in coral mucus samples. The core bacteriome of M. hispida mucus was composed primarily of members of the Proteobacteria, followed by those of Firmicutes. Significant host specificity and co-occurrences among different groups of the dominant phyla (e.g., Bacillaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Vibrio) were detected. These relationships were observed for both the most abundant phyla and the bacteriome core, in which most of the operational taxonomic units showed intertaxa correlations. The observed evidence of host-specific bacteriome and co-occurrence (and potential symbioses or niche space co-dominance) among the most dominant members indicates a taxonomic selection of members of the stable bacterial community. In parallel, host-specific plasmid patterns could also be, independently, related to the assembly of members of the coral microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-07-30

Cregger MA, Veach AM, Yang ZK, et al (2018)

The Populus holobiont: dissecting the effects of plant niches and genotype on the microbiome.

Microbiome, 6(1):31 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0413-8.

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms serve important functions within numerous eukaryotic host organisms. An understanding of the variation in the plant niche-level microbiome, from rhizosphere soils to plant canopies, is imperative to gain a better understanding of how both the structural and functional processes of microbiomes impact the health of the overall plant holobiome. Using Populus trees as a model ecosystem, we characterized the archaeal/bacterial and fungal microbiome across 30 different tissue-level niches within replicated Populus deltoides and hybrid Populus trichocarpa × deltoides individuals using 16S and ITS2 rRNA gene analyses.

RESULTS: Our analyses indicate that archaeal/bacterial and fungal microbiomes varied primarily across broader plant habitat classes (leaves, stems, roots, soils) regardless of plant genotype, except for fungal communities within leaf niches, which were greatly impacted by the host genotype. Differences between tree genotypes are evident in the elevated presence of two potential fungal pathogens, Marssonina brunnea and Septoria sp., on hybrid P. trichocarpa × deltoides trees which may in turn be contributing to divergence in overall microbiome composition. Archaeal/bacterial diversity increased from leaves, to stem, to root, and to soil habitats, whereas fungal diversity was the greatest in stems and soils.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a holistic understanding of microbiome structure within a bioenergy relevant plant host, one of the most complete niche-level analyses of any plant. As such, it constitutes a detailed atlas or map for further hypothesis testing on the significance of individual microbial taxa within specific niches and habitats of Populus and a baseline for comparisons to other plant species.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )