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Bibliography on: Pangenome

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Mar 2021 at 01:30 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: pangenome or "pan-genome" or "pan genome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-03-06

Rosselli R, La Porta N, Muresu R, et al (2021)

Pangenomics of the Symbiotic Rhizobiales. Core and Accessory Functions Across a Group Endowed with High Levels of Genomic Plasticity.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020407.

Pangenome analyses reveal major clues on evolutionary instances and critical genome core conservation. The order Rhizobiales encompasses several families with rather disparate ecological attitudes. Among them, Rhizobiaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Phyllobacteriacreae and Xanthobacteriaceae, include members proficient in mutualistic symbioses with plants based on the bacterial conversion of N2 into ammonia (nitrogen-fixation). The pangenome of 12 nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts of the Rhizobiales was analyzed yielding total 37,364 loci, with a core genome constituting 700 genes. The percentage of core genes averaged 10.2% over single genomes, and between 5% to 7% were found to be plasmid-associated. The comparison between a representative reference genome and the core genome subset, showed the core genome highly enriched in genes for macromolecule metabolism, ribosomal constituents and overall translation machinery, while membrane/periplasm-associated genes, and transport domains resulted under-represented. The analysis of protein functions revealed that between 1.7% and 4.9% of core proteins could putatively have different functions.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Shikov AE, Malovichko YV, Lobov AA, et al (2021)

The Distribution of Several Genomic Virulence Determinants Does Not Corroborate the Established Serotyping Classification of Bacillus thuringiensis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(5): pii:ijms22052244.

Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly referred to as Bt, is an object of the lasting interest of microbiologists due to its highly effective insecticidal properties, which make Bt a prominent source of biologicals. To categorize the exuberance of Bt strains discovered, serotyping assays are utilized in which flagellin serves as a primary seroreactive molecule. Despite its convenience, this approach is not indicative of Bt strains' phenotypes, neither it reflects actual phylogenetic relationships within the species. In this respect, comparative genomic and proteomic techniques appear more informative, but their use in Bt strain classification remains limited. In the present work, we used a bottom-up proteomic approach based on fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) protein identification to assess which stage of Bt culture, vegetative or spore, would be more informative for strain characterization. To this end, the proteomic differences for the israelensis-attributed strains were assessed to compare sporulating cultures of the virulent derivative to the avirulent one as well as to the vegetative stage virulent bacteria. Using the same approach, virulent spores of the israelensis strain were also compared to the spores of strains belonging to two other major Bt serovars, namely darmstadiensis and thuringiensis. The identified proteins were analyzed regarding the presence of the respective genes in the 104 Bt genome assemblies available at open access with serovar attributions specified. Of 21 proteins identified, 15 were found to be encoded in all the present assemblies at 67% identity threshold, including several virulence factors. Notable, individual phylogenies of these core genes conferred neither the serotyping nor the flagellin-based phylogeny but corroborated the reconstruction based on phylogenomics approaches in terms of tree topology similarity. In its turn, the distribution of accessory protein genes was not confined to the existing serovars. The obtained results indicate that neither gene presence nor the core gene sequence may serve as distinctive bases for the serovar attribution, undermining the notion that the serotyping system reflects strains' phenotypic or genetic similarity. We also provide a set of loci, which fit in with the phylogenomics data plausibly and thus may serve for draft phylogeny estimation of the novel strains.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Mizzi R, Timms VJ, Price-Carter ML, et al (2021)

Comparative Genomics of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Sheep Strains.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 8:637637.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the aetiological agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic enteritis that causes major losses to the global livestock industry. Further, it has been associated with human Crohn's disease. Several strains of MAP have been identified, the two major groups being sheep strain MAP, which includes the Type I and Type III sub-lineages, and the cattle strain or Type II MAP lineage, of which bison strains are a sub-grouping. Major genotypic, phenotypic and pathogenic variations have been identified in prior comparisons, but the research has predominately focused on cattle strains of MAP. In countries where the sheep industries are more prevalent, however, such as Australia and New Zealand, ovine JD is a substantial burden. An information gap exists regarding the genomic differences between sheep strain sub-lineages and the relevance of Type I and Type III MAP in terms of epidemiology and/or pathogenicity. We therefore investigated sheep MAP isolates from Australia and New Zealand using whole genome sequencing. For additional context, sheep MAP genome datasets were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive and GenBank. The final dataset contained 18 Type III and 16 Type I isolates and the K10 cattle strain MAP reference genome. Using a pan-genome approach, an updated global phylogeny for sheep MAP from de novo assemblies was produced. When rooted with the K10 cattle reference strain, two distinct clades representing the lineages were apparent. The Australian and New Zealand isolates formed a distinct sub-clade within the type I lineage, while the European type I isolates formed another less closely related group. Within the type III lineage, isolates appeared more genetically diverse and were from a greater number of continents. Querying of the pan-genome and verification using BLAST analysis revealed lineage-specific variations (n = 13) including genes responsible for metabolism and stress responses. The genetic differences identified may represent important epidemiological and virulence traits specific to sheep MAP. This knowledge will potentially contribute to improved vaccine development and control measures for these strains.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Kamli MR, Alzahrani NAY, Hajrah NH, et al (2021)

Genome-Driven Discovery of Enzymes with Industrial Implications from the Genus Aneurinibacillus.

Microorganisms, 9(3): pii:microorganisms9030499.

Bacteria belonging to the genus Aneurinibacillus within the family Paenibacillaceae are Gram-positive, endospore-forming, and rod-shaped bacteria inhabiting diverse environments. Currently, there are eight validly described species of Aneurinibacillus; however, several unclassified species have also been reported. Aneurinibacillus spp. have shown the potential for producing secondary metabolites (SMs) and demonstrated diverse types of enzyme activities. These features make them promising candidates with industrial implications. At present, genomes of 9 unique species from the genus Aneurinibacillus are available, which can be utilized to decipher invaluable information on their biosynthetic potential as well as enzyme activities. In this work, we performed the comparative genome analyses of nine Aneurinibacillus species representing the first such comprehensive study of this genus at the genome level. We focused on discovering the biosynthetic, biodegradation, and heavy metal resistance potential of this under-investigated genus. The results indicate that the genomes of Aneurinibacillus contain SM-producing regions with diverse bioactivities, including antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Several carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and genes involved in heavy metal resistance were also identified. Additionally, a broad range of enzyme classes were also identified in the Aneurinibacillus pan-genomes, making this group of bacteria potential candidates for future investigations with industrial applications.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Lugli GA (2021)

Assembly, Annotation, and Comparative Analysis of Bifidobacterial Genomes.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2278:31-44.

Genome assembly and annotation are two of the key actions that must be undertaken in order to explore the genomic repertoire of (bifido)bacteria. The gathered information can be employed to genomically characterize a given microorganism, and can also be used to perform comparative genome analysis by including other sequenced (bifido)bacterial strains. Here, we highlight various bioinformatic programs able to manage next generation sequencing data starting from the assembly of a genome to the comparative analyses between strains.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Matlock W, Chau KK, AbuOun M, et al (2021)

Genomic network analysis of environmental and livestock F-type plasmid populations.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

F-type plasmids are diverse and of great clinical significance, often carrying genes conferring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases, particularly in Enterobacterales. Organising this plasmid diversity is challenging, and current knowledge is largely based on plasmids from clinical settings. Here, we present a network community analysis of a large survey of F-type plasmids from environmental (influent, effluent and upstream/downstream waterways surrounding wastewater treatment works) and livestock settings. We use a tractable and scalable methodology to examine the relationship between plasmid metadata and network communities. This reveals how niche (sampling compartment and host genera) partition and shape plasmid diversity. We also perform pangenome-style analyses on network communities. We show that such communities define unique combinations of core genes, with limited overlap. Building plasmid phylogenies based on alignments of these core genes, we demonstrate that plasmid accessory function is closely linked to core gene content. Taken together, our results suggest that stable F-type plasmid backbone structures can persist in environmental settings while allowing dramatic variation in accessory gene content that may be linked to niche adaptation. The association of F-type plasmids with AMR may reflect their suitability for rapid niche adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Estrada AA, Gottschalk M, Rendahl A, et al (2021)

Proposed virulence-associated genes of Streptococcus suis isolates from the United States serve as predictors of pathogenicity.

Porcine health management, 7(1):22.

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the distribution of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) in U.S. Streptococcus suis isolates, resulting in little understanding of the pathogenic potential of these isolates. This lack also reduces our understanding of the epidemiology associated with S. suis in the United States and thus affects the efficiency of control and prevention strategies. In this study we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based approaches for the characterization of S. suis and identification of VAGs.

RESULTS: Of 208 S. suis isolates classified as pathogenic, possibly opportunistic, and commensal pathotypes, the genotype based on the classical VAGs (epf, mrp, and sly encoding the extracellular protein factor, muramidase-release protein, and suilysin, respectively) was identified in 9% (epf+/mrp+/sly+) of the pathogenic pathotype. Using the chi-square test and LASSO regression model, the VAGs ofs (encoding the serum opacity factor) and srtF (encoding sortase F) were selected out of 71 published VAGs as having a significant association with pathotype, and both genes were found in 95% of the pathogenic pathotype. The ofs+/srtF+ genotype was also present in 74% of 'pathogenic' isolates from a separate validation set of isolates. Pan-genome clustering resulted in the differentiation of a group of isolates from five swine production companies into clusters corresponding to clonal complex (CC) and virulence-associated (VA) genotypes. The same CC-VA genotype patterns were identified in multiple production companies, suggesting a lack of association between production company, CC, or VA genotype.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed ofs and srtF genes were stronger predictors for differentiating pathogenic and commensal S. suis isolates compared to the classical VAGs in two sets of U.S. isolates. Pan-genome analysis in combination with metadata (serotype, ST/CC, VA genotype) was illustrated to be a valuable subtyping tool to describe the genetic diversity of S. suis.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Louha S, Meinersmann RJ, TC Glenn (2021)

Whole genome genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse collection of Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

PloS one, 16(2):e0242297 pii:PONE-D-20-33996.

We performed whole-genome multi-locus sequence typing for 2554 genes in a large and heterogenous panel of 180 Listeria monocytogenes strains having diverse geographical and temporal origins. The subtyping data was used for characterizing genetic variation and evaluating patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the pan-genome of L. monocytogenes. Our analysis revealed the presence of strong linkage disequilibrium in L. monocytogenes, with ~99% of genes showing significant non-random associations with a large majority of other genes in the genome. Twenty-seven loci having lower levels of association with other genes were considered to be potential "hot spots" for horizontal gene transfer (i.e., recombination via conjugation, transduction, and/or transformation). The patterns of linkage disequilibrium in L. monocytogenes suggest limited exchange of foreign genetic material in the genome and can be used as a tool for identifying new recombinant strains. This can help understand processes contributing to the diversification and evolution of this pathogenic bacteria, thereby facilitating development of effective control measures.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Lawal OU, Fraqueza MJ, Bouchami O, et al (2021)

Foodborne Origin and Local and Global Spread of Staphylococcus saprophyticus Causing Human Urinary Tract Infections.

Emerging infectious diseases, 27(3):880-893.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a primary cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young women. S. saprophyticus colonizes humans and animals but basic features of its molecular epidemiology are undetermined. We conducted a phylogenomic analysis of 321 S. saprophyticus isolates collected from human UTIs worldwide during 1997-2017 and 232 isolates from human UTIs and the pig-processing chain in a confined region during 2016-2017. We found epidemiologic and genomic evidence that the meat-production chain is a major source of S. saprophyticus causing human UTIs; human microbiota is another possible origin. Pathogenic S. saprophyticus belonged to 2 lineages with distinctive genetic features that are globally and locally disseminated. Pangenome-wide approaches identified a strong association between pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance, phages, platelet binding proteins, and an increased recombination rate. Our study provides insight into the origin, transmission, and population structure of pathogenic S. saprophyticus and identifies putative new virulence factors.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Bravo V, Katz A, Porte L, et al (2021)

Genomic analysis of the diversity, antimicrobial resistance and virulence potential of clinical Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from Chile.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 15(2):e0009207 pii:PNTD-D-20-01853 [Epub ahead of print].

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in the industrialized world and an emerging threat in developing countries. The incidence of campylobacteriosis in South America is greatly underestimated, mostly due to the lack of adequate diagnostic methods. Accordingly, there is limited genomic and epidemiological data from this region. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of the largest collection of clinical C. jejuni and C. coli strains from Chile available to date (n = 81), collected in 2017-2019 in Santiago, Chile. This culture collection accounts for more than one third of the available genome sequences from South American clinical strains. cgMLST analysis identified high genetic diversity as well as 13 novel STs and alleles in both C. jejuni and C. coli. Pangenome and virulome analyses showed a differential distribution of virulence factors, including both plasmid and chromosomally encoded T6SSs and T4SSs. Resistome analysis predicted widespread resistance to fluoroquinolones, but low rates of erythromycin resistance. This study provides valuable genomic and epidemiological data and highlights the need for further genomic epidemiology studies in Chile and other South American countries to better understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of this emerging intestinal pathogen.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Li Y, Sun ZZ, Rong JC, et al (2021)

Comparative genomics reveals broad genetic diversity, extensive recombination and nascent ecological adaptation in Micrococcus luteus.

BMC genomics, 22(1):124.

BACKGROUND: Micrococcus luteus is a group of actinobacteria that is widely used in biotechnology and is being thought as an emerging nosocomial pathogen. With one of the smallest genomes of free-living actinobacteria, it is found in a wide range of environments, but intraspecies genetic diversity and adaptation strategies to various environments remain unclear. Here, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, and genome-wide association studies were used to investigate the genomic diversity, evolutionary history, and the potential ecological differentiation of the species.

RESULTS: High-quality genomes of 66 M. luteus strains were downloaded from the NCBI GenBank database and core and pan-genome analysis revealed a considerable intraspecies heterogeneity. Phylogenomic analysis, gene content comparison, and average nucleotide identity calculation consistently indicated that the species has diverged into three well-differentiated clades. Population structure analysis further suggested the existence of an unknown ancestor or the fourth, yet unsampled, clade. Reconstruction of gene gain/loss events along the evolutionary history revealed both early events that contributed to the inter-clade divergence and recent events leading to the intra-clade diversity. We also found convincing evidence that recombination has played a key role in the evolutionary process of the species, with upto two-thirds of the core genes having been affected by recombination. Furthermore, distribution of mammal-associated strains (including pathogens) on the phylogenetic tree suggested that the last common ancestor had a free-living lifestyle, and a few recently diverged lineages have developed a mammal-associated lifestyle separately. Consistently, genome-wide association analysis revealed that mammal-associated strains from different lineages shared genes functionally relevant to the host-associated lifestyle, indicating a recent ecological adaption to the new host-associated habitats.

CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed high intraspecies genomic diversity of M. luteus and highlighted that gene gain/loss events and extensive recombination events played key roles in the genome evolution. Our study also indicated that, as a free-living species, some lineages have recently developed or are developing a mammal-associated lifestyle. This study provides insights into the mechanisms that drive the genome evolution and adaption to various environments of a bacterial species.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Aguirre-Sanchez JR, Ibarra-Rodriguez JR, Vega-Lopez IF, et al (2021)

Genomic signatures of adaptation to natural settings in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars Saintpaul, Thompson and Weltevreden.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(21)00068-X [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonella enterica is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for intestinal illness and systemic diseases such as typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. Among clinical manifestation classification, non-typhoidal Salmonella is mainly known as foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of fecal contaminated food and water. Even though Salmonella hosts include humans and warm-blooded animals, it has been found in non-host environments as river water where the bacteria use different strategies to fitness the environment persisting and establishment. Now with the availability of WGS and bioinformatics tools, we can explore bacterial genomes with higher resolution to increase our understanding of specific genetic signatures among environmental and clinical isolates, being the goal of this work. Pangenome construction allowed the detection of specific environmental and clinical gene clusters related to metabolism and secretion systems as the main signature respectively. Specifically, D-galactonate degradation pathway was observed mainly in environmental genomes while T3SS and flagellum genes were detected for all clinical but not for all environmental isolates. Gene duplication and pseudogenes accumulation were detected as the main adaptation strategy for environmental isolates; thus, isolation source may play an important role in genome plasticity, conferring a selective advantage to survive and persist for environmental Salmonella isolates. Intact prophage sequences with cargo genes were observable for both isolation sources playing an important role in virulence contribution.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Gutiérrez S, Díaz L, Reyes-Jara A, et al (2020)

Whole-Genome Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a Wide Diversity of Non-O157 STEC Isolated From Ground Beef and Cattle Feces.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:622663.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes foodborne outbreaks that can lead to complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their main reservoir is cattle, and ground beef has been frequently associated with disease and outbreaks. In this study, we attempted to understand the genetic relationship among STEC isolated in Chile from different sources, their relationship to STEC from the rest of the world, and to identify molecular markers of Chilean STEC. We sequenced 62 STEC isolated in Chile using MiSeq Illumina. In silico typing was determined using tools of the Center Genomic Epidemiology, Denmark University (CGE/DTU). Genomes of our local STEC collection were compared with 113 STEC isolated worldwide through a core genome MLST (cgMLST) approach, and we also searched for distinct genes to be used as molecular markers of Chilean isolates. Genomes in our local collection were grouped based on serogroup and sequence type, and clusters were formed within local STEC. In the worldwide STEC analysis, Chilean STEC did not cluster with genomes of the rest of the world suggesting that they are not phylogenetically related to previously described STEC. The pangenome of our STEC collection was 11,650 genes, but we did not identify distinct molecular markers of local STEC. Our results showed that there may be local emerging STEC with unique features, nevertheless, no molecular markers were detected. Therefore, there might be elements such as a syntenic organization that might explain differential clustering detected between local and worldwide STEC.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Thukral A, Ross K, Hansen C, et al (2020)

A single dose polyanhydride-based nanovaccine against paratuberculosis infection.

NPJ vaccines, 5(1):15.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease in ruminants and is characterized by chronic gastroenteritis leading to heavy economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. The currently available vaccine (inactivated bacterin in oil base) is not effective in preventing pathogen shedding and is rarely used to control Johne's disease in dairy herds. To develop a better vaccine that can prevent the spread of Johne's disease, we utilized polyanhydride nanoparticles (PAN) to encapsulate mycobacterial antigens composed of whole cell lysate (PAN-Lysate) and culture filtrate (PAN-Cf) of M. paratuberculosis. These nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) were well tolerated in mice causing no inflammatory lesions at the site of injection. Immunological assays demonstrated a substantial increase in the levels of antigen-specific T cell responses post-vaccination in the PAN-Cf vaccinated group as indicated by high percentages of triple cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α) producing CD8+ T cells. Following challenge, animals vaccinated with PAN-Cf continued to produce significant levels of double (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and single cytokine (IFN-γ) secreting CD8+ T cells compared with animals vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. A significant reduction in bacterial load was observed in multiple organs of animals vaccinated with PAN-Cf, which is a clear indication of protection. Overall, the use of polyanhydride nanovaccines resulted in development of protective and sustained immunity against Johne's disease, an approach that could be applied to counter other intracellular pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Perrin A, EPC Rocha (2021)

PanACoTA: a modular tool for massive microbial comparative genomics.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 3(1):lqaa106.

The study of the gene repertoires of microbial species, their pangenomes, has become a key part of microbial evolution and functional genomics. Yet, the increasing number of genomes available complicates the establishment of the basic building blocks of comparative genomics. Here, we present PanACoTA (, a tool that allows to download all genomes of a species, build a database with those passing quality and redundancy controls, uniformly annotate and then build their pangenome, several variants of core genomes, their alignments and a rapid but accurate phylogenetic tree. While many programs building pangenomes have become available in the last few years, we have focused on a modular method, that tackles all the key steps of the process, from download to phylogenetic inference. While all steps are integrated, they can also be run separately and multiple times to allow rapid and extensive exploration of the parameters of interest. PanACoTA is built in Python3, includes a singularity container and features to facilitate its future development. We believe PanACoTa is an interesting addition to the current set of comparative genomics tools, since it will accelerate and standardize the more routine parts of the work, allowing microbial genomicists to more quickly tackle their specific questions.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Lin YT, Lee CC, Leu WM, et al (2021)

Fungicidal Activity of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Burkholderia gladioli Strain BBB-01.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(3): pii:molecules26030745.

A Burkholderia gladioli strain, named BBB-01, was isolated from rice shoots based on the confrontation plate assay activity against several plant pathogenic fungi. The genome of this bacterial strain consists of two circular chromosomes and one plasmid with 8,201,484 base pairs in total. Pangenome analysis of 23 B. gladioli strains suggests that B. gladioli BBB-01 has the closest evolutionary relationship to B. gladioli pv. gladioli and B. gladioli pv. agaricicola. B. gladioli BBB-01 emitted dimethyl disulfide and 2,5-dimethylfuran when it was cultivated in lysogeny broth and potato dextrose broth, respectively. Dimethyl disulfide is a well-known pesticide, while the bioactivity of 2,5-dimethylfuran has not been reported. In this study, the inhibition activity of the vapor of these two compounds was examined against phytopathogenic fungi, including Magnaporthe oryzae, Gibberella fujikuroi, Sarocladium oryzae, Phellinus noxius and Colletotrichumfructicola, and human pathogen Candida albicans. In general, 2,5-dimethylfuran is more potent than dimethyl disulfide in suppressing the growth of the tested fungi, suggesting that 2,5-dimethylfuran is a potential fumigant to control plant fungal disease.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Chen X, Li R, Wang Y, et al (2021)

Genomic Characterization Provides an Insight into the Pathogenicity of the Poplar Canker Bacterium Lonsdalea populi.

Genes, 12(2): pii:genes12020246.

An emerging poplar canker caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Lonsdalea populi, has led to high mortality of hybrid poplars Populus × euramericana in China and Europe. The molecular bases of pathogenicity and bark adaptation of L. populi have become a focus of recent research. This study revealed the whole genome sequence and identified putative virulence factors of L. populi. A high-quality L. populi genome sequence was assembled de novo, with a genome size of 3,859,707 bp, containing approximately 3434 genes and 107 RNAs (75 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 10 ncRNA). The L. populi genome contained 380 virulence-associated genes, mainly encoding for adhesion, extracellular enzymes, secretory systems, and two-component transduction systems. The genome had 110 carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy)-coding genes and putative secreted proteins. The antibiotic-resistance database annotation listed that L. populi was resistant to penicillin, fluoroquinolone, and kasugamycin. Analysis of comparative genomics found that L. populi exhibited the highest homology with the L. britannica genome and L. populi encompassed 1905 specific genes, 1769 dispensable genes, and 1381 conserved genes, suggesting high evolutionary diversity and genomic plasticity. Moreover, the pan genome analysis revealed that the N-5-1 genome is an open genome. These findings provide important resources for understanding the molecular basis of the pathogenicity and biology of L. populi and the poplar-bacterium interaction.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Mao B, Yin R, Li X, et al (2021)

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Isolated from Different Niches.

Genes, 12(2): pii:genes12020241.

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum can adapt to a variety of niches and is widely distributed in many sources. We used comparative genomics to explore the differences in the genome and in the physiological characteristics of L. plantarum isolated from pickles, fermented sauce, and human feces. The relationships between genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed to address the effects of isolation source on the genetic variation of L. plantarum. The comparative genomic results indicate that the numbers of unique genes in the different strains were niche-dependent. L. plantarum isolated from fecal sources generally had more strain-specific genes than L. plantarum isolated from pickles. The phylogenetic tree and average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicate that L. plantarum in pickles and fermented sauce clustered independently, whereas the fecal L. plantarum was distributed more uniformly in the phylogenetic tree. The pan-genome curve indicated that the L. plantarum exhibited high genomic diversity. Based on the analysis of the carbohydrate active enzyme and carbohydrate-use abilities, we found that L. plantarum strains isolated from different sources exhibited different expression of the Glycoside Hydrolases (GH) and Glycosyl Transferases (GT) families and that the expression patterns of carbohydrate active enzymes were consistent with the evolution relationships of the strains. L. plantarum strains exhibited niche-specific characteristicsand the results provided better understating on genetics of this species.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Yamaguchi M, Win HPM, Higashi K, et al (2021)

Epidemiological analysis of pneumococcal strains isolated at Yangon Children's Hospital in Myanmar via whole-genome sequencing-based methods.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus pneumoniae causes over one million deaths from lower respiratory infections per annum worldwide. Although mortality is very high in Southeast Asian countries, molecular epidemiological information remains unavailable for some countries. In this study, we report, for the first time, the whole-genome sequences and genetic profiles of pneumococcal strains isolated in Myanmar. We isolated 60 streptococcal strains from 300 children with acute respiratory infection at Yangon Children's Hospital in Myanmar. We obtained whole-genome sequences and identified the species, serotypes, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, virulence factor profiles and pangenome structure using sequencing-based analysis. Average nucleotide identity analysis indicated that 58 strains were S. pneumoniae and the other 2 strains were Streptococcus mitis. The major serotype was 19F (11 strains), followed by 6E (6B genetic variant; 7 strains) and 15 other serotypes; 5 untypable strains were also detected. Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed 39 different sequence types, including 11 novel ones. In addition, genetic profiling indicated that AMR genes and mutations spread among pneumococcal strains in Myanmar. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay indicated that several pneumococcal strains had acquired azithromycin and tetracycline resistance, whereas no strains were found to be resistant against levofloxacin and high-dose penicillin G. Phylogenetic and pangenome analysis showed various pneumococcal lineages and that the pneumococcal strains contain a rich and mobile gene pool, providing them with the ability to adapt to selective pressures. This molecular epidemiological information can help in tracking global infection and supporting AMR control in addition to public health interventions in Myanmar.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Yocca AE, Lu Z, Schmitz RJ, et al (2021)

Evolution of conserved noncoding sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6132240 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent pangenome studies have revealed a large fraction of the gene content within a species exhibits presence-absence variation (PAV). However, coding regions alone provide an incomplete assessment of functional genomic sequence variation at the species level. Little to no attention has been paid to noncoding regulatory regions in pangenome studies, though these sequences directly modulate gene expression and phenotype. To uncover regulatory genetic variation, we generated chromosome-scale genome assemblies for thirty Arabidopsis thaliana accessions from multiple distinct habitats and characterized species level variation in Conserved Noncoding Sequences (CNS). Our analyses uncovered not only PAV and positional variation (PosV) but that diversity in CNS is non-random, with variants shared across different accessions. Using evolutionary analyses and chromatin accessibility data, we provide further evidence supporting roles for conserved and variable CNS in gene regulation. Additionally, our data suggests transposable elements contribute to CNS variation. Characterizing species-level diversity in all functional genomic sequences may later uncover previously unknown mechanistic links between genotype and phenotype.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Grazziotin AL, Vidal NM, Hoepers PG, et al (2021)

Comparative genomics of a novel clade shed light on the evolution of the genus Erysipelothrix and characterise an emerging species.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3383.

Erysipelothrix sp. isolates obtained from a deadly outbreak in farmed turkeys were sequenced and compared to representatives of the genus. Phylogenetic trees-supported by digital DNA:DNA hybridization and Average Nucleotide Identity-revealed a novel monophyletic clade comprising isolates from pigs, turkeys, and fish, including isolates previously described as E. sp. Strain 2. Genes coding for the SpaC protein, typically found in E. sp. Strain 2, were detected in all isolates of the clade. Therefore, we confirm E. sp. Strain 2 represents a unique species that may be isolated from a broad host range, and the name "Erysipelothrix takahashiae" is suggested. Core genome analysis showed that the pathogenic species of this genus, E. rhusiopathiae and the clade E. sp. Strain 2, are enriched in core functionalities related to nutrient uptake and transport, but not necessarily homologous pathways. For instance, whereas the aerobic DctA transporter may uptake C4-dicarboxylates in both species, the anaerobic DcuC transporter is exclusive of the E. sp. Strain 2. Remarkably, the pan-genome analysis uncovered that genes related to transport and metabolism, recombination and repair, translation and transcription in the fish isolate, within the novel clade, have undergone a genomic reduction through pseudogenization. This reflects distinct selective pressures shaping the genome of species and strains within the genus Erysipelothrix while adapting to their respective niches.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Costa D, Lévesque S, Kumar N, et al (2021)

Pangenome analysis reveals genetic isolation in Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies adapted to different mammalian hosts.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3431.

Campylobacter hyointestinalis is an emerging pathogen currently divided in two subspecies: C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii which is predominantly recovered from pigs, and C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis which can be found in a much wider range of mammalian hosts. Despite C. hyointestinalis being reported as an emerging pathogen, its evolutionary and host-associated diversification patterns are still vastly unexplored. For this reason, we generated whole-genome sequences of 13 C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strains and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis including publicly available C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis and C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii genomes, to gain insight into the genomic variation of these differentially-adapted subspecies. Both subspecies are distinct phylogenetic lineages which present an apparent barrier to homologous recombination, suggesting genetic isolation. This is further supported by accessory gene patterns that recapitulate the core genome phylogeny. Additionally, C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis presents a bigger and more diverse accessory genome, which probably reflects its capacity to colonize different mammalian hosts unlike C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii that is presumably host-restricted. This greater plasticity in the accessory genome of C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis correlates to a higher incidence of genome-wide recombination events, that may be the underlying mechanism driving its diversification. Concordantly, both subspecies present distinct patterns of gene families involved in genome plasticity and DNA repair like CRISPR-associated proteins and restriction-modification systems. Together, our results provide an overview of the genetic mechanisms shaping the genomes of C. hyointestinalis subspecies, contributing to understand the biology of Campylobacter species that are increasingly recognized as emerging pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Sielemann K, Weisshaar B, B Pucker (2021)

Reference-based QUantification Of gene Dispensability (QUOD).

Plant methods, 17(1):18.

BACKGROUND: Dispensability of genes in a phylogenetic lineage, e.g. a species, genus, or higher-level clade, is gaining relevance as most genome sequencing projects move to a pangenome level. Most analyses classify genes as core genes, which are present in all investigated individual genomes, and dispensable genes, which only occur in a single or a few investigated genomes. The binary classification as 'core' or 'dispensable' is often based on arbitrary cutoffs of presence/absence in the analysed genomes. Even when extended to 'conditionally dispensable', this concept still requires the assignment of genes to distinct groups.

RESULTS: Here, we present a new method which overcomes this distinct classification by quantifying gene dispensability and present a dedicated tool for reference-based QUantification Of gene Dispensability (QUOD). As a proof of concept, sequence data of 966 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (Ath-966) were processed to calculate a gene-specific dispensability score for each gene based on normalised coverage in read mappings. We validated this score by comparison of highly conserved Benchmarking Universal Single Copy Orthologs (BUSCOs) to all other genes. The average scores of BUSCOs were significantly lower than the scores of non-BUSCOs. Analysis of variation demonstrated lower variation values between replicates of a single accession than between iteratively, randomly selected accessions from the whole dataset Ath-966. Functional investigations revealed defense and antimicrobial response genes among the genes with high-dispensability scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Instead of classifying a gene as core or dispensable, QUOD assigns a dispensability score to each gene. Hence, QUOD facilitates the identification of candidate dispensable genes, associated with high dispensability scores, which often underlie lineage-specific adaptation to varying environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Sela I, Wolf YI, EV Koonin (2021)

Assessment of assumptions underlying models of prokaryotic pangenome evolution.

BMC biology, 19(1):27.

BACKGROUND: The genomes of bacteria and archaea evolve by extensive loss and gain of genes which, for any group of related prokaryotic genomes, result in the formation of a pangenome with the universal, asymmetrical U-shaped distribution of gene commonality. However, the evolutionary factors that define the specific shape of this distribution are not thoroughly understood.

RESULTS: We investigate the fit of simple models of genome evolution to the empirically observed gene commonality distributions and genome intersections for 33 groups of closely related bacterial genomes. A model with an infinite external gene pool available for gene acquisition and constant genome size (IGP-CGS model), and two gene turnover rates, one for slow- and the other one for fast-evolving genes, allows two approaches to estimate the parameters for gene content dynamics. One is by fitting the model prediction to the distribution of the number of genes shared by precisely k genomes (gene commonality distribution) and another by analyzing the distribution of the number of genes common for k genome sets (k-cores). Both approaches produce a comparable overall quality of fit, although the former significantly overestimates the number of the universally conserved genes, while the latter overestimates the number of singletons. We further explore the effect of dropping each of the assumptions of the IGP-CGS model on the fit to the gene commonality distributions and show that models with either a finite gene pool or unequal rates of gene loss and gain (greater gene loss rate) eliminate the overestimate of the number of singletons or the core genome size.

CONCLUSIONS: We examine the assumptions that are usually adopted for modeling the evolution of the U-shaped gene commonality distributions in prokaryote genomes, namely, those of infinitely many genes and constant genome size. The combined analysis of genome intersections and gene commonality suggests that at least one of these assumptions is invalid. The violation of both these assumptions reflects the limited ability of prokaryotes to gain new genes. This limitation seems to stem, at least partly, from the horizontal gene transfer barrier, i.e., the cost of accommodation of foreign genes by prokaryotes. Further development of models taking into account the complexity of microbial evolution is necessary for an improved understanding of the evolution of prokaryotes.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Maeno S, Nishimura H, Tanizawa Y, et al (2021)

Unique niche-specific adaptation of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria and proposal of three Apilactobacillus species as novel members of the group.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):41.

BACKGROUND: Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) found in D-fructose rich niches prefer D-fructose over D-glucose as a growth substrate. They need electron acceptors for growth on D-glucose. The organisms share carbohydrate metabolic properties. Fructobacillus spp., Apilactobacillus kunkeei, and Apilactobacillus apinorum are members of this unique group. Here we studied the fructophilic characteristics of recently described species Apilactobacillus micheneri, Apilactobacillus quenuiae, and Apilactobacillus timberlakei.

RESULTS: The three species prefer D-fructose over D-glucose and only metabolize D-glucose in the presence of electron acceptors. The genomic characteristics of the three species, i.e. small genomes and thus a low number of coding DNA sequences, few genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and partial deletion of adhE gene, are characteristic of FLAB. The three species thus are novel members of FLAB. Reduction of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism in accordance with reduction of genome size were the common characteristics of the family Lactobacillaceae, but FLAB markedly reduced the gene numbers more than other species in the family. Pan-genome analysis of genes involved in metabolism displayed a lack of specific carbohydrate metabolic pathways in FLAB, leading to a unique cluster separation.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study expanded FLAB group. Fructose-rich environments have induced similar evolution in phylogenetically distant FLAB species. These are examples of convergent evolution of LAB.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Chandrasekar SS, Phanse Y, Hildebrand RE, et al (2021)

Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization.

Vaccines, 9(2): pii:vaccines9020132.

The rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the USA and worldwide necessitates the development of multiple vaccines to combat the COVID-19 global pandemic. Previously, we showed that a particulate adjuvant system, quil-A-loaded chitosan (QAC) nanoparticles, can elicit robust immunity combined with plasmid vaccines when used against avian coronavirus. Here, we report on the immune responses elicited by mucosal homologous plasmid and a heterologous immunization strategy using a plasmid vaccine and a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens. Only the heterologous intranasal immunization strategy elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice, suggesting a protective vaccine. The same prime/boost strategy led to the induction of type 1 and type 17 T-cell responses and polyfunctional T-cells expressing multiple type 1 cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-2) in the lungs and spleens of vaccinated mice. In contrast, the plasmid homologous vaccine strategy led to the induction of local mono and polyfunctional T-cells secreting IFN-γ. Outcomes of this study support the potential of QAC-nano vaccines to elicit significant mucosal immune responses against respiratory coronaviruses.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Koonin EV, Makarova KS, YI Wolf (2021)

Evolution of Microbial Genomics: Conceptual Shifts over a Quarter Century.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(21)00007-X [Epub ahead of print].

Prokaryote genomics started in earnest in 1995, with the complete sequences of two small bacterial genomes, those of Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium. During the next quarter century, the prokaryote genome database has been growing exponentially, with no saturation in sight. For most of these 25 years, genome sequencing remained limited to cultivable microbes. Together with next-generation sequencing methods, advances in metagenomics and single-cell genomics have lifted this limitation, providing for an increasingly unbiased characterization of the global prokaryote diversity. Advances in computational genomics followed the progress of genome sequencing, even if occasionally lagging behind. Several major new branches of bacteria and archaea were discovered, including Asgard archaea, the apparent closest relatives of eukaryotes and expansive groups of bacteria and archaea with small genomes thought to be symbionts of other prokaryotes. Comparative analysis of numerous prokaryote genomes spanning a wide range of evolutionary distances changed the conceptual foundations of microbiology, supplanting the notion of species genomes with fixed gene sets with that of dynamic pangenomes and the notion of a single Tree of Life (ToL) with a statistical tree-like trend among individual gene trees. Strides were also made towards a theory and quantitative laws of prokaryote genome evolution.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Mageiros L, Méric G, Bayliss SC, et al (2021)

Genome evolution and the emergence of pathogenicity in avian Escherichia coli.

Nature communications, 12(1):765.

Chickens are the most common birds on Earth and colibacillosis is among the most common diseases affecting them. This major threat to animal welfare and safe sustainable food production is difficult to combat because the etiological agent, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), emerges from ubiquitous commensal gut bacteria, with no single virulence gene present in all disease-causing isolates. Here, we address the underlying evolutionary mechanisms of extraintestinal spread and systemic infection in poultry. Combining population scale comparative genomics and pangenome-wide association studies, we compare E. coli from commensal carriage and systemic infections. We identify phylogroup-specific and species-wide genetic elements that are enriched in APEC, including pathogenicity-associated variation in 143 genes that have diverse functions, including genes involved in metabolism, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, heat shock response, antimicrobial resistance and toxicity. We find that horizontal gene transfer spreads pathogenicity elements, allowing divergent clones to cause infection. Finally, a Random Forest model prediction of disease status (carriage vs. disease) identifies pathogenic strains in the emergent ST-117 poultry-associated lineage with 73% accuracy, demonstrating the potential for early identification of emergent APEC in healthy flocks.

RevDate: 2021-02-03

Glick L, I Mayrose (2021)

Panoramic: A package for constructing eukaryotic pan-genomes.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

The study of intraspecific genomic variation in eukaryotic species has been the focus of numerous genome resequencing projects in recent years. One emerging approach for the analysis of intraspecific diversity uses the concept of a pan-genome, which theoretically represents the full set of genomic sequences and coding genes from all individuals of a given species. This approach has many advantages over reference-based methods and has been successfully applied to study both prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. However, the process of pan-genome construction still presents considerable scientific and technical challenges, especially for eukaryotic species with large and complex genomes. Although general approaches for the construction of pan-genomes have been devised, currently available software tools implement only certain modules of the entire computational procedure. Therefore, each pan-genome project requires the development of tailored analysis pipelines, thus complicating and prolonging the process and impairing research reproducibility and comparison across studies. Here we present Panoramic, a software package for the automatic construction of eukaryotic pan-genomes. Panoramic takes raw sequencing reads as input and applies two alternative approaches for pan-genome construction. Panoramic makes pan-genome construction a considerably easier task by providing simple user interface and efficient data processing algorithms. We demonstrate the use of Panoramic by constructing the pan-genome of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana from sequencing data of 20 diverse ecotypes.

RevDate: 2021-02-03

Schulz T, Wittler R, Rahmann S, et al (2021)

Detecting High Scoring Local Alignments in Pangenome Graphs.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6126799 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Increasing amounts of individual genomes sequenced per species motivate the usage of pangenomic approaches. Pangenomes may be represented as graphical structures, e.g. compacted colored de Bruijn graphs, which offer a low memory usage and facilitate reference-free sequence comparisons. While sequence-to-graph mapping to graphical pangenomes has been studied for some time, no local alignment search tool in the vein of BLAST has been proposed yet.

RESULTS: We present a new heuristic method to find maximum scoring local alignments of a DNA query sequence to a pangenome represented as a compacted colored de Bruijn graph. Our approach additionally allows a comparison of similarity among sequences within the pangenome. We show that local alignment scores follow an exponential-tail distribution similar to BLAST scores, and we discuss how to estimate its parameters to separate local alignments representing sequence homology from spurious findings. An implementation of our method is presented, and its performance and usability are shown. Our approach scales sublinearly in running time and memory usage with respect to the number of genomes under consideration. This is an advantage over classical methods that do not make use of sequence similarity within the pangenome.

AVAILABILITY: Source code and test data are available from

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2021-02-08

Suryaletha K, Chandrika SK, S Thomas (2021)

Comprehensive genomics depict accessory genes encoding pathogenicity and biofilm determinants in Enterococcus faecalis.

Future microbiology, 16:175-184.

Aim:Enterococcus faecalis is a leading nosocomial pathogen in biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections. The study aims to understand pathogenicity and biofilm determinants of the pathogen by genome analysis. Methodology: Genome sequencing of a strong biofilm forming clinical isolate Enterococcus faecalis SK460 devoid of Fsr quorum-signaling system, was performed and comparative genomics was carried out among a set of pathogenic biofilm formers and nonpathogenic weak biofilm formers. Results: Analysis revealed a pool of virulence and adhesion related factors associated with pathogenicity. Absence of CRISPR-Cas system facilitated acquisition of pheromone responsive plasmid, pathogenicity island and phages. Comprehensive analysis identified a subset of accessory genes encoding polysaccharide lyase, sugar phosphotransferase system, phage proteins and transcriptional regulators exclusively in pathogenic biofilm formers. Conclusion: The study identified a set of genes specific to pathogenic biofilm formers and these can act as targets which in turn help to develop future treatment endeavors against enterococcal infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Przewieslik-Allen AM, Wilkinson PA, Burridge AJ, et al (2021)

The role of gene flow and chromosomal instability in shaping the bread wheat genome.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the world's most important crops; however, a low level of genetic diversity within commercial breeding accessions can significantly limit breeding potential. In contrast, wheat relatives exhibit considerable genetic variation and so potentially provide a valuable source of novel alleles for use in breeding new cultivars. Historically, gene flow between wheat and its relatives may have contributed novel alleles to the bread wheat pangenome. To assess the contribution made by wheat relatives to genetic diversity in bread wheat, we used markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms to compare bread wheat accessions, created in the past 150 years, with 45 related species. We show that many bread wheat accessions share near-identical haplotype blocks with close relatives of wheat's diploid and tetraploid progenitors, while some show evidence of introgressions from more distant species and structural variation between accessions. Hence, introgressions and chromosomal rearrangements appear to have made a major contribution to genetic diversity in cultivar collections. As gene flow from relatives to bread wheat is an ongoing process, we assess the impact that introgressions might have on future breeding strategies.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Cho SH, Jeong Y, Lee E, et al (2021)

Assessment of Erythrobacter species diversity through pan-genome analysis with newly isolated Erythrobacter sp. 3-20A1M.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology pii:jmb.2012.12054 [Epub ahead of print].

Erythrobacter species are extensively studied marine bacteria that produce various carotenoids. Due to their photoheterotrophic ability, it has been suggested that they play a crucial role in marine ecosystems. It is essential to identify the genome sequence and the genes of the species to predict their role in the marine ecosystem. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the marine bacterium Erythrobacter sp. 3-20A1M. The genome size was 3.1 Mbp and its GC content was 64.8%. In total, 2998 genetic features were annotated, of which 2882 were annotated as functional coding genes. Using the genetic information of Erythrobacter sp. 3-20A1M, we performed pan-genome analysis with other Erythrobacter species. This revealed highly conserved secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related COG functions across Erythrobacter species. Through subsequent secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster prediction and KEGG analysis, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was proven conserved in all Erythrobacter species, except for the spheroidene and spirilloxanthin pathways, which are only found in photosynthetic Erythrobacter species. The presence of virulence genes, especially the plant-algae cell wall degrading genes, revealed that Erythrobacter sp. 3-20A1M is a potential marine plant-algae scavenger.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Takahashi T, Lee S, S Kim (2021)

Genomic characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae based on the pan-genome orthologous group analysis according to invasiveness and capsular genotype.

Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy pii:S1341-321X(21)00016-7 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Following the construction of a bacterial pan-genome from the whole genome sequences on a web-based pipeline, all coding DNA sequences (CDSs) can be clustered into pan-genome orthologous groups (POGs), which is a similar approach to comparative genome hybridization on glass microscope slides. We aimed to clarify the genomic characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae based on the POG analysis.

METHODS: Sixty-six S. agalactiae isolates obtained from invasive specimens (blood and cerebrospinal fluid) and non-invasive specimens (urine and vaginal discharge) between 2010 and 2017 in Korea were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Based on the WGS data, we conducted the POG analysis and constructed a phylogenetic tree along with capsular polysaccharide (CPS) genotyping. We compared the genomics of invasive vs. non-invasive isolates, as well as CPS III vs. non-CPS III genotypes.

RESULTS: Predicted pan- and core-genome sizes were 3416 and 1658 genes, respectively. We found four clusters consisting of CPS genotypes (III, VIII, Ib/VI, and Ia) in the phylogenetic tree. There were significant differences in two metabolic pathways specific to invasiveness, and in six metabolic pathways specific to CPS III type produced by CDSs.

CONCLUSION: Our observations reveal the pan- and core-genome sizes, four clusters of genomes distributed by CPS genotypes, and unique CDS features of S. agalactiae by comparative genomics in terms of invasiveness and CPS genotype.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Naorem RS, Blom J, C Fekete (2021)

Genome-wide comparison of four MRSA clinical isolates from Germany and Hungary.

PeerJ, 9:e10185.

Staphylococcus aureus is a drug-resistant pathogen, capable of colonizing diverse ecological niches and causing a broad spectrum of infections related to a community and healthcare. In this study, we choose four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates from Germany and Hungary based on our previous polyphasic characterization finding. We assumed that the selected strains have a different genetic background in terms of the presence of resistance and virulence genes, prophages, plasmids, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes that may play a crucial role in niche adaptation and pathogenesis. To clarify these assumptions, we performed a comparative genome analysis of these strains and observed many differences in their genomic compositions. The Hungarian isolates (SA H27 and SA H32) with ST22-SCCmec type IVa have fewer genes for multiple-drug resistance, virulence, and prophages reported in Germany isolates. Germany isolate, SA G6 acquires aminoglycoside (ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-III) and nucleoside (sat-4) resistance genes via phage transduction and may determine its pathogenic potential. The comparative genome study allowed the segregation of isolates of geographical origin and differentiation of the clinical isolates from the commensal isolates. This study suggested that Germany and Hungarian isolates are genetically diverse and showing variation among them due to the gain or loss of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). An interesting finding is the addition of SA G6 genome responsible for the drastic decline of the core/pan-genome ratio curve and causing the pan-genome to open wider. Functional characterizations revealed that S. aureus isolates survival are maintained by the amino acids catabolism and favor adaptation to growing in a protein-rich medium. The dispersible and singleton genes content of S. aureus genomes allows us to understand the genetic variation among the CC5 and CC22 groups. The strains with the same genetic background were clustered together, which suggests that these strains are highly alike; however, comparative genome analysis exposed that the acquisition of phage elements, and plasmids through the events of MGEs transfer contribute to differences in their phenotypic characters. This comparative genome analysis would improve the knowledge about the pathogenic S. aureus strain's characterization, and responsible for clinically important phenotypic differences among the S. aureus strains.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Li F, Ye Q, Chen M, et al (2020)

Multiplex PCR for the Identification of Pathogenic Listeria in Flammulina velutipes Plant Based on Novel Specific Targets Revealed by Pan-Genome Analysis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:634255.

Listeria spp. is an important foodborne disease agent, often found in the fresh mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) and its production environment. The aim of this study was to develop multiplex PCR for rapid identification of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, and nonpathogenic Listeria in F. velutipes plants. Pan-genome analysis was first used to identify five novel Listeria-specific targets: one for the Listeria genus, one for L. monocytogenes, and three for L. ivanovii. Primers for the novel targets were highly specific in individual reactions. The detection limits were 103-104 CFU/mL, meeting the requirements of molecular detection. A mPCR assay for the identification of pathogenic Listeria, with primers targeting the novel genes specific for Listeria genus (LMOSLCC2755_0944), L. monocytogenes (LMOSLCC2755_0090), and L. ivanovii (queT_1) was then designed. The assay specificity was robustly verified by analyzing nonpathogenic Listeria and non-Listeria spp. strains. The determined detection limits were 2.0 × 103 CFU/mL for L. monocytogenes and 3.4 × 103 CFU/mL for L. ivanovii, for pure culture analysis. Further, the assay detected 7.6 × 104 to 7.6 × 100 CFU/10 g of pathogenic Listeria spiked into F. velutipes samples following 4-12 h enrichment. The assay feasibility was evaluated by comparing with a traditional culture-based method, by analyzing 129 samples collected from different F. velutipes plants. The prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes was 58.1% and 41.1%, respectively. The calculated κ factors for Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, and L. ivanovii were 0.97, 0.97, and 1, respectively. The results of the novel mPCR assay were highly consistent with those of the culture-based method. The new assay thus will allow rapid, specific, and accurate detection and monitoring of pathogenic Listeria in food and its production environment.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Molina-Mora JA, Chinchilla-Montero D, García-Batán R, et al (2021)

Genomic context of the two integrons of ST-111 Pseudomonas aeruginosa AG1: A VIM-2-carrying old-acquaintance and a novel IMP-18-carrying integron.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 89:104740 pii:S1567-1348(21)00037-X [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist and versatile organism responsible for infections mainly in immunocompromised hosts. This pathogen has high intrinsic resistance to most antimicrobials. P. aeruginosa AG1 (PaeAG1) is a Costa Rican high-risk ST-111 strain with resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, due to the activity of VIM-2 and IMP-18 metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). These genes are harbored in two class 1 integrons located inone out of the 57 PaeAG1 genomic islands. However, the genomic context associated to these determinants in PaeAG1 and other P. aeruginosa strains is unclear. Thus, we first assessed the transcriptional activity of VIM-2 and IMP-18 genes when exposed to imipenem (a carbapenem) by RT-qPCR. To select related genomes to PaeAG1, we implemented a pan-genome analysis to define and up-date the phylogenetic relationship among complete P. aeruginosa genomes. We also studied the PaeAG1 genomic islands content in the related strains and finally we described the architecture and possible evolutionary steps of the genomic regions around the VIM-2- and IMP-18-carrying integrons. Expression of VIM-2 and IMP-18 genes was demonstrated to be induced after imipenem exposure. In a subsequent comparative genomics analysis with 211 strains, the P. aeruginosa pan-genome revealed that complete genome sequences are able to separate clones by MLST profile, including a clear ST-111 cluster with PaeAG1. The PaeAG1 genomic islands were found to define a diverse presence/absence pattern among related genomes. Finally, landscape reconstruction of genomic regions showed that VIM-2-carrying integron (In59-like) is an old-acquaintance element harbored in the same known region found in other two ST-111 strains. Also, PaeAG1 has an exclusive genomic region containing a novel IMP-18-carrying integron (registered as In1666), with an arrangement never reported before. Altogether, we provide new insights about the genomic determinants associated with the resistance to carbapenems in this high-risk P. aeruginosa using comparative genomics.

RevDate: 2021-02-06

Vázquez-Rosas-Landa M, Sánchez-Rangel D, Hernández-Domínguez EE, et al (2021)

Design of a diagnostic system based on molecular markers derived from the ascomycetes pan-genome analysis: The case of Fusarium dieback disease.

PloS one, 16(1):e0246079.

A key factor to take actions against phytosanitary problems is the accurate and rapid detection of the causal agent. Here, we develop a molecular diagnostics system based on comparative genomics to easily identify fusariosis and specific pathogenic species as the Fusarium kuroshium, the symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Euwallaceae kuroshio Gomez and Hulcr which is responsible for Fusarium dieback disease in San Diego CA, USA. We performed a pan-genome analysis using sixty-three ascomycetes fungi species including phytopathogens and fungi associated with the ambrosia beetles. Pan-genome analysis revealed that 2,631 orthologue genes are only shared by Fusarium spp., and on average 3,941 (SD ± 1,418.6) are species-specific genes. These genes were used for PCR primer design and tested on DNA isolated from i) different strains of ascomycete species, ii) artificially infected avocado stems and iii) plant tissue of field-collected samples presumably infected. Our results let us propose a useful set of primers to either identify any species from Fusarium genus or, in a specific manner, species such as F. kuroshium, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum. The results suggest that the molecular strategy employed in this study can be expanded to design primers against different types of pathogens responsible for provoking critical plant diseases.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Candeliere F, Raimondi S, Spampinato G, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomics of Leuconostoc carnosum.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:605127.

Leuconostoc carnosum is a known colonizer of meat-related food matrices. It reaches remarkably high loads during the shelf life in packaged meat products and plays a role in spoilage, although preservative effects have been proposed for some strains. In this study, the draft genomes of 17 strains of L. carnosum (i.e., all the strains that have been sequenced so far) were compared to decipher their metabolic and functional potential and to determine their role in food transformations. Genome comparison and pathway reconstruction indicated that L. carnosum is a compact group of closely related heterofermentative bacteria sharing most of the metabolic features. Adaptation to a nitrogen-rich environment, such as meat, is evidenced by 23 peptidase genes identified in the core genome and by the autotrophy for nitrogen compounds including several amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors. Genes encoding the decarboxylases yielding biogenic amines were not present. All the strains harbored 1-4 of 32 different plasmids, bearing functions associated to proteins hydrolysis, transport of amino acids and oligopeptides, exopolysaccharides, and various resistances (e.g., to environmental stresses, bacteriophages, and heavy metals). Functions associated to bacteriocin synthesis, secretion, and immunity were also found in plasmids. While genes for lactococcin were found in most plasmids, only three harbored the genes for leucocin B, a class IIa antilisterial bacteriocin. Determinants of antibiotic resistances were absent in both plasmids and chromosomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Bryan NC, Lebreton F, Gilmore M, et al (2020)

Genomic and Functional Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Recovered From the International Space Station and Their Potential for Pathogenicity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:515319.

Enterococcus faecalis is a multidrug resistant, opportunistic human pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Recently, isolates have been recovered from the air and surfaces onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Pangenomic and functional analyses were carried out to assess their potential impact on astronaut health. Genomes of each ISS isolate, and both clinical and commensal reference strains, were evaluated for their core and unique gene content, acquired antibiotic resistance genes, phage, plasmid content, and virulence traits. In order to determine their potential survival when outside of the human host, isolates were also challenged with three weeks of desiccation at 30% relative humidity. Finally, pathogenicity of the ISS strains was evaluated in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. At the culmination of this study, there were no defining signatures that separated known pathogenic strains from the more commensal phenotypes using the currently available resources. As a result, the current reliance on database information alone must be shifted to experimentally evaluated genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of clinically relevant microorganisms.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Rajput A, Seif Y, Choudhary KS, et al (2021)

Pangenome Analytics Reveal Two-Component Systems as Conserved Targets in ESKAPEE Pathogens.

mSystems, 6(1):.

The two-component system (TCS) helps bacteria sense and respond to environmental stimuli through histidine kinases and response regulators. TCSs are the largest family of multistep signal transduction processes, and they are involved in many important cellular processes such as antibiotic resistance, pathogenicity, quorum sensing, osmotic stress, and biofilms. Here, we perform the first comprehensive study to highlight the role of TCSs as potential drug targets against ESKAPEE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli) pathogens through annotation, mapping, pangenomic status, gene orientation, and sequence variation analysis. The distribution of the TCSs is group specific with regard to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, except for KdpDE. The TCSs among ESKAPEE pathogens form closed pangenomes, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Furthermore, their conserved nature due to closed pangenomes might make them good drug targets. Fitness score analysis suggests that any mutation in some TCSs such as BaeSR, ArcBA, EvgSA, and AtoSC, etc., might be lethal to the cell. Taken together, the results of this pangenomic assessment of TCSs reveal a range of strategies deployed by the ESKAPEE pathogens to manifest pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. This study further suggests that the conserved features of TCSs might make them an attractive group of potential targets with which to address antibiotic resistance.IMPORTANCE The ESKAPEE pathogens are the leading cause of health care-associated infections worldwide. Two-component systems (TCSs) can be used as effective targets against pathogenic bacteria since they are ubiquitous and manage various vital functions such as antibiotic resistance, virulence, biofilms, quorum sensing, and pH balance, among others. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the pangenomic status of the TCSs among ESKAPEE pathogens. The annotation and pangenomic analysis of TCSs show that they are significantly distributed and conserved among the pathogens, as most of them form closed pangenomes. Furthermore, our analysis also reveals that the removal of the TCSs significantly affects the fitness of the cell. Hence, they may be used as promising drug targets against bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Freitas-Silva J, de Oliveira BFR, Vigoder FM, et al (2020)

Peeling the Layers Away: The Genomic Characterization of Bacillus pumilus 64-1, an Isolate With Antimicrobial Activity From the Marine Sponge Plakina cyanorosea (Porifera, Homoscleromorpha).

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:592735.

Bacillus pumilus 64-1, a bacterial strain isolated from the marine sponge Plakina cyanorosea, which exhibits antimicrobial activity against both pathogenic and drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study aimed to conduct an in-depth genomic analysis of this bioactive sponge-derived strain. The nearly complete genome of strain 64-1 consists of 3.6 Mbp (41.5% GC), which includes 3,705 coding sequences (CDS). An open pangenome was observed when limiting to the type strains of the B. pumilus group and aquatic-derived B. pumilus representatives. The genome appears to encode for at least 12 potential biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), including both types I and III polyketide synthases (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and one NRPS-T1PKS hybrid, among others. In particular, bacilysin and other bacteriocin-coding genes were found and may be associated with the detected antimicrobial activity. Strain 64-1 also appears to possess a broad repertoire of genes encoding for plant cell wall-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A myriad of genes which may be involved in various process required by the strain in its marine habitat, such as those encoding for osmoprotectory transport systems and the biosynthesis of compatible solutes were also present. Several heavy metal tolerance genes are also present, together with various mobile elements including a region encoding for a type III-B Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) region, four prophage segments and transposase elements. This is the first report on the genomic characterization of a cultivable bacterial member of the Plakina cyanorosea holobiont.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Jayakodi M, Schreiber M, Stein N, et al (2021)

Building pan-genome infrastructures for crop plants and their use in association genetics.

DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes, 28(1):.

Pan-genomic studies aim at representing the entire sequence diversity within a species to provide useful resources for evolutionary studies, functional genomics and breeding of cultivated plants. Cost reductions in high-throughput sequencing and advances in sequence assembly algorithms have made it possible to create multiple reference genomes along with a catalogue of all forms of genetic variations in plant species with large and complex or polyploid genomes. In this review, we summarize the current approaches to building pan-genomes as an in silico representation of plant sequence diversity and outline relevant methods for their effective utilization in linking structural with phenotypic variation. We propose as future research avenues (i) transcriptomic and epigenomic studies across multiple reference genomes and (ii) the development of user-friendly and feature-rich pan-genome browsers.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Ruiz-Roldán L, de Toro M, Y Sáenz (2021)

Whole Genome Analysis of Environmental Pseudomonas mendocina Strains: Virulence Mechanisms and Phylogeny.

Genes, 12(1):.

Pseudomonas mendocina is an environmental bacterium, rarely isolated in clinical specimens, although it has been described as producing endocarditis and sepsis. Little is known about its genome. Whole genome sequencing can be used to learn about the phylogeny, evolution, or pathogenicity of these isolates. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the resistome, virulome, and phylogenetic relationship of two P. mendocina strains, Ps542 and Ps799, isolated from a healthy Anas platyrhynchos fecal sample and a lettuce, respectively. Among all of the small number of P.mendocina genomes available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) repository, both strains were placed within one of two well-defined phylogenetic clusters. Both P. mendocina strains lacked antimicrobial resistance genes, but the Ps799 genome showed a MOBP3 family relaxase. Nevertheless, this study revealed that P. mendocina possesses an important number of virulence factors, including a leukotoxin, flagella, pili, and the Type 2 and Type 6 Secretion Systems, that could be responsible for their pathogenesis. More phenotypical and in vivo studies are needed to deepen the association with human infections and the potential P. mendocina pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Guardiola-Avila I, Sánchez-Busó L, Acedo-Félix E, et al (2021)

Core and Accessory Genome Analysis of Vibrio mimicus.

Microorganisms, 9(1):.

Vibrio mimicus is an emerging pathogen, mainly associated with contaminated seafood consumption. However, little is known about its evolution, biodiversity, and pathogenic potential. This study analyzes the pan-, core, and accessory genomes of nine V. mimicus strains. The core genome yielded 2424 genes in chromosome I (ChI) and 822 genes in chromosome II (ChII), with an accessory genome comprising an average of 10.9% of the whole genome for ChI and 29% for ChII. Core genome phylogenetic trees were obtained, and V. mimicus ATCC-33654 strain was the closest to the outgroup in both chromosomes. Additionally, a phylogenetic study of eight conserved genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, topA, rpoA, recA, mreB, and pyrH), including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parilis, Vibrio metoecus, and Vibrio caribbenthicus, clearly showed clade differentiation. The main virulence genes found in ChI corresponded with type I secretion proteins, extracellular components, flagellar proteins, and potential regulators, while, in ChII, the main categories were type-I secretion proteins, chemotaxis proteins, and antibiotic resistance proteins. The accessory genome was characterized by the presence of mobile elements and toxin encoding genes in both chromosomes. Based on the genome atlas, it was possible to characterize differential regions between strains. The pan-genome of V. mimicus encompassed 3539 genes for ChI and 2355 genes for ChII. These results give us an insight into the virulence and gene content of V. mimicus, as well as constitute the first approach to its diversity.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Pais AKL, Silva JRD, Santos LVSD, et al (2021)

Genomic sequencing of different sequevars of Ralstonia solanacearum belonging to the Moko ecotype.

Genetics and molecular biology, 44(1):e20200172 pii:S1415-47572021000100402.

Banana vascular wilt or Moko is a disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and compare the genomes of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes of different sequevar strains from Brazil. Average nucleotide identity analyses demonstrated a high correlation (> 96%) between the genome sequences of strains CCRMRs277 (sequevar IIA-24), CCRMRs287 (IIB-4), CCRMRs304 (IIA-24), and CCRMRsB7 (IIB-25), which were grouped into phylotypes IIA and IIB. The number of coding sequences present in chromosomes and megaplasmids varied from 3,070 to 3,521 and 1,669 to 1,750, respectively. Pangenome analysis identified 3,378 clusters in the chromosomes, of which 2,604 were shared by all four analyzed genomes and 2,580 were single copies. In megaplasmids, 1,834 clusters were identified, of which 1,005 were shared by all four genomes and 992 were identified as single copies. Strains CCRMRsB7 and CCRMRs287 differed from the others by having unique clusters in both their chromosomes and megaplasmids, and CCRMRsB7 possessed the largest genome among all Moko ecotype strains sequenced to date. Therefore, the genomic information obtained in this study provides a theoretical basis for the identification, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of R. solanacearum Moko ecotypes.

RevDate: 2021-01-29
CmpDate: 2021-01-29

Rai A, Hirakawa H, Nakabayashi R, et al (2021)

Chromosome-level genome assembly of Ophiorrhiza pumila reveals the evolution of camptothecin biosynthesis.

Nature communications, 12(1):405.

Plant genomes remain highly fragmented and are often characterized by hundreds to thousands of assembly gaps. Here, we report chromosome-level reference and phased genome assembly of Ophiorrhiza pumila, a camptothecin-producing medicinal plant, through an ordered multi-scaffolding and experimental validation approach. With 21 assembly gaps and a contig N50 of 18.49 Mb, Ophiorrhiza genome is one of the most complete plant genomes assembled to date. We also report 273 nitrogen-containing metabolites, including diverse monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). A comparative genomics approach identifies strictosidine biogenesis as the origin of MIA evolution. The emergence of strictosidine biosynthesis-catalyzing enzymes precede downstream enzymes' evolution post γ whole-genome triplication, which occurred approximately 110 Mya in O. pumila, and before the whole-genome duplication in Camptotheca acuminata identified here. Combining comparative genome analysis, multi-omics analysis, and metabolic gene-cluster analysis, we propose a working model for MIA evolution, and a pangenome for MIA biosynthesis, which will help in establishing a sustainable supply of camptothecin.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Bravakos P, Mandalakis M, Nomikou P, et al (2021)

Genomic adaptation of Pseudomonas strains to acidity and antibiotics in hydrothermal vents at Kolumbo submarine volcano, Greece.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1336.

Although the rise of antibiotic and multidrug resistant bacteria is one of the biggest current threats to human health, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in antibiotic resistance selection remains scarce. We performed whole genome sequencing of 21 Pseudomonas strains, previously isolated from an active submarine volcano of Greece, the Kolumbo volcano. Our goal was to identify the genetic basis of the enhanced co-tolerance to antibiotics and acidity of these Pseudomonas strains. Pangenome analysis identified 10,908 Gene Clusters (GCs). It revealed that the numbers of phage-related GCs and sigma factors, which both provide the mechanisms of adaptation to environmental stressors, were much higher in the high tolerant Pseudomonas strains compared to the rest ones. All identified GCs of these strains were associated with antimicrobial and multidrug resistance. The present study provides strong evidence that the CO2-rich seawater of the volcano associated with low pH might be a reservoir of microorganisms carrying multidrug efflux-mediated systems and pumps. We, therefore, suggest further studies of other extreme environments (or ecosystems) and their associated physicochemical parameters (or factors) in the rise of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Heaton MP, Smith TPL, Bickhart DM, et al (2021)

A reference genome assembly of Simmental cattle, Bos taurus taurus.

The Journal of heredity pii:6092654 [Epub ahead of print].

Genomics research has relied principally on the establishment and curation of a reference genome for the species. However, it is increasingly recognized that a single reference genome cannot fully describe the extent of genetic variation within many widely-distributed species. Pangenome representations are based on high-quality genome assemblies of multiple individuals and intended to represent the broadest possible diversity within a species. A Bovine Pangenome Consortium (BPC) has recently been established to begin assembling genomes from more than 600 recognized breeds of cattle, together with other related species to provide information on ancestral alleles and haplotypes. Previously reported de novo genome assemblies for Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and Highland breeds of cattle are part of the initial BPC effort. The present report describes a complete single haplotype assembly at chromosome-scale for a fullblood Simmental cow from an F1 bison-cattle hybrid fetus by trio binning. Simmental cattle, also known as Fleckvieh due to their red and white spots, originated in central Europe in the 1830's as a triple-purpose breed selected for draught, meat, and dairy production. There are over 50 million Simmental cattle in the world, known today for their fast growth and beef yields. This assembly (ARS_Simm1.0) is similar in length to the other bovine assemblies at 2.86 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 102 Mb (max scaffold 156.8 Mb) and meets or exceeds the continuity of the best B. taurus reference assemblies to date.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Hasan NA, Norton GJ, Virdi R, et al (2021)

Measurable genomic changes in Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis after long-term adaptation in Acanthamoeba lenticulata and reduced persistence in macrophages.

Journal of bacteriology pii:JB.00257-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and act as environmental reservoirs for nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis recovered from Acanthamoeba has been demonstrated to be more virulent in both human and murine models. Here, we investigate the persistence of M. avium subsp. hominissuis after short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (42 weeks) co-culture in Acanthamoeba lenticulata We hypothesize that A. lenticulata-adapted M. avium subsp. hominissuis demonstrate phenotypic and genomic changes facilitating intracellular persistence in naïve Acanthamoeba and human macrophages. M. avium subsp. hominissuis CFU in co-culture with A. lenticulata were recorded every 2 weeks up to 60 weeks. While A. lenticulata-associated M. avium subsp. hominissuis CFU did not significantly change across 60 weeks of co-culture, longer adaptation time in amoebae reduced colony size. Isolates recovered after 2 or 42 weeks of amoebae co-culture were referred as "early-adapted" and "late-adapted" M. avium subsp. hominissuis, respectively. Whole genome sequencing was performed on amoebae-adapted isolates with pan-genome comparisons to the original M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolate. Next, amoebae-adapted isolates were assessed for their persistence in A. lenticulata,A. castellanii, and human THP-1 macrophages. Multiplex cytokine/chemokine analyses were conducted on THP-1 culture supernatants. Compared to the original isolate, counts of late-adapted M. avium subsp. hominissuis were reduced in Acanthamoeba and contrary to expectations, lower counts were also observed in THP-1 macrophages with concomitant decrease in TNFa, IL-6, and MIP-1b suggesting that host adaptation may influence the inflammatory properties of M. aviumIMPORTANCE Short-term interaction between Acanthamoeba and M. avium has been demonstrated to increase infectivity in human and murine models of infection, establishing the paradigm that amoebae "train" M. avium in the environment by selecting for phenotypes capable of enduring in human cells. We investigate this phenomenon further by determining the consequence of long-term amoebae adaptation on M. avium subsp. hominissuis persistence in host cells. We monitored genomic changes across long-term Acanthamoeba co-culture and report significant changes to the M. avium subsp. hominissuis genome in response to amoebae-adaptation and reduced colony size. Furthermore, we examined isolates co-cultured with A. lenticulata for 2 or 42 weeks and provide biological evidence that long-term co-culture in amoebae reduces M. avium persistence in human macrophages.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Firrao G, Scortichini M, L Pagliari (2021)

Orthology-Based Estimate of the Contribution of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Distantly Related Bacteria to the Intraspecific Diversity and Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(1):.

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium phylogenetically related to the xanthomonads, with an unusually large and diversified range of plant hosts. To ascertain the origin of its peculiarities, its pan-genome was scanned to identify the genes that are not coherent with its phylogenetic position within the order Xanthomonadales. The results of the analysis revealed that a large fraction of the genes of the Xylella pan-genome have no ortholog or close paralog in the order Xanthomonadales. For a significant part of the genes, the closest homologue was found in bacteria belonging to distantly related taxonomic groups, most frequently in the Betaproteobacteria. Other species, such as Xanthomonas vasicola and Xanthomonas albilineans which were investigated for comparison, did not show a similar genetic contribution from distant branches of the prokaryotic tree of life. This finding indicates that the process of acquisition of DNA from the environment is still a relevant component of Xylella fastidiosa evolution. Although the ability of Xylella fastidiosa strains to recombine among themselves is well known, the results of the pan-genome analyses stressed the additional relevance of environmental DNA in shaping their genomes, with potential consequences on their phytopathological features.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Du H, Diao C, Zhao P, et al (2021)

Integrated hybrid de novo assembly technologies to obtain high-quality pig genome using short and long reads.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:6082823 [Epub ahead of print].

With the rapid progress of sequencing technologies, various types of sequencing reads and assembly algorithms have been designed to construct genome assemblies. Although recent studies have attempted to evaluate the appropriate type of sequencing reads and algorithms for assembling high-quality genomes, it is still a challenge to set the correct combination for constructing animal genomes. Here, we present a comparative performance assessment of 14 assembly combinations-9 software programs with different short and long reads of Duroc pig. Based on the results of the optimization process for genome construction, we designed an integrated hybrid de novo assembly pipeline, HSCG, and constructed a draft genome for Duroc pig. Comparison between the new genome and Sus scrofa 11.1 revealed important breakpoints in two S. scrofa 11.1 genes. Our findings may provide new insights into the pan-genome analysis studies of agricultural animals, and the integrated assembly pipeline may serve as a guide for the assembly of other animal genomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Harrison F, AR Smyth (2021)

Professor Pangloss and the Pangenome: Does Staphylococcus aureus Have the Best of All Possible Worlds?.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Wang M, Ruan R, H Li (2021)

The completed genome sequence of the pathogenic ascomycete fungus Penicillium digitatum.

Genomics, 113(2):439-446 pii:S0888-7543(21)00001-X [Epub ahead of print].

P. digitatum, the causative agent of green mold, is one of the most destructive pathogens in the citrus industry. To facilitate basal researches on this important plant pathogen, here we report a finished genome sequence for P. digitatum strain PDW03 using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembly comprised 6 chromosomes from telomere to telomere and encodes approximately 9000 proteins. Genomic re-analyses identified 302 Carbohydrate-active enzymes, 420 secreted proteins, and 39 secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters. Furthermore, we found 10 fragmentary SM clusters in the P. digitatum PDW03 genome. Pangenome analysis based on 5 P. digitatum genomes available showed that conserved orthogroups account for ~68% of the species pangenome. Taken together, this fully completed P. digitatum genome will provide an optimum resource for further researches to investigate the driving forces of fungal host switch and effectors functioning in plant-pathogen interaction.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Higdon SM, Huang BC, Bennett AB, et al (2020)

Identification of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in Lactococcus Isolated from Maize Using Population Genomics and Machine Learning.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

Sierra Mixe maize is a landrace variety from Oaxaca, Mexico, that utilizes nitrogen derived from the atmosphere via an undefined nitrogen fixation mechanism. The diazotrophic microbiota associated with the plant's mucilaginous aerial root exudate composed of complex carbohydrates was previously identified and characterized by our group where we found 23 lactococci capable of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) without containing any of the proposed essential genes for this trait (nifHDKENB). To determine the genes in Lactococcus associated with this phenotype, we selected 70 lactococci from the dairy industry that are not known to be diazotrophic to conduct a comparative population genomic analysis. This showed that the diazotrophic lactococcal genomes were distinctly different from the dairy isolates. Examining the pangenome followed by genome-wide association study and machine learning identified genes with the functions needed for BNF in the maize isolates that were absent from the dairy isolates. Many of the putative genes received an 'unknown' annotation, which led to the domain analysis of the 135 homologs. This revealed genes with molecular functions needed for BNF, including mucilage carbohydrate catabolism, glycan-mediated host adhesion, iron/siderophore utilization, and oxidation/reduction control. This is the first report of this pathway in this organism to underpin BNF. Consequently, we proposed a model needed for BNF in lactococci that plausibly accounts for BNF in the absence of the nif operon in this organism.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Horesh G, Blackwell GA, Tonkin-Hill G, et al (2021)

A comprehensive and high-quality collection of Escherichia coli genomes and their genes.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Nzoyikorera N, Diawara I, Fresia P, et al (2021)

Whole genomic comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 isolates causing invasive and non-invasive infections among children under 5 years in Casablanca, Morocco.

BMC genomics, 22(1):39.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 remains a leading cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases, even in countries with PCV-10/PCV-13 vaccine implementation. The main objective of this study, which is part of the Pneumococcal African Genome project (PAGe), was to determine the phylogenetic relationships of serotype 1 isolates recovered from children patients in Casablanca (Morocco), compared to these from other African countries; and to investigate the contribution of accessory genes and recombination events to the genetic diversity of this serotype.

RESULTS: The genome average size of the six-pneumococcus serotype 1 from Casablanca was 2,227,119 bp, and the average content of coding sequences was 2113, ranging from 2041 to 2161. Pangenome analysis of the 80 genomes used in this study revealed 1685 core genes and 1805 accessory genes. The phylogenetic tree based on core genes and the hierarchical bayesian clustering analysis revealed five sublineages with a phylogeographic structure by country. The Moroccan strains cluster in two different lineages, the five invasive strains clusters altogether in a divergent clade distantly related to the non-invasive strain, that cluster with all the serotype 1 genomes from Africa.

CONCLUSIONS: The whole genome sequencing provides increased resolution analysis of the highly virulent serotype 1 in Casablanca, Morocco. Our results are concordant with previous works, showing that the phylogeography of S. pneumoniae serotype 1 is structured by country, and despite the small size (six isolates) of the Moroccan sample, our analysis shows the genetic cohesion of the Moroccan invasive isolates.

RevDate: 2021-01-15
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Yahara K, Suzuki M, Hirabayashi A, et al (2021)

Long-read metagenomics using PromethION uncovers oral bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.

Nature communications, 12(1):27.

Bacteriophages (phages), or bacterial viruses, are very diverse and highly abundant worldwide, including as a part of the human microbiomes. Although a few metagenomic studies have focused on oral phages, they relied on short-read sequencing. Here, we conduct a long-read metagenomic study of human saliva using PromethION. Our analyses, which integrate both PromethION and HiSeq data of >30 Gb per sample with low human DNA contamination, identify hundreds of viral contigs; 0-43.8% and 12.5-56.3% of the confidently predicted phages and prophages, respectively, do not cluster with those reported previously. Our analyses demonstrate enhanced scaffolding, and the ability to place a prophage in its host genomic context and enable its taxonomic classification. Our analyses also identify a Streptococcus phage/prophage group and nine jumbo phages/prophages. 86% of the phage/prophage group and 67% of the jumbo phages/prophages contain remote homologs of antimicrobial resistance genes. Pan-genome analysis of the phages/prophages reveals remarkable diversity, identifying 0.3% and 86.4% of the genes as core and singletons, respectively. Furthermore, our study suggests that oral phages present in human saliva are under selective pressure to escape CRISPR immunity. Our study demonstrates the power of long-read metagenomics utilizing PromethION in uncovering bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Della Coletta R, Qiu Y, Ou S, et al (2021)

How the pan-genome is changing crop genomics and improvement.

Genome biology, 22(1):3.

Crop genomics has seen dramatic advances in recent years due to improvements in sequencing technology, assembly methods, and computational resources. These advances have led to the development of new tools to facilitate crop improvement. The study of structural variation within species and the characterization of the pan-genome has revealed extensive genome content variation among individuals within a species that is paradigm shifting to crop genomics and improvement. Here, we review advances in crop genomics and how utilization of these tools is shifting in light of pan-genomes that are becoming available for many crop species.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Fontana F, Alessandri G, Lugli GA, et al (2020)

Probiogenomics Analysis of 97 Lactobacilluscrispatus Strains as a Tool for the Identification of Promising Next-Generation Probiotics.

Microorganisms, 9(1):.

Members of the genus Lactobacillus represent the most common colonizers of the human vagina and are well-known for preserving vaginal health and contrasting the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. Remarkably, high abundance of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vaginal environment has been linked to vaginal health, leading to the widespread use of many L. crispatus strains as probiotics. Nevertheless, despite the scientific and industrial relevance of this species, a comprehensive investigation of the genomics of L. crispatus taxon is still missing. For this reason, we have performed a comparative genomics analysis of 97 L. crispatus strains, encompassing 16 strains sequenced in the framework of this study alongside 81 additional publicly available genome sequences. Thus, allowing the dissection of the L.crispatus pan-genome and core-genome followed by a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted core genes that revealed clustering based on ecological origin. Subsequently, a genomics-targeted approach, i.e., probiogenomics analysis, was applied for in-depth analysis of the eight L. crispatus strains of human origin sequenced in this study. In detail their genetic repertoire was screened for strain-specific genes responsible for phenotypic features that may guide the identification of optimal candidates for next-generation probiotics. The latter includes bacteriocin production, carbohydrates transport and metabolism, as well as a range of features that may be responsible for improved ecological fitness. In silico results regarding the genetic repertoire involved in carbohydrate metabolism were also validated by growth assays on a range of sugars, leading to the selection of putative novel probiotic strains.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Wibberg D, Price-Carter M, Rückert C, et al (2020)

Complete Genome Sequence of Ovine Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain JIII-386 (MAP-S/type III) and Its Comparison to MAP-S/type I, MAP-C, and M. avium Complex Genomes.

Microorganisms, 9(1):.

Mycobacterium avium (M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a worldwide-distributed obligate pathogen in ruminants causing Johne's disease. Due to a lack of complete subtype III genome sequences, there is not yet conclusive information about genetic differences between strains of cattle (MAP-C, type II) and sheep (MAP-S) type, and especially between MAP-S subtypes I, and III. Here we present the complete, circular genome of MAP-S/type III strain JIII-386 (DE) closed by Nanopore-technology and its comparison with MAP-S/type I closed genome of strain Telford (AUS), MAP-S/type III draft genome of strain S397 (U.S.), twelve closed MAP-C strains, and eight closed M.-a.-complex-strains. Structural comparative alignments revealed clearly the mosaic nature of MAP, emphasized differences between the subtypes and the higher diversity of MAP-S genomes. The comparison of various genomic elements including transposases and genomic islands provide new insights in MAP genomics. MAP type specific phenotypic features may be attributed to genes of known large sequence polymorphisms (LSPS s) regions I-IV and deletions #1 and #2, confirmed here, but could also result from identified frameshifts or interruptions of various virulence-associated genes (e.g., mbtC in MAP-S). Comprehensive core and pan genome analysis uncovered unique genes (e.g., cytochromes) and genes probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer in different MAP-types and subtypes, but also emphasized the highly conserved and close relationship, and the complex evolution of M.-a.-strains.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Yang SM, Baek J, Kim E, et al (2020)

Development of a Genoserotyping Method for Salmonella Infantis Detection on the Basis of Pangenome Analysis.

Microorganisms, 9(1):.

In recent years, Salmonella Infantis has become a predominant serovariant in clinical and poultry isolates, thereby imposing a substantial economic burden on both public health and the livestock industry. With the aim of coping with the steep increase in serovar Infantis prevalence, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based rapid and accurate diagnostic assay was developed in this study through pangenome profiling of 60 Salmonella serovars. A gene marker, SIN_02055, was identified, which is present in the S. Infantis genome but not in the pangenome of the other serovars. Primers specific to SIN_02055 were used to accurately detect serovar Infantis, and to successfully differentiate Infantis from the other 59 serovars in real-time PCR with a R2 of 0.999 and an efficiency of 95.76%. The developed method was applied to 54 Salmonella strains belonging to eight dominant serovars, and distinguished Infantis from the other seven serovars with an accuracy of 100%. The diagnostic primer set also did not show false positive amplification with 32 strains from eight non-Salmonella bacterial species. This cost-effective and rapid method can be considered an alternative to the classic serotyping using antisera.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Bazin A, Gautreau G, Médigue C, et al (2020)

panRGP: a pangenome-based method to predict genomic islands and explore their diversity.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 36(Supplement_2):i651-i658.

MOTIVATION: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major source of variability in prokaryotic genomes. Regions of genome plasticity (RGPs) are clusters of genes located in highly variable genomic regions. Most of them arise from HGT and correspond to genomic islands (GIs). The study of those regions at the species level has become increasingly difficult with the data deluge of genomes. To date, no methods are available to identify GIs using hundreds of genomes to explore their diversity.

RESULTS: We present here the panRGP method that predicts RGPs using pangenome graphs made of all available genomes for a given species. It allows the study of thousands of genomes in order to access the diversity of RGPs and to predict spots of insertions. It gave the best predictions when benchmarked along other GI detection tools against a reference dataset. In addition, we illustrated its use on metagenome assembled genomes by redefining the borders of the leuX tRNA hotspot, a well-studied spot of insertion in Escherichia coli. panRPG is a scalable and reliable tool to predict GIs and spots making it an ideal approach for large comparative studies.

The methods presented in the current work are available through the following software: Detailed results and scripts to compute the benchmark metrics are available at

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Surachat K, Kantachote D, Deachamag P, et al (2020)

Genomic Insight into Pediococcus acidilactici HN9, a Potential Probiotic Strain Isolated from the Traditional Thai-Style Fermented Beef Nhang.

Microorganisms, 9(1):.

Pediococcus acidilactici HN9 is a beneficial lactic acid bacterium isolated from Nhang, a traditional Thai-style fermented beef. In this study, the molecular properties of P. acidilactici HN9 were characterized to provide insights into its potential probiotic activity. Specifically, this work sought to report the complete genome of P. acidilactici HN9 and perform a comparative genome analysis with other bacterial strains belonging to the genus Pediococcus. Genomic features of HN9 were compared with those of all other bacterial Pediococcus strains to examine the adaptation, evolutionary relationships, and diversity within this genus. Additionally, several bioinformatic approaches were used to investigate phylogenetic relationships, genome stability, virulence factors, bacteriocin production, and antimicrobial resistance genes of the HN9 strain, as well as to ensure its safety as a potential starter culture in food applications. A 2,034,522 bp circular chromosome and two circular plasmids, designated pHN9-1 (42,239-bp) and pHN9-2 (30,711-bp), were detected, and used for pan-genome analysis, as well as for identification of bacteriocin-encoding genes in 129 strains belonging to all Pediococcus species. Two CRISPR regions were identified in P. acidilactici HN9, including type II-A CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas). This study provides an in-depth analysis on P. acidilactici HN9, facilitating a better understanding of its adaptability to different environments and its mechanism to maintain genome stability over time.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Blesa A, Baquedano I, González-de la Fuente S, et al (2020)

Integrative and Conjugative Element ICETh1 Functions as a Pangenomic DNA Capture Module in Thermus thermophilus.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

Transjugation is an unconventional conjugation mechanism in Thermus thermophilus (Tth) that involves the active participation of both mating partners, encompassing a DNA secretion system (DSS) in the donor and an active natural competence apparatus (NCA) in the recipient cells. DSS is encoded within an integrative and conjugative element (ICETh1) in the strain Tth HB27, whereas the NCA is constitutively expressed in both mates. Previous experiments suggested the presence of multiple origins of transfer along the genome, which could generate genomic mosaicity among the progeny. Here, we designed transjugation experiments between two closely related strains of Tth with highly syntenic genomes, containing enough single nucleotide polymorphisms to allow precise parenthood analysis. Individual clones from the progeny were sequenced, revealing their origin as derivatives of our ICETh1-containing intended "donor" strain (HB27), which had acquired separate fragments from the genome of the ICETh1-free HB8 cells, which are our intended recipient. Due to the bidirectional nature of transjugation, only assays employing competence-defective HB27 derivatives as donors allowed the recovery of HB8-derived progeny. These results show a preference for a retrotransfer mechanism in transjugation in ICETh1-bearing strains, supporting an inter-strain gene-capture function for ICETh1. This function could benefit the donor-capable host by facilitating the acquisition of adaptive traits from external sources, ultimately increasing the open pangenome of Thermus, maximizing the potential repertoire of physiological and phenotypical traits related to adaptation and speciation.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Verma DK, Chaudhary C, Singh L, et al (2020)

Isolation and Taxonomic Characterization of Novel Haloarchaeal Isolates From Indian Solar Saltern: A Brief Review on Distribution of Bacteriorhodopsins and V-Type ATPases in Haloarchaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:554927.

Haloarchaea inhabit high salinity environments worldwide. They are a potentially rich source of crucial biomolecules like carotenoids and industrially useful proteins. However, diversity in haloarchaea present in Indian high salinity environments is poorly studied. In the present study, we isolated 12 haloarchaeal strains from hypersaline Kottakuppam, Tamil Nadu solar saltern in India. 16S rRNA based taxonomic characterization of these isolates suggested that nine of them are novel strains that belong to genera Haloarcula, Halomicrobium, and Haloferax. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the polymorphic nature of these haloarchaeal isolates. Most of the haloarchaeal species are known to be high producers of carotenoids. We were able to isolate carotenoids from all these 12 isolates. The UV-Vis spectroscopy-based analysis suggests that bacterioruberin and lycopene are the major carotenoids produced by these isolates. Based on the visual inspection of the purified carotenoids, the isolates were classified into two broad categories i.e., yellow and orange, attributed to the differences in the ratio of bacterioruberin and lycopene as confirmed by the UV-Vis spectral analysis. Using a PCR-based screening assay, we were able to detect the presence of the bacteriorhodopsin gene (bop) in 11 isolates. We performed whole-genome sequencing for three bop positive and one bop negative haloarchaeal isolates. Whole-genome sequencing, followed by pan-genome analysis identified multiple unique genes involved in various biological functions. We also successfully cloned, expressed, and purified functional recombinant bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from one of the isolates using Escherichia coli as an expression host. BR has light-driven proton pumping activity resulting in the proton gradient across the membrane, which is utilized by V-Type ATPases to produce ATP. We analyzed the distribution of bop and other accessory genes involved in functional BR expression and ATP synthesis in all the representative haloarchaeal species. Our bioinformatics-based analysis of all the sequenced members of genus Haloarcula suggests that bop, if present, is usually inserted between the genes coding for B and D subunits of the V-type ATPases operon. This study provides new insights into the genomic variations in haloarchaea and reports expression of new BR variant having good expression in functional form in E. coli.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Li F, Ye Q, Chen M, et al (2020)

Mining of novel target genes through pan-genome analysis for multiplex PCR differentiation of the major Listeria monocytogenes serotypes.

International journal of food microbiology, 339:109026 pii:S0168-1605(20)30520-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The abundant information provided by the pan-genome analysis approach reveals the diversity among Listeria monocytogenes serotypes. The objective of this study was to mine novel target genes using pan-genome analysis for multiplex PCR detection and differentiation of the major L. monocytogenes serotypes present in food. Pan-genome analysis and PCR validation revealed a total of 10 specific targets: one for lineage I, two for serogroup I.1, one for serogroup I.2, two for lineage II, one for serogroup II.1, three for lineage III. Primers for the novel targets were highly specific in individual reactions. The detection limits were 103-104 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL in pure bacterial cultures, meeting the requirements of molecular detection. Based on these novel targets, two new "lineage" multiplex PCR assays were developed to simultaneously distinguish between three lineages (I, II, and III) and five major serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 4b, and 4c) of L. monocytogenes. The detection limits of lineage I and lineage II&III mPCRs were 0.771 pg/μL and 1.76 pg/μL genomic DNA, respectively. The specificity of the mPCRs was robustly verified using other L. monocytogenes and non-L. monocytogenes serotypes. These results suggest that the two "lineage" multiplex PCRs based on novel targets offer a promising approach for accurate, sensitive, and rapid identification of L. monocytogenes serotypes.

RevDate: 2021-02-03

Lassalle F, Dastgheib SMM, Zhao FJ, et al (2021)

Phylogenomics reveals the basis of adaptation of Pseudorhizobium species to extreme environments and supports a taxonomic revision of the genus.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 44(1):126165.

The family Rhizobiaceae includes many genera of soil bacteria, often isolated for their association with plants. Herein, we investigate the genomic diversity of a group of Rhizobium species and unclassified strains isolated from atypical environments, including seawater, rock matrix or polluted soil. Based on whole-genome similarity and core genome phylogeny, we show that this group corresponds to the genus Pseudorhizobium. We thus reclassify Rhizobium halotolerans, R. marinum, R. flavum and R. endolithicum as P. halotolerans sp. nov., P. marinum comb. nov., P. flavum comb. nov. and P. endolithicum comb. nov., respectively, and show that P. pelagicum is a synonym of P. marinum. We also delineate a new chemolithoautotroph species, P. banfieldiae sp. nov., whose type strain is NT-26T (=DSM 106348T=CFBP 8663T). This genome-based classification was supported by a chemotaxonomic comparison, with increasing taxonomic resolution provided by fatty acid, protein and metabolic profiles. In addition, we used a phylogenetic approach to infer scenarios of duplication, horizontal transfer and loss for all genes in the Pseudorhizobium pangenome. We thus identify the key functions associated with the diversification of each species and higher clades, shedding light on the mechanisms of adaptation to their respective ecological niches. Respiratory proteins acquired at the origin of Pseudorhizobium were combined with clade-specific genes to enable different strategies for detoxification and nutrition in harsh, nutrient-poor environments.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Pardini Gontijo MT, Pereira Vidigal PM, Soto Lopez ME, et al (2020)

Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria as source of signal-arrest-release motif lysins.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(20)30123-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria is challenging, a potential solution for which is the use of bacteriophage-derived lytic enzymes. However, the exogenous action of bacteriophage lysins against Gram-negative bacteria is hindered due to the presence of an impermeable outer membrane in these bacteria. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that some lysins are capable of permeating the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria with the help of signal peptides. In the present study, we investigated the genomes of 309 bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative pathogens of clinical interest in order to determine the evolutionary markers of signal peptide-containing lysins. Complete genomes displayed 265 putative lysins, of which 17 (6.41%) contained signal-arrest-release motifs and 41 (15.47%) contained cleavable signal peptides. There was no apparent relationship between host specificity and lysin diversity. Nevertheless, the evolution of lysin genes might not be independent of the rest of the bacteriophage genome once pan-genome clustering and lysin diversity appear to be correlated. In addition, signal peptide- and signal-arrest-release-containing lysins were monophyletically distributed in the protein cladogram, suggesting that the natural selection of holin-independent lysins is divergent. Our study screened 58 (21.89%) out of 265 potential candidates for in vitro experimentation against MDR bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Viana MVC, Profeta R, da Silva AL, et al (2020)

Taxonomic classification of strain PO100/5 shows a broader geographic distribution and genetic markers of the recently described Corynebacterium silvaticum.

PloS one, 15(12):e0244210.

The bacterial strain PO100/5 was isolated from a skin abscess taken from a pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) in the Alentejo region of southern Portugal. It was identified as Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using biochemical tests, multiplex PCR and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. After genome sequencing and rpoB phylogeny, the strain was classified as C. ulcerans. To better understand the taxonomy of this strain and improve identification methods, we compared strain PO100/5 to other publicly available genomes from C. diphtheriae group. Taxonomic analysis reclassified it and three others strains as the recently described C. silvaticum, which have been isolated from wild boar and roe deer in Germany and Austria. The results showed that PO100/5 is the first sequenced genome of a C. silvaticum strain from livestock and a different geographical region, has the unique sequence type ST709, and could be could produce the diphtheriae toxin, along with strain 05-13. Genomic analysis of PO100/5 showed four prophages, and eight conserved genomic islands in comparison to C. ulcerans. Pangenome analysis of 38 C. silvaticum and 76 C. ulcerans genomes suggested that C. silvaticum is a genetically homogeneous species, with 73.6% of its genes conserved and a pangenome near to be closed (α > 0.952). There are 172 genes that are unique to C. silvaticum in comparison to C. ulcerans. Most of these conserved genes are related to nutrient uptake and metabolism, prophages or immunity against them, and could be genetic markers for species identification. Strains PO100/5 (livestock) and KL0182T (wild boar) were predicted to be potential human pathogens. This information may be useful for identification and surveillance of this pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Hansen MJ, Kudirkiene E, I Dalsgaard (2020)

Analysis of 44 Vibrio anguillarum genomes reveals high genetic diversity.

PeerJ, 8:e10451.

Vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemic disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, is an important bacterial infection in Danish sea-reared rainbow trout. Despite of vaccination, outbreaks still occur, likely because the vaccine is based on V. anguillarum strains from abroad/other hosts than rainbow trout. Information about the genetic diversity of V. anguillarum specifically in Danish rainbow trout, is required to investigate this claim. Consequently, the aim of the present investigation was to sequence and to characterize a collection of 44 V. anguillarum strains obtained primarily from vibriosis outbreaks in Danish rainbow trout. The strains were sequenced, de novo assembled, and the genomes examined for the presence of plasmids, virulence, and acquired antibiotic resistance genes. To investigate the phylogeny, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, and the pan-genome was calculated. All strains carried tet(34) encoding tetracycline resistance, and 36 strains also contained qnrVC6 for increased fluoroquinolone/quinolone resistance. But interestingly, all strains were phenotypic sensitive to both oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid. Almost all serotype O1 strains contained a pJM1-like plasmid and nine serotype O2A strains carried the plasmid p15. The distribution of virulence genes was rather similar across the strains, although evident variance among serotypes was observed. Most significant, almost all serotype O2 and O3 strains, as well as the serotype O1 strain without a pJM1-like plasmid, carried genes encoding piscibactin biosynthesis. Hence supporting the hypothesis, that piscibactin plays a crucial role in virulence for pathogenic strains lacking the anguibactin system. The phylogenetic analysis and pan-genome calculations revealed great diversity within V. anguillarum. Serotype O1 strains were in general very similar, whereas considerable variation was found among serotype O2A strains. The great diversity within the V. anguillarum serotype O2A genomes is most likely the reason why vaccines provide good protection from some strains, but not from others. Hopefully, the new genomic data and knowledge provided in this study might help develop an optimized vaccine against V. anguillarum in the future to reduce the use of antibiotics, minimize economic losses and improve the welfare of the fish.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Ghaly TM, Paulsen IT, Sajjad A, et al (2020)

A Novel Family of Acinetobacter Mega-Plasmids Are Disseminating Multi-Drug Resistance Across the Globe While Acquiring Location-Specific Accessory Genes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:605952.

Acinetobacter species are emerging as major nosocomial pathogens, aided by their ability to acquire resistance to all classes of antibiotics. A key factor leading to their multi-drug resistance phenotypes is the acquisition of a wide variety of mobile genetic elements, particularly large conjugative plasmids. Here, we characterize a family of 21 multi-drug resistance mega-plasmids in 11 different Acinetobacter species isolated from various locations across the globe. The plasmid family exhibits a highly dynamic and diverse accessory genome, including 221 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that confer resistance to 13 classes of antibiotics. We show that plasmids isolated within the same geographic region are often evolutionarily divergent members of this family based on their core-genome, yet they exhibit a more similar accessory genome. Individual plasmids, therefore, can disseminate to different locations around the globe, where they then appear to acquire diverse sets of accessory genes from their local surroundings. Further, we show that plasmids from several geographic regions were enriched with location-specific functional traits. Together, our findings show that these mega-plasmids can transmit across species boundaries, have the capacity for global dissemination, can accumulate a diverse suite of location-specific accessory genes, and can confer multi-drug resistance phenotypes of significant concern for human health. We therefore highlight this previously undescribed plasmid family as a serious threat to healthcare systems worldwide. These findings also add to the growing concern that mega-plasmids are key disseminators of antibiotic resistance and require global surveillance.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Cai Z, Guo Q, Yao Z, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of Klebsiella michiganensis BD177 and related members of Klebsiella sp. reveal the symbiotic relationship with Bactrocera dorsalis.

BMC genetics, 21(Suppl 2):138.

BACKGROUND: Bactrocera dorsalis is a destructive polyphagous and highly invasive insect pest of tropical and subtropical species of fruit and vegetable crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used for decades to control insect pests of agricultural, veterinary, and human health importance. Irradiation of pupae in SIT can reduce the ecological fitness of the sterile insects. Our previous study has shown that a gut bacterial strain BD177 that could restore ecological fitness by promoting host food intake and metabolic activities.

RESULTS: Using long-read sequence technologies, we assembled the complete genome of K. michiganensis BD177 strain. The complete genome of K. michiganensis BD177 comprises one circular chromosome and four plasmids with a GC content of 55.03%. The pan-genome analysis was performed on 119 genomes (strain BD177 genome and 118 out of 128 published Klebsiella sp. genomes since ten were discarded). The pan-genome includes a total of 49305 gene clusters, a small number of 858 core genes, and a high number of accessory (10566) genes. Pan-genome and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis showed that BD177 is more similar to the type strain K. michiganensis DSM2544, while away from the type strain K. oxytoca ATCC13182. Comparative genome analysis with 21 K. oxytoca and 12 K. michiganensis strains, identified 213 unique genes, several of them related to amino acid metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism in BD177 genome.

CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenomics analysis reclassified strain BD177 as a member of the species K. michiganensis. Comparative genome analysis suggested that K. michiganensis BD177 has the strain-specific ability to provide three essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine) and two vitamins B (folate and riboflavin) to B. dorsalis. The clear classification status of BD177 strain and identification of unique genetic characteristics may contribute to expanding our understanding of the symbiotic relationship of gut microbiota and B. dorsalis.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Ramsamy Y, Mlisana KP, Amoako DG, et al (2020)

Comparative Pathogenomics of Aeromonas veronii from Pigs in South Africa: Dominance of the Novel ST657 Clone.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

The pathogenomics of carbapenem-resistant Aeromonas veronii (A. veronii) isolates recovered from pigs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was explored by whole genome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Genomic functional annotation revealed a vast array of similar central networks (metabolic, cellular, and biochemical). The pan-genome analysis showed that the isolates formed a total of 4349 orthologous gene clusters, 4296 of which were shared; no unique clusters were observed. All the isolates had similar resistance phenotypes, which corroborated their chromosomally mediated resistome (blaCPHA 3 and blaOXA- 12) and belonged to a novel sequence type, ST657 (a satellite clone). Isolates in the same sub-clades clustered according to their clonal lineages and host. Mobilome analysis revealed the presence of chromosome-borne insertion sequence families. The estimated pathogenicity score (Pscore ≈ 0.60) indicated their potential pathogenicity in humans. Furthermore, these isolates carried several virulence factors (adherence factors, toxins, and immune evasion), in different permutations and combinations, indicating a differential ability to establish infection. Phylogenomic and metadata analyses revealed a predilection for water environments and aquatic animals, with more recent reports in humans and food animals across geographies, making A. veronii a potential One Health indicator bacterium.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Park S, Steinegger M, Cho HS, et al (2020)

Metagenomic Association Analysis of Gut Symbiont Limosilactobacillus reuteri Without Host-Specific Genome Isolation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:585622.

Limosilactobacillus reuteri is a model symbiont that colonizes the guts of vertebrates in studies on host adaptation of the gut symbiont. Previous studies have investigated host-specific phylogenetic and functional properties by isolating the genomic sequence. This dependency on genome isolation is a significant bottleneck. Here, we propose a method to study the association between L. reuteri and its hosts directly from metagenomic reads without strain isolation using pan-genomes. We characterized the host-specificity of L. reuteri in metagenomic samples, not only in previously studied organisms (mice and pigs) but also in dogs. For each sample, two types of profiles were generated: (1) genome-based strain type abundance profiles and (2) gene composition profiles. Our profiles showed host-association of L. reuteri in both phylogenetic and functional aspects without depending on host-specific genome isolation. We observed not only the presence of host-specific lineages, but also the dominant lineages associated with the different hosts. Furthermore, we showed that metagenome-assembled genomes provide detailed insights into the host-specificity of L. reuteri. We inferred evolutionary trajectories of host-associative L. reuteri strains in the metagenomic samples by placing the metagenome-assembled genomes into a phylogenetic tree and identified novel host-specific genes that were unannotated in existing pan-genome databases. Our pan-genomic approach reduces the need for time-consuming and expensive host-specific genome isolation, while producing consistent results with previous host-association findings in mice and pigs. Additionally, we predicted associations that have not yet been studied in dogs.

RevDate: 2021-02-01

Wolter LA, Wietz M, Ziesche L, et al (2021)

Pseudooceanicola algae sp. nov., isolated from the marine macroalga Fucus spiralis, shows genomic and physiological adaptations for an algae-associated lifestyle.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 44(1):126166.

The genus Pseudooceanicola from the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter group currently includes ten validated species. We herein describe strain Lw-13eT, the first Pseudooceanicola species from marine macroalgae, isolated from the brown alga Fucus spiralis abundant at European and North American coasts. Physiological and pangenome analyses of Lw-13eT showed corresponding adaptive features. Adaptations to the tidal environment include a broad salinity tolerance, degradation of macroalgae-derived substrates (mannitol, mannose, proline), and resistance to several antibiotics and heavy metals. Notably, Lw-13eT can degrade oligomeric alginate via PL15 alginate lyase encoded in a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL), rarely described for roseobacters to date. Plasmid localization of the PUL strengthens the importance of mobile genetic elements for evolutionary adaptations within the Roseobacter group. PL15 homologs were primarily detected in marine plant-associated metagenomes from coastal environments but not in the open ocean, corroborating its adaptive role in algae-rich habitats. Exceptional is the tolerance of Lw-13eT against the broad-spectrum antibiotic tropodithietic acid, produced by Phaeobacter spp. co-occurring in coastal habitats. Furthermore, Lw-13eT exhibits features resembling terrestrial plant-bacteria associations, i.e. biosynthesis of siderophores, terpenes and volatiles, which may contribute to mutual bacteria-algae interactions. Closest described relative of Lw-13eT is Pseudopuniceibacterium sediminis CY03T with 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. However, protein sequence-based core genome phylogeny and average nucleotide identity indicate affiliation of Lw-13eT with the genus Pseudooceanicola. Based on phylogenetic, physiological and (chemo)taxonomic distinctions, we propose strain Lw-13eT (=DSM 29013T=LMG 30557T) as a novel species with the name Pseudooceanicola algae.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Jiao J, CF Tian (2020)

Ancestral zinc-finger bearing protein MucR in alpha-proteobacteria: A novel xenogeneic silencer?.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 18:3623-3631.

The MucR/Ros family protein is conserved in alpha-proteobacteria and characterized by its zinc-finger motif that has been proposed as the ancestral domain from which the eukaryotic C2H2 zinc-finger structure evolved. In the past decades, accumulated evidences have revealed MucR as a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator that integrating multiple functions such as virulence, symbiosis, cell cycle and various physiological processes. Scattered reports indicate that MucR mainly acts as a repressor, through oligomerization and binding to multiple sites of AT-rich target promoters. The N-terminal region and zinc-finger bearing C-terminal region of MucR mediate oligomerization and DNA-binding, respectively. These features are convergent to those of xenogeneic silencers such as H-NS, MvaT, Lsr2 and Rok, which are mainly found in other lineages. Phylogenetic analysis of MucR homologs suggests an ancestral origin of MucR in alpha- and delta-proteobacteria. Multiple independent duplication and lateral gene transfer events contribute to the diversity and phyletic distribution of MucR. Finally, we posed questions which remain unexplored regarding the putative roles of MucR as a xenogeneic silencer and a general manager in balancing adaptation and regulatory integration in the pangenome context.

RevDate: 2020-12-13

Zhou G, Liang H, Gu Y, et al (2020)

Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pullorum from different countries.

Gut pathogens, 12(1):56.

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pullorum commonly colonized in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and caused gastroenteritis. This bacterium could be transmitted to humans through contaminated food and caused colitis and hepatitis. Currently, the genetic characteristics of the H. pullorum were not recognized enough. In this study, the genomes of 23 H. pullorum strains from different counties were comparatively analyzed. Among them, H. pullorum 2013BJHL was the first isolated and reported in China.

RESULTS: The genomes of the studied strains were estimated to vary from 1.55 to 2.03 Mb, with a GC content of ~ 34%. 4064 pan genes and 1267 core genes were obtained from the core-pan genome analysis using the Roary pipeline. Core genome SNPs (cg-SNPs) were obtained using Snippy4 software. Two groups were identified with the phylogenetic analysis based on the cg-SNPs. Some adhesion-related, immune regulation, motility-related, antiphagocytosis-related, toxin-related and quorum sensing related genes were identified as virulence factors. APH(3')-IIIa, APH(2'')-If, and AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia were identified as antibiotic resistance genes among the H. pullorum genomes. cat, SAT-4 and tetO genes were only identified in 2013BJHL, and tet(C) was identified in MIT98-5489. MIC determination revealed that the 2013BJHL showed acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin, only sensitive to ampicillin. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the 2013BJHL genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Two types of VI secretion system (T6SS) were identified in 52.2% (12/23) the studied strains.

CONCLUSION: In this study, we obtained the genetic characteristics of H. pullorum from different sources in the world. The comprehensive genetic characteristics of H. pullorum were first described. H. pullorum showed highly genetic diversity and two sub-types of T6SSs were first identified in H. pullorum. 2013BJHL was found to be multidrug resistant as it was resistant to at least three different antibiotic classes.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Webster J, Bogema D, TA Chapman (2020)

Comparative Genomics of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri A* Pathotype Reveals Three Distinct Clades with Varying Plasmid Distribution.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) is an important disease of citrus cultivars worldwide that causes blister-like lesions on host plants and leads to more severe symptoms such as plant defoliation and premature fruit drop. The causative agent, Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, exists as three pathotypes-A, A*, and Aw-which differ in their host range and elicited host response. To date, comparative analyses have been hampered by the lack of closed genomes for the A* pathotype. In this study, we sequenced and assembled six CBC isolates of pathotype A* using second- and third-generation sequencing technologies to produce complete, closed assemblies. Analysis of these genomes and reference A, A*, and Aw sequences revealed genetic groups within the A* pathotype. Investigation of accessory genomes revealed virulence factors, including type IV secretion systems and heavy metal resistance genes, differentiating the genetic groups. Genomic comparisons of closed genome assemblies also provided plasmid distribution information for the three genetic groups of A*. The genomes presented here complement existing closed genomes of A and Aw pathotypes that are publicly available and open opportunities to investigate the evolution of X. citri pv. citri and the virulence factors that contribute to this serious pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Danilevicz MF, Tay Fernandez CG, Marsh JI, et al (2021)

High-Throughput Genotyping Technologies in Plant Taxonomy.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2222:149-166.

Molecular markers provide researchers with a powerful tool for variation analysis between plant genomes. They are heritable and widely distributed across the genome and for this reason have many applications in plant taxonomy and genotyping. Over the last decade, molecular marker technology has developed rapidly and is now a crucial component for genetic linkage analysis, trait mapping, diversity analysis, and association studies. This chapter focuses on molecular marker discovery, its application, and future perspectives for plant genotyping through pangenome assemblies. Included are descriptions of automated methods for genome and sequence distance estimation, genome contaminant analysis in sequence reads, genome structural variation, and SNP discovery methods.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Choo SW, Rishik S, WY Wee (2020)

Comparative genome analyses of Mycobacteroides immunogenum reveals two potential novel subspecies.

Microbial genomics, 6(12):.

Mycobacteroides immunogenum is an emerging opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections. Comparative genome analyses may provide better insights into its genomic structure, functions and evolution. The present analysis showed that M. immunogenum has an open pan-genome. Approximately 36.8% of putative virulence genes were identified in the accessory regions of M. immunogenum. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two potential novel subspecies of M. immunogenum, supported by evidence from ANIb (average nucleotide identity using blast) and GGDC (Genome to Genome Distance Calculator) analyses. We identified 74 genomic islands (GIs) in Subspecies 1 and 23 GIs in Subspecies 2. All Subspecies 2-harboured GIs were not found in Subspecies 1, indicating that they might have been acquired by Subspecies 2 after their divergence. Subspecies 2 has more defence genes than Subspecies 1, suggesting that it might be more resistant to the insertion of foreign DNA and probably explaining why Subspecies 2 has fewer GIs. Positive selection analysis suggest that M. immunogenum has a lower selection pressure compared to non-pathogenic mycobacteria. Thirteen genes were positively selected and many were involved in virulence.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Valero-Jiménez CA, Steentjes MBF, Slot JC, et al (2020)

Dynamics in Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters in Otherwise Highly Syntenic and Stable Genomes in the Fungal Genus Botrytis.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(12):2491-2507.

Fungi of the genus Botrytis infect >1,400 plant species and cause losses in many crops. Besides the broad host range pathogen Botrytis cinerea, most other species are restricted to a single host. Long-read technology was used to sequence genomes of eight Botrytis species, mostly pathogenic on Allium species, and the related onion white rot fungus, Sclerotium cepivorum. Most assemblies contained <100 contigs, with the Botrytis aclada genome assembled in 16 gapless chromosomes. The core genome and pan-genome of 16 Botrytis species were defined and the secretome, effector, and secondary metabolite repertoires analyzed. Among those genes, none is shared among all Allium pathogens and absent from non-Allium pathogens. The genome of each of the Allium pathogens contains 8-39 predicted effector genes that are unique for that single species, none stood out as potential determinant for host specificity. Chromosome configurations of common ancestors of the genus Botrytis and family Sclerotiniaceae were reconstructed. The genomes of B. cinerea and B. aclada were highly syntenic with only 19 rearrangements between them. Genomes of Allium pathogens were compared with ten other Botrytis species (nonpathogenic on Allium) and with 25 Leotiomycetes for their repertoire of secondary metabolite gene clusters. The pattern was complex, with several clusters displaying patchy distribution. Two clusters involved in the synthesis of phytotoxic metabolites are at distinct genomic locations in different Botrytis species. We provide evidence that the clusters for botcinic acid production in B. cinerea and Botrytis sinoallii were acquired by horizontal transfer from taxa within the same genus.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Fagorzi C, Ilie A, Decorosi F, et al (2020)

Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Members of the Genus Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) Are Separated into Two Clades Based on Comparative Genomics and High-Throughput Phenotyping.

Genome biology and evolution, 12(12):2521-2534.

Rhizobium-legume symbioses serve as paradigmatic examples for the study of mutualism evolution. The genus Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) contains diverse plant-associated bacteria, a subset of which can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. To gain insights into the evolution of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and interkingdom mutualisms more generally, we performed extensive phenotypic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses of the genus Ensifer. The data suggest that SNF likely emerged several times within the genus Ensifer through independent horizontal gene transfer events. Yet, the majority (105 of 106) of the Ensifer strains with the nodABC and nifHDK nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes were found within a single, monophyletic clade. Comparative genomics highlighted several differences between the "symbiotic" and "nonsymbiotic" clades, including divergences in their pangenome content. Additionally, strains of the symbiotic clade carried 325 fewer genes, on average, and appeared to have fewer rRNA operons than strains of the nonsymbiotic clade. Initial characterization of a subset of ten Ensifer strains identified several putative phenotypic differences between the clades. Tested strains of the nonsymbiotic clade could catabolize 25% more carbon sources, on average, than strains of the symbiotic clade, and they were better able to grow in LB medium and tolerate alkaline conditions. On the other hand, the tested strains of the symbiotic clade were better able to tolerate heat stress and acidic conditions. We suggest that these data support the division of the genus Ensifer into two main subgroups, as well as the hypothesis that pre-existing genetic features are required to facilitate the evolution of SNF in bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Gaba S, Kumari A, Medema M, et al (2020)

Pan-genome analysis and ancestral state reconstruction of class halobacteria: probability of a new super-order.

Scientific reports, 10(1):21205.

Halobacteria, a class of Euryarchaeota are extremely halophilic archaea that can adapt to a wide range of salt concentration generally from 10% NaCl to saturated salt concentration of 32% NaCl. It consists of the orders: Halobacteriales, Haloferaciales and Natriabales. Pan-genome analysis of class Halobacteria was done to explore the core (300) and variable components (Softcore: 998, Cloud:36531, Shell:11784). The core component revealed genes of replication, transcription, translation and repair, whereas the variable component had a major portion of environmental information processing. The pan-gene matrix was mapped onto the core-gene tree to find the ancestral (44.8%) and derived genes (55.1%) of the Last Common Ancestor of Halobacteria. A High percentage of derived genes along with presence of transformation and conjugation genes indicate the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer during the evolution of Halobacteria. A Core and pan-gene tree were also constructed to infer a phylogeny which implicated on the new super-order comprising of Natrialbales and Halobacteriales.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Chen Z, Erickson DL, J Meng (2020)

Benchmarking Long-Read Assemblers for Genomic Analyses of Bacterial Pathogens Using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(23):.

Oxford Nanopore sequencing can be used to achieve complete bacterial genomes. However, the error rates of Oxford Nanopore long reads are greater compared to Illumina short reads. Long-read assemblers using a variety of assembly algorithms have been developed to overcome this deficiency, which have not been benchmarked for genomic analyses of bacterial pathogens using Oxford Nanopore long reads. In this study, long-read assemblers, namely Canu, Flye, Miniasm/Racon, Raven, Redbean, and Shasta, were thus benchmarked using Oxford Nanopore long reads of bacterial pathogens. Ten species were tested for mediocre- and low-quality simulated reads, and 10 species were tested for real reads. Raven was the most robust assembler, obtaining complete and accurate genomes. All Miniasm/Racon and Raven assemblies of mediocre-quality reads provided accurate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, while the Raven assembly of Klebsiella variicola with low-quality reads was the only assembly with an accurate AMR profile among all assemblers and species. All assemblers functioned well for predicting virulence genes using mediocre-quality and real reads, whereas only the Raven assemblies of low-quality reads had accurate numbers of virulence genes. Regarding multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Miniasm/Racon was the most effective assembler for mediocre-quality reads, while only the Raven assemblies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K. variicola with low-quality reads showed positive MLST results. Miniasm/Racon and Raven were the best performers for MLST using real reads. The Miniasm/Racon and Raven assemblies showed accurate phylogenetic inference. For the pan-genome analyses, Raven was the strongest assembler for simulated reads, whereas Miniasm/Racon and Raven performed the best for real reads. Overall, the most robust and accurate assembler was Raven, closely followed by Miniasm/Racon.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Brown AV, Conners SI, Huang W, et al (2021)

A new decade and new data at SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomics database.

Nucleic acids research, 49(D1):D1496-D1501.

SoyBase, a USDA genetic and genomics database, holds professionally curated soybean genetic and genomic data, which is integrated and made accessible to researchers and breeders. The site holds several reference genome assemblies, as well as genetic maps, thousands of mapped traits, expression and epigenetic data, pedigree information, and extensive variant and genotyping data sets. SoyBase displays include genetic, genomic, and epigenetic maps of the soybean genome. Gene expression data is presented in the genome viewer as heat maps and pictorial and tabular displays in gene report pages. Millions of sequence variants have been added, representing variations across various collections of cultivars. This variant data is explorable using new interactive tools to visualize the distribution of those variants across the genome, between selected accessions. SoyBase holds several reference-quality soybean genome assemblies, accessible via various query tools and browsers, including a new visualization system for exploring the soybean pan-genome. SoyBase also serves as a nexus of announcements pertinent to the greater soybean research community. The database also includes a soybean-specific anatomic and biochemical trait ontology. The database can be accessed at

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Zhang Y, Thomas W, Bayer PE, et al (2020)

Frontiers in Dissecting and Managing Brassica Diseases: From Reference-Based RGA Candidate Identification to Building Pan-RGAomes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(23):.

The Brassica genus contains abundant economically important vegetable and oilseed crops, which are under threat of diseases caused by fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens. Resistance gene analogues (RGAs) are associated with quantitative and qualitative disease resistance and the identification of candidate RGAs associated with disease resistance is crucial for understanding the mechanism and management of diseases through breeding. The availability of Brassica genome assemblies has greatly facilitated reference-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for disease resistance. In addition, pangenomes, which characterise both core and variable genes, have been constructed for B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus. Genome-wide characterisation of RGAs using conserved domains and motifs in reference genomes and pangenomes reveals their clustered arrangements and presence of structural variations. Here, we comprehensively review RGA identification in important Brassica genome and pangenome assemblies. Comparison of the RGAs in QTL between resistant and susceptible individuals allows for efficient identification of candidate disease resistance genes. However, the reference-based QTL mapping and RGA candidate identification approach is restricted by the under-represented RGA diversity characterised in the limited number of Brassica assemblies. The species-wide repertoire of RGAs make up the pan-resistance gene analogue genome (pan-RGAome). Building a pan-RGAome, through either whole genome resequencing or resistance gene enrichment sequencing, would effectively capture RGA diversity, greatly expanding breeding resources that can be utilised for crop improvement.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Yahara H, Hiraki A, Maruoka Y, et al (2020)

Shotgun metagenome sequencing identification of a set of genes encoded by Actinomyces associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241676.

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is intractable and severely affects a patient's quality of life. Although many cases of MRONJ have been reported in the past decade, the disease pathophysiology is unclear and there are no evidence-based therapeutic strategies. MRONJ usually features bone inflammation and infection. Prior studies that explored the association between MRONJ and microbial infection used the culture-based approach, which is not applicable to hundreds of unculturable taxa in the human oral microbiome, or 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, which does not provide quantitative information of the abundance of specific taxa, and information of the presence, abundance, and function of specific genes in the microbiome. Here, deep shotgun metagenome sequencing (>10 Gb per sample) of bulk DNA extracted from saliva of MRONJ patients and healthy controls was performed to overcome these limitations. Comparative quantitative analyses of taxonomic and functional composition of these deep metagenomes (initially of 5 patients and 5 healthy controls) revealed an average 10.1% increase of genus Actinomyces and a 33.2% decrease in genus Streptococcus normally predominant in the human oral microbiota. Pan-genome analysis identified genes present exclusively in the MRONJ samples. Further analysis of the reads mapping to the genes in the extended dataset comprising five additional MRONJ samples and publicly available dataset of nine healthy controls resulted in the identification of 31 genes significantly associated with MRONJ. All these genes were encoded by Actinomyces genomic regions. Of these, the top two abundant genes were almost exclusively encoded by Actinomyces among usual taxa in the human oral microbiota. The potential relationships of these key genes with the disease are discussed at molecular level based on the literature. Although the sample size was small, this study will aid future studies to verify the data and characterize these genes in vitro and in vivo to understand the disease mechanisms, develop molecular targeted drugs, and for early stage screening and prognosis prediction.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Hammond JA, Gordon EA, Socarras KM, et al (2020)

Beyond the pan-genome: current perspectives on the functional and practical outcomes of the distributed genome hypothesis.

Biochemical Society transactions, 48(6):2437-2455.

The principle of monoclonality with regard to bacterial infections was considered immutable prior to 30 years ago. This view, espoused by Koch for acute infections, has proven inadequate regarding chronic infections as persistence requires multiple forms of heterogeneity among the bacterial population. This understanding of bacterial plurality emerged from a synthesis of what-were-then novel technologies in molecular biology and imaging science. These technologies demonstrated that bacteria have complex life cycles, polymicrobial ecologies, and evolve in situ via the horizontal exchange of genic characters. Thus, there is an ongoing generation of diversity during infection that results in far more highly complex microbial communities than previously envisioned. This perspective is based on the fundamental tenet that the bacteria within an infecting population display genotypic diversity, including gene possession differences, which result from horizontal gene transfer mechanisms including transformation, conjugation, and transduction. This understanding is embodied in the concepts of the supragenome/pan-genome and the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH). These paradigms have fostered multiple researches in diverse areas of bacterial ecology including host-bacterial interactions covering the gamut of symbiotic relationships including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. With regard to the human host, within each of these symbiotic relationships all bacterial species possess attributes that contribute to colonization and persistence; those species/strains that are pathogenic also encode traits for invasion and metastases. Herein we provide an update on our understanding of bacterial plurality and discuss potential applications in diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccinology based on perspectives provided by the DGH with regard to the evolution of pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Hudson LK, Constantine-Renna L, Thomas L, et al (2020)

Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana.

PeerJ, 8:e10256.

Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana is the fourth most reported serovar of laboratory-confirmed human Salmonella infections in the U.S. and in Tennessee (TN). Although Salmonella ser. Javiana is a common cause of human infection, the majority of cases are sporadic in nature rather than outbreak-associated. To better understand Salmonella ser. Javiana microbial population structure in TN, we completed a phylogenetic analysis of 111 Salmonella ser. Javiana clinical isolates from TN collected from Jan. 2017 to Oct. 2018. We identified mobile genetic elements and genes known to confer antibiotic resistance present in the isolates, and performed a pan-genome-wide association study (pan-GWAS) to compare gene content between clades identified in this study. The population structure of TN Salmonella ser. Javiana clinical isolates consisted of three genetic clades: TN clade I (n = 54), TN clade II (n = 4), and TN clade III (n = 48). Using a 5, 10, and 25 hqSNP distance threshold for cluster identification, nine, 12, and 10 potential epidemiologically-relevant clusters were identified, respectively. The majority of genes that were found to be over-represented in specific clades were located in mobile genetic element (MGE) regions, including genes encoding integrases and phage structures (91.5%). Additionally, a large portion of the over-represented genes from TN clade II (44.9%) were located on an 87.5 kb plasmid containing genes encoding a toxin/antitoxin system (ccdAB). Additionally, we completed phylogenetic analyses of global Salmonella ser. Javiana datasets to gain a broader insight into the population structure of this serovar. We found that the global phylogeny consisted of three major clades (one of which all of the TN isolates belonged to) and two cgMLST eBurstGroups (ceBGs) and that the branch length between the two Salmonella ser. Javiana ceBGs (1,423 allelic differences) was comparable to those from other serovars that have been reported as polyphyletic (929-2,850 allelic differences). This study demonstrates the population structure of TN and global Salmonella ser. Javiana isolates, a clinically important Salmonella serovar and can provide guidance for phylogenetic cluster analyses for public health surveillance and response.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Su F, Tian R, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Basis of Niche Adaptation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:566080.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most commonly isolated species from human skin and the second leading cause of bloodstream infections. Here, we performed a large-scale comparative study without any pre-assigned reference to identify genomic determinants associated with the diversity and adaptation of S. epidermidis strains to various environments. Pan-genome of S. epidermidis was open with 435 core proteins and had a pan-genome size of 8,034 proteins. Genome-wide phylogenetic tree showed high heterogeneity and suggested that routine whole genome sequencing was a powerful tool for analyzing the complex evolution of S. epidermidis and for investigating the infection sources. Comparative genome analyses demonstrated a range of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, especially those within mobile genetic elements. The complicated host-bacterium and bacterium-bacterium relationships help S. epidermidis to play a vital role in balancing the epithelial microflora. The highly variable and dynamic nature of the S. epidermidis genome may contribute to its success in adapting to broad habitats. Genes related to biofilm formation and cell toxicity were significantly enriched in the blood and skin, demonstrating their potentials in identifying risk genotypes. This study gave a general landscape of S. epidermidis pan-genome and provided valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible species.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-02

Jayakodi M, Padmarasu S, Haberer G, et al (2020)

The barley pan-genome reveals the hidden legacy of mutation breeding.

Nature, 588(7837):284-289.

Genetic diversity is key to crop improvement. Owing to pervasive genomic structural variation, a single reference genome assembly cannot capture the full complement of sequence diversity of a crop species (known as the 'pan-genome'1). Multiple high-quality sequence assemblies are an indispensable component of a pan-genome infrastructure. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop with a long history of cultivation that is adapted to a wide range of agro-climatic conditions2. Here we report the construction of chromosome-scale sequence assemblies for the genotypes of 20 varieties of barley-comprising landraces, cultivars and a wild barley-that were selected as representatives of global barley diversity. We catalogued genomic presence/absence variants and explored the use of structural variants for quantitative genetic analysis through whole-genome shotgun sequencing of 300 gene bank accessions. We discovered abundant large inversion polymorphisms and analysed in detail two inversions that are frequently found in current elite barley germplasm; one is probably the product of mutation breeding and the other is tightly linked to a locus that is involved in the expansion of geographical range. This first-generation barley pan-genome makes previously hidden genetic variation accessible to genetic studies and breeding.

RevDate: 2020-11-24

Khan S, Vancuren SJ, JE Hill (2020)

A Generalist Lifestyle Allows Rare Gardnerella spp. to Persist at Low Levels in the Vaginal Microbiome.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Gardnerella spp. are considered a hallmark of bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome. There are four cpn60 sequence-based subgroups within the genus (A, B, C and D), and thirteen genome species have been defined recently. Gardnerella spp. co-occur in the vaginal microbiome with varying abundance, and these patterns are shaped by a resource-dependent, exploitative competition, which affects the growth rate of subgroups A, B and C negatively. The growth rate of rarely abundant subgroup D, however, increases with the increasing number of competitors, negatively affecting the growth rate of others. We hypothesized that a nutritional generalist lifestyle and minimal niche overlap with the other more abundant Gardnerella spp. facilitate the maintenance of subgroup D in the vaginal microbiome through negative frequency-dependent selection. Using 40 whole-genome sequences from isolates representing all four subgroups, we found that they could be distinguished based on the content of their predicted proteomes. Proteins associated with carbohydrate and amino acid uptake and metabolism were significant contributors to the separation of subgroups. Subgroup D isolates had significantly more of their proteins assigned to amino acid metabolism than the other subgroups. Subgroup D isolates were also significantly different from others in terms of number and type of carbon sources utilized in a phenotypic assay, while the other three could not be distinguished. Overall, the results suggest that a generalist lifestyle and lack of niche overlap with other Gardnerella spp. leads to subgroup D being favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection in the vaginal microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2021-01-12

Tahir Ul Qamar M, Zhu X, Khan MS, et al (2020)

Pan-genome: A promising resource for noncoding RNA discovery in plants.

The plant genome, 13(3):e20046.

Plant genomes contain both protein-coding and noncoding sequences including transposable elements (TEs) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The ncRNAs are recognized as important elements that play fundamental roles in the structural organization and function of plant genomes. Despite various hypotheses, TEs are believed to be a major precursor of ncRNAs. Transposable elements are also prime factors that cause genomic variation among members of a species. Hence, TEs pose a major challenge in the discovery and analysis of ncRNAs. With the increase in the number of sequenced plant genomes, it is now accepted that a single reference genome is insufficient to represent the complete genomic diversity and contents of a species, and exploring the pan-genome of a species is critical. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the field of plant pan-genomes. We also discuss TEs and their roles in ncRNA biogenesis and present our perspectives on the application of pan-genomes for the discovery of ncRNAs to fully explore and exploit their biological roles in plants.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Dar HA, Zaheer T, Ullah N, et al (2020)

Pangenome Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Core-Drug Targets and Screening of Promising Lead Compounds for Drug Discovery.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11):.

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is one of the leading causes of human deaths globally according to the WHO TB 2019 report. The continuous rise in multi- and extensive-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis broadens the challenges to control tuberculosis. The availability of a large number of completely sequenced genomes of M. tuberculosis has provided an opportunity to explore the pangenome of the species along with the pan-phylogeny and to identify potential novel drug targets leading to drug discovery. We attempt to calculate the pangenome of M. tuberculosis that comprises a total of 150 complete genomes and performed the phylo-genomic classification and analysis. Further, the conserved core genome (1251 proteins) is subjected to various sequential filters (non-human homology, essentiality, virulence, physicochemical parameters, and pathway analysis) resulted in identification of eight putative broad-spectrum drug targets. Upon molecular docking analyses of these targets with ligands available at the DrugBank database shortlisted a total of five promising ligands with projected inhibitory potential; namely, 2'deoxy-thymidine-5'-diphospho-alpha-d-glucose, uridine diphosphate glucose, 2'-deoxy-thymidine-beta-l-rhamnose, thymidine-5'-triphosphate, and citicoline. We are confident that with further lead optimization and experimental validation, these lead compounds may provide a sound basis to develop safe and effective drugs against tuberculosis disease in humans.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Korzhenkov AA, Toshchakov SV, Podosokorskaya OA, et al (2020)

Data on draft genome sequence of Caldanaerobacter sp. strain 1523vc, a thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a hot spring of Uzon Caldera, (Kamchatka, Russia).

Data in brief, 33:106336.

The draft genome sequence of Caldanaerobacter sp. strain 1523vc, a thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a hot spring of Uzon Caldera, (Kamchatka, Russia) is presented. The complete genome assembly was of 2 713 207 bp with predicted completeness of 99.38%. Genome structural annotation revealed 2674 protein-coding genes, 127 pseudogenes and 77 RNA genes. Pangenome analysis of 7 currently available high quality Caldanaerobacter spp. genomes including 1523vc revealed 4673 gene clusters. Of them, 1130 clusters formed a core genome of genus Caldanaerobacter. Of the rest 3543 Caldanaerobacter pangenome genes, 385 were exclusively represented in 1523vc genome. 101 of 2801 Caldanaerobacter CDS were found to be encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The majority of CAZymes were predicted to be involved in degradation of beta-linked polysaccharides as chitin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, reflecting the metabolism of strain 1523vc, isolated on cellulose. 5 of 101 CAZyme genes were found to be unique for the strain 1523vc and belonged to GH23, GT56, GH15 and two CE9 family proteins. The draft genome of strain 1523vc was deposited at DBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accessions JABEQB000000000, PRJNA629090 and SAMN14766777 for Genome, Bioproject and Biosample, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Kim J, Sung J, Han K, et al (2020)

A High Quality Asian Genome Assembly Identifies Features of Common Missing Regions.

Genes, 11(11):.

The current human reference genome (GRCh38), with its superior quality, has contributed significantly to genome analysis. However, GRCh38 may still underrepresent the ethnic genome, specifically for Asians, though exactly what we are missing is still elusive. Here, we juxtaposed GRCh38 with a high-contiguity genome assembly of one Korean (AK1) to show that a part of AK1 genome is missing in GRCh38 and that the missing regions harbored ~1390 putative coding elements. Furthermore, we found that multiple populations shared some certain parts in the missing genome when we analyzed the "unmapped" (to GRCh38) reads of fourteen individuals (five East-Asians, four Europeans, and five Africans), amounting to ~5.3 Mb (~0.2% of AK1) of the total genomic regions. The recovered AK1 regions from the "unmapped reads", which were the estimated missing regions that did not exist in GRCh38, harbored candidate coding elements. We verified that most of the common (shared by ≥7 individuals) missing regions exist in human and chimpanzee DNA. Moreover, we further identified the occurrence mechanism and ethnic heterogeneity as well as the presence of the common missing regions. This study illuminates a potential advantage of using a pangenome reference and brings up the need for further investigations on the various features of regions globally missed in GRCh38.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Li X, Lin J, Hu Y, et al (2020)

PARMAP: A Pan-Genome-Based Computational Framework for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:578795.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as one of the most urgent global threats to public health. Accurate detection of AMR phenotypes is critical for reducing the spread of AMR strains. Here, we developed PARMAP (Prediction of Antimicrobial Resistance by MAPping genetic alterations in pan-genome) to predict AMR phenotypes and to identify AMR-associated genetic alterations based on the pan-genome of bacteria by utilizing machine learning algorithms. When we applied PARMAP to 1,597 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it successfully predicted their AMR phenotypes based on a pan-genome analysis. Furthermore, it identified 328 genetic alterations in 23 known AMR genes and discovered many new AMR-associated genetic alterations in ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, and it clearly indicated the genetic heterogeneity of AMR genes in different subtypes of resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Additionally, PARMAP performed well in predicting the AMR phenotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli, indicating the robustness of the PARMAP framework. In conclusion, PARMAP not only precisely predicts the AMR of a population of strains of a given species but also uses whole-genome sequencing data to prioritize candidate AMR-associated genetic alterations based on their likelihood of contributing to AMR. Thus, we believe that PARMAP will accelerate investigations into AMR mechanisms in other human pathogens.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Yuan C, Wei Y, Zhang S, et al (2020)

Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Genetic Mechanisms of the Variety of Pathogenicity, Antibiotic Resistance, and Environmental Adaptation of Providencia Genus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:572642.

The bacterial genus Providencia is Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, which have been isolated from a variety of environments and organisms, ranging from humans to animals. Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii are the most common clinical isolates, however, these three species differ in their pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation. Genomes of 91 isolates of the genus Providencia were investigated to clarify their genetic diversity, focusing on virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and environmental adaptation genes. Our study revealed an open pan-genome for the genus Providencia containing 14,720 gene families. Species of the genus Providencia exhibited different functional constraints, with the core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny reconstructed with concatenated single-copy core genes classified all Providencia isolates into 11 distant groups. Comprehensive and systematic comparative genomic analyses revealed that specific distributions of virulence genes, which were highly homologous to virulence genes of the genus Proteus, contributed to diversity in pathogenicity of Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii. Furthermore, multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes of isolates of Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii were predominantly due to resistance genes from class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii harbored more genes related to material transport and energy metabolism, which conferred a stronger ability to adapt to diverse environments. Overall, our study provided valuable insights into the genetic diversity and functional features of the genus Providencia, and revealed genetic mechanisms underlying diversity in pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation of members of this genus.

RevDate: 2021-02-06

Gao L, Koo DH, Juliana P, et al (2021)

The Aegilops ventricosa 2NvS segment in bread wheat: cytology, genomics and breeding.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 134(2):529-542.

KEY MESSAGE: The first cytological characterization of the 2NvS segment in hexaploid wheat; complete de novo assembly and annotation of 2NvS segment; 2NvS frequency is increasing 2NvS and is associated with higher yield. The Aegilops ventricosa 2NvS translocation segment has been utilized in breeding disease-resistant wheat crops since the early 1990s. This segment is known to possess several important resistance genes against multiple wheat diseases including root knot nematode, stripe rust, leaf rust and stem rust. More recently, this segment has been associated with resistance to wheat blast, an emerging and devastating wheat disease in South America and Asia. To date, full characterization of the segment including its size, gene content and its association with grain yield is lacking. Here, we present a complete cytological and physical characterization of this agronomically important translocation in bread wheat. We de novo assembled the 2NvS segment in two wheat varieties, 'Jagger' and 'CDC Stanley,' and delineated the segment to be approximately 33 Mb. A total of 535 high-confidence genes were annotated within the 2NvS region, with > 10% belonging to the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene families. Identification of groups of NLR genes that are potentially N genome-specific and expressed in specific tissues can fast-track testing of candidate genes playing roles in various disease resistances. We also show the increasing frequency of 2NvS among spring and winter wheat breeding programs over two and a half decades, and the positive impact of 2NvS on wheat grain yield based on historical datasets. The significance of the 2NvS segment in wheat breeding due to resistance to multiple diseases and a positive impact on yield highlights the importance of understanding and characterizing the wheat pan-genome for better insights into molecular breeding for wheat improvement.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )