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Bibliography on: Pangenome

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:33 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( pangenome OR "pan-genome" OR "pan genome" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-02-07

Jirakkakul J, Khoiri AN, Duangfoo T, et al (2023)

Insights into the genome of Methylobacterium sp. NMS14P, a novel bacterium for growth promotion of maize, chili, and sugarcane.

PloS one, 18(2):e0281505 pii:PONE-D-22-16071.

A novel methylotrophic bacterium designated as NMS14P was isolated from the root of an organic coffee plant (Coffea arabica) in Thailand. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that this new isolate belongs to the genus Methylobacterium, and its novelty was clarified by genomic and comparative genomic analyses, in which NMS14P exhibited low levels of relatedness with other Methylobacterium-type strains. NMS14P genome consists of a 6,268,579 bp chromosome, accompanied by a 542,519 bp megaplasmid and a 66,590 bp plasmid, namely pNMS14P1 and pNMS14P2, respectively. Several genes conferring plant growth promotion are aggregated on both chromosome and plasmids, including phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, cytokinins (CKs) production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, sulfur-oxidizing activity, trehalose synthesis, and urea metabolism. Furthermore, pangenome analysis showed that NMS14P possessed the highest number of strain-specific genes accounting for 1408 genes, particularly those that are essential for colonization and survival in a wide array of host environments, such as ABC transporter, chemotaxis, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In vivo tests have supported that NMS14P significantly promoted the growth and development of maize, chili, and sugarcane. Collectively, NMS14P is proposed as a novel plant growth-promoting Methylobacterium that could potentially be applied to a broad range of host plants as Methylobacterium-based biofertilizers to reduce and ultimately substitute the use of synthetic agrochemicals for sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Reddy TS, Zomer R, N Mantri (2023)

Nanoformulations as a strategy to overcome the delivery limitations of cannabinoids.

Phytotherapy research : PTR [Epub ahead of print].

Medical cannabis has received significant interest in recent years due to its promising benefits in the management of pain, anxiety, depression and neurological and movement disorders. Specifically, the major phytocannabinoids derived from the cannabis plant such as (-) trans-Δ[9] -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have been shown to be responsible for the pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Recently, these phytocannabinoids have also attracted special attention in cancer treatment due to their well-known palliative benefits in chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, pain and loss of appetite along with their anticancer activities. Despite the enormous pharmacological benefits, the low aqueous solubility, high instability (susceptibility to extensive first pass metabolism) and poor systemic bioavailability restrict their utilization at clinical perspective. Therefore, drug delivery strategies based on nanotechnology are emerging to improve pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of cannabinoids as well as enhance their targeted delivery. Here, we critically review the nano-formulation systems engineered for overcoming the delivery limitations of native phytocannabinoids including polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles (lipid nano capsules (LNCs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), nanoemulsions (NE) and self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS)), ethosomes and cyclodextrins as well as their therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Worden PJ, Bogema DR, Micallef ML, et al (2022)

Phylogenomic diversity of Vibrio species and other Gammaproteobacteria isolated from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) during a summer mortality outbreak.

Microbial genomics, 8(12):.

The Pacific oyster (PO), Crassostrea gigas, is an important commercial marine species but periodically experiences large stock losses due to disease events known as summer mortality. Summer mortality has been linked to environmental perturbations and numerous viral and bacterial agents, indicating this disease is multifactorial in nature. In 2013 and 2014, several summer mortality events occurred within the Port Stephens estuary (NSW, Australia). Extensive culture and molecular-based investigations were undertaken and several potentially pathogenic Vibrio species were identified. To improve species identification and genomically characterise isolates obtained from this outbreak, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and subsequent genomic analyses were performed on 48 bacterial isolates, as well as a further nine isolates from other summer mortality studies using the same batch of juveniles. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) identified most isolates to the species level and included members of the Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella and Vibrio genera, with Vibrio species making up more than two-thirds of all species identified. Construction of a phylogenomic tree, ANI analysis, and pan-genome analysis of the 57 isolates represents the most comprehensive culture-based phylogenomic survey of Vibrios during a PO summer mortality event in Australian waters and revealed large genomic diversity in many of the identified species. Our analysis revealed limited and inconsistent associations between isolate species and their geographical origins, or host health status. Together with ANI and pan-genome results, these inconsistencies suggest that to determine the role that microbes may have in Pacific oyster summer mortality events, isolate identification must be at the taxonomic level of strain. Our WGS data (specifically, the accessory genomes) differentiated bacterial strains, and coupled with associated metadata, highlight the possibility of predicting a strain's environmental niche and level of pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Rai A, Suresh G, Ria B, et al (2023)

Phylogenomic analysis of the genus Alcanivorax: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Alcanivorax and two novel genera Alloalcanivorax gen. nov. and Isoalcanivorax gen. nov.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 73(1):.

The members of the genus Alcanivorax are key players in the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from polluted marine environments. More than half of the species were described in the last decade using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and genomic-based metrics. However, the 16S rRNA gene identity (<94 %) between some members of the genus Alcanivorax suggested their imprecise taxonomic status. In this study, we examined the taxonomic positions of Alcanivorax species using 16S rRNA phylogeny and further validated them using phylogenomic-related indexes such as digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average nucleotide identity (ANI), average amino acid identity (AAI), percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) and comparative genomic studies. ANI and dDDH values confirmed that all the Alcanivorax species were well described at the species level. The phylotaxogenomic analysis showed that Alcanivorax species formed three clades. The inter-clade values of AAI and POCP were less than 70 %. The pan-genome evaluation depicted that the members shared 1223 core genes and its number increased drastically when analysed clade-wise. Therefore, these results necessitate the transfer of clade II and clade III members into Isoalcanivorax gen. nov. and Alloalcanivorax gen. nov., respectively, along with the emended description of the genus Alcanivorax sensu stricto.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Wietz M, López-Pérez M, Sher D, et al (2022)

Microbe Profile: Alteromonas macleodii - a widespread, fast-responding, 'interactive' marine bacterium.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 168(11):.

Alteromonas macleodii is a marine heterotrophic bacterium with widespread distribution - from temperate to tropical oceans, and from surface to deep waters. Strains of A. macleodii exhibit considerable genomic and metabolic variability, and can grow rapidly on diverse organic compounds. A. macleodii is a model organism for the study of population genomics, physiological adaptations and microbial interactions, with individual genomes encoding diverse phenotypic traits influenced by recombination and horizontal gene transfer.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Cummins EA, Hall RJ, Connor C, et al (2022)

Distinct evolutionary trajectories in the Escherichia coli pangenome occur within sequence types.

Microbial genomics, 8(11):.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Li BB, Zhang XJ, Wu D, et al (2022)

Devosia ureilytica sp. nov., isolated from Kuche River in China.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 72(12):.

Two novel strains, designated XJ19-45[T] and XJ19-1, were isolated from water of Kuche River in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Their cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and motile rods. The phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and genomes showed that the two isolates belonged to the genus Devosia and the closest relative was Devosia subaequoris HST3-14[T]. The 16S rRNA genes sequences pairwise similarities, average nucleotide identities, digital DNA-DNA hybridizations and average amino acid identities between type strain XJ19-45[T] and other relatives were all less than 98.3, 80.3, 23.6 and 85.7 %, respectively, all below the species delineation thresholds. Pan-genomic analysis indicated that the novel isolate XJ19-45[T] shared 1594 core gene clusters with the 11 closely related type strains in Devosia, and the number of strain-specific clusters was 390. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) of the two isolates were summed feature 8, C18 : 1 ω7c 11-methyl and C16 : 0. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and glycolipids were the major polar lipids, and Q10 was the detected respiratory quinone. Based on the results of phenotypic, physiological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characterizations, we propose that the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Devosia ureilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XJ19-45[T] (=CGMCC 1.19388[T]=KCTC 92263[T]).

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Hoover RL, Keffer JL, Polson SW, et al (2023)

Gallionellaceae pangenomic analysis reveals insight into phylogeny, metabolic flexibility, and iron oxidation mechanisms.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.26.525709.

UNLABELLED: The iron-oxidizing Gallionellaceae drive a wide variety of biogeochemical cycles through their metabolisms and biominerals. To better understand the environmental impacts of Gallionellaceae, we need to improve our knowledge of their diversity and metabolisms, especially any novel iron oxidation mechanisms. Here, we used a pangenomic analysis of 103 genomes to resolve Gallionellaceae phylogeny and explore the range of genomic potential. Using a concatenated ribosomal protein tree and key gene patterns, we determined Gallionellaceae has four genera, divided into two groupsâ€"iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) Gallionella , Sideroxydans , and Ferriphaselus with known iron oxidases (Cyc2, MtoA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) Candidatus Nitrotoga with nitrite oxidase (Nxr). The FeOB and NOB have similar electron transport chains, including genes for reverse electron transport and carbon fixation. Auxiliary energy metabolisms including S oxidation, denitrification, and organotrophy were scattered throughout the Gallionellaceae FeOB. Within FeOB, we found genes that may represent adaptations for iron oxidation, including a variety of extracellular electron uptake (EEU) mechanisms. FeOB genomes encoded more predicted c -type cytochromes overall, notably more multiheme c -type cytochromes (MHCs) with >10 CXXCH motifs. These include homologs of several predicted outer membrane porin-MHC complexes, including MtoAB and Uet. MHCs are known to efficiently conduct electrons across longer distances and function across a wide range of redox potentials that overlap with mineral redox potentials, which can help expand the range of usable iron substrates. Overall, the results of pangenome analyses suggest that the Gallionellaceae genera Gallionella , Sideroxydans , and Ferriphaselus are primarily iron oxidizers, capable of oxidizing dissolved Fe [2+] as well as a range of solid iron or other mineral substrates.

IMPORTANCE: Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) produce copious iron (oxyhydr)oxides that can profoundly influence biogeochemical cycles, notably the fate of carbon and many metals. To fully understand environmental microbial iron oxidation, we need a thorough accounting of iron oxidation mechanisms. In this study we show the Gallionellaceae FeOB have both known iron oxidases as well as uncharacterized multiheme cytochromes (MHCs). MHCs are predicted to transfer electrons from extracellular substrates and likely confer metabolic capabilities that help Gallionellaceae occupy a range of different iron- and mineral-rich niches. Gallionellaceae appear to specialize in iron oxidation, so it makes sense that they would have multiple mechanisms to oxidize various forms of iron, given the many iron minerals on Earth, as well as the physiological and kinetic challenges faced by FeOB. The multiple iron/mineral oxidation mechanisms may help drive the widespread ecological success of Gallionellaceae.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Chen H, King R, Smith D, et al (2023)

Combined pangenomics and transcriptomics reveals core and redundant virulence processes in a rapidly evolving fungal plant pathogen.

BMC biology, 21(1):24.

BACKGROUND: Studying genomic variation in rapidly evolving pathogens potentially enables identification of genes supporting their "core biology", being present, functional and expressed by all strains or "flexible biology", varying between strains. Genes supporting flexible biology may be considered to be "accessory", whilst the "core" gene set is likely to be important for common features of a pathogen species biology, including virulence on all host genotypes. The wheat-pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici represents one of the most rapidly evolving threats to global food security and was the focus of this study.

RESULTS: We constructed a pangenome of 18 European field isolates, with 12 also subjected to RNAseq transcription profiling during infection. Combining this data, we predicted a "core" gene set comprising 9807 sequences which were (1) present in all isolates, (2) lacking inactivating polymorphisms and (3) expressed by all isolates. A large accessory genome, consisting of 45% of the total genes, was also defined. We classified genetic and genomic polymorphism at both chromosomal and individual gene scales. Proteins required for essential functions including virulence had lower-than average sequence variability amongst core genes. Both core and accessory genomes encoded many small, secreted candidate effector proteins that likely interact with plant immunity. Viral vector-mediated transient in planta overexpression of 88 candidates failed to identify any which induced leaf necrosis characteristic of disease. However, functional complementation of a non-pathogenic deletion mutant lacking five core genes demonstrated that full virulence was restored by re-introduction of the single gene exhibiting least sequence polymorphism and highest expression.

CONCLUSIONS: These data support the combined use of pangenomics and transcriptomics for defining genes which represent core, and potentially exploitable, weaknesses in rapidly evolving pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Jia Y, Xu M, Hu H, et al (2023)

Comparative gene retention analysis in barley, wild emmer, and bread wheat pangenome lines reveals factors affecting gene retention following gene duplication.

BMC biology, 21(1):25 pii:10.1186/s12915-022-01503-z.

BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a prevalent phenomenon and a major driving force underlying genome evolution. The process leading to the fixation of gene duplicates following duplication is critical to understand how genome evolves but remains fragmentally understood. Most previous studies on gene retention are based on gene duplicate analyses in single reference genome. No population-based comparative gene retention analysis has been performed to date.

RESULTS: Taking advantage of recently published genomic data in Triticeae, we dissected a divergent homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT2) lineage caught in the middle stage of gene fixation following duplication. The presence/absence of HPT2 in barley (diploid), wild emmer (tetraploid), and bread wheat (hexaploid) pangenome lines appears to be associated with gene dosage constraint and environmental adaption. Based on these observations, we adopted a phylogeny-based orthology inference approach and performed comparative gene retention analyses across barley, wild emmer, and bread wheat. This led to the identification of 326 HPT2-pattern-like genes at whole genome scale, representing a pool of gene duplicates in the middle stage of gene fixation. Majority of these HPT2-pattern-like genes were identified as small-scale duplicates, such as dispersed, tandem, and proximal duplications. Natural selection analyses showed that HPT2-pattern-like genes have experienced relaxed selection pressure, which is generally accompanied with partial positive selection and transcriptional divergence. Functional enrichment analyses showed that HPT2-pattern-like genes are over-represented with molecular-binding and defense response functions, supporting the potential role of environmental adaption during gene retention. We also observed that gene duplicates from larger gene family are more likely to be lost, implying a gene dosage constraint effect. Further comparative gene retention analysis in barley and bread wheat pangenome lines revealed combined effects of species-specific selection and gene dosage constraint.

CONCLUSIONS: Comparative gene retention analyses at the population level support gene dosage constraint, environmental adaption, and species-specific selection as three factors that may affect gene retention following gene duplication. Our findings shed light on the evolutionary process leading to the retention of newly formed gene duplicates and will greatly improve our understanding on genome evolution via duplication.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Jeong BR, Jang J, E Jin (2023)

Genome engineering via gene editing technologies in microalgae.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00127-X [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas has revolutionized genetic modification with its comparative simplicity and accuracy, and it can be used even at the genomic level. Microalgae are excellent feedstocks for biofuels and nutraceuticals because they contain high levels of fatty acids, carotenoids, and other metabolites; however, genome engineering for microalgae is not yet as developed as for other model organisms. Microalgal engineering at the genetic and metabolic levels is relatively well established, and a few genomic resources are available. Their genomic information was used for a "safe harbor" site for stable transgene expression in microalgae. This review proposes further genome engineering schemes including the construction of sgRNA libraries, pan-genomic and epigenomic resources, and mini-genomes, which can together be developed into synthetic biology for carbon-based engineering in microalgae. Acetyl-CoA is at the center of carbon metabolic pathways and is further reviewed for the production of molecules including terpenoids in microalgae.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Srinivas K, Ghatak S, Pyngrope DA, et al (2022)

Avian strains of emerging pathogen Escherichia fergusonii are phylogenetically diverse and harbor the greatest AMR dissemination potential among different sources: Comparative genomic evidence.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1080677.

INTRODUCTION: Escherichia fergusonii is regarded as an emerging pathogen with zoonotic potential. In the current study, we undertook source-wise comparative genomic analyses (resistome, virulome, mobilome and pangenome) to understand the antimicrobial resistance, virulence, mobile genetic elements and phylogenetic diversity of E. fergusonii.

METHODS: Six E. fergusonii strains (5 multidrug resistant strains and 1 biofilm former) were isolated from poultry (duck faeces and retail chicken samples). Following confirmation by phenotypic and molecular methods, the isolates were further characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative resisto-virulo-mobilome analyses and pangenomics were performed for E. fergusonii genomes, while including 125 other E. fergusonii genomes available from NCBI database.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Avian and porcine strains of E. fergusonii were found to carry significantly higher number of antimicrobial resistance genes (p < 0.05) and mobile genetic elements (plasmids, transposons and integrons) (p < 0.05), while the pathogenic potential of bovine strains was significantly higher compared to other strains (p < 0.05). Pan-genome development trends indicated open pan-genome for all strains (0 < γ < 1). Genomic diversity of avian strains was found to be greater than that from other sources. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close clustering among isolates of similar isolation source and geographical location. Indian isolates of E. fergusonii clustered closely with those from Chinese and a singleton Australian isolate. Overall, being the first pangenomic study on E. fergusonii, our analysis provided important cues on genomic features of the emerging pathogen E. fergusonii while highlighting the potential role of avian strains in dissemination of AMR.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Lanclos VC, Rasmussen AN, Kojima CY, et al (2023)

Ecophysiology and genomics of the brackish water adapted SAR11 subclade IIIa.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-023-01376-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The Order Pelagibacterales (SAR11) is the most abundant group of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in global oceans and comprises multiple subclades with unique spatiotemporal distributions. Subclade IIIa is the primary SAR11 group in brackish waters and shares a common ancestor with the dominant freshwater IIIb (LD12) subclade. Despite its dominance in brackish environments, subclade IIIa lacks systematic genomic or ecological studies. Here, we combine closed genomes from new IIIa isolates, new IIIa MAGS from San Francisco Bay (SFB), and 460 highly complete publicly available SAR11 genomes for the most comprehensive pangenomic study of subclade IIIa to date. Subclade IIIa represents a taxonomic family containing three genera (denoted as subgroups IIIa.1, IIIa.2, and IIIa.3) that had distinct ecological distributions related to salinity. The expansion of taxon selection within subclade IIIa also established previously noted metabolic differentiation in subclade IIIa compared to other SAR11 subclades such as glycine/serine prototrophy, mosaic glyoxylate shunt presence, and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis potential. Our analysis further shows metabolic flexibility among subgroups within IIIa. Additionally, we find that subclade IIIa.3 bridges the marine and freshwater clades based on its potential for compatible solute transport, iron utilization, and bicarbonate management potential. Pure culture experimentation validated differential salinity ranges in IIIa.1 and IIIa.3 and provided detailed IIIa cell size and volume data. This study is an important step forward for understanding the genomic, ecological, and physiological differentiation of subclade IIIa and the overall evolutionary history of SAR11.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Saikia J, Kotoky R, Debnath R, et al (2022)

De novogenomic analysis ofEnterobacter asburiaeEBRJ12, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgarisL.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:6965352 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Environmental stresses such as water deficit induced stress are one of the major limiting factors in crop production. However, some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth in such adverse condition. Therefore, the objective was to isolate rhizospheric bacteria from Phaseolus vulgaris L. growing in a drought-affected soil and to analyze its plant growth promoting (PGP) efficacy to black gram (Vigna mungo L.) and Bhut jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Whole-genome sequencing of the potential bacteria was targeted to analyze the genetic potential of the isolate as a plant growth-promoting agent.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The isolate Enterobacter asburiae EBRJ12 was selected based on its PGP efficacy, which significantly improved plant growth and development. The genomic analysis revealed the presence of one circular chromosome of size 4.8 Mb containing 16 genes for osmotic stress regulation including osmotically inducible protein osmY, outer membrane protein A precursor ompA, aquaporin Z, and an operon for osmoprotectant ABC transporter yehZYXW. Moreover, the genome has a complete genetic cluster for biosynthesis of siderophore Enterobactin and siderophore Aerobactin.The PGP effects were verified with black gram and Bhut jolokia in pot experiments. The isolate significantly increased the shoot length by 35.0% and root length by 58.0% of black gram, while 41.0% and 57.0% of elevation in shoot and root length were observed in Bhut jolokia compared to non-inoculated plants.

CONCLUSIONS: The EBRJ12 has PGP features that could improve the growth in host plants, and the genomic characterization revealed the presence of genetic potential for plant growth promotion.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Petersen C, Sørensen T, Nielsen MR, et al (2023)

Comparative genomic study of the Penicillium genus elucidates a diverse pangenome and 15 lateral gene transfer events.

IMA fungus, 14(1):3.

The Penicillia are known to produce a wide range natural products-some with devastating outcome for the agricultural industry and others with unexploited potential in different applications. However, a large-scale overview of the biosynthetic potential of different species has been lacking. In this study, we sequenced 93 Penicillium isolates and, together with eleven published genomes that hold similar assembly characteristics, we established a species phylogeny as well as defining a Penicillium pangenome. A total of 5612 genes were shared between ≥ 98 isolates corresponding to approximately half of the average number of genes a Penicillium genome holds. We further identified 15 lateral gene transfer events that have occurred in this collection of Penicillium isolates, which might have played an important role, such as niche adaption, in the evolution of these fungi. The comprehensive characterization of the genomic diversity in the Penicillium genus supersedes single-reference genomes, which do not necessarily capture the entire genetic variation.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Lu Y, Luo J, An E, et al (2023)

Deciphering the genetic basis of silkworm cocoon colors provides new insights into biological coloration and phenotypic diversification.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7013732 [Epub ahead of print].

The genetic basis of phenotypic variation is a long-standing concern of evolutionary biology. Coloration has proven to be a visual, easily quantifiable, and highly tractable system for genetic analysis and is an ever-evolving focus of biological research. Compared with the homogenized brown-yellow cocoons of wild silkworms, the cocoons of domestic silkworms are spectacularly diverse in color, such as white, green, and yellow-red; this provides an outstanding model for exploring the phenotypic diversification and biological coloration. Herein, the molecular mechanism underlying silkworm green cocoon formation was investigated, which was not fully understood. We demonstrated that five of the seven members of a sugar transporter gene cluster were specifically duplicated in the Bombycidae and evolved new spatial expression patterns predominantly expressed in silk glands, accompanying complementary temporal expression; they synergistically facilitate the uptake of flavonoids, thus determining the green cocoon. Subsequently, polymorphic cocoon coloring landscape involving multiple loci and the evolution of cocoon color from wild to domestic silkworms were analyzed based on the pan-genome sequencing data. It was found that cocoon coloration involved epistatic interaction between loci; all the identified cocoon color-related loci existed in wild silkworms; the genetic segregation, recombination, and variation of these loci shaped the multi-colored cocoons of domestic silkworms. This study revealed a new mechanism for flavonoids-based biological coloration that highlights the crucial role of gene duplication followed by functional diversification in acquiring new genetic functions; furthermore, the results in this work provide insight into phenotypic innovation during domestication.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Sun Y, Xiao W, Wang QN, et al (2023)

Multiple variation patterns of terpene synthases in 26 maize genomes.

BMC genomics, 24(1):46.

Terpenoids are important compounds associated with the pest and herbivore resistance mechanisms of plants; consequently, it is essential to identify and explore terpene synthase (TPS) genes in maize. In the present study, we identified 31 TPS genes based on a pan-genome of 26 high-quality maize genomes containing 20 core genes (present in all 26 lines), seven dispensable genes (present in 2 to 23 lines), three near-core genes (present in 24 to 25 lines), and one private gene (present in only 1 line). Evaluation of ka/ks values of TPS in 26 varieties revealed that TPS25 was subjected to positive selection in some varieties. Six ZmTPS had ka/ks values less than 1, indicating that they were subjected to purifying selection. In 26 genomes, significant differences were observed in ZmTPS25 expression between genes affected by structural variation (SV) and those not affected by SV. In some varieties, SV altered the conserved structural domains resulting in a considerable number of atypical genes. The analysis of RNA-seq data of maize Ostrinia furnacalis feeding revealed 10 differentially expressed ZmTPS, 9 of which were core genes. However, many atypical genes for these responsive genes were identified in several genomes. These findings provide a novel resource for functional studies of ZmTPS.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Younginger BS, Mayba O, Reeder J, et al (2023)

Enrichment of oral-derived bacteria in inflamed colorectal tumors and distinct associations of Fusobacterium in the mesenchymal subtype.

Cell reports. Medicine pii:S2666-3791(23)00005-8 [Epub ahead of print].

While the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) features and Fusobacterium has been extensively studied, less is known of other intratumoral bacteria. Here, we leverage whole transcriptomes from 807 CRC samples to dually characterize tumor gene expression and 74 intratumoral bacteria. Seventeen of these species, including 4 Fusobacterium spp., are classified as orally derived and are enriched among right-sided, microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), and BRAF-mutant tumors. Across consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs), integration of Fusobacterium animalis (Fa) presence and tumor expression reveals that Fa has the most significant associations in mesenchymal CMS4 tumors despite a lower prevalence than in immune CMS1. Within CMS4, the prevalence of Fa is uniquely associated with collagen- and immune-related pathways. Additional Fa pangenome analysis reveals that stress response genes and the adhesion FadA are commonly expressed intratumorally. Overall, this study identifies oral-derived bacteria as enriched in inflamed tumors, and the associations of bacteria and tumor expression are context and species specific.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Wang J, Yang W, Zhang S, et al (2023)

A pangenome analysis pipeline provides insights into functional gene identification in rice.

Genome biology, 24(1):19.

BACKGROUND: A pangenome aims to capture the complete genetic diversity within a species and reduce bias in genetic analysis inherent in using a single reference genome. However, the current linear format of most plant pangenomes limits the presentation of position information for novel sequences. Graph pangenomes have been developed to overcome this limitation. However, bioinformatics analysis tools for graph format genomes are lacking.

RESULTS: To overcome this problem, we develop a novel strategy for pangenome construction and a downstream pangenome analysis pipeline (PSVCP) that captures genetic variants' position information while maintaining a linearized layout. Using PSVCP, we construct a high-quality rice pangenome using 12 representative rice genomes and analyze an international rice panel with 413 diverse accessions using the pangenome as the reference. We show that PSVCP successfully identifies causal structural variations for rice grain weight and plant height. Our results provide insights into rice population structure and genomic diversity. We characterize a new locus (qPH8-1) associated with plant height on chromosome 8 undetected by the SNP-based genome-wide association study (GWAS).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the pangenome constructed by our pipeline combined with a presence and absence variation-based GWAS can provide additional power for genomic and genetic analysis. The pangenome constructed in this study and the associated genome sequence and genetic variants data provide valuable genomic resources for rice genomics research and improvement in future.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Lee G, Choi H, Liu H, et al (2022)

Biocontrol of the causal brown patch pathogen Rhizoctonia solani by Bacillus velezensis GH1-13 and development of a bacterial strain specific detection method.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1091030.

Brown patch caused by the basidiomycete fungus Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important disease of cool-season turfgrasses. In order to manage the disease, different types of fungicides have been applied, but the negative impact of fungicides on the environment continues to rise. In this study, the beneficial bacteria Bacillus velezensis GH1-13 was characterized as a potential biocontrol agent to manage brown patch disease. The strain GH1-13 strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of turf pathogens including different anastomosis groups of R. solani causing brown patch and large patch. R. solani AG2-2(IIIB) hyphae were morphologically changed, and fungal cell death resulted from exposure to the strain GH1-13. In addition, the compatibility of fungicides with the bacterial strain, and the combined application of fungicide azoxystrobin and the strain in brown patch control on creeping bentgrass indicated that the strain could serve as a biocontrol agent. To develop strain-specific detection method, two unique genes from chromosome and plasmid of GH1-13 were found using pan-genome analysis of 364 Bacillus strains. The unique gene from chromosome was successfully detected using both SYBR Green and TaqMan qPCR methods in bacterial DNA or soil DNA samples. This study suggests that application of GH1-13 offers an environmentally friendly approach via reducing fungicide application rates. Furthermore, the developed pipeline of strain-specific detection method could be a useful tool for detecting and studying the dynamics of specific biocontrol agents.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Hanafy M, Hansen C, Phanse Y, et al (2022)

Characterization of early immune responses elicited by live and inactivated vaccines against Johne's disease in goats.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:1046704.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic debilitating condition affecting ruminants causing significant economic losses to the dairy industry. Available inactivated vaccines are not effective in controlling the disease and vaccinated animals can continue to infect newly born calves. Recently, we have shown that a live-attenuated vaccine candidate (pgsN) is protective in goats and calves following challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis. To decipher the dynamics of the immune responses elicited by both live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, we analyzed key immunological parameters of goats immunized through different routes when a marker-less pgsN vaccine was used. Within a few weeks, the inactivated vaccine triggered the formation of granulomas both at the site of inoculation and in regional lymph nodes, that increased in size over time and persisted until the end of the experiment. In contrast, granulomas induced by the pgsN vaccine were small and subsided during the study. Interestingly, in this vaccine group, histology demonstrated an initial abundance of intra-histiocytic mycobacterial bacilli at the site of inoculation, with recruitment of very minimal T lymphocytes to poorly organized granulomas. Over time, granulomas became more organized, with recruitment of greater numbers of T and B lymphocytes, which coincided with a lack of mycobacteria. For the inactivated vaccine group, mycobacterial bacilli were identified extracellularly within the center of caseating granulomas, with relatively equal proportions of B- and T-lymphocytes maintained across both early and late times. Despite the differences in granuloma-specific lymphocyte recruitment, markers for cell-mediated immunity (e.g., IFN-γ release) were robust in both injected pgsN and inactivated vaccine groups. In contrast, the intranasal live-attenuated vaccine did not elicit any reaction at site of inoculation, nor cell-mediated immune responses. Finally, 80% of animals in the inactivated vaccine group significantly reacted to purified protein derivatives from M. bovis, while reactivity was detected in only 20% of animals receiving pgsN vaccine, suggesting a higher level of cross reactivity for bovine tuberculosis when inactivated vaccine is used. Overall, these results depict the cellular recruitment strategies driving immune responses elicited by both live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines that target Johne's disease.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Yang MR, YW Wu (2023)

A Cross-Validated Feature Selection (CVFS) approach for extracting the most parsimonious feature sets and discovering potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) biomarkers.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:769-779.

Understanding genes and their underlying mechanisms is critical in deciphering how antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria withstand detrimental effects of antibiotic drugs. At the same time the genes related to AMR phenotypes may also serve as biomarkers for predicting whether a microbial strain is resistant to certain antibiotic drugs. We developed a Cross-Validated Feature Selection (CVFS) approach for robustly selecting the most parsimonious gene sets for predicting AMR activities from bacterial pan-genomes. The core idea behind the CVFS approach is interrogating features among non-overlapping sub-parts of the datasets to ensure the representativeness of the features. By randomly splitting the dataset into disjoint sub-parts, conducting feature selection within each sub-part, and intersecting the features shared by all sub-parts, the CVFS approach is able to achieve the goal of extracting the most representative features for yielding satisfactory AMR activity prediction accuracy. By testing this idea on bacterial pan-genome datasets, we showed that this approach was able to extract the most succinct feature sets that predicted AMR activities very well, indicating the potential of these genes as AMR biomarkers. The functional analysis demonstrated that the CVFS approach was able to extract both known AMR genes and novel ones, suggesting the capabilities of the algorithm in selecting relevant features and highlighting the potential of the novel genes in expanding the antimicrobial resistance gene databases.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Sivakumar R, Pranav PS, Annamanedi M, et al (2023)

Genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of bovine mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from India.

BMC genomics, 24(1):44.

BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis accounts for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of bovine mastitis. Investigating the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance would provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of mastitis-associated S. aureus strains. The present study is focused on the whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 41 mastitis-associated S. aureus strains isolated from India.

RESULTS: The results elucidate explicit knowledge of 15 diverse sequence types (STs) and five clonal complexes (CCs). The clonal complexes CC8 and CC97 were found to be the predominant genotypes comprising 21 and 10 isolates, respectively. The mean genome size was 2.7 Mbp with a 32.7% average GC content. The pan-genome of the Indian strains of mastitis-associated S. aureus is almost closed. The genome-wide SNP-based phylogenetic analysis differentiated 41 strains into six major clades. Sixteen different spa types were identified, and eight isolates were untypeable. The cgMLST analysis of all S. aureus genome sequences reported from India revealed that S. aureus strain MUF256, isolated from wound fluids of a diabetic patient, was the common ancestor. Further, we observed that all the Indian mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates belonging to the CC97 are mastitis-associated. We identified 17 different antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes among these isolates, and all the isolates used in this study were susceptible to methicillin. We also identified 108 virulence-associated genes and discuss their associations with different genotypes.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study presenting a comprehensive whole genome analysis of bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus isolates from India. Comparative genomic analysis revealed the genome diversity, major genotypes, antimicrobial resistome, and virulome of clinical and subclinical mastitis-associated S. aureus strains.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Giacomini JJ, Torres-Morales J, Dewhirst FE, et al (2023)

Site Specialization of Human Oral Veillonella Species.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Veillonella species are abundant members of the human oral microbiome with multiple interspecies commensal relationships. Examining the distribution patterns of Veillonella species across the oral cavity is fundamental to understanding their oral ecology. In this study, we used a combination of pangenomic analysis and oral metagenomic information to clarify Veillonella taxonomy and to test the site specialist hypothesis for the Veillonella genus, which contends that most oral bacterial species are adapted to live at specific oral sites. Using isolate genome sequences combined with shotgun metagenomic sequence data, we showed that Veillonella species have clear, differential site specificity: Veillonella parvula showed strong preference for supra- and subgingival plaque, while closely related V. dispar, as well as more distantly related V. atypica, preferred the tongue dorsum, tonsils, throat, and hard palate. In addition, the provisionally named Veillonella sp. Human Microbial Taxon 780 showed strong site specificity for keratinized gingiva. Using comparative genomic analysis, we identified genes associated with thiamine biosynthesis and the reductive pentose phosphate cycle that may enable Veillonella species to occupy their respective habitats. IMPORTANCE Understanding the microbial ecology of the mouth is fundamental for understanding human physiology. In this study, metapangenomics demonstrated that different Veillonella species have clear ecological preferences in the oral cavity of healthy humans, validating the site specialist hypothesis. Furthermore, the gene pool of different Veillonella species was found to be reflective of their ecology, illuminating the potential role of vitamins and carbohydrates in determining Veillonella distribution patterns and interspecies interactions.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Gao Y, Guitton-Sert L, Dessapt J, et al (2023)

A CRISPR-Cas9 screen identifies EXO1 as a formaldehyde resistance gene.

Nature communications, 14(1):381.

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare, genome instability-associated disease characterized by a deficiency in repairing DNA crosslinks, which are known to perturb several cellular processes, including DNA transcription, replication, and repair. Formaldehyde, a by-product of metabolism, is thought to drive FA by generating DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). However, the impact of formaldehyde on global cellular pathways has not been investigated thoroughly. Herein, using a pangenomic CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify EXO1 as a critical regulator of formaldehyde-induced DNA lesions. We show that EXO1 knockout cell lines exhibit formaldehyde sensitivity leading to the accumulation of replicative stress, DNA double-strand breaks, and quadriradial chromosomes, a typical feature of FA. After formaldehyde exposure, EXO1 is recruited to chromatin, protects DNA replication forks from degradation, and functions in parallel with the FA pathway to promote cell survival. In vitro, EXO1-mediated exonuclease activity is proficient in removing DPCs. Collectively, we show that EXO1 limits replication stress and DNA damage to counteract formaldehyde-induced genome instability.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Hu J, Chen L, Li G, et al (2023)

Prevalence and genetic characteristics of fosB-positive Staphylococcus aureus in duck farms in Guangdong, China in 2020.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:7000159 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology of fosB-positive Staphylococcus aureus in waterfowl farms in the Pearl River tributaries in Guangdong Province, China in 2020.

METHODS: A total of 63 S. aureus were recovered from 315 samples collected from six duck farms and one goose farm. PFGE, WGS and analysis were performed on 19 fosB-positive S. aureus.

RESULTS: The fosfomycin resistance rate of the strains was as high as 52.4% (33/63), and 30.1% (19/63) of the strains carried fosB. Resistance gene prediction results showed that duck farm environment-derived strains contained the oxazolidinone drug resistance gene optrA. All fosB-positive S. aureus were MRSA and most of them were MDR, mainly ST9-t899 and ST164-t899. PFGE showed that fosB-positive S. aureus from humans and ducks could be clustered into the same clade. In addition, core-genome SNP analysis showed that clonal transmission of S. aureus occurred between humans and water. Pan-genome analysis showed that S. aureus had an open pangenome. The fosB gene was located on 2610-2615 bp plasmids, which all contained a broad host-range plasmid replication protein family 13. Small plasmids carrying the fosB gene could be found in different multilocus STs of S. aureus.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that duck farms in Guangdong, China could be an important reservoir of fosB-positive S. aureus. The spread of drug-resistant bacteria in waterfowl farms requires further monitoring.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Basak C, R Chakraborty (2023)

A novel strain of Shigella isolated from the gut of Lepidocephalichthys guntea has in its genome a complete gene package for Type ll secretion system, and elaborate repertoire of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic-resistance and metal resistance via specific efflux channels.

Letters in applied microbiology, 76(1):.

The bacterial strain GCP5 was isolated from the gut of a bottom-dwelling fish Lepidocephalichthys guntea, that lives in the Magurmari River near North Bengal University in Siliguri, India. GCP5 was phylogenetically assigned to the Shigella genus using whole genome-based trees, k-mer analysis, the multilocus species tree (MLST), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based trees, and the genetic makeup of the isolate was determined following assembly of the genome sequences and genome annotation with several bioinformatics tools. The presence of a complete package of general-secretory-pathway (gsp) genes, grouped in an operon identical to a well-characterized type II secretion system (T2SS), was confirmed by genome mining of Shigella sp. GCP5. The operon's gsp genes shared the most homology with Escherichia coli gsp genes. A few more high-pathogenicity islands (HPIs) in the GCP5 genome were validated using the pan-genomes analysis pipeline (PGAP) and island viewer. Several antibiotic-resistance genes were found in this genome, as well as the existence of key antibiotic efflux pump families, allowing for the creation of a gene network of several antibiotic efflux transporters. In addition, the genome contained genes specific for nickel transport, the nikABCD system, and the RND family transporter cusCFBA, which confers resistance to copper and silver by effluxing out Cu+ and Ag+ ions.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Zhang M, Yu Y, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Conjugation of plasmid harboring bla NDM-1 in a clinical Providencia rettgeri strain through the formation of a fusion plasmid.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1071385.

Providencia rettgeri has recently gained increased importance owing to the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) and other β-lactamases produced by its clinical isolates. These enzymes reduce the efficiency of antimicrobial therapy. Herein, we reported the findings of whole-genome sequence analysis and a comprehensive pan-genome analysis performed on a multidrug-resistant P. rettgeri 18004577 clinical strain recovered from the urine of a hospitalized patient in Shandong, China, in 2018. Providencia rettgeri 18004577 was found to have a genome assembly size of 4.6 Mb with a G + C content of 41%; a circular plasmid p18004577_NDM of 273.3 Kb, harboring an accessory multidrug-resistant region; and a circular, stable IncT plasmid p18004577_Rts of 146.2 Kb. Additionally, various resistance genes were identified in its genome, including bla NDM-1, bla OXA-10, bla PER-4, aph(3')-VI, ant(2'')-Ia, ant(3')-Ia, sul1, catB8, catA1, mph(E), and tet. Conjugation experiments and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the bla NDM-1 gene could be transferred to the transconjugant via the formation of pJ18004577_NDM, a novel hybrid plasmid. Based on the genetic comparison, the main possible formation process for pJ18004577_NDM was the insertion of the [ΔISKox2-IS26-ΔISKox2]-aph(3')-VI-bla NDM-1 translocatable unit module from p18004577_NDM into plasmid p18004577_Rts in the Russian doll insertion structure (ΔISKox2-IS26-ΔISKox2), which played a role similar to that of IS26 using the "copy-in" route in the mobilization of [aph(3')-VI]-bla NDM-1. The array, multiplicity, and diversity of the resistance and virulence genes in this strain necessitate stringent infection control, antibiotic stewardship, and periodic resistance surveillance/monitoring policies to preempt further horizontal and vertical spread of the resistance genes. Roary analysis based on 30 P. rettgeri strains pan genome identified 415 core, 756 soft core, 5,744 shell, and 12,967 cloud genes, highlighting the "close" nature of P. rettgeri pan-genome. After a comprehensive pan-genome analysis, representative biological information was revealed that included phylogenetic distances, presence or absence of genes across the P. rettgeri bacteria clade, and functional distribution of proteins. Moreover, pan-genome analysis has been shown to be an effective approach to better understand P. rettgeri bacteria because it helps develop various tailored therapeutic strategies based on their biological similarities and differences.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Hurtado-Páez U, Álvarez Zuluaga N, Arango Isaza RE, et al (2022)

Pan-genome association study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage-4 revealed specific genes related to the high and low prevalence of the disease in patients from the North-Eastern area of Medellín, Colombia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1076797.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage 4 is responsible for the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. This lineage has been the most prevalent lineage in Colombia, especially in the North-Eastern (NE) area of Medellin, where it has been shown to have a high prevalence of LAM9 SIT42 and Haarlem1 SIT62 sublineages. There is evidence that regardless of environmental factors and host genetics, differences among sublineages of Mtb strains play an important role in the course of infection and disease. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of the success of a sublineage in a specific geographic area remains uncertain. We used a pan-genome-wide association study (pan-GWAS) of 47 Mtb strains isolated from NE Medellin between 2005 and 2008 to identify the genes responsible for the phenotypic differences among high and low prevalence sublineages. Our results allowed the identification of 12 variants in 11 genes, of which 4 genes showed the strongest association to low prevalence (mmpL12, PPE29, Rv1419, and Rv1762c). The first three have been described as necessary for invasion and intracellular survival. Polymorphisms identified in low prevalence isolates may suggest related to a fitness cost of Mtb, which might reflect a decrease in their capacity to be transmitted or to cause an active infection. These results contribute to understanding the success of some sublineages of lineage-4 in a specific geographical area.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Robinson LA, Collins ACZ, Murphy RA, et al (2022)

Diversity and prevalence of type VI secretion system effectors in clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1042505.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and a major driver of morbidity and mortality in people with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a molecular nanomachine that translocates effectors across the bacterial membrane into target cells or the extracellular environment enabling intermicrobial interaction. P. aeruginosa encodes three T6SS clusters, the H1-, H2- and H3-T6SS, and numerous orphan islands. Genetic diversity of T6SS-associated effectors in P. aeruginosa has been noted in reference strains but has yet to be explored in clinical isolates. Here, we perform a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the pangenome and T6SS effector genes in 52 high-quality clinical P. aeruginosa genomes isolated from CF patients and housed in the Personalised Approach to P. aeruginosa strain repository. We confirm that the clinical CF isolate pangenome is open and principally made up of accessory and unique genes that may provide strain-specific advantages. We observed genetic variability in some effector/immunity encoding genes and show that several well-characterised vgrG and PAAR islands are absent from numerous isolates. Our analysis shows clear evidence of disruption to T6SS genomic loci through transposon, prophage, and mobile genetic element insertions. We identified an orphan vgrG island in P. aeruginosa strain PAK and five clinical isolates using in silico analysis which we denote vgrG7, predicting a gene within this cluster to encode a Tle2 lipase family effector. Close comparison of T6SS loci in clinical isolates compared to reference P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 revealed the presence of genes encoding eight new T6SS effectors with the following putative functions: cytidine deaminase, lipase, metallopeptidase, NADase, and pyocin. Finally, the prevalence of characterised and putative T6SS effectors were assessed in 532 publicly available P. aeruginosa genomes, which suggests the existence of accessory effectors. Our in silico study of the P. aeruginosa T6SS exposes a level of genetic diversity at T6SS genomic loci not seen to date within P. aeruginosa, particularly in CF isolates. As understanding the effector repertoire is key to identifying the targets of T6SSs and its efficacy, this comprehensive analysis provides a path for future experimental characterisation of these mediators of intermicrobial competition and host manipulation.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Stuart KC, Sherwin WB, Edwards RJ, et al (2022)

Evolutionary genomics: Insights from the invasive European starlings.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:1010456.

Two fundamental questions for evolutionary studies are the speed at which evolution occurs, and the way that this evolution may present itself within an organism's genome. Evolutionary studies on invasive populations are poised to tackle some of these pressing questions, including understanding the mechanisms behind rapid adaptation, and how it facilitates population persistence within a novel environment. Investigation of these questions are assisted through recent developments in experimental, sequencing, and analytical protocols; in particular, the growing accessibility of next generation sequencing has enabled a broader range of taxa to be characterised. In this perspective, we discuss recent genetic findings within the invasive European starlings in Australia, and outline some critical next steps within this research system. Further, we use discoveries within this study system to guide discussion of pressing future research directions more generally within the fields of population and evolutionary genetics, including the use of historic specimens, phenotypic data, non-SNP genetic variants (e.g., structural variants), and pan-genomes. In particular, we emphasise the need for exploratory genomics studies across a range of invasive taxa so we can begin understanding broad mechanisms that underpin rapid adaptation in these systems. Understanding how genetic diversity arises and is maintained in a population, and how this contributes to adaptability, requires a deep understanding of how evolution functions at the molecular level, and is of fundamental importance for the future studies and preservation of biodiversity across the globe.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Liew KJ, Zakaria MR, Hong CWL, et al (2023)

Draft genome sequence of Joostella atrarenae M1-2[T] with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic ability.

3 Biotech, 13(2):50.

The halophilic genus Joostella is one of the least-studied genera in the family of Flavobacteriaceae. So far, only two species were taxonomically identified with limited genomic analysis in the aspect of application has been reported. Joostella atrarenae M1-2[T] was previously isolated from a seashore sample and it is the second discovered species of the genus Joostella. In this project, the genome of J. atrarenae M1-2[T] was sequenced using NovaSeq 6000. The final assembled genome is comprised of 71 contigs, a total of 3,983,942 bp, a GC ratio of 33.2%, and encoded for 3,416 genes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of J. atrarenae M1-2[T] shows 97.3% similarity against J. marina DSM 19592[T]. Genome-genome comparison between the two strains by ANI, dDDH, AAI, and POCP shows values of 80.8%, 23.3%, 83.4%, and 74.1% respectively. Pan-genome analysis shows that strain M1-2[T] and J. marina DSM 19592[T] shared a total of 248 core genes. Taken together, strain M-2[T] and J. marina DSM 19592[T] belong to the same genus but are two different species. CAZymes analysis revealed that strain M1-2[T] harbors 109 GHs, 40 GTs, 5 PLs, 9 CEs, and 6 AAs. Among these CAZymes, while 5 genes are related to cellulose degradation, 12 and 24 genes are found to encode for xylanolytic enzymes and other hemicellulases that involve majorly in the side chain removal of the lignocellulose structure, respectively. Furthermore, both the intracellular and extracellular crude extracts of strain M1-2[T] exhibited enzymatic activities against CMC, xylan, pNPG, and pNPX substrates, which corresponding to endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase, and β-xylosidase, respectively. Collectively, description of genome coupled with the enzyme assay results demonstrated that J. atrarenae M1-2[T] has a role in lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and the strain could be useful for lignocellulosic biorefining.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Voelker WG, Krishnan K, Chougule K, et al (2022)

Ten new high-quality genome assemblies for diverse bioenergy sorghum genotypes.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1040909.

INTRODUCTION: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an agriculturally and economically important staple crop that has immense potential as a bioenergy feedstock due to its relatively high productivity on marginal lands. To capitalize on and further improve sorghum as a potential source of sustainable biofuel, it is essential to understand the genomic mechanisms underlying complex traits related to yield, composition, and environmental adaptations.

METHODS: Expanding on a recently developed mapping population, we generated de novo genome assemblies for 10 parental genotypes from this population and identified a comprehensive set of over 24 thousand large structural variants (SVs) and over 10.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

RESULTS: We show that SVs and nonsynonymous SNPs are enriched in different gene categories, emphasizing the need for long read sequencing in crop species to identify novel variation. Furthermore, we highlight SVs and SNPs occurring in genes and pathways with known associations to critical bioenergy-related phenotypes and characterize the landscape of genetic differences between sweet and cellulosic genotypes.

DISCUSSION: These resources can be integrated into both ongoing and future mapping and trait discovery for sorghum and its myriad uses including food, feed, bioenergy, and increasingly as a carbon dioxide removal mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Bai Z, Zhang N, Jin Y, et al (2022)

Comprehensive analysis of 84 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains uncovers their genetic diversity, functional characteristics, and potential risks.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:919701.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a beneficial human gut microbe and a candidate for next-generation probiotics. With probiotics now being used in clinical treatments, concerns about their safety and side effects need to be considered. Therefore, it is essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the genetic diversity, functional characteristics, and potential risks of different F. prausnitzii strains. In this study, we collected the genetic information of 84 F . prausnitzii strains to conduct a pan-genome analysis with multiple perspectives. Based on single-copy genes and the sequences of 16S rRNA and the compositions of the pan-genome, different phylogenetic analyses of F. prausnitzii strains were performed, which showed the genetic diversity among them. Among the proteins of the pan-genome, we found that the accessory clusters made a greater contribution to the primary genetic functions of F. prausnitzii strains than the core and specific clusters. The functional annotations of F. prausnitzii showed that only a very small number of proteins were related to human diseases and there were no secondary metabolic gene clusters encoding harmful products. At the same time, complete fatty acid metabolism was detected in F. prausnitzii. In addition, we detected harmful elements, including antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and pathogenic genes, and proposed the probiotic potential risk index (PPRI) and probiotic potential risk score (PPRS) to classify these 84 strains into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. Finally, 15 strains were identified as low-risk strains and prioritized for clinical application. Undoubtedly, our results provide a comprehensive understanding and insight into F. prausnitzii, and PPRI and PPRS can be applied to evaluate the potential risks of probiotics in general and to guide the application of probiotics in clinical application.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Khan MA, Amin A, Farid A, et al (2022)

Recent Advances in Genomics-Based Approaches for the Development of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Vaccines.

Pharmaceutics, 15(1): pii:pharmaceutics15010152.

Infectious diseases continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of infectious diseases are caused by intracellular pathogenic bacteria (IPB). Historically, conventional vaccination drives have helped control the pathogenesis of intracellular bacteria and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, saving millions of lives. However, in light of various limitations, many diseases that involve IPB still do not have adequate vaccines. In response to increasing demand for novel vaccine development strategies, a new area of vaccine research emerged following the advent of genomics technology, which changed the paradigm of vaccine development by utilizing the complete genomic data of microorganisms against them. It became possible to identify genes related to disease virulence, genetic patterns linked to disease virulence, as well as the genetic components that supported immunity and favorable vaccine responses. Complete genomic databases, and advancements in transcriptomics, metabolomics, structural genomics, proteomics, immunomics, pan-genomics, synthetic genomics, and population biology have allowed researchers to identify potential vaccine candidates and predict their effects in patients. New vaccines have been created against diseases for which previously there were no vaccines available, and existing vaccines have been improved. This review highlights the key issues and explores the evolution of vaccines. The increasing volume of IPB genomic data, and their application in novel genome-based techniques for vaccine development, were also examined, along with their characteristics, and the opportunities and obstacles involved. Critically, the application of genomics technology has helped researchers rapidly select and evaluate candidate antigens. Novel vaccines capable of addressing the limitations associated with conventional vaccines have been developed and pressing healthcare issues are being addressed.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Charles C, Conde C, Vorimore F, et al (2023)

Features of Mycobacterium bovis Complete Genomes Belonging to 5 Different Lineages.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010177.

Mammalian tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease mainly due to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). A current challenge for its eradication is understanding its transmission within multi-host systems. Improvements in long-read sequencing technologies have made it possible to obtain complete bacterial genomes that provide a comprehensive view of species-specific genomic features. In the context of TB, new genomic references based on complete genomes genetically close to field strains are also essential to perform precise field molecular epidemiological studies. A total of 10 M. bovis strains representing each genetic lineage identified in France and in other countries were selected for performing complete assembly of their genomes. Pangenome analysis revealed a "closed" pangenome composed of 3900 core genes and only 96 accessory genes. Whole genomes-based alignment using progressive Mauve showed remarkable conservation of the genomic synteny except that the genomes have a variable number of copies of IS6110. Characteristic genomic traits of each lineage were identified through the discovery of specific indels. Altogether, these results provide new genetic features that improve the description of M. bovis lineages. The availability of new complete representative genomes of M. bovis will be useful to epidemiological studies and better understand the transmission of this clonal-evolving pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Thakur P, Alaba MO, Rauniyar S, et al (2023)

Text-Mining to Identify Gene Sets Involved in Biocorrosion by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: A Semi-Automated Workflow.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010119.

A significant amount of literature is available on biocorrosion, which makes manual extraction of crucial information such as genes and proteins a laborious task. Despite the fast growth of biology related corrosion studies, there is a limited number of gene collections relating to the corrosion process (biocorrosion). Text mining offers a potential solution by automatically extracting the essential information from unstructured text. We present a text mining workflow that extracts biocorrosion associated genes/proteins in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from literature databases (e.g., PubMed and PMC). This semi-automatic workflow is built with the Named Entity Recognition (NER) method and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model. With PubMed and PMCID as inputs, the workflow identified 227 genes belonging to several Desulfovibrio species. To validate their functions, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and biological network analysis was performed using UniprotKB and STRING-DB, respectively. The GO analysis showed that metal ion binding, sulfur binding, and electron transport were among the principal molecular functions. Furthermore, the biological network analysis generated three interlinked clusters containing genes involved in metal ion binding, cellular respiration, and electron transfer, which suggests the involvement of the extracted gene set in biocorrosion. Finally, the dataset was validated through manual curation, yielding a similar set of genes as our workflow; among these, hysB and hydA, and sat and dsrB were identified as the metal ion binding and sulfur metabolism genes, respectively. The identified genes were mapped with the pangenome of 63 SRB genomes that yielded the distribution of these genes across 63 SRB based on the amino acid sequence similarity and were further categorized as core and accessory gene families. SRB's role in biocorrosion involves the transfer of electrons from the metal surface via a hydrogen medium to the sulfate reduction pathway. Therefore, genes encoding hydrogenases and cytochromes might be participating in removing hydrogen from the metals through electron transfer. Moreover, the production of corrosive sulfide from the sulfur metabolism indirectly contributes to the localized pitting of the metals. After the corroboration of text mining results with SRB biocorrosion mechanisms, we suggest that the text mining framework could be utilized for genes/proteins extraction and significantly reduce the manual curation time.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Romero-Calle DX, Pedrosa-Silva F, Tomé LMR, et al (2022)

Hybrid Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis SE3 Isolated from Polluted Soil in Brazil.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010111.

In Brazil, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a significant health threat. Salmonella&nbsp;enterica serovar Enteritidis SE3 was isolated from soil at the Subaé River in Santo Amaro, Brazil, a region contaminated with heavy metals and organic waste. Illumina HiSeq and Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing were used for de novo hybrid assembly of the Salmonella SE3 genome. This approach yielded 10 contigs with 99.98% identity with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis OLF-SE2-98984-6. Twelve Salmonella pathogenic islands, multiple virulence genes, multiple antimicrobial gene resistance genes, seven phage defense systems, seven prophages and a heavy metal resistance gene were encoded in the genome. Pangenome analysis of the S. enterica clade, including Salmonella SE3, revealed an open pangenome, with a core genome of 2137 genes. Our study showed the effectiveness of a hybrid sequence assembly approach for environmental Salmonella genome analysis using HiSeq and MinION data. This approach enabled the identification of key resistance and virulence genes, and these data are important to inform the control of Salmonella and heavy metal pollution in the Santo Amaro region of Brazil.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Myintzaw P, Pennone V, McAuliffe O, et al (2022)

Variability in Cold Tolerance of Food and Clinical Listeria monocytogenes Isolates.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010065.

The aim of this study was to investigate the level of strain variability amongst food and clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolates growing at low temperatures (4 and 7 °C) in both laboratory media and real food matrices. Isolates (n = 150) grown in laboratory media demonstrated a large variation in growth profiles measured using optical density. Overall, it was noted that clinical isolates exhibited a significantly higher growth rate (p ≤ 0.05) at 7 °C than the other isolates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests of isolates grouped using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed that clonal complex 18 (CC18) isolates were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) faster growing at 4 °C than other CC-type isolates while CC101, CC18, CC8, CC37 and CC14 were faster growing than other CC types at 7 °C. Euclidean distance and Ward method-based hierarchical clustering of mean growth rates classified 33.33% of isolates as faster growing. Fast and slow growing representative isolates were selected from the cluster analysis and growth rates were determined using plate count data in laboratory media and model food matrices. In agreement with the optical density experiments, CC18 isolates were faster and CC121 isolates were slower than other CC types in laboratory media, UHT milk and fish pie. The same trend was observed in chocolate milk but the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, pan-genome analysis (Scoary) of isolate genome sequences only identified six genes of unknown function associated with increased cold tolerance while failing to identify any known cold tolerance genes. Overall, an association that was consistent in laboratory media and real food matrices was demonstrated between isolate CC type and increased cold tolerance.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Bigey F, Pasteur E, Połomska X, et al (2023)

Insights into the Genomic and Phenotypic Landscape of the Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:jof9010076.

Although Yarrowia lipolytica is a model yeast for the study of lipid metabolism, its diversity is poorly known, as studies generally consider only a few standard laboratory strains. To extend our knowledge of this biotechnological workhorse, we investigated the genomic and phenotypic diversity of 56 natural isolates. Y. lipolytica is classified into five clades with no correlation between clade membership and geographic or ecological origin. A low genetic diversity (π = 0.0017) and a pan-genome (6528 genes) barely different from the core genome (6315 genes) suggest Y. lipolytica is a recently evolving species. Large segmental duplications were detected, totaling 892 genes. With three new LTR-retrotransposons of the Gypsy family (Tyl4, Tyl9, and Tyl10), the transposable element content of genomes appeared diversified but still low (from 0.36% to 3.62%). We quantified 34 traits with substantial phenotypic diversity, but genome-wide association studies failed to evidence any associations. Instead, we investigated known genes and found four mutational events leading to XPR2 protease inactivation. Regarding lipid metabolism, most high-impact mutations were found in family-belonging genes, such as ALK or LIP, and therefore had a low phenotypic impact, suggesting that the huge diversity of lipid synthesis and accumulation is multifactorial or due to complex regulations.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Fono-Tamo EUK, Kamika I, Dewar JB, et al (2023)

Comparative Genomics Revealed a Potential Threat of Aeromonas&nbsp;rivipollensis G87 Strain and Its Antibiotic Resistance.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:antibiotics12010131.

Aeromonas rivipollensis is an emerging pathogen linked to a broad range of infections in humans. Due to the inability to accurately differentiate Aeromonas species using conventional techniques, in-depth comparative genomics analysis is imperative to identify them. This study characterized 4 A. rivipollensis strains that were isolated from river water in Johannesburg, South Africa, by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). WGS was carried out, and taxonomic classification was employed to profile virulence and antibiotic resistance (AR). The AR profiles of the A. rivipollensis genomes consisted of betalactams and cephalosporin-resistance genes, while the tetracycline-resistance gene (tetE) was only determined to be in the G87 strain. A mobile genetic element (MGE), transposons TnC, was determined to be in this strain that mediates tetracycline resistance MFS efflux tetE. A pangenomic investigation revealed the G87 strain's unique characteristic, which included immunoglobulin A-binding proteins, extracellular polysialic acid, and exogenous sialic acid as virulence factors. The identified polysialic acid and sialic acid genes can be associated with antiphagocytic and antibactericidal properties, respectively. MGEs such as transposases introduce virulence and AR genes in the A. rivipollensis G87 genome. This study showed that A. rivipollensis is generally resistant to a class of beta-lactams and cephalosporins. MGEs pose a challenge in some of the Aeromonas species strains and are subjected to antibiotics resistance and the acquisition of virulence genes in the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Thakur Z, Vaid RK, Anand T, et al (2022)

Comparative Genome Analysis of 19 Trueperella pyogenes Strains Originating from Different Animal Species Reveal a Genetically Diverse Open Pan-Genome.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:antibiotics12010024.

Trueperella pyogenes is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes severe cases of mastitis, metritis, and pneumonia in a wide range of animals, resulting in significant economic losses. Although little is known about the virulence factors involved in the disease pathogenesis, a comprehensive comparative genome analysis of T. pyogenes genomes has not been performed till date. Hence, present investigation was carried out to characterize and compare 19 T. pyogenes genomes originating in different geographical origins including the draftgenome of the first Indian origin strain T. pyogenes Bu5. Additionally, candidate virulence determinants that could be crucial for their pathogenesis were also detected and analyzed by using various bioinformatics tools. The pan-genome calculations revealed an open pan-genome of T. pyogenes. In addition, an inventory of virulence related genes, 190 genomic islands, 31 prophage sequences, and 40 antibiotic resistance genes that could play a significant role in organism's pathogenicity were detected. The core-genome based phylogeny of T. pyogenes demonstrates a polyphyletic, host-associated group with a high degree of genomic diversity. The identified core-genome can be further used for screening of drug and vaccine targets. The investigation has provided unique insights into pan-genome, virulome, mobiliome, and resistome of T. pyogenes genomes and laid the foundation for future investigations.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Tonkin-Hill G, Gladstone RA, Pöntinen AK, et al (2023)

Robust analysis of prokaryotic pangenome gene gain and loss rates with Panstripe.

Genome research pii:gr.277340.122 [Epub ahead of print].

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a critical role in the evolution and diversification of many microbial species. The resulting dynamics of gene gain and loss can have important implications for the development of antibiotic resistance and the design of vaccine and drug interventions. Methods for the analysis of gene presence/absence patterns typically do not account for errors introduced in the automated annotation and clustering of gene sequences. In particular, methods adapted from ecological studies, including the pangenome gene accumulation curve, can be misleading as they may reflect the underlying diversity in the temporal sampling of genomes rather than a difference in the dynamics of HGT. Here, we introduce Panstripe, a method based on generalized linear regression that is robust to population structure, sampling bias, and errors in the predicted presence/absence of genes. We show using simulations that Panstripe can effectively identify differences in the rate and number of genes involved in HGT events, and illustrate its capability by analyzing several diverse bacterial genome data sets representing major human pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Secomandi S, Gallo GR, Sozzoni M, et al (2023)

A chromosome-level reference genome and pangenome for barn swallow population genomics.

Cell reports, 42(1):111992 pii:S2211-1247(23)00003-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Insights into the evolution of non-model organisms are limited by the lack of reference genomes of high accuracy, completeness, and contiguity. Here, we present a chromosome-level, karyotype-validated reference genome and pangenome for the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). We complement these resources with a reference-free multialignment of the reference genome with other bird genomes and with the most comprehensive catalog of genetic markers for the barn swallow. We identify potentially conserved and accelerated genes using the multialignment and estimate genome-wide linkage disequilibrium using the catalog. We use the pangenome to infer core and accessory genes and to detect variants using it as a reference. Overall, these resources will foster population genomics studies in the barn swallow, enable detection of candidate genes in comparative genomics studies, and help reduce bias toward a single reference genome.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Sibbesen JA, Eizenga JM, Novak AM, et al (2023)

Haplotype-aware pantranscriptome analyses using spliced pangenome graphs.

Nature methods [Epub ahead of print].

Pangenomics is emerging as a powerful computational paradigm in bioinformatics. This field uses population-level genome reference structures, typically consisting of a sequence graph, to mitigate reference bias and facilitate analyses that were challenging with previous reference-based methods. In this work, we extend these methods into transcriptomics to analyze sequencing data using the pantranscriptome: a population-level transcriptomic reference. Our toolchain, which consists of additions to the VG toolkit and a standalone tool, RPVG, can construct spliced pangenome graphs, map RNA sequencing data to these graphs, and perform haplotype-aware expression quantification of transcripts in a pantranscriptome. We show that this workflow improves accuracy over state-of-the-art RNA sequencing mapping methods, and that it can efficiently quantify haplotype-specific transcript expression without needing to characterize the haplotypes of a sample beforehand.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Mishra A, Kesarwani S, Jaiswal TP, et al (2023)

Decoding whole genome of Anoxybacillus rupiensis TPH1 isolated from Tatapani hot spring, India and giving insight into bioremediation ability of TPH1 via heavy metals and azo dyes.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(23)00002-5 [Epub ahead of print].

A moderately thermophilic, gram-positive genomospecies Anoxybacillus rupiensis TPH1 was isolated from Tatapani hot spring, Chhattisgarh, India. Genome of 3.70 Mb with 42.3% GC subsumed 4131 CDSs, 65 tRNA, 5 rRNA, 35 AMR and 19 drug target genes. Further, comparative genomics of 19 Anoxybacillus spp. exhibited an open pan genome of 13102 genes along with core (10.62%), unique (43.5%) and accessory (45.9%) genes. Moreover, phylogenomic tree displayed clustering of Anoxybacillus spp. into two distinct clades where clade A species harbored larger genomes, more unique genes, CDS and hypothetical proteins than clade B species. Further, distribution of azoreductases showed FMN-binding NADPH azoreductase (AzoRed1) presence in clade A species only and FMN-binding NADH azoreductase (AzoRed2) harboring by species of both clades. Heavy metal resistance genes distribution showed omnipresence of znuA, copZ and arsC in both clades, dispersed presence of cbiM, czcD, merA and feoB over both clades and harboring of nikA and acr3 by few species of clade A only. Additionally, molecular docking of AzoRed1, AzoRed2, ZnuA, CopZ, Acr3, CbiM, CzcD, MerA and NikA with their respective ligands indicated high affinity and stable binding. Conclusively, present study provided insight into gene repertoire of genus Anoxybacillus and a basis for the potential application of this thermophile in bioremediation of azo dyes and heavy metals.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Pang M, Tu T, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Design of a multi-epitope vaccine against Haemophilus parasuis based on pan-genome and immunoinformatics approaches.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:1053198.

BACKGROUND: Glässer's disease, caused by Haemophilus parasuis (HPS), is responsible for economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. However, the existing commercial vaccines offer poor protection and there are significant barriers to the development of effective vaccines.

METHODS: In the current study, we aimed to identify potential vaccine candidates and design a multi-epitope vaccine against HPS by performing pan-genomic analysis of 121 strains and using a reverse vaccinology approach.

RESULTS: The designed vaccine constructs consist of predicted epitopes of B and T cells derived from the outer membrane proteins of the HPS core genome. The vaccine was found to be highly immunogenic, non-toxic, and non-allergenic as well as have stable physicochemical properties. It has a high binding affinity to Toll-like receptor 2. In addition, in silico immune simulation results showed that the vaccine elicited an effective immune response. Moreover, the mouse polyclonal antibody obtained by immunizing the vaccine protein can be combined with different serotypes and non-typable Haemophilus parasuis in vitro.

CONCLUSION: The overall results of the study suggest that the designed multi-epitope vaccine is a promising candidate for pan-prophylaxis against different strains of HPS.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Kittiwan N, Calland JK, Mourkas E, et al (2022)

Genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial-resistance determinants of non-serotype 2 Streptococcus suis isolates from healthy pigs.

Microbial genomics, 8(11):.

Streptococcus suis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in South-East Asia, with frequent zoonotic transfer to humans associated with close contact with pigs. A small number of invasive lineages are responsible for endemic infection in the swine industry, causing considerable global economic losses. A lack of surveillance and a rising trend in clinical treatment failure has raised concerns of growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among invasive S. suis . Gene flow between healthy and disease isolates is poorly understood and, in this study, we sample and sequence a collection of isolates predominantly from healthy pigs in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand. Pangenome characterization identified extensive genetic diversity and frequent AMR carriage in isolates from healthy pigs. Multiple AMR genes were identified, conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, lincosamides, tetracycline and macrolides. All isolates were non-susceptible to three or more different antimicrobial classes, and 75 % of non-serotype 2 isolates were non-susceptible to six or more classes (compared to 37.5 % of serotype 2 isolates). AMR genes were found on integrative and conjugative elements previously observed in other species, suggesting a mobile gene pool that can be accessed by invasive disease isolates. This article contains data hosted by Microreact.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Cai H, McLimans CJ, Beyer JE, et al (2023)

Microcystis pangenome reveals cryptic diversity within and across morphospecies.

Science advances, 9(2):eadd3783.

Microcystis, a common harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxon, threatens water supplies and human health, yet species delimitation is contentious in this taxon, leading to challenges in research and management of this threat. Historical and common morphology-based classifications recognize multiple morphospecies, most with variable and diverse ecologies, while DNA sequence-based classifications indicate a single species with multiple ecotypes. To better delimit Microcystis species, we conducted a pangenome analysis of 122 genomes. Core- and non-core gene phylogenetic analyses placed 113 genomes into 23 monophyletic clusters containing at least two genomes. Overall, genome-related indices revealed that Microcystis contains at least 16 putative genospecies. Fifteen genospecies included at least one Microcystis aeruginosa morphospecies, and 10 genospecies included two or more morphospecies. This classification system will enable consistent taxonomic identification of Microcystis and thereby aid in resolving some of the complexities and controversies that have long characterized eco-evolutionary research and management of this important HAB taxon.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Konno N, W Iwasaki (2023)

Machine learning enables prediction of metabolic system evolution in bacteria.

Science advances, 9(2):eadc9130.

Evolution prediction is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology, with potential impacts on strategic pathogen control, genome engineering, and synthetic biology. While laboratory evolution studies have shown the predictability of short-term and sequence-level evolution, that of long-term and system-level evolution has not been systematically examined. Here, we show that the gene content evolution of metabolic systems is generally predictable by applying ancestral gene content reconstruction and machine learning techniques to ~3000 bacterial genomes. Our framework, Evodictor, successfully predicted gene gain and loss evolution at the branches of the reference phylogenetic tree, suggesting that evolutionary pressures and constraints on metabolic systems are universally shared. Investigation of pathway architectures and meta-analysis of metagenomic datasets confirmed that these evolutionary patterns have physiological and ecological bases as functional dependencies among metabolic reactions and bacterial habitat changes. Last, pan-genomic analysis of intraspecies gene content variations proved that even "ongoing" evolution in extant bacterial species is predictable in our framework.

RevDate: 2023-01-10

Forgacova N, Holesova Z, Hekel R, et al (2023)

Evaluation and limitations of different approaches among COVID-19 fatal cases using whole-exome sequencing data.

BMC genomics, 24(1):12.

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in various disease symptoms and severity, ranging from asymptomatic, through mildly symptomatic, up to very severe and even fatal cases. Although environmental, clinical, and social factors play important roles in both susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and progress of COVID-19 disease, it is becoming evident that both pathogen and host genetic factors are important too. In this study, we report findings from whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 27 individuals who died due to COVID-19, especially focusing on frequencies of DNA variants in genes previously associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19.

RESULTS: We selected the risk DNA variants/alleles or target genes using four different approaches: 1) aggregated GWAS results from the GWAS Catalog; 2) selected publications from PubMed; 3) the aggregated results of the Host Genetics Initiative database; and 4) a commercial DNA variant annotation/interpretation tool providing its own knowledgebase. We divided these variants/genes into those reported to influence the susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and those influencing the severity of COVID-19. Based on the above, we compared the frequencies of alleles found in the fatal COVID-19 cases to the frequencies identified in two population control datasets (non-Finnish European population from the gnomAD database and genomic frequencies specific for the Slovak population from our own database). When compared to both control population datasets, our analyses indicated a trend of higher frequencies of severe COVID-19 associated risk alleles among fatal COVID-19 cases. This trend reached statistical significance specifically when using the HGI-derived variant list. We also analysed other approaches to WES data evaluation, demonstrating its utility as well as limitations.

CONCLUSIONS: Although our results proved the likely involvement of host genetic factors pointed out by previous studies looking into severity of COVID-19 disease, careful considerations of the molecular-testing strategies and the evaluated genomic positions may have a strong impact on the utility of genomic testing.

RevDate: 2023-01-10

Nii T, Maeda Y, Motooka D, et al (2023)

Genomic repertoires linked with pathogenic potency of arthritogenic Prevotella copri isolated from the gut of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases pii:ard-2022-222881 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Prevotella copri is considered to be a contributing factor in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, in some non-Westernised countries, healthy individuals also harbour an abundance of P. copri in the intestine. This study investigated the pathogenicity of RA patient-derived P. copri (P. copri RA) compared with healthy control-derived P. copri (P. copri HC).

METHODS: We obtained 13 P. copri strains from the faeces of patients with RA and healthy controls. Following whole genome sequencing, the sequences of P. copri RA and P. copri HC were compared. To analyse the arthritis-inducing ability of P. copri, we examined two arthritis models (1) a collagen-induced arthritis model harbouring P. copri under specific-pathogen-free conditions and (2) an SKG mouse arthritis model under P. copri-monocolonised conditions. Finally, to evaluate the ability of P. copri to activate innate immune cells, we performed in vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) by P. copri RA and P. copri HC.

RESULTS: Comparative genomic analysis revealed no apparent differences in the core gene contents between P. copri RA and P. copri HC, but pangenome analysis revealed the high genome plasticity of P. copri. We identified a P. copri RA-specific genomic region as a conjugative transposon. In both arthritis models, P. copri RA-induced more severe arthritis than P. copri HC. In vitro BMDC stimulation experiments revealed the upregulation of IL-17 and Th17-related cytokines (IL-6, IL-23) by P. copri RA.

CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal the genetic diversity of P. copri, and the genomic signatures associated with strong arthritis-inducing ability of P. copri RA. Our study contributes towards elucidation of the complex pathogenesis of RA.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Ruggieri AA, Livraghi L, Lewis JJ, et al (2022)

Erratum: A butterfly pan-genome reveals that a large amount of structural variation underlies the evolution of chromatin accessibility.

Genome research, 32(11-12):2145.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Saak CC, Pierce EC, Dinh CB, et al (2023)

Longitudinal, Multi-Platform Metagenomics Yields a High-Quality Genomic Catalog and Guides an In Vitro Model for Cheese Communities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiomes are intricately intertwined with human health, geochemical cycles, and food production. While many microbiomes of interest are highly complex and experimentally intractable, cheese rind microbiomes have proven to be powerful model systems for the study of microbial interactions. To provide a more comprehensive view of the genomic potential and temporal dynamics of cheese rind communities, we combined longitudinal, multi-platform metagenomics of three ripening washed-rind cheeses with whole-genome sequencing of community isolates. Sequencing-based approaches revealed a highly reproducible microbial succession in each cheese and the coexistence of closely related Psychrobacter species and enabled the prediction of plasmid and phage diversity and their host associations. In combination with culture-based approaches, we established a genomic catalog and a paired 16-member in vitro washed-rind cheese system. The combination of multi-platform metagenomic time-series data and an in vitro model provides a rich resource for further investigation of cheese rind microbiomes both computationally and experimentally. IMPORTANCE Metagenome sequencing can provide great insights into microbiome composition and function and help researchers develop testable hypotheses. Model microbiomes, such as those composed of cheese rind bacteria and fungi, allow the testing of these hypotheses in a controlled manner. Here, we first generated an extensive longitudinal metagenomic data set. This data set reveals successional dynamics, yields a phyla-spanning bacterial genomic catalog, associates mobile genetic elements with their hosts, and provides insights into functional enrichment of Psychrobacter in the cheese environment. Next, we show that members of the washed-rind cheese microbiome lend themselves to in vitro community reconstruction. This paired metagenomic data and in vitro system can thus be used as a platform for generating and testing hypotheses related to the dynamics within, and the functions associated with, cheese rind microbiomes.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Zhang Z, Li K, Zhang H, et al (2023)

A single silk and multiple pollen-expressed PMEs at the Ga1 locus modulate maize unilateral cross-incompatibility.

Journal of integrative plant biology [Epub ahead of print].

The Gametophyte factor1 (Ga1) locus in maize confers unilateral cross-incompatibility (UCI), and it is controlled by both pollen and silk-specific determinants. Although the Ga1 locus has been reported for more than a century and is widely utilized in maize breeding programs, only the pollen-specific ZmGa1P has been shown to function as a male determinant; thus, the genomic structure of the Ga1 locus and all the determinants that control UCI at this locus have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we used map-based cloning to confirm the determinants of UCI at the Ga1 locus and maize pan-genome sequence data to characterize the genomic structure of the Ga1 locus. The Ga1 locus comprises one silk-expressed PME (ZmGa1F) and eight pollen-expressed PMEs (ZmGa1P and ZmGa1PL1-7). Knockout of ZmGa1F in Ga1/Ga1 lines leads to the complete loss of the female barrier function. The expression of individual ZmGa1PL genes in a ga1/ga1 background endows ga1 pollen with the ability to overcome the female barrier of the Ga1 locus. These findings, combined with genomic data and genetic analyses, indicate that the Ga1 locus is modulated by a single female determinant and multiple male determinants, which are tightly linked. The results of this study provide valuable insights into the genomic structure of the Ga2 and Tcb1 loci and will aid applications of these loci in maize breeding programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Khushboo , Singhvi N, Gupta V, et al (2023)

Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. KD18, isolated from industrial soil.

3 Biotech, 13(1):34.

UNLABELLED: The present study scrutinizes the presence of Streptomyces strains in the soil sample collected from industrial area of Bahadurgarh (Haryana) India. The morphological approach manifested the isolated strain belong to Streptomyces species and named as Streptomyces sp. KD18. Sequencing of Streptomyces sp. KD18 genome was performed by Illumina Nextseq500 platform. 65 contigs were generated via SPAdes v3.11.1 and harboured genome size of 7.2 Mb. AntiSMASH server revealed the presence of 25 biosynthetic gene clusters in KD18 genome where BGC of lipstatin was of more interest from industrial and pharmaceutical purpose. The draft genome sequence represented via ANI values claimed that the KD18 strain belongs to Streptomyces toxytricini and finally named as S. toxytricini KD18. The LC-MS analysis of the extracted metabolite confirmed the production of lipstatin. The genome sequence data have been deposited to NCBI under the accession number of GCA_014748315.1.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03453-3.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Parakkunnel R, Naik K B, Vanishree G, et al (2022)

Gene fusions, micro-exons and splice variants define stress signaling by AP2/ERF and WRKY transcription factors in the sesame pan-genome.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1076229.

Evolutionary dynamics of AP2/ERF and WRKY genes, the major components of defense response were studied extensively in the sesame pan-genome. Massive variation was observed for gene copy numbers, genome location, domain structure, exon-intron structure and protein parameters. In the pan-genome, 63% of AP2/ERF members were devoid of introns whereas >99% of WRKY genes contained multiple introns. AP2 subfamily was found to be micro-exon rich with the adjoining intronic sequences sharing sequence similarity to many stress-responsive and fatty acid metabolism genes. WRKY family included extensive multi-domain gene fusions where the additional domains significantly enhanced gene and exonic sizes as well as gene copy numbers. The fusion genes were found to have roles in acquired immunity, stress response, cell and membrane integrity as well as ROS signaling. The individual genomes shared extensive synteny and collinearity although ecological adaptation was evident among the Chinese and Indian accessions. Significant positive selection effects were noticed for both micro-exon and multi-domain genes. Splice variants with changes in acceptor, donor and branch sites were common and 6-7 splice variants were detected per gene. The study ascertained vital roles of lipid metabolism and chlorophyll biosynthesis in the defense response and stress signaling pathways. 60% of the studied genes localized in the nucleus while 20% preferred chloroplast. Unique cis-element distribution was noticed in the upstream promoter region with MYB and STRE in WRKY genes while MYC was present in the AP2/ERF genes. Intron-less genes exhibited great diversity in the promoter sequences wherein the predominance of dosage effect indicated variable gene expression levels. Mimicking the NBS-LRR genes, a chloroplast localized WRKY gene, Swetha_24868, with additional domains of chorismate mutase, cAMP and voltage-dependent potassium channel was found to act as a master regulator of defense signaling, triggering immunity and reducing ROS levels.

RevDate: 2023-01-08

Schanknecht E, Bachari A, Nassar N, et al (2023)

Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(1): pii:ijms24010859.

Melanoma is deadly, physically impairing, and has ongoing treatment deficiencies. Current treatment regimens include surgery, targeted kinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and combined approaches. Each of these treatments face pitfalls, with diminutive five-year survival in patients with advanced metastatic invasion of lymph and secondary organ tissues. Polyphenolic compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids; both natural and synthetic, have emerging evidence of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological potential, including specific anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and palliative utility. Cannabis sativa is a wellspring of medicinal compounds whose direct and adjunctive application may offer considerable relief for melanoma suffers worldwide. This review aims to address the diverse applications of C. sativa's biocompounds in the scope of melanoma and suggest it as a strong candidate for ongoing pharmacological evaluation.

RevDate: 2023-01-07

Hackl T, Laurenceau R, Ankenbrand MJ, et al (2023)

Novel integrative elements and genomic plasticity in ocean ecosystems.

Cell, 186(1):47-62.e16.

Horizontal gene transfer accelerates microbial evolution. The marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus exhibits high genomic plasticity, yet the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Here, we report a novel family of DNA transposons-"tycheposons"-some of which are viral satellites while others carry cargo, such as nutrient-acquisition genes, which shape the genetic variability in this globally abundant genus. Tycheposons share distinctive mobile-lifecycle-linked hallmark genes, including a deep-branching site-specific tyrosine recombinase. Their excision and integration at tRNA genes appear to drive the remodeling of genomic islands-key reservoirs for flexible genes in bacteria. In a selection experiment, tycheposons harboring a nitrate assimilation cassette were dynamically gained and lost, thereby promoting chromosomal rearrangements and host adaptation. Vesicles and phage particles harvested from seawater are enriched in tycheposons, providing a means for their dispersal in the wild. Similar elements are found in microbes co-occurring with Prochlorococcus, suggesting a common mechanism for microbial diversification in the vast oligotrophic oceans.

RevDate: 2023-01-06

Wong ED, Miyasato SR, Aleksander S, et al (2023)

Saccharomyces Genome Database Update: Server Architecture, Pan-Genome Nomenclature, and External Resources.

Genetics pii:6968283 [Epub ahead of print].

As one of the first model organism knowledgebases, Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has been supporting the scientific research community since 1993. As technologies and research evolve, so does SGD: from updates in software architecture, to curation of novel data types, to incorporation of data from, and collaboration with, other knowledgebases. We are continuing to make steps toward providing the community with an S. cerevisiae pan-genome. Here we describe software upgrades, a new nomenclature system for genes not found in the reference strain, and additions to gene pages. With these improvements, we aim to remain a leading resource for students, researchers, and the broader scientific community.

RevDate: 2023-01-06

Dong C, Wei L, Wang J, et al (2022)

Genome-based taxonomic rearrangement of Oceanobacter-related bacteria including the description of Thalassolituus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov. and Thalassolituus pacificus sp. nov. and emended description of the genus Thalassolituus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1051202.

Oceanobacter-related bacteria (ORB) are a group of oligotrophic marine bacteria play an underappreciated role in carbon cycling. They have been frequently described as one of the dominant bacterial groups with a wide distribution in coastal and deep seawater of global oceans. To clarify their taxonomic affiliation in relation to alkane utilization, phylogenomic and comparative genomics analyses were performed based on currently available genomes from GenBank and four newly isolated strains, in addition to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Consistently, phylogenomic analysis robustly separated them into two groups, which are accordingly hydrocarbon-degrading (HD, Thalassolituus and Oleibacter) and non-HD (NHD, Oceanobacter). In addition, the two groups can also be readily distinguished by several polyphasic taxonomic characteristics. Furthermore, both AAI and POCP genomic indices within the HD group support the conclusion that the members of the genus Oleibacter should be transferred into the genus Thalassolituus. Moreover, HD and NHD bacteria differed significantly in terms of genome size, G + C content and genes involved in alkane utilization. All HD bacteria contain the key gene alkB encoding an alkane monooxygenase, which can be used as a marker gene to distinguish the members of closely related genera Oceanobacter and Thalassolituus. Pangenome analysis revealed that the larger accessory genome may endow Thalassolituus with the flexibility to cope with the dynamics of marine environments and thrive therein, although they possess smaller pan, core- and unique-genomes than Oceanobacter. Within the HD group, twelve species were clearly distinguished from each other by both dDDH and ANI genomic indices, including two novel species represented by the newly isolated strains alknpb1M-1 [T] and 59MF3M-4 [T] , for which the names Thalassolituus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov. and Thalassolituus pacificus sp. nov. are proposed. Collectively, these findings build a phylogenetic framework for the ORB and contribute to understanding of their role in marine carbon cycling.

RevDate: 2023-01-06

Ali A, Khatoon A, Mirza T, et al (2022)

Intensification in Genetic Information and Acquisition of Resistant Genes in Genome of Acinetobacter baumannii: A Pan-Genomic Analysis.

BioMed research international, 2022:3186343.

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) attributes 26% of the mortality rate in hospitalized patients, and the percentage can rise to 46 in patients admitted to ICU as it is a major cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia. It has been nominated as the critical priority organism by WHO for which new therapeutic drugs are urgently required. To understand the genomic identification of different strains, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and epidemiological typing of organisms, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis provides insight to explore new epitopes to develop new drugs against the organism. Therefore, the study is aimed at investigating the whole genome sequence of A. baumannii strains to report the new intensifications in its genomic profile. The genome sequences were retrieved from the NCBI database system. Pan-genome BPGA (Bacterial Pan-genome Analysis Tool) was used to analyze the core, pan, and species-specific genome analysis. The pan and core genome curves were extrapolated using the empirical power law equation f(x) = a.xb and the exponential equation f1(x) = c.e (d.x). To identify the resistant genes with resistant mutations against antibiotics, ResFinder and Galaxy Community hub bioinformatics tools were used. According to pan-genome analysis, there were 2227 core genes present in each species of the A. baumannii genome. Furthermore, the number of accessory genes ranged from 1182 to 1460, and the unique genes in the genome were 931. There were 325 exclusively absent genes in the genome of Acinetobacter baumannii. The pan-genome analysis showed that there is a 5-fold increase in the genome of A. baumannii in 5 years, and the genome is still open. There is the addition of multiple unique genes; among them, genes participating in the function of information and processing are increased.

RevDate: 2023-01-04

Karthik K, Anbazhagan S, Chitra MA, et al (2023)

Comparative phylogenomics of Trueperella pyogenes reveals host-based distinction of strains.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

Trueperella pyogenes, an opportunistic pathogen causes various ailments in different animals. Different strains from different animals have distinct characters phenotypically and genotypically. Hence understanding the strains in a particular geographical location helps in framing the preventive measures. Comparative genomics of all the available T. pyogenes genome in the NCBI was conducted to understand the relatedness among strains. Whole genome phylogeny showed host associated clustering of strains recovered from swine lungs. Core genome phylogeny also showed host associated clustering mimicking whole genome phylogeny results. MLST analysis showed that there was higher diversity among cattle strains. Multidimensional scaling revealed five swine clusters, two cattle and buffalo clusters. Pangenome analysis also showed that T. pyogenes had an open genome with 57.09% accessory genome. Host specific genes were identified by pangenome analysis, and (R)-citramalate synthase was specific for swine strains of Asian origin. Host specifc genes identified by pangenome analysis can be exploited for developing a molecular assay to specifically identify the strains. The study shows that MLST having higher discriminatory power can be used as an epidemiological tool for strain discrimination of T. pyogenes.

RevDate: 2023-01-04

Xu C, Rao J, Xie Y, et al (2023)

The DNA Phosphorothioation Restriction-Modification System Influences the Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial defense barriers, such as DNA methylation-associated restriction-modification (R-M) and the CRISPR-Cas system, play an important role in bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Recently, a novel R-M system based on DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification has been shown to be widespread in the kingdom of Bacteria as well as Archaea. However, the potential role of the PT R-M system in bacterial AMR remains unclear. In this study, we explored the role of PT R-Ms in AMR with a series of common clinical pathogenic bacteria. By analyzing the distribution of AMR genes related to mobile genetic elements (MGEs), it was shown that the presence of PT R-M effectively reduced the distribution of horizontal gene transfer (HGT)-derived AMR genes in the genome, even in the bacteria that did not tend to acquire AMR genes by HGT. In addition, unique gene variation analysis based on pangenome analysis and MGE prediction revealed that the presence of PT R-M could suppress HGT frequency. Thus, this is the first report showing that the PT R-M system has the potential to repress HGT-derived AMR gene acquisition by reducing the HGT frequency. IMPORTANCE In this study, we demonstrated the effect of DNA PT modification-based R-M systems on horizontal gene transfer of AMR genes in pathogenic bacteria. We show that there is no apparent association between the genetic background of the strains harboring PT R-Ms and the number of AMR genes or the kinds of gene families. The strains equipped with PT R-M harbor fewer plasmid-derived, prophage-derived, or integrating mobile genetic element (iMGE)-related AMR genes and have a lower HGT frequency, but the degree of inhibition varies among different bacteria. In addition, compared with Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae prefers to acquire MGE-derived AMR genes, and there is no coevolution between PT R-M clusters and bacterial core genes.

RevDate: 2023-01-02

Liang L, Zhang J, Xiao J, et al (2022)

Genome and pan-genome assembly of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) reveal the genetic basis of cold adaptation.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1059804.

Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is an important cowpea subspecies. We assembled the genomes of Ningjiang 3 (NJ, 550.31 Mb) and Dubai bean (DB, 564.12 Mb) for comparative genomics analysis. The whole-genome duplication events of DB and NJ occurred at 64.55 and 64.81 Mya, respectively, while the divergence between soybean and Vigna occurred in the Paleogene period. NJ genes underwent positive selection and amplification in response to temperature and abiotic stress. In species-specific gene families, NJ is mainly enriched in response to abiotic stress, while DB is primarily enriched in respiration and photosynthesis. We established the pan-genomes of four accessions (NJ, DB, IT97K-499-35 and Xiabao II) and identified 20,336 (70.5%) core genes present in all the accessions, 6,507 (55.56%) variable genes in two individuals, and 2,004 (6.95%) unique genes. The final pan genome is 616.35 Mb, and the core genome is 399.78 Mb. The variable genes are manifested mainly in stress response functions, ABC transporters, seed storage, and dormancy control. In the pan-genome sequence variation analysis, genes affected by presence/absence variants were enriched in biological processes associated with defense responses, immune system processes, signal transduction, and agronomic traits. The results of the present study provide genetic data that could facilitate efficient asparagus bean genetic improvement, especially in producing cold-adapted asparagus bean.

RevDate: 2022-12-31

Tanwar UK, Stolarska E, Rudy E, et al (2022)

Metal tolerance gene family in barley: an in silico comprehensive analysis.

Journal of applied genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Metal-tolerance proteins (MTPs) are divalent cation transporters that play critical roles in metal tolerance and ion homeostasis in plants. However, a comprehensive study of MTPs is still lacking in crop plants. The current study aimed to comprehensively identify and characterize the MTP gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare, Hv), an important crop. In total, 12 HvMTPs were identified in the barley genome in this study. They were divided into three phylogenetic groups (Zn-cation diffusion facilitator proteins [CDFs], Fe/Zn-CDFs, and Mn-CDFs) and further subdivided into seven groups (G1, G5, G6, G7, G8, G9, and G12). The majority of MTPs were hydrophobic proteins found in the vacuolar membrane. Gene duplication analysis of HvMTPs revealed one pair of segmental-like duplications in the barley genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that barley MTPs underwent purifying natural selection. Additionally, the HvMTPs were analyzed in the pan-genome sequences of barley (20 accessions), which suggests that HvMTPs are highly conserved in barley evolution. Cis-acting regulatory elements, microRNA target sites, and protein-protein interaction analysis indicated the role of HvMTPs in a variety of biological processes. Expression profiling suggests that HvMTPs play an active role in maintaining barley nutrient homeostasis throughout its life cycle, and their expression levels were not significantly altered by abiotic stresses like cold, drought, or heat. The expression of barley HvMTP genes in the presence of heavy metals such as Zn[2+], Cu[2+], As[3+], and Cd[2+] revealed that these MTPs were induced by at least one metal ion, implying their involvement in metal tolerance or transportation. The identification and comprehensive investigation of MTP gene family members will provide important gene resources for the genetic improvement of crops for metal tolerance, bioremediation, or biofortification of staple crops.

RevDate: 2022-12-31

Bordel S, Martín-González D, Muñoz R, et al (2022)

Genome sequence analysis and characterization of Bacillus altitudinis B12, a polylactic acid- and keratin-degrading bacterium.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG [Epub ahead of print].

Keratin-rich wastes, mainly in the form of feathers, are recalcitrant residues generated in high amounts as by-products in chicken farms and food industry. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the second most common biodegradable polymer found in commercial plastics, which is not easily degraded by microbial activity. This work reports the 3.8-Mb genome of Bacillus altitudinis B12, a highly efficient PLA- and keratin-degrading bacterium, with potential for environmental friendly biotechnological applications in the feed, fertilizer, detergent, leather, and pharmaceutical industries. The whole genome sequence of B. altitudinis B12 revealed that this strain (which had been previously misclassified as Bacillus pumilus B12) is closely related to the B. altitudinis strains ER5, W3, and GR-8. A total of 4056 coding sequences were annotated using the RAST server, of which 2484 are core genes of the pan genome of B. altitudinis and 171 are unique to this strain. According to the sequence analysis, B. pumilus B12 has a predicted secretome of 353 proteins, among which a keratinase and a PLA depolymerase were identified by sequence analysis. The presence of these two enzymes could explain the characterized PLA and keratin biodegradation capability of the strain.

RevDate: 2022-12-29

Javkar K, Rand H, Strain E, et al (2022)

PRAWNS: Compact pan-genomic features for whole-genome population genomics.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6965020 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Scientists seeking to understand the genomic basis of bacterial phenotypes, such as antibiotic resistance, today have access to an unprecedented number of complete and nearly-complete genomes. Making sense of these data requires computational tools able to perform multiple-genome comparisons efficiently, yet currently available tools cannot scale beyond several tens of genomes.

RESULTS: We describe PRAWNS, an efficient and scalable tool for multiple-genome analysis. PRAWNS defines a concise set of genomic features (metablocks), as well as pairwise relationships between them, which can be used as a basis for large-scale genotype-phenotype association studies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of PRAWNS by identifying genomic regions associated with antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

AVAILABILITY: PRAWNS is implemented in C ++ and Python3, licensed under the GPLv3 license, and freely downloadable from GitHub (

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-12-28

Kadiri M, Sevugapperumal N, Nallusamy S, et al (2022)

Pan-genome analysis and molecular docking unveil the biocontrol potential of Bacillus velezensis VB7 against Phytophthora infestans.

Microbiological research, 268:127277 pii:S0944-5013(22)00317-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Management of late blight of potato incited by Phytophthora infestans remains a major challenge. Coevolution of pathogen with resistant strains and the rise of fungicide resistance have made it more challenging to prevent the spread of P. infestans. Here, the anti-oomycete potential of Bacillus velezensis VB7 against P. infestans through pan-genome analysis and molecular docking were explored. The Biocontrol potential of VB7 against P. infestans was assessed using a confrontational assay. The biomolecules from the inhibition zone were identified and subjected to in silico analysis against P. infestans target proteins. Nucleotide sequences for 54 B. velezensis strains from different geographical locations were used for pan-genome analysis. The confrontational assay revealed the anti-oomycetes potential of VB7 against P. infestans. Molecular docking confirmed that the penicillamine disulfide had the maximum binding energy with eight effector proteins of P. infestans. Besides, scanning electron microscopic observations of P. infestans interaction with VB7 revealed structural changes in hypha and sporangia. Pan-genome analysis between 54 strains of B. velezensis confirmed that the core genome had 2226 genes, and it has an open pan-genome. The present study confirmed the anti-oomycete potential of B. velezensis VB7 against P. infestans and paved the way to explore the genetic potential of VB7.

RevDate: 2022-12-27

Srivastava S, Bombaywala S, Jakhesara SJ, et al (2022)

Potential of camel rumen derived Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis strains for application in plant biomass hydrolysis.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG [Epub ahead of print].

Rumen inhabiting Bacillus species possesses a high genetic potential for plant biomass hydrolysis and conversion to value-added products. In view of the same, five camel rumen-derived Bacillus strains, namely B. subtilis CRN 1, B. velezensis CRN 2, B. subtilis CRN 7, B. subtilis CRN 11, and B. velezensis CRN 23 were initially assayed for diverse hydrolytic activities, followed by genome mining to unravel the potential applications. CRN 1 and CRN 7 showed the highest endoglucanase activity with 0.4 U/ml, while CRN 23 showed high β-xylosidase activity of 0.36 U/ml. The comprehensive genomic insights of strains resolve taxonomic identity, clusters of an orthologous gene, pan-genome dynamics, and metabolic features. Annotation of Carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) reveals the presence of diverse glycoside hydrolases (GH) GH1, GH5, GH43, and GH30, which are solely responsible for the effective breakdown of complex bonds in plant polysaccharides. Further, protein modeling and ligand docking of annotated endoglucanases showed an affinity for cellotrioside, cellobioside, and β-glucoside. The finding indicates the flexibility of Bacillus-derived endoglucanase activity on diverse cellulosic substrates. The presence of the butyrate synthesis gene in the CRN 1 strain depicts its key role in the production of important short-chain fatty acids essential for healthy rumen development. Similarly, antimicrobial peptides such as bacilysin and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPS) synthesized by the Bacillus strains were also annotated in the genome. The findings clearly define the role of Bacillus sp. inside the camel rumen and its potential application in various plant biomass utilizing industry and animal health research sectors.

RevDate: 2022-12-25

Filipić B, Malešević M, Vasiljević Z, et al (2022)

Comparative genomics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans clinical isolates from Serbia reveals shortened variant of class 1 integron integrase gene.

Folia microbiologica [Epub ahead of print].

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) is the preferable treatment option of the infections caused by Achromobacter spp. Our study aimed to analyze the SXT resistance of 98 Achromobacter spp. isolates from pediatric patients, among which 33 isolates were SXT-resistant. The presence of intI1 was screened by PCR and genome sequence analyses. The intI1 gene was detected in 10 of SXT-resistant isolates that had shorter intI1 PCR fragments named intI1S. Structural changes in intI1S were confirmed by genome sequencing and analyses which revealed 86 amino acids deletion in IntI1S protein compared to canonical IntI1 protein. All IntI1S isolates were of non-CF origin. Pan-genome analysis of intI1S bearing A. xylosoxidans isolates comprised 9052 genes, with the core genome consisting of 5455 protein-coding genes. Results in this study indicate that IntI1S isolates were derived from clinical settings and that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were potential reservoirs for healthcare-associated infections that occurred in non-CF patients.

RevDate: 2022-12-25

Shirasawa K, Hosokawa M, Yasui Y, et al (2022)

Chromosome-scale genome assembly of a Japanese chili pepper landrace, Capsicum annuum 'Takanotsume'.

DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes pii:6960699 [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we report the genome sequence of a popular Japanese chili pepper landrace, Capsicum annuum 'Takanotsume'. We used long-read sequencing and optical mapping, together with the genetic mapping technique, to obtain the chromosome-scale genome assembly of 'Takanotsume'. The assembly consists of 12 pseudomolecules, which corresponds to the basic chromosome number of C. annuum, and is 3,058.5 Mb in size, spanning 97.0% of the estimated genome size. A total of 34,324 high-confidence genes were predicted in the genome, and 83.4% of the genome assembly was occupied by repetitive sequences. Comparative genomics of linked-read sequencing-derived de novo genome assemblies of two Capsicum chinense lines and whole-genome resequencing analysis of Capsicum species revealed not only nucleotide sequence variations but also genome structure variations (i.e., chromosomal rearrangements and transposon-insertion polymorphisms) between 'Takanotsume' and its relatives. Overall, the genome sequence data generated in this study will accelerate the pan-genomics and breeding of Capsicum, and facilitate the dissection of genetic mechanisms underlying the agronomically important traits of 'Takanotsume'.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Xia F, Cheng J, Jiang M, et al (2022)

Genomics Analysis to Identify Multiple Genetic Determinants That Drive the Global Transmission of the Pandemic ST95 Lineage of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC).

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(12):.

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a pathogen that causes host extraintestinal diseases. The ST95 E. coli lineage is one of the dominant ExPEC lineages in humans and poultry. In this study, we took advantage of extensive E. coli genomes available through public open-access databases to construct a detailed understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of ST95. We used a high variability of accessory genomes to highlight the diversity and dynamic traits of ST95. Isolates from diverse hosts and geographic sources were randomly located on the phylogenetic tree, which suggested that there is no host specificity for ST95. The time-scaled phylogeny showed that ST95 is an ancient and long-lasting lineage. The virulence genes, resistance genes, and pathogenicity islands (PAIs) were characterized in ST95 pan-genomes to provide novel insights into the pathogenicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) genotypes. We found that a pool of large plasmids drives virulence and MDR. Based on the unique genes in the ST95 pan-genome, we designed a novel multiplex PCR reaction to rapidly detect ST95. Overall, our study addressed a gap in the current understanding of ST95 ExPEC genomes, with significant implications for recognizing the success and spread of ST95.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Lu Q, Zhu X, Long Q, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomics Reveal the Utilization Ability of Variable Carbohydrates as Key Genetic Features of Listeria Pathogens in Their Pathogenic Lifestyles.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(12):.

BACKGROUND: L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, the only two pathogens of Listeria, can survive in various environments, having different pathogenic characteristics. However, the genetic basis of their excellent adaptability and differences in pathogenicity has still not been completely elucidated.

METHODS: We performed a comparative genomic analysis based on 275 L. monocytogenes, 10 L. ivanovii, and 22 non-pathogenic Listeria strains.

RESULTS: Core/pan-genome analysis revealed that 975 gene families were conserved in all the studied strains. Additionally, 204, 242, and 756 gene families existed uniquely in L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and both, respectively. Functional annotation partially verified that these unique gene families were closely related to their adaptability and pathogenicity. Moreover, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of these unique gene sets showed that plenty of carbohydrate transport systems and energy metabolism enzymes were clustered in the networks. Interestingly, ethanolamine-metabolic-process-related proteins were significantly enriched in the PPI network of the unique genes of the Listeria pathogens, which can be understood as a determining factor of their pathogenicity.

CONCLUSIONS: The utilization capacity of multiple carbon sources of Listeria pathogens, especially ethanolamine, is the key genetic basis for their ability to adapt to various environments and pathogenic lifestyles.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Vázquez-Sánchez DA, Grillo S, Carrera-Salinas A, et al (2022)

Molecular Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Clinical Features of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections over 30 Years in Barcelona, Spain (1990-2019).

Microorganisms, 10(12):.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (MRSA-BSI) are a significant cause of mortality. We analysed the evolution of the molecular and clinical epidemiology of MRSA-BSI (n = 784) in adult patients (Barcelona, 1990-2019). Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyped (PFGE), and a selection was sequenced (WGS) to characterise the pangenome and mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance. Increases in patient age (60 to 71 years), comorbidities (Charlson's index > 2, 10% to 94%), community-onset healthcare-associated acquisition (9% to 60%), and 30-day mortality (28% to 36%) were observed during the 1990-1995 and 2014-2019 periods. The proportion of catheter-related BSIs fell from 57% to 20%. Current MRSA-BSIs are caused by CC5-IV and an upward trend of CC8-IV and CC22-IV clones. CC5 and CC8 had the lowest core genome proportions. Antimicrobial resistance rates fell, and only ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and erythromycin remained high (>50%) due to GyrA/GrlA changes, the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2″)-Ia and ANT(4')-Ia), and mph(C)/msr(A) or erm (C) genes. Two CC22-IV strains showed daptomycin resistance (MprF substitutions). MRSA-BSI has become healthcare-associated, affecting elderly patients with comorbidities and causing high mortality rates. Clonal replacement with CC5-IV and CC8-IV clones resulted in lower antimicrobial resistance rates. The increased frequency of the successful CC22-IV, associated with daptomycin resistance, should be monitored.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Wang L, Zhou F, Zhou J, et al (2022)

Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas asiatica JP233: An Efficient Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium.

Genes, 13(12): pii:genes13122290.

The bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain JP233 has been reported to efficiently solubilize sparingly soluble inorganic phosphate, promote plant growth and significantly reduce phosphorus (P) leaching loss from soil. The production of 2-keto gluconic acid (2KGA) by strain JP233 was identified as the main active metabolite responsible for phosphate solubilization. However, the genetic basis of phosphate solubilization and plant-growth promotion remained unclear. As a result, the genome of JP233 was sequenced and analyzed in this study. The JP233 genome consists of a circular chromosome with a size of 5,617,746 bp and a GC content of 62.86%. No plasmids were detected in the genome. There were 5097 protein-coding sequences (CDSs) predicted in the genome. Phylogenetic analyses based on genomes of related Pseudomonas spp. identified strain JP233 as Pseudomonas asiatica. Comparative pangenomic analysis among 9 P. asiatica strains identified 4080 core gene clusters and 111 singleton genes present only in JP233. Genes associated with 2KGA production detected in strain JP233, included those encoding glucose dehydrogenase, pyrroloquinoline quinone and gluoconate dehydrogenase. Genes associated with mechanisms of plant-growth promotion and nutrient acquisition detected in JP233 included those involved in IAA biosynthesis, ethylene catabolism and siderophore production. Numerous genes associated with other properties beneficial to plant growth were also detected in JP233, included those involved in production of acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, trehalose, and resistance to heavy metals. This study provides the genetic basis to elucidate the plant-growth promoting and bio-remediation properties of strain JP233 and its potential applications in agriculture and industry.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Alturki NA, Mashraqi MM, Jalal K, et al (2022)

Therapeutic Target Identification and Inhibitor Screening against Riboflavin Synthase of Colorectal Cancer Associated Fusobacterium nucleatum.

Cancers, 14(24): pii:cancers14246260.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among all cancers in terms of prevalence. There is growing evidence that gut microbiota has a role in the development of colorectal cancer. Fusobacterium nucleatum is overrepresented in the gastrointestinal tract and tumor microenvironment of patients with CRC. This suggests the role of F. nucleatum as a potential risk factor in the development of CRC. Hence, we aimed to explore whole genomes of F. nucleatum strains related to CRC to predict potential therapeutic markers through a pan-genome integrated subtractive genomics approach. In the current study, we identified 538 proteins as essential for F. nucleatum survival, 209 non-homologous to a human host, and 12 as drug targets. Eventually, riboflavin synthase (RiS) was selected as a therapeutic target for further processing. Three different inhibitor libraries of lead-like natural products, i.e., cyanobactins (n = 237), streptomycins (n = 607), and marine bacterial secondary metabolites (n = 1226) were screened against it. After the structure-based study, three compounds, i.e., CMNPD3609 (-7.63) > Malyngamide V (-7.03) > ZINC06804365 (-7.01) were prioritized as potential inhibitors of F. nucleatum. Additionally, the stability and flexibility of these compounds bound to RiS were determined via a molecular dynamics simulation of 50 ns. Results revealed the stability of these compounds within the binding pocket, after 5 ns. ADMET profiling showed compounds as drug-like, non-permeable to the blood brain barrier, non-toxic, and HIA permeable. Pan-genomics mediated drug target identification and the virtual screening of inhibitors is the preliminary step towards inhibition of this pathogenic oncobacterium and we suggest mouse model experiments to validate our findings.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Vaughn JN, Branham SE, Abernathy B, et al (2022)

Graph-based pangenomics maximizes genotyping density and reveals structural impacts on fungal resistance in melon.

Nature communications, 13(1):7897.

The genomic sequences segregating in experimental populations are often highly divergent from the community reference and from one another. Such divergence is problematic under various short-read-based genotyping strategies. In addition, large structural differences are often invisible despite being strong candidates for causal variation. These issues are exacerbated in specialty crop breeding programs with fewer, lower-quality sequence resources. Here, we examine the benefits of complete genomic information, based on long-read assemblies, in a biparental mapping experiment segregating at numerous disease resistance loci in the non-model crop, melon (Cucumis melo). We find that a graph-based approach, which uses both parental genomes, results in 19% more variants callable across the population and raw allele calls with a 2 to 3-fold error-rate reduction, even relative to single reference approaches using a parent genome. We show that structural variation has played a substantial role in shaping two Fusarium wilt resistance loci with known causal genes. We also report on the genetics of powdery mildew resistance, where copy number variation and local recombination suppression are directly interpretable via parental genome alignments. Benefits observed, even in this low-resolution biparental experiment, will inevitably be amplified in more complex populations.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Sreya P, Suresh G, Rai A, et al (2022)

Revisiting the taxonomy of the genus Rhodopirellula with the proposal for reclassification of the genus to Rhodopirellula sensu stricto, Aporhodopirellula gen. nov., Allorhodopirellula gen. nov. and Neorhodopirellula gen. nov.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

The current genus Rhodopirellula consists of marine bacteria which belong to the family Pirellulaceae of the phylum Planctomycetota. Members of the genus Rhodopirellula are aerobic, mesophiles and chemoheterotrophs. The here conducted analysis built on 16S rRNA gene sequence and multi-locus sequence analysis based phylogenomic trees suggested that the genus is subdivided into four clades. Existing Rhodopirellula species were studied extensively based on phenotypic, genomic and chemotaxonomic parameters. The heterogeneity was further confirmed by overall genome-related indices (OGRI) including digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average nucleotide identity (ANI), average amino acid identity (AAI), and percentage of conserved proteins (POCP). AAI and POCP values between the clades of the genus Rhodopirellula were 62.2-69.6% and 49.5-62.5%, respectively. Comparative genomic approaches like pan-genome analysis and conserved signature indels (CSIs) also support the division of the clades. The genomic incoherence of the members of the genus is further supported by variations in phenotypic characteristics. Thus, with the here applied integrated comparative genomic and polyphasic approaches, we propose the reclassification of the genus Rhodopirellula to three new genera: Aporhodopirellula gen. nov., Allorhodopirellula gen. nov., and Neorhodopirellula gen. nov.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Bao J, Wang Z, Chen M, et al (2022)

Pan-Genomics Reveals a New Variation Pattern of Secreted Proteins in Pyricularia oryzae.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(12): pii:jof8121238.

(1) Background: Pyricularia oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, is one of the major rice pathogens. The complex population structure of P. oryzae facilitates the rapid virulence variations, which make the blast disease a serious challenge for global food security. There is a large body of existing genomics research on P. oryzae, however the population structure at the pan-genome level is not clear, and the mechanism of genetic divergence and virulence variations of different sub-populations is also unknown. (2) Methods: Based on the genome data published in the NCBI, we constructed a pan-genome database of P. oryzae, which consisted of 156 strains (117 isolated from rice and 39 isolated from other hosts). (3) Results: The pan-genome contained a total of 24,100 genes (12,005 novel genes absent in the reference genome 70-15), including 16,911 (~70%) core genes (population frequency ≥95%) and 1378 (~5%) strain-specific genes (population frequency ≤5%). Gene presence-absence variation (PAV) based clustering analysis of the population structure of P. oryzae revealed four subgroups (three from rice and one from other hosts). Interestingly, the cloned avirulence genes and conventional secreted proteins (SPs, with signal peptides) were enriched in the high-frequency regions and significantly associated with transposable elements (TEs), while the unconventional SPs (without signal peptides) were enriched in the low-frequency regions and not associated significantly with TEs. This pan-genome will expand the breadth and depth of the rice blast fungus reference genome, and also serve as a new blueprint for scientists to further study the pathogenic mechanism and virulence variation of the rice blast fungus.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Morey-León G, Andrade-Molina D, Fernández-Cadena JC, et al (2022)

Comparative genomics of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ecuador.

BMC genomics, 23(1):844.

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease affecting millions of people. In spite of efforts to reduce the disease, increasing antibiotic resistance has contributed to persist in the top 10 causes of death worldwide. In fact, the increased cases of multi (MDR) and extreme drug resistance (XDR) worldwide remains the main challenge for tuberculosis control. Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool for predicting drug resistance-related variants, studying lineages, tracking transmission, and defining outbreaks. This study presents the identification and characterization of resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis including a phylogenetic and molecular resistance profile study by sequencing the complete genome of 24 strains from different provinces of Ecuador.

RESULTS: Genomic sequencing was used to identify the variants causing resistance. A total of 15/21 isolates were identified as MDR, 4/21 as pre-XDR and 2/21 as XDR, with three isolates discarded due to low quality; the main sub-lineage was LAM (61.9%) and Haarlem (19%) but clades X, T and S were identified. Of the six pre-XDR and XDR strains, it is noteworthy that five come from females; four come from the LAM sub-lineage and two correspond to the X-class sub-lineage. A core genome of 3,750 genes, distributed in 295 subsystems, was determined. Among these, 64 proteins related to virulence and implicated in the pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis and 66 possible pharmacological targets stand out. Most variants result in nonsynonymous amino acid changes and the most frequent genotypes were identified as conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, para-aminosalicylic acid and streptomycin. However, an increase in the resistance to fluoroquinolones was detected.

CONCLUSION: This work shows for the first time the variability of circulating resistant strains between men and women in Ecuador, highlighting the usefulness of genomic sequencing for the identification of emerging resistance. In this regard, we found an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance. Further sampling effort is needed to determine the total variability and associations with the metadata obtained to generate better health policies.

RevDate: 2022-12-20

Lima A, Carolina Barbosa Caetano A, Hurtado Castillo R, et al (2022)

Comparative genomic analysis of ovine and other host associated isolates of Staphylococcus aureus exhibit the important role of mobile genetic elements and virulence factors in host adaptation.

Gene pii:S0378-1119(22)00951-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological agent of mastitis in small ruminants worldwide. This disease has a difficult cure and possible relapse, leading to significant economic losses in production, milk quality and livestock. This study performed comparative genomic analyses between 73 S. aureus genomes from different hosts (human, bovine, pig and others). This work isolated and sequenced 12 of these genomes from ovine. This study contributes to the knowledge of genomic specialization and the role of specific genes in establishing infection in ovine mastitis-associated S. aureus. The genomes of S. aureus isolated from sheep maintained a higher representation when grouped with clonal complexes 130 and 133. The genomes showed high genetic similarity, the species pan-genome consisting of 4200 genes (central = 2008, accessory = 1559 and unique = 634). Among these, 277 unique genes were related to the genomes isolated from sheep, with 39.6% as hypothetical proteins, 6.4% as phages, 6.4% as toxins, 2.9% as transporters, and 44.7% as related to other proteins. Furthermore, at the pathogen level, they showed 80 genes associated with virulence factors and 19 with antibiotic resistance shared in almost all isolates. Although S. aureus isolated from ovine showed susceptibility to antimicrobials in vitro, ten genes were predicted to be associated with antibiotic inactivation and efflux pump, suggesting resistance to gentamicin and penicillin. This work may contribute to identifying genes acquired by horizontal transfer and their role in host adaptation, virulence, bacterial resistance, and characterization of strains affecting ovine.

RevDate: 2022-12-20

Simoni S, Leoni F, Veschetti L, et al (2022)

The Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen Klebsiella michiganensis: Genetic Analysis of a KPC-3 Producing Strain Isolated from Venus Clam.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The recovery and characterization of a multidrug-resistant, KPC-3-producing Klebsiella michiganensis that was obtained from Venus clam samples is reported in this study. A whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis using Illumina and Nanopore technologies of the K. michiganensis 23999A2 isolate revealed that the strain belonged to the new sequence type 382 (ST382) and carried seven plasmid replicon sequences, including four IncF type plasmids (FII, FIIY, FIIk, and FIB), one IncHI1 plasmid, and two Col plasmids. The FIB and FIIk plasmids showed high homology to each other and to multireplicon pKpQIL-like plasmids that are found in epidemic KPC-K. pneumoniae clones worldwide. The strain carried multiple β-lactamase genes on the IncF plasmids: blaOXA-9 and blaTEM-1A on FIB, blaKPC-3 inserted in a Tn4401a on FIIK, and blaSHV-12 on FIIY. The IncHI1-ST11 harbored no resistance gene. The curing of the strain caused the loss of all of the bla genes and a rearrangement of the IncF plasmids. Conjugal transfer of the blaOXA-9, blaTEM-1A and blaKPC-3 genes occurred at a frequency of 5 × 10[-7], using K. quasipneumoniae as a recipient, and all of the bla genes were transferred through a pKpQIL that originated from the recombination of the FIB and FIIk plasmids of the donor. A comparison with 31 K. michiganensis genomes that are available in the NCBI database showed that the closest phylogenetic relatives of K. michiganensis 23999A2 are an environmental isolate from soil in South Korea and a clinical isolate from human sputum in Japan. Finally, a pan-genome analysis showed a large accessory genome of the strain as well as the great genomic plasticity of the K. michiganensis species. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella michiganensis is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and, so far, few studies describe isolates of clinical origin in the environment. This study contributes to the understanding of how the dissemination of carbapenem-resistance outside the hospital setting may be related to the circulation of pKpQIL-like plasmids that are derived from epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. The recovery of a carbapenem-resistant isolate in clams is of great concern, as bivalves could represent vehicles of transmission of pathogens and resistance genes to humans via the food chain. The study demonstrates the plasticity of K. michiganensis genome, which is probably useful to multiple environment adaptation and to the evolution of the species.

RevDate: 2022-12-20

Cai Q, Huang Y, Zhou L, et al (2022)

A Complete Genome of Nocardia terpenica NC_YFY_NT001 and Pan-Genomic Analysis Based on Different Sources of Nocardia spp. Isolates Reveal Possibly Host-Related Virulence Factors.

Infection and drug resistance, 15:7259-7270.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the possible virulence genes associated with Nocardia NC_YFY_NT001 isolated by ourselves and other Nocardia spp.

METHODS: The genome of Nocardia terpenica NC_YFY_NT001 was completed by using PacBio and Illumina platforms. A pan-genomic analysis was applied to selected complete Nocardia genomes.

RESULTS: Nocardia terpenica NC_YFY_NT001 can cause healthy mice death by tail intravenous injection. The genome of NT001 has one circular chromosome 8,850,000 bp and one circular plasmid 70,000 bp with ~68% GC content. The chromosome and plasmid encode 7914 and 80 proteins, respectively. Furthermore, a pan-genomic analysis showed a total of 45,825 gene clusters, then 304 core, 21,045 shell and 24,476 cloud gene clusters were classified using specific parameters. In addition, we found that catalases were more abundant in human isolates. Furthermore, we also found no significant differences in the MCE proteins between different strains from different sources. The pan-genomic analysis also showed that 67 genes could only be found in humoral isolates. ReX3 and DUF853 domain protein were found in all eight human isolates. The composition of unique genes in humoral isolate genomes indicated that the transcriptional regulators may be important when Nocardia invades the host, which allows them to survive in the new ecological system.

CONCLUSION: In this study, we confirmed that NT001 could cause infected animal death, and identified many possible virulence factors for our future studies. This study also provides new insight for our further study on Nocardia virulence mechanisms.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Sohn JI, Choi MH, Yi D, et al (2022)

Ultrafast prediction of somatic structural variations by filtering out reads matched to pan-genome k-mer sets.

Nature biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Variant callers typically produce massive numbers of false positives for structural variations, such as cancer-relevant copy-number alterations and fusion genes resulting from genome rearrangements. Here we describe an ultrafast and accurate detector of somatic structural variations that reduces read-mapping costs by filtering out reads matched to pan-genome k-mer sets. The detector, which we named ETCHING (for efficient detection of chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes), reduces the number of false positives by leveraging machine-learning classifiers trained with six breakend-related features (clipped-read count, split-reads count, supporting paired-end read count, average mapping quality, depth difference and total length of clipped bases). When benchmarked against six callers on reference cell-free DNA, validated biomarkers of structural variants, matched tumour and normal whole genomes, and tumour-only targeted sequencing datasets, ETCHING was 11-fold faster than the second-fastest structural-variant caller at comparable performance and memory use. The speed and accuracy of ETCHING may aid large-scale genome projects and facilitate practical implementations in precision medicine.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Jesus HNR, Ramos JN, Rocha DJPG, et al (2022)

The pan-genome of the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen Corynebacterium striatum.

Functional & integrative genomics, 23(1):5.

Corynebacterium striatum, a common constituent of the human skin microbiome, is now considered an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen of immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms in the transition from colonization to the multidrug-resistant (MDR) invasive phenotype in clinical isolates. This study performed a comprehensive pan-genomic analysis of C. striatum, including isolates from "normal skin microbiome" and from MDR infections, to gain insights into genetic factors contributing to pathogenicity and multidrug resistance in this species. For this, three novel genome sequences were obtained from clinical isolates of C. striatum of patients from Brazil, and other 24 complete or draft C. striatum genomes were retrieved from GenBank, including the ATCC6940 isolate from the Human Microbiome Project. Analysis of C. striatum strains demonstrated the presence of an open pan-genome (α = 0.852803) containing 3816 gene families, including 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and 32 putative virulence factors. The core and accessory genomes included 1297 and 1307 genes, respectively. The identified AMR genes are primarily associated with resistance to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Of these, 66.6% are present in genomic islands, and four AMR genes, including aac(6')-ib7, are located in a class 1-integron. In conclusion, our data indicated that C. striatum possesses genomic characteristics favorable to the invasive phenotype, with high genomic plasticity, a robust genetic arsenal for iron acquisition, and important virulence determinants and AMR genes present in mobile genetic elements.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Gui S, Martinez-Rivas FJ, Wen W, et al (2022)

Going broad and deep: sequencing driven insights into plant physiology, evolution and crop domestication.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Deep-sequencing is a term that has become embedded in the plant genomic literature in recent years and with good reason. A torrent of (largely), high quality genomic and transcriptomic data has been collected and most of this has been publicly released. Indeed, almost 1000 plant genomes have been reported ( and the 2000 plant transcriptomes project has long been completed (One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes, 2019). The EarthBioGenome project will dwarf even these milestones (Lewin et al., 2022). That said, massive progress in understanding plant physiology, evolution and crop domestication have been made by sequencing broadly (across a species) as well as deeply (within a single individual). We will outline the current state of the art in genome and transcriptome sequencing before we briefly review the most visible of these broad approaches namely genome wide association- and transcriptome wide association- studies as well as the compilation of pan-genomes. This will include both the most commonly used methods reliant on single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels as well as more recent examples which consider structural variants. We will subsequently present case-studies exemplifying how their application have brought insight into either plant physiology or evolution and crop domestication. Finally, we will provide conclusions and an outlook as to the perspective for the extension of such approaches both to different species, tissues and biological processes.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Wang Z, Xu S, Zheng X, et al (2022)

Identification of Subunits for Novel Universal Vaccines against Three Predominant Serogroups and the Emerging O145 among Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli by Pan-RV Pipeline.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli, a causative agent of avian colibacillosis, has been causing serious economic losses in the poultry industry. The increase in multidrug-resistant isolates and the complexity of the serotypes of this pathogen, especially the recently reported emergence of a newly predominant serogroup of O145, make the control of this disease difficult. To address this challenge, a high-throughput screening approach, called Pan-RV (Reverse vaccinology based on pangenome analysis), is proposed to search for universal protective antigens against the three traditional serogroups and the newly emerged O145. Using this approach, a total of 61 proteins regarded as probable antigens against the four important serogroups were screened from the core genome of 127 Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) genomes, and six were verified by Western blots using antisera. Overall, our research will provide a foundation for the development of an APEC subunit vaccine against avian colibacillosis. Given the exponential growth of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, our Pan-RV pipeline will make screening of bacterial vaccine candidates inexpensive, rapid, and efficient. IMPORTANCE With the emergence of drug resistance and the newly predominant serogroup O145, the control of Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is facing a serious challenge; an efficient immunological method is urgently needed. Here, for the first time, we propose a high-throughput screening approach to search for universal protective antigens against the three traditional serogroups and the newly emerged O145. Importantly, using this approach, a total of 61 proteins regarded as probable antigens against the four important serogroups were screened, and three were shown to be immunoreactive with all antisera (covering the four serogroups), thereby providing a foundation for the development of APEC subunit vaccines against avian colibacillosis. Further, our Pan-RV pipeline will provide immunological control strategies for pathogens with complex and variable genetic backgrounds such as Escherichia coli and will make screening of bacterial vaccine candidates more inexpensive, rapid, and efficient.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Usadel B (2022)

Solanaceae pangenomes are coming of graphical age to bring heritability back.

aBIOTECH, 3(4):233-236.

Two recent articles describe a pangenome of potato and a graph-based pangenome for tomato, respectively. The latter improves our understanding of the tomato genomics architecture even further and the use of this graph-based pangenome versus a single reference dramatically improves heritability in tomato.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Cohn AR, Orsi RH, Carroll LM, et al (2022)

Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro displays a phylogenetic structure and genomic features consistent with virulence attenuation and adaptation to cattle.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1005215.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S.) serovar Cerro is rarely isolated from human clinical cases of salmonellosis but represents the most common serovar isolated from cattle without clinical signs of illness in the United States. In this study, using a large, diverse set of 316 isolates, we utilized genomic methods to further elucidate the evolutionary history of S. Cerro and to identify genomic features associated with its apparent virulence attenuation in humans. Phylogenetic analyses showed that within this polyphyletic serovar, 98.4% of isolates (311/316) represent a monophyletic clade within section Typhi and the remaining 1.6% of isolates (5/316) form a monophyletic clade within subspecies enterica Clade A1. Of the section Typhi S. Cerro isolates, 93.2% of isolates (290/311) clustered into a large clonal clade comprised of predominantly sequence type (ST) 367 cattle and environmental isolates, while the remaining 6.8% of isolates (21/311), primarily from human clinical sources, clustered outside of this clonal clade. A tip-dated phylogeny of S. Cerro ST367 identified two major clades (I and II), one of which overwhelmingly consisted of cattle isolates that share a most recent common ancestor that existed circa 1975. Gene presence/absence and rarefaction curve analyses suggested that the pangenome of section Typhi S. Cerro is open, potentially reflecting the gain/loss of prophage; human isolates contained the most open pangenome, while cattle isolates had the least open pangenome. Hypothetically disrupted coding sequences (HDCs) displayed clade-specific losses of intact speC and sopA virulence genes within the large clonal S. Cerro clade, while loss of intact vgrG, araH, and vapC occurred in all section Typhi S. Cerro isolates. Further phenotypic analysis suggested that the presence of a premature stop codon in speC does not abolish ornithine decarboxylase activity in S. Cerro, likely due to the activity of the second ornithine decarboxylase encoded by speF, which remained intact in all isolates. Overall, our study identifies specific genomic features associated with S. Cerro's infrequent isolation from humans and its apparent adaptation to cattle, which has broader implications for informing our understanding of the evolutionary events facilitating host adaptation in Salmonella.

RevDate: 2022-12-18

Cagirici HB, Andorf CM, TZ Sen (2022)

Co-expression pan-network reveals genes involved in complex traits within maize pan-genome.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):595.

BACKGROUND: With the advances in the high throughput next generation sequencing technologies, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large set of variants associated with complex phenotypic traits at a very fine scale. Despite the progress in GWAS, identification of genotype-phenotype relationship remains challenging in maize due to its nature with dozens of variants controlling the same trait. As the causal variations results in the change in expression, gene expression analyses carry a pivotal role in unraveling the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms behind the phenotypes.

RESULTS: To address these challenges, we incorporated the gene expression and GWAS-driven traits to extend the knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms behind the phenotypes. We constructed a large collection of gene co-expression networks and identified more than 2 million co-expressing gene pairs in the GWAS-driven pan-network which contains all the gene-pairs in individual genomes of the nested association mapping (NAM) population. We defined four sub-categories for the pan-network: (1) core-network contains the highest represented ~ 1% of the gene-pairs, (2) near-core network contains the next highest represented 1-5% of the gene-pairs, (3) private-network contains ~ 50% of the gene pairs that are unique to individual genomes, and (4) the dispensable-network contains the remaining 50-95% of the gene-pairs in the maize pan-genome. Strikingly, the private-network contained almost all the genes in the pan-network but lacked half of the interactions. We performed gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis for the pan-, core-, and private- networks and compared the contributions of variants overlapping with genes and promoters to the GWAS-driven pan-network.

CONCLUSIONS: Gene co-expression networks revealed meaningful information about groups of co-regulated genes that play a central role in regulatory processes. Pan-network approach enabled us to visualize the global view of the gene regulatory network for the studied system that could not be well inferred by the core-network alone.

RevDate: 2022-12-16

Abraha HB, Lee JW, Kim G, et al (2022)

Genomic diversity and comprehensive taxonomical classification of 61 Bacillus subtilis group member infecting bacteriophages, and the identification of ortholog taxonomic signature genes.

BMC genomics, 23(1):835.

BACKGROUND: Despite the applications of Bacillus subtilis group species in various sectors, limited information is available regarding their phages. Here, 61 B. subtilis group species-infecting phages (BSPs) were studied for their taxonomic classification considering the genome-size, genomic diversity, and the host, followed by the identification of orthologs taxonomic signature genes.

RESULTS: BSPs have widely ranging genome sizes that can be bunched into groups to demonstrate correlations to family and subfamily classifications. Comparative analysis re-confirmed the existing, BSPs-containing 14 genera and 21 species and displayed inter-genera similarities within existing subfamilies. Importantly, it also revealed the need for the creation of new taxonomic classifications, including 28 species, nine genera, and two subfamilies (New subfamily1 and New subfamily2) to accommodate inter-genera relatedness. Following pangenome analysis, no ortholog shared by all BSPs was identified, while orthologs, namely, the tail fibers/spike proteins and poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolase, that are shared by more than two-thirds of the BSPs were identified. More importantly, major capsid protein (MCP) type I, MCP type II, MCP type III and peptidoglycan binding proteins that are distinctive orthologs for Herelleviridae, Salasmaviridae, New subfamily1, and New subfamily2, respectively, were identified and analyzed which could serve as signatures to distinguish BSP members of the respective taxon.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we show the genomic diversity and propose a comprehensive classification of 61 BSPs, including the proposition for the creation of two new subfamilies, followed by the identification of orthologs taxonomic signature genes, potentially contributing to phage taxonomy.

RevDate: 2022-12-16

Shi J, Tian Z, Lai J, et al (2022)

Plant pan-genomics and its applications.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(22)00444-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant genomes are highly diverse that a substantial proportion of genomic sequences are not shared among individuals. The variable DNA sequences, along with the conserved core sequences, compose the more sophisticated pan-genome that represents the collection of all non-redundant DNA in a species. With the rapid progress of genome sequencing technologies, pan-genome researches have now been surging in plants. Here we review the recent advances in plant pan-genomics including major driving forces of structural variations that constitute the variable sequences, the methodological innovations to represent pan-genome as well as the major successes in constructing plant pan-genomes. We also summarize the recent efforts towards the decoding of final dark matters in the Telomere-to-Telomere (T-2-T) or gapless plant genomes. These new genome resources, which have remarkable advantages over the large number of previously assembled less-than-perfect genomes, are expecting to become new references in both genetic studies and plant breeding applications.

RevDate: 2022-12-14

Hussain J, Cohen M, O'Malley CJ, et al (2022)

Detections of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites in urine and sweat obtained from women during infrared sauna and exercise: A pilot crossover study.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 248:114091 pii:S1438-4639(22)00174-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Synthetic pesticides such as organophosphates and pyrethroids are commonly used worldwide yet the metabolic and long-term human health effects of these environmental exposures are unclear. Urinary detections of metabolites involving both classes of insecticides have been documented in various global populations. However, reports documenting similar detections in human sweat are sparse. In this study, the concentrations of four insecticide metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in repeated sweat and urine collections (n = 85) from 10 women undergoing three interventions (control, infrared sauna and indoor bicycling) within a single-blinded randomised crossover trial. The Friedman test with post-hoc two-way analysis of variance, the related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Spearman's rank-order correlation test were used to analyse the results. Organophosphate metabolites were detected in 84.6% (22/26) and pyrethroids in 26.9% (7/26) of the collected sweat samples (pooled per individual, per intervention). Urinary concentrations of three of the four metabolites marginally increased after infrared sauna bathing: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (z = 2.395, p = 0.017); 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (z = 2.599, p = 0.009); and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (z = 2.090, p = 0.037). Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid also increased after exercise (z = 2.073, p = 0.038) and demonstrated the most temporal variability (days to weeks) of any of the urinary metabolites. Definitive sweat/urine correlations were not demonstrated. These results indicate metabolites from organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides can be detected in human sweat and this raises intriguing questions about perspiration and its role in the metabolism and excretion of synthetic pesticides.

RevDate: 2022-12-14

Rumball NA, Alm EW, SL McLellan (2022)

Genetic Determinants of Escherichia coli Survival in Beach Sand.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Escherichia coli contain a high level of genetic diversity and are generally associated with the guts of warm-blooded animals but have also been isolated from secondary habitats outside hosts. We used E. coli isolates from previous in situ microcosm experiments conducted under actual beach conditions and performed population-level genomic analysis to identify accessory genes associated with survival within the beach sand environment. E. coli strains capable of surviving had been selected for by seeding isolates originating from sand, sewage, and gull waste (n = 528; 176 from each source) into sand, which was sealed in microcosm chambers and buried for 45 days in the backshore beach of Lake Michigan. In the current work, survival-associated genes were identified by comparing the pangenome of viable E. coli populations at the end of the microcosm experiment with the original isolate collection and identifying loci enriched in the out put samples. We found that environmental survival was associated with a wide variety of genetic factors, with the majority corresponding to metabolism enzymes and transport proteins. Of the 414 unique functions identified, most were present across E. coli phylogroups, except B2 which is often associated with human pathogens. Gene modules that were enriched in surviving populations included a betaine biosynthesis pathway, which produces an osmoprotectant, and the GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate) biosynthesis pathway, which aids in pH homeostasis and nutrient use versatility. Overall, these results demonstrate that the genetic flexibility within this species allows for survival in the environment for extended periods. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is commonly used as an indicator of recent fecal pollution in recreational water despite its known ability to survive in secondary environments, such as beach sand. These long-term survivors from sand reservoirs can be introduced into the water column through wave action or runoff during precipitation events, thereby impacting the perception of local water quality. Current beach monitoring methods cannot differentiate long-term environmental survivors from E. coli derived from recent fecal input, resulting in inaccurate monitoring results and unnecessary beach closures. This work identified the genetic factors that are associated with long-term survivors, providing insight into the mechanistic basis for E. coli accumulation in beach sand. A greater understanding of the intrinsic ability of E. coli to survive long-term and conditions that promote such survival will provide evidence of the limitations of beach water quality assessments using this indicator.

RevDate: 2022-12-13

Dillard LR, Glass EM, Lewis AL, et al (2022)

Metabolic Network Models of the Gardnerella Pangenome Identify Key Interactions with the Vaginal Environment.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Gardnerella is the primary pathogenic bacterial genus present in the polymicrobial condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV). Despite BV's high prevalence and associated chronic and acute women's health impacts, the Gardnerella pangenome is largely uncharacterized at both the genetic and functional metabolic levels. Here, we used genome-scale metabolic models to characterize in silico the Gardnerella pangenome metabolic content. We also assessed the metabolic functional capacity in a BV-positive cervicovaginal fluid context. The metabolic capacity varied widely across the pangenome, with 38.15% of all reactions being core to the genus, compared to 49.60% of reactions identified as being unique to a smaller subset of species. We identified 57 essential genes across the pangenome via in silico gene essentiality screens within two simulated vaginal metabolic environments. Four genes, gpsA, fas, suhB, and psd, were identified as core essential genes critical for the metabolic function of all analyzed bacterial species of the Gardnerella genus. Further understanding these core essential metabolic functions could inform novel therapeutic strategies to treat BV. Machine learning applied to simulated metabolic network flux distributions showed limited clustering based on the sample isolation source, which further supports the presence of extensive core metabolic functionality across this genus. These data represent the first metabolic modeling of the Gardnerella pangenome and illustrate strain-specific interactions with the vaginal metabolic environment across the pangenome. IMPORTANCE Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among reproductive-age women. Despite its prevalence and associated chronic and acute women's health impacts, the diverse bacteria involved in BV infection remain poorly characterized. Gardnerella is the genus of bacteria most commonly and most abundantly represented during BV. In this paper, we use metabolic models, which are a computational representation of the possible functional metabolism of an organism, to investigate metabolic conservation, gene essentiality, and pathway utilization across 110 Gardnerella strains. These models allow us to investigate in silico how strains may differ with respect to their metabolic interactions with the vaginal-host environment.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Chan C, P Salomé (2022)

What makes a good reference? First steps toward a Chlamydomonas pangenome.

The Plant cell pii:6887378 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-12-09

Johansson P, Säde E, Hultman J, et al (2022)

Pangenome and genomic taxonomy analyses of Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum.

BMC genomics, 23(1):818.

BACKGROUND: Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum have dual roles in foods. They may spoil cold-stored packaged foods but can also be beneficial in kimchi fermentation. The impact in food science as well as the limited number of publicly available genomes prompted us to create pangenomes and perform genomic taxonomy analyses starting from de novo sequencing of the genomes of 37 L. gelidum/L. gasicomitatum strains from our culture collection. Our aim was also to evaluate the recently proposed change in taxonomy as well as to study the genomes of strains with different lifestyles in foods.

METHODS: We selected as diverse a set of strains as possible in terms of sources, previous genotyping results and geographical distribution, and included also 10 publicly available genomes in our analyses. We studied genomic taxonomy using pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI) and calculation of digital DNA-DNA hybridisation (dDDH) scores. Phylogeny analyses were done using the core gene set of 1141 single-copy genes and a set of housekeeping genes commonly used for lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the pangenome and core genome sizes as well as some properties, such as acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR), important due to the growth in foods, were analysed.

RESULTS: Genome relatedness indices and phylogenetic analyses supported the recently suggested classification that restores the taxonomic position of L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum back to the species level as L. gasicomitatum. Genome properties, such as size and coding potential, revealed limited intraspecies variation and showed no attribution to the source of isolation. The distribution of the unique genes between species and subspecies was not associated with the previously documented lifestyle in foods. None of the strains carried any acquired AMR genes or genes associated with any known form of virulence.

CONCLUSION: Genome-wide examination of strains confirms that the proposition to restore the taxonomic position of L. gasicomitatum is justified. It further confirms that the distribution and lifestyle of L. gelidum and L. gasicomitatum in foods have not been driven by the evolution of functional and phylogenetic diversification detectable at the genome level.

RevDate: 2022-12-09

Guardia AE, Wagner A, Busalmen JP, et al (2022)

The draft genome of Andean Rhodopseudomonas sp. strain AZUL predicts genome plasticity and adaptation to chemical homeostasis.

BMC microbiology, 22(1):297.

The genus Rhodopseudomonas comprises purple non-sulfur bacteria with extremely versatile metabolisms. Characterization of several strains revealed that each is a distinct ecotype highly adapted to its specific micro-habitat. Here we present the sequencing, genomic comparison and functional annotation of AZUL, a Rhodopseudomonas strain isolated from a high altitude Andean lagoon dominated by extreme conditions and fluctuating levels of chemicals. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of 39 strains of this genus showed that the genome of AZUL is 96.2% identical to that of strain AAP120, which suggests that they belong to the same species. ANI values also show clear separation at the species level with the rest of the strains, being more closely related to R. palustris. Pangenomic analyses revealed that the genus Rhodopseudomonas has an open pangenome and that its core genome represents roughly 5 to 12% of the total gene repertoire of the genus. Functional annotation showed that AZUL has genes that participate in conferring genome plasticity and that, in addition to sharing the basal metabolic complexity of the genus, it is also specialized in metal and multidrug resistance and in responding to nutrient limitation. Our results also indicate that AZUL might have evolved to use some of the mechanisms involved in resistance as redox reactions for bioenergetic purposes. Most of those features are shared with strain AAP120, and mainly involve the presence of additional orthologs responsible for the mentioned processes. Altogether, our results suggest that AZUL, one of the few bacteria from its habitat with a sequenced genome, is highly adapted to the extreme and changing conditions that constitute its niche.

RevDate: 2022-12-08

Adsit FG, Randall TA, Locklear J, et al (2022)

The emergence of the tetrathionate reductase operon in the Escherichia coli/Shigella pan-genome.

MicrobiologyOpen, 11(6):e1333.

Escherichia coli pathogenic variants (pathovars) are generally characterized by defined virulence traits and are susceptible to the evolution of hybridized identities due to the considerable plasticity of the E. coli genome. We have isolated a strain from a purified diet intended for research animals that further demonstrates the ability of E. coli to acquire novel genetic elements leading potentially to emergent new pathovars. Utilizing next generation sequencing to obtain a whole genome profile, we report an atypical strain of E. coli, EcoFA807-17, possessing a tetrathionate reductase (ttr) operon, which enables the utilization of tetrathionate as an electron acceptor, thus facilitating respiration in anaerobic environments such as the mammalian gut. The ttr operon is a potent virulence factor for several enteric pathogens, most prominently Salmonella enterica. However, the presence of chromosomally integrated tetrathionate reductase genes does not appear to have been previously reported in wild-type E. coli or Shigella. Accordingly, it is possible that the appearance of this virulence factor may signal the evolution of new mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. coli and Shigella and may potentially alter the effectiveness of existing assays using tetrathionate reductase as a unique marker for the detection of Salmonella enterica.


ESP Quick Facts

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )