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Bibliography on: Pangenome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 23 May 2019 at 01:32 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: pangenome or "pan-genome" or "pan genome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-05-22

González V, Santamaría RI, Bustos P, et al (2019)

Phylogenomic Rhizobium Species Are Structured by a Continuum of Diversity and Genomic Clusters.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:910.

The bacterial genus Rhizobium comprises diverse symbiotic nitrogen-fixing species associated with the roots of plants in the Leguminosae family. Multiple genomic clusters defined by whole genome comparisons occur within Rhizobium, but their equivalence to species is controversial. In this study we investigated such genomic clusters to ascertain their significance in a species phylogeny context. Phylogenomic inferences based on complete sets of ribosomal proteins and stringent core genome markers revealed the main lineages of Rhizobium. The clades corresponding to R. etli and R. leguminosarum species show several genomic clusters with average genomic nucleotide identities (ANI > 95%), and a continuum of divergent strains, respectively. They were found to be inversely correlated with the genetic distance estimated from concatenated ribosomal proteins. We uncovered evidence of a Rhizobium pangenome that was greatly expanded, both in its chromosomes and plasmids. Despite the variability of extra-chromosomal elements, our genomic comparisons revealed only a few chromid and plasmid families. The presence/absence profile of genes in the complete Rhizobium genomes agreed with the phylogenomic pattern of species divergence. Symbiotic genes were distributed according to the principal phylogenomic Rhizobium clades but did not resolve genome clusters within the clades. We distinguished some types of symbiotic plasmids within Rhizobium that displayed different rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions in comparison to chromosomal genes. Symbiotic plasmids may have been repeatedly transferred horizontally between strains and species, in the process displacing and substituting pre-existing symbiotic plasmids. In summary, the results indicate that Rhizobium genomic clusters, as defined by whole genomic identities, might be part of a continuous process of evolutionary divergence that includes the core and the extrachromosomal elements leading to species formation.

RevDate: 2019-05-21

Pucker B, Holtgräwe D, Stadermann KB, et al (2019)

A chromosome-level sequence assembly reveals the structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nd-1 genome and its gene set.

PloS one, 14(5):e0216233 pii:PONE-D-18-35533.

In addition to the BAC-based reference sequence of the accession Columbia-0 from the year 2000, several short read assemblies of THE plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were published during the last years. Also, a SMRT-based assembly of Landsberg erecta has been generated that identified translocation and inversion polymorphisms between two genotypes of the species. Here we provide a chromosome-arm level assembly of the A. thaliana accession Niederzenz-1 (AthNd-1_v2c) based on SMRT sequencing data. The best assembly comprises 69 nucleome sequences and displays a contig length of up to 16 Mbp. Compared to an earlier Illumina short read-based NGS assembly (AthNd-1_v1), a 75 fold increase in contiguity was observed for AthNd-1_v2c. To assign contig locations independent from the Col-0 gold standard reference sequence, we used genetic anchoring to generate a de novo assembly. In addition, we assembled the chondrome and plastome sequences. Detailed analyses of AthNd-1_v2c allowed reliable identification of large genomic rearrangements between A. thaliana accessions contributing to differences in the gene sets that distinguish the genotypes. One of the differences detected identified a gene that is lacking from the Col-0 gold standard sequence. This de novo assembly extends the known proportion of the A. thaliana pan-genome.

RevDate: 2019-05-17

Galata V, Laczny CC, Backes C, et al (2019)

Integrating Culture-based Antibiotic Resistance Profiles with Whole-genome Sequencing Data for 11,087 Clinical Isolates.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics pii:S1672-0229(19)30092-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging antibiotic resistance is a major global health threat. The analysis of nucleic acid sequences linked to susceptibility phenotypes facilitates the study of genetic antibiotic resistance determinants to inform molecular diagnostics and drug development. We collected genetic data (11,087 newly-sequenced whole genomes) and culture-based resistance profiles (10,991 out of the 11,087 isolates comprehensively tested against 22 antibiotics in total) of clinical isolates including 18 main species spanning a time period of 30 years. Species and drug specific resistance patterns were observed including increased resistance rates for Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems and for Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones. Species-level pan-genomes were constructed to reflect the genetic repertoire of the respective species, including conserved essential genes and known resistance factors. Integrating phenotypes and genotypes through species-level pan-genomes allowed to infer gene-drug resistance associations using statistical testing. The isolate collection and the analysis results have been integrated into GEAR-base, a resource available for academic research use free of charge at

RevDate: 2019-05-15

Gao L, Gonda I, Sun H, et al (2019)

The tomato pan-genome uncovers new genes and a rare allele regulating fruit flavor.

Nature genetics pii:10.1038/s41588-019-0410-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Modern tomatoes have narrow genetic diversity limiting their improvement potential. We present a tomato pan-genome constructed using genome sequences of 725 phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions, revealing 4,873 genes absent from the reference genome. Presence/absence variation analyses reveal substantial gene loss and intense negative selection of genes and promoters during tomato domestication and improvement. Lost or negatively selected genes are enriched for important traits, especially disease resistance. We identify a rare allele in the TomLoxC promoter selected against during domestication. Quantitative trait locus mapping and analysis of transgenic plants reveal a role for TomLoxC in apocarotenoid production, which contributes to desirable tomato flavor. In orange-stage fruit, accessions harboring both the rare and common TomLoxC alleles (heterozygotes) have higher TomLoxC expression than those homozygous for either and are resurgent in modern tomatoes. The tomato pan-genome adds depth and completeness to the reference genome, and is useful for future biological discovery and breeding.

RevDate: 2019-05-11

Cruz-Morales P, Orellana CA, Moutafis G, et al (2019)

Revisiting the evolution and taxonomy of Clostridia, a phylogenomic update.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5487998 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium is a large genus of obligate anaerobes belonging to the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria, most of which have a Gram-positive cell wall structure. The genus includes significant human and animal pathogens, causative of potentially deadly diseases such as tetanus and botulism. Despite their relevance and many studies suggesting that they are not a monophyletic group, the taxonomy of the group has largely been neglected. Currently, species belonging to the genus are placed in the unnatural order defined as Clostridiales, which includes the class Clostridia. Here we used genomic data from 779 strains to study the taxonomy and evolution of the group. This analysis allowed us to; (i) confirm that the group is composed of more than one genus (ii), detect major differences between pathogens classified as a single species within the group of authentic Clostridium spp. (sensu stricto), (iii) identify inconsistencies between taxonomy and toxin evolution that reflect on the pervasive misclassification of strains and, (iv) identify differential traits within central metabolism of members of what has been defined earlier and confirmed by us as cluster I. Our analysis shows that the current taxonomic classification of Clostridium species hinders the prediction of functions and traits, suggests a new classification for this fascinating class of bacteria and highlights the importance of phylogenomics for taxonomic studies.

RevDate: 2019-05-09

Park SC, Lee K, Kim YO, et al (2019)

Large-Scale Genomics Reveals the Genetic Characteristics of Seven Species and Importance of Phylogenetic Distance for Estimating Pan-Genome Size.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:834.

For more than a decade, pan-genome analysis has been applied as an effective method for explaining the genetic contents variation of prokaryotic species. However, genomic characteristics and detailed structures of gene pools have not been fully clarified, because most studies have used a small number of genomes. Here, we constructed pan-genomes of seven species in order to elucidate variations in the genetic contents of >27,000 genomes belonging to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Escherichia coli and Shigella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. This work showed the pan-genomes of all seven species has open property. Additionally, systematic evaluation of the characteristics of their pan-genome revealed that phylogenetic distance provided valuable information for estimating the parameters for pan-genome size among several models including Heaps' law. Our results provide a better understanding of the species and a solution to minimize sampling biases associated with genome-sequencing preferences for pathogenic strains.

RevDate: 2019-05-04

van der Nest MA, Steenkamp ET, Roodt D, et al (2019)

Genomic analysis of the aggressive tree pathogen Ceratocystis albifundus.

Fungal biology, 123(5):351-363.

The overall goal of this study was to determine whether the genome of an important plant pathogen in Africa, Ceratocystis albifundus, is structured into subgenomic compartments, and if so, to establish how these compartments are distributed across the genome. For this purpose, the publicly available genome of C. albifundus was complemented with the genome sequences for four additional isolates using the Illumina HiSeq platform. In addition, a reference genome for one of the individuals was assembled using both PacBio and Illumina HiSeq technologies. Our results showed a high degree of synteny between the five genomes, although several regions lacked detectable long-range synteny. These regions were associated with the presence of accessory genes, lower genetic similarity, variation in read-map depth, as well as transposable elements and genes associated with host-pathogen interactions (e.g. effectors and CAZymes). Such patterns are regarded as hallmarks of accelerated evolution, particularly of accessory subgenomic compartments in fungal pathogens. Our findings thus showed that the genome of C. albifundus is made-up of core and accessory subgenomic compartments, which is an important step towards characterizing its pangenome. This study also highlights the value of comparative genomics for understanding mechanisms that may underly and influence the biology and evolution of pathogens.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Lorentzen MP, Campbell-Sills H, Jorgensen TS, et al (2019)

Expanding the biodiversity of Oenococcus oeni through comparative genomics of apple cider and kombucha strains.

BMC genomics, 20(1):330 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5692-3.

BACKGROUND: Oenococcus oeni is a lactic acid bacteria species adapted to the low pH, ethanol-rich environments of wine and cider fermentation, where it performs the crucial role of malolactic fermentation. It has a small genome and has lost the mutS-mutL DNA mismatch repair genes, making it a hypermutable and highly specialized species. Two main lineages of strains, named groups A and B, have been described to date, as well as other subgroups correlated to different types of wines or regions. A third group "C" has also been hypothesized based on sequence analysis, but it remains controversial. In this study we have elucidated the species population structure by sequencing 14 genomes of new strains isolated from cider and kombucha and performing comparative genomics analyses.

RESULTS: Sequence-based phylogenetic trees confirmed a population structure of 4 clades: The previously identified A and B, a third group "C" consisting of the new cider strains and a small subgroup of wine strains previously attributed to group B, and a fourth group "D" exclusively represented by kombucha strains. A pair of complete genomes from group C and D were compared to the circularized O. oeni PSU-1 strain reference genome and no genomic rearrangements were found. Phylogenetic trees, K-means clustering and pangenome gene clusters evidenced the existence of smaller, specialized subgroups of strains. Using the pangenome, genomic differences in stress resistance and biosynthetic pathways were found to uniquely distinguish the C and D clades.

CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results, including the additional cider and kombucha strains, firmly established the O. oeni population structure. Group C does not appear as fully domesticated as group A to wine, but showed several unique patterns which may be due to ongoing specialization to the cider environment. Group D was shown to be the most divergent member of O. oeni to date, appearing as the closest to a pre-domestication state of the species.

RevDate: 2019-04-28

Wang J, Xing J, Lu J, et al (2019)

Complete Genome Sequencing of Bacillus velezensis WRN014, and Comparison with Genome Sequences of other Bacillus velezensis strains.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.4014/jmb.1901.01040 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus velezensis strain WRN014 was isolated from banana fields in Hainan, China. Bacillus velezensis is an important member of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can enhance plant growth and control soil borne disease. The complete genome of Bacillus velezensis WRN014 was sequenced by combining Illumina Hiseq 2500 system and Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio RSⅡ) high-throughput sequencing technologies. Then, the genome of Bacillus velezensis WRN014, together with 45 other completed genome sequences of the Bacillus velezensis strains, were comparatively studied. The genome of Bacillus velezensis WRN014 was 4,063,541bp in length and contained 4,062 CDSs, 9 genomic islands and 13 gene clusters. The results of comparative genomic analysis provide evidence that (i) The 46 Bacillus velezensis strains formed 2 obviously closely related clades in phylogenetic trees. (ii) Pan-genome of the study is open and increases with addition of new sequenced genomes. (iii) Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed local diversification of the 46 Bacillus velezensis genomes. Surprisingly, SNPs were not evenly distributed throughout the whole genome. (iv) Analysis of gene clusters revealed that rich gene clusters spread over Bacillus velezensis strains and some gene clusters are conserved in different strains. This study reveals that the strain WRN014 and other Bacillus velezensis strains have potential to be used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and biopesticide.

RevDate: 2019-04-28

Dillon MM, Almeida RND, Laflamme B, et al (2019)

Molecular Evolution of Pseudomonas syringae Type III Secreted Effector Proteins.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:418.

Diverse Gram-negative pathogens like Pseudomonas syringae employ type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins as primary virulence factors that combat host immunity and promote disease. T3SEs can also be recognized by plant hosts and activate an effector triggered immune (ETI) response that shifts the interaction back toward plant immunity. Consequently, T3SEs are pivotal in determining the virulence potential of individual P. syringae strains, and ultimately help to restrict P. syringae pathogens to a subset of potential hosts that are unable to recognize their repertoires of T3SEs. While a number of effector families are known to be present in the P. syringae species complex, one of the most persistent challenges has been documenting the complex variation in T3SE contents across a diverse collection of strains. Using the entire pan-genome of 494 P. syringae strains isolated from more than 100 hosts, we conducted a global analysis of all known and putative T3SEs. We identified a total of 14,613 putative T3SEs, 4,636 of which were unique at the amino acid level, and show that T3SE repertoires of different P. syringae strains vary dramatically, even among strains isolated from the same hosts. We also find substantial diversification within many T3SE families, and in many cases find strong signatures of positive selection. Furthermore, we identify multiple gene gain and loss events for several families, demonstrating an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of P. syringae T3SEs. These analyses provide insight into the evolutionary history of P. syringae T3SEs as they co-evolve with the host immune system, and dramatically expand the database of P. syringae T3SEs alleles.

RevDate: 2019-04-24

Roach R, Mann R, Gambley CG, et al (2019)

Genomic sequence analysis reveals diversity of Australian Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial leaf spot of tomato, capsicum and chilli.

BMC genomics, 20(1):310 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5600-x.

BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity in Australian populations of Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial leaf spot in tomato, capsicum and chilli were compared to worldwide bacterial populations. The aim of this study was to confirm the identities of these Australian Xanthomonas species and classify them in comparison to overseas isolates. Analysis of whole genome sequence allows for the investigation of bacterial population structure, pathogenicity and gene exchange, resulting in better management strategies and biosecurity.

RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of the core genome alignments and SNP data grouped strains in distinct clades. Patterns observed in average nucleotide identity, pan genome structure, effector and carbohydrate active enzyme profiles reflected the whole genome phylogeny and highlight taxonomic issues in X. perforans and X. euvesicatoria. Circular sequences with similarity to previously characterised plasmids were identified, and plasmids of similar sizes were isolated. Potential false positive and false negative plasmid assemblies were discussed. Effector patterns that may influence virulence on host plant species were analysed in pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads.

CONCLUSIONS: The phylogeny presented here confirmed X. vesicatoria, X. arboricola, X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans and a clade of an uncharacterised Xanthomonas species shown to be genetically distinct from all other strains of this study. The taxonomic status of X. perforans and X. euvesicatoria as one species is discussed in relation to whole genome phylogeny and phenotypic traits. The patterns evident in enzyme and plasmid profiles indicate worldwide exchange of genetic material with the potential to introduce new virulence elements into local bacterial populations.

RevDate: 2019-04-22

Rao RT, Sivakumar N, K Jayakumar (2019)

Analyses of Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Pan-Genomes Suggest Virulence Is Not Primary Interest in Evolution of Its Genome.

Omics : a journal of integrative biology, 23(4):224-236.

Staphylococcus aureus is not only part of normal flora but also an opportunistic pathogen relevant to microbial genomics, public health, and veterinary medicine. In addition to being a well-known human pathogen, S. aureus causes various infections in economically important livestock animals such as cows, sheep, goats, and pigs. There are very few studies that have examined the pan-genome of S. aureus or the host-specific strains' pan-genomes. We report on livestock-associated S. aureus' (LA-SA) pan-genome and suggest that virulence is not the primary interest in evolution of its genome. LA-SA' complete genomes were retrieved from the NCBI and pan-genome was constructed by high-speed Roary pipeline. The pan-genome size was 4637 clusters, whereas 42.46% of the pan-genome was associated with the core genome. We found 1268 genes were associated with the strain-unique genome, and the remaining 1432 cluster with the accessory genome. COG (clusters of orthologous group of proteins) analysis of the core genes revealed 34% of clusters related to metabolism responsible for amino acid and inorganic ion transport (COG categories E and P), followed by carbohydrate metabolism (category G). Virulent gene analysis revealed the core genes responsible for antiphagocytosis and iron uptake. The fluidity of pan-genome was calculated as 0.082 ± 0.025. Importantly, the positive selection analysis suggested a slower rate of evolution among the LA-SA genomes. We call for comparative microbial and pan-genome research between human and LA-SA that can help further understand the evolution of virulence and thus inform future microbial diagnostics and drug discovery.

RevDate: 2019-04-20

Liu J, Zeng Q, Wang M, et al (2019)

Comparative genome-scale modelling of the pathogenic Flavobacteriaceae species Riemerella anatipestifer in China.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Riemerella anatipestifer(RA) is a gram-negative bacterium that has a high potential to infect waterfowl. Although more and more genomes of RA have been generated comparative genomic analysis of RA still remains at the level of individual species. In this study, we analyzed the pan-genome of 27 RA virulent isolates to reveal the intraspecies genomic diversity from various aspects. The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis suggests that the geographic origin of R. anatipestifer is Guangdong province, China. Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all 27 species with the sizes of 2,967 genes. We identified 387 genes among 555 unique genes originated by horizontal gene transfer. Further studies showed 204 strain-specific HGT genes were predicted as virulent proteins. Screening the 1,113 core genes in RA through subtractive genomic approach, 70 putative vaccine targets out of 125 non-cytoplasmic proteins have been predicted. Further analysis of these non A. platyrhynchos homologous proteins predicted that 56 essential proteins as drug target with more interaction partners were involved in unique metabolic pathways of RA. In conclusion, the present study indicated the essence and the diversity of RA, and also provides useful information for identification of vaccine and drugs candidates in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-26

Knight DR, Kullin B, Androga GO, et al (2019)

Evolutionary and Genomic Insights into Clostridioides difficile Sequence Type 11: a Diverse Zoonotic and Antimicrobial-Resistant Lineage of Global One Health Importance.

mBio, 10(2): pii:mBio.00446-19.

Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) sequence type 11 (ST11) is well established in production animal populations worldwide and contributes considerably to the global burden of C. difficile infection (CDI) in humans. Increasing evidence of shared ancestry and genetic overlap of PCR ribotype 078 (RT078), the most common ST11 sublineage, between human and animal populations suggests that CDI may be a zoonosis. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on a collection of 207 ST11 and closely related ST258 isolates of human and veterinary/environmental origin, comprising 16 RTs collected from Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis identified multiple intraspecies and interspecies clonal groups (isolates separated by ≤2 core genome SNVs) in all the major RT sublineages: 078, 126, 127, 033, and 288. Clonal groups comprised isolates spread across different states, countries, and continents, indicative of reciprocal long-range dissemination and possible zoonotic/anthroponotic transmission. Antimicrobial resistance genotypes and phenotypes varied across host species, geographic regions, and RTs and included macrolide/lincosamide resistance (Tn6194 [ermB]), tetracycline resistance (Tn6190 [tetM] and Tn6164 [tet44]), and fluoroquinolone resistance (gyrA/B mutations), as well as numerous aminoglycoside resistance cassettes. The population was defined by a large "open" pan-genome (10,378 genes), a remarkably small core genome of 2,058 genes (only 19.8% of the gene pool), and an accessory genome containing a large and diverse collection of important prophages of the Siphoviridae and Myoviridae This study provides novel insights into strain relatedness and genetic variability of C. difficile ST11, a lineage of global One Health importance.IMPORTANCE Historically, Clostridioides difficile (Clostridium difficile) has been associated with life-threatening diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Increasing rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) in the community suggest exposure to C. difficile reservoirs outside the hospital, including animals, the environment, or food. C. difficile sequence type 11 (ST11) is known to infect/colonize livestock worldwide and comprises multiple ribotypes, many of which cause disease in humans, suggesting CDI may be a zoonosis. Using high-resolution genomics, we investigated the evolution and zoonotic potential of ST11 and a new closely related ST258 lineage sourced from diverse origins. We found multiple intra- and interspecies clonal transmission events in all ribotype sublineages. Clones were spread across multiple continents, often without any health care association, indicative of zoonotic/anthroponotic long-range dissemination in the community. ST11 possesses a massive pan-genome and numerous clinically important antimicrobial resistance elements and prophages, which likely contribute to the success of this globally disseminated lineage of One Health importance.

RevDate: 2019-04-25

Wyres KL, Wick RR, Judd LM, et al (2019)

Distinct evolutionary dynamics of horizontal gene transfer in drug resistant and virulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

PLoS genetics, 15(4):e1008114 pii:PGENETICS-D-18-02153.

Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as an important cause of two distinct public health threats: multi-drug resistant (MDR) healthcare-associated infections and drug susceptible community-acquired invasive infections. These pathotypes are generally associated with two distinct subsets of K. pneumoniae lineages or 'clones' that are distinguished by the presence of acquired resistance genes and several key virulence loci. Genomic evolutionary analyses of the most notorious MDR and invasive community-associated ('hypervirulent') clones indicate differences in terms of chromosomal recombination dynamics and capsule polysaccharide diversity, but it remains unclear if these differences represent generalised trends. Here we leverage a collection of >2200 K. pneumoniae genomes to identify 28 common clones (n ≥ 10 genomes each), and perform the first genomic evolutionary comparison. Eight MDR and 6 hypervirulent clones were identified on the basis of acquired resistance and virulence gene prevalence. Chromosomal recombination, surface polysaccharide locus diversity, pan-genome, plasmid and phage dynamics were characterised and compared. The data showed that MDR clones were highly diverse, with frequent chromosomal recombination generating extensive surface polysaccharide locus diversity. Additional pan-genome diversity was driven by frequent acquisition/loss of both plasmids and phage. In contrast, chromosomal recombination was rare in the hypervirulent clones, which also showed a significant reduction in pan-genome diversity, largely driven by a reduction in plasmid diversity. Hence the data indicate that hypervirulent clones may be subject to some sort of constraint for horizontal gene transfer that does not apply to the MDR clones. Our findings are relevant for understanding the risk of emergence of individual K. pneumoniae strains carrying both virulence and acquired resistance genes, which have been increasingly reported and cause highly virulent infections that are extremely difficult to treat. Specifically, our data indicate that MDR clones pose the greatest risk, because they are more likely to acquire virulence genes than hypervirulent clones are to acquire resistance genes.

RevDate: 2019-04-21

Du Y, Ma J, Yin Z, et al (2019)

Comparative genomic analysis of Bacillus paralicheniformis MDJK30 with its closely related species reveals an evolutionary relationship between B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis.

BMC genomics, 20(1):283 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5646-9.

BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Bacillus are important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that serve as biocontrol agents. Bacillus paralicheniformis MDJK30 is a PGPR isolated from the peony rhizosphere and can suppress plant-pathogenic bacteria and fungi. To further uncover the genetic mechanism of the plant growth-promoting traits of MDJK30 and its closely related strains, we used comparative genomics to provide insights into the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship between B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis.

RESULTS: A comparative genomics analysis based on B. paralicheniformis MDJK30 and 55 other previously reported Bacillus strains was performed. The evolutionary position of MDJK30 and the evolutionary relationship between B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis were evaluated by studying the phylogeny of the core genomes, a population structure analysis and ANI results. Comparative genomic analysis revealed various features of B. paralicheniformis that contribute to its commensal lifestyle in the rhizosphere, including an opening pan genome, a diversity of transport and the metabolism of the carbohydrates and amino acids. There are notable differences in the numbers and locations of the insertion sequences, prophages, genomic islands and secondary metabolic synthase operons between B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis. In particular, we found most gene clusters of Fengycin, Bacitracin and Lantipeptide were only present in B. paralicheniformis and were obtained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and these clusters may be used as genetic markers for distinguishing B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that MDJK30 and the other strains of lineage paralicheniformis present plant growth-promoting traits at the genetic level and can be developed and commercially formulated in agriculture as PGPR. Core genome phylogenies and population structure analysis has proven to be a powerful tool for differentiating B. paralicheniformis and B. licheniformis. Comparative genomic analyses illustrate the genetic differences between the paralicheniformis-licheniformis group with respect to rhizosphere adaptation.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Vakirlis N, Monerawela C, McManus G, et al (2019)

Evolutionary Journey and Characterisation of a Novel Pan-Gene Associated with Beer Strains of S. cerevisiae.

Yeast (Chichester, England) [Epub ahead of print].

The sequencing of over a thousand Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes revealed a complex pangenome. Over one-third of the discovered genes are not present in the S. cerevisiae core genome but instead are often restricted to a sub-set of yeast isolates and thus may be important for adaptation to specific environmental niches. We refer to these genes as "pan-genes", being part of the pangenome but not the core genome. Here we describe the evolutionary journey and characterisation of a novel pan-gene, originally named HYPO (Hypothetical Open Reading Frame). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that HYPO has been predominantly retained in S. cerevisiae strains associated with brewing but has been repeatedly lost in most other fungal species during evolution. There is also evidence that HYPO was horizontally transferred at least once, from S. cerevisiae to S. paradoxus. The phylogenetic analysis of HYPO exemplifies the complexity and intricacy of evolutionary trajectories of genes within the S. cerevisiae pangenome. To examine possible functions for Hypo, we overexpressed a HYPO-GFP fusion protein in both S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus. The protein localised to the plasma membrane where it accumulated initially in distinct foci. Time-lapse fluorescent imaging revealed that when cells are grown in wort, Hypo-gfp fluorescence spreads throughout the membrane during cell growth. The over-expression of Hypo-gfp in S. cerevisiae or S. pastorianus strains did not significantly alter cell growth in medium containing glucose, maltose, maltotriose or wort at different concentrations.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Quijada NM, Rodríguez-Lázaro D, M Hernández (2019)

TORMES: an automated pipeline for whole bacterial genome analysis.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5430930 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: The progress of High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) technologies and the reduction in the sequencing costs are such that Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) could replace many traditional laboratory assays and procedures. Exploiting the volume of data produced by HTS platforms requires substantial computing skills and this is the main bottleneck in the implementation of WGS as a routine laboratory technique. The way in which the vast amount of results are presented to researchers and clinicians with no specialist knowledge of genome sequencing is also a significant issue.

RESULTS: Here we present TORMES, a user-friendly pipeline for WGS analysis of bacteria from any origin generated by HTS on Illumina platforms. TORMES is designed for non-bioinformatician users, and automates the steps required for WGS analysis directly from the raw sequence data: sequence quality filtering, de novo assembly, draft genome ordering against a reference, genome annotation, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), searching for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, and pangenome comparisons. Once the analysis is finished, TORMES generates and interactive web-like report that can be opened in any web browser and shared and revised by researchers in a simple manner. TORMES can be run by using very simple commands and represent a quick an easy way to perform WGS analysis.

AVAILABILITY: TORMES is free available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data, manual and examples are available at Bioinformatics online and at the TORMES main page.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Raymond F, Boissinot M, Ouameur AA, et al (2019)

Culture-enriched human gut microbiomes reveal core and accessory resistance genes.

Microbiome, 7(1):56 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0669-7.

BACKGROUND: Low-abundance microorganisms of the gut microbiome are often referred to as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes. Unfortunately, these less-abundant bacteria can be overlooked by deep shotgun sequencing. In addition, it is a challenge to associate the presence of resistance genes with their risk of acquisition by pathogens. In this study, we used liquid culture enrichment of stools to assemble the genome of lower-abundance bacteria from fecal samples. We then investigated the gene content recovered from these culture-enriched and culture-independent metagenomes in relation with their taxonomic origin, specifically antibiotic resistance genes. We finally used a pangenome approach to associate resistance genes with the core or accessory genome of Enterobacteriaceae and inferred their propensity to horizontal gene transfer.

RESULTS: Using culture-enrichment approaches with stools allowed assembly of 187 bacterial species with an assembly size greater than 1 million nucleotides. Of these, 67 were found only in culture-enriched conditions, and 22 only in culture-independent microbiomes. These assembled metagenomes allowed the evaluation of the gene content of specific subcommunities of the gut microbiome. We observed that differentially distributed metabolic enzymes were associated with specific culture conditions and, for the most part, with specific taxa. Gene content differences between microbiomes, for example, antibiotic resistance, were for the most part not associated with metabolic enzymes, but with other functions. We used a pangenome approach to determine if the resistance genes found in Enterobacteriaceae, specifically E. cloacae or E. coli, were part of the core genome or of the accessory genome of this species. In our healthy volunteer cohort, we found that E. cloacae contigs harbored resistance genes that were part of the core genome of the species, while E. coli had a large accessory resistome proximal to mobile elements.

CONCLUSION: Liquid culture of stools contributed to an improved functional and comparative genomics study of less-abundant gut bacteria, specifically those associated with antibiotic resistance. Defining whether a gene is part of the core genome of a species helped in interpreting the genomes recovered from culture-independent or culture-enriched microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-04-07

Park CJ, CP Andam (2019)

Within-Species Genomic Variation and Variable Patterns of Recombination in the Tetracycline Producer Streptomyces rimosus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:552.

Streptomyces rimosus is best known as the primary source of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, most notably oxytetracycline, which have been widely used against many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens and protozoan parasites. However, despite the medical and agricultural importance of S. rimosus, little is known of its evolutionary history and genome dynamics. In this study, we aim to elucidate the pan-genome characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of 32 S. rimosus genomes. The S. rimosus pan-genome contains more than 22,000 orthologous gene clusters, and approximately 8.8% of these genes constitutes the core genome. A large part of the accessory genome is composed of 9,646 strain-specific genes. S. rimosus exhibits an open pan-genome (decay parameter α = 0.83) and high gene diversity between strains (genomic fluidity φ = 0.12). We also observed strain-level variation in the distribution and abundance of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and that each individual S. rimosus genome has a unique repertoire of BGCs. Lastly, we observed variation in recombination, with some strains donating or receiving DNA more often than others, strains that tend to frequently recombine with specific partners, genes that often experience recombination more than others, and variable sizes of recombined DNA sequences. We conclude that the high levels of inter-strain genomic variation in S. rimosus is partly explained by differences in recombination among strains. These results have important implications on current efforts for natural drug discovery, the ecological role of strain-level variation in microbial populations, and addressing the fundamental question of why microbes have pan-genomes.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Cho H, Song ES, Heu S, et al (2019)

Prediction of Host-Specific Genes by Pan-Genome Analyses of the Korean Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:506.

The soil-borne pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is a group of plant pathogens that is economically destructive worldwide and has a broad host range, including various solanaceae plants, banana, ginger, sesame, and clove. Previously, Korean RSSC strains isolated from samples of potato bacterial wilt were grouped into four pathotypes based on virulence tests against potato, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 25 Korean RSSC strains selected based on these pathotypes. The newly sequenced genomes were analyzed to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the strains with average nucleotide identity values, and structurally compared via multiple genome alignment using Mauve software. To identify candidate genes responsible for the host specificity of the pathotypes, functional genome comparisons were conducted by analyzing pan-genome orthologous group (POG) and type III secretion system effectors (T3es). POG analyses revealed that a total of 128 genes were shared only in tomato-non-pathogenic strains, 8 genes in tomato-pathogenic strains, 5 genes in eggplant-non-pathogenic strains, 7 genes in eggplant-pathogenic strains, 1 gene in pepper-non-pathogenic strains, and 34 genes in pepper-pathogenic strains. When we analyzed T3es, three host-specific effectors were predicted: RipS3 (SKWP3) and RipH3 (HLK3) were found only in tomato-pathogenic strains, and RipAC (PopC) were found only in eggplant-pathogenic strains. Overall, we identified host-specific genes and effectors that may be responsible for virulence functions in RSSC in silico. The expected characters of those genes suggest that the host range of RSSC is determined by the comprehensive actions of various virulence factors, including effectors, secretion systems, and metabolic enzymes.

RevDate: 2019-04-01

Bedoya-Correa CM, Rincón Rodríguez RJ, MT Parada-Sanchez (2019)

Genomic and phenotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans.

Journal of oral biosciences, 61(1):22-31.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a commensal microorganism found in the human oral cavity. However, due to environmental changes, selective pressures, and the presence of a variable genome, it adapts and may acquire new physiological and metabolic properties that alter dental biofilm homeostasis, promoting the development of dental caries. Although the plasticity and heterogeneity of S. mutans is widely recognized, very little is known about the mechanisms for the expression of pathogenic properties in specific genotypes.

HIGHLIGHT: The implementation of molecular biology techniques in the study of S. mutans has provided information on the genomic diversity of this species. This variability is generated by genome rearrangements, natural genetic transformation, and horizontal gene transfer, and continues to grow due to an open pan-genome. The main virulence factors associated with the cariogenic potential of S. mutans include adhesion, acid production (acidogenicity), and acid tolerance (aciduricity), and also show variability. These factors coordinate the modification of the physicochemical properties of the biofilm, which results in the accumulation of S. mutans and other acidogenic and aciduric species in the oral cavity.

CONCLUSION: We review the current literature on the main processes that generate S. mutans genomic diversity, as well as the phenotypic variability of its main virulence factors. S. mutans achieves its pathogenesis by sensing the intra- and extracellular environments and regulating gene transcription according to perceived environmental modifications. Consequently, this regulation gives rise to differential synthesis of proteins, allowing this species to potentially express virulence factors.

RevDate: 2019-03-31

Pinholt M, Bayliss SC, Gumpert H, et al (2019)

WGS of 1058 Enterococcus faecium from Copenhagen, Denmark, reveals rapid clonal expansion of vancomycin-resistant clone ST80 combined with widespread dissemination of a vanA-containing plasmid and acquisition of a heterogeneous accessory genome.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:5423852 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: From 2012 to 2015, a sudden significant increase in vancomycin-resistant (vanA) Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) was observed in the Capital Region of Denmark. Clonal relatedness of VREfm and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) was investigated, transmission events between hospitals were identified and the pan-genome and plasmids from the largest VREfm clonal group were characterized.

METHODS: WGS of 1058 E. faecium isolates was carried out on the Illumina platform to perform SNP analysis and to identify the pan-genome. One isolate was also sequenced on the PacBio platform to close the genome. Epidemiological data were collected from laboratory information systems.

RESULTS: Phylogeny of 892 VREfm and 166 VSEfm revealed a polyclonal structure, with a single clonal group (ST80) accounting for 40% of the VREfm isolates. VREfm and VSEfm co-occurred within many clonal groups; however, no VSEfm were related to the dominant VREfm group. A similar vanA plasmid was identified in ≥99% of isolates belonging to the dominant group and 69% of the remaining VREfm. Ten plasmids were identified in the completed genome, and ∼29% of this genome consisted of dispensable accessory genes. The size of the pan-genome among isolates in the dominant group was 5905 genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Most probably, VREfm emerged owing to importation of a successful VREfm clone which rapidly transmitted to the majority of hospitals in the region whilst simultaneously disseminating a vanA plasmid to pre-existing VSEfm. Acquisition of a heterogeneous accessory genome may account for the success of this clone by facilitating adaptation to new environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2019-04-27

Smith BA, Leligdon C, DA Baltrus (2019)

Just the Two of Us? A Family of Pseudomonas Megaplasmids Offers a Rare Glimpse into the Evolution of Large Mobile Elements.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(4):1192-1206.

Pseudomonads are ubiquitous group of environmental proteobacteria, well known for their roles in biogeochemical cycling, in the breakdown of xenobiotic materials, as plant growth promoters, and as pathogens of a variety of host organisms. We have previously identified a large megaplasmid present within one isolate of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and here we report that a second member of this megaplasmid family is found within an environmental Pseudomonad isolate most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. Many of the shared genes are involved in critical cellular processes like replication, transcription, translation, and DNA repair. We argue that presence of these shared pathways sheds new light on discussions about the types of genes that undergo horizontal gene transfer (i.e., the complexity hypothesis) as well as the evolution of pangenomes. Furthermore, although both megaplasmids display a high level of synteny, genes that are shared differ by over 50% on average at the amino acid level. This combination of conservation in gene order despite divergence in gene sequence suggests that this Pseudomonad megaplasmid family is relatively old, that gene order is under strong selection within this family, and that there are likely many more members of this megaplasmid family waiting to be found in nature.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Shelyakin PV, Bochkareva OO, Karan AA, et al (2019)

Micro-evolution of three Streptococcus species: selection, antigenic variation, and horizontal gene inflow.

BMC evolutionary biology, 19(1):83 pii:10.1186/s12862-019-1403-6.

BACKGROUND: The genus Streptococcus comprises pathogens that strongly influence the health of humans and animals. Genome sequencing of multiple Streptococcus strains demonstrated high variability in gene content and order even in closely related strains of the same species and created a newly emerged object for genomic analysis, the pan-genome. Here we analysed the genome evolution of 25 strains of Streptococcus suis, 50 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 28 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

RESULTS: Fractions of the pan-genome, unique, periphery, and universal genes differ in size, functional composition, the level of nucleotide substitutions, and predisposition to horizontal gene transfer and genomic rearrangements. The density of substitutions in intergenic regions appears to be correlated with selection acting on adjacent genes, implying that more conserved genes tend to have more conserved regulatory regions. The total pan-genome of the genus is open, but only due to strain-specific genes, whereas other pan-genome fractions reach saturation. We have identified the set of genes with phylogenies inconsistent with species and non-conserved location in the chromosome; these genes are rare in at least one species and have likely experienced recent horizontal transfer between species. The strain-specific fraction is enriched with mobile elements and hypothetical proteins, but also contains a number of candidate virulence-related genes, so it may have a strong impact on adaptability and pathogenicity. Mapping the rearrangements to the phylogenetic tree revealed large parallel inversions in all species. A parallel inversion of length 15 kB with breakpoints formed by genes encoding surface antigen proteins PhtD and PhtB in S. pneumoniae leads to replacement of gene fragments that likely indicates the action of an antigen variation mechanism.

CONCLUSIONS: Members of genus Streptococcus have a highly dynamic, open pan-genome, that potentially confers them with the ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, i.e. antibiotic resistance or transmission between different hosts. Hence, integrated analysis of all aspects of genome evolution is important for the identification of potential pathogens and design of drugs and vaccines.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Legendre M, Alempic JM, Philippe N, et al (2019)

Pandoravirus Celtis Illustrates the Microevolution Processes at Work in the Giant Pandoraviridae Genomes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:430.

With genomes of up to 2.7 Mb propagated in μm-long oblong particles and initially predicted to encode more than 2000 proteins, members of the Pandoraviridae family display the most extreme features of the known viral world. The mere existence of such giant viruses raises fundamental questions about their origin and the processes governing their evolution. A previous analysis of six newly available isolates, independently confirmed by a study including three others, established that the Pandoraviridae pan-genome is open, meaning that each new strain exhibits protein-coding genes not previously identified in other family members. With an average increment of about 60 proteins, the gene repertoire shows no sign of reaching a limit and remains largely coding for proteins without recognizable homologs in other viruses or cells (ORFans). To explain these results, we proposed that most new protein-coding genes were created de novo, from pre-existing non-coding regions of the G+C rich pandoravirus genomes. The comparison of the gene content of a new isolate, pandoravirus celtis, closely related (96% identical genome) to the previously described p. quercus is now used to test this hypothesis by studying genomic changes in a microevolution range. Our results confirm that the differences between these two similar gene contents mostly consist of protein-coding genes without known homologs, with statistical signatures close to that of intergenic regions. These newborn proteins are under slight negative selection, perhaps to maintain stable folds and prevent protein aggregation pending the eventual emergence of fitness-increasing functions. Our study also unraveled several insertion events mediated by a transposase of the hAT family, 3 copies of which are found in p. celtis and are presumably active. Members of the Pandoraviridae are presently the first viruses known to encode this type of transposase.

RevDate: 2019-03-26

Banerjee R, Shine O, Rajachandran V, et al (2019)

Gene duplication and deletion, not horizontal transfer, drove intra-species mosaicism of Bartonella henselae.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(18)30730-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Bartonella henselae is a facultative intracellular pathogen that occurs worldwide and is responsible primarily for cat-scratch disease in young people and bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. The principal source of genome-level diversity that contributes to B. henselae's host-adaptive features is thought to be horizontal gene transfer events. However, our analyses did not reveal the acquisition of horizontally-transferred islands in B. henselae after its divergence from other Bartonella. Rather, diversity in gene content and genome size was apparently acquired through two alternative mechanisms, including deletion and, more predominantly, duplication of genes. Interestingly, a majority of these events occurred in regions that were horizontally transferred long before B. henselae's divergence from other Bartonella species. Our study indicates the possibility that gene duplication, in response to positive selection pressures in specific clones of B. henselae, might be linked to the pathogen's adaptation to arthropod vectors, the cat reservoir, or humans as incidental host-species.

RevDate: 2019-03-22

de Carvalho SP, de Almeida JB, de Freitas LM, et al (2019)

Genomic profile of Brazilian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resembles clones dispersed worldwide.

Journal of medical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Comparative genomic analysis of strains may help us to better understand the wide diversity of their genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to analyse the genomic features of the resistome and virulome of Brazilian first methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and their relationship to other Brazilian and international MRSA strains.

METHODOLOGY: The whole genomes of three MRSA strains previously isolated in Vitória da Conquista were sequenced, assembled, annotated and compared with other MRSA genomes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and the pan-genome and accessory and core genomes were constructed. The resistomes and virulomes of all strains were identified.Results/Key findings. Phylogenetic analysis of all 49 strains indicated different clones showing high similarity. The pan-genome of the analysed strains consisted of 4484 genes, with 31 % comprising the gene portion of the core genome, 47 % comprising the accessory genome and 22 % being singletons. Most strains showed at least one gene related to virulence factors associated with immune system evasion, followed by enterotoxins. The strains showed multiresistance, with the most recurrent genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and macrolides.

CONCLUSIONS: Our comparative genomic analysis showed that there is no pattern of virulence gene distribution among the clones analysed in the different regions. The Brazilian strains showed similarity with clones from several continents.

RevDate: 2019-04-04

Correia K, Yu SM, R Mahadevan (2019)

AYbRAH: a curated ortholog database for yeasts and fungi spanning 600 million years of evolution.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2019:.

Budding yeasts inhabit a range of environments by exploiting various metabolic traits. The genetic bases for these traits are mostly unknown, preventing their addition or removal in a chassis organism for metabolic engineering. Insight into the evolution of orthologs, paralogs and xenologs in the yeast pan-genome can help bridge these genotypes; however, existing phylogenomic databases do not span diverse yeasts, and sometimes cannot distinguish between these homologs. To help understand the molecular evolution of these traits in yeasts, we created Analyzing Yeasts by Reconstructing Ancestry of Homologs (AYbRAH), an open-source database of predicted and manually curated ortholog groups for 33 diverse fungi and yeasts in Dikarya, spanning 600 million years of evolution. OrthoMCL and OrthoDB were used to cluster protein sequence into ortholog and homolog groups, respectively; MAFFT and PhyML reconstructed the phylogeny of all homolog groups. Ortholog assignments for enzymes and small metabolite transporters were compared to their phylogenetic reconstruction, and curated to resolve any discrepancies. Information on homolog and ortholog groups can be viewed in the AYbRAH web portal (, including functional annotations, predictions for mitochondrial localization and transmembrane domains, literature references and phylogenetic reconstructions. Ortholog assignments in AYbRAH were compared to HOGENOM, KEGG Orthology, OMA, eggNOG and PANTHER. PANTHER and OMA had the most congruent ortholog groups with AYbRAH, while the other phylogenomic databases had greater amounts of under-clustering, over-clustering or no ortholog annotations for proteins. Future plans are discussed for AYbRAH, and recommendations are made for other research communities seeking to create curated ortholog databases.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Naz K, Naz A, Ashraf ST, et al (2019)

PanRV: Pangenome-reverse vaccinology approach for identifications of potential vaccine candidates in microbial pangenome.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(1):123 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2713-9.

BACKGROUND: A revolutionary diversion from classical vaccinology to reverse vaccinology approach has been observed in the last decade. The ever-increasing genomic and proteomic data has greatly facilitated the vaccine designing and development process. Reverse vaccinology is considered as a cost-effective and proficient approach to screen the entire pathogen genome. To look for broad-spectrum immunogenic targets and analysis of closely-related bacterial species, the assimilation of pangenome concept into reverse vaccinology approach is essential. The categories of species pangenome such as core, accessory, and unique genes sets can be analyzed for the identification of vaccine candidates through reverse vaccinology.

RESULTS: We have designed an integrative computational pipeline term as "PanRV" that employs both the pangenome and reverse vaccinology approaches. PanRV comprises of four functional modules including i) Pangenome Estimation Module (PGM) ii) Reverse Vaccinology Module (RVM) iii) Functional Annotation Module (FAM) and iv) Antibiotic Resistance Association Module (ARM). The pipeline is tested by using genomic data from 301 genomes of Staphylococcus aureus and the results are verified by experimentally known antigenic data.

CONCLUSION: The proposed pipeline has proved to be the first comprehensive automated pipeline that can precisely identify putative vaccine candidates exploiting the microbial pangenome. PanRV is a Linux based package developed in JAVA language. An executable installer is provided for ease of installation along with a user manual at .

RevDate: 2019-03-13

Li H, Ding X, Chen C, et al (2019)

Enrichment of phosphate solubilizing bacteria during late developmental stages of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

FEMS microbiology ecology, 95(3):.

Understanding the ecology of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSBs) is critical for developing better strategies to increase crop productivity. In this study, the diversity of PSBs and of the total bacteria in the rhizosphere of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivated in organic, integrated and conventional farming systems was compared at four developmental stages of its lifecycle. Both selective culture and high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons indicated that Enterobacter with strong or very strong in vivo phosphate solubilization activities was enriched in the rhizosphere during the fruiting stage. The high-throughput sequencing analysis results demonstrated that farming systems explained 23% of total bacterial community variation. Plant development and farming systems synergistically shaped the rhizospheric bacterial community, in which the degree of variation influenced by farming systems decreased over the plant development phase from 56% to 26.3% to 16.3%, and finally to no significant effect as the plant reached at fruiting stage. Pangenome analysis indicated that two-component and transporter systems varied between the rhizosphere and soil PSBs. This study elucidated the complex interactions among farming systems, plant development and rhizosphere microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Burgueño-Roman A, Castañeda-Ruelas GM, Pacheco-Arjona R, et al (2019)

Pathogenic potential of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars isolated from aquatic environments in Mexico.

Genes & genomics pii:10.1007/s13258-019-00798-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: River water has been implicated as a source of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in Mexico.

OBJECTIVE: To dissect the molecular pathogenesis and defense strategies of seven NTS strains isolated from river water in Mexico.

METHODS: The genome of Salmonella serovars Give, Pomona, Kedougou, Stanley, Oranienburg, Sandiego, and Muenchen were sequenced using the whole-genome shotgun methodology in the Illumina Miseq platform. The genoma annotation and evolutionary analyses were conducted in the RAST and FigTree servers, respectively. The MLST was performed using the SRST2 tool and the comparisons between strains were clustered and visualized using the Gview server. Experimental virulence assay was included to evaluate the pathogenic potential of strains.

RESULTS: We report seven high-quality draft genomes, ranging from ~ 4.61 to ~ 5.12 Mb, with a median G + C value, coding DNA sequence, and protein values of 52.1%, 4697 bp, and 4,589 bp, respectively. The NTS serovars presented with an open pan-genome, offering novel genetic content. Each NTS serovar had an indistinguishable virulotype with a core genome (352 virulence genes) closely associated with Salmonella pathogenicity; 13 genes were characterized as serotype specific, which could explain differences in pathogenicity. All strains maintained highly conserved genetic content regarding the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (1-5) (86.9-100%), fimbriae (84.6%), and hypermutation (100%) genes. Adherence and invasion capacity were confirmed among NTS strains in Caco-2 cells.

CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the arsenal of virulence and defense molecular factors harbored on NTS serovars and highlight that environmental NTS strains are waterborne pathogens worthy of attention.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

van Tonder AJ, Bray JE, Jolley KA, et al (2019)

Genomic Analyses of >3,100 Nasopharyngeal Pneumococci Revealed Significant Differences Between Pneumococci Recovered in Four Different Geographical Regions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:317.

Understanding the structure of a bacterial population is essential in order to understand bacterial evolution. Estimating the core genome (those genes common to all, or nearly all, strains of a species) is a key component of such analyses. The size and composition of the core genome varies by dataset, but we hypothesized that the variation between different collections of the same bacterial species would be minimal. To investigate this, we analyzed the genome sequences of 3,118 pneumococci recovered from healthy individuals in Reykjavik (Iceland), Southampton (United Kingdom), Boston (United States), and Maela (Thailand). The analyses revealed a "supercore" genome (genes shared by all 3,118 pneumococci) of 558 genes, although an additional 354 core genes were shared by pneumococci from Reykjavik, Southampton, and Boston. Overall, the size and composition of the core and pan-genomes among pneumococci recovered in Reykjavik, Southampton, and Boston were similar. Maela pneumococci were distinctly different in that they had a smaller core genome and larger pan-genome. The pan-genome of Maela pneumococci contained several >25 Kb sequence regions (flanked by pneumococcal genes) that were homologous to genomic regions found in other bacterial species. Overall, our work revealed that some subsets of the global pneumococcal population are highly heterogeneous, and our hypothesis was rejected. This is an important finding in terms of understanding genetic variation among pneumococci and is also an essential point of consideration before generalizing the findings from a single dataset to the wider pneumococcal population.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Obolski U, Gori A, Lourenço J, et al (2019)

Identifying genes associated with invasive disease in S. pneumoniae by applying a machine learning approach to whole genome sequence typing data.

Scientific reports, 9(1):4049 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-40346-7.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract, is a major public health concern, responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. Why some pneumococci invade the bloodstream or CSF (so-called invasive pneumococcal disease; IPD) is uncertain. In this study we identify genes associated with IPD. We transform whole genome sequence (WGS) data into a sequence typing scheme, while avoiding the caveat of using an arbitrary genome as a reference by substituting it with a constructed pangenome. We then employ a random forest machine-learning algorithm on the transformed data, and find 43 genes consistently associated with IPD across three geographically distinct WGS data sets of pneumococcal carriage isolates. Of the genes we identified as associated with IPD, we find 23 genes previously shown to be directly relevant to IPD, as well as 18 uncharacterized genes. We suggest that these uncharacterized genes identified by us are also likely to be relevant for IPD.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Khaleque HN, González C, Shafique R, et al (2019)

Uncovering the Mechanisms of Halotolerance in the Extremely Acidophilic Members of the Acidihalobacter Genus Through Comparative Genome Analysis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:155.

There are few naturally occurring environments where both acid and salinity stress exist together, consequently, there has been little evolutionary pressure for microorganisms to develop systems that enable them to deal with both stresses simultaneously. Members of the genus Acidihalobacter are iron- and sulfur-oxidizing, halotolerant acidophiles that have developed the ability to tolerate acid and saline stress and, therefore, have the potential to bioleach ores with brackish or saline process waters under acidic conditions. The genus consists of four members, A. prosperus DSM 5130T, A. prosperus DSM 14174, A. prosperus F5 and "A. ferrooxidans" DSM 14175. An in depth genome comparison was undertaken in order to provide a more comprehensive description of the mechanisms of halotolerance used by the different members of this genus. Pangenome analysis identified 29, 3 and 9 protein families related to halotolerance in the core, dispensable and unique genomes, respectively. The genes for halotolerance showed Ka/Ks ratios between 0 and 0.2, confirming that they are conserved and stabilized. All the Acidihalobacter genomes contained similar genes for the synthesis and transport of ectoine, which was recently found to be the dominant osmoprotectant in A. prosperus DSM 14174 and A. prosperus DSM 5130T. Similarities also existed in genes encoding low affinity potassium pumps, however, A. prosperus DSM 14174 was also found to contain genes encoding high affinity potassium pumps. Furthermore, only A. prosperus DSM 5130T and "A. ferrooxidans" DSM 14175 contained genes allowing the uptake of taurine as an osmoprotectant. Variations were also seen in genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and/or transport of periplasmic glucans, sucrose, proline, and glycine betaine. This suggests that versatility exists in the Acidihalobacter genus in terms of the mechanisms they can use for halotolerance. This information is useful for developing hypotheses for the search for life on exoplanets and moons.

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Tahir Ul Qamar M, Zhu X, Xing F, et al (2019)

ppsPCP: A Plant Presence/absence Variants Scanner and Pan-genome Construction Pipeline.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5372683 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: Since the idea of pan-genomics emerged several tools and pipelines have been introduced for prokaryotic pan-genomics. However, not a single comprehensive pipeline has been reported which could overcome multiple challenges associated with eukaryotic pan-genomics. To aid the eukaryotic pan-genomic studies, here we present ppsPCP pipeline which is designed for eukaryotes especially for plants. It is capable of scanning presence/absence variants (PAVs) and constructing a fully annotated pan-genome. We believe with these unique features of PAV scanning and building a pan-genome together with its annotation, ppsPCP will be useful for plant pan-genomic studies and aid researchers to study genetic/phenotypic variations and genomic diversity.

The ppsPCP is freely available at github DOI: and webpage

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Rautiainen M, Mäkinen V, T Marschall (2019)

Bit-parallel sequence-to-graph alignment.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5372677 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Graphs are commonly used to represent sets of sequences. Either edges or nodes can be labeled by sequences, so that each path in the graph spells a concatenated sequence. Examples include graphs to represent genome assemblies, such as string graphs and de Bruijn graphs, and graphs to represent a pan-genome and hence the genetic variation present in a population. Being able to align sequencing reads to such graphs is a key step for many analyses and its applications include genome assembly, read error correction, and variant calling with respect to a variation graph.

RESULTS: We generalize two linear sequence-to-sequence algorithms to graphs: the Shift-And algorithm for exact matching and Myers' bitvector algorithm for semi-global alignment. These linear algorithms are both based on processing w sequence characters with a constant number of operations, where w is the word size of the machine (commonly 64), and achieve a speedup of up to w over naive algorithms. For a graph with nodes and edges and a sequence of length m, our bitvector-based graph alignment algorithm reaches a worst case runtime of for acyclic graphs and for arbitrary cyclic graphs. We apply it to five different types of graphs and observe a speedup between 3-fold and 20-fold compared to a previous (asymptotically optimal) alignment algorithm by Navarro (2000).


SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Velsko IM, Perez MS, VP Richards (2019)

Resolving Phylogenetic Relationships for Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis through Core- and Pan-Genome Analyses.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(4):1077-1087.

Taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis have been difficult to establish biochemically and genetically. We used core-genome analyses of S. mitis and S. oralis, as well as the closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus parasanguinis, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships between S. mitis and S. oralis, as well as within subclades of S. oralis. All S. mitis (n = 67), S. oralis (n = 89), S. parasanguinis (n = 27), and 27 S. pneumoniae genome assemblies were downloaded from NCBI and reannotated. All genes were delineated into homologous clusters and maximum-likelihood phylogenies built from putatively nonrecombinant core gene sets. Population structure was determined using Bayesian genome clustering, and patristic distance was calculated between populations. Population-specific gene content was assessed using a phylogenetic-based genome-wide association approach. Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis formed distinct clades, but species mixing suggests taxonomic misassignment. Patristic distance between populations suggests that S. oralis subsp. dentisani is a distinct species, whereas S. oralis subsp. tigurinus and subsp. oralis are supported as subspecies, and that S. mitis comprises two subspecies. None of the genes within the pan-genomes of S. mitis and S. oralis could be statistically correlated with either, and the dispensable genomes showed extensive variation among isolates. These are likely important factors contributing to established overlap in biochemical characteristics for these taxa. Based on core-genome analysis, the substructure of S. oralis and S. mitis should be redefined, and species assignments within S. oralis and S. mitis should be made based on whole-genome analysis to be robust to misassignment.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-03-20

Eisenbach L, Geissler AJ, Ehrmann MA, et al (2019)

Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus sakei supports the development of starter strain combinations.

Microbiological research, 221:1-9.

Strains of Lactobacillus sakei can be isolated from a variety of sources including meat, fermented sausages, sake, sourdough, sauerkraut or kimchi. Selected strains are widely used as starter cultures for sausage fermentation. Recently we have demonstrated that control about the lactic microbiota in fermenting sausages is achieved rather by pairs or strain sets than by single strains. In this work we characterized the pan genome of L. sakei to enable exploitation of the genomic diversity of L. sakei for the establishment of assertive starter strain sets. We have established the full genome sequences of nine L. sakei strains from different sources of isolation and included in the analysis the genome of L. sakei 23K. Comparative genomics revealed an accessory genome comprising about 50% of the pan genome and different lineages of strains with no relation to their source of isolation. Group and strain specific differences could be found, which namely referred to agmatine and citrate metabolism. The presence of genes encoding metabolic pathways for fructose, sucrose and trehalose as well as gluconate in all strains suggests a general adaptation to plant/sugary environments and a life in communities with other genera. Analysis of the plasmidome did not reveal any specific mechanisms of adaptation to a habitat. The predicted differences of metabolic settings enable prediction of partner strains, which can occupy the meat environment to a large extent and establish competitive exclusion of autochthonous microbiota. This may assist the development of a new generation of meat starter cultures containing L. sakei strains.

RevDate: 2019-04-08
CmpDate: 2019-04-08

Raphael BH, Huynh T, Brown E, et al (2019)

Culture of Clinical Specimens Reveals Extensive Diversity of Legionella pneumophila Strains in Arizona.

mSphere, 4(1): pii:4/1/e00649-18.

Between 2000 and 2017, a total of 236 Legionella species isolates from Arizona were submitted to the CDC for reference testing. Most of these isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Although the incidence of legionellosis in Arizona is less than the overall U.S. incidence, Arizona submits the largest number of isolates to the CDC for testing compared to those from other states. In addition to a higher proportion of culture confirmation of legionellosis cases in Arizona than in other states, all Legionellapneumophila isolates are forwarded to the CDC for confirmatory testing. Compared to that from other states, a higher proportion of isolates from Arizona were identified as belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 6 (28.2%) and 8 (8.9%). Genome sequencing was conducted on 113 L. pneumophila clinical isolates not known to be associated with outbreaks in order to understand the genomic diversity of strains causing legionellosis in Arizona. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) revealed 17 clusters of isolates sharing at least 99% identical allele content. Only two of these clusters contained isolates from more than one individual with exposure at the same facility. Additionally, wgMLST analysis revealed a group of 31 isolates predominantly belonging to serogroup 6 and containing isolates from three separate clusters. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and pangenome analysis were used to further resolve genome sequences belonging to a subset of isolates. This study demonstrates that culture of clinical specimens for Legionella spp. reveals a highly diverse population of strains causing legionellosis in Arizona which could be underappreciated using other diagnostic approaches.IMPORTANCE Culture of clinical specimens from patients with Legionnaires' disease is rarely performed, restricting our understanding of the diversity and ecology of Legionella Culture of Legionella from patient specimens in Arizona revealed a greater proportion of non-serogroup 1 Legionellapneumophila isolates than in other U.S. isolates examined. Disease caused by such isolates may go undetected using other diagnostic methods. Moreover, genome sequence analysis revealed that these isolates were genetically diverse, and understanding these populations may help in future environmental source attribution studies.

RevDate: 2019-03-07
CmpDate: 2019-03-07

Gabbett MT, Laporte J, Sekar R, et al (2019)

Molecular Support for Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning.

The New England journal of medicine, 380(9):842-849.

Sesquizygotic multiple pregnancy is an exceptional intermediate between monozygotic and dizygotic twinning. We report a monochorionic twin pregnancy with fetal sex discordance. Genotyping of amniotic fluid from each sac showed that the twins were maternally identical but chimerically shared 78% of their paternal genome, which makes them genetically in between monozygotic and dizygotic; they are sesquizygotic. We observed no evidence of sesquizygosis in 968 dizygotic twin pairs whom we screened by means of pangenome single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Data from published repositories also show that sesquizygosis is a rare event. Detailed genotyping implicates chimerism arising at the juncture of zygotic division, termed heterogonesis, as the likely initial step in the causation of sesquizygosis.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Caputo A, Fournier PE, D Raoult (2019)

Genome and pan-genome analysis to classify emerging bacteria.

Biology direct, 14(1):5 pii:10.1186/s13062-019-0234-0.

BACKGROUND: In the recent years, genomic and pan-genomic studies have become increasingly important. Culturomics allows to study human microbiota through the use of different culture conditions, coupled with a method of rapid identification by MALDI-TOF, or 16S rRNA. Bacterial taxonomy is undergoing many changes as a consequence. With the help of pan-genomic analyses, species can be redefined, and new species definitions generated.

RESULTS: Genomics, coupled with culturomics, has led to the discovery of many novel bacterial species or genera, including Akkermansia muciniphila and Microvirga massiliensis. Using the genome to define species has been applied within the genus Klebsiella. A discontinuity or an abrupt break in the core/pan-genome ratio can uncover novel species.

CONCLUSIONS: Applying genomic and pan-genomic analyses to the reclassification of other bacterial species or genera will be important in the future of medical microbiology. The pan-genome is one of many new innovative tools in bacterial taxonomy.

REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by William Martin, Eric Bapteste and James Mcinerney.

OPEN PEER REVIEW: Reviewed by William Martin, Eric Bapteste and James Mcinerney.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Entwistle S, Li X, Y Yin (2019)

Orphan Genes Shared by Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated with Bacterial Pathogenicity.

mSystems, 4(1): pii:mSystems00290-18.

Orphan genes (also known as ORFans [i.e., orphan open reading frames]) are new genes that enable an organism to adapt to its specific living environment. Our focus in this study is to compare ORFans between pathogens (P) and nonpathogens (NP) of the same genus. Using the pangenome idea, we have identified 130,169 ORFans in nine bacterial genera (505 genomes) and classified these ORFans into four groups: (i) SS-ORFans (P), which are only found in a single pathogenic genome; (ii) SS-ORFans (NP), which are only found in a single nonpathogenic genome; (iii) PS-ORFans (P), which are found in multiple pathogenic genomes; and (iv) NS-ORFans (NP), which are found in multiple nonpathogenic genomes. Within the same genus, pathogens do not always have more genes, more ORFans, or more pathogenicity-related genes (PRGs)-including prophages, pathogenicity islands (PAIs), virulence factors (VFs), and horizontal gene transfers (HGTs)-than nonpathogens. Interestingly, in pathogens of the nine genera, the percentages of PS-ORFans are consistently higher than those of SS-ORFans, which is not true in nonpathogens. Similarly, in pathogens of the nine genera, the percentages of PS-ORFans matching the four types of PRGs are also always higher than those of SS-ORFans, but this is not true in nonpathogens. All of these findings suggest the greater importance of PS-ORFans for bacterial pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Recent pangenome analyses of numerous bacterial species have suggested that each genome of a single species may have a significant fraction of its gene content unique or shared by a very few genomes (i.e., ORFans). We selected nine bacterial genera, each containing at least five pathogenic and five nonpathogenic genomes, to compare their ORFans in relation to pathogenicity-related genes. Pathogens in these genera are known to cause a number of common and devastating human diseases such as pneumonia, diphtheria, melioidosis, and tuberculosis. Thus, they are worthy of in-depth systems microbiology investigations, including the comparative study of ORFans between pathogens and nonpathogens. We provide direct evidence to suggest that ORFans shared by more pathogens are more associated with pathogenicity-related genes and thus are more important targets for development of new diagnostic markers or therapeutic drugs for bacterial infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2019-02-24

Lin JN, Lai CH, Yang CH, et al (2019)

Genomic Features, Comparative Genomics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Elizabethkingia bruuniana.

Scientific reports, 9(1):2267 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-38998-6.

Elizabethkingia bruuniana is a novel species of the Elizabethkingia genus. There is scant information on this microorganism. Here, we report the whole-genome features and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. bruuniana strain EM798-26. Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was initially identified as E. miricola. This isolate contained a circular genome of 4,393,011 bp. The whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny revealed that Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was in the same group of the type strain E. bruuniana G0146T. Both in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity analysis clearly demonstrated that Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was a species of E. bruuniana. The pan-genome analysis identified 2,875 gene families in the core genome and 5,199 gene families in the pan genome of eight publicly available E. bruuniana genome sequences. The unique genes accounted for 0.2-12.1% of the pan genome in each E. bruuniana. A total of 59 potential virulence factor homologs were predicted in the whole-genome of E. bruuniana strain EM798-26. This isolate was nonsusceptible to multiple antibiotics, but susceptible to aminoglycosides, minocycline, and levofloxacin. The whole-genome sequence analysis of E. bruuniana EM798-26 revealed 29 homologs of antibiotic resistance-related genes. This study presents the genomic features of E. bruuniana. Knowledge of the genomic characteristics provides valuable insights into a novel species.

RevDate: 2019-03-25
CmpDate: 2019-03-25

López-Pérez M, Jayakumar JM, Haro-Moreno JM, et al (2019)

Evolutionary Model of Cluster Divergence of the Emergent Marine Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus: From Genotype to Ecotype.

mBio, 10(1): pii:mBio.02852-18.

Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen, is the causative agent of a life-threatening septicemia and a rising problem for aquaculture worldwide. The genetic factors that differentiate its clinical and environmental strains remain enigmatic. Furthermore, clinical strains have emerged from every clade of V. vulnificus In this work, we investigated the underlying genomic properties and population dynamics of the V. vulnificus species from an evolutionary and ecological point of view. Genome comparisons and bioinformatic analyses of 113 V. vulnificus isolates indicate that the population of V. vulnificus is made up of four different clusters. We found evidence that recombination and gene flow between the two largest clusters (cluster 1 [C1] and C2) have drastically decreased to the point where they are diverging independently. Pangenome and phenotypic analyses showed two markedly different lifestyles for these two clusters, indicating commensal (C2) and bloomer (C1) ecotypes, with differences in carbohydrate utilization, defense systems, and chemotaxis, among other characteristics. Nonetheless, we identified frequent intra- and interspecies exchange of mobile genetic elements (e.g., antibiotic resistance plasmids, novel "chromids," or two different and concurrent type VI secretion systems) that provide high levels of genetic diversity in the population. Surprisingly, we identified strains from both clusters in the mucosa of aquaculture species, indicating that manmade niches are bringing strains from the two clusters together. We propose an evolutionary model of V. vulnificus that could be broadly applicable to other pathogenic vibrios and facultative bacterial pathogens to pursue strategies to prevent their infections and emergence.IMPORTANCEVibrio vulnificus is an emergent marine pathogen and is the cause of a deadly septicemia. However, the genetic factors that differentiate its clinical and environmental strains and its several biotypes remain mostly enigmatic. In this work, we investigated the underlying genomic properties and population dynamics of the V. vulnificus species to elucidate the traits that make these strains emerge as a human pathogen. The acquisition of different ecological determinants could have allowed the development of highly divergent clusters with different lifestyles within the same environment. However, we identified strains from both clusters in the mucosa of aquaculture species, indicating that manmade niches are bringing strains from the two clusters together, posing a potential risk of recombination and of emergence of novel variants. We propose a new evolutionary model that provides a perspective that could be broadly applicable to other pathogenic vibrios and facultative bacterial pathogens to pursue strategies to prevent their infections.

RevDate: 2019-04-28

Issa E, Salloum T, Panossian B, et al (2019)

Genome Mining and Comparative Analysis of Streptococcus intermedius Causing Brain Abscess in a Child.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 8(1): pii:pathogens8010022.

Streptococcus intermedius (SI) is associated with prolonged hospitalization and low survival rates. The genetic mechanisms involved in brain abscess development and genome evolution in comparison to other members of the Streptococcus anginosus group are understudied. We performed a whole-genome comparative analysis of an SI isolate, LAU_SINT, associated with brain abscess following sinusitis with all SI genomes in addition to S. constellatus and S. anginosus. Selective pressure on virulence factors, phages, pan-genome evolution and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis were assessed. The structural details of the type seven secretion system (T7SS) was elucidated and compared with different organisms. ily and nanA were both abundant and conserved. Nisin resistance determinants were found in 47% of the isolates. Pan-genome and SNPs-based analysis didn't reveal significant geo-patterns. Our results showed that two SC isolates were misidentified as SI. We propose the presence of four T7SS modules (I⁻IV) located on various genomic islands. We detected a variety of factors linked to metal ions binding on the GIs carrying T7SS. This is the first detailed report characterizing the T7SS and its link to nisin resistance and metal ions binding in SI. These and yet uncharacterized T7SS transmembrane proteins merit further studies and could represent potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2019-03-12
CmpDate: 2019-03-12

Grytten I, Rand KD, Nederbragt AJ, et al (2019)

Graph Peak Caller: Calling ChIP-seq peaks on graph-based reference genomes.

PLoS computational biology, 15(2):e1006731 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-00533.

Graph-based representations are considered to be the future for reference genomes, as they allow integrated representation of the steadily increasing data on individual variation. Currently available tools allow de novo assembly of graph-based reference genomes, alignment of new read sets to the graph representation as well as certain analyses like variant calling and haplotyping. We here present a first method for calling ChIP-Seq peaks on read data aligned to a graph-based reference genome. The method is a graph generalization of the peak caller MACS2, and is implemented in an open source tool, Graph Peak Caller. By using the existing tool vg to build a pan-genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, we validate our approach by showing that Graph Peak Caller with a pan-genome reference graph can trace variants within peaks that are not part of the linear reference genome, and find peaks that in general are more motif-enriched than those found by MACS2.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Lu QF, Cao DM, Su LL, et al (2019)

Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics Analysis of Neisseria to Identify New Genes Associated with Pathogenicity and Niche Adaptation of Neisseria Pathogens.

International journal of genomics, 2019:6015730.

N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, the only two human pathogens of Neisseria, are closely related species. But the niches they survived in and their pathogenic characteristics are distinctly different. However, the genetic basis of these differences has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, comparative genomics analysis was performed based on 15 N. gonorrhoeae, 75 N. meningitidis, and 7 nonpathogenic Neisseria genomes. Core-pangenome analysis found 1111 conserved gene families among them, and each of these species groups had opening pangenome. We found that 452, 78, and 319 gene families were unique in N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, and both of them, respectively. Those unique gene families were regarded as candidates that related to their pathogenicity and niche adaptation. The relationships among them have been partly verified by functional annotation analysis. But at least one-third genes for each gene set have not found the certain functional information. Simple sequence repeat (SSR), the basis of gene phase variation, was found abundant in the membrane or related genes of each unique gene set, which may facilitate their adaptation to variable host environments. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis found at least five distinct PPI clusters in N. gonorrhoeae and four in N. meningitides, and 167 and 52 proteins with unknown function were contained within them, respectively.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Stevens MJA, Tasara T, Klumpp J, et al (2019)

Whole-genome-based phylogeny of Bacillus cytotoxicus reveals different clades within the species and provides clues on ecology and evolution.

Scientific reports, 9(1):1984 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-36254-x.

Bacillus cytotoxicus is a member of the Bacillus cereus group linked to fatal cases of diarrheal disease. Information on B. cytotoxicus is very limited; in particular comprehensive genomic data is lacking. Thus, we applied a genomic approach to characterize B. cytotoxicus and decipher its population structure. To this end, complete genomes of ten B. cytotoxicus were sequenced and compared to the four publicly available full B. cytotoxicus genomes and genomes of other B. cereus group members. Average nucleotide identity, core genome, and pan genome clustering resulted in clear distinction of B. cytotoxicus strains from other strains of the B. cereus group. Genomic content analyses showed that a hydroxyphenylalanine operon is present in B. cytotoxicus, but absent in all other members of the B. cereus group. It enables degradation of aromatic compounds to succinate and pyruvate and was likely acquired from another Bacillus species. It allows for utilization of tyrosine and might have given a B. cytotoxicus ancestor an evolutionary advantage resulting in species differentiation. Plasmid content showed that B. cytotoxicus is flexible in exchanging genes, allowing for quick adaptation to the environment. Genome-based phylogenetic analyses divided the B. cytotoxicus strains into four clades that also differed in virulence gene content.

RevDate: 2019-03-24

Lye ZN, MD Purugganan (2019)

Copy Number Variation in Domestication.

Trends in plant science, 24(4):352-365.

Domesticated plants have long served as excellent models for studying evolution. Many genes and mutations underlying important domestication traits have been identified, and most causal mutations appear to be SNPs. Copy number variation (CNV) is an important source of genetic variation that has been largely neglected in studies of domestication. Ongoing work demonstrates the importance of CNVs as a source of genetic variation during domestication, and during the diversification of domesticated taxa. Here, we review how CNVs contribute to evolutionary processes underlying domestication, and review examples of domestication traits caused by CNVs. We draw from examples in plant species, but also highlight cases in animal systems that could illuminate the roles of CNVs in the domestication process.

RevDate: 2019-04-12
CmpDate: 2019-04-12

Arora S, Steuernagel B, Gaurav K, et al (2019)

Resistance gene cloning from a wild crop relative by sequence capture and association genetics.

Nature biotechnology, 37(2):139-143.

Disease resistance (R) genes from wild relatives could be used to engineer broad-spectrum resistance in domesticated crops. We combined association genetics with R gene enrichment sequencing (AgRenSeq) to exploit pan-genome variation in wild diploid wheat and rapidly clone four stem rust resistance genes. AgRenSeq enables R gene cloning in any crop that has a diverse germplasm panel.

RevDate: 2019-04-12
CmpDate: 2019-04-12

Zou Y, Xue W, Luo G, et al (2019)

1,520 reference genomes from cultivated human gut bacteria enable functional microbiome analyses.

Nature biotechnology, 37(2):179-185.

Reference genomes are essential for metagenomic analyses and functional characterization of the human gut microbiota. We present the Culturable Genome Reference (CGR), a collection of 1,520 nonredundant, high-quality draft genomes generated from >6,000 bacteria cultivated from fecal samples of healthy humans. Of the 1,520 genomes, which were chosen to cover all major bacterial phyla and genera in the human gut, 264 are not represented in existing reference genome catalogs. We show that this increase in the number of reference bacterial genomes improves the rate of mapping metagenomic sequencing reads from 50% to >70%, enabling higher-resolution descriptions of the human gut microbiome. We use the CGR genomes to annotate functions of 338 bacterial species, showing the utility of this resource for functional studies. We also carry out a pan-genome analysis of 38 important human gut species, which reveals the diversity and specificity of functional enrichment between their core and dispensable genomes.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

McCarthy CGP, DA Fitzpatrick (2019)

Pan-genome analyses of model fungal species.

Microbial genomics, 5(2):.

The concept of the species 'pan-genome', the union of 'core' conserved genes and all 'accessory' non-conserved genes across all strains of a species, was first proposed in prokaryotes to account for intraspecific variability. Species pan-genomes have been extensively studied in prokaryotes, but evidence of species pan-genomes has also been demonstrated in eukaryotes such as plants and fungi. Using a previously published methodology based on sequence homology and conserved microsynteny, in addition to bespoke pipelines, we have investigated the pan-genomes of four model fungal species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Aspergillus fumigatus. Between 80 and 90 % of gene models per strain in each of these species are core genes that are highly conserved across all strains of that species, many of which are involved in housekeeping and conserved survival processes. In many of these species, the remaining 'accessory' gene models are clustered within subterminal regions and may be involved in pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. Analysis of the ancestry of species core and accessory genomes suggests that fungal pan-genomes evolve by strain-level innovations such as gene duplication as opposed to wide-scale horizontal gene transfer. Our findings lend further supporting evidence to the existence of species pan-genomes in eukaryote taxa.

RevDate: 2019-03-23

Lugli GA, Mancino W, Milani C, et al (2019)

Dissecting the Evolutionary Development of the Species Bifidobacterium animalis through Comparative Genomics Analyses.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 85(7): pii:AEM.02806-18.

Bifidobacteria are members of the gut microbiota of animals, including mammals, birds, and social insects. In this study, we analyzed and determined the pangenome of Bifidobacterium animalis species, encompassing B. animalis subsp. animalis and the B. animalis subsp. lactis taxon, which is one of the most intensely exploited probiotic bifidobacterial species. In order to reveal differences within the B. animalis species, detailed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses were performed, indicating that these two subspecies recently arose through divergent evolutionary events. A subspecies-specific core genome was identified for both B. animalis subspecies, revealing the existence of subspecies-defining genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Notably, these in silico analyses coupled with carbohydrate profiling assays suggest genetic adaptations toward a distinct glycan milieu for each member of the B. animalis subspecies, resulting in a divergent evolutionary development of the two subspecies.IMPORTANCE The majority of characterized B. animalis strains have been isolated from human fecal samples. In order to explore genome variability within this species, we isolated 15 novel strains from the gastrointestinal tracts of different animals, including mammals and birds. The present study allowed us to reconstruct the pangenome of this taxon, including the genome contents of 56 B. animalis strains. Through careful assessment of subspecies-specific core genes of the B. animalis subsp. animalis/lactis taxon, we identified genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, while unveiling specific gene acquisition and loss events that caused the evolutionary emergence of these two subspecies.

RevDate: 2019-02-08

Nono AD, Chen K, X Liu (2019)

Comparison of different functional prediction scores using a gene-based permutation model for identifying cancer driver genes.

BMC medical genomics, 12(Suppl 1):22 pii:10.1186/s12920-018-0452-9.

BACKGROUND: Identifying cancer driver genes (CDG) is a crucial step in cancer genomic toward the advancement of precision medicine. However, driver gene discovery is a very challenging task because we are not only dealing with huge amount of data; but we are also faced with the complexity of the disease including the heterogeneity of background somatic mutation rate in each cancer patient. It is generally accepted that CDG harbor variants conferring growth advantage in the malignant cell and they are positively selected, which are critical to cancer development; whereas, non-driver genes harbor random mutations with no functional consequence on cancer. Based on this fact, function prediction based approaches for identifying CDG have been proposed to interrogate the distribution of functional predictions among mutations in cancer genomes (eLS 1-16, 2016). Assuming most of the observed mutations are passenger mutations and given the quantitative predictions for the functional impact of the mutations, genes enriched of functional or deleterious mutations are more likely to be drivers. The promises of these methods have been continually refined and can therefore be applied to increase accuracy in detecting new candidate CDGs. However, current function prediction based approaches only focus on coding mutations and lack a systematic way to pick the best mutation deleteriousness prediction algorithms for usage.

RESULTS: In this study, we propose a new function prediction based approach to discover CDGs through a gene-based permutation approach. Our method not only covers both coding and non-coding regions of the genes; but it also accounts for the heterogeneous mutational context in cohort of cancer patients. The permutation model was implemented independently using seven popular deleteriousness prediction scores covering splicing regions (SPIDEX), coding regions (MetaLR, and VEST3) and pan-genome (CADD, DANN, Fathmm-MKL coding and Fathmm-MKL noncoding). We applied this new approach to somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from whole-genome sequences of 119 breast and 24 lung cancer patients and compared the seven deleteriousness prediction scores for their performance in this study.

CONCLUSION: The new function prediction based approach not only predicted known cancer genes listed in the Cancer Gene Census (CGC), but also new candidate CDGs that are worth further investigation. The results showed the advantage of utilizing pan-genome deleteriousness prediction scores in function prediction based methods. Although VEST3 score, a deleteriousness prediction score for missense mutations, has the best performance in breast cancer, it was topped by CADD and Fathmm-MKL coding, two pan-genome deleteriousness prediction scores, in lung cancer.

RevDate: 2019-02-03

Leviatan S, E Segal (2019)

A Significant Expansion of Our Understanding of the Composition of the Human Microbiome.

mSystems, 4(1): pii:mSystems00010-19.

Shotgun sequencing of samples taken from the human microbiome often reveals only partial mapping of the sequenced metagenomic reads to existing reference genomes. Such partial mappability indicates that many genomes are missing in our reference genome set. This is particularly true for non-Western populations and for samples that do not originate from the gut. Pasolli et al. (E. Pasolli, F. Asnicar, S. Manara, M. Zolfo, et al., Cell, 2019, perform a grand effort to expand the reference set, and to better classify its members, revealing a wider pangenome of existing species as well as identifying new species of previously unknown taxonomic branches.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Sánchez-Osuna M, Cortés P, Barbé J, et al (2018)

Origin of the Mobile Di-Hydro-Pteroate Synthase Gene Determining Sulfonamide Resistance in Clinical Isolates.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3332.

Sulfonamides are synthetic chemotherapeutic agents that work as competitive inhibitors of the di-hydro-pteroate synthase (DHPS) enzyme, encoded by the folP gene. Resistance to sulfonamides is widespread in the clinical setting and predominantly mediated by plasmid- and integron-borne sul1-3 genes encoding mutant DHPS enzymes that do not bind sulfonamides. In spite of their clinical importance, the genetic origin of sul1-3 genes remains unknown. Here we analyze sul genes and their genetic neighborhoods to uncover sul signature elements that enable the elucidation of their genetic origin. We identify a protein sequence Sul motif associated with sul-encoded proteins, as well as consistent association of a phosphoglucosamine mutase gene (glmM) with the sul2 gene. We identify chromosomal folP genes bearing these genetic markers in two bacterial families: the Rhodobiaceae and the Leptospiraceae. Bayesian phylogenetic inference of FolP/Sul and GlmM protein sequences clearly establishes that sul1-2 and sul3 genes originated as a mobilization of folP genes present in, respectively, the Rhodobiaceae and the Leptospiraceae, and indicate that the Rhodobiaceae folP gene was transferred from the Leptospiraceae. Analysis of %GC content in folP/sul gene sequences supports the phylogenetic inference results and indicates that the emergence of the Sul motif in chromosomally encoded FolP proteins is ancient and considerably predates the clinical introduction of sulfonamides. In vitro assays reveal that both the Rhodobiaceae and the Leptospiraceae, but not other related chromosomally encoded FolP proteins confer resistance in a sulfonamide-sensitive Escherichia coli background, indicating that the Sul motif is associated with sulfonamide resistance. Given the absence of any known natural sulfonamides targeting DHPS, these results provide a novel perspective on the emergence of resistance to synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, whereby preexisting resistant variants in the vast bacterial pangenome may be rapidly selected for and disseminated upon the clinical introduction of novel chemotherapeuticals.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Slama HB, Cherif-Silini H, Chenari Bouket A, et al (2018)

Screening for Fusarium Antagonistic Bacteria From Contrasting Niches Designated the Endophyte Bacillus halotolerans as Plant Warden Against Fusarium.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3236.

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plantations in North Africa are nowadays threatened with the spread of the Bayoud disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, already responsible for destroying date production in other infected areas, mainly in Morocco. Biological control holds great promise for sustainable and environmental-friendly management of the disease. In this study, the additional benefits to agricultural ecosystems of using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or endophytes are addressed. First, PGPR or endophytes can offer an interesting bio-fertilization, meaning that it can add another layer to the sustainability of the approach. Additionally, screening of contrasting niches can yield bacterial actors that could represent wardens against whole genera or groups of plant pathogenic agents thriving in semi-arid to arid ecosystems. Using this strategy, we recovered four bacterial isolates, designated BFOA1, BFOA2, BFOA3 and BFOA4, that proved very active against F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. BFOA1-BFOA4 proved also active against 16 Fusarium isolates belonging to four species: F. oxysporum (with strains phytopathogenic of Olea europaea and tomato), F. solani (with different strains attacking O. europaea and potato), F. acuminatum (pathogenic on O. europaea) and F. chlamydosporum (phytopathogenic of O. europaea). BFOA1-BFOA4 bacterial isolates exhibited strong activities against another four major phytopathogens: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora infestans, and Rhizoctonia bataticola. Isolates BFOA1-BFOA4 had the ability to grow at temperatures up to 35°C, pH range of 5-10, and tolerate high concentrations of NaCl and up to 30% PEG. The isolates also showed relevant direct and indirect PGP features, including growth on nitrogen-free medium, phosphate solubilization and auxin biosynthesis, as well as resistance to metal and xenobiotic stress. Phylogenomic analysis of BFOA1-BFOA4 isolates indicated that they all belong to Bacillus halotolerans, which could therefore considered as a warden against Fusarium infection in plants. Comparative genomics allowed us to functionally describe the open pan genome of B. halotolerans and LC-HRMS and GCMS analyses, enabling the description of diverse secondary metabolites including pulegone, 2-undecanone, and germacrene D, with important antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. In conclusion, B. halotolerans could be used as an efficient bio-fertilizer and bio-control agent in semi-arid and arid ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Arabaghian H, Salloum T, Alousi S, et al (2019)

Molecular Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae Isolated from Lebanon.

Scientific reports, 9(1):531 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-36554-2.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative organism and a major public health threat. In this study, we used whole-genome sequences to characterize 32 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) and two carbapenem-resistant K. quasipneumoniae (CRKQ). Antimicrobial resistance was assessed using disk diffusion and E-test, while virulence was assessed in silico. The capsule type was determined by sequencing the wzi gene. The plasmid diversity was assessed by PCR-based replicon typing to detect the plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups. The genetic relatedness was determined by multilocus sequence typing, pan-genome, and recombination analysis. All of the isolates were resistant to ertapenem together with imipenem and/or meropenem. Phenotypic resistance was due to blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaNDM-7, or the coupling of ESBLs and outer membrane porin modifications. This is the first comprehensive study reporting on the WGS of CRKP and the first detection of CRKQ in the region. The presence and dissemination of CRKP and CRKQ, with some additionally having characteristics of hypervirulent clones such as the hypermucoviscous phenotype and the capsular type K2, are particularly concerning. Additionally, mining the completely sequenced K. pneumoniae genomes revealed the key roles of mobile genetic elements in the spread of antibiotic resistance and in understanding the epidemiology of these clinically significant pathogens.

RevDate: 2019-01-24

Zhu D, He J, Yang Z, et al (2019)

Comparative analysis reveals the Genomic Islands in Pasteurella multocida population genetics: on Symbiosis and adaptability.

BMC genomics, 20(1):63 pii:10.1186/s12864-018-5366-6.

BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that infects human and various animals. Genomic Islands (GIs) are one of the most important mobile components that quickly help bacteria acquire large fragments of foreign genes. However, the effects of GIs on P. multocida are unknown in the evolution of bacterial populations.

RESULTS: Ten avian-sourced P. multocida obtained through high-throughput sequencing together with 104 publicly available P. multocida genomes were used to analyse their population genetics, thus constructed a pan-genome containing 3948 protein-coding genes. Through the pan-genome, the open evolutionary pattern of P. multocida was revealed, and the functional components of 944 core genes, 2439 accessory genes and 565 unique genes were analysed. In addition, a total of 280 GIs were predicted in all strains. Combined with the pan-genome of P. multocida, the GIs accounted for 5.8% of the core genes in the pan-genome, mainly related to functional metabolic activities; the accessory genes accounted for 42.3%, mainly for the enrichment of adaptive genes; and the unique genes accounted for 35.4%, containing some defence mechanism-related genes.

CONCLUSIONS: The effects of GIs on the population genetics of P. multocida evolution and adaptation to the environment are reflected by the proportion and function of the pan-genome acquired from GIs, and the large quantities of GI data will aid in additional population genetics studies.

RevDate: 2019-02-06

Wilson K, B Ely (2019)

Analyses of four new Caulobacter Phicbkviruses indicate independent lineages.

The Journal of general virology, 100(2):321-331.

Bacteriophages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are considered giant phages, and the giant Phicbkviruses are the most frequently isolated Caulobacter crescentus phages. In this study, we compare six bacteriophage genomes that differ from the genomes of the majority of Phicbkviruses. Four of these genomes are much larger than those of the rest of the Phicbkviruses, with genome sizes that are more than 250 kbp. A comparison of 16 Phicbkvirus genomes identified a 'core genome' of 69 genes that is present in all of these Phicbkvirus genomes, as well as shared accessory genes and genes that are unique for each phage. Most of the core genes are clustered into the regions coding for structural proteins or those involved in DNA replication. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that these 16 CaulobacterPhicbkvirus genomes are related, but they represent four distinct branches of the Phicbkvirus genomic tree with distantly related branches sharing little nucleotide homology. In contrast, pairwise comparisons within each branch of the phylogenetic tree showed that more than 80 % of the entire genome is shared among phages within a group. This conservation of the genomes within each branch indicates that horizontal gene transfer events between the groups are rare. Therefore, the Phicbkvirus genus consists of at least four different phylogenetic branches that are evolving independently from one another. One of these branches contains a 27-gene inversion relative to the other three branches. Also, an analysis of the tRNA genes showed that they are relatively mobile within the Phicbkvirus genus.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Sherman RM, Forman J, Antonescu V, et al (2019)

Author Correction: Assembly of a pan-genome from deep sequencing of 910 humans of African descent.

Nature genetics, 51(2):364.

In the version of this article initially published, the statement "there are no pan-genomes for any other animal or plant species" was incorrect. The statement has been corrected to "there are no reported pan-genomes for any other animal species, to our knowledge." We thank David Edwards for bringing this error to our attention. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

RevDate: 2019-01-18

Blaustein RA, McFarland AG, Ben Maamar S, et al (2019)

Pangenomic Approach To Understanding Microbial Adaptations within a Model Built Environment, the International Space Station, Relative to Human Hosts and Soil.

mSystems, 4(1): pii:mSystems00281-18.

Understanding underlying mechanisms involved in microbial persistence in the built environment (BE) is essential for strategically mitigating potential health risks. To test the hypothesis that BEs impose selective pressures resulting in characteristic adaptive responses, we performed a pangenomics meta-analysis leveraging 189 genomes (accessed from GenBank) of two epidemiologically important taxa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from various origins: the International Space Station (ISS; a model BE), Earth-based BEs, soil, and humans. Our objectives were to (i) identify differences in the pangenomic composition of generalist and host-associated organisms, (ii) characterize genes and functions involved in BE-associated selection, and (iii) identify genomic signatures of ISS-derived strains of potential relevance for astronaut health. The pangenome of B. cereus was more expansive than that of S. aureus, which had a dominant core component. Genomic contents of both taxa significantly correlated with isolate origin, demonstrating an importance for biogeography and potential niche adaptations. ISS/BE-enriched functions were often involved in biosynthesis, catabolism, materials transport, metabolism, and stress response. Multiple origin-enriched functions also overlapped across taxa, suggesting conserved adaptive processes. We further characterized two mobile genetic elements with local neighborhood genes encoding biosynthesis and stress response functions that distinctively associated with B. cereus from the ISS. Although antibiotic resistance genes were present in ISS/BE isolates, they were also common in counterparts elsewhere. Overall, despite differences in microbial lifestyle, some functions appear common to remaining viable in the BE, and those functions are not typically associated with direct impacts on human health. IMPORTANCE The built environment contains a variety of microorganisms, some of which pose critical human health risks (e.g., hospital-acquired infection, antibiotic resistance dissemination). We uncovered a combination of complex biological functions that may play a role in bacterial survival under the presumed selective pressures in a model built environment-the International Space Station-by using an approach to compare pangenomes of bacterial strains from two clinically relevant species (B. cereus and S. aureus) isolated from both built environments and humans. Our findings suggest that the most crucial bacterial functions involved in this potential adaptive response are specific to bacterial lifestyle and do not appear to have direct impacts on human health.

RevDate: 2019-01-15

Abreo E, N Altier (2019)

Pangenome of Serratia marcescens strains from nosocomial and environmental origins reveals different populations and the links between them.

Scientific reports, 9(1):46 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-37118-0.

Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterial species that can be found in a wide range of environments like soil, water and plant surfaces, while it is also known as an opportunistic human pathogen in hospitals and as a plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) in crops. We have used a pangenome-based approach, based on publicly available genomes, to apply whole genome multilocus sequence type schemes to assess whether there is an association between source and genotype, aiming at differentiating between isolates from nosocomial sources and the environment, and between strains reported as PGPR from other environmental strains. Most genomes from a nosocomial setting and environmental origin could be assigned to the proposed nosocomial or environmental MLSTs, which is indicative of an association between source and genotype. The fact that a few genomes from a nosocomial source showed an environmental MLST suggests that a minority of nosocomial strains have recently derived from the environment. PGPR strains were assigned to different environmental types and clades but only one clade comprised strains accumulating a low number of known virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants and was exclusively from environmental sources. This clade is envisaged as a group of promissory MLSTs for selecting prospective PGPR strains.

RevDate: 2019-04-08
CmpDate: 2019-04-08

Hisham Y, Y Ashhab (2018)

Identification of Cross-Protective Potential Antigens against Pathogenic Brucella spp. through Combining Pan-Genome Analysis with Reverse Vaccinology.

Journal of immunology research, 2018:1474517.

Brucellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most pathogenic species of this genus causing the majority of human and domestic animal brucellosis. There is a need to develop a safe and potent subunit vaccine to overcome the serious drawbacks of the live attenuated Brucella vaccines. The aim of this work was to discover antigen candidates conserved among the three pathogenic species. In this study, we employed a reverse vaccinology strategy to compute the core proteome of 90 completed genomes: 55 B. melitensis, 17 B. abortus, and 18 B. suis. The core proteome was analyzed by a metasubcellular localization prediction pipeline to identify surface-associated proteins. The identified proteins were thoroughly analyzed using various in silico tools to obtain the most potential protective antigens. The number of core proteins obtained from analyzing the 90 proteomes was 1939 proteins. The surface-associated proteins were 177. The number of potential antigens was 87; those with adhesion score ≥ 0.5 were considered antigen with "high potential," while those with a score of 0.4-0.5 were considered antigens with "intermediate potential." According to a cumulative score derived from protein antigenicity, density of MHC-I and MHC-II epitopes, MHC allele coverage, and B-cell epitope density scores, a final list of 34 potential antigens was obtained. Remarkably, most of the 34 proteins are associated with bacterial adhesion, invasion, evasion, and adaptation to the hostile intracellular environment of macrophages which is adjusted to deprive Brucella of required nutrients. Our results provide a manageable list of potential protective antigens for developing a potent vaccine against brucellosis. Moreover, our elaborated analysis can provide further insights into novel Brucella virulence factors. Our next step is to test some of these antigens using an appropriate antigen delivery system.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Livingstone PG, Morphew RM, DE Whitworth (2018)

Genome Sequencing and Pan-Genome Analysis of 23 Corallococcus spp. Strains Reveal Unexpected Diversity, With Particular Plasticity of Predatory Gene Sets.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3187.

Corallococcus is an abundant genus of predatory soil myxobacteria, containing two species, C. coralloides (for which a genome sequence is available) and C. exiguus. To investigate the genomic basis of predation, we genome-sequenced 23 Corallococcus strains. Genomic similarity metrics grouped the sequenced strains into at least nine distinct genomospecies, divided between two major sub-divisions of the genus, encompassing previously described diversity. The Corallococcus pan-genome was found to be open, with strains exhibiting highly individual gene sets. On average, only 30.5% of each strain's gene set belonged to the core pan-genome, while more than 75% of the accessory pan-genome genes were present in less than four of the 24 genomes. The Corallococcus accessory pan-proteome was enriched for the COG functional category "Secondary metabolism," with each genome containing on average 55 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), of which only 20 belonged to the core pan-genome. Predatory activity was assayed against ten prey microbes and found to be mostly incongruent with phylogeny or BGC complement. Thus, predation seems multifactorial, depending partially on BGC complement, but also on the accessory pan-genome - genes most likely acquired horizontally. These observations encourage further exploration of Corallococcus as a source for novel bioactive secondary metabolites and predatory proteins.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Wu Y, Zaiden N, B Cao (2018)

The Core- and Pan-Genomic Analyses of the Genus Comamonas: From Environmental Adaptation to Potential Virulence.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:3096.

Comamonas is often reported to be one of the major members of microbial communities in various natural and engineered environments. Versatile catabolic capabilities of Comamonas have been studied extensively in the last decade. In contrast, little is known about the ecological roles and adaptation of Comamonas to different environments as well as the virulence of potentially pathogenic Comamonas strains. In this study, we provide genomic insights into the potential ecological roles and virulence of Comamonas by analysing the entire gene set (pangenome) and the genes present in all genomes (core genome) using 34 genomes of 11 different Comamonas species. The analyses revealed that the metabolic pathways enabling Comamonas to acquire energy from various nutrient sources are well conserved. Genes for denitrification and ammonification are abundant in Comamonas, suggesting that Comamonas plays an important role in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. They also encode sophisticated redox sensory systems and diverse c-di-GMP controlling systems, allowing them to be able to effectively adjust their biofilm lifestyle to changing environments. The virulence factors in Comamonas were found to be highly species-specific. The conserved strategies used by potentially pathogenic Comamonas for surface adherence, motility control, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance were also revealed.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Kayani MR, Zheng YC, Xie FC, et al (2018)

Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Two Extended-Spectrum Extensively-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 9:1492.

RevDate: 2019-02-25

diCenzo GC, Mengoni A, E Perrin (2019)

Chromids Aid Genome Expansion and Functional Diversification in the Family Burkholderiaceae.

Molecular biology and evolution, 36(3):562-574.

Multipartite genomes, containing at least two large replicons, are found in diverse bacteria; however, the advantage of this genome structure remains incompletely understood. Here, we perform comparative genomics of hundreds of finished β-proteobacterial genomes to gain insights into the role and emergence of multipartite genomes. Almost all essential secondary replicons (chromids) of the β-proteobacteria are found in the family Burkholderiaceae. These replicons arose from just two plasmid acquisition events, and they were likely stabilized early in their evolution by the presence of core genes. On average, Burkholderiaceae genera with multipartite genomes had a larger total genome size, but smaller chromosome, than genera without secondary replicons. Pangenome-level functional enrichment analyses suggested that interreplicon functional biases are partially driven by the enrichment of secondary replicons in the accessory pangenome fraction. Nevertheless, the small overlap in orthologous groups present in each replicon's pangenome indicated a clear functional separation of the replicons. Chromids appeared biased to environmental adaptation, as the functional categories enriched on chromids were also overrepresented on the chromosomes of the environmental genera (Paraburkholderia and Cupriavidus) compared with the pathogenic genera (Burkholderia and Ralstonia). Using ancestral state reconstruction, it was predicted that the rate of accumulation of modern-day genes by chromids was more rapid than the rate of gene accumulation by the chromosomes. Overall, the data are consistent with a model where the primary advantage of secondary replicons is in facilitating increased rates of gene acquisition through horizontal gene transfer, consequently resulting in replicons enriched in genes associated with adaptation to novel environments.

RevDate: 2019-03-08
CmpDate: 2019-03-08

Dillon MM, Thakur S, Almeida RND, et al (2019)

Recombination of ecologically and evolutionarily significant loci maintains genetic cohesion in the Pseudomonas syringae species complex.

Genome biology, 20(1):3 pii:10.1186/s13059-018-1606-y.

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas syringae is a highly diverse bacterial species complex capable of causing a wide range of serious diseases on numerous agronomically important crops. We examine the evolutionary relationships of 391 agricultural and environmental strains using whole-genome sequencing and evolutionary genomic analyses.

RESULTS: We describe the phylogenetic distribution of all 77,728 orthologous gene families in the pan-genome, reconstruct the core genome phylogeny using the 2410 core genes, hierarchically cluster the accessory genome, identify the diversity and distribution of type III secretion systems and their effectors, predict ecologically and evolutionary relevant loci, and establish the molecular evolutionary processes operating on gene families. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses reveals that the species complex is subdivided into primary and secondary phylogroups, with the former primarily comprised of agricultural isolates, including all of the well-studied P. syringae strains. In contrast, the secondary phylogroups include numerous environmental isolates. These phylogroups also have levels of genetic diversity typically found among distinct species. An analysis of rates of recombination within and between phylogroups revealed a higher rate of recombination within primary phylogroups than between primary and secondary phylogroups. We also find that "ecologically significant" virulence-associated loci and "evolutionarily significant" loci under positive selection are over-represented among loci that undergo inter-phylogroup genetic exchange.

CONCLUSIONS: While inter-phylogroup recombination occurs relatively rarely, it is an important force maintaining the genetic cohesion of the species complex, particularly among primary phylogroup strains. This level of genetic cohesion, and the shared plant-associated niche, argues for considering the primary phylogroups as a single biological species.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Hübner S, Bercovich N, Todesco M, et al (2019)

Sunflower pan-genome analysis shows that hybridization altered gene content and disease resistance.

Nature plants, 5(1):54-62.

Domesticated plants and animals often display dramatic responses to selection, but the origins of the genetic diversity underlying these responses remain poorly understood. Despite domestication and improvement bottlenecks, the cultivated sunflower remains highly variable genetically, possibly due to hybridization with wild relatives. To characterize genetic diversity in the sunflower and to quantify contributions from wild relatives, we sequenced 287 cultivated lines, 17 Native American landraces and 189 wild accessions representing 11 compatible wild species. Cultivar sequences failing to map to the sunflower reference were assembled de novo for each genotype to determine the gene repertoire, or 'pan-genome', of the cultivated sunflower. Assembled genes were then compared to the wild species to estimate origins. Results indicate that the cultivated sunflower pan-genome comprises 61,205 genes, of which 27% vary across genotypes. Approximately 10% of the cultivated sunflower pan-genome is derived through introgression from wild sunflower species, and 1.5% of genes originated solely through introgression. Gene ontology functional analyses further indicate that genes associated with biotic resistance are over-represented among introgressed regions, an observation consistent with breeding records. Analyses of allelic variation associated with downy mildew resistance provide an example in which such introgressions have contributed to resistance to a globally challenging disease.

RevDate: 2019-02-05

Tao Y, Zhao X, Mace E, et al (2019)

Exploring and Exploiting Pan-genomics for Crop Improvement.

Molecular plant, 12(2):156-169.

Genetic variation ranging from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to large structural variants (SVs) can cause variation of gene content among individuals within the same species. There is an increasing appreciation that a single reference genome is insufficient to capture the full landscape of genetic diversity of a species. Pan-genome analysis offers a platform to evaluate the genetic diversity of a species via investigation of its entire genome repertoire. Although a recent wave of pan-genomic studies has shed new light on crop diversity and improvement using advanced sequencing technology, the potential applications of crop pan-genomics in crop improvement are yet to be fully exploited. In this review, we highlight the progress achieved in understanding crop pan-genomics, discuss biological activities that cause SVs, review important agronomical traits affected by SVs, and present our perspective on the application of pan-genomics in crop improvement.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Brankovics B, Kulik T, Sawicki J, et al (2018)

First steps towards mitochondrial pan-genomics: detailed analysis of Fusarium graminearum mitogenomes.

PeerJ, 6:e5963 pii:5963.

There is a gradual shift from representing a species' genome by a single reference genome sequence to a pan-genome representation. Pan-genomes are the abstract representations of the genomes of all the strains that are present in the population or species. In this study, we employed a pan-genomic approach to analyze the intraspecific mitochondrial genome diversity of Fusarium graminearum. We present an improved reference mitochondrial genome for F. graminearum with an intron-exon annotation that was verified using RNA-seq data. Each of the 24 studied isolates had a distinct mitochondrial sequence. Length variation in the F. graminearum mitogenome was found to be largely due to variation of intron regions (99.98%). The "intronless" mitogenome length was found to be quite stable and could be informative when comparing species. The coding regions showed high conservation, while the variability of intergenic regions was highest. However, the most important variable parts are the intron regions, because they contain approximately half of the variable sites, make up more than half of the mitogenome, and show presence/absence variation. Furthermore, our analyses show that the mitogenome of F. graminearum is recombining, as was previously shown in F. oxysporum, indicating that mitogenome recombination is a common phenomenon in Fusarium. The majority of mitochondrial introns in F. graminearum belongs to group I introns, which are associated with homing endonuclease genes (HEGs). Mitochondrial introns containing HE genes may spread within populations through homing, where the endonuclease recognizes and cleaves the recognition site in the target gene. After cleavage of the "host" gene, it is replaced by the gene copy containing the intron with HEG. We propose to use introns unique to a population for tracking the spread of the given population, because introns can spread through vertical inheritance, recombination as well as via horizontal transfer. We demonstrate how pooled sequencing of strains can be used for mining mitogenome data. The usage of pooled sequencing offers a scalable solution for population analysis and for species level comparisons studies. This study may serve as a basis for future mitochondrial genome variability studies and representations.

RevDate: 2019-04-03
CmpDate: 2019-04-03

Bochkareva OO, Moroz EV, Davydov II, et al (2018)

Genome rearrangements and selection in multi-chromosome bacteria Burkholderia spp.

BMC genomics, 19(1):965 pii:10.1186/s12864-018-5245-1.

BACKGROUND: The genus Burkholderia consists of species that occupy remarkably diverse ecological niches. Its best known members are important pathogens, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia genomes are unusual due to their multichromosomal organization, generally comprised of 2-3 chromosomes.

RESULTS: We performed integrated genomic analysis of 127 Burkholderia strains. The pan-genome is open with the saturation to be reached between 86,000 and 88,000 genes. The reconstructed rearrangements indicate a strong avoidance of intra-replichore inversions that is likely caused by selection against the transfer of large groups of genes between the leading and the lagging strands. Translocated genes also tend to retain their position in the leading or the lagging strand, and this selection is stronger for large syntenies. Integrated reconstruction of chromosome rearrangements in the context of strains phylogeny reveals parallel rearrangements that may indicate inversion-based phase variation and integration of new genomic islands. In particular, we detected parallel inversions in the second chromosomes of B. pseudomallei with breakpoints formed by genes encoding membrane components of multidrug resistance complex, that may be linked to a phase variation mechanism. Two genomic islands, spreading horizontally between chromosomes, were detected in the B. cepacia group.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the power of integrated analysis of pan-genomes, chromosome rearrangements, and selection regimes. Non-random inversion patterns indicate selective pressure, inversions are particularly frequent in a recent pathogen B. mallei, and, together with periods of positive selection at other branches, may indicate adaptation to new niches. One such adaptation could be a possible phase variation mechanism in B. pseudomallei.

RevDate: 2019-04-03
CmpDate: 2019-04-03

Tyakht AV, Manolov AI, Kanygina AV, et al (2018)

Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli in gut microbiota of patients with Crohn's disease discovered using metagenomic and genomic analyses.

BMC genomics, 19(1):968 pii:10.1186/s12864-018-5306-5.

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is associated with gut dysbiosis. Independent studies have shown an increase in the abundance of certain bacterial species, particularly Escherichia coli with the adherent-invasive pathotype, in the gut. The role of these species in this disease needs to be elucidated.

METHODS: We performed a metagenomic study investigating the gut microbiota of patients with Crohn's disease. A metagenomic reconstruction of the consensus genome content of the species was used to assess the genetic variability.

RESULTS: The abnormal shifts in the microbial community structures in Crohn's disease were heterogeneous among the patients. The metagenomic data suggested the existence of multiple E. coli strains within individual patients. We discovered that the genetic diversity of the species was high and that only a few samples manifested similarity to the adherent-invasive varieties. The other species demonstrated genetic diversity comparable to that observed in the healthy subjects. Our results were supported by a comparison of the sequenced genomes of isolates from the same microbiota samples and a meta-analysis of published gut metagenomes.

CONCLUSIONS: The genomic diversity of Crohn's disease-associated E. coli within and among the patients paves the way towards an understanding of the microbial mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the Crohn's disease and the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Cheleuitte-Nieves C, Gulvik CA, McQuiston JR, et al (2018)

Genotypic differences between strains of the opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium bovis isolated from humans, cows, and rodents.

PloS one, 13(12):e0209231 pii:PONE-D-18-24681.

Corynebacterium bovis is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen shown to cause eye and prosthetic joint infections as well as abscesses in humans, mastitis in dairy cattle, and skin disease in laboratory mice and rats. Little is known about the genetic characteristics and genomic diversity of C. bovis because only a single draft genome is available for the species. The overall aim of this study was to sequence and compare the genome of C. bovis isolates obtained from different species, locations, and time points. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted on 20 C. bovis isolates (six human, four bovine, nine mouse and one rat) using the Illumina MiSeq platform and submitted to various comparative analysis tools. Sequencing generated high-quality contigs (over 2.53 Mbp) that were comparable to the only reported assembly using C. bovis DSM 20582T (97.8 ± 0.36% completeness). The number of protein-coding DNA sequences (2,174 ± 12.4) was similar among all isolates. A Corynebacterium genus neighbor-joining tree was created, which revealed Corynebacterium falsenii as the nearest neighbor to C. bovis (95.87% similarity), although the reciprocal comparison shows Corynebacterium jeikeium as closest neighbor to C. falsenii. Interestingly, the average nucleotide identity demonstrated that the C. bovis isolates clustered by host, with human and bovine isolates clustering together, and the mouse and rat isolates forming a separate group. The average number of genomic islands and putative virulence factors were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the mouse and rat isolates as compared to human/bovine isolates. Corynebacterium bovis' pan-genome contained a total of 3,067 genes of which 1,354 represented core genes. The known core genes of all isolates were primarily related to ''metabolism" and ''information storage/processing." However, most genes were classified as ''function unknown" or "unclassified". Surprisingly, no intact prophages were found in any isolate; however, almost all isolates had at least one complete CRISPR-Cas system.

RevDate: 2018-12-25

Velsko IM, Chakraborty B, Nascimento MM, et al (2018)

Species Designations Belie Phenotypic and Genotypic Heterogeneity in Oral Streptococci.

mSystems, 3(6): pii:mSystems00158-18.

Health-associated oral Streptococcus species are promising probiotic candidates to protect against dental caries. Ammonia production through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which can increase the pH of oral biofilms, and direct antagonism of caries-associated bacterial species are desirable properties for oral probiotic strains. ADS and antagonistic activities can vary dramatically among individuals, but the genetic basis for these differences is unknown. We sequenced whole genomes of a diverse set of clinical oral Streptococcus isolates and examined the genetic basis of variability in ADS and antagonistic activities. A total of 113 isolates were included and represented 10 species: Streptococcus australis, A12-like, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. oralis including S. oralis subsp. dentisani, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, and S. sanguinis. Mean ADS activity and antagonism on Streptococcus mutans UA159 were measured for each isolate, and each isolate was whole genome shotgun sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Phylogenies were built of genes known to be involved in ADS activity and antagonism. Several approaches to correlate the pan-genome with phenotypes were performed. Phylogenies of genes previously identified in ADS activity and antagonism grouped isolates by species, but not by phenotype. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified additional genes potentially involved in ADS activity or antagonism across all the isolates we sequenced as well as within several species. Phenotypic heterogeneity in oral streptococci is not necessarily reflected by genotype and is not species specific. Probiotic strains must be carefully selected based on characterization of each strain and not based on inclusion within a certain species. IMPORTANCE Representative type strains are commonly used to characterize bacterial species, yet species are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. Conclusions about strain physiology and activity based on a single strain therefore may be inappropriate and misleading. When selecting strains for probiotic use, the assumption that all strains within a species share the same desired probiotic characteristics may result in selection of a strain that lacks the desired traits, and therefore makes a minimally effective or ineffective probiotic. Health-associated oral streptococci are promising candidates for anticaries probiotics, but strains need to be carefully selected based on observed phenotypes. We characterized the genotypes and anticaries phenotypes of strains from 10 species of oral streptococci and demonstrate poor correlation between genotype and phenotype across all species.

RevDate: 2019-04-22
CmpDate: 2019-04-22

Potter RF, Lainhart W, Twentyman J, et al (2018)

Population Structure, Antibiotic Resistance, and Uropathogenicity of Klebsiella variicola.

mBio, 9(6): pii:mBio.02481-18.

Klebsiella variicola is a member of the Klebsiella genus and often misidentified as Klebsiella pneumoniae or Klebsiella quasipneumoniae The importance of K. pneumoniae human infections has been known; however, a dearth of relative knowledge exists for K. variicola Despite its growing clinical importance, comprehensive analyses of K. variicola population structure and mechanistic investigations of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes have not yet been performed. To address this, we utilized in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods to study a cohort of K. variicola isolates and genomes. We found that the K. variicola population structure has two distant lineages composed of two and 143 genomes, respectively. Ten of 145 K. variicola genomes harbored carbapenem resistance genes, and 6/145 contained complete virulence operons. While the β-lactam blaLEN and quinolone oqxAB antibiotic resistance genes were generally conserved within our institutional cohort, unexpectedly 11 isolates were nonresistant to the β-lactam ampicillin and only one isolate was nonsusceptible to the quinolone ciprofloxacin. K. variicola isolates have variation in ability to cause urinary tract infections in a newly developed murine model, but importantly a strain had statistically significant higher bladder CFU than the model uropathogenic K. pneumoniae strain TOP52. Type 1 pilus and genomic identification of altered fim operon structure were associated with differences in bladder CFU for the tested strains. Nine newly reported types of pilus genes were discovered in the K. variicola pan-genome, including the first identified P-pilus in Klebsiella spp.IMPORTANCE Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens are a growing public health threat. Understanding of pathogen relatedness and biology is imperative for tracking outbreaks and developing therapeutics. Here, we detail the phylogenetic structure of 145 K. variicola genomes from different continents. Our results have important clinical ramifications as high-risk antibiotic resistance genes are present in K. variicola genomes from a variety of geographic locations and as we demonstrate that K. variicola clinical isolates can establish higher bladder titers than K. pneumoniae Differential presence of these pilus genes inK. variicola isolates may indicate adaption for specific environmental niches. Therefore, due to the potential of multidrug resistance and pathogenic efficacy, identification of K. variicola and K. pneumoniae to a species level should be performed to optimally improve patient outcomes during infection. This work provides a foundation for our improved understanding of K. variicola biology and pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-03-18
CmpDate: 2019-03-18

Pang TY, MJ Lercher (2019)

Each of 3,323 metabolic innovations in the evolution of E. coli arose through the horizontal transfer of a single DNA segment.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(1):187-192.

Even closely related prokaryotes often show an astounding diversity in their ability to grow in different nutritional environments. It has been hypothesized that complex metabolic adaptations-those requiring the independent acquisition of multiple new genes-can evolve via selectively neutral intermediates. However, it is unclear whether this neutral exploration of phenotype space occurs in nature, or what fraction of metabolic adaptations is indeed complex. Here, we reconstruct metabolic models for the ancestors of a phylogeny of 53 Escherichia coli strains, linking genotypes to phenotypes on a genome-wide, macroevolutionary scale. Based on the ancestral and extant metabolic models, we identify 3,323 phenotypic innovations in the history of the E. coli clade that arose through changes in accessory genome content. Of these innovations, 1,998 allow growth in previously inaccessible environments, while 1,325 increase biomass yield. Strikingly, every observed innovation arose through the horizontal acquisition of a single DNA segment less than 30 kb long. Although we found no evidence for the contribution of selectively neutral processes, 10.6% of metabolic innovations were facilitated by horizontal gene transfers on earlier phylogenetic branches, consistent with a stepwise adaptation to successive environments. Ninety-eight percent of metabolic phenotypes accessible to the combined E. coli pangenome can be bestowed on any individual strain by transferring a single DNA segment from one of the extant strains. These results demonstrate an amazing ability of the E. coli lineage to adapt to novel environments through single horizontal gene transfers (followed by regulatory adaptations), an ability likely mirrored in other clades of generalist bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-03-14
CmpDate: 2019-03-14

Jatuponwiphat T, Chumnanpuen P, Othman S, et al (2019)

Iron-associated protein interaction networks reveal the key functional modules related to survival and virulence of Pasteurella multocida.

Microbial pathogenesis, 127:257-266.

Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Comparative iron-associated genes of P. multocida among different animal hosts towards their interaction networks have not been fully revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the iron-associated genes from core- and pan-genomes of fourteen P. multocida strains and to construct iron-associated protein interaction networks using genome-scale network analysis which might be associated with the virulence. Results showed that these fourteen strains had 1587 genes in the core-genome and 3400 genes constituting their pan-genome. Out of these, 2651 genes associated with iron transport and metabolism were selected to construct the protein interaction networks and 361 genes were incorporated into the iron-associated protein interaction network (iPIN) consisting of nine different iron-associated functional modules. After comparing with the virulence factor database (VFDB), 21 virulence-associated proteins were determined and 11 of these belonged to the heme biosynthesis module. From this study, the core heme biosynthesis module and the core outer membrane hemoglobin receptor HgbA were proposed as candidate targets to design novel antibiotics and vaccines for preventing pasteurellosis across the serotypes or animal hosts for enhanced precision agriculture to ensure sustainability in food security.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-12

Moradigaravand D, Palm M, Farewell A, et al (2018)

Prediction of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli from large-scale pan-genome data.

PLoS computational biology, 14(12):e1006258 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-00901.

The emergence of microbial antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. In clinical settings, the key to controlling spread of resistant strains is accurate and rapid detection. As traditional culture-based methods are time consuming, genetic approaches have recently been developed for this task. The detection of antibiotic resistance is typically made by measuring a few known determinants previously identified from genome sequencing, and thus requires the prior knowledge of its biological mechanisms. To overcome this limitation, we employed machine learning models to predict resistance to 11 compounds across four classes of antibiotics from existing and novel whole genome sequences of 1936 E. coli strains. We considered a range of methods, and examined population structure, isolation year, gene content, and polymorphism information as predictors. Gradient boosted decision trees consistently outperformed alternative models with an average accuracy of 0.91 on held-out data (range 0.81-0.97). While the best models most frequently employed gene content, an average accuracy score of 0.79 could be obtained using population structure information alone. Single nucleotide variation data were less useful, and significantly improved prediction only for two antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance in E. coli can be accurately predicted from whole genome sequences without a priori knowledge of mechanisms, and that both genomic and epidemiological data can be informative. This paves way to integrating machine learning approaches into diagnostic tools in the clinic.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Colson P, Levasseur A, La Scola B, et al (2018)

Ancestrality and Mosaicism of Giant Viruses Supporting the Definition of the Fourth TRUC of Microbes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2668.

Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered in 2003. Since then, their diversity has greatly expanded. They were suggested to form a fourth branch of life, collectively named 'TRUC' (for "Things Resisting Uncompleted Classifications") alongside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Their origin and ancestrality remain controversial. Here, we specify the evolution and definition of giant viruses. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses of informational gene repertoires of giant viruses and selected bacteria, archaea and eukaryota were performed, including structural phylogenomics based on protein structural domains grouped into 289 universal fold superfamilies (FSFs). Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed based on a binary presence/absence matrix constructed using 727 informational COGs from cellular organisms. The presence/absence of 'universal' FSF domains was used to generate an unrooted maximum parsimony phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the gene content of a giant virus with those of a bacterium, an archaeon, and a eukaryote with small genomes was also performed. Overall, both cladistic analyses based on gene sequences of very central and ancient proteins and on highly conserved protein fold structures as well as phenetic analyses were congruent regarding the delineation of a fourth branch of microbes comprised by giant viruses. Giant viruses appeared as a basal group in the tree of all proteomes. A pangenome and core genome determined for Rickettsia bellii (bacteria), Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis (archaeon), Encephalitozoon intestinalis (eukaryote), and Tupanvirus (giant virus) showed a substantial proportion of Tupanvirus genes that overlap with those of the cellular microbes. In addition, a substantial genome mosaicism was observed, with 51, 11, 8, and 0.2% of Tupanvirus genes best matching with viruses, eukaryota, bacteria, and archaea, respectively. Finally, we found that genes themselves may be subject to lateral sequence transfers. In summary, our data highlight the quantum leap between classical and giant viruses. Phylogenetic and phyletic analyses and the study of protein fold superfamilies confirm previous evidence of the existence of a fourth TRUC of life that includes giant viruses, and highlight its ancestrality and mosaicism. They also point out that best evolutionary representations for giant viruses and cellular microorganisms are rhizomes, and that sequence transfers rather than gene transfers have to be considered.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Lees JA, Galardini M, Bentley SD, et al (2018)

pyseer: a comprehensive tool for microbial pangenome-wide association studies.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(24):4310-4312.

Summary: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in microbes have different challenges to GWAS in eukaryotes. These have been addressed by a number of different methods. pyseer brings these techniques together in one package tailored to microbial GWAS, allows greater flexibility of the input data used, and adds new methods to interpret the association results.

pyseer is written in python and is freely available at, or can be installed through pip. Documentation and a tutorial are available at

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-03-25
CmpDate: 2019-03-25

Fritsch L, Felten A, Palma F, et al (2019)

Insights from genome-wide approaches to identify variants associated to phenotypes at pan-genome scale: Application to L. monocytogenes' ability to grow in cold conditions.

International journal of food microbiology, 291:181-188.

Intraspecific variability of the behavior of most foodborne pathogens is well described and taken into account in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA), but factors (strain origin, serotype, …) explaining these differences are scarce or contradictory between studies. Nowadays, Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) offers new opportunities to explain intraspecific variability of food pathogens, based on various recently published bioinformatics tools. The objective of this study is to get a better insight into different existing bioinformatics approaches to associate bacterial phenotype(s) and genotype(s). Therefore, a dataset of 51 L. monocytogenes strains, isolated from multiple sources (i.e. different food matrices and environments) and belonging to 17 clonal complexes (CC), were selected to represent large population diversity. Furthermore, the phenotypic variability of growth at low temperature was determined (i.e. qualitative phenotype), and the whole genomes of selected strains were sequenced. The almost exhaustive gene content, as well as the core genome SNPs based phylogenetic reconstruction, were derived from the whole sequenced genomes. A Bayesian inference method was applied to identify the branches on which the phenotype distribution evolves within sub-lineages. Two different Genome Wide Association Studies (i.e. gene- and SNP-based GWAS) were independently performed in order to link genetic mutations to the phenotype of interest. The genomic analyses presented in this study were successfully applied on the selected dataset. The Bayesian phylogenetic approach emphasized an association with "slow" growth ability at 2 °C of the lineage I, as well as CC9 of the lineage II. Moreover, both gene- and SNP-GWAS approaches displayed significant statistical associations with the tested phenotype. A list of 114 significantly associated genes, including genes already known to be involved in the cold adaption mechanism of L. monocytogenes and genes associated to mobile genetic elements (MGE), resulted from the gene-GWAS. On the other hand, a group of 184 highly associated SNPs were highlighted by SNP-GWAS, including SNPs detected in genes which were already likely involved in cold adaption; hypothetical proteins; and intergenic regions where for example promotors and regulators can be located. The successful application of combined bioinformatics approaches associating WGS-genotypes and specific phenotypes, could contribute to improve prediction of microbial behaviors in food. The implementation of this information in hazard identification and exposure assessment processes will open new possibilities to feed QMRA-models.

RevDate: 2019-03-14
CmpDate: 2019-03-14

Timms VJ, Nguyen T, Crighton T, et al (2018)

Genome-wide comparison of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from Australia identifies differences in the Pan-genomes between respiratory and cutaneous strains.

BMC genomics, 19(1):869.

BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the main etiological agent of diphtheria, a global disease causing life-threatening infections, particularly in infants and children. Vaccination with diphtheria toxoid protects against infection with potent toxin producing strains. However a growing number of apparently non-toxigenic but potentially invasive C. diphtheriae strains are identified in countries with low prevalence of diphtheria, raising key questions about genomic structures and population dynamics of the species. This study examined genomic diversity among 48 C. diphtheriae isolates collected in Australia over a 12-year period using whole genome sequencing. Phylogeny was determined using SNP-based mapping and genome wide analysis.

RESULTS: C. diphtheriae sequence type (ST) 32, a non-toxigenic clone with evidence of enhanced virulence that has been also circulating in Europe, appears to be endemic in Australia. Isolates from temporospatially related patients displayed the same ST and similarity in their core genomes. The genome-wide analysis highlighted a role of pilins, adhesion factors and iron utilization in infections caused by non-toxigenic strains.

CONCLUSIONS: The genomic diversity of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae in Australia suggests multiple sources of infection and colonisation. Genomic surveillance of co-circulating toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae offer new insights into the evolution and virulence of pathogenic clones and can inform targeted public health actions and policy. The genomes presented in this investigation will contribute to the global surveillance of C. diphtheriae both for the monitoring of antibiotic resistance genes and virulent strains such as those belonging to ST32.

RevDate: 2019-01-07
CmpDate: 2019-01-07

Bonnici V, Giugno R, V Manca (2018)

PanDelos: a dictionary-based method for pan-genome content discovery.

BMC bioinformatics, 19(Suppl 15):437.

BACKGROUND: Pan-genome approaches afford the discovery of homology relations in a set of genomes, by determining how some gene families are distributed among a given set of genomes. The retrieval of a complete gene distribution among a class of genomes is an NP-hard problem because computational costs increase with the number of analyzed genomes, in fact, all-against-all gene comparisons are required to completely solve the problem. In presence of phylogenetically distant genomes, due to the variability introduced in gene duplication and transmission, the task of recognizing homologous genes becomes even more difficult. A challenge on this field is that of designing fast and adaptive similarity measures in order to find a suitable pan-genome structure of homology relations.

RESULTS: We present PanDelos, a stand alone tool for the discovery of pan-genome contents among phylogenetic distant genomes. The methodology is based on information theory and network analysis. It is parameter-free because thresholds are automatically deduced from the context. PanDelos avoids sequence alignment by introducing a measure based on k-mer multiplicity. The k-mer length is defined according to general arguments rather than empirical considerations. Homology candidate relations are integrated into a global network and groups of homologous genes are extracted by applying a community detection algorithm.

CONCLUSIONS: PanDelos outperforms existing approaches, Roary and EDGAR, in terms of running times and quality content discovery. Tests were run on collections of real genomes, previously used in analogous studies, and in synthetic benchmarks that represent fully trusted golden truth. The software is available at .

RevDate: 2019-04-12
CmpDate: 2019-04-12

Freschi L, Vincent AT, Jeukens J, et al (2019)

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pan-Genome Provides New Insights on Its Population Structure, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Pathogenicity.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(1):109-120 pii:5215156.

The huge increase in the availability of bacterial genomes led us to a point in which we can investigate and query pan-genomes, for example, the full set of genes of a given bacterial species or clade. Here, we used a data set of 1,311 high-quality genomes from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 619 of which were newly sequenced, to show that a pan-genomic approach can greatly refine the population structure of bacterial species, provide new insights to define species boundaries, and generate hypotheses on the evolution of pathogenicity. The 665-gene P. aeruginosa core genome presented here, which constitutes only 1% of the entire pan-genome, is the first to be in the same order of magnitude as the minimal bacterial genome and represents a conservative estimate of the actual core genome. Moreover, the phylogeny based on this core genome provides strong evidence for a five-group population structure that includes two previously undescribed groups of isolates. Comparative genomics focusing on antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes showed that variation among isolates was partly linked to this population structure. Finally, we hypothesized that horizontal gene transfer had an important role in this respect, and found a total of 3,010 putative complete and fragmented plasmids, 5% and 12% of which contained resistance or virulence genes, respectively. This work provides data and strategies to study the evolutionary trajectories of resistance and virulence in P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2019-02-16
CmpDate: 2019-01-02

Méric G, Mageiros L, Pensar J, et al (2018)

Disease-associated genotypes of the commensal skin bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Nature communications, 9(1):5034.

Some of the most common infectious diseases are caused by bacteria that naturally colonise humans asymptomatically. Combating these opportunistic pathogens requires an understanding of the traits that differentiate infecting strains from harmless relatives. Staphylococcus epidermidis is carried asymptomatically on the skin and mucous membranes of virtually all humans but is a major cause of nosocomial infection associated with invasive procedures. Here we address the underlying evolutionary mechanisms of opportunistic pathogenicity by combining pangenome-wide association studies and laboratory microbiology to compare S. epidermidis from bloodstream and wound infections and asymptomatic carriage. We identify 61 genes containing infection-associated genetic elements (k-mers) that correlate with in vitro variation in known pathogenicity traits (biofilm formation, cell toxicity, interleukin-8 production, methicillin resistance). Horizontal gene transfer spreads these elements, allowing divergent clones to cause infection. Finally, Random Forest model prediction of disease status (carriage vs. infection) identifies pathogenicity elements in 415 S. epidermidis isolates with 80% accuracy, demonstrating the potential for identifying risk genotypes pre-operatively.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Wang R, Li L, Huang T, et al (2018)

Capsular Switching and ICE Transformation Occurred in Human Streptococcus agalactiae ST19 With High Pathogenicity to Fish.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 5:281.

Although Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) cross-infection between human and fish has been confirmed in experimental and clinical studies, the mechanisms underlying GBS cross-species infection remain largely unclear. We have found different human GBS ST19 strains exhibiting strong or weak pathogenic to fish (sGBS and wGBS). In this study, our objective was to identify the genetic elements responsible for GBS cross species infection based on genome sequence data and comparative genomics. The genomes of 11 sGBS strains and 11 wGBS strains were sequenced, and the genomic analysis was performed base on pan-genome, CRISPRs, phylogenetic reconstruction and genome comparison. The results from the pan-genome, CRISPRs analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that genomes between sGBS were more conservative than that of wGBS. The genomic differences between sGBS and wGBS were primarily in the Cps region (about 111 kb) and its adjacent ICE region (about 106 kb). The Cps region included the entire cps operon, and all sGBS were capsular polysaccharide (CPS) type V, while all wGBS were CPS type III. The ICE region of sGBS contained integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) with IQ element and erm(TR), and was very conserved, whereas the ICE region of wGBS contained ICE with mega elements and the variation was large. The capsular switching (III-V) and transformation of ICE adjacent to the Cps region occurred in human GBS ST19 with different pathogenicity to fish, which may be related to the capability of GBS cross-infection.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Gallo G, Presta L, Perrin E, et al (2018)

Genomic traits of Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614, an uncommon metal-nanoparticle producer strain isolated from acid mine drainages.

BMC microbiology, 18(1):198.

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 - isolated from acid mine drainages - grows anaerobically using Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, unlike other enterobacteria and K. oxytoca clinical isolates. The DSM 29614 strain is multi metal resistant and produces metal nanoparticles that are embedded in its very peculiar capsular exopolysaccharide. These metal nanoparticles were effective as antimicrobial and anticancer compounds, chemical catalysts and nano-fertilizers.

RESULTS: The DSM 29614 strain genome was sequenced and analysed by a combination of in silico procedures. Comparative genomics, performed between 85 K. oxytoca representatives and K. oxytoca DSM 29614, revealed that this bacterial group has an open pangenome, characterized by a very small core genome (1009 genes, about 2%), a high fraction of unique (43,808 genes, about 87%) and accessory genes (5559 genes, about 11%). Proteins belonging to COG categories "Carbohydrate transport and metabolism" (G), "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (E), "Coenzyme transport and metabolism" (H), "Inorganic ion transport and metabolism" (P), and "membrane biogenesis-related proteins" (M) are particularly abundant in the predicted proteome of DSM 29614 strain. The results of a protein functional enrichment analysis - based on a previous proteomic analysis - revealed metabolic optimization during Fe(III)-citrate anaerobic utilization. In this growth condition, the observed high levels of Fe(II) may be due to different flavin metal reductases and siderophores as inferred form genome analysis. The presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide and for the tolerance to heavy metals was highlighted too. The inferred genomic insights were confirmed by a set of phenotypic tests showing specific metabolic capability in terms of i) Fe2+ and exopolysaccharide production and ii) phosphatase activity involved in precipitation of metal ion-phosphate salts.

CONCLUSION: The K. oxytoca DSM 29614 unique capabilities of using Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source in anaerobiosis and tolerating diverse metals coincides with the presence at the genomic level of specific genes that can support i) energy metabolism optimization, ii) cell protection by the biosynthesis of a peculiar exopolysaccharide armour entrapping metal ions and iii) general and metal-specific detoxifying activities by different proteins and metabolites.

RevDate: 2018-11-22

Abudahab K, Prada JM, Yang Z, et al (2018)

PANINI: Pangenome Neighbour Identification for Bacterial Populations.

Microbial genomics [Epub ahead of print].

The standard workhorse for genomic analysis of the evolution of bacterial populations is phylogenetic modelling of mutations in the core genome. However, a notable amount of information about evolutionary and transmission processes in diverse populations can be lost unless the accessory genome is also taken into consideration. Here, we introduce panini (Pangenome Neighbour Identification for Bacterial Populations), a computationally scalable method for identifying the neighbours for each isolate in a data set using unsupervised machine learning with stochastic neighbour embedding based on the t-SNE (t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding) algorithm. panini is browser-based and integrates with the Microreact platform for rapid online visualization and exploration of both core and accessory genome evolutionary signals, together with relevant epidemiological, geographical, temporal and other metadata. Several case studies with single- and multi-clone pneumococcal populations are presented to demonstrate the ability to identify biologically important signals from gene content data. panini is available at and code at

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Wang D, Li J, L Wang (2018)

Comprehensive study of instable regions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Biomedical engineering online, 17(Suppl 1):133.

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium which is recognized for its association with hospital-acquired infections and its advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Tuberculosis, one of the major causes of mortality, is initiated by the deposition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accessory sequences shared by a subset of strains of a species play an important role in a species' evolution, antibiotic resistance and infectious potential.

RESULTS: Here, with a multiple sequence aligner, we segmented 25 P. aeruginosa genomes and 28 M. tuberculosis genomes into core blocks (include sequences shared by all the input genomes) and dispensable blocks (include sequences shared by a subset of the input genomes), respectively. For each input genome, we then constructed a scaffold consisting of its core and dispensable blocks sorted by blocks' locations on the chromosomes. Consecutive dispensable blocks on these scaffold formed instable regions. After a comprehensive study of these instable regions, three characteristics of instable regions are summarized: instable regions were short, site specific and varied in different strains. Three DNA elements (directed repeats (DRs), transposons and integrons) were then studied to see whether these DNA elements are associated with the variation of instable regions. A pipeline was developed to search for DR pairs on the flank of every instable sequence. 27 DR pairs in P. aeruginosa strains and 6 pairs in M. tuberculosis strains were found to exist in the instable regions. On the average, 14% and 12% of instable regions in P. aeruginosa strains covered transposase genes and integrase genes, respectively. In M. tuberculosis strains, an average of 43% and 8% of instable regions contain transposase genes and integrase genes, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Instable regions were short, site specific and varied in different strains for both P. aeruginosa and M. tuberculosis. Our experimental results showed that DRs, transposons and integrons may be associated with variation of instable regions.

RevDate: 2019-04-24
CmpDate: 2019-04-24

Sherman RM, Forman J, Antonescu V, et al (2019)

Assembly of a pan-genome from deep sequencing of 910 humans of African descent.

Nature genetics, 51(1):30-35.

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

RevDate: 2018-11-26

Kayansamruaj P, Soontara C, Unajak S, et al (2018)

Comparative genomics inferred two distinct populations of piscine pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae, serotype Ia ST7 and serotype III ST283, in Thailand and Vietnam.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(18)30485-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) collected from diseased fish in Thailand and Vietnam over a nine-year period (2008-2016) were sequenced and compared (n = 21). Based on capsular serotype and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), GBS isolates are divided into 2 groups comprised of i) serotype Ia; sequence type (ST)7 and ii) serotype III; ST283. Population structure inferred by core genome (cg)MLST and Bayesian clustering analysis also strongly indicated distribution of two GBS populations in both Thailand and Vietnam. Deep phylogenetic analysis implied by CRISPR array's spacer diversity was able to cluster GBS isolates according to their temporal and geographic origins, though ST7 has varying CRISPR1-spacer profiles when compared to ST283 strains. Based on overall genotypic features, Thai ST283 strains were closely related to the Singaporean ST283 strain causing foodborne illness in humans in 2015, thus, signifying zoonotic potential of this GBS population in the country.

RevDate: 2019-04-01

Monat C, Schreiber M, Stein N, et al (2019)

Prospects of pan-genomics in barley.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 132(3):785-796.

The concept of a pan-genome refers to intraspecific diversity in genome content and structure, encompassing both genes and intergenic space. Pan-genomic studies employ a combination of de novo sequence assembly and reference-based alignment to discover and genotype structural variants. The large size and complex structure of Triticeae genomes were for a long time an obstacle for genomic research in barley and its relatives. Now that a reference genome is available, computational pipelines for high-quality sequence assembly are in place, and sequence costs continue to drop, investigations into the structural diversity of the barley genome seem within reach. Here, we review the recent progress on pan-genomics in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, and the cereal crops rice and maize, and devise a multi-tiered strategy for a pan-genome project in barley. Our design involves: (1) the construction of high-quality de novo sequence assemblies for a small core set of representative genotypes, (2) short-read sequencing of a large diversity panel of genebank accessions to medium coverage and (3) the use of complementary methods such as chromosome-conformation capture sequencing and k-mer-based association genetics. The in silico representation of the barley pan-genome may inform about the mechanisms of structural genome evolution in the Triticeae and supplement quantitative genetics models of crop performance for better accuracy and predictive ability.

RevDate: 2018-11-23

Mohapatra B, Kazy SK, P Sar (2018)

Comparative genome analysis of arsenic reducing, hydrocarbon metabolizing groundwater bacterium Achromobacter sp. KAs 3-5T explains its competitive edge for survival in aquifer environment.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(18)30421-X [Epub ahead of print].

Whole genome sequence of arsenic (As) reducing, hydrocarbon metabolizing groundwater bacterium Achromobacter sp. KAs 3-5T was explored to understand the genomic basis of its As-ecophysiology and niche adaptation in aquifer environment. The genome (5.6 Mbp, 65.5 G + C mol %) encodes 4840 proteins, 1138 enzymes, 53 tRNAs, 11 rRNAs, 608 signal peptides, and 1.13% horizontally transferred genes. Presence of genes encoding cytosolic As5+-reduction (arsRCBH, ACR3), aromatics utilization (bph, naph, catABC, boxABCD, genACB), Fe-transformation (tonB, achromobactin, FUR, FeR), and denitrification (nar, nap) processes were observed and validated through proteomics. Phylogenomic analysis (< 90% ANI, < 50% DDH) confirmed strain KAs 3-5T to be a novel representative of the genus Achromobacter. An asymptotic open pan-genome (20,855 genes) and high correlation between genomic and ecological diversity suggested niche preference ability of this genus. Assemblage of species specific genes affiliated to transcription-regulation, membrane transport, and redox-transformation explained the strain's competitive survival strategies in As-rich oligotrophic groundwater.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Fontana A, Zacconi C, L Morelli (2018)

Genetic Signatures of Dairy Lactobacillus casei Group.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2611.

Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei group of species contains strains adapted to a wide range of environments, from dairy products to intestinal tract of animals and fermented vegetables. Understanding the gene acquisitions and losses that induced such different adaptations, implies a comparison between complete genomes, since evolutionary differences spread on the whole sequence. This study compared 12 complete genomes of L. casei/paracasei dairy-niche isolates and 7 genomes of L. casei/paracasei isolated from other habitats (i.e., corn silage, human intestine, sauerkraut, beef, congee). Phylogenetic tree construction and average nucleotide identity (ANI) metric showed a clustering of the two dairy L. casei strains ATCC393 and LC5, indicating a lower genetic relatedness in comparison to the other strains. Genomic analysis revealed a core of 313 genes shared by dairy and non-dairy Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB), within a pan-genome of 9,462 genes. Functional category analyses highlighted the evolutionary genes decay of dairy isolates, particularly considering carbohydrates and amino acids metabolisms. Specifically, dairy L. casei/paracasei strains lost the ability to metabolize myo-inositol and taurine (i.e., iol and tau gene clusters). However, gene acquisitions by dairy strains were also highlighted, mostly related to defense mechanisms and host-pathogen interactions (i.e., yueB, esaA, and sle1). This study aimed to be a preliminary investigation on dairy and non-dairy marker genes that could be further characterized for probiotics or food applications.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Hiller NL, R Sá-Leão (2018)

Puzzling Over the Pneumococcal Pangenome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2580.

The Gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen. It is a common colonizer of the human host, and in the nasopharynx, sinus, and middle ear it survives as a biofilm. This mode of growth is optimal for multi-strain colonization and genetic exchange. Over the last decades, the far-reaching use of antibiotics and the widespread implementation of pneumococcal multivalent conjugate vaccines have posed considerable selective pressure on pneumococci. This scenario provides an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of the pangenome of a clinically important bacterium, and has the potential to serve as a case study for other species. The goal of this review is to highlight key findings in the studies of pneumococcal genomic diversity and plasticity.

RevDate: 2019-01-16

Biessy A, Novinscak A, Blom J, et al (2019)

Diversity of phytobeneficial traits revealed by whole-genome analysis of worldwide-isolated phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp.

Environmental microbiology, 21(1):437-455.

Plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp. competitively colonize the rhizosphere and display plant-growth promotion and/or disease-suppression activities. Some strains within the P. fluorescens species complex produce phenazine derivatives, such as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. These antimicrobial compounds are broadly inhibitory to numerous soil-dwelling plant pathogens and play a role in the ecological competence of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. We assembled a collection encompassing 63 strains representative of the worldwide diversity of plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we report the sequencing of 58 complete genomes using PacBio RS II sequencing technology. Distributed among four subgroups within the P. fluorescens species complex, the diversity of our collection is reflected by the large pangenome which accounts for 25 413 protein-coding genes. We identified genes and clusters encoding for numerous phytobeneficial traits, including antibiotics, siderophores and cyclic lipopeptides biosynthesis, some of which were previously unknown in these microorganisms. Finally, we gained insight into the evolutionary history of the phenazine biosynthetic operon. Given its diverse genomic context, it is likely that this operon was relocated several times during Pseudomonas evolution. Our findings acknowledge the tremendous diversity of plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp., paving the way for comparative analyses to identify new genetic determinants involved in biocontrol, plant-growth promotion and rhizosphere competence.

RevDate: 2019-03-20

Nanayakkara BS, O'Brien CL, DM Gordon (2019)

Diversity and distribution of Klebsiella capsules in Escherichia coli.

Environmental microbiology reports, 11(2):107-117.

E. coli strains responsible for elevated counts (blooms) in freshwater reservoirs in Australia carry a capsule originating from Klebsiella. The occurrence of Klebsiella capsules in E. coli was about 7% overall and 23 different capsule types were detected. Capsules were observed in strains from phylogroups A, B1 and C, but were absent from phylogroup B2, D, E and F strains. In general, few A, B1 or C lineages were capsule-positive, but when a lineage was encapsulated multiple different capsule types were present. All Klebsiella capsule-positive strains were of serogroups O8, O9 and O89. Regardless of the phylogroup, O9 strains were more likely to be capsule-positive than O8 strains. Given the sequence similarity, it appears that both the capsule region and the O-antigen gene region are transferred to E. coli from Klebsiella as a single block via horizontal gene transfer events. Pan genome analysis indicated that there were only modest differences between encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains belonging to phylogroup A. The possession of a Klebsiella capsule, but not the type of capsule, is likely a key determinant of the bloom status of a strain.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )