Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Pangenome

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 May 2024 at 01:33 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( pangenome OR "pan-genome" OR "pan genome" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-21

Vaughn JN, Korani W, Clevenger J, et al (2024)

Agile Genetics: Single gene resolution without the fuss.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Gene discovery reveals new biology, expands the utility of marker-assisted selection, and enables targeted mutagenesis. Still, such discoveries can take over a decade. We present a general strategy, "Agile Genetics," that uses nested, structured populations to overcome common limits on gene resolution. Extensive simulation work on realistic genetic architectures shows that, at population sizes of >5000 samples, single gene-resolution can be achieved using bulk segregant pools. At this scale, read depth and technical replication become major drivers of resolution. Emerging enrichment methods to address coverage are on the horizon; we describe one possibility - iterative depth sequencing (ID-seq). In addition, graph-based pangenomics in experimental populations will continue to maximize accuracy and improve interpretation. Based on this merger of agronomic scale with molecular and bioinformatic innovation, we predict a new age of rapid gene discovery.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Miranda-López DC, Pérez-Rueda E, Rojas-Vargas J, et al (2024)

Comprehensive comparative analysis of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis: exploring the pan-genome, the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network and genome-scale metabolic network.

Letters in applied microbiology pii:7676858 [Epub ahead of print].

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a nonmotile, obligate anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium known for its association with periodontal disease and its involvement in systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease. This bacterium produces several virulence factors, including capsules, fimbriae, lipopolysaccharides, proteolytic enzymes and hemagglutinins. A comparative genomic analysis revealed the open pangenome of P. gingivalis and identified complete type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in strain KCOM2805 and almost complete type VI secretion systems (T6SS) in strains KCOM2798 and ATCC49417, which is a new discovery as previous studies did not find the proteins involved in secretion systems IV and VI. Conservation of some virulence factors between different strains was observed, regardless of their genetic diversity and origin. In addition, we performed for the first time a reconstruction analysis of the gene regulatory network (GRN), identifying transcription factors and proteins involved in the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, QseB regulates the expression of hemagglutinin and arginine deaminase, while Rex may suppress the release of gingipain through interactions with PorV and the formatum/nitrate transporter. Our study highlights the central role of conserved virulence factors and regulatory pathways, particularly QseB and Rex, in P. gingivalis and provides insights into potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Vassallo CN, Doering CR, Littlehale ML, et al (2024)

Author Correction: A functional selection reveals previously undetected anti-phage defence systems in the E. coli pangenome.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Chang CM, Chang WC, SL Hsieh (2024)

Characterization of the genetic variation and evolutionary divergence of the CLEC18 family.

Journal of biomedical science, 31(1):53.

BACKGROUND: The C-type lectin family 18 (CLEC18) with lipid and glycan binding capabilities is important to metabolic regulation and innate immune responses against viral infection. However, human CLEC18 comprises three paralogous genes with highly similar sequences, making it challenging to distinguish genetic variations, expression patterns, and biological functions of individual CLEC18 paralogs. Additionally, the evolutionary relationship between human CLEC18 and its counterparts in other species remains unclear.

METHODS: To identify the sequence variation and evolutionary divergence of human CLEC18 paralogs, we conducted a comprehensive analysis using various resources, including human and non-human primate reference genome assemblies, human pangenome assemblies, and long-read-based whole-genome and -transcriptome sequencing datasets.

RESULTS: We uncovered paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) and polymorphic variants (PVs) of human CLEC18 proteins, and identified distinct signatures specific to each CLEC18 paralog. Furthermore, we unveiled a novel segmental duplication for human CLEC18A gene. By comparing CLEC18 across human and non-human primates, our research showed that the CLEC18 paralogy probably occurred in the common ancestor of human and closely related non-human primates, and the lipid-binding CAP/SCP/TAPS domain of CLEC18 is more diverse than its glycan-binding CTLD. Moreover, we found that certain amino acids alterations at variant positions are exclusive to human CLEC18 paralogs.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer a comprehensive profiling of the intricate variations and evolutionary characteristics of human CLEC18.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Mouren A, Chansavang A, Hamzaoui N, et al (2024)

A de novo germline pathogenic BRCA1 variant identified following an osteosarcoma pangenomic molecular analysis.

Familial cancer [Epub ahead of print].

De novo germline pathogenic variants (gPV) of the BReast CAncer 1 (BRCA1) gene are very rare. Only a few have been described up to date, usually in patients with a history of ovarian or breast cancer. Here, we report the first case of an incidental de novo BRCA1 germline pathogenic variant which was identified within the framework of the Plan France Médecine Génomique (PFMG) 2025 French national tumor sequencing program. The proband was a 29-year-old man diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma. Tumor whole exome sequencing identified a BRCA1 c.3756_3759del p.(Ser1253Argfs*10) pathogenic variant without loss-of-heterozygosity. A low genomic instability score and the absence of single base substitution signatures of homologous recombination deficiency suggested that the BRCA1 variant was not driver in the osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Germline whole genome sequencing asserted the germline nature of this variant, with a 36% allele frequency, suggesting a mosaicism caused by a post-zygotic mutational event. The proband's family (parents and siblings) were not carriers of this variant confirming the de novo occurrence. Tumor sequencing programs like the French PFMG 2025 have been implemented worldwide and may help identify new gPV, including de novo variants.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Wang Y, Li P, Zhu Y, et al (2024)

Graph-Based Pangenome of Actinidia chinensis Reveals Structural Variations Mediating Fruit Degreening.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Fruit ripening is associated with the degreening process (loss of chlorophyll) that occurs in most fruit species. Kiwifruit is one of the special species whose fruits may maintain green flesh by accumulating a large amount of chlorophyll even after ripening. However, little is known about the genetic variations related to the fruit degreening process. Here, a graph-based kiwifruit pangenome by analyzing 14 chromosome-scale haplotype-resolved genome assemblies from seven representative cultivars or lines in Actinidia chinensis is built. A total of 49,770 non-redundant gene families are identified, with core genes constituting 46.6%, and dispensable genes constituting 53.4%. A total of 84,591 non-redundant structural variations (SVs) are identified. The pangenome graph integrating both reference genome sequences and variant information facilitates the identification of SVs related to fruit color. The SV in the promoter of the AcBCM gene determines its high expression in the late developmental stage of fruits, which causes chlorophyll accumulation in the green-flesh fruits by post-translationally regulating AcSGR2, a key enzyme of chlorophyll catabolism. Taken together, a high-quality pangenome is constructed, unraveled numerous genetic variations, and identified a novel SV mediating fruit coloration and fruit quality, providing valuable information for further investigating genome evolution and domestication, QTL genes function, and genomics-assisted breeding.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Le DQ, Nguyen SH, Nguyen TT, et al (2024)

AMRViz enables seamless genomics analysis and visualization of antimicrobial resistance.

BMC bioinformatics, 25(1):193.

We have developed AMRViz, a toolkit for analyzing, visualizing, and managing bacterial genomics samples. The toolkit is bundled with the current best practice analysis pipeline allowing researchers to perform comprehensive analysis of a collection of samples directly from raw sequencing data with a single command line. The analysis results in a report showing the genome structure, genome annotations, antibiotic resistance and virulence profile for each sample. The pan-genome of all samples of the collection is analyzed to identify core- and accessory-genes. Phylogenies of the whole genome as well as all gene clusters are also generated. The toolkit provides a web-based visualization dashboard allowing researchers to interactively examine various aspects of the analysis results. Availability: AMRViz is implemented in Python and NodeJS, and is publicly available under open source MIT license at .

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Qureshi H, Basheer A, Sajjad W, et al (2024)

An integrated in-silico approach for drug target identification in human pathogen Shigella dysenteriae.

PloS one, 19(5):e0303048 pii:PONE-D-23-19264.

Shigella dysenteriae, is a Gram-negative bacterium that emerged as the second most significant cause of bacillary dysentery. Antibiotic treatment is vital in lowering Shigella infection rates, yet the growing global resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics poses a significant challenge. The persistent multidrug resistance of S. dysenteriae complicates its management and control. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to discover novel therapeutic targets and potent medications to prevent and treat this disease. Therefore, the integration of bioinformatics methods such as subtractive and comparative analysis provides a pathway to compute the pan-genome of S. dysenteriae. In our study, we analysed a dataset comprising 27 whole genomes. The S. dysenteriae strain SD197 was used as the reference for determining the core genome. Initially, our focus was directed towards the identification of the proteome of the core genome. Moreover, several filters were applied to the core genome, including assessments for non-host homology, protein essentiality, and virulence, in order to prioritize potential drug targets. Among these targets were Integration host factor subunit alpha and Tyrosine recombinase XerC. Furthermore, four drug-like compounds showing potential inhibitory effects against both target proteins were identified. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis was conducted involving these targets and the compounds. This initial study provides the list of novel targets against S. dysenteriae. Conclusively, future in vitro investigations could validate our in-silico findings and uncover potential therapeutic drugs for combating bacillary dysentery infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Sun R-Y, Fang L-X, Dai J-J, et al (2024)

Antimicrobial resistance and population genomics of emerging multidrug-resistant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- in Guangdong, China.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, has emerged as a global cause of multidrug-resistant salmonellosis and has become endemic in many developing and developed countries, especially in China. Here, we have sequenced 352 clinical isolates in Guangdong, China, during 2009-2019 and performed a large-scale collection of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data across the globe, to better understand the population structure, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genomic characterization, and transmission routes of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- across Guangdong. Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- strains showed broad genetic diversity; Guangdong isolates were found to be widely distributed among the global lineages. Of note, we identified the formation of a novel Guangdong clade (Bayesian analysis of population structure lineage 1 [BAPS1]) genetically diversified from the global isolates and likely emerged around 1990s. BAPS1 exhibits unique genomic features, including large pan-genome, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility due to mutation in gyrA and carriage of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and the multidrug-resistant IncHI2 plasmid. Furthermore, high genetic similarity was found between strains collected from Guangdong, Europe, and North America, indicating the association with multiple introductions from overseas. These results suggested that global dissemination and local clonal expansion simultaneously occurred in Guangdong, China, and horizontally acquired resistance to first-line and last-line antimicrobials at local level, underlying emergences of extensive drug and pan-drug resistance. Our findings have increased the knowledge of global and local epidemics of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- in Guangdong, China, and provided a comprehensive baseline data set essential for future molecular surveillance.IMPORTANCESalmonella 4,[5],12:i:- has been regarded as the predominant pandemic serotype causing diarrheal diseases globally, while multidrug resistance (MDR) constitutes great public health concerns. This study provided a detailed and comprehensive genome-scale analysis of this important Salmonella serovar in the past decade in Guangdong, China. Our results revealed the complexity of two distinct transmission modes, namely global transmission and local expansion, circulating in Guangdong over a decade. Using phylogeography models, the origin of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- was predicted from two aspects, year and country, that is, Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- emerged in 1983, and was introduced from the UK, and subsequently differentiated into the local endemic lineage circa 1991. Additionally, based on the pan-genome analysis, it was found that the gene accumulation rate in local endemic BAPS 1 lineage was higher than in other lineages, and the horizontal transmission of MDR IncHI2 plasmid associated with high resistance played a major role, which showed the potential threat to public health.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Doukbi E, Ancel P, Dutour A, et al (2024)

Human epicardial fat has a beige profile and contains higher type 2 innate lymphoid cells than subcutaneous fat.

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a visceral fat that has been associated with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. Previous work has revealed that EAT exhibits beige features.

METHODS: First, a new pan-genomic microarray analysis was performed on previously collected paired human EAT and thoracic subcutaneous AT (thSAT) from the EPICAR study (n = 31) to decipher a specific immune signature and its link with browning genes. Then, adaptive (T and B cells) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3) immunophenotyping assay panels, including CD127, CD117, and prostaglandin D2 receptor 2, were performed on prospectively collected paired human multiorgan donors (n = 18; INTERFACE study).

RESULTS: In the EPICAR study, a positive correlation between the T helper cell subtype Th2 immune pathway and browning genes was found in EAT versus thSAT (r = 0.82; p < 0.0001). In the INTERFACE study, this correlation was also observed (r = 0.31; p = 0.017), and a preponderance of CD4[+]T cells, CD8[+]T cells, and a few B cells was observed in all ATs (p < 0.0001). An increase in ILCs was observed in visceral AT (VAT) (i.e., EAT + VAT; 30 ± 5 ILCs per gram of AT) compared with subcutaneous counterparts (i.e., thSAT + abdominal SAT; 8 ± 2 ILCs per gram of AT; p = 0.001), with ILC1 being the most frequent (ILC1 > ILC3 > ILC2). Numbers of ILCs per gram of AT correlated with several Th2 or browning genes (IL-13, TNF receptor superfamily member 9 [TNFRSF9], and alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization associated [ALPL]). Interestingly, a specific increase in EAT-ILC2 compared with other ATs was observed, including a significant proportion expressing CD69 and/or CD25 activation markers (97.9% ± 1.2%; p < 0.0001). Finally, more natural killer cells were observed in EAT + VAT than in thSAT + abdominal SAT (p = 0.01). Exclusion of patients with coronary artery disease in the EPICAR and INTERFACE studies did not modify the main findings. Gene expression phenotyping confirmed specific upregulation of Th2 pathway and browning genes (IL-33 and uncoupling protein 1 [UCP-1]) in EAT.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide a comparison between innate and adaptive lymphoid cells in human EAT. Further studies are ongoing to decipher whether these cells could be involved in EAT beiging.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Su Y, Yang X, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Phased Telomere-to-Telomere Reference Genome and Pangenome Reveal an Expansion of Resistance Genes during Apple Domestication.

Plant physiology pii:7672929 [Epub ahead of print].

The cultivated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a cross-pollinated perennial fruit tree of great economic importance. Previous versions of apple reference genomes were unphased, fragmented, and lacked comprehensive insights into the highly heterozygous genome, which impeded genetic studies and breeding programs in apple. In this study, we assembled a haplotype-resolved telomere-to-telomere reference genome for the diploid apple cultivar Golden Delicious. Subsequently, we constructed a pangenome based on twelve assemblies from wild and cultivated apples to investigate different types of resistance gene analogs (RGAs). Our results revealed the dynamics of the gene gain and loss events during apple domestication. Compared with cultivated species, more gene families in wild species were significantly enriched in oxidative phosphorylation, pentose metabolic process, responses to salt, and abscisic acid biosynthesis process. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated a higher prevalence of RGAs in cultivated apples than their wild relatives, partially attributed to segmental and tandem duplication events in certain RGAs classes. Other types of structural variations, mainly deletions and insertions, have affected the presence and absence of TIR-NB-ARC-LRR (TNL), NB-ARC-LRR (NL), and CC-NB-ARC-LRR (CNL) genes. Additionally, hybridization/introgression from wild species has also contributed to the expansion of resistance genes in domesticated apples. Our haplotype-resolved T2T genome and pangenome provide important resources for genetic studies of apples, emphasizing the need to study the evolutionary mechanisms of resistance genes in apple breeding programs.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Dewar AE, Hao C, Belcher LJ, et al (2024)

Bacterial lifestyle shapes pangenomes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(21):e2320170121.

Pangenomes vary across bacteria. Some species have fluid pangenomes, with a high proportion of genes varying between individual genomes. Other species have less fluid pangenomes, with different genomes tending to contain the same genes. Two main hypotheses have been suggested to explain this variation: differences in species' bacterial lifestyle and effective population size. However, previous studies have not been able to test between these hypotheses because the different features of lifestyle and effective population size are highly correlated with each other, and phylogenetically conserved, making it hard to disentangle their relative importance. We used phylogeny-based analyses, across 126 bacterial species, to tease apart the causal role of different factors. We found that pangenome fluidity was lower in i) host-associated compared with free-living species and ii) host-associated species that are obligately dependent on a host, live inside cells, and are more pathogenic and less motile. In contrast, we found no support for the competing hypothesis that larger effective population sizes lead to more fluid pangenomes. Effective population size appears to correlate with pangenome variation because it is also driven by bacterial lifestyle, rather than because of a causal relationship.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Singh RP, Sinha A, Deb S, et al (2024)

First report on in-depth genome and comparative genome analysis of a metal-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter pittii S-30, isolated from environmental sample.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1351161.

A newly isolated bacterium Acinetobacter pittii S-30 was recovered from waste-contaminated soil in Ranchi, India. The isolated bacterium belongs to the ESKAPE organisms which represent the major nosocomial pathogens that exhibit high antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis also showed its closest match (>95%) to other A. pittii genomes. The isolate showed metal-resistant behavior and was able to survive up to 5 mM of ZnSO4. Whole genome sequencing and annotations revealed the occurrence of various genes involved in stress protection, motility, and metabolism of aromatic compounds. Moreover, genome annotation identified the gene clusters involved in secondary metabolite production (biosynthetic gene clusters) such as arylpolyene, acinetobactin like NRP-metallophore, betalactone, and hserlactone-NRPS cluster. The metabolic potential of A. pittii S-30 based on cluster of orthologous, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes indicated a high number of genes related to stress protection, metal resistance, and multiple drug-efflux systems etc., which is relatively rare in A. pittii strains. Additionally, the presence of various carbohydrate-active enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyltransferases (GTs), and other genes associated with lignocellulose breakdown suggests that strain S-30 has strong biomass degradation potential. Furthermore, an analysis of genetic diversity and recombination in A. pittii strains was performed to understand the population expansion hypothesis of A. pittii strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the detailed genomic characterization of a heavy metal-resistant bacterium belonging to A. pittii. Therefore, the A. pittii S-30 could be a good candidate for the promotion of plant growth and other biotechnological applications.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Khan MF, Ali A, Rehman HM, et al (2024)

Exploring optimal drug targets through subtractive proteomics analysis and pangenomic insights for tailored drug design in tuberculosis.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10904.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ranks among the top causes of global human mortality, as reported by the World Health Organization's 2022 TB report. The prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains that are multiple and extensive-drug resistant represents a significant barrier to TB eradication. Fortunately, having many completely sequenced M. tuberculosis genomes available has made it possible to investigate the species pangenome, conduct a pan-phylogenetic investigation, and find potential new drug targets. The 442 complete genome dataset was used to estimate the pangenome of M. tuberculosis. This study involved phylogenomic classification and in-depth analyses. Sequential filters were applied to the conserved core genome containing 2754 proteins. These filters assessed non-human homology, virulence, essentiality, physiochemical properties, and pathway analysis. Through these intensive filtering approaches, promising broad-spectrum therapeutic targets were identified. These targets were docked with FDA-approved compounds readily available on the ZINC database. Selected highly ranked ligands with inhibitory potential include dihydroergotamine and abiraterone acetate. The effectiveness of the ligands has been supported by molecular dynamics simulation of the ligand-protein complexes, instilling optimism that the identified lead compounds may serve as a robust basis for the development of safe and efficient drugs for TB treatment, subject to further lead optimization and subsequent experimental validation.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Anonymous (2024)

A panoply of pangenomes.

Nature ecology & evolution, 8(5):833.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Truong NHM, Nguyen Q, Voong PV, et al (2024)

Genomic characterization of Aeromonas spp. isolates from striped catfish with motile Aeromonas septicemia and human bloodstream infections in Vietnam.

Microbial genomics, 10(5):.

Aeromonas spp. are commonly found in the aquatic environment and have been responsible for motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in striped catfish, resulting in significant economic loss. These organisms also cause a range of opportunistic infections in humans with compromised immune systems. Here, we conducted a genomic investigation of 87 Aeromonas isolates derived from diseased catfish, healthy catfish and environmental water in catfish farms affected by MAS outbreaks in eight provinces in Mekong Delta (years: 2012-2022), together with 25 isolates from humans with bloodstream infections (years: 2010-2020). Genomics-based typing method precisely delineated Aeromonas species while traditional methods such as aerA PCR and MALDI-TOF were unable identify A. dhakensis. A. dhakensis was found to be more prevalent than A. hydrophila in both diseased catfish and human infections. A. dhakensis sequence type (ST) 656 followed by A. hydrophila ST251 were the predominant virulent species-lineages in diseased catfish (43.7 and 20.7 %, respectively), while diverse STs were found in humans with bloodstream infections. There was evidence of widespread transmission of ST656 and ST251 on striped catfish in the Mekong Delta region. ST656 and ST251 isolates carried a significantly higher number of acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and virulence factors in comparison to other STs. They, however, exhibited several distinctions in key virulence factors (i.e. lack of type IV pili and enterotoxin ast in A. dhakensis), AMR genes (i.e. presence of imiH carbapenemase in A. dhakensis), and accessory gene content. To uncover potential conserved proteins of Aeromonas spp. for vaccine development, pangenome analysis has unveiled 2202 core genes between ST656 and ST251, of which 78 proteins were in either outer membrane or extracellular proteins. Our study represents one of the first genomic investigations of the species distribution, genetic landscape, and epidemiology of Aeromonas in diseased catfish and human infections in Vietnam. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant and virulent A. dhakensis strains underscores the needs of enhanced genomic surveillance and strengthening vaccine research and development in preventing Aeromonas diseases in catfish and humans, and the search for potential vaccine candidates could focus on Aeromonas core genes encoded for membrane and secreted proteins.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Omidiran O, Patel A, Usman S, et al (2024)

GWAS advancements to investigate disease associations and biological mechanisms.

Clinical and translational discovery, 4(3):.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been instrumental in elucidating the genetic architecture of various traits and diseases. Despite the success of GWAS, inherent limitations such as identifying rare and ultra-rare variants, the potential for spurious associations, and in pinpointing causative agents can undermine diagnostic capabilities. This review provides an overview of GWAS and highlights recent advances in genetics that employ a range of methodologies, including Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), Mendelian Randomization (MR), the Pangenome's high-quality T2T-CHM13 panel, and the Human BioMolecular Atlas Program (HuBMAP), as potential enablers of current and future GWAS research. State of the literature demonstrate the capabilities of these techniques in enhancing the statistical power of GWAS. WGS, with its comprehensive approach, captures the entire genome, surpassing the capabilities of the traditional GWAS technique focused on predefined Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sites. The Pangenome's T2T-CHM13 panel, with its holistic approach, aids in the analysis of regions with high sequence identity, such as segmental duplications (SDs). Mendelian Randomization has advanced causative inference, improving clinical diagnostics and facilitating definitive conclusions. Furthermore, spatial biology techniques like HuBMAP, enable 3D molecular mapping of tissues at single-cell resolution, offering insights into pathology of complex traits. This study aims to elucidate and advocate for the increased application of these technologies, highlighting their potential to shape the future of GWAS research.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Calvo-Silveria S, González-Díaz A, Grau I, et al (2024)

Evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease by serotype 3 in adults: a Spanish three-decade retrospective study.

The Lancet regional health. Europe, 41:100913.

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotype 3 (S3-IPD) is associated with high mortality rates and long-term adverse effects. The introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the Spanish paediatric immunisation programme has not led to a decrease in the adult S3-IPD. We aimed to analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics and genomics of S3-IPD in adults in Spain.

METHODS: Adult IPD episodes hospitalized in a Southern Barcelona hospital were prospectively collected (1994-2020). For genomic comparison, S3-IPD isolates from six Spanish hospitals (2008-2020) and historical isolates (1989-1993) were analysed by WGS (Illumina and/or MinION).

FINDINGS: From 1994 to 2020, 270 S3-IPD episodes were detected. When comparing pre-PCV (1994-2001) and late-PCV13 (2016-2020) periods, only modest changes in S3-IPD were observed (from 1.58 to 1.28 episodes per 100,000 inhabitants year). In this period, the incidence of the two main lineages shifted from 0.38 to 0.67 (CC180-GPSC12) and from 1.18 to 0.55 (CC260-GPSC83). The overall 30-day mortality remained high (24.1%), though a decrease was observed between the pre-PCV (32.4%; 95.0% CI, 22.0-45.0) and the late-PCV13 period (16.7%; 95.0% CI, 7.5-32.0) (p = 0.06). At the same time, comorbidities increased from 77.3% (95.0% CI, 65.0-86.0) to 85.7% (95.0% CI, 71.0-94.0) (p = 0.69). There were no differences in clinical characteristics or 30-day mortality between the two S3 lineages. Although both lineages were genetically homogeneous, the CC180-GPSC12 lineage presented a higher SNP density, a more open pan-genome, and a major presence of prophages and mobile genetic elements carrying resistance genes.

INTERPRETATION: Adult S3-IPD remained stable in our area over the study period despite PCV13 introduction in children. However, a clonal shift was observed. The decrease in mortality rates and the increase in comorbidities suggest a change in clinical management and overall population characteristics. The low genetic variability and absence of clinical differences between lineages highlight the role of the S3 capsule in the disease severity.

FUNDING: This study has been funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) "PI18/00339", "PI21/01000", "INT22/00096", "FI22/00279", CIBER "CIBERES-CB06/06/0037", "CIBERINFEC-CB21/13/00009" and MSD grant "IISP 60168".

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Wang Q, Zhang Y, Chen R, et al (2024)

Comparative genomic analyses provide insight into the pathogenicity of three Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains from Anhui Province, China.

BMC genomics, 25(1):461.

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is an important bacterial plant pathogen that causes severe damage to the kiwifruit industry worldwide. Three Psa strains were recently obtained from different kiwifruit orchards in Anhui Province, China. The present study mainly focused on the variations in virulence and genome characteristics of these strains based on the pathogenicity assays and comparative genomic analyses.

RESULTS: Three strains were identified as biovar 3 (Psa3), along with strain QSY6 showing higher virulence than JZY2 and YXH1 in pathogenicity assays. The whole genome assembly revealed that each of the three strains had a circular chromosome and a complete plasmid. The chromosome sizes ranged from 6.5 to 6.6 Mb with a GC content of approximately 58.39 to 58.46%, and a predicted number of protein-coding sequences ranging from 5,884 to 6,019. The three strains clustered tightly with 8 Psa3 reference strains in terms of average nucleotide identity (ANI), whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis, and pangenome analysis, while they were evolutionarily distinct from other biovars (Psa1 and Psa5). Variations were observed in the repertoire of effectors of the type III secretion system among all 15 strains. Moreover, synteny analysis of the three sequenced strains revealed eight genomic regions containing 308 genes exclusively present in the highly virulent strain QSY6. Further investigation of these genes showed that 16 virulence-related genes highlight several key factors, such as effector delivery systems (type III secretion systems) and adherence (type IV pilus), which might be crucial for the virulence of QSY6.

CONCLUSION: Three Psa strains were identified and showed variant virulence in kiwifruit plant. Complete genome sequences and comparative genomic analyses further provided a theoretical basis for the potential pathogenic factors responsible for kiwifruit bacterial canker.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Zhang J, Liu Q, Dai L, et al (2024)

Pan-Genome Analysis of Wolbachia, Endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri, Reveals Independent Origin in Asia and North America.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9): pii:ijms25094851.

Wolbachia, a group of Gram-negative symbiotic bacteria, infects nematodes and a wide range of arthropods. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) that causes citrus greening disease, is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). However, the interaction between wDi and D. citri remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed a pan-genome analysis using 65 wDi genomes to gain a comprehensive understanding of wDi. Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, we classified the wDi strains into Asia and North America strains. The ANI analysis, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), and phylogenetic tree analysis supported that the D. citri in Florida did not originate from China. Furthermore, we found that a significant number of core genes were associated with metabolic pathways. Pathways such as thiamine metabolism, type I secretion system, biotin transport, and phospholipid transport were highly conserved across all analyzed wDi genomes. The variation analysis between Asia and North America wDi showed that there were 39,625 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2153 indels, 10 inversions, 29 translocations, 65 duplications, 10 SV-based insertions, and 4 SV-based deletions. The SV-based insertions and deletions involved genes encoding transposase, phage tail tube protein, ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein, and group II intron-encoded protein. Pan-genome analysis of wDi contributes to our understanding of the geographical population of wDi, the origin of hosts of D. citri, and the interaction between wDi and its host, thus facilitating the development of strategies to control the insects and huanglongbing (HLB).

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Feng H, Wu K, Yuan Y, et al (2024)

Genomic analysis of Clostridium perfringens type D isolates from goat farms.

Veterinary microbiology, 294:110105 pii:S0378-1135(24)00127-5 [Epub ahead of print].

C. perfringens type D strains are the leading cause of enterotoxaemia in ruminants such as goats, sheep, and cattle. However, there has been no prior research on the genomic characteristics of C. perfringens type D strains from various regions in China. Here, we investigated the antibiotic resistance, genomic characteristics, and phylogenetic relationship of C. perfringens type D isolates recovered from goat farms in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia provinces. The antibiotic resistance test indicated that the isolates displayed high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to sulfafurazole, whereas the other antibiotics tested, such as penicillin, enrofloxacin, and florfenicol, worked well on them. Additionally, only tetracycline resistance genes [tetA(P) and tetB(P)] were identified from the isolates. A collective of 13 toxin genes, including etx and cpe were detected among the isolates. Sequence comparison revealed that the etx and cpe genes shared high sequence identities, and they could coexist on a pCW3-like plasmid, representing a potential risk to both animal breeding and public health. Phylogenetic analysis using core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) and core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed the close genetic relationship and potential regional/transregional transmission of the C. perfringens type D isolates in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Furthermore, pan-genomic analysis suggested the functional differences at the protein-coding gene level, although isolates from the same source shared a close genetic relationship. In conclusion, this study indicated the antibiotic resistance, virulence markers, potential transregional transmission, and genomic diversity of C. perfringens type D strains from various regions in China, which could provide references for the prevention of C. perfringens foodborne diseases and further research.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Tang J, Jiang Y, Hu Z, et al (2024)

Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Thermosynechococcus-like strains reveals eight species within the genus Thermosynechococcus and a novel genus Parathermosynechococcus gen. nov.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(24)00086-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Thermophilic unicellular cyanobacteria of the family Thermosynechococcaceae are essential primary producers and integral components of many microbial mats found in hot springs of Asia and North America. Historically, based on their simple morphology, these organisms, along with members of taxonomically unrelated thermophilic Thermostichaceae have been described with a generic term, "Synechococcus", used for elongated unicellular cyanobacteria. This has created significant misperception in the scientific literature regarding the taxonomic status of these essential thermophilic primary producers and their relationship with Synechococcus sensu stricto. In this manuscript, we attempted a genome-driven taxonomic reevaluation of the family Thermosynechococcaceae. Application of genomic analyses such as GTDB classification, ANI/AAI and phylogenomics support the delineation of eight species within genus Thermosynechococcus. Two subspecies were further identified within T. taiwanensis by dDDH and phylogenomics. Moreover, the results also suggest the presence of two putative new genera phylogenetically alongside genus Thermosynechococcus, a thermophilic genus Parathermosynechococcus represented by PCC 6715 and a non-thermophilic genus represented by PCC 6312. The proposed genospecies and new genera were further integrated with morphological and/or ecological information. Interestingly, the phylogeny of 16S-23S ITS achieved a better taxonomic relationship than that of 16S rRNA and supported the genome-based classification of Thermosynechococcus spp. Finally, the pan-genome analysis indicated a conserved pattern of genomic core among known members of Thermosynechococcus.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Yang Z, Chai Z, Wang X, et al (2024)

Comparative genomic analysis provides insights into the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of the genus Brucella.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1389859.

Some Brucella spp. are important pathogens. According to the latest prokaryotic taxonomy, the Brucella genus consists of facultative intracellular parasitic Brucella species and extracellular opportunistic or environmental Brucella species. Intracellular Brucella species include classical and nonclassical types, with different species generally exhibiting host preferences. Some classical intracellular Brucella species can cause zoonotic brucellosis, including B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis. Extracellular Brucella species comprise opportunistic or environmental species which belonged formerly to the genus Ochrobactrum and thus nowadays renamed as for example Brucella intermedia or Brucella anthropi, which are the most frequent opportunistic human pathogens within the recently expanded genus Brucella. The cause of the diverse phenotypic characteristics of different Brucella species is still unclear. To further investigate the genetic evolutionary characteristics of the Brucella genus and elucidate the relationship between its genomic composition and prediction of phenotypic traits, we collected the genomic data of Brucella from the NCBI Genome database and conducted a comparative genomics study. We found that classical and nonclassical intracellular Brucella species and extracellular Brucella species exhibited differences in phylogenetic relationships, horizontal gene transfer and distribution patterns of mobile genetic elements, virulence factor genes, and antibiotic resistance genes, showing the close relationship between the genetic variations and prediction of phenotypic traits of different Brucella species. Furthermore, we found significant differences in horizontal gene transfer and the distribution patterns of mobile genetic elements, virulence factor genes, and antibiotic resistance genes between the two chromosomes of Brucella, indicating that the two chromosomes had distinct dynamics and plasticity and played different roles in the survival and evolution of Brucella. These findings provide new directions for exploring the genetic evolutionary characteristics of the Brucella genus and could offer new clues to elucidate the factors influencing the phenotypic diversity of the Brucella genus.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Rahman MS, Shimul MEK, MAK Parvez (2024)

Comprehensive analysis of genomic variation, pan-genome and biosynthetic potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

PloS one, 19(5):e0299588 pii:PONE-D-23-13355.

Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic species of the Corynebacteriaceae family. It has been broadly used in industrial biotechnology for the production of valuable products. Though it is widely accepted at the industrial level, knowledge about the genomic diversity of the strains is limited. Here, we investigated the comparative genomic features of the strains and pan-genomic characteristics. We also observed phylogenetic relationships among the strains based on average nucleotide identity (ANI). We found diversity between strains at the genomic and pan-genomic levels. Less than one-third of the C. glutamicum pan-genome consists of core genes and soft-core genes. Whereas, a large number of strain-specific genes covered about half of the total pan-genome. Besides, C. glutamicum pan-genome is open and expanding, which indicates the possible addition of new gene families to the pan-genome. We also investigated the distribution of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) among the strains. We discovered slight variations of BGCs at the strain level. Several BGCs with the potential to express novel bioactive secondary metabolites have been identified. Therefore, by utilizing the characteristic advantages of C. glutamicum, different strains can be potential applicants for natural drug discovery.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Yahara H, Yanamoto S, Takahashi M, et al (2024)

Shotgun metagenomic analysis of saliva microbiome suggests Mogibacterium as a factor associated with chronic bacterial osteomyelitis.

PloS one, 19(5):e0302569 pii:PONE-D-23-38526.

Osteomyelitis of the jaw is a severe inflammatory disorder that affects bones, and it is categorized into two main types: chronic bacterial and nonbacterial osteomyelitis. Although previous studies have investigated the association between these diseases and the oral microbiome, the specific taxa associated with each disease remain unknown. In this study, we conducted shotgun metagenome sequencing (≥10 Gb from ≥66,395,670 reads per sample) of bulk DNA extracted from saliva obtained from patients with chronic bacterial osteomyelitis (N = 5) and chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (N = 10). We then compared the taxonomic composition of the metagenome in terms of both taxonomic and sequence abundances with that of healthy controls (N = 5). Taxonomic profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in both the taxonomic and sequence abundance of Mogibacterium in cases of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis; however, such enrichment was not observed in chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis. We also compared a previously reported core saliva microbiome (59 genera) with our data and found that out of the 74 genera detected in this study, 47 (including Mogibacterium) were not included in the previous meta-analysis. Additionally, we analyzed a core-genome tree of Mogibacterium from chronic bacterial osteomyelitis and healthy control samples along with a reference complete genome and found that Mogibacterium from both groups was indistinguishable at the core-genome and pan-genome levels. Although limited by the small sample size, our study provides novel evidence of a significant increase in Mogibacterium abundance in the chronic bacterial osteomyelitis group. Moreover, our study presents a comparative analysis of the taxonomic and sequence abundances of all genera detected using deep salivary shotgun metagenome data. The distinct enrichment of Mogibacterium suggests its potential as a marker to distinguish between patients with chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis and chronic bacterial osteomyelitis, particularly at the early stages when differences are unclear.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Do DT, Yang MR, Vo TNS, et al (2024)

Unitig-centered pan-genome machine learning approach for predicting antibiotic resistance and discovering novel resistance genes in bacterial strains.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 23:1864-1876.

In current genomic research, the widely used methods for predicting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) often rely on prior knowledge of known AMR genes or reference genomes. However, these methods have limitations, potentially resulting in imprecise predictions owing to incomplete coverage of AMR mechanisms and genetic variations. To overcome these limitations, we propose a pan-genome-based machine learning approach to advance our understanding of AMR gene repertoires and uncover possible feature sets for precise AMR classification. By building compacted de Brujin graphs (cDBGs) from thousands of genomes and collecting the presence/absence patterns of unique sequences (unitigs) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we determined that using machine learning models on unitig-centered pan-genomes showed significant promise for accurately predicting the antibiotic resistance or susceptibility of microbial strains. Applying a feature-selection-based machine learning algorithm led to satisfactory predictive performance for the training dataset (with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of > 0.929) and an independent validation dataset (AUC, approximately 0.77). Furthermore, the selected unitigs revealed previously unidentified resistance genes, allowing for the expansion of the resistance gene repertoire to those that have not previously been described in the literature on antibiotic resistance. These results demonstrate that our proposed unitig-based pan-genome feature set was effective in constructing machine learning predictors that could accurately identify AMR pathogens. Gene sets extracted using this approach may offer valuable insights into expanding known AMR genes and forming new hypotheses to uncover the underlying mechanisms of bacterial AMR.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Lan D, Fu W, Ji W, et al (2024)

Pangenome and multi-tissue gene atlas provide new insights into the domestication and highland adaptation of yaks.

Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 15(1):64.

BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of yak, a key domestic animal on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), is a vital resource for domestication and breeding efforts. This study presents the first yak pangenome obtained through the de novo assembly of 16 yak genomes.

RESULTS: We discovered 290 Mb of nonreference sequences and 504 new genes. Our pangenome-wide presence and absence variation (PAV) analysis revealed 5,120 PAV-related genes, highlighting a wide range of variety-specific genes and genes with varying frequencies across yak populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on binary gene PAV data classified yaks into three new groups: wild, domestic, and Jinchuan. Moreover, we proposed a 'two-haplotype genomic hybridization model' for understanding the hybridization patterns among breeds by integrating gene frequency, heterozygosity, and gene PAV data. A gene PAV-GWAS identified a novel gene (BosGru3G009179) that may be associated with the multirib trait in Jinchuan yaks. Furthermore, an integrated transcriptome and pangenome analysis highlighted the significant differences in the expression of core genes and the mutational burden of differentially expressed genes between yaks from high and low altitudes. Transcriptome analysis across multiple species revealed that yaks have the most unique differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs (between high- and low-altitude regions), especially in the heart and lungs, when comparing high- and low-altitude adaptations.

CONCLUSIONS: The yak pangenome offers a comprehensive resource and new insights for functional genomic studies, supporting future biological research and breeding strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Achakkagari SR, Bozan I, Camargo-Tavares JC, et al (2024)

The phased Solanum okadae genome and Petota pangenome analysis of 23 other potato wild relatives and hybrids.

Scientific data, 11(1):454.

Potato is an important crop in the genus Solanum section Petota. Potatoes are susceptible to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses and have undergone constant improvement through breeding programs worldwide. Introgression of wild relatives from section Petota with potato is used as a strategy to enhance the diversity of potato germplasm. The current dataset contributes a phased genome assembly for diploid S. okadae, and short read sequences and de novo assemblies for the genomes of 16 additional wild diploid species in section Petota that were noted for stress resistance and were of interest to potato breeders. Genome sequence data for three additional genomes representing polyploid hybrids with cultivated potato, and an additional genome from non-tuberizing S. etuberosum, which is outside of section Petota, were also included. High quality short reads assemblies were achieved with genome sizes ranging from 575 to 795 Mbp and annotations were performed utilizing transcriptome sequence data. Genomes were compared for presence/absence of genes and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using plastome and nuclear sequences.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Yang Y, Shao Y, Pei C, et al (2024)

Pangenome analyses of Clostridium butyricum provide insights into its genetic characteristics and industrial application.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(24)00076-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium butyricum is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium known for its ability to produce butyate. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing and assembly of 14C. butyricum industrial strains collected from various parts of China. We performed a pan-genome comparative analysis of the 14 assembled strains and 139 strains downloaded from NCBI. We found that the genes related to critical industrial production pathways were primarily present in the core and soft-core gene categories. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the same clade of the phylogenetic tree possessed similar antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, with most of these genes present in the shell and cloud gene categories. Finally, we predicted the genes producing bacteriocins and botulinum toxins as well as CRISPR systems responsible for host defense. In conclusion, our research provides a desirable pan-genome database for the industrial production, food application, and genetic research of C. butyricum.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Mertz P, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Ferrada MA, et al (2024)

Relapsing polychondritis: clinical updates and new differential diagnoses.

Nature reviews. Rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilaginous structures, mainly of the ears, nose and respiratory tract, with a broad spectrum of accompanying systemic features. Despite its rarity, prompt recognition and accurate diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis is crucial for appropriate management and optimal outcomes. Our understanding of relapsing polychondritis has changed markedly in the past couple of years with the identification of three distinct patient clusters that have different clinical manifestations and prognostic outcomes. With the progress of pangenomic sequencing and the discovery of new somatic and monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, new differential diagnoses have emerged, notably the vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic (VEXAS) syndrome, autoinflammatory diseases and immune checkpoint inhibitor-related adverse events. In this Review, we present a detailed update of the newly identified clusters and highlight red flags that should raise suspicion of these alternative diagnoses. The identification of these different clusters and mimickers has a direct impact on the management, follow-up and prognosis of patients with relapsing polychondritis and autoinflammatory syndromes.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Da Silva Morais E, Grimaud GM, Warda A, et al (2024)

Genome plasticity shapes the ecology and evolution of Phocaeicola dorei and Phocaeicola vulgatus.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10109.

Phocaeicola dorei and Phocaeicola vulgatus are very common and abundant members of the human gut microbiome and play an important role in the infant gut microbiome. These species are closely related and often confused for one another; yet, their genome comparison, interspecific diversity, and evolutionary relationships have not been studied in detail so far. Here, we perform phylogenetic analysis and comparative genomic analyses of these two Phocaeicola species. We report that P. dorei has a larger genome yet a smaller pan-genome than P. vulgatus. We found that this is likely because P. vulgatus is more plastic than P. dorei, with a larger repertoire of genetic mobile elements and fewer anti-phage defense systems. We also found that P. dorei directly descends from a clade of P. vulgatus¸ and experienced genome expansion through genetic drift and horizontal gene transfer. Overall, P. dorei and P. vulgatus have very different functional and carbohydrate utilisation profiles, hinting at different ecological strategies, yet they present similar antimicrobial resistance profiles.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Samanta D, Rauniyar S, Saxena P, et al (2024)

From genome to evolution: investigating type II methylotrophs using a pangenomic analysis.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: A comprehensive pangenomic approach was employed to analyze the genomes of 75 type II methylotrophs spanning various genera. Our investigation revealed 256 exact core gene families shared by all 75 organisms, emphasizing their crucial role in the survival and adaptability of these organisms. Additionally, we predicted the functionality of 12 hypothetical proteins. The analysis unveiled a diverse array of genes associated with key metabolic pathways, including methane, serine, glyoxylate, and ethylmalonyl-CoA (EMC) metabolic pathways. While all selected organisms possessed essential genes for the serine pathway, Methylooceanibacter marginalis lacked serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and Methylobacterium variabile exhibited both isozymes of SHMT, suggesting its potential to utilize a broader range of carbon sources. Notably, Methylobrevis sp. displayed a unique serine-glyoxylate transaminase isozyme not found in other organisms. Only nine organisms featured anaplerotic enzymes (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) for the glyoxylate pathway, with the rest following the EMC pathway. Methylovirgula sp. 4MZ18 stood out by acquiring genes from both glyoxylate and EMC pathways, and Methylocapsa sp. S129 featured an A-form malate synthase, unlike the G-form found in the remaining organisms. Our findings also revealed distinct phylogenetic relationships and clustering patterns among type II methylotrophs, leading to the proposal of a separate genus for Methylovirgula sp. 4M-Z18 and Methylocapsa sp. S129. This pangenomic study unveils remarkable metabolic diversity, unique gene characteristics, and distinct clustering patterns of type II methylotrophs, providing valuable insights for future carbon sequestration and biotechnological applications.

IMPORTANCE: Methylotrophs have played a significant role in methane-based product production for many years. However, a comprehensive investigation into the diverse genetic architectures across different genera of methylotrophs has been lacking. This study fills this knowledge gap by enhancing our understanding of core hypothetical proteins and unique enzymes involved in methane oxidation, serine, glyoxylate, and ethylmalonyl-CoA pathways. These findings provide a valuable reference for researchers working with other methylotrophic species. Furthermore, this study not only unveils distinctive gene characteristics and phylogenetic relationships but also suggests a reclassification for Methylovirgula sp. 4M-Z18 and Methylocapsa sp. S129 into separate genera due to their unique attributes within their respective genus. Leveraging the synergies among various methylotrophic organisms, the scientific community can potentially optimize metabolite production, increasing the yield of desired end products and overall productivity.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Lu Y, Liu D, Kong X, et al (2024)

Pangenome characterization and analysis of the NAC gene family reveals genes for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

BMC genomic data, 25(1):39.

BACKGROUND: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is one of the most important economic crops in oilseed production worldwide. The different cultivars exhibit variability in their resistance genes. The NAC transcription factor (TF) family plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. With the completion of the H. annuus genome sequence, the entire complement of genes coding for NACs has been identified. However, the reference genome of a single individual cannot cover all the genetic information of the species.

RESULTS: Considering only a single reference genome to study gene families will miss many meaningful genes. A pangenome-wide survey and characterization of the NAC genes in sunflower species were conducted. In total, 139 HaNAC genes are identified, of which 114 are core and 25 are variable. Phylogenetic analysis of sunflower NAC proteins categorizes these proteins into 16 subgroups. 138 HaNACs are randomly distributed on 17 chromosomes. SNP-based haplotype analysis shows haplotype diversity of the HaNAC genes in wild accessions is richer than in landraces and modern cultivars. Ten HaNAC genes in the basal stalk rot (BSR) resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) are found. A total of 26 HaNAC genes are differentially expressed in response to Sclerotinia head rot (SHR). A total of 137 HaNAC genes are annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) and are classified into 24 functional groups. GO functional enrichment analysis reveals that HaNAC genes are involved in various functions of the biological process.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified NAC genes in H. annuus (HaNAC) on a pangenome-wide scale and analyzed S. sclerotiorum resistance-related NACs. This study provided a theoretical basis for further genomic improvement targeting resistance-related NAC genes in sunflowers.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Gangurde SS, Korani W, Bajaj P, et al (2024)

Aspergillus flavus pangenome (AflaPan) uncovers novel aflatoxin and secondary metabolite associated gene clusters.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):354.

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus is an important agricultural and food safety threat due to its production of carcinogenic aflatoxins. It has high level of genetic diversity that is adapted to various environments. Recently, we reported two reference genomes of A. flavus isolates, AF13 (MAT1-2 and highly aflatoxigenic isolate) and NRRL3357 (MAT1-1 and moderate aflatoxin producer). Where, an insertion of 310 kb in AF13 included an aflatoxin producing gene bZIP transcription factor, named atfC. Observations of significant genomic variants between these isolates of contrasting phenotypes prompted an investigation into variation among other agricultural isolates of A. flavus with the goal of discovering novel genes potentially associated with aflatoxin production regulation. Present study was designed with three main objectives: (1) collection of large number of A. flavus isolates from diverse sources including maize plants and field soils; (2) whole genome sequencing of collected isolates and development of a pangenome; and (3) pangenome-wide association study (Pan-GWAS) to identify novel secondary metabolite cluster genes.

RESULTS: Pangenome analysis of 346 A. flavus isolates identified a total of 17,855 unique orthologous gene clusters, with mere 41% (7,315) core genes and 59% (10,540) accessory genes indicating accumulation of high genomic diversity during domestication. 5,994 orthologous gene clusters in accessory genome not annotated in either the A. flavus AF13 or NRRL3357 reference genomes. Pan-genome wide association analysis of the genomic variations identified 391 significant associated pan-genes associated with aflatoxin production. Interestingly, most of the significantly associated pan-genes (94%; 369 associations) belonged to accessory genome indicating that genome expansion has resulted in the incorporation of new genes associated with aflatoxin and other secondary metabolites.

CONCLUSION: In summary, this study provides complete pangenome framework for the species of Aspergillus flavus along with associated genes for pathogen survival and aflatoxin production. The large accessory genome indicated large genome diversity in the species A. flavus, however AflaPan is a closed pangenome represents optimum diversity of species A. flavus. Most importantly, the newly identified aflatoxin producing gene clusters will be a new source for seeking aflatoxin mitigation strategies and needs new attention in research.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Tan W, Zhou P, Huang X, et al (2024)

Haplotype-resolved genome of Prunus zhengheensis provides insight into its evolution and low temperature adaptation in apricot.

Horticulture research, 11(4):uhae103 pii:uhae103.

Prunus zhengheensis, an extremely rare population of apricots, originated in warm South-East China and is an excellent material for genetic breeding. However, most apricots and two related species (P. sibirica, P. mandshurica) are found in the cold northern regions in China and the mechanism of their distribution is still unclear. In addition, the classification status of P. zhengheensis is controversial. Thus, we generated a high-quality haplotype-resolved genome for P. zhengheensis, exploring key genetic variations in its adaptation and the causes of phylogenetic incongruence. We found extensive phylogenetic discordances between the nuclear and organelle phylogenies of P. zhengheensis, which could be explained by incomplete lineage sorting. A 242.22-Mb pan-genome of the Armeniaca section was developed with 13 chromosomal genomes. Importantly, we identified a 566-bp insertion in the promoter of the HSFA1d gene in apricot and showed that the activity of the HSFA1d promoter increased under low temperatures. In addition, HSFA1d overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that HSFA1d positively regulated plant growth under chilling. Therefore, we hypothesized that the insertion in the promoter of HSFA1d in apricot improved its low-temperature adaptation, allowing it to thrive in relatively cold locations. The findings help explain the weather adaptability of Armeniaca plants.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Ma Y, Sun J, Zhang X, et al (2024)

Comparative genomics analysis of pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) genes in eight pyrus genomes and their regulatory role in multiple stress responses in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

Frontiers in genetics, 15:1396744 pii:1396744.

Pyrus (pear) is among the most nutritious fruits and contains fibers that have great health benefits to humans. It is mostly cultivated in temperate regions globally and is highly subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses which affect its yield. Pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) is an essential component of the chlorophyll degradation system and contributes to the senescence of leaves. It is responsible for opening the pheophorbide a porphyrin macrocycle and forming the main fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite However, this gene family and its members have not been explored in Pyrus genomes. Here we report a pangenome-wide investigation has been conducted on eight Pyrus genomes: Cuiguan, Shanxi Duli, Zhongai 1, Nijisseiki, Yunhong No.1, d'Anjou, Bartlett v2.0, and Dangshansuli v.1.1. The phylogenetic history, their gene structure, conservation patterns of motifs, their distribution on chromosomes, and gene duplication are studied in detail which shows the intraspecific structural conservation as well as evolutionary patterns of Pyrus PAOs. Cis-elements, protein-protein interactions (PPI), and the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses show their potential biological functions. Furthermore, their expression in various tissues, fruit hardening conditions, and drought stress conditions is also studied. Based on phylogenetics, the identified PAOs were divided into four groups. The expansion of this gene family in Pyrus is caused by both tandem and segmental duplication. Moreover, positive and negative selection pressure equally directed the gene's duplication process. The Pyrus PAO genes were enriched in hormones-related, light, development, and stress-related elements. RNA-seq data analysis showed that PAOs have varied levels of expression under diseased and abiotic stress conditions. The 3D structures of PAOs are also predicted to get more insights into functional conservation. Our research can be used further to get a deeper knowledge of the PAO gene family in Pyrus and to guide future research on improving the genetic composition of Pyrus to enhance stress tolerance.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Nuhamunada M, Mohite OS, Phaneuf PV, et al (2024)

BGCFlow: systematic pangenome workflow for the analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters across large genomic datasets.

Nucleic acids research pii:7660081 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome mining is revolutionizing natural products discovery efforts. The rapid increase in available genomes demands comprehensive computational platforms to effectively extract biosynthetic knowledge encoded across bacterial pangenomes. Here, we present BGCFlow, a novel systematic workflow integrating analytics for large-scale genome mining of bacterial pangenomes. BGCFlow incorporates several genome analytics and mining tools grouped into five common stages of analysis such as: (i) data selection, (ii) functional annotation, (iii) phylogenetic analysis, (iv) genome mining, and (v) comparative analysis. Furthermore, BGCFlow provides easy configuration of different projects, parallel distribution, scheduled job monitoring, an interactive database to visualize tables, exploratory Jupyter Notebooks, and customized reports. Here, we demonstrate the application of BGCFlow by investigating the phylogenetic distribution of various biosynthetic gene clusters detected across 42 genomes of the Saccharopolyspora genus, known to produce industrially important secondary/specialized metabolites. The BGCFlow-guided analysis predicted more accurate dereplication of BGCs and guided the targeted comparative analysis of selected RiPPs. The scalable, interoperable, adaptable, re-entrant, and reproducible nature of the BGCFlow will provide an effective novel way to extract the biosynthetic knowledge from the ever-growing genomic datasets of biotechnologically relevant bacterial species.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

Aziz T, Naveed M, Shabbir MA, et al (2024)

Whole Genome Analysis of Tibetan Kefir-Derived Lactiplantibacillus Plantarum 12-3 Elucidates Its Genomic Architecture, Antimicrobial and Drug Resistance, Potential Probiotic Functionality and Safety.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 29(4):147.

BACKGROUND: Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 12-3 holds great promise as a probiotic bacterial strain, yet its full potential remains untapped. This study aimed to better understand this potential therapeutic strain by exploring its genomic landscape, genetic diversity, CRISPR-Cas mechanism, genotype, and mechanistic perspectives for probiotic functionality and safety applications.

METHODS: L. plantarum 12-3 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains and, subsequently, Illumina and Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) technologies were used to extract and sequence genomic DNA from this organism. After performing pan-genomic and phylogenetic analysis, Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) was used to confirm the taxonomic identity of the strain. Antibiotic resistance gene analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and virulence gene identification were also included in our genomic analysis to evaluate food safety. Prophage, genomic islands, insertion sequences, and CRISPR-Cas sequence analyses were also carried out to gain insight into genetic components and defensive mechanisms within the bacterial genome.

RESULTS: The 3.4 Mb genome of L. plantarum 12-3, was assembled with 99.1% completeness and low contamination. A total of 3234 genes with normal length and intergenic spacing were found using gene prediction tools. Pan-genomic studies demonstrated gene diversity and provided functional annotation, whereas phylogenetic analysis verified taxonomic identity. Our food safety study revealed a profile of antibiotic resistance that is favorable for use as a probiotic. Analysis of insertional sequences, genomic islands, and prophage within the genome provided information regarding genetic components and their possible effects on evolution.

CONCLUSIONS: Pivotal genetic elements uncovered in this study play a crucial role in bacterial defense mechanisms and offer intriguing prospects for future genome engineering efforts. Moreover, our findings suggest further in vitro and in vivo studies are warranted to validate the functional attributes and probiotic potential of L. plantarum 12-3. Expanding the scope of the research to encompass a broader range of L. plantarum 12-3 strains and comparative analyses with other probiotic species would enhance our understanding of this organism's genetic diversity and functional properties.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Avila Cartes J, Bonizzoni P, Ciccolella S, et al (2024)

RecGraph: recombination-aware alignment of sequences to variation graphs.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7658945 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Bacterial genomes present more variability than human genomes, which requires important adjustments in computational tools that are developed for human data. In particular, bacteria exhibit a mosaic structure due to homologous recombinations, but this fact is not sufficiently captured by standard read mappers that align against linear reference genomes. The recent introduction of pangenomics provides some insights in that context, as a pangenome graph can represent the variability within a species. However, the concept of sequence-to-graph alignment that captures the presence of recombinations has not been previously investigated.

RESULTS: In this paper, we present the extension of the notion of sequence-to-graph alignment to a variation graph that incorporates a recombination, so that the latter are explicitly represented and evaluated in an alignment. Moreover, we present a dynamic programming approach for the special case where there is at most a recombination-we implement this case as RecGraph. From a modeling point of view, a recombination corresponds to identifying a new path of the variation graph, where the new arc is composed of two halves, each extracted from an original path, possibly joined by a new arc. Our experiments show that RecGraph accurately aligns simulated recombinant bacterial sequences that have at most a recombination, providing evidence for the presence of recombination events.

AVAILABILITY: Our implementation is open source and available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2024-04-27
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Du X, Sun Y, Fu T, et al (2024)

Research Progress and Applications of Bovine Genome in the Tribe Bovini.

Genes, 15(4): pii:genes15040509.

Various bovine species have been domesticated and bred for thousands of years, and they provide adequate animal-derived products, including meat, milk, and leather, to meet human requirements. Despite the review studies on economic traits in cattle, the genetic basis of traits has only been partially explained by phenotype and pedigree breeding methods, due to the complexity of genomic regulation during animal development and growth. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, genomics projects, such as the 1000 Bull Genomes Project, Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project, and Bovine Pangenome Consortium, have advanced bovine genomic research. These large-scale genomics projects gave us a comprehensive concept, technology, and public resources. In this review, we summarize the genomics research progress of the main bovine species during the past decade, including cattle (Bos taurus), yak (Bos grunniens), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), zebu (Bos indicus), and gayal (Bos frontalis). We mainly discuss the development of genome sequencing and functional annotation, focusing on how genomic analysis reveals genetic variation and its impact on phenotypes in several bovine species.

RevDate: 2024-04-27
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Sáez LP, Rodríguez-Caballero G, Olaya-Abril A, et al (2024)

Genomic Insights into Cyanide Biodegradation in the Pseudomonas Genus.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(8): pii:ijms25084456.

Molecular studies about cyanide biodegradation have been mainly focused on the hydrolytic pathways catalyzed by the cyanide dihydratase CynD or the nitrilase NitC. In some Pseudomonas strains, the assimilation of cyanide has been linked to NitC, such as the cyanotrophic model strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344, which has been recently reclassified as Pseudomonas oleovorans CECT 5344. In this work, a phylogenomic approach established a more precise taxonomic position of the strain CECT 5344 within the species P. oleovorans. Furthermore, a pan-genomic analysis of P. oleovorans and other species with cyanotrophic strains, such as P. fluorescens and P. monteilii, allowed for the comparison and identification of the cioAB and mqoAB genes involved in cyanide resistance, and the nitC and cynS genes required for the assimilation of cyanide or cyanate, respectively. While cyanide resistance genes presented a high frequency among the analyzed genomes, genes responsible for cyanide or cyanate assimilation were identified in a considerably lower proportion. According to the results obtained in this work, an in silico approach based on a comparative genomic approach can be considered as an agile strategy for the bioprospection of putative cyanotrophic bacteria and for the identification of new genes putatively involved in cyanide biodegradation.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Goff JL, Szink EG, Durrence KL, et al (2024)

Genomic and environmental controls on Castellaniella biogeography in an anthropogenically disturbed subsurface.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):26.

Castellaniella species have been isolated from a variety of mixed-waste environments including the nitrate and multiple metal-contaminated subsurface at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Previous studies examining microbial community composition and nitrate removal at ORR during biostimulation efforts reported increased abundances of members of the Castellaniella genus concurrent with increased denitrification rates. Thus, we asked how genomic and abiotic factors control the Castellaniella biogeography at the site to understand how these factors may influence nitrate transformation in an anthropogenically impacted setting. We report the isolation and characterization of several Castellaniella strains from the ORR subsurface. Five of these isolates match at 100% identity (at the 16S rRNA gene V4 region) to two Castellaniella amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), ASV1 and ASV2, that have persisted in the ORR subsurface for at least 2 decades. However, ASV2 has consistently higher relative abundance in samples taken from the site and was also the dominant blooming denitrifier population during a prior biostimulation effort. We found that the ASV2 representative strain has greater resistance to mixed metal stress than the ASV1 representative strains. We attribute this resistance, in part, to the large number of unique heavy metal resistance genes identified on a genomic island in the ASV2 representative genome. Additionally, we suggest that the relatively lower fitness of ASV1 may be connected to the loss of the nitrous oxide reductase (nos) operon (and associated nitrous oxide reductase activity) due to the insertion at this genomic locus of a mobile genetic element carrying copper resistance genes. This study demonstrates the value of integrating genomic, environmental, and phenotypic data to characterize the biogeography of key microorganisms in contaminated sites.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Hu H, Li R, Zhao J, et al (2024)

Technological development and advances for constructing and analysing plant pangenomes.

Genome biology and evolution pii:7658843 [Epub ahead of print].

A pangenome captures the genomic diversity for a species, derived from a collection of genetic sequences of diverse populations. Advances in sequencing technologies have given rise to three primary methods for pangenome construction and analysis: de novo assembly and comparison, reference genome-based iterative assembly and graph-based pangenome construction. Each method presents advantages and challenges in processing varying amounts and structures of DNA sequencing data. With the emergence of high-quality genome assemblies and advanced bioinformatics tools, the graph-based pangenome is emerging as an advanced reference for exploring the biological and functional implications of genetic variations.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-26

Duchen D, Clipman SJ, Vergara C, et al (2024)

A hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequence variation graph improves alignment and sample-specific consensus sequence construction.

PloS one, 19(4):e0301069 pii:PONE-D-23-40273.

Nearly 300 million individuals live with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB), for which no curative therapy is available. As viral diversity is associated with pathogenesis and immunological control of infection, improved methods to characterize this diversity could aid drug development efforts. Conventionally, viral sequencing data are mapped/aligned to a reference genome, and only the aligned sequences are retained for analysis. Thus, reference selection is critical, yet selecting the most representative reference a priori remains difficult. We investigate an alternative pangenome approach which can combine multiple reference sequences into a graph which can be used during alignment. Using simulated short-read sequencing data generated from publicly available HBV genomes and real sequencing data from an individual living with CHB, we demonstrate alignment to a phylogenetically representative 'genome graph' can improve alignment, avoid issues of reference ambiguity, and facilitate the construction of sample-specific consensus sequences more genetically similar to the individual's infection. Graph-based methods can, therefore, improve efforts to characterize the genetics of viral pathogens, including HBV, and have broader implications in host-pathogen research.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Che M, Fresno AH, Calvo-Fernandez C, et al (2024)

Comparison of IncK-blaCMY-2 Plasmids in Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry and Humans in Denmark, Finland, and Germany.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(4): pii:antibiotics13040349.

Escherichia coli carrying IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has been frequently described in food-producing animals and in humans. This study aimed to characterize IncK-blaCMY-2-positive ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from poultry production systems in Denmark, Finland, and Germany, as well as from Danish human blood infections, and further compare their plasmids. Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina) of all isolates (n = 46) confirmed the presence of the blaCMY-2 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing revealed a resistant phenotype to cefotaxime as well as resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Conjugative transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene confirmed the resistance being on mobile plasmids. Pangenome analysis showed only one-third of the genes being in the core with the remainder being in the large accessory gene pool. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis on sequence type (ST) 429 and 1286 isolates showed between 0-60 and 13-90 SNP differences, respectively, indicating vertical transmission of closely related clones in the poultry production, including among Danish, Finnish, and German ST429 isolates. A comparison of 22 ST429 isolates from this study with 80 ST429 isolates in Enterobase revealed the widespread geographical occurrence of related isolates associated with poultry production. Long-read sequencing of a representative subset of isolates (n = 28) allowed further characterization and comparison of the IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids with publicly available plasmid sequences. This analysis revealed the presence of highly similar plasmids in ESC-resistant E. coli from Denmark, Finland, and Germany pointing to the existence of common sources. Moreover, the analysis presented evidence of global plasmid transmission and evolution. Lastly, our results indicate that IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids and their carriers had been circulating in the Danish production chain with an associated risk of spreading to humans, as exemplified by the similarity of the clinical ST429 isolate to poultry isolates. Its persistence may be driven by co-selection since most IncK-blaCMY-2 plasmids harbor resistance factors to drugs used in veterinary medicine.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Taylor DJ, Eizenga JM, Li Q, et al (2024)

Beyond the Human Genome Project: The Age of Complete Human Genome Sequences and Pangenome References.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics [Epub ahead of print].

The Human Genome Project was an enormous accomplishment, providing a foundation for countless explorations into the genetics and genomics of the human species. Yet for many years, the human genome reference sequence remained incomplete and lacked representation of human genetic diversity. Recently, two major advances have emerged to address these shortcomings: complete gap-free human genome sequences, such as the one developed by the Telomere-to-Telomere Consortium, and high-quality pangenomes, such as the one developed by the Human Pangenome Reference Consortium. Facilitated by advances in long-read DNA sequencing and genome assembly algorithms, complete human genome sequences resolve regions that have been historically difficult to sequence, including centromeres, telomeres, and segmental duplications. In parallel, pangenomes capture the extensive genetic diversity across populations worldwide. Together, these advances usher in a new era of genomics research, enhancing the accuracy of genomic analysis, paving the path for precision medicine, and contributing to deeper insights into human biology.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Schloissnig S, Pani S, Rodriguez-Martin B, et al (2024)

Long-read sequencing and structural variant characterization in 1,019 samples from the 1000 Genomes Project.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.18.590093.

Structural variants (SVs) contribute significantly to human genetic diversity and disease [1-4] . Previously, SVs have remained incompletely resolved by population genomics, with short-read sequencing facing limitations in capturing the whole spectrum of SVs at nucleotide resolution [5-7] . Here we leveraged nanopore sequencing [8] to construct an intermediate coverage resource of 1,019 long-read genomes sampled within 26 human populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. By integrating linear and graph-based approaches for SV analysis via pangenome graph-augmentation, we uncover 167,291 sequence-resolved SVs in these samples, considerably advancing SV characterization compared to population-wide short-read sequencing studies [3,4] . Our analysis details diverse SV classes-deletions, duplications, insertions, and inversions-at population-scale. LINE-1 and SVA retrotransposition activities frequently mediate transductions [9,10] of unique sequences, with both mobile element classes transducing sequences at either the 3'- or 5'-end, depending on the source element locus. Furthermore, analyses of SV breakpoint junctions suggest a continuum of homology-mediated rearrangement processes are integral to SV formation, and highlight evidence for SV recurrence involving repeat sequences. Our open-access dataset underscores the transformative impact of long-read sequencing in advancing the characterisation of polymorphic genomic architectures, and provides a resource for guiding variant prioritisation in future long-read sequencing-based disease studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-24

Liu M, Zhang F, Lu H, et al (2024)

PPanG: a precision pangenome browser enabling nucleotide-level analysis of genomic variations in individual genomes and their graph-based pangenome.

BMC genomics, 25(1):405.

Graph-based pangenome is gaining more popularity than linear pangenome because it stores more comprehensive information of variations. However, traditional linear genome browser has its own advantages, especially the tremendous resources accumulated historically. With the fast-growing number of individual genomes and their annotations available, the demand for a genome browser to visualize genome annotation for many individuals together with a graph-based pangenome is getting higher and higher. Here we report a new pangenome browser PPanG, a precise pangenome browser enabling nucleotide-level comparison of individual genome annotations together with a graph-based pangenome. Nine rice genomes with annotations were provided by default as potential references, and any individual genome can be selected as the reference. Our pangenome browser provides unprecedented insights on genome variations at different levels from base to gene, and reveals how the structures of a gene could differ for individuals. PPanG can be applied to any species with multiple individual genomes available and it is available at .

RevDate: 2024-04-24

Chuang SC, Dobhal S, Alvarez AM, et al (2024)

Three new species, Xanthomonas hawaiiensis sp. nov., Stenotrophomonas aracearum sp. nov., and Stenotrophomonas oahuensis sp. nov., isolated from the Araceae family.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1356025.

Xanthomonas and Stenotrophomonas are closely related genera in the family Lysobacteraceae. In our previous study of aroid-associated bacterial strains, most strains isolated from anthurium and other aroids were reclassified as X. phaseoli and other Xanthomonas species. However, two strains isolated from Spathiphyllum and Colocasia were phylogenetically distant from other strains in the Xanthomonas clade and two strains isolated from Anthurium clustered within the Stenotrophomonas clade. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and nine housekeeping genes placed the former strains with the type strain of X. sacchari from sugarcane and the latter strains with the type strain of S. bentonitica from bentonite. In pairwise comparisons with type strains, the overall genomic relatedness indices required delineation of new species; digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values were lower than 70 and 95%, respectively. Hence, three new species are proposed: S. aracearum sp. nov. and S. oahuensis sp. nov. for two strains from anthurium and X. hawaiiensis sp. nov. for the strains from spathiphyllum and colocasia, respectively. The genome size of X. hawaiiensis sp. nov. is ~4.88 Mbp and higher than S. aracearum sp. nov. (4.33 Mbp) and S. oahuensis sp. nov. (4.68 Mbp). Gene content analysis revealed 425 and 576 core genes present in 40 xanthomonads and 25 stenotrophomonads, respectively. The average number of unique genes in Stenotrophomonas spp. was higher than in Xanthomonas spp., implying higher genetic diversity in Stenotrophomonas.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

He X, Qi Z, Liu Z, et al (2024)

Pangenome analysis reveals transposon-driven genome evolution in cotton.

BMC biology, 22(1):92.

BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) have a profound influence on the trajectory of plant evolution, driving genome expansion and catalyzing phenotypic diversification. The pangenome, a comprehensive genetic pool encompassing all variations within a species, serves as an invaluable tool, unaffected by the confounding factors of intraspecific diversity. This allows for a more nuanced exploration of plant TE evolution.

RESULTS: Here, we constructed a pangenome for diploid A-genome cotton using 344 accessions from representative geographical regions, including 223 from China as the main component. We found 511 Mb of non-reference sequences (NRSs) and revealed the presence of 5479 previously undiscovered protein-coding genes. Our comprehensive approach enabled us to decipher the genetic underpinnings of the distinct geographic distributions of cotton. Notably, we identified 3301 presence-absence variations (PAVs) that are closely tied to gene expression patterns within the pangenome, among which 2342 novel expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were found residing in NRSs. Our investigation also unveiled contrasting patterns of transposon proliferation between diploid and tetraploid cotton, with long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons exhibiting a synchronized surge in polyploids. Furthermore, the invasion of LTR retrotransposons from the A subgenome to the D subgenome triggered a substantial expansion of the latter following polyploidization. In addition, we found that TE insertions were responsible for the loss of 36.2% of species-specific genes, as well as the generation of entirely new species-specific genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our pangenome analyses provide new insights into cotton genomics and subgenome dynamics after polyploidization and demonstrate the power of pangenome approaches for elucidating transposon impacts and genome evolution.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Kavanova K, Kostovova I, Moravkova M, et al (2024)

Comparative Genome Analysis and Characterization of the Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wild Boars in the Czech Republic.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics are crucial components for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota in pigs, especially during the weaning period. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from the gastrointestinal tract of wild boars can serve as an abundant source of beneficial probiotic strains with suitable properties for use in pig husbandry. In this study, we analyzed and characterized 15 strains of Limosilactobacillus mucosae obtained from the gut contents of wild boars to assess their safety and suitability as probiotic candidates. The strains were compared using pan-genomic analysis with 49 L. mucosae strains obtained from the NCBI database. All isolated strains demonstrated their safety by showing an absence of transferrable antimicrobial resistance genes and hemolysin activity. Based on the presence of beneficial genes, five candidates with probiotic properties were selected and subjected to phenotypic profiling. These five selected isolates exhibited the ability to survive conditions mimicking passage through the host's digestive tract, such as low pH and the presence of bile salts. Furthermore, five selected strains demonstrated the presence of corresponding carbohydrate-active enzymes and the ability to utilize various carbohydrate substrates. These strains can enhance the digestibility of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide substrates found in food or feed, specifically resistant starch, α-galactosides, cellobiose, gentiobiose, and arabinoxylans. Based on the results obtained, the L. mucosae isolates tested in this study appear to be promising candidates for use as probiotics in pigs.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Recuerda M, L Campagna (2024)

How structural variants shape avian phenotypes: Lessons from model systems.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite receiving significant recent attention, the relevance of structural variation (SV) in driving phenotypic diversity remains understudied, although recent advances in long-read sequencing, bioinformatics and pangenomic approaches have enhanced SV detection. We review the role of SVs in shaping phenotypes in avian model systems, and identify some general patterns in SV type, length and their associated traits. We found that most of the avian SVs so far identified are short indels in chickens, which are frequently associated with changes in body weight and plumage colouration. Overall, we found that relatively short SVs are more frequently detected, likely due to a combination of their prevalence compared to large SVs, and a detection bias, stemming primarily from the widespread use of short-read sequencing and associated analytical methods. SVs most commonly involve non-coding regions, especially introns, and when patterns of inheritance were reported, SVs associated primarily with dominant discrete traits. We summarise several examples of phenotypic convergence across different species, mediated by different SVs in the same or different genes and different types of changes in the same gene that can lead to various phenotypes. Complex rearrangements and supergenes, which can simultaneously affect and link several genes, tend to have pleiotropic phenotypic effects. Additionally, SVs commonly co-occur with single-nucleotide polymorphisms, highlighting the need to consider all types of genetic changes to understand the basis of phenotypic traits. We end by summarising expectations for when long-read technologies become commonly implemented in non-model birds, likely leading to an increase in SV discovery and characterisation. The growing interest in this subject suggests an increase in our understanding of the phenotypic effects of SVs in upcoming years.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Pettersen JS, Nielsen FD, Andreassen PR, et al (2024)

A comprehensive analysis of pneumococcal two-component system regulatory networks.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 6(2):lqae039.

Two-component systems are key signal-transduction systems that enable bacteria to respond to a wide variety of environmental stimuli. The human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) encodes 13 two-component systems and a single orphan response regulator, most of which are significant for pneumococcal pathogenicity. Mapping the regulatory networks governed by these systems is key to understand pneumococcal host adaptation. Here we employ a novel bioinformatic approach to predict the regulons of each two-component system based on publicly available whole-genome sequencing data. By employing pangenome-wide association studies (panGWAS) to predict genotype-genotype associations for each two-component system, we predicted regulon genes of 11 of the pneumococcal two-component systems. Through validation via next-generation RNA-sequencing on response regulator overexpression mutants, several top candidate genes predicted by the panGWAS analysis were confirmed as regulon genes. The present study presents novel details on multiple pneumococcal two-component systems, including an expansion of regulons, identification of candidate response regulator binding motifs, and identification of candidate response regulator-regulated small non-coding RNAs. We also demonstrate a use for panGWAS as a complementary tool in target gene identification via identification of genotype-to-genotype links. Expanding our knowledge on two-component systems in pathogens is crucial to understanding how these bacteria sense and respond to their host environment, which could prove useful in future drug development.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Wei H, Wang X, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Uncovering key salt-tolerant regulators through a combined eQTL and GWAS analysis using the super pan-genome in rice.

National science review, 11(4):nwae043.

For sessile plants, gene expression plays a pivotal role in responding to salinity stress by activating or suppressing specific genes. However, our knowledge of genetic variations governing gene expression in response to salt stress remains limited in natural germplasm. Through transcriptome analysis of the Global Mini-Core Rice Collection consisting of a panel of 202 accessions, we identified 22 345 and 27 610 expression quantitative trait loci associated with the expression of 7787 and 9361 eGenes under normal and salt-stress conditions, respectively, leveraging the super pan-genome map. Notably, combined with genome-wide association studies, we swiftly pinpointed the potential candidate gene STG5-a major salt-tolerant locus known as qSTS5. Intriguingly, STG5 is required for maintaining Na[+]/K[+] homeostasis by directly regulating the transcription of multiple members of the OsHKT gene family. Our study sheds light on how genetic variants influence the dynamic changes in gene expression responding to salinity stress and provides a valuable resource for the mining of salt-tolerant genes in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Shivute FN, Zhong Y, Wu J, et al (2024)

Genome-wide and pan-genomic analysis reveals rich variants of NBS-LRR genes in a newly developed wild rice line from Oryza alta Swallen.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1345708.

INTRODUCTION: Oryza alta Swallen is an allotetraploid perennial wild rice and contains CCDD genome, which may harbor favorable genes for the enrichment of genetic resource.

METHODS: A new wild rice line, Huaye 5, was developed from Oryza alta Swallen in our lab. Whole genome re-sequencing and pan-genomic analysis were employed to analyze its genomic variations and novel genes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: More than ten million genomic variations were detected when compared with Asian cultivar. Among the variational genes, 724, 197 and 710 genes coded protein kinase, synthetase and transcription factor, respectively. A total of 353, 131 and 135 variational genes were associated with morphological trait, physiological trait, resistance or tolerance, respectively. A total of 62 were NBS-LRR genes were detected, in which 11 NBS-LRR genes expressed in sheath and mature stem, and 26 expressed in young and mature roots expressed. The pan-genome sequences of wild rice species with CCDD genome were constructed by integrating 8 Oryza alta (OA), 2 Oryza grandiglumis (OG) and 18 Oryza latifolia (OL) accessions. A total of 28 non-reference NBS-LRR genes were revealed, and 7 of which were mainly expressed in mature roots. This research demonstrated rich DNA variation in the Oryza alta Swallen that may provide a new germplasm for rice resistance breeding.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Lai SK, Luo AC, Chiu IH, et al (2024)

A novel framework for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping using probe capture-based targeted next-generation sequencing and computational analysis.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 23:1562-1571.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play pivotal roles in numerous immunological applications. Given the immense number of polymorphisms, achieving accurate high-throughput HLA typing remains challenging. This study aimed to harness the human pan-genome reference consortium (HPRC) resources as a potential benchmark for HLA reference materials. We meticulously annotated specific four field-resolution alleles for 11 HLA genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5) from 44 high-quality HPRC personal genome assemblies. For sequencing, we crafted HLA-specific probes and conducted capture-based targeted sequencing of the genomic DNA of the HPRC cohort, ensuring focused and comprehensive coverage of the HLA region of interest. We used publicly available short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from identical samples to offer a comparative perspective. To decipher the vast amount of sequencing data, we employed seven distinct software tools: OptiType, HLA-VBseq, HISAT genotype, SpecHLA, T1K, QzType, and DRAGEN. Each tool offers unique capabilities and algorithms for HLA genotyping, allowing comprehensive analysis and validation of the results. We then compared these results with benchmarks derived from personal genome assemblies. Our findings present a comprehensive four-field-resolution HLA allele annotation for 44 HPRC samples. Significantly, our innovative targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for HLA genes showed superior accuracy compared with conventional short-read WGS. An integrated analysis involving QzType, T1K, and DRAGEN was developed, achieving 100% accuracy for all 11 HLA genes. In conclusion, our study highlighted the combination of targeted short-read sequencing and astute computational analysis as a robust approach for HLA genotyping. Furthermore, the HPRC cohort has emerged as a valuable assembly-based reference in this realm.

RevDate: 2024-04-21

Kogay R, Wolf YI, EV Koonin (2024)

Defence systems and horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.

Environmental microbiology, 26(4):e16630.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fundamental process in prokaryotic evolution, contributing significantly to diversification and adaptation. HGT is typically facilitated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as conjugative plasmids and phages, which often impose fitness costs on their hosts. However, a considerable number of bacterial genes are involved in defence mechanisms that limit the propagation of MGEs, suggesting they may actively restrict HGT. In our study, we investigated whether defence systems limit HGT by examining the relationship between the HGT rate and the presence of 73 defence systems across 12 bacterial species. We discovered that only six defence systems, three of which were different CRISPR-Cas subtypes, were associated with a reduced gene gain rate at the species evolution scale. Hosts of these defence systems tend to have a smaller pangenome size and fewer phage-related genes compared to genomes without these systems. This suggests that these defence mechanisms inhibit HGT by limiting prophage integration. We hypothesize that the restriction of HGT by defence systems is species-specific and depends on various ecological and genetic factors, including the burden of MGEs and the fitness effect of HGT in bacterial populations.

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Lin MJ, Iyer S, Chen NC, et al (2024)

Measuring, visualizing, and diagnosing reference bias with biastools.

Genome biology, 25(1):101.

Many bioinformatics methods seek to reduce reference bias, but no methods exist to comprehensively measure it. Biastools analyzes and categorizes instances of reference bias. It works in various scenarios: when the donor's variants are known and reads are simulated; when donor variants are known and reads are real; and when variants are unknown and reads are real. Using biastools, we observe that more inclusive graph genomes result in fewer biased sites. We find that end-to-end alignment reduces bias at indels relative to local aligners. Finally, we use biastools to characterize how T2T references improve large-scale bias.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Arisan D, Moya-Beltrán A, Rojas-Villalobos C, et al (2024)

Acidithiobacillia class members originating at sites within the Pacific Ring of Fire and other tectonically active locations and description of the novel genus 'Igneacidithiobacillus'.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1360268.

Recent studies have expanded the genomic contours of the Acidithiobacillia, highlighting important lacunae in our comprehension of the phylogenetic space occupied by certain lineages of the class. One such lineage is 'Igneacidithiobacillus', a novel genus-level taxon, represented by 'Igneacidithiobacillus copahuensis' VAN18-1[T] as its type species, along with two other uncultivated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) originating from geothermally active sites across the Pacific Ring of Fire. In this study, we investigate the genetic and genomic diversity, and the distribution patterns of several uncharacterized Acidithiobacillia class strains and sequence clones, which are ascribed to the same 16S rRNA gene sequence clade. By digging deeper into this data and contributing to novel MAGs emerging from environmental studies in tectonically active locations, the description of this novel genus has been consolidated. Using state-of-the-art genomic taxonomy methods, we added to already recognized taxa, an additional four novel Candidate (Ca.) species, including 'Ca. Igneacidithiobacillus chanchocoensis' (mCHCt20-1[TS]), 'Igneacidithiobacillus siniensis' (S30A2[T]), 'Ca. Igneacidithiobacillus taupoensis' (TVZ-G3 [TS]), and 'Ca. Igneacidithiobacillus waiarikiensis' (TVZ-G4 [TS]). Analysis of published data on the isolation, enrichment, cultivation, and preliminary microbiological characterization of several of these unassigned or misassigned strains, along with the type species of the genus, plus the recoverable environmental data from metagenomic studies, allowed us to identify habitat preferences of these taxa. Commonalities and lineage-specific adaptations of the seven species of the genus were derived from pangenome analysis and comparative genomic metabolic reconstruction. The findings emerging from this study lay the groundwork for further research on the ecology, evolution, and biotechnological potential of the novel genus 'Igneacidithiobacillus'.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Jiménez-Edeza M, Galván-Gordillo SV, Pacheco-Arjona R, et al (2024)

Genomic Approach of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Deli-Meats in Mexico.

Current microbiology, 81(6):145.

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis worldwide. In México, L. monocytogenes has been identified as a hazard of deli-meats. However, the genomic analysis that supports the transmission of L. monocytogenes strains via deli-meats and its role as a source for virulence and resistance genes is lacking. Here, we present four high-quality genome drafts of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from deli-meats in Mexico. In silico typing was used to determine the serotype, lineage, clonal complexes (CC), and multilocus sequence (ST). Also, comparative genomics were performed to explore the diversity, virulence, mobile elements, antimicrobial resistant and stress survival traits. The genome sequence size of these strains measured 3.05 ± 0.07 Mb with a mean value of 37.9%G+C. All strains belonged to linage I, which was divided into two groups: 4b, CC2, ST1 (n = 3) and 1/2b, CC5, ST5 (n = 1). The pangenome and core genome contained 3493 and 2625 genes, respectively. The strains harbor the L. monocytogenes pathogenicity island-1 (LIPI-1) and the same multidrug resistance pattern (fosX, norB, mprF, lin) via in silico analysis. Comparative analysis delineated the genomes as essentially syntenic, whose genomic differences were due to phage insertion. These results expand what is known about the biology of the L. monocytogenes strains isolated from deli-meats in Mexico and warns of the risk that these strains belong to epidemic linage and harbor virulence genes linked to human disease.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Sterzi L, Nodari R, Di Marco F, et al (2024)

Genetic barriers more than environmental associations explain Serratia marcescens population structure.

Communications biology, 7(1):468.

Bacterial species often comprise well-separated lineages, likely emerged and maintained by genetic isolation and/or ecological divergence. How these two evolutionary actors interact in the shaping of bacterial population structure is currently not fully understood. In this study, we investigate the genetic and ecological drivers underlying the evolution of Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen with high genomic flexibility and able to colonise diverse environments. Comparative genomic analyses reveal a population structure composed of five deeply-demarcated genetic clusters with open pan-genome but limited inter-cluster gene flow, partially explained by Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems incompatibility. Furthermore, a large-scale research on hundred-thousands metagenomic datasets reveals only a partial habitat separation of the clusters. Globally, two clusters only show a separate gene composition coherent with ecological adaptations. These results suggest that genetic isolation has preceded ecological adaptations in the shaping of the species diversity, an evolutionary scenario coherent with the Evolutionary Extended Synthesis.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Yu-Cheng L, Yan-Ting S, T Zhi-Xi (2024)

Frontiers of soybean pan-genome studies.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 46(3):183-198.

Artificial domestication provided the original motivation to the blooming of agriculture, following with the dramatic change of the genetic background of crops and livestock. According to theory and technology upgradation that contributing to the omics, we appreciate using the pan-genome instead of single reference genome for crop study. By comparison and integration of multiple genomes under the guidance of pan-genome theory, we can estimate the genomic information range of a species, leading to a global understanding of its genetic diversity. Combining pan-genome with large size chromosomal structural variations, high throughput population resequencing, and multi-omics data, we can profoundly study the genetic basis behind species traits we focus on. Soybean is one of the most important commercial crops over the world. It is also essential to our food security. Dissecting the formation of genetic diversity and the causal loci of key agricultural traits of soybean will make the modern soybean breeding more efficiently. In this review, we summarize the core idea of pan-genome and clarified the characteristics of construction strategies of pan-genome such as de novo/mapping assembly, iterative assembly and graph-based genome. Then we used the soybean pan-genome work as a case study to introduce the general way to study pan-genome. We highlighted the contribution of structural variation (SV) to the evolution/domestication of soybean and its value in understanding the genetic bases of agronomy traits. By those, we approved the value of graph-based pan-genome for data integration and SV calculation. Future research directions are also discussed for crop genomics and data science.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Narsing Rao MP, Singh RN, Sani RK, et al (2024)

Genome-based approach to evaluate the metabolic potentials and exopolysaccharides production of Bacillus paralicheniformis CamBx3 isolated from a Chilean hot spring.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1377965.

In the present study, a thermophilic strain designated CamBx3 was isolated from the Campanario hot spring, Chile. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, phylogenomic, and average nucleotide identity analysis the strain CamBx3 was identified as Bacillus paralicheniformis. Genome analysis of B. paralicheniformis CamBx3 revealed the presence of genes related to heat tolerance, exopolysaccharides (EPS), dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and assimilatory sulfate reduction. The pangenome analysis of strain CamBx3 with eight Bacillus spp. resulted in 26,562 gene clusters, 7,002 shell genes, and 19,484 cloud genes. The EPS produced by B. paralicheniformis CamBx3 was extracted, partially purified, and evaluated for its functional activities. B. paralicheniformis CamBx3 EPS with concentration 5 mg mL[-1] showed an optimum 92 mM ferrous equivalent FRAP activity, while the same concentration showed a maximum 91% of Fe[2+] chelating activity. B. paralicheniformis CamBx3 EPS (0.2 mg mL[-1]) demonstrated β-glucosidase inhibition. The EPS formed a viscoelastic gel at 45°C with a maximum instantaneous viscosity of 315 Pa.s at acidic pH 5. The present study suggests that B. paralicheniformis CamBx3 could be a valuable resource for biopolymers and bioactive molecules for industrial applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Feng Y, Arsenault D, Louyakis AS, et al (2024)

Using the pan-genomic framework for the discovery of genomic islands in the haloarchaeon Halorubrum ezzemoulense.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we use pan-genomics to characterize the genomic variability of the widely dispersed halophilic archaeal species Halorubrum ezzemoulense (Hez). We include a multi-regional sampling of newly sequenced, high-quality draft genomes. The pan-genome graph of the species reveals 50 genomic islands that represent rare accessory genetic capabilities available to members. Most notably, we observe rearrangements that have led to the insertion/recombination/replacement of mutually exclusive genomic islands in equivalent genome positions ("homeocassettes"). These conflicting islands encode for similar functions, but homologs from islands located between the same core genes exhibit high divergence on the amino acid level, while the neighboring core genes are nearly identical. Both islands of a homeocassette often coexist in the same geographic location, suggesting that either island may be beyond the reach of selective sweeps and that these loci of divergence between Hez members are maintained and persist long term. This implies that subsections of the population have different niche preferences and rare metabolic capabilities. After an evaluation of the gene content in the homeocassettes, we speculate that these islands may play a role in the speciation, niche adaptability, and group selection dynamics in Hez. Though homeocassettes are first described in this study, similar replacements and divergence of genes on genomic islands have been previously reported in other Haloarchaea and distantly related Archaea, suggesting that homeocassettes may be a feature in a wide range of organisms outside of Hez.IMPORTANCEThis study catalogs the rare genes discovered in strains of the species Halorubrum ezzemoulense (Hez), an obligate halophilic archaeon, through the perspective of its pan-genome. These rare genes are often found to be arranged on islands that confer metabolic and transport functions and contain genes that have eluded previous studies. The discovery of divergent, but homologous islands occupying equivalent genome positions ("homeocassettes") in different genomes, reveals significant new information on genome evolution in Hez. Homeocassette pairs encode for similar functions, but their dissimilarity and distribution imply high rates of recombination, different specializations, and niche preferences in Hez. The coexistence of both islands of a homeocassette pair in multiple environments demonstrates that both islands are beyond the reach of selective sweeps and that these genome content differences between strains persist long term. The switch between islands through recombination under different environmental conditions may lead to a greater range of niche adaptability in Hez.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Zhang H, Su X, Zheng X, et al (2024)

vB_EcoM-P896 coliphage isolated from duck sewage can lyse both intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause diseases in both humans and animals. The limiting factors to prevent as well as control infections from pathogenic E. coli strains are their pathotypes, serotypes, and drug resistance. Herein, a bacteriophage (vB_EcoM-P896) has been isolated from duck sewage. Furthermore, aside from targeting intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains like enteropathogenic E. coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, entero-invasive E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli, vB_EcoM-P896 can cause lysis in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains such as avian pathogenic E. coli. Stability analysis revealed that vB_EcoM-P896 was stable under the following conditions: temperature, 4℃-50℃; pH, 3-11. The sequencing of the vB_EcoM-P896 genome was conducted utilizing an HiSeq system (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and subjected to de novo assembling with the aid of Spades 3.11.1. The characteristics of the DNA genome were as follows: size, 170,656 bp; GC content, 40.4%; the number of putative coding regions, 294. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of morphology and genome analysis revealed that the phage vB_EcoM-P896 belonged to the order Caudovirales and the family Myoviridae. The pan-genome analysis of vB_EcoM-P896 was divided into two levels. The first level involved the analysis of 91 strains of muscle tail phages, which were mainly divided into 5 groups. The second level involved the analysis of 24 strains of myophage with high homology. Of the 1480 gene clusters, 23 were shared core genes. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Poisson model with MEGA6.0 based on the conserved sequences of phage proteins, the amino acid sequence of the terminase large subunit, and tail fibrin. Further analysis revealed that vB_EcoM-P896 was a typical T4-like potent phage with potential clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Aziz T, Hangyu H, Naveed M, et al (2024)

Genotypic Profiling, Functional Analysis, Cholesterol-Lowering Ability, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum K25 via Different Approaches.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Due to its alleged health advantages, several uses in biotechnology and food safety, the well-known probiotic strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum K25 has drawn interest. This in-depth investigation explores the genetic diversity, makeup, and security characteristics of the microbial genome of L. plantarum K25, providing insightful knowledge about its genotypic profile and functional characteristics. Utilizing cutting-edge bioinformatics techniques like comparative genomics, pan-genomics, and genotypic profiling was carried out to reveal the strain's multidimensional potential in various fields. The results not only add to our understanding of the genetic makeup of L. plantarum K25 but also show off its acceptability in various fields, notably in biotechnology and food safety. The explanation of evolutionary links, which highlights L. plantarum K25's aptitude as a probiotic, is one notable finding from this research. Its safety profile, which is emphasized by the absence of genes linked to antibiotic resistance, is crucial and supports its status as a promising probiotic option.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Chen L, Chen K, Xi X, et al (2024)

The Evolution, Expression Patterns, and Domestication Selection Analysis of the Annexin Gene Family in the Barley Pan-Genome.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(7): pii:ijms25073883.

Plant annexins constitute a conserved protein family that plays crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a total of 144 annexin genes were identified in the barley pan-genome, comprising 12 reference genomes, including cultivated barley, landraces, and wild barley. Their chromosomal locations, physical-chemical characteristics, gene structures, conserved domains, and subcellular localizations were systematically analyzed to reveal the certain differences between wild and cultivated populations. Through a cis-acting element analysis, co-expression network, and large-scale transcriptome analysis, their involvement in growth, development, and responses to various stressors was highlighted. It is worth noting that HvMOREXann5 is only expressed in pistils and anthers, indicating its crucial role in reproductive development. Based on the resequencing data from 282 barley accessions worldwide, genetic variations in thefamily were investigated, and the results showed that 5 out of the 12 identified HvMOREXanns were affected by selection pressure. Genetic diversity and haplotype frequency showed notable reductions between wild and domesticated barley, suggesting that a genetic bottleneck occurred on the annexin family during the barley domestication process. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of HvMOREXann7 under drought stress, along with significant differences between wild accessions and varieties. This study provides some insights into the genome organization and genetic characteristics of the annexin gene family in barley at the pan-genome level, which will contribute to better understanding its evolution and function in barley and other crops.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Wong B, Ferguson JM, Do JY, et al (2024)

Streamlining remote nanopore data access with slow5curl.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: As adoption of nanopore sequencing technology continues to advance, the need to maintain large volumes of raw current signal data for reanalysis with updated algorithms is a growing challenge. Here we introduce slow5curl, a software package designed to streamline nanopore data sharing, accessibility, and reanalysis.

RESULTS: Slow5curl allows a user to fetch a specified read or group of reads from a raw nanopore dataset stored on a remote server, such as a public data repository, without downloading the entire file. Slow5curl uses an index to quickly fetch specific reads from a large dataset in SLOW5/BLOW5 format and highly parallelized data access requests to maximize download speeds. Using all public nanopore data from the Human Pangenome Reference Consortium (>22 TB), we demonstrate how slow5curl can be used to quickly fetch and reanalyze raw signal reads corresponding to a set of target genes from each individual in large cohort dataset (n = 91), minimizing the time, egress costs, and local storage requirements for their reanalysis.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide slow5curl as a free, open-source package that will reduce frictions in data sharing for the nanopore community:

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Wang J, Hu H, Jiang X, et al (2024)

Pangenome-Wide Association Study and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal a Novel QTL and Candidate Genes Controlling both Panicle and Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

Rice (New York, N.Y.), 17(1):27.

Cultivating rice varieties with robust blast resistance is the most effective and economical way to manage the rice blast disease. However, rice blast disease comprises leaf and panicle blast, which are different in terms of resistance mechanisms. While many blast resistant rice cultivars were bred using genes conferring resistance to only leaf or panicle blast, mining durable and effective quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both panicle and leaf blast resistance is of paramount importance. In this study, we conducted a pangenome-wide association study (panGWAS) on 9 blast resistance related phenotypes using 414 international diverse rice accessions from an international rice panel. This approach led to the identification of 74 QTLs associated with rice blast resistance. One notable locus, qPBR1, validated in a F4:5 population and fine-mapped in a Heterogeneous Inbred Family (HIF), exhibited broad-spectrum, major and durable blast resistance throughout the growth period. Furthermore, we performed transcriptomic analysis of 3 resistant and 3 sensitive accessions at different time points after infection, revealing 3,311 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) potentially involved in blast resistance. Integration of the above results identified 6 candidate genes within the qPBR1 locus, with no significant negative effect on yield. The results of this study provide valuable germplasm resources, QTLs, blast response genes and candidate functional genes for developing rice varieties with enduring and broad-spectrum blast resistance. The qPBR1, in particular, holds significant potential for breeding new rice varieties with comprehensive and durable resistance throughout their growth period.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Yin Z, Liang J, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Pan-genome insights into adaptive evolution of bacterial symbionts in mixed host-microbe symbioses represented by human gut microbiota Bacteroides cellulosilyticus.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02394-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Animal hosts harbor diverse assemblages of microbial symbionts that play crucial roles in the host's lifestyle. The link between microbial symbiosis and host development remains poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive evolution of gut bacteria in host-microbe symbioses. Recently, symbiotic relationships have been categorized as open, closed, or mixed, reflecting their modes of inter-host transmission and resulting in distinct genomic features. Members of the genus Bacteroides are the most abundant human gut microbiota and possess both probiotic and pathogenic potential, providing an excellent model for studying pan-genome evolution in symbiotic systems. Here, we determined the complete genome of an novel clinical strain PL2022, which was isolated from a blood sample and performed pan-genome analyses on a representative set of Bacteroides cellulosilyticus strains to quantify the influence of the symbiotic relationship on the evolutionary dynamics. B. cellulosilyticus exhibited correlated genomic features with both open and closed symbioses, suggesting a mixed symbiosis. An open pan-genome is characterized by abundant accessory gene families, potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs), indicating an innovative gene pool, mainly associated with genomic islands and plasmids. However, massive parallel gene loss, weak purifying selection, and accumulation of positively selected mutations were the main drivers of genome reduction in B. cellulosilyticus. Metagenomic read recruitment analyses showed that B. cellulosilyticus members are globally distributed and active in human gut habitats, in line with predominant vertical transmission in the human gut. However, existence and/or high abundance were also detected in non-intestinal tissues, other animal hosts, and non-host environments, indicating occasional horizontal transmission to new niches, thereby creating arenas for the acquisition of novel genes. This case study of adaptive evolution under a mixed host-microbe symbiosis advances our understanding of symbiotic pan-genome evolution. Our results highlight the complexity of genetic evolution in this unusual intestinal symbiont.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Roder T, Pimentel G, Fuchsmann P, et al (2024)

Scoary2: rapid association of phenotypic multi-omics data with microbial pan-genomes.

Genome biology, 25(1):93.

Unraveling bacterial gene function drives progress in various areas, such as food production, pharmacology, and ecology. While omics technologies capture high-dimensional phenotypic data, linking them to genomic data is challenging, leaving 40-60% of bacterial genes undescribed. To address this bottleneck, we introduce Scoary2, an ultra-fast microbial genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) software. With its data exploration app and improved performance, Scoary2 is the first tool to enable the study of large phenotypic datasets using mGWAS. As proof of concept, we explore the metabolome of yogurts, each produced with a different Propionibacterium reichii strain and discover two genes affecting carnitine metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Cunha-Ferreira IC, Vizzotto CS, Freitas MAM, et al (2024)

Genomic and physiological characterization of Kitasatospora sp. nov., an actinobacterium with potential for biotechnological application isolated from Cerrado soil.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

An Actinobacteria - Kitasatospora sp. K002 - was isolated from the soil of Cerrado, a savanna-like Brazilian biome. Herein, we conducted a phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological characterization, revealing its potential for biotechnological applications. Kitasatospora sp. K002 is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive bacteria that forms grayish-white mycelium on solid cultures and submerged spores with vegetative mycelia on liquid cultures. The strain showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Genomic analysis indicated that Kitasatospora xanthocidica JCM 4862 is the closest strain to K002, with a dDDH of 32.8-37.8% and an ANI of 86.86% and the pangenome investigations identified a high number of rare genes. A total of 60 gene clusters of 22 different types were detected by AntiSMASH, and 22 gene clusters showed low similarity (< 10%) with known compounds, which suggests the potential production of novel bioactive compounds. In addition, phylogenetic analysis and morphophysiological characterization clearly distinguished Kitasatospora sp. K002 from other related species. Therefore, we propose that Kitasatospora sp. K002 should be recognized as a new species of the genus Kitasatospora - Kitasatospora brasiliensis sp. nov. (type strains = K002).

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Lian Q, Huettel B, Walkemeier B, et al (2024)

A pan-genome of 69 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions reveals a conserved genome structure throughout the global species range.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Although originally primarily a system for functional biology, Arabidopsis thaliana has, owing to its broad geographical distribution and adaptation to diverse environments, developed into a powerful model in population genomics. Here we present chromosome-level genome assemblies of 69 accessions from a global species range. We found that genomic colinearity is very conserved, even among geographically and genetically distant accessions. Along chromosome arms, megabase-scale rearrangements are rare and typically present only in a single accession. This indicates that the karyotype is quasi-fixed and that rearrangements in chromosome arms are counter-selected. Centromeric regions display higher structural dynamics, and divergences in core centromeres account for most of the genome size variations. Pan-genome analyses uncovered 32,986 distinct gene families, 60% being present in all accessions and 40% appearing to be dispensable, including 18% private to a single accession, indicating unexplored genic diversity. These 69 new Arabidopsis thaliana genome assemblies will empower future genetic research.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Hong A, Oliva M, Köppl D, et al (2024)

Pfp-fm: an accelerated FM-index.

Algorithms for molecular biology : AMB, 19(1):15.

FM-indexes are crucial data structures in DNA alignment, but searching with them usually takes at least one random access per character in the query pattern. Ferragina and Fischer [1] observed in 2007 that word-based indexes often use fewer random accesses than character-based indexes, and thus support faster searches. Since DNA lacks natural word-boundaries, however, it is necessary to parse it somehow before applying word-based FM-indexing. In 2022, Deng et al. [2] proposed parsing genomic data by induced suffix sorting, and showed that the resulting word-based FM-indexes support faster counting queries than standard FM-indexes when patterns are a few thousand characters or longer. In this paper we show that using prefix-free parsing-which takes parameters that let us tune the average length of the phrases-instead of induced suffix sorting, gives a significant speedup for patterns of only a few hundred characters. We implement our method and demonstrate it is between 3 and 18 times faster than competing methods on queries to GRCh38, and is consistently faster on queries made to 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Hence, it seems our method accelerates the performance of count over all state-of-the-art methods with a moderate increase in the memory. The source code for PFP - FM is available at .

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Lazaridi E, Kapazoglou A, Gerakari M, et al (2024)

Crop Landraces and Indigenous Varieties: A Valuable Source of Genes for Plant Breeding.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6): pii:plants13060758.

Landraces and indigenous varieties comprise valuable sources of crop species diversity. Their utilization in plant breeding may lead to increased yield and enhanced quality traits, as well as resilience to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, new approaches based on the rapid advancement of genomic technologies such as deciphering of pangenomes, multi-omics tools, marker-assisted selection (MAS), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing greatly facilitated the exploitation of landraces in modern plant breeding. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of the implementation of new genomic technologies and highlight their importance in pinpointing the genetic basis of desirable traits in landraces and indigenous varieties of annual, perennial herbaceous, and woody crop species cultivated in the Mediterranean region. The need for further employment of advanced -omic technologies to unravel the full potential of landraces and indigenous varieties underutilized genetic diversity is also indicated. Ultimately, the large amount of genomic data emerging from the investigation of landraces and indigenous varieties reveals their potential as a source of valuable genes and traits for breeding. The role of landraces and indigenous varieties in mitigating the ongoing risks posed by climate change in agriculture and food security is also highlighted.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Xing Y, Clark JR, Chang JD, et al (2024)

Progress toward a vaccine for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) II: efficacy of a toxin-autotransporter dual antigen approach.

Infection and immunity [Epub ahead of print].

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, the top cause of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections, and the most frequent cause of life-threatening sepsis and urinary tract infections (UTI) in adults. The development of an effective and universal vaccine is complicated by this pathogen's pan-genome, its ability to mix and match virulence factors and AMR genes via horizontal gene transfer, an inability to decipher commensal from pathogens, and its intimate association and co-evolution with mammals. Using a pan virulome analysis of >20,000 sequenced E. coli strains, we identified the secreted cytolysin α-hemolysin (HlyA) as a high priority target for vaccine exploration studies. We demonstrate that a catalytically inactive pure form of HlyA, expressed in an autologous host using its own secretion system, is highly immunogenic in a murine host, protects against several forms of ExPEC infection (including lethal bacteremia), and significantly lowers bacterial burdens in multiple organ systems. Interestingly, the combination of a previously reported autotransporter (SinH) with HlyA was notably effective, inducing near complete protection against lethal challenge, including commonly used infection strains ST73 (CFT073) and ST95 (UTI89), as well as a mixture of 10 of the most highly virulent sequence types and strains from our clinical collection. Both HlyA and HlyA-SinH combinations also afforded some protection against UTI89 colonization in a murine UTI model. These findings suggest recombinant, inactive hemolysin and/or its combination with SinH warrant investigation in the development of an E. coli vaccine against invasive disease.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Marin MG, Wippel C, Quinones-Olvera N, et al (2024)

Analysis of the limited M. tuberculosis accessory genome reveals potential pitfalls of pan-genome analysis approaches.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.21.586149.

Pan-genome analysis is a fundamental tool in the study of bacterial genome evolution. Benchmarking the accuracy of pan-genome analysis methods is challenging, because it can be significantly influenced by both the methodology used to compare genomes, as well as differences in the accuracy and representativeness of the genomes analyzed. In this work, we curated a collection of 151 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates to evaluate sources of variability in pan-genome analysis. Mtb is characterized by its clonal evolution, absence of horizontal gene transfer, and limited accessory genome, making it an ideal test case for this study. Using a state-of-the-art graph-genome approach, we found that a majority of the structural variation observed in Mtb originates from rearrangement, deletion, and duplication of redundant nucleotide sequences. In contrast, we found that pan-genome analyses that focus on comparison of coding sequences (at the amino acid level) can yield surprisingly variable results, driven by differences in assembly quality and the softwares used. Upon closer inspection, we found that coding sequence annotation discrepancies were a major contributor to inflated Mtb accessory genome estimates. To address this, we developed panqc, a software that detects annotation discrepancies and collapses nucleotide redundancy in pan-genome estimates. We characterized the effect of the panqc adjustment on both pan-genome analysis of Mtb and E. coli genomes, and highlight how different levels of genomic diversity are prone to unique biases. Overall, this study illustrates the need for careful methodological selection and quality control to accurately map the evolutionary dynamics of a bacterial species.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Carhuaricra-Huaman D, Gonzalez IHL, Ramos PL, et al (2024)

Analysis of twelve genomes of the bacterium Kerstersia gyiorum from brown-throated sloths (Bradypus variegatus), the first from a non-human host.

PeerJ, 12:e17206.

Kerstersia gyiorum is a Gram-negative bacterium found in various animals, including humans, where it has been associated with various infections. Knowledge of the basic biology of K. gyiorum is essential to understand the evolutionary strategies of niche adaptation and how this organism contributes to infectious diseases; however, genomic data about K. gyiorum is very limited, especially from non-human hosts. In this work, we sequenced 12 K. gyiorum genomes isolated from healthy free-living brown-throated sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brazil), and compared them with genomes from isolates of human origin, in order to gain insights into genomic diversity, phylogeny, and host specialization of this species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these K. gyiorum strains are structured according to host. Despite the fact that sloth isolates were sampled from a single geographic location, the intra-sloth K. gyiorum diversity was divided into three clusters, with differences of more than 1,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms between them, suggesting the circulation of various K. gyiorum lineages in sloths. Genes involved in mobilome and defense mechanisms against mobile genetic elements were the main source of gene content variation between isolates from different hosts. Sloth-specific K. gyiorum genome features include an IncN2 plasmid, a phage sequence, and a CRISPR-Cas system. The broad diversity of defense elements in K. gyiorum (14 systems) may prevent further mobile element flow and explain the low amount of mobile genetic elements in K. gyiorum genomes. Gene content variation may be important for the adaptation of K. gyiorum to different host niches. This study furthers our understanding of diversity, host adaptation, and evolution of K. gyiorum, by presenting and analyzing the first genomes of non-human isolates.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Wolfe JM (2024)

Pangenomes at the limits of evolution.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(24)00081-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Evolutionary pathways can be random or deterministic. In a recent article, Beavan et al. investigate this balance by applying machine learning models to microbial pangenomes. The presence of almost one-third of genes can be reliably inferred, indicating a surprising amount of predictable evolution.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Cannon EK, Portwood JL, Hayford RK, et al (2024)

Enhanced pan-genomic resources at the maize genetics and genomics database.

Genetics pii:7641224 [Epub ahead of print].

Pan-genomes, encompassing the entirety of genetic sequences found in a collection of genomes within a clade, are more useful than single reference genomes for studying species diversity. This is especially true for a species like Zea mays, which has a particularly diverse and complex genome. Presenting pan-genome data, analyses, and visualization is challenging, especially for a diverse species, but more so when pan-genomic data is linked to extensive gene model and gene data, including classical gene information, markers, insertions, expression and proteomic data, and protein structures as is the case at MaizeGDB. Here, we describe MaizeGDB's expansion to include the genic subset of the Zea pan-genome in a pan-gene data center featuring the maize genomes hosted at MaizeGDB, and the outgroup teosinte Zea genomes from the Pan-Andropoganeae project. The new data center offers a variety of browsing and visualization tools, including sequence alignment visualization, gene trees and other tools, to explore pan-genes in Zea that were calculated by the pipeline Pandagma. Combined, these data will help maize researchers study the complexity and diversity of Zea, and to use the comparative functions to validate pan-gene relationships for a selected gene model.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Borowska-Beszta M, Smoktunowicz M, Horoszkiewicz D, et al (2024)

Comparative genomics, pangenomics, and phenomic studies of Pectobacterium betavasculorum strains isolated from sugar beet, potato, sunflower, and artichoke: insights into pathogenicity, virulence determinants, and adaptation to the host plant.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1352318.

INTRODUCTION: Bacteria of genus Pectobacterium, encompassing economically significant pathogens affecting various plants, includes the species P. betavasculorum, initially associated with beetroot infection. However, its host range is much broader. It causes diseases of sunflower, potato, tomato, carrots, sweet potato, radish, squash, cucumber, and chrysanthemum. To explain this phenomenon, a comprehensive pathogenomic and phenomic characterisation of P. betavasculorum species was performed.

METHODS: Genomes of P. betavasculorum strains isolated from potato, sunflower, and artichoke were sequenced and compared with those from sugar beet isolates. Metabolic profiling and pathogenomic analyses were conducted to assess virulence determinants and adaptation potential. Pathogenicity assays were performed on potato tubers and chicory leaves to confirm in silico predictions of disease symptoms. Phenotypic assays were also conducted to assess the strains ability to synthesise homoserine lactones and siderophores.

RESULTS: The genome size ranged from 4.675 to 4.931 kbp, and GC % was between 51.0% and 51.2%. The pangenome of P. betavasculorum is open and comprises, on average, 4,220 gene families. Of these, 83% of genes are the core genome, and 2% of the entire pangenome are unique genes. Strains isolated from sugar beet have a smaller pangenome size and a higher number of unique genes than those from other plants. Interestingly, genomes of strains from artichoke and sunflower share 391 common CDS that are not present in the genomes of other strains from sugar beet or potato. Those strains have only one unique gene. All strains could use numerous sugars as building materials and energy sources and possessed a high repertoire of virulence determinants in the genomes. P. betavasculorum strains were able to cause disease symptoms on potato tubers and chicory leaves. They were also able to synthesise homoserine lactones and siderophores.

DISCUSSION: The findings underscore the adaptability of P. betavasculorum to diverse hosts and environments. Strains adapted to plants with high sugar content in tissues have a different composition of fatty acids in membranes and a different mechanism of replenishing nitrogen in case of deficiency of this compound than strains derived from other plant species. Extensive phenomics and genomic analyses performed in this study have shown that P. betavasculorum species is an agronomically relevant pathogen.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Baek J, Lawson J, V Rahimzadeh (2024)

Investigating the Roles and Responsibilities of Institutional Signing Officials After Data Sharing Policy Reform for Federally Funded Research in the United States: National Survey.

JMIR formative research, 8:e49822.

BACKGROUND: New federal policies along with rapid growth in data generation, storage, and analysis tools are together driving scientific data sharing in the United States. At the same, triangulating human research data from diverse sources can also create situations where data are used for future research in ways that individuals and communities may consider objectionable. Institutional gatekeepers, namely, signing officials (SOs), are therefore at the helm of compliant management and sharing of human data for research. Of those with data governance responsibilities, SOs most often serve as signatories for investigators who deposit, access, and share research data between institutions. Although SOs play important leadership roles in compliant data sharing, we know surprisingly little about their scope of work, roles, and oversight responsibilities.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe existing institutional policies and practices of US SOs who manage human genomic data access, as well as how these may change in the wake of new Data Management and Sharing requirements for National Institutes of Health-funded research in the United States.

METHODS: We administered an anonymous survey to institutional SOs recruited from biomedical research institutions across the United States. Survey items probed where data generated from extramurally funded research are deposited, how researchers outside the institution access these data, and what happens to these data after extramural funding ends.

RESULTS: In total, 56 institutional SOs participated in the survey. We found that SOs frequently approve duplicate data deposits and impose stricter access controls when data use limitations are unclear or unspecified. In addition, 21% (n=12) of SOs knew where data from federally funded projects are deposited after project funding sunsets. As a consequence, most investigators deposit their scientific data into "a National Institutes of Health-funded repository" to meet the Data Management and Sharing requirements but also within the "institution's own repository" or a third-party repository.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings inform 5 policy recommendations and best practices for US SOs to improve coordination and develop comprehensive and consistent data governance policies that balance the need for scientific progress with effective human data protections.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Hall MB, LJM Coin (2024)

Pangenome databases improve host removal and mycobacteria classification from clinical metagenomic data.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: Culture-free real-time sequencing of clinical metagenomic samples promises both rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial resistance profiling. However, this approach introduces the risk of patient DNA leakage. To mitigate this risk, we need near-comprehensive removal of human DNA sequences at the point of sequencing, typically involving the use of resource-constrained devices. Existing benchmarks have largely focused on the use of standardized databases and largely ignored the computational requirements of depletion pipelines as well as the impact of human genome diversity.

RESULTS: We benchmarked host removal pipelines on simulated and artificial real Illumina and Nanopore metagenomic samples. We found that construction of a custom kraken database containing diverse human genomes results in the best balance of accuracy and computational resource usage. In addition, we benchmarked pipelines using kraken and minimap2 for taxonomic classification of Mycobacterium reads using standard and custom databases. With a database representative of the Mycobacterium genus, both tools obtained improved specificity and sensitivity, compared to the standard databases for classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Computational efficiency of these custom databases was superior to most standard approaches, allowing them to be executed on a laptop device.

CONCLUSIONS: Customized pangenome databases provide the best balance of accuracy and computational efficiency when compared to standard databases for the task of human read removal and M. tuberculosis read classification from metagenomic samples. Such databases allow for execution on a laptop, without sacrificing accuracy, an especially important consideration in low-resource settings. We make all customized databases and pipelines freely available.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Olbrich M, Bartels L, I Wohlers (2024)

Sequencing technologies and hardware-accelerated parallel computing transform computational genomics research.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 4:1384497.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Jiang M, Chen M, Zeng J, et al (2024)

A comprehensive evaluation of the potential of three next-generation short-read-based plant pan-genome construction strategies for the identification of novel non-reference sequence.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1371222.

Pan-genome studies are important for understanding plant evolution and guiding the breeding of crops by containing all genomic diversity of a certain species. Three short-read-based strategies for plant pan-genome construction include iterative individual, iteration pooling, and map-to-pan. Their performance is very different under various conditions, while comprehensive evaluations have yet to be conducted nowadays. Here, we evaluate the performance of these three pan-genome construction strategies for plants under different sequencing depths and sample sizes. Also, we indicate the influence of length and repeat content percentage of novel sequences on three pan-genome construction strategies. Besides, we compare the computational resource consumption among the three strategies. Our findings indicate that map-to-pan has the greatest recall but the lowest precision. In contrast, both two iterative strategies have superior precision but lower recall. Factors of sample numbers, novel sequence length, and the percentage of novel sequences' repeat content adversely affect the performance of all three strategies. Increased sequencing depth improves map-to-pan's performance, while not affecting the other two iterative strategies. For computational resource consumption, map-to-pan demands considerably more than the other two iterative strategies. Overall, the iterative strategy, especially the iterative pooling strategy, is optimal when the sequencing depth is less than 20X. Map-to-pan is preferable when the sequencing depth exceeds 20X despite its higher computational resource consumption.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Marlin R, Loger JS, Joachim C, et al (2024)

Copy number signatures and CCNE1 amplification reveal the involvement of replication stress in high-grade endometrial tumors oncogenesis.

Cellular oncology (Dordrecht) [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Managing high-grade endometrial cancer in Martinique poses significant challenges. The diversity of copy number alterations in high-grade endometrial tumors, often associated with a TP53 mutation, is a key factor complicating treatment. Due to the high incidence of high-grade tumors with poor prognosis, our study aimed to characterize the molecular signature of these tumors within a cohort of 25 high-grade endometrial cases.

METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive pangenomic analysis to categorize the copy number alterations involved in these tumors. Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES) and Homologous Recombination (HR) analysis were performed. The alterations obtained from the WES were classified into various signatures using the Copy Number Signatures tool available in COSMIC.

RESULTS: We identified several signatures that correlated with tumor stage and disctinct prognoses. These signatures all seem to be linked to replication stress, with CCNE1 amplification identified as the primary driver of oncogenesis in over 70% of tumors analyzed.

CONCLUSION: The identification of CCNE1 amplification, which is currently being explored as a therapeutic target in clinical trials, suggests new treatment strategies for high-grade endometrial cancer. This finding holds particular significance for Martinique, where access to care is challenging.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Comba-González NB, Chaves-Moreno D, Santamaría-Vanegas J, et al (2024)

A pan-genomic assessment: Delving into the genome of the marine epiphyte Bacillus altitudinis strain 19_A and other very close Bacillus strains from multiple environments.

Heliyon, 10(7):e27820 pii:S2405-8440(24)03851-9.

Marine macroalgae are the habitat of epiphytic bacteria and provide several conditions for a beneficial biological interaction to thrive. Although Bacillus is one of the most abundant epiphytic genera, genomic information on marine macroalgae-associated Bacillus species remains scarce. In this study, we further investigated our previously published genome of the epiphytic strain Bacillus altitudinis 19_A to find features that could be translated to potential metabolites produced by this microorganism, as well as genes that play a role in its interaction with its macroalgal host. To achieve this goal, we performed a pan-genome analysis of Bacillus sp. and a codon bias assessment, including the genome of the strain Bacillus altitudinis 19_A and 29 complete genome sequences of closely related Bacillus strains isolated from soil, marine environments, plants, extreme environments, air, and food. This genomic analysis revealed that Bacillus altitudinis 19_A possessed unique genes encoding proteins involved in horizontal gene transfer, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. In this comparative analysis, codon bias was not associated with the habitat of the strains studied. Some accessory genes were identified in the Bacillus altitudinis 19_A genome that could be related to its epiphytic lifestyle, as well as gene clusters for the biosynthesis of a sporulation-killing factor and a bacteriocin, showing their potential as a source of antimicrobial peptides. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the Bacillus altitudinis 19_A genome to understand its adaptation to the marine environment and its potential as a producer of bioactive compounds.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Marini S, Barquero A, Wadhwani AA, et al (2024)

OCTOPUS: Disk-based, Multiplatform, Mobile-friendly Metagenomics Classifier.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.15.585215.

Portable genomic sequencers such as Oxford Nanopore's MinION enable real-time applications in both clinical and environmental health, e.g., detection of bacterial outbreaks. However, there is a bottleneck in the downstream analytics when bioinformatics pipelines are unavailable, e.g., when cloud processing is unreachable due to absence of Internet connection, or only low-end computing devices can be carried on site. For instance, metagenomics classifiers usually require a large amount of memory or specific operating systems/libraries. In this work, we present a platform-friendly software for portable metagenomic analysis of Nanopore data, the Oligomer-based Classifier of Taxonomic Operational and Pan-genome Units via Singletons (OCTOPUS). OCTOPUS is written in Java, reimplements several features of the popular Kraken2 and KrakenUniq software, with original components for improving metagenomics classification on incomplete/sampled reference databases (e.g., selection of bacteria of public health priority), making it ideal for running on smartphones or tablets. We indexed both OCTOPUS and Kraken2 on a bacterial database with ∼4,000 reference genomes, then simulated a positive (bacterial genomes from the same species, but different genomes) and two negative (viral, mammalian) Nanopore test sets. On the bacterial test set OCTOPUS yielded sensitivity and precision comparable to Kraken2 (94.4% and 99.8% versus 94.5% and 99.1%, respectively). On non-bacterial sequences (mammals and viral), OCTOPUS dramatically decreased (4-to 16-fold) the false positive rate when compared to Kraken2 (2.1% and 0.7% versus 8.2% and 11.2%, respectively). We also developed customized databases including viruses, and the World Health Organization's set of bacteria of concern for drug resistance, tested with real Nanopore data on an Android smartphone. OCTOPUS is publicly available at and .

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Montecillo JAV (2024)

Comparative genomics of the genus Halioglobus reveals the genetic basis for the reclassification of Halioglobus pacificus as Parahalioglobus pacificus gen. nov. comb. nov.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Halioglobus is one of the environmentally relevant members of the family Halieaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. At present, the genus is composed of three validly published species. However, in the recent study of the family Halieaceae, the species Halioglobus pacificus was observed to branch outside of the main clade formed by the members of Halioglobus, suggesting its distinct taxonomic placement within the family. In the present study, the taxonomic placement of H. pacificus was reassessed using comparative genomics. Phylogenomic analysis revealed the paraphyletic relationship of H. pacificus with the type species of the genus Halioglobus, and further demonstrated its genus-level placement. This phylogenetic relationship was reinforced by the average nucleotide and amino acid identity values shared by H. pacificus with the members of the family Halieaceae. Moreover, the results of the pan-genome analysis, together with the phenotype data, further supported the exclusion of H. pacificus from the genus Halioglobus. Based on these findings, the species H. pacificus is thereby assigned to a new genus Parahalioglobus gen. nov. as Parahalioglobus pacificus comb. nov.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Yang Y, Wang H, Tu J, et al (2024)

Comprehensive genomic analysis of Burkholderia arboris PN-1 reveals its biocontrol potential against Fusarium solani-induced root rot in Panax notoginseng.

Current genetics, 70(1):4.

Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen, a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, faces significant yield and quality challenges stemming from root rot primarily caused by Fusarium solani. Burkholderia arboris PN-1, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of P. notoginseng, demonstrated a remarkable ability to inhibit the growth of F. solani. This study integrates phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic analyses to enhance our understanding of the biocontrol mechanisms employed by B. arboris PN-1. Phenotype analysis reveals that B. arboris PN-1 effectively suppresses P. notoginseng root rot both in vitro and in vivo. The genome of B. arboris PN-1 comprises three circular chromosomes (contig 1: 3,651,544 bp, contig 2: 1,355,460 bp, and contig 3: 3,471,056 bp), with a 66.81% GC content, housing 7,550 protein-coding genes. Notably, no plasmids were detected. Phylogenetic analysis places PN-1 in close relation to B. arboris AU14372, B. arboris LMG24066, and B. arboris MEC_B345. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values confirm the PN-1 classification as B. arboris. Comparative analysis with seven other B. arboris strains identified 4,628 core genes in B. arboris PN-1. The pan-genome of B. arboris appears open but may approach closure. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 265 carbohydrate-active enzymes and identified 9 gene clusters encoding secondary metabolites. This comprehensive investigation enhances our understanding of B. arboris genomes, paving the way for their potential as effective biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens in the future.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

International BR (2024)

Retracted: Epi-Gene: An R-Package for Easy Pan-Genome Analysis.

BioMed research international, 2024:9830450.

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2021/5585586.].

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Grizon A, Theil S, Helinck S, et al (2024)

Genomic Characterization of Wild Lactobacillus delbrueckii Strains Reveals Low Diversity but Strong Typicity.

Microorganisms, 12(3): pii:microorganisms12030512.

Investigating the diversity of a given species could give clues for the development of autochthonous starter cultures. However, few studies have focused on the intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains, a technologically important lactic acid bacterium for the dairy industry. For this reason, Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains from the Saint-Nectaire Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) area were isolated and characterized. Genetic diversity was determined based on core genome phylogenetic reconstruction and pangenome analysis, while phenotypic assessments encompassed proteolysis and volatile compound production potential. A total of 15 L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis unique new strains were obtained. The genetic analysis and further proteolytic activities measurement revealed low variability among these Saint-Nectaire strains, while substantial genetic variability was observed within the L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis subspecies as a whole. The volatile compound profiles slightly differed among strains, and some strains produced volatile compounds that could be of particular interest for cheese flavor development. While the genetic diversity among Saint-Nectaire strains was relatively modest compared to overall subspecies diversity, their distinct characteristics and pronounced differentiation from publicly available genomes position them as promising candidates for developing autochthonous starter cultures for cheese production.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Park S, Kim I, Chhetri G, et al (2024)

Draft Genome Sequence Analyses of Two Novel Marinobacter suadae sp. nov. and Wenyingzhuangia gilva sp. nov. Isolated from the Root of Suaeda japonica Makino.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3): pii:life14030296.

Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and aerobic bacteria designated chi1[T] and chi5[T] were isolated from the root of Suaeda japonica Makino. Phylogenetics utilizing 16S rRNA and whole-genome sequences of the two novel strains chi1[T] and chi5[T] confirmed that they were related to the genera Marinobacter and Wenyingzhuangia, respectively. For the novel strains chi1[T] and chi5[T], the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values (19-20% and 22.1-36.6%, respectively) and average nucleotide identity values (74.4-76.5% and 79.1-88.9%, respectively) fell within the range for the genera Marinobacter and Wenyingzhuangia, respectively. Pangenome analyses of the novel strains chi1[T] and chi5[T] revealed 357 and 368 singletons genes, respectively. The genomic DNA G + C contents of the strains chi1[T] and chi5[T] were 57.2% and 31.5%, respectively. The major fatty acids of strain chi1[T] were C12:0, C16:0, and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c), while those of the strain chi5[T] were iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C17:0 3OH, and iso-C15:0. Data from the phylogenetic, phylogenomic, pangenome, genomic, physiological, and biochemical analyses indicated that the novel strains were distinct. Therefore, we propose the names Marinobacter suadae (type strain chi1[T] = KACC 23259[T] = TBRC 17652[T]) and Wenyingzhangia gilva (type strain chi5[T] = KACC 23262[T] = TBRC 17900[T]) for the studied bacterial strains.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Meng T, Jiao H, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

FoPGDB: a pangenome database of Fusarium oxysporum, a cross-kingdom fungal pathogen.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2024:.

Pangenomes, capturing the genetic diversity of a species or genus, are essential to understanding the ecology, pathobiology and evolutionary mechanisms of fungi that cause infection in crops and humans. However, fungal pangenome databases remain unavailable. Here, we report the first fungal pangenome database, specifically for Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), a group of cross-kingdom pathogens causing devastating vascular wilt to over 100 plant species and life-threatening fusariosis to immunocompromised humans. The F. oxysporum Pangenome Database (FoPGDB) is a comprehensive resource integrating 35 high-quality FOSC genomes, coupled with robust analytical tools. FoPGDB allows for both gene-based and graph-based exploration of the F. oxysporum pangenome. It also curates a large repository of putative effector sequences, crucial for understanding the mechanisms of FOSC pathogenicity. With an assortment of functionalities including gene search, genomic variant exploration and tools for functional enrichment, FoPGDB provides a platform for in-depth investigations of the genetic diversity and adaptability of F. oxysporum. The modular and user-friendly interface ensures efficient data access and interpretation. FoPGDB promises to be a valuable resource for F. oxysporum research, contributing to our understanding of this pathogen's pangenomic landscape and aiding in the development of novel disease management strategies. Database URL:

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Karampatakis T, Tsergouli K, P Behzadi (2024)

Pan-Genome Plasticity and Virulence Factors: A Natural Treasure Trove for Acinetobacter baumannii.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:antibiotics13030257.

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for a variety of community- and hospital-acquired infections. It is recognized as a life-threatening pathogen among hospitalized individuals and, in particular, immunocompromised patients in many countries. A. baumannii, as a member of the ESKAPE group, encompasses high genomic plasticity and simultaneously is predisposed to receive and exchange the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) through horizontal genetic transfer (HGT). Indeed, A. baumannii is a treasure trove that contains a high number of virulence factors. In accordance with these unique pathogenic characteristics of A. baumannii, the authors aim to discuss the natural treasure trove of pan-genome and virulence factors pertaining to this bacterial monster and try to highlight the reasons why this bacterium is a great concern in the global public health system.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Bundhoo E, Ghoorah AW, Y Jaufeerally-Fakim (2024)

Large-scale Pan Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Key Insights Into Molecular Evolutionary Rate of Specific Processes and Functions.

Evolutionary bioinformatics online, 20:11769343241239463.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease that is a major killer worldwide. Due to selection pressure caused by the use of antibacterial drugs, Mtb is characterised by mutational events that have given rise to multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) phenotypes. The rate at which mutations occur is an important factor in the study of molecular evolution, and it helps understand gene evolution. Within the same species, different protein-coding genes evolve at different rates. To estimate the rates of molecular evolution of protein-coding genes, a commonly used parameter is the ratio dN/dS, where dN is the rate of non-synonymous substitutions and dS is the rate of synonymous substitutions. Here, we determined the estimated rates of molecular evolution of select biological processes and molecular functions across 264 strains of Mtb. We also investigated the molecular evolutionary rates of core genes of Mtb by computing the dN/dS values, and estimated the pan genome of the 264 strains of Mtb. Our results show that the cellular amino acid metabolic process and the kinase activity function evolve at a significantly higher rate, while the carbohydrate metabolic process evolves at a significantly lower rate for M. tuberculosis. These high rates of evolution correlate well with Mtb physiology and pathogenicity. We further propose that the core genome of M. tuberculosis likely experiences varying rates of molecular evolution which may drive an interplay between core genome and accessory genome during M. tuberculosis evolution.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Crowley C, Selvaraj A, Hariharan A, et al (2024)

Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum recovered from malignant and potentially malignant oral disease exhibit heterogeneity in adhesion phenotypes and adhesin gene copy number, shaped by inter-subspecies horizontal gene transfer and recombination-derived mosaicism.

Microbial genomics, 10(3):.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic commensal of the oral cavity associated with periodontitis and extra-oral diseases, including colorectal cancer. Previous studies have shown an increased relative abundance of this bacterium associated with oral dysplasia or within oral tumours. Using direct culture, we found that 75 % of Fusobacterium species isolated from malignant or potentially malignant oral mucosa were F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum. Whole genome sequencing and pangenome analysis with Panaroo was carried out on 76 F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum genomes. F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was shown to possesses a relatively small core genome of 1604 genes in a pangenome of 7363 genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the core genome shows the isolates can be separated into three main clades with no obvious genotypic associations with disease. Isolates recovered from healthy and diseased sites in the same patient are generally highly related. A large repertoire of adhesins belonging to the type V secretion system (TVSS) could be identified with major variation in repertoire and copy number between strains. Analysis of intergenic recombination using fastGEAR showed that adhesin complement is shaped by horizontal gene transfer and recombination. Recombination events at TVSS adhesin genes were not only common between lineages of subspecies polymorphum, but also between different subspecies of F. nucleatum. Strains of subspecies polymorphum with low copy numbers of TVSS adhesin encoding genes tended to have the weakest adhesion to oral keratinocytes. This study highlights the genetic heterogeneity of F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum and provides a new framework for defining virulence in this organism.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Zhou Q, Ghezelji M, Hari A, et al (2024)

Geny: A Genotyping Tool for Allelic Decomposition of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.02.27.582413.

Accurate genotyping of Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes plays a pivotal role in enhancing our understanding of innate immune responses, disease correlations, and the advancement of personalized medicine. However, due to the high variability of the KIR region and high level of sequence similarity among different KIR genes, the currently available genotyping methods are unable to accurately infer copy numbers, genotypes and haplotypes of individual KIR genes from next-generation sequencing data. Here we introduce Geny, a new computational tool for precise genotyping of KIR genes. Geny utilizes available KIR haplotype databases and proposes a novel combination of expectation-maximization filtering schemes and integer linear programming-based combinatorial optimization models to resolve ambiguous reads, provide accurate copy number estimation and estimate the haplotype of each copy for the genes within the KIR region. We evaluated Geny on a large set of simulated short-read datasets covering the known validated KIR region assemblies and a set of Illumina short-read samples sequenced from 25 validated samples from the Human Pangenome Reference Consortium collection and showed that it outperforms the existing genotyping tools in terms of accuracy, precision and recall. We envision Geny becoming a valuable resource for understanding immune system response and consequently advancing the field of patient-centric medicine.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Nwabor LC, Chukamnerd A, Nwabor OF, et al (2024)

Genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance and synergistic efficacy of rifampicin-based combinations against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

Heliyon, 10(6):e27326.

PURPOSE: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an urgent concern to public health. This study focuses on exploring the resistance mechanisms and the in vitro results of using rifampicin in combination with conventional antibiotics for the management of CRAB.

METHODS: The synergistic and bactericidal effects of rifampicin with conventional antibiotics were evaluated using chequerboard assay and time-kill assay, while the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of resistant determinants were performed by efflux pump detection and whole genome sequencing on 29 isolates from ICU patients with underlying health diseases.

RESULTS: The isolates showed multidrug resistance, with over 60% showing addictive responses to rifampicin-based combinations at FICI ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. The time-kill assay revealed 99 % killing for rifampicin and minocycline combination in one isolate at 1/4 MIC rifampicin plus 1/4 MIC minocycline, while a bacteriostatic effect was observed at 1/2 MIC rifampici plus 1/2 MIC for a second isolate. Combination with tigecycline resulted in a 99% killing in two out of three isolates with a 2.5-3 log reduction in CFU at 1/4 MIC rifampicin plus 1/4 MIC tigecycline. Rifampicin plus colistin exhibited bactericidal activity against three out of four isolates. The combinations of rifampicin with ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were ineffective against the isolates. In addition, a 4-fold reduction in rifampicin MIC was observed in 2 out of 14 isolates in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. The pan-genome study demonstrated a progressive evolution with an accessory genome estimated to cover 58% of the matrix. Seven of the ten sequenced isolates belong to sequence type 2 (ST2), while one isolate each was assigned to ST164, ST16, and ST25. Furthermore, 11 plasmids, 34 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, and 65 virulence-associated genes were predicted from the whole genome data. The blaOXA-23blaADC-25, blaOXA-66, blaPER-7, aph(6)-Id, armA, and arr-3 were prevalent among the isolates. Sequence alignment of the bacteria genome to the reference strain revealed a deleterious mutation in the rpoB gene of 4 isolates.

CONCLUSION: The study suggests that rifampicin in combination with either minocycline, tigecycline, or colistin might be a treatment option for CRAB clinical isolates. In addition, genotypic analysis of the bacteria isolates may inform the clinician of the suitable drug regimen for the management of specific bacteria variants.

RevDate: 2024-03-24

Sengupta P, Muthamilselvi Sivabalan SK, Singh NK, et al (2024)

Genomic, functional, and metabolic enhancements in multidrug-resistant Enterobacter bugandensis facilitating its persistence and succession in the International Space Station.

Microbiome, 12(1):62.

BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) stands as a testament to human achievement in space exploration. Despite its highly controlled environment, characterised by microgravity, increased CO 2 levels, and elevated solar radiation, microorganisms occupy a unique niche. These microbial inhabitants play a significant role in influencing the health and well-being of astronauts on board. One microorganism of particular interest in our study is Enterobacter bugandensis, primarily found in clinical specimens including the human gastrointestinal tract, and also reported to possess pathogenic traits, leading to a plethora of infections.

RESULTS: Distinct from their Earth counterparts, ISS E. bugandensis strains have exhibited resistance mechanisms that categorise them within the ESKAPE pathogen group, a collection of pathogens recognised for their formidable resistance to antimicrobial treatments. During the 2-year Microbial Tracking 1 mission, 13 strains of multidrug-resistant E. bugandensis were isolated from various locations within the ISS. We have carried out a comprehensive study to understand the genomic intricacies of ISS-derived E. bugandensis in comparison to terrestrial strains, with a keen focus on those associated with clinical infections. We unravel the evolutionary trajectories of pivotal genes, especially those contributing to functional adaptations and potential antimicrobial resistance. A hypothesis central to our study was that the singular nature of the stresses of the space environment, distinct from any on Earth, could be driving these genomic adaptations. Extending our investigation, we meticulously mapped the prevalence and distribution of E. bugandensis across the ISS over time. This temporal analysis provided insights into the persistence, succession, and potential patterns of colonisation of E. bugandensis in space. Furthermore, by leveraging advanced analytical techniques, including metabolic modelling, we delved into the coexisting microbial communities alongside E. bugandensis in the ISS across multiple missions and spatial locations. This exploration revealed intricate microbial interactions, offering a window into the microbial ecosystem dynamics within the ISS.

CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis illuminated not only the ways these interactions sculpt microbial diversity but also the factors that might contribute to the potential dominance and succession of E. bugandensis within the ISS environment. The implications of these findings are twofold. Firstly, they shed light on microbial behaviour, adaptation, and evolution in extreme, isolated environments. Secondly, they underscore the need for robust preventive measures, ensuring the health and safety of astronauts by mitigating risks associated with potential pathogenic threats. Video Abstract.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )