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Bibliography on: Pangenome

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Sep 2022 at 01:34 Created: 


Although the enforced stability of genomic content is ubiquitous among MCEs, the opposite is proving to be the case among prokaryotes, which exhibit remarkable and adaptive plasticity of genomic content. Early bacterial whole-genome sequencing efforts discovered that whenever a particular "species" was re-sequenced, new genes were found that had not been detected earlier — entirely new genes, not merely new alleles. This led to the concepts of the bacterial core-genome, the set of genes found in all members of a particular "species", and the flex-genome, the set of genes found in some, but not all members of the "species". Together these make up the species' pan-genome.

Created with PubMed® Query: pangenome or "pan-genome" or "pan genome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-09-23

Phanse Y, Puttamreddy S, Loy D, et al (2022)

RNA Nanovaccine Protects against White Spot Syndrome Virus in Shrimp.

Vaccines, 10(9): pii:vaccines10091428.

In the last 15 years, crustacean fisheries have experienced billions of dollars in economic losses, primarily due to viral diseases caused by such pathogens as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. To date, no effective measures are available to prevent or control disease outbreaks in these animals, despite their economic importance. Recently, double-stranded RNA-based vaccines have been shown to provide specific and robust protection against WSSV infection in cultured shrimp. However, the limited stability of double-stranded RNA is the most significant hurdle for the field application of these vaccines with respect to delivery within an aquatic system. Polyanhydride nanoparticles have been successfully used for the encapsulation and release of vaccine antigens. We have developed a double-stranded RNA-based nanovaccine for use in shrimp disease control with emphasis on the Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei. Nanoparticles based on copolymers of sebacic acid, 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane, and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane exhibited excellent safety profiles, as measured by shrimp survival and histological evaluation. Furthermore, the nanoparticles localized to tissue target replication sites for WSSV and persisted through 28 days postadministration. Finally, the nanovaccine provided ~80% protection in a lethal WSSV challenge model. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of a safe, effective, and field-applicable RNA nanovaccine that can be rationally designed against infectious diseases affecting aquaculture.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Gontijo JB, Paula FS, Venturini AM, et al (2022)

Insights into the Genomic Potential of a Methylocystis sp. from Amazonian Floodplain Sediments.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091747.

Although floodplains are recognized as important sources of methane (CH4) in the Amazon basin, little is known about the role of methanotrophs in mitigating CH4 emissions in these ecosystems. Our previous data reported the genus Methylocystis as one of the most abundant methanotrophs in these floodplain sediments. However, information on the functional potential and life strategies of these organisms living under seasonal flooding is still missing. Here, we described the first metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of a Methylocystis sp. recovered from Amazonian floodplains sediments, and we explored its functional potential and ecological traits through phylogenomic, functional annotation, and pan-genomic approaches. Both phylogenomics and pan-genomics identified the closest placement of the bin.170_fp as Methylocystis parvus. As expected for Type II methanotrophs, the Core cluster from the pan-genome comprised genes for CH4 oxidation and formaldehyde assimilation through the serine pathway. Furthermore, the complete set of genes related to nitrogen fixation is also present in the Core. Interestingly, the MAG singleton cluster revealed the presence of unique genes related to nitrogen metabolism and cell motility. The study sheds light on the genomic characteristics of a dominant, but as yet unexplored methanotroph from the Amazonian floodplains. By exploring the genomic potential related to resource utilization and motility capability, we expanded our knowledge on the niche breadth of these dominant methanotrophs in the Amazonian floodplains.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Lee JH, Lee SR, Han S, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Agarolytic Flavobacterium faecale WV33T.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810884.

Flavobacteria are widely dispersed in a variety of environments and produce various polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Here, we report the complete genome of Flavobacterium faecale WV33T, an agar-degrading bacterium isolated from the stools of Antarctic penguins. The sequenced genome of F. faecale WV33T represents a single circular chromosome (4,621,116 bp, 35.2% G + C content), containing 3984 coding DNA sequences and 85 RNA-coding genes. The genome of F. faecale WV33T contains 154 genes that encode carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Among the CAZymes, seven putative genes encoding agarases have been identified in the genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of these putative agarases was significantly enhanced by the presence of agar in the culture medium, suggesting that these proteins are involved in agar hydrolysis. Pangenome analysis revealed that the genomes of the 27 Flavobacterium type strains, including F. faecale WV33T, tend to be very plastic, and Flavobacterium strains are unique species with a tiny core genome and a large non-core region. The average nucleotide identity and phylogenomic analysis of the 27 Flavobacterium-type strains showed that F. faecale WV33T was positioned in a unique clade in the evolutionary tree.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ismail S, Alsowayeh N, Abbasi HW, et al (2022)

Pan-Genome-Assisted Computational Design of a Multi-Epitopes-Based Vaccine Candidate against Helicobacter cinaedi.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(18): pii:ijerph191811579.

Helicobacter cinaedi is a Gram-negative bacterium from the family Helicobacteraceae and genus Helicobacter. The pathogen is a causative agent of gastroenteritis, cellulitis, and bacteremia. The increasing antibiotic resistance pattern of the pathogen prompts the efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent dissemination of the bacteria and stop the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants. Herein, a pan-genome analysis of the pathogen strains was performed to shed light on its core genome and its exploration for potential vaccine targets. In total, four vaccine candidates (TonB dependent receptor, flagellar hook protein FlgE, Hcp family type VI secretion system effector, flagellar motor protein MotB) were identified as promising vaccine candidates and subsequently subjected to an epitopes' mapping phase. These vaccine candidates are part of the pathogen core genome: they are essential, localized at the pathogen surface, and are antigenic. Immunoinformatics was further applied on the selected vaccine proteins to predict potential antigenic, non-allergic, non-toxic, virulent, and DRB*0101 epitopes. The selected epitopes were then fused using linkers to structure a multi-epitopes' vaccine construct. Molecular docking simulations were conducted to determine a designed vaccine binding stability with TLR5 innate immune receptor. Further, binding free energy by MMGB/PBSA and WaterSwap was employed to examine atomic level interaction energies. The designed vaccine also stimulated strong humoral and cellular immune responses as well as interferon and cytokines' production. In a nutshell, the designed vaccine is promising in terms of immune responses' stimulation and could be an ideal candidate for experimental analysis due to favorable physicochemical properties.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Hurtado R, Barh D, Weimer BC, et al (2022)

WGS-Based Lineage and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolated during 2000-2017 in Peru.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:antibiotics11091170.

Salmonella Typhimurium is associated with foodborne diseases worldwide, including in Peru, and its emerging antibiotic resistance (AMR) is now a global public health problem. Therefore, country-specific monitoring of the AMR emergence is vital to control this pathogen, and in these aspects, whole genome sequence (WGS)-based approaches are better than gene-based analyses. Here, we performed the antimicrobial susceptibility test for ten widely used antibiotics and WGS-based various analyses of 90 S. Typhimurium isolates (human, animal, and environment) from 14 cities of Peru isolated from 2000 to 2017 to understand the lineage and antimicrobial resistance pattern of this pathogen in Peru. Our results suggest that the Peruvian isolates are of Typhimurium serovar and predominantly belong to sequence type ST19. Genomic diversity analyses indicate an open pan-genome, and at least ten lineages are circulating in Peru. A total of 48.8% and 31.0% of isolates are phenotypically and genotypically resistant to at least one antibiotic, while 12.0% are multi-drug resistant (MDR). Genotype-phenotype correlations for ten tested drugs show >80% accuracy, and >90% specificity. Sensitivity above 90% was only achieved for ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Two lineages exhibit the majority of the MDR isolates. A total of 63 different AMR genes are detected, of which 30 are found in 17 different plasmids. Transmissible plasmids such as lncI-gamma/k, IncI1-I(Alpha), Col(pHAD28), IncFIB, IncHI2, and lncI2 that carry AMR genes associated with third-generation antibiotics are also identified. Finally, three new non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (SNVs) for nalidixic acid and eight new SNVs for nitrofurantoin resistance are predicted using genome-wide association studies, comparative genomics, and functional annotation. Our analysis provides for the first time the WGS-based details of the circulating S. Typhimurium lineages and their antimicrobial resistance pattern in Peru.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Yang T, Liu R, Luo Y, et al (2022)

Improved pea reference genome and pan-genome highlight genomic features and evolutionary characteristics.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Complete and accurate reference genomes and annotations provide fundamental resources for functional genomics and crop breeding. Here we report a de novo assembly and annotation of a pea cultivar ZW6 with contig N50 of 8.98 Mb, which features a 243-fold increase in contig length and evident improvements in the continuity and quality of sequence in complex repeat regions compared with the existing one. Genome diversity of 118 cultivated and wild pea demonstrated that Pisum abyssinicum is a separate species different from P. fulvum and P. sativum within Pisum. Quantitative trait locus analyses uncovered two known Mendel's genes related to stem length (Le/le) and seed shape (R/r) as well as some candidate genes for pod form studied by Mendel. A pan-genome of 116 pea accessions was constructed, and pan-genes preferred in P. abyssinicum and P. fulvum showed distinct functional enrichment, indicating the potential value of them as pea breeding resources in the future.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Li T, Y Yin (2022)

Critical assessment of pan-genomic analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:6702672 [Epub ahead of print].

Pan-genome analyses of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) may suffer from the known issues with MAGs: fragmentation, incompleteness and contamination. Here, we conducted a critical assessment of pan-genomics of MAGs, by comparing pan-genome analysis results of complete bacterial genomes and simulated MAGs. We found that incompleteness led to significant core gene (CG) loss. The CG loss remained when using different pan-genome analysis tools (Roary, BPGA, Anvi'o) and when using a mixture of MAGs and complete genomes. Contamination had little effect on core genome size (except for Roary due to in its gene clustering issue) but had major influence on accessory genomes. Importantly, the CG loss was partially alleviated by lowering the CG threshold and using gene prediction algorithms that consider fragmented genes, but to a less degree when incompleteness was higher than 5%. The CG loss also led to incorrect pan-genome functional predictions and inaccurate phylogenetic trees. Our main findings were supported by a study of real MAG-isolate genome data. We conclude that lowering CG threshold and predicting genes in metagenome mode (as Anvi'o does with Prodigal) are necessary in pan-genome analysis of MAGs. Development of new pan-genome analysis tools specifically for MAGs are needed in future studies.

RevDate: 2022-09-19

Vassallo CN, Doering CR, Littlehale ML, et al (2022)

A functional selection reveals previously undetected anti-phage defence systems in the E. coli pangenome.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The ancient, ongoing coevolutionary battle between bacteria and their viruses, bacteriophages, has given rise to sophisticated immune systems including restriction-modification and CRISPR-Cas. Many additional anti-phage systems have been identified using computational approaches based on genomic co-location within defence islands, but these screens may not be exhaustive. Here we developed an experimental selection scheme agnostic to genomic context to identify defence systems in 71 diverse E. coli strains. Our results unveil 21 conserved defence systems, none of which were previously detected as enriched in defence islands. Additionally, our work indicates that intact prophages and mobile genetic elements are primary reservoirs and distributors of defence systems in E. coli, with defence systems typically carried in specific locations or hotspots. These hotspots encode dozens of additional uncharacterized defence system candidates. Our findings reveal an extended landscape of antiviral immunity in E. coli and provide an approach for mapping defence systems in other species.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Yu Y, Zhang Z, Dong X, et al (2022)

Pangenomic analysis of Chinese gastric cancer.

Nature communications, 13(1):5412.

Pangenomic study might improve the completeness of human reference genome (GRCh38) and promote precision medicine. Here, we use an automated pipeline of human pangenomic analysis to build gastric cancer pan-genome for 185 paired deep sequencing data (370 samples), and characterize the gene presence-absence variations (PAVs) at whole genome level. Genes ACOT1, GSTM1, SIGLEC14 and UGT2B17 are identified as highly absent genes in gastric cancer population. A set of genes from unaligned sequences with GRCh38 are predicted. We successfully locate one of predicted genes GC0643 on chromosome 9q34.2. Overexpression of GC0643 significantly inhibits cell growth, cell migration and invasion, cell cycle progression, and induces cell apoptosis in cancer cells. The tumor suppressor functions can be reversed by shGC0643 knockdown. The GC0643 is approved by NCBI database (GenBank: MW194843.1). Collectively, the robust pan-genome strategy provides a deeper understanding of the gene PAVs in the human cancer genome.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Ruggieri AA, Livraghi L, Lewis JJ, et al (2022)

A butterfly pan-genome reveals that a large amount of structural variation underlies the evolution of chromatin accessibility.

Genome research pii:gr.276839.122 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite insertions and deletions being the most common structural variants (SVs) found across genomes, not much is known about how much these SVs vary within populations and between closely related species, nor their significance in evolution. To address these questions, we characterized the evolution of indel SVs using genome assemblies of three closely related Heliconius butterfly species. Over the relatively short evolutionary timescales investigated, up to 18.0% of the genome was composed of indels between two haplotypes of an individual H. charithonia butterfly and up to 62.7% included lineage-specific SVs between the genomes of the most distant species (11 Mya). Lineage-specific sequences were mostly characterized as transposable elements (TEs) inserted at random throughout the genome and their overall distribution was similarly affected by linked selection as single nucleotide substitutions. Using chromatin accessibility profiles (i.e., ATAC-seq) of head tissue in caterpillars to identify sequences with potential cis-regulatory function, we found that out of the 31,066 identified differences in chromatin accessibility between species, 30.4% were within lineage-specific SVs and 9.4% were characterized as TE insertions. These TE insertions were localized closer to gene transcription start sites than expected at random and were enriched for sites with significant resemblance to several transcription factor binding sites with known function in neuron development in Drosophila We also identified 24 TE insertions with head-specific chromatin accessibility. Our results show high rates of structural genome evolution that were previously overlooked in comparative genomic studies and suggest a high potential for structural variation to serve as raw material for adaptive evolution.

RevDate: 2022-09-16

Bhat SV, Maughan H, Cameron ADS, et al (2022)

Phylogenomic analysis of the genus Delftia reveals distinct major lineages with ecological specializations.

Microbial genomics, 8(9):.

Delftia is a diverse betaproteobacterial genus with many strains having agricultural and industrial relevance, including plant-growth promotion, bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, and heavy metal immobilization. Delftia spp. are broadly distributed in the environment, and have been isolated from plant hosts as well as healthy and diseased animal hosts, yet the genetic basis of this ecological versatility has not been characterized. Here, we present a phylogenomic comparison of published Delftia genomes and show that the genus is divided into two well-supported clades: one 'Delftia acidovorans' clade with isolates from soils and plant rhizospheres, and a second 'Delftia lacustris and Delftia tsuruhatensis' clade with isolates from humans and sludge. The pan-genome inferred from 61 Delftia genomes contained over 28 000 genes, of which only 884 were found in all genomes. Analysis of industrially relevant functions highlighted the ecological versatility of Delftia and supported their role as generalists.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Jiang C, Kasai H, Mino S, et al (2022)

The pan-genome of Splendidus clade species in the family Vibrionaceae: insights into evolution, adaptation, and pathogenicity.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The Splendidus clade is the largest clade in Vibrionaceae, and its members are often related to mortality of marine animals with huge economic losses. The molecular bases of their pathogenicity and virulence, however, remain largely unknown. In particular, the complete genome sequences of the Splendidus clade species are rarely registered, which is one of the obstacles to predict core and/or unique genes responsible to their adaptation and pathogenicity, and to perform a fine scale meta-transcriptome during bacterial infection to their hosts. In this study, we obtained the complete genomes of all type strains in the Splendidus clade and revealed that 1) different genome sizes (4.4-5.9 Mb) with V. lentus the biggest and most of them had several big plasmids, likely because of the different features on mobilome elements, 2) the Splendidus clade consists of 19 species except V. cortegadensis, and 3 sub-clades (SC) were defined with the 15 most closely related members as SC1; 3) different carbohydrate degradation preferences may be the result of environmental adaptation, 4) a broad prediction of virulence factors (VFs) revealed core and species unique VF genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Rosconi F, Rudmann E, Li J, et al (2022)

A bacterial pan-genome makes gene essentiality strain-dependent and evolvable.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Many bacterial species are represented by a pan-genome, whose genetic repertoire far outstrips that of any single bacterial genome. Here we investigate how a bacterial pan-genome might influence gene essentiality and whether essential genes that are initially critical for the survival of an organism can evolve to become non-essential. By using Transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq), whole-genome sequencing and RNA-seq on a set of 36 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae strains representative of >68% of the species' pan-genome, we identify a species-wide 'essentialome' that can be subdivided into universal, core strain-specific and accessory essential genes. By employing 'forced-evolution experiments', we show that specific genetic changes allow bacteria to bypass essentiality. Moreover, by untangling several genetic mechanisms, we show that gene essentiality can be highly influenced by and/or be dependent on: (1) the composition of the accessory genome, (2) the accumulation of toxic intermediates, (3) functional redundancy, (4) efficient recycling of critical metabolites and (5) pathway rewiring. While this functional characterization underscores the evolvability potential of many essential genes, we also show that genes with differential essentiality remain important antimicrobial drug target candidates, as their inactivation almost always has a severe fitness cost in vivo.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Beavan AJS, JO McInerney (2022)

Gene essentiality evolves across a pangenome.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-12

Batarseh TN, Morales-Cruz A, Ingel B, et al (2022)

Using Genomes and Evolutionary Analyses to Screen for Host-Specificity and Positive Selection in the Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Xylella fastidiosa infects several economically important crops in the Americas, and it also recently emerged in Europe. Here, using a set of Xylella genomes reflective of the genus-wide diversity, we performed a pan-genome analysis based on both core and accessory genes for two purposes: (i) to test associations between genetic divergence and plant host species and (ii) to identify positively selected genes that are potentially involved in arms-race dynamics. For the former, tests yielded significant evidence for the specialization of X. fastidiosa to plant host species. This observation contributes to a growing literature suggesting that the phylogenetic history of X. fastidiosa lineages affects the host range. For the latter, our analyses uncovered evidence of positive selection across codons for 5.3% (67 of 1,257) of the core genes and 5.4% (201 of 3,691) of the accessory genes. These genes are candidates to encode interacting factors with plant and insect hosts. Most of these genes had unknown functions, but we did identify some tractable candidates, including nagZ_2, which encodes a beta-glucosidase that is important for Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilm formation; cya, which modulates gene expression in pathogenic bacteria, and barA, a membrane associated histidine kinase that has roles in cell division, metabolism, and pili formation. IMPORTANCE Xylella fastidiosa causes devasting diseases to several critical crops. Because X. fastidiosa colonizes and infects many plant species, it is important to understand whether the genome of X. fastidiosa has genetic determinants that underlie specialization to specific host plants. We analyzed genome sequences of X. fastidiosa to investigate evolutionary relationships and to test for evidence of positive selection on specific genes. We found a significant signal between genome diversity and host plants, consistent with bacterial specialization to specific plant hosts. By screening for positive selection, we identified both core and accessory genes that may affect pathogenicity, including genes involved in biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-09-10

Irfan M, Tariq M, Basharat Z, et al (2022)

Genomic analysis of Chryseobacterium indologenes and conformational dynamics of the selected DD-peptidase.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(22)00071-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Chrysobacterium indologenes is an emerging MDR pathogen that belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae. The genome of the C. indologenes, isolated from the nephrotic patient, was sequenced through Illumina MiSeq. The pangenomics of available 56 C. indologenes strains using BPGA revealed an open pangenome (n=5553 CDS), core genome (2141), and accessory genome (2013). The CEG/DEG database identified 662 essential genes that drastically reduced to 68 genes after non-homology analyses towards human and gut microbiome. Further filtering the data for other drug target prioritizing parameters resulted in 32 putative targets. Keeping in view the crucial role played in cell wall biosynthesis, dacB was selected as the final target that encodes D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase/endopeptidase (DD-peptidase). The 3D structure of dacB was modelled and rendered to docking analyses against two compound libraries of African plants (n=6842) and Tibetan medicines (n=52). The ADMET profiling exhibited the physicochemical properties of final compounds. The MD simulations showed the stability of inhibitor-DD-peptidase complex and interactions in terms of RMSD, RMSF, binding free energy calculation and H-bonding. We propose that the novel compounds Leptopene and ZINC95486338 from our findings might be potent DD-peptidase inhibitors that could aid in the development of new antibiotic-resistant therapy for the emerging MDR C. indologenes.

RevDate: 2022-09-18

Ribeiro IDA, Bach E, LMP Passaglia (2022)

Alternative nitrogenase of Paenibacillus sonchi genomovar Riograndensis: An insight in the origin of Fe-nitrogenase in the Paenibacillaceae family.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 177:107624 pii:S1055-7903(22)00237-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Paenibacillus sonchi genomovar Riograndensis is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from wheat that displays diverse plant growth-promoting abilities. Beyond conventional Mo-nitrogenase, this organism also harbors an alternative Fe-nitrogenase, whose many aspects related to regulation, physiology, and evolution remain to be elucidated. In this work, the origins of this alternative system were investigated, exploring the distribution and diversification of nitrogenases in the Panibacillaceae family. Our analysis showed that diazotrophs represent 17% of Paenibacillaceae genomes, of these, only 14.4% (2.5% of all Paenibacillaceae genomes) also contained Fe or V- nitrogenases. Diverse nif-like sequences were also described, occurring mainly in genomes that also harbor the alternative systems. The analysis of genomes containing Fe-nitrogenase showed a conserved cluster of nifEN anfHDGK across three genera: Gorillibacterium, Fontibacillus, and Paenibacillus. A phylogeny of anfHDGK separated the Fe-nitrogenases into three main groups. Our analysis suggested that Fe-nitrogenase was acquired by the ancestral lineage of Fontibacillus, Gorillibacterium, and Paenibacillus genera via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and further events of transfer and gene loss marked the evolution of this alternative nitrogenase in these groups. The species phylogeny of N-fixing Paenibacillaceae separated the diazotrophs into five clades, one of these containing all occurrences of strains harboring alternative nitrogenases in the Paenibacillus genus. The pangenome of this clade is open and composed of more than 96% of accessory genes. Diverse functional categories were enriched in the flexible genome, including functions related to replication and repair. The latter involved diverse genes related to HGT, suggesting that such events may have an important role in the evolution of diazotrophic Paenibacillus. This study provided an insight into the organization, distribution, and evolution of alternative nitrogenase genes in Paenibacillaceae, considering different genomic aspects.

RevDate: 2022-09-09

de Lima Ferreira JK, de Mello Varani A, Tótola MR, et al (2022)

Phylogenomic characterization and pangenomic insights into the surfactin-producing bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain RI4914.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus subtilis is a versatile bacterial species able to produce surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant. We carried out the phylogenomic characterization and pangenomic analyses using available B. subtilis complete genomes. Also, we report the whole genome of the biosurfactant-producing B. subtilis strain RI4914 that was isolated from effluent water from an oil exploration field. We applied a hybrid sequencing approach using both long- and short-read sequencing technologies to generate a highly accurate, single-chromosome genome. The pangenomics analysis of 153 complete genomes classified as B. subtilis retrieved from the NCBI shows an open pangenome composed of 28,511 accessory genes, which agrees with the high genetic plasticity of the species. Also, this analysis suggests that surfactin production is a common trait shared by members of this species since the srfA operon is highly conserved among the B. subtilis strains found in most of the assemblies available. Finally, increased surfactin production corroborates the higher srfAA gene expression in B. subtilis strain RI4914.

RevDate: 2022-09-10

Zhai Y, C Wei (2022)

Open pangenome of Lactococcus lactis generated by a combination of metagenome-assembled genomes and isolate genomes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:948138.

Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) is a well isolated and cultured lactic acid bacterium, but if utilizing the isolate genomes alone, the genome-based analysis of this taxon would be incomplete, because there are still uncultured strains in some ecological niches. In this study, we recovered 93 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of L. lactis from food and human gut metagenomes with a culture-independent method. We then constructed a unified genome catalog of L. lactis by integrating these MAGs with 70 publicly available isolated genomes. Having this comprehensive resource, we assessed the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to further explore the genetic and functional properties of L. lactis. An open pangenome of L. lactis was generated using our genome catalog, consisting of 13,066 genes in total, from which 5,448 genes were not identified in the isolate genomes. The core genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that L. lactis strains we collected were separated into two main subclades corresponding to two subspecies, with some uncultured phylogenetic lineages discovered. The species disparity was also indicated in PCA analysis based on accessory genes of our pangenome. These various analyzes shed further light on unexpectedly high diversity within the taxon at both genome and gene levels and gave clues about its population structure and evolution. Lactococcus lactis has a long history of safe use in food fermentations and is considered as one of the important probiotic microorganisms. Obtaining the complete genetic information of L. lactis is important to the food and health industry. However, it can naturally inhabit many environments other than dairy products, including drain water and human gut samples. Here we presented an open pan-genome of L. lactis constructed from 163 high-quality genomes obtained from various environments, including MAGs recovered from environmental metagenomes and isolate genomes. This study expanded the genetic information of L. lactis about one third, including more than 5,000 novel genes found in uncultured strains. This more complete gene repertoire of L. lactis is crucial to further understanding the genetic and functional properties. These properties may be harnessed to impart additional value to dairy fermentation or other industries.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Lau NS, Heng WL, Miswan N, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Genus Photobacterium Illuminate Biosynthetic Gene Clusters Associated with Antagonism.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17):.

The genus Photobacterium is known for its ecophysiological versatility encompassing free-living, symbiotic, and pathogenic lifestyles. Photobacterium sp. CCB-ST2H9 was isolated from estuarine sediment collected at Matang Mangrove, Malaysia. In this study, the genome of CCB-ST2H9 was sequenced, and the pan-genome of 37 Photobacterium strains was analysed. Phylogeny based on core genes showed that CCB-ST2H9 clustered with P. galatheae, forming a distinct clade with P. halotolerans, P. salinisoli, and P. arenosum. The core genome of Photobacterium was conserved in housekeeping functions, while the flexible genome was well represented by environmental genes related to energy production and carbohydrate metabolism. Genomic metrics including 16S rRNA sequence similarity, average nucleotide identity, and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were below the cut-off for species delineation, implying that CCB-ST2H9 potentially represents a new species. Genome mining revealed that biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) involved in producing antimicrobial compounds such as holomycin in CCB-ST2H9 could contribute to the antagonistic potential. Furthermore, the EtOAc extract from the culture broth of CCB-ST2H9 exhibited antagonistic activity against Vibrio spp. Intriguingly, clustering based on BGCs profiles grouped P. galatheae, P. halotolerans, P. salinisoli, P. arenosum, and CCB-ST2H9 together in the heatmap by the presence of a large number of BGCs. These BGCs-rich Photobacterium strains represent great potential for bioactive secondary metabolites production and sources for novel compounds.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Ravin NV, Rudenko TS, Smolyakov DD, et al (2022)

History of the Study of the Genus Thiothrix: From the First Enrichment Cultures to Pangenomic Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17):.

Representatives of the genus Thiothrix are filamentous, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria found in flowing waters with counter-oriented sulfide and oxygen gradients. They were first described at the end of the 19th century, but the first pure cultures of this species only became available 100 years later. An increase in the number of described Thiothrix species at the beginning of the 21st century shows that the classical phylogenetic marker, 16S rRNA gene, is not informative for species differentiation, which is possible based on genome analysis. Pangenome analysis of the genus Thiothrix showed that the core genome includes genes for dissimilatory sulfur metabolism and central metabolic pathways, namely the Krebs cycle, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, glyoxylate cycle, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, and genes for phosphorus metabolism and amination. The shell part of the pangenome includes genes for dissimilatory nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen fixation, for respiration with thiosulfate. The dispensable genome comprises genes predicted to encode mainly hypothetical proteins, transporters, transcription regulators, methyltransferases, transposases, and toxin-antitoxin systems.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Yu L, Zang X, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Phenotype-genotype analysis of Latilactobacills curvatus from different niches: Carbohydrate metabolism, antibiotic resistance, bacteriocin, phage fragments and linkages with CRISPR-Cas systems.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 160:111640.

The potential probiotic function of Latilactobacills curvatus has attracted the attention of researchers. To explore the differences in the genomes of L. curvatus, nine strains were isolated from various sources, including feces and fermented vegetables and compared with 25 strains from the NCBI database. The findings indicated that the average genome size, GC content, and CDS of L. curvatus were 1.94 MB, 41.9%, and 1825, respectively. Its core genome is associated with transcription, translation, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and defense functions. The pan-genome of L. curvatus was in a closed state. The genetic diversity of L. curatus is mainly manifested in its ability to use carbohydrates, antibiotic resistance, bacteriocin operon, and polymeric regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas for bacterial immunity. The CRISPR system of 34 strains of L. curvatus was predominantly found to be of the IIA type with a few IIC and IE types. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of this species.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

McLean AR, Torres-Morales J, Dewhirst FE, et al (2022)

Site-tropism of streptococci in the oral microbiome.

Molecular oral microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

A detailed understanding of where bacteria localize is necessary to advance microbial ecology and microbiome-based therapeutics. The site-specialist hypothesis predicts that most microbes in the human oral cavity have a primary habitat type within the mouth where they are most abundant. We asked whether this hypothesis accurately describes the distribution of the members of the genus Streptococcus, a clinically relevant taxon that dominates most oral sites. Prior analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicated that some oral Streptococcus clades are site-specialists while others may be generalists. However, within complex microbial populations composed of numerous closely related species and strains, such as the oral streptococci, genome-scale analysis is necessary to provide the resolution to discriminate closely related taxa with distinct functional roles. Here we assess whether individual species within this genus are specialists using publicly available genomic sequence data that provides species-level resolution. We chose a set of high-quality representative genomes for human oral Streptococcus species. Onto these genomes, we mapped shotgun metagenomic sequencing reads from supragingival plaque, tongue dorsum, and other sites in the oral cavity. We found that every abundant Streptococcus species in the healthy human oral cavity showed strong site tropism and that even closely related species such as S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis specialized in different sites. These findings indicate that closely related bacteria can have distinct habitat distributions in the absence of dispersal limitation and under similar environmental conditions and immune regimes. Substantial overlap between the core genes of these three species suggests that site-specialization is determined by subtle differences in genomic content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-09-07

Zhong C, Qu B, Hu G, et al (2022)

Pan-Genome Analysis of Campylobacter: Insights on the Genomic Diversity and Virulence Profile.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Despite large-scale sequencing efforts to raise clinical awareness of Campylobacter, little is known about the diversity and functions of virulence factors. Here, we constructed the pan-genome of Campylobacter using 39 representative genomes, elucidating their genetic diversity, evolutionary characteristics, and virulence and resistance profiles. The Campylobacter pan-genome was open and showed extensive genome variability, with high levels of gene expansion and contraction as the organism evolved. These Campylobacter members had diverse virulence gene content, and six potential core virulence genes (porA, PEB4, cheY, htrB, Cj1135, and kpsF) have been identified. The conserved mechanisms for Campylobacter pathogenicity were related to adherence, motility, and immune modulation. We emphasized the relative importance of variable virulence genes. Many virulence genes have experienced expansion or contraction in specific lineages, which may be one of the factors causing differences in the content of virulence genes. Additionally, these Campylobacter genomes have a high prevalence of the cmeA and cmeC genes, which are linked to the CmeABC pump and contribute to multidrug resistance. The genomic variations, core and variable virulence factors, and resistance genes of Campylobacter characterized in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the virulence of Campylobacter and more effective use of candidates for drug development and prevention of Campylobacter infections. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic members of the genus Campylobacter are recognized as one of the major causative agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis. This study revealed the pan-genome of 39 Campylobacter species, provided the most updated reconstruction of the global virulence gene pool of 39 Campylobacter species, and identified species-related virulence differences. This study highlighted the basic conserved functionality and specificity of pathogenicity that are crucial to infection, which was critical for improving the diagnosis and prevention of Campylobacter infections.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Hitch TCA, Bisdorf K, Afrizal A, et al (2022)

A taxonomic note on the genus Prevotella: Description of four novel genera and emended description of the genera Hallella and Xylanibacter.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 45(6):126354 pii:S0723-2020(22)00061-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Prevotella comprises 55 species with validly published, and correct, names (at June 2021) that are phenotypically, ecologically and functionally diverse. This study used a range of comparative genome approaches (marker gene-based genome phylogeny, core genome phylogeny, average amino acid identity, percentage of conserved proteins and clade-specific marker genes) to identify large differences between the 53 species for which genomes are available, as well as two effectively published yet not validly named species and four novel species. These differences were consistent between the various analysis methods and justify the separation of Prevotella into multiple genera. While the distribution across 19 ecosystem types was unique for each species and inconsistent within clades, the functional repertoire based on the presence/absence of both PFAMs and CAZy families revealed distinct clustering based on the proposed genera. Based on the integration of all results, we propose the reclassification of species previously assigned to the genus Prevotella into seven genera, including four novel genera for which the names Segatella, Hoylesella, Leyella and Palleniella are proposed. In addition to the reclassification of Prevotella, this work describes four novel species, Hallella faecis, Xylanibacter rodentium, Xylanibacter muris, and Palleniella intestinalis.

RevDate: 2022-09-06

Cai K, Kuang L, Yue W, et al (2022)

Calmodulin and calmodulin-like gene family in barley: Identification, characterization and expression analyses.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:964888.

Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are Ca2+ relays and play diverse and multiple roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, CaM/CML gene family has not been identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In the present study, 5 HvCaMs and 80 HvCMLs were identified through a genome-wide analysis. All HvCaM proteins possessed 4 EF-hand motifs, whereas HvCMLs contained 1 to 4 EF-hand motifs. HvCaM2, HvCaM3 and HvCaM5 coded the same polypeptide although they differed in nucleotide sequence, which was identical to the polypeptides coded by OsCaM1-1, OsCaM1-2 and OsCaM1-3. HvCaMs/CMLs were unevenly distributed over barley 7 chromosomes, and could be phylogenetically classified into 8 groups. HvCaMs/CMLs differed in gene structure, cis-acting elements and tissue expression patterns. Segmental and tandem duplication were observed among HvCaMs/CMLs during evolution. HvCML16, HvCML18, HvCML50 and HvCML78 were dispensable genes and the others were core genes in barley pan-genome. In addition, 14 HvCaM/CML genes were selected to examine their responses to salt, osmotic and low potassium stresses by qRT-PCR, and their expression were stress-and time-dependent. These results facilitate our understanding and further functional identification of HvCaMs/CMLs.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Ribeiro M, Sousa M, Borges V, et al (2022)

Bioinformatics study of expression from genomes of epidemiologically related MRSA CC398 isolates from human and wild animal samples.

Journal of proteomics, 268:104714.

One of the most important livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) genetic lineages is the clonal complex (CC) 398, which can cause typical S. aureus-associated infections in people. In this work, whole-genome sequencing, RNA-sequencing, and gel-based comparative proteomics were applied to study the genetic characteristics of three MRSA CC398 isolates recovered from humans (strains C5621 and C9017), and from an animal (strain OR418). Of the three strains, C9017 presented the broadest resistance genotype, including resistance to fluroquinolone, clindamycin, tiamulin, macrolide and aminoglycoside antimicrobial classes. The scn, sak, and chp genes of the immune evasion cluster system were solely detected in OR418. Pangenome analysis showed a total of 288 strain-specific genes, most of which are hypothetical or phage-related proteins. OR418 had the most pronounced genetic differences. RNAIII (δ-hemolysin) gene was clearly the most expressed gene in OR418 and C5621, but it was not detected in C9017. Significant differences in the proteome profiles were found between strains. For example, the immunoglobulin-binding protein Sbi was more abundant in OR418. Considering that Sbi is a multifunctional immune evasion factor in S. aureus, the results point to OR418 strain having high zoonotic potential. Overall, multiomics biomarker signatures can assume an important role to advance precision medicine in the years to come. SIGNIFICANCE: MRSA is one of the most representative drug-resistant pathogens and its dissemination is increasing due to MRSA capability of establishing new reservoirs. LA-MRSA is considered an emerging problem worldwide and CC398 is one of the most important genetic lineages. In this study, three MRSA CC398 isolates recovered from humans and from a wild animal were analyzed through whole-genome sequencing, RNA-sequencing, and gel-based comparative proteomics in order to gather systems-wide omics data and better understand the genetic characteristics of this lineage to identify distinctive markers and genomic features of relevance to public health.

RevDate: 2022-09-03

Dai Z, Wu T, Xu S, et al (2022)

Characterization of toxin-antitoxin systems from public sequencing data: A case study in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:951774.

The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a widely distributed group of genetic modules that play important roles in the life of prokaryotes, with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) contributing to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG). The diversity and richness of TA systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as one of the bacterial species with ARGs, have not yet been completely demonstrated. In this study, we explored the TA systems from the public genomic sequencing data and genome sequences. A small scale of genomic sequencing data in 281 isolates was selected from the NCBI SRA database, reassembling the genomes of these isolates led to the findings of abundant TA homologs. Furthermore, remapping these identified TA modules on 5,437 genome/draft genomes uncovers a great diversity of TA modules in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, manual inspection revealed several TA systems that were not yet reported in P. aeruginosa including the hok-sok, cptA-cptB, cbeA-cbtA, tomB-hha, and ryeA-sdsR. Additional annotation revealed that a large number of MGEs were closely distributed with TA. Also, 16% of ARGs are located relatively close to TA. Our work confirmed a wealth of TA genes in the unexplored P. aeruginosa pan-genomes, expanded the knowledge on P. aeruginosa, and provided methodological tips on large-scale data mining for future studies. The co-occurrence of MGE, ARG, and TA may indicate a potential interaction in their dissemination.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Anonymous (2022)

One pangenome to bind them all.

Nature biotechnology, 40(9):1301.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-30

Tian C, Xing M, Fu L, et al (2022)

Emergence of uncommon KL38-OCL6-ST220 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain, co-producing chromosomal NDM-1 and OXA-820 carbapenemases.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:943735.

Objective: To characterize one KL38-OCL6-ST220 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain, co-producing chromosomal NDM-1 and OXA-820 carbapenemases.

Methods: A. pittii TCM strain was isolated from a bloodstream infection (BSI). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted via disc diffusion and broth microdilution. Stability experiments of bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-820 carbapenemase genes were further performed. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the Illumina and Oxford Nanopore platforms. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was analyzed based on the Pasteur and Oxford schemes. Resistance genes, virulence factors, and insertion sequences (ISs) were identified with ABRicate based on ResFinder 4.0, virulence factor database (VFDB), and ISfinder. Capsular polysaccharide (KL), lipooligosaccharide outer core (OCL), and plasmid reconstruction were tested using Kaptive and PLACNETw. PHASTER was used to predict prophage regions. A comparative genomics analysis of all ST220 A. pittii strains from the public database was carried out. Point mutations, average nucleotide identity (ANI), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) distances, and pan-genome analysis were performed.

Results: A. pittii TCM was ST220Pas and ST1818Oxf with KL38 and OCL6, respectively. It was resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin but still susceptible to amikacin, colistin, and tigecycline. WGS revealed that A. pittii TCM contained one circular chromosome and four plasmids. The Tn125 composite transposon, including bla NDM-1, was located in the chromosome with 3-bp target site duplications (TSDs). Many virulence factors and the bla OXA-820 carbapenemase gene were also identified. The stability assays revealed that bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-820 were stabilized by passage in an antibiotic-free medium. Moreover, 12 prophage regions were identified in the chromosome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there are 11 ST220 A. pittii strains, and one collected from Anhui, China was closely related. All ST220 A. pittii strains presented high ANI and DDH values; they ranged from 99.85% to 100% for ANI and from 97.4% to 99.9% for DDH. Pan-genome analysis revealed 3,200 core genes, 0 soft core genes, 1,571 shell genes, and 933 cloud genes among the 11 ST220 A. pittii strains.

Conclusions: The coexistence of chromosomal NDM-1 and OXA-820 carbapenemases in A. pittii presents a huge challenge in healthcare settings. Increased surveillance of this species in hospital and community settings is urgently needed.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Yousaf M, Ullah A, Sarosh N, et al (2022)

Design of Multi-Epitope Vaccine for Staphylococcus saprophyticus: Pan-Genome and Reverse Vaccinology Approach.

Vaccines, 10(8):.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive coccus responsible for the occurrence of cystitis in sexually active, young females. While effective antibiotics against this organism exist, resistant strains are on the rise. Therefore, prevention via vaccines appears to be a viable solution to address this problem. In comparison to traditional techniques of vaccine design, computationally aided vaccine development demonstrates marked specificity, efficiency, stability, and safety. In the present study, a novel, multi-epitope vaccine construct was developed against S. saprophyticus by targeting fully sequenced proteomes of its five different strains, which were examined using a pangenome and subtractive proteomic strategy to characterize prospective vaccination targets. The three immunogenic vaccine targets which were utilized to map the probable immune epitopes were verified by annotating the entire proteome. The predicted epitopes were further screened on the basis of antigenicity, allergenicity, water solubility, toxicity, virulence, and binding affinity towards the DRB*0101 allele, resulting in 11 potential epitopes, i.e., DLKKQKEKL, NKDLKKQKE, QDKLKDKSD, NVMDNKDLE, TSGTPDSQA, NANSDGSSS, GSDSSSSNN, DSSSSNNDS, DSSSSDRNN, SSSDRNNGD, and SSDDKSKDS. All these epitopes have the efficacy to cover 99.74% of populations globally. Finally, shortlisted epitopes were joined together with linkers and three different adjuvants to find the most stable and immunogenic vaccine construct. The top-ranked vaccine construct was further scrutinized on the basis of its physicochemical characterization and immunological profile. The non-allergenic and antigenic features of modeled vaccine constructs were initially validated and then subjected to docking with immune receptor major histocompatibility complex I and II (MHC-I and II), resulting in strong contact. In silico cloning validations yielded a codon adaptation index (CAI) value of 1 and an ideal percentage of GC contents (46.717%), indicating a putative expression of the vaccine in E. coli. Furthermore, immune simulation demonstrated that, after injecting the proposed MEVC, powerful antibodies were produced, resulting in the sharpest peaks of IgM + IgG formation (>11,500) within 5 to 15 days. Experimental testing against S. saprophyticus can evaluate the safety and efficacy of these prophylactic vaccination designs.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Jing L, Xu Z, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

Metagenomic Insights into Pathogenic Characterization of ST410 Acinetobacter nosocomialis Prevalent in China.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(8):.

Acinetobacter nosocomialis is a prevalent opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital-acquired infections. The increasing threats from A. nosocomialis infections have led to attention from the scientific and medical communities. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was performed for an exudate specimen collected from an ICU patient with wound infection, followed by sepsis, in Tongji Hospital. Three assembly strategies were employed to recover the genome of A. nosocomialis in the metagenomic sample. Together with publicly available genomes of A. nosocomialis, the features of population genetics and molecular epidemiology were deeply analyzed. A draft genome was reconstructed for the metagenomic strain WHM01, derived from the ST410 A. nosocomialis dominating the microbial community, thereby prompting its highly pathogenic risk, which is associated with infection and persistence. The structure of the bacterial pangenome was characterized, including the 1862 core and 11,815 accessory genes present in the 157 strains. The genetic diversity of the genes coding for the 128 virulence factors assigned to 14 functional categories was uncovered in this nosocomial pathogen, such as the lipooligosaccharide, capsule, type IV pilus, and outer membrane proteins. Our work revealed genomic properties of ST410 A. nosocomialis, which is prevalent in China, and further highlighted that metagenomic surveillance may be a prospective application for evaluating the pathogenic characteristics of the nosocomial opportunistic pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Zoclanclounon YAB, Rostás M, Chung NJ, et al (2022)

Characterization of Peroxidase and Laccase Gene Families and In Silico Identification of Potential Genes Involved in Upstream Steps of Lignan Formation in Sesame.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(8):.

Peroxidases and laccases are oxidative enzymes involved in physiological processes in plants, covering responses to biotic and abiotic stress as well as biosynthesis of health-promoting specialized metabolites. Although they are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of (+)-pinoresinol, a comprehensive investigation of this class of enzymes has not yet been conducted in the emerging oil crop sesame and no information is available regarding the potential (+)-pinoresinol synthase genes in this crop. In the present study, we conducted a pan-genome-wide identification of peroxidase and laccase genes coupled with transcriptome profiling of diverse sesame varieties. A total of 83 and 48 genes have been identified as coding for sesame peroxidase and laccase genes, respectively. Based on their protein domain and Arabidopsis thaliana genes used as baits, the genes were classified into nine and seven groups of peroxidase and laccase genes, respectively. The expression of the genes was evaluated using dynamic transcriptome sequencing data from six sesame varieties, including one elite cultivar, white vs black seed varieties, and high vs low oil content varieties. Two peroxidase genes (SiPOD52 and SiPOD63) and two laccase genes (SiLAC1 and SiLAC39), well conserved within the sesame pan-genome and exhibiting consistent expression patterns within sesame varieties matching the kinetic of (+)-pinoresinol accumulation in seeds, were identified as potential (+)-pinoresinol synthase genes. Cis-acting elements of the candidate genes revealed their potential involvement in development, hormonal signaling, and response to light and other abiotic triggers. Transcription factor enrichment analysis of promoter regions showed the predominance of MYB binding sequences. The findings from this study pave the way for lignans-oriented engineering of sesame with wide potential applications in food, health and medicinal domains.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Ogaji YO, Lee RC, Sawbridge TI, et al (2022)

De Novo Long-Read Whole-Genome Assemblies and the Comparative Pan-Genome Analysis of Ascochyta Blight Pathogens Affecting Field Pea.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(8):.

Ascochyta Blight (AB) is a major disease of many cool-season legumes globally. In field pea, three fungal pathogens have been identified to be responsible for this disease in Australia, namely Peyronellaea pinodes, Peyronellaea pinodella and Phoma koolunga. Limited genomic resources for these pathogens have been generated, which has hampered the implementation of effective management strategies and breeding for resistant cultivars. Using Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing, we report the first high-quality, fully annotated, near-chromosome-level nuclear and mitochondrial genome assemblies for 18 isolates from the Australian AB complex. Comparative genome analysis was performed to elucidate the differences and similarities between species and isolates using phylogenetic relationships and functional diversity. Our data indicated that P. pinodella and P. koolunga are heterothallic, while P. pinodes is homothallic. More homology and orthologous gene clusters are shared between P. pinodes and P. pinodella compared to P. koolunga. The analysis of the repetitive DNA content showed differences in the transposable repeat composition in the genomes and their expression in the transcriptomes. Significant repeat expansion in P. koolunga's genome was seen, with strong repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) activity being evident. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genetic diversity can be exploited for species marker development. This study provided the much-needed genetic resources and characterization of the AB species to further drive research in key areas such as disease epidemiology and host-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

Woldegiorgis ST, Wu T, Gao L, et al (2022)

Identification of Heat-Tolerant Genes in Non-Reference Sequences in Rice by Integrating Pan-Genome, Transcriptomics, and QTLs.

Genes, 13(8):.

The availability of large-scale genomic data resources makes it very convenient to mine and analyze genes that are related to important agricultural traits in rice. Pan-genomes have been constructed to provide insight into the genome diversity and functionality of different plants, which can be used in genome-assisted crop improvement. Thus, a pan-genome comprising all genetic elements is crucial for comprehensive variation study among the heat-resistant and -susceptible rice varieties. In this study, a rice pan-genome was firstly constructed by using 45 heat-tolerant and 15 heat-sensitive rice varieties. A total of 38,998 pan-genome genes were identified, including 37,859 genes in the reference and 1141 in the non-reference contigs. Genomic variation analysis demonstrated that a total of 76,435 SNPs were detected and identified as the heat-tolerance-related SNPs, which were specifically present in the highly heat-resistant rice cultivars and located in the genic regions or within 2 kbp upstream and downstream of the genes. Meanwhile, 3214 upregulated and 2212 downregulated genes with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs were detected in one or multiple RNA-seq datasets of rice under heat stress, among which 24 were located in the non-reference contigs of the rice pan-genome. We then mapped the DEGs with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs to the heat stress-resistant QTL regions. A total of 1677 DEGs, including 990 upregulated and 687 downregulated genes, were mapped to the 46 heat stress-resistant QTL regions, in which 2 upregulated genes with heat stress tolerance-related SNPs were identified in the non-reference sequences. This pan-genome resource is an important step towards the effective and efficient genetic improvement of heat stress resistance in rice to help meet the rapidly growing needs for improved rice productivity under different environmental stresses. These findings provide further insight into the functional validation of a number of non-reference genes and, especially, the two genes identified in the heat stress-resistant QTLs in rice.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

Rodriguez Jimenez A, Guiglielmoni N, Goetghebuer L, et al (2022)

Comparative genome analysis of Vagococcus fluvialis reveals abundance of mobile genetic elements in sponge-isolated strains.

BMC genomics, 23(1):618.

BACKGROUND: Vagococcus fluvialis is a species of lactic acid bacteria found both free-living in river and seawater and associated to hosts, such as marine sponges. This species has been greatly understudied, with no complete genome assembly available to date, which is essential for the characterisation of the mobilome.

RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled de novo the complete genome sequences of five V. fluvialis isolates recovered from marine sponges. Pangenome analysis of the V. fluvialis species (total of 17 genomes) showed a high intraspecific diversity, with 45.5% of orthologous genes found to be strain specific. Despite this diversity, analyses of gene functions clustered all V. fluvialis species together and separated them from other sequenced Vagococcus species. V. fluvialis strains from different habitats were highly similar in terms of functional diversity but the sponge-isolated strains were enriched in several functions related to the marine environment. Furthermore, sponge-isolated strains carried a significantly higher number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) compared to previously sequenced V. fluvialis strains from other environments. Sponge-isolated strains carried up to 4 circular plasmids each, including a 48-kb conjugative plasmid. Three of the five strains carried an additional circular extrachromosomal sequence, assumed to be an excised prophage as it contained mainly viral genes and lacked plasmid replication genes. Insertion sequences (ISs) were up to five times more abundant in the genomes of sponge-isolated strains compared to the others, including several IS families found exclusively in these genomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the dynamics and plasticity of the V. fluvialis genome. The abundance of mobile genetic elements in the genomes of sponge-isolated V. fluvialis strains suggests that the mobilome might be key to understanding the genomic signatures of symbiosis in bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-08-25

Ashrafi S, Kuzmanović N, Patz S, et al (2022)

Two New Rhizobiales Species Isolated from Root Nodules of Common Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Show Different Plant Colonization Strategies.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Root nodules of legume plants are primarily inhabited by rhizobial nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here, we propose two new Rhizobiales species isolated from root nodules of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), as shown by core-gene phylogeny, overall genome relatedness indices, and pan-genome analysis. Mesorhizobium onobrychidis sp. nov. actively induces nodules and achieves atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide fixation. This species appears to be depleted in motility genes and is enriched in genes for direct effects on plant growth performance. Its genome reveals functional and plant growth-promoting signatures, like a large unique chromosomal genomic island with high density of symbiotic genetic traits. Onobrychidicola muellerharveyae gen. nov. sp. nov. is described as a type species of the new genus Onobrychidicola in Rhizobiaceae. This species comprises unique genetic features and plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), which strongly indicate its function in biotic stress reduction and motility. We applied a newly developed bioinformatics approach for in silico prediction of PGPTs (PGPT-Pred), which supports the different lifestyles of the two new species and the plant growth-promoting performance of M. onobrychidis in the greenhouse trial. IMPORTANCE The intensive use of chemical fertilizers has a variety of negative effects on the environment. Increased utilization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is one way to mitigate those negative impacts. In order to optimize BNF, suitable candidates for different legume species are required. Despite intensive search for new rhizobial bacteria associated with legumes, no new rhizobia have recently been identified from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Here, we report on the discovery of two new rhizobial species associated with sainfoin, which are of high importance for the host and may help to increase sustainability in agricultural practices. We employed the combination of in silico prediction and in planta experiments, which is an effective way to detect promising plant growth-promoting bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-08-25

Liu H, Wang X, Liu S, et al (2022)

Citrus Pan-genome to Breeding Database (CPBD): A comprehensive genome database for citrus breeding.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(22)00269-6 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-08-24

Holm MKA, Jørgensen KM, Bagge K, et al (2022)

Estimated Roles of the Carrier and the Bacterial Strain When Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization Fails: a Case-Control Study.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common bacterial pathogen that frequently colonizes healthy individuals, with potential to cause invasive infection. In Denmark, to keep the prevalence low, MRSA carriers are recommended to undergo decolonization treatments, but achieving decolonization is challenging. Knowledge about the factors contributing to decolonization is scarce. We aimed to identify bacterial genome and clinical factors influencing MRSA decolonization. We identified all new MRSA patients above 2 years of age within the Hvidovre catchment area, Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2017 and 2018. Carriers were defined as chronic carriers (cases) if they were MRSA positive after two or more treatments and as nonchronic carriers (controls) if they were MRSA free after the first or second treatment. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), we constructed a pangenome of bacterial strains. With the incorporation of bacterial genome and clinical patient data, machine learning and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with decolonization. A total of 477 MRSA carriers were included. An age of ≥13 years was significantly associated with nonchronic carriage. We identified 278 bacterial genetic features that were statistically significantly associated with chronic carriage (P < 0.05 by Fisher's exact test). Chronic MRSA carriage was predicted with 68% accuracy using a combination of bacterial genome data and patient clinical data. Decolonization success is multifactorial. Apart from the 68% predicted accuracy found in this study, we estimate that the remaining 32% is a result of host factors and microbiome composition. IMPORTANCE Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other multiresistant bacteria is a prerequisite for infection and transmission. Successful decolonization treatment removes these risks. We aimed to identify bacterial genome and host clinical factors that influence MRSA decolonization to estimate the roles of the carrier and the bacterial strain, respectively, when decolonization fails. The long-term goal, beyond this study, is to optimize decolonization success, minimize MRSA transmission, and, ultimately, improve the quality of life of MRSA carriers.

RevDate: 2022-08-27
CmpDate: 2022-08-25

Gui S, Wei W, Jiang C, et al (2022)

A pan-Zea genome map for enhancing maize improvement.

Genome biology, 23(1):178.

BACKGROUND: Maize (Zea mays L.) is at the vanguard facing the upcoming breeding challenges. However, both a super pan-genome for the Zea genus and a comprehensive genetic variation map for maize breeding are still lacking.

RESULTS: Here, we construct an approximately 6.71-Gb pan-Zea genome that contains around 4.57-Gb non-B73 reference sequences from fragmented de novo assemblies of 721 pan-Zea individuals. We annotate a total of 58,944 pan-Zea genes and find around 44.34% of them are dispensable in the pan-Zea population. Moreover, 255,821 common structural variations are identified and genotyped in a maize association mapping panel. Further analyses reveal gene presence/absence variants and their potential roles during domestication of maize. Combining genetic analyses with multi-omics data, we demonstrate how structural variants are associated with complex agronomic traits.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the underexplored role of the pan-Zea genome and structural variations to further understand domestication of maize and explore their potential utilization in crop improvement.

RevDate: 2022-08-22

Baker JL (2022)

Using Nanopore Sequencing to Obtain Complete Bacterial Genomes from Saliva Samples.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Obtaining complete, high-quality reference genomes is essential to the study of any organism. Recent advances in nanopore sequencing, as well as genome assembly and analysis methods, have made it possible to obtain complete bacterial genomes from metagenomic (i.e., multispecies) samples, including those from the human microbiome. In this study, methods are presented to obtain complete bacterial genomes from human saliva using complementary Oxford Nanopore (ONT) and Illumina sequencing. Applied to 3 human saliva samples, these methods resulted in 11 complete bacterial genomes: 3 Saccharibacteria clade G6 (also known as Ca. Nanogingivalaceae HMT-870), 1 Saccharibacteria clade G1 HMT-348, 2 Rothia mucilaginosa, 2 Actinomyces graevenitzii, 1 Mogibacterium diversum, 1 Lachnospiraceae HMT-096, and 1 Lancefieldella parvula; and one circular chromosome of Ruminococcaceae HMT-075 (which likely has at least 2 chromosomes). The 4 Saccharibacteria genomes, as well as the Actinomyces graeventizii genomes, represented the first complete genomes from their respective bacterial taxa. Aside from the complete genomes, the assemblies contained 147 contigs of over 500,000 bp each and thousands of smaller contigs, together representing a myriad of additional draft genomes including many which are likely nearly complete. The complete genomes enabled highly accurate pangenome analysis, which identified unique and missing features of each genome compared to its closest relatives with complete genomes available in public repositories. These features provide clues as to the lifestyle and ecological role of these bacteria within the human oral microbiota, which will be particularly useful in designing future studies of the taxa that have never been isolated or cultivated. IMPORTANCE Obtaining complete and accurate genomes is crucial to the study of any organism. Previously, obtaining complete genomes of bacteria, including those of the human microbiome, frequently required isolation of the organism, as well as low-throughput, manual sequencing methods to resolve repeat regions. Advancements in long-read sequencing technologies, including Oxford Nanopore (ONT), have made it possible to obtain complete, closed bacterial genomes from metagenomic samples. This study reports methods to obtain complete genomes from the human oral microbiome using complementary ONT and Illumina sequencing of saliva samples. Eleven complete genomes were obtained from 3 human saliva samples, with genomes of Saccharibacteria HMT-870, Saccharibacteria HMT-348, and Actinomyces graeventzii being the first complete genomes from their respective taxa. Obtaining complete bacterial genomes in a high-throughput manner will help illuminate the metabolic and ecological roles of important members of the human microbiota, particularly those that have remained recalcitrant to isolation and cultivation.

RevDate: 2022-08-23

Jia Y, Pradeep K, Vance WH, et al (2022)

Identification of two chickpea multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter genes transcriptionally upregulated upon aluminum treatment in root tips.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:909045.

Aluminum (Al) toxicity poses a significant challenge for the yield improvement of chickpea, which is an economically important legume crop with high nutritional value in human diets. The genetic basis of Al-tolerance in chickpea remains unclear. Here, we assessed the Al-tolerance of 8 wild Cicer and one cultivated chickpea (PBA Pistol) accessions by measuring the root elongation in solution culture under control (0 μM Al3+) and Al treatments (15, 30 μM Al3+). Compared to PBA Pistol, the wild Cicer accessions displayed both tolerant and sensitive phenotypes, supporting wild Cicer as a potential genetic pool for Al-tolerance improvement. To identify potential genes related to Al-tolerance in chickpea, genome-wide screening of multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) encoding genes was performed. Fifty-six MATE genes were identified in total, which can be divided into 4 major phylogenetic groups. Four chickpea MATE genes (CaMATE1-4) were clustered with the previously characterized citrate transporters MtMATE66 and MtMATE69 in Medicago truncatula. Transcriptome data showed that CaMATE1-4 have diverse expression profiles, with CaMATE2 being root-specific. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that CaMATE2 and CaMATE4 were highly expressed in root tips and were up-regulated upon Al treatment in all chickpea lines. Further measurement of carboxylic acids showed that malonic acid, instead of malate or citrate, is the major extruded acid by Cicer spp. root. Protein structural modeling analyses revealed that CaMATE2 has a divergent substrate-binding cavity from Arabidopsis AtFRD3, which may explain the different acid-secretion profile for chickpea. Pangenome survey showed that CaMATE1-4 have much higher genetic diversity in wild Cicer than that in cultivated chickpea. This first identification of CaMATE2 and CaMATE4 responsive to Al3+ treatment in Cicer paves the way for future functional characterization of MATE genes in Cicer spp., and to facilitate future design of gene-specific markers for Al-tolerant line selection in chickpea breeding programs.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Zhou Y, Yang L, Han X, et al (2022)

Assembly of a pangenome for global cattle reveals missing sequences and novel structural variations, providing new insights into their diversity and evolutionary history.

Genome research [Epub ahead of print].

A cattle pangenome representation was created based on the genome sequences of 898 cattle representing 57 breeds. The pangenome identified 83 Mb of sequence not found in the cattle reference genome, representing 3.1% novel sequence compared with the 2.71-Gb reference. A catalog of structural variants developed from this cattle population identified 3.3 million deletions, 0.12 million inversions, and 0.18 million duplications. Estimates of breed ancestry and hybridization between cattle breeds using insertion/deletions as markers were similar to those produced by single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis. Hundreds of deletions were observed to have stratification based on subspecies and breed. For example, an insertion of a Bov-tA1 repeat element was identified in the first intron of the APPL2 gene and correlated with cattle breed geographic distribution. This insertion falls within a segment overlapping predicted enhancer and promoter regions of the gene, and could affect important traits such as immune response, olfactory functions, cell proliferation, and glucose metabolism in muscle. The results indicate that pangenomes are a valuable resource for studying diversity and evolutionary history, and help to delineate how domestication, trait-based breeding, and adaptive introgression have shaped the cattle genome.

RevDate: 2022-08-27

Sancho R, Catalán P, Contreras-Moreira B, et al (2022)

Patterns of pan-genome occupancy and gene coexpression under water-deficit in Brachypodium distachyon.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Natural populations are characterized by abundant genetic diversity driven by a range of different types of mutation. The tractability of sequencing complete genomes has allowed new insights into the variable composition of genomes, summarized as a species pan-genome. These analyses demonstrate that many genes are absent from the first reference genomes, whose analysis dominated the initial years of the genomic era. Our field now turns towards understanding the functional consequence of these highly variable genomes. Here, we analysed weighted gene coexpression networks from leaf transcriptome data for drought response in the purple false brome Brachypodium distachyon and the differential expression of genes putatively involved in adaptation to this stressor. We specifically asked whether genes with variable "occupancy" in the pan-genome - genes which are either present in all studied genotypes or missing in some genotypes - show different distributions among coexpression modules. Coexpression analysis united genes expressed in drought-stressed plants into nine modules covering 72 hub genes (87 hub isoforms), and genes expressed under controlled water conditions into 13 modules, covering 190 hub genes (251 hub isoforms). We find that low occupancy pan-genes are under-represented among several modules, while other modules are over-enriched for low-occupancy pan-genes. We also provide new insight into the regulation of drought response in B. distachyon, specifically identifying one module with an apparent role in primary metabolism that is strongly responsive to drought. Our work shows the power of integrating pan-genomic analysis with transcriptomic data using factorial experiments to understand the functional genomics of environmental response.

RevDate: 2022-08-18

Haque F, Jabeen I, Keya CA, et al (2022)

Whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of heavy metals tolerant Bacillus anthracis FHq strain isolated from tannery effluents in Bangladesh.

AIMS microbiology, 8(2):227-239.

Heavy metal contamination of the environment is a primary concern in Bangladesh. This study aims to characterize a novel heavy metal tolerant strain, Bacillus anthracis FHq, isolated from the tannery effluents of Savar, Bangladesh. The strain could tolerate up to 5 mM of lead nitrate, 2.5 mM of sodium arsenate, chromium chloride, cobalt chloride, 1.5 mM cadmium acetate, and 1 mM of sodium arsenite. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the genome of the strain is around 5.2 Mbp long, and the G + C content is 35.4%. Besides, FHq has genes cadC, zntA, arsCR, czcD, and chrA, which confer lead, arsenic, cobalt, and chromium resistance, respectively. A total of nineteen other closely related and completely sequenced B. anthracis strains were selected based on average nucleotide identity along with the FHq strain for phylogenomic and pan-genome analysis. The phylogenomic analysis predicted the inter-genomic evolutionary relationship of the strain isolated from Bangladesh, and it was closely related to a strain isolated from China. Pan-genome analysis revealed that the FHq strain possesses 6045 pan genes, 3802 core genes, and 152 unique genes in its genomic content. Hence, the genetic information and comparative analysis of the FHq strain might facilitate identifying the mechanisms conferring high resistance to lead in B. anthracis strains isolated from Bangladesh.

RevDate: 2022-09-08
CmpDate: 2022-08-18

Garza DR, von Meijenfeldt FAB, van Dijk B, et al (2022)

Nutrition or nature: using elementary flux modes to disentangle the complex forces shaping prokaryote pan-genomes.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):101.

BACKGROUND: Microbial pan-genomes are shaped by a complex combination of stochastic and deterministic forces. Even closely related genomes exhibit extensive variation in their gene content. Understanding what drives this variation requires exploring the interactions of gene products with each other and with the organism's external environment. However, to date, conceptual models of pan-genome dynamics often represent genes as independent units and provide limited information about their mechanistic interactions.

RESULTS: We simulated the stochastic process of gene-loss using the pooled genome-scale metabolic reaction networks of 46 taxonomically diverse bacterial and archaeal families as proxies for their pan-genomes. The frequency by which reactions are retained in functional networks when stochastic gene loss is simulated in diverse environments allowed us to disentangle the metabolic reactions whose presence depends on the metabolite composition of the external environment (constrained by "nutrition") from those that are independent of the environment (constrained by "nature"). By comparing the frequency of reactions from the first group with their observed frequencies in bacterial and archaeal families, we predicted the metabolic niches that shaped the genomic composition of these lineages. Moreover, we found that the lineages that were shaped by a more diverse metabolic niche also occur in more diverse biomes as assessed by global environmental sequencing datasets.

CONCLUSION: We introduce a computational framework for analyzing and interpreting pan-reactomes that provides novel insights into the ecological and evolutionary drivers of pan-genome dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-08-16

Wittmers F, Needham DM, Hehenberger E, et al (2022)

Genomes from Uncultivated Pelagiphages Reveal Multiple Phylogenetic Clades Exhibiting Extensive Auxiliary Metabolic Genes and Cross-Family Multigene Transfers.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

For the abundant marine Alphaproteobacterium Pelagibacter (SAR11), and other bacteria, phages are powerful forces of mortality. However, little is known about the most abundant Pelagiphages in nature, such as the widespread HTVC023P-type, which is currently represented by two cultured phages. Using viral metagenomic data sets and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we recovered 80 complete, undescribed Podoviridae genomes that form 10 phylogenomically distinct clades (herein, named Clades I to X) related to the HTVC023P-type. These expanded the HTVC023P-type pan-genome by 15-fold and revealed 41 previously unknown auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) in this viral lineage. Numerous instances of partner-AMGs (colocated and involved in related functions) were observed, including partners in nucleotide metabolism, DNA hypermodification, and Curli biogenesis. The Type VIII secretion system (T8SS) responsible for Curli biogenesis was identified in nine genomes and expanded the repertoire of T8SS proteins reported thus far in viruses. Additionally, the identified T8SS gene cluster contained an iron-dependent regulator (FecR), as well as a histidine kinase and adenylate cyclase that can be implicated in T8SS function but are not within T8SS operons in bacteria. While T8SS are lacking in known Pelagibacter, they contribute to aggregation and biofilm formation in other bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstructions of partner-AMGs indicate derivation from cellular lineages with a more recent transfer between viral families. For example, homologs of all T8SS genes are present in syntenic regions of distant Myoviridae Pelagiphages, and they appear to have alphaproteobacterial origins with a later transfer between viral families. The results point to an unprecedented multipartner-AMG transfer between marine Myoviridae and Podoviridae. Together with the expansion of known metabolic functions, our studies provide new prospects for understanding the ecology and evolution of marine phages and their hosts. IMPORTANCE One of the most abundant and diverse marine bacterial groups is Pelagibacter. Phages have roles in shaping Pelagibacter ecology; however, several Pelagiphage lineages are represented by only a few genomes. This paucity of data from even the most widespread lineages has imposed limits on the understanding of the diversity of Pelagiphages and their impacts on hosts. Here, we report 80 complete genomes, assembled directly from environmental data, which are from undescribed Pelagiphages and render new insights into the manipulation of host metabolism during infection. Notably, the viruses have functionally related partner genes that appear to be transferred between distant viruses, including a suite that encode a secretion system which both brings a new functional capability to the host and is abundant in phages across the ocean. Together, these functions have important implications for phage evolution and for how Pelagiphage infection influences host biology in manners extending beyond canonical viral lysis and mortality.

RevDate: 2022-08-16

Xue M, Huang X, Xue J, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Seven Vibrio alginolyticus Strains Isolated From Shrimp Larviculture Water With Emphasis on Chitin Utilization.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:925747.

The opportunistic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus is gaining attention because of its disease-causing risks to aquatic animals and humans. In this study, seven Vibrio strains isolated from different shrimp hatcheries in Southeast China were subjected to genome sequencing and subsequent comparative analysis to explore their intricate relationships with shrimp aquaculture. The seven isolates had an average nucleotide identity of ≥ 98.3% with other known V. alginolyticus strains. The species V. alginolyticus had an open pan-genome, with the addition of ≥ 161 novel genes following each new genome for seven isolates and 14 publicly available V. alginolyticus strains. The percentages of core genes of the seven strains were up to 83.1-87.5%, indicating highly conserved functions, such as chitin utilization. Further, a total of 14 core genes involved in the chitin degradation pathway were detected on the seven genomes with a single copy, 12 of which had undergone significant purifying selection (dN/dS < 1). Moreover, the seven strains could utilize chitin as the sole carbon-nitrogen source. In contrast, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were identified in seven strains, including plasmids, prophages, and genomic islands, which mainly encoded accessory genes annotated as hypothetical proteins. The infection experiment showed that four of the seven strains might be pathogenic because the survival rates of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. However, no obvious correlation was noted between the number of putative virulence factors and toxic effects of the seven strains. Collectively, the persistence of V. alginolyticus in various aquatic environments may be attributed to its high genomic plasticity via the acquisition of novel genes by various MGEs. In view of the strong capability of chitin utilization by diverse vibrios, the timely removal of massive chitin-rich materials thoroughly in shrimp culture systems may be a key strategy to inhibit proliferation of vibrios and subsequent infection of shrimp. In addition, transcontinental transfer of potentially pathogenic V. alginolyticus strains should receive great attention to avoid vibriosis.

RevDate: 2022-08-16
CmpDate: 2022-08-16

Dmitriev AA, Pushkova EN, NV Melnikova (2022)

[Plant Genome Sequencing: Modern Technologies and Novel Opportunities for Breeding].

Molekuliarnaia biologiia, 56(4):531-545.

The investigation of plant genomes is of great importance for basic research and practical breeding. In 1977, F. Sanger proposed a DNA sequencing method, which allowed the complete sequences of a number of genomes to be determined. Then high-throughput and cost-effective next-generation/second-generation sequencing methods, producing up to billions of short reads, made it possible to sequence genomes of a significant number of species and provided a breakthrough in plant genetic studies. Finally, third-generation sequencing technologies allowed the determination of single-molecule sequences up to a million nucleotides in length, which is key for high-quality genome assemblies. An important task is to obtain a pan-genome, which includes an entire set of nucleotide sequences presented in various genotypes of the same species. The sequencing of plant genomes made it possible to assess intraspecific polymorphism, identify key genes influencing the formation of significant features, and develop molecular markers of economically valuable traits and this has become the basis for the development of marker-assisted and genomic selection. This review provides information on the latest advances in sequencing technologies and the assembly of plant genomes, as well as the opportunities that they open up for basic and applied works.

RevDate: 2022-08-13

Hu G, Cheng L, Cheng Y, et al (2022)

Pan-genome analysis of three main Chinese chestnut varieties.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:916550.

Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) is one of the earliest domesticated plants of high nutritional and ecological value, yet mechanisms of C. mollissima underlying its growth and development are poorly understood. Although individual chestnut species differ greatly, the molecular basis of the formation of their characteristic traits remains unknown. Though the draft genomes of chestnut have been previously released, the pan-genome of different variety needs to be studied. We report the genome sequence of three cultivated varieties of chestnut herein, namely Hei-Shan-Zhai-7 (H7, drought-resistant variety), Yan-Hong (YH, easy-pruning variety), and Yan-Shan-Zao-Sheng (ZS, early-maturing variety), to expedite convenience and efficiency in its genetics-based breeding. We obtained three chromosome-level chestnut genome assemblies through a combination of Oxford Nanopore technology, Illumina HiSeq X, and Hi-C mapping. The final genome assemblies are 671.99 Mb (YH), 790.99 Mb (ZS), and 678.90 Mb (H7), across 12 chromosomes, with scaffold N50 sizes of 50.50 Mb (YH), 65.05 Mb (ZS), and 52.16 Mb (H7). Through the identification of homologous genes and the cluster analysis of gene families, we found that H7, YH and ZS had 159, 131, and 91 unique gene families, respectively, and there were 13,248 single-copy direct homologous genes in the three chestnut varieties. For the convenience of research, the chestnut genome database was constructed. Based on the results of gene family identification, the presence/absence variations (PAVs) information of the three sample genes was calculated, and a total of 2,364, 2,232, and 1,475 unique genes were identified in H7, YH and ZS, respectively. Our results suggest that the GBSS II-b gene family underwent expansion in chestnut (relative to nearest source species). Overall, we developed high-quality and well-annotated genome sequences of three C. mollissima varieties, which will facilitate clarifying the molecular mechanisms underlying important traits, and shortening the breeding process.

RevDate: 2022-08-15

Petereit J, Bayer PE, Thomas WJW, et al (2022)

Pangenomics and Crop Genome Adaptation in a Changing Climate.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(15):.

During crop domestication and breeding, wild plant species have been shaped into modern high-yield crops and adapted to the main agro-ecological regions. However, climate change will impact crop productivity in these regions, and agriculture needs to adapt to support future food production. On a global scale, crop wild relatives grow in more diverse environments than crop species, and so may host genes that could support the adaptation of crops to new and variable environments. Through identification of individuals with increased climate resilience we may gain a greater understanding of the genomic basis for this resilience and transfer this to crops. Pangenome analysis can help to identify the genes underlying stress responses in individuals harbouring untapped genomic diversity in crop wild relatives. The information gained from the analysis of these pangenomes can then be applied towards breeding climate resilience into existing crops or to re-domesticating crops, combining environmental adaptation traits with crop productivity.

RevDate: 2022-08-19

Xia F, Jiang M, Wen Z, et al (2022)

Complete genomic analysis of ST117 lineage extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to reveal multiple genetic determinants to drive its global transmission: ST117 E. coli as an emerging multidrug-resistant foodborne ExPEC with zoonotic potential.

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is recognized as a primary source of foodborne extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), which poses a significant risk of extraintestinal infections in humans. The potential of human infection with ST117 lineage APEC/ExPEC from poultry is particularly concerning. However, relatively few whole-genome studies have focused on ST117 as an emerging ExPEC lineage. In this study, the complete genomes of 11 avian ST117 isolates and the draft genomes of 20 ST117 isolates in China were sequenced to reveal the genomic islands and large plasmid composition of ST117 APEC. With reference to the extensive E. coli genomes available in public databases, large-scale comprehensive genomic analysis of the ST117 lineage APEC/ExPEC was performed to reveal the features of the ST117 pan-genome and population. The high variability of the accessory genome emphasized the diversity and dynamic traits of the ST117 pan-genome. ST117 isolates recovered from different hosts and geographic sources were randomly located on a phylogeny tree, suggesting that ST117 E. coli lacked host specificity. A time-scaled phylogeny tree showed that ST117 was a recent E. coli lineage with a relatively short evolutionary period. Further characterization of a wide diversity of ExPEC-related virulence genes, pathogenicity islands (PAIs), and resistance genes of the ST117 pan-genome provided insights into the virulence and resistance of ST117 APEC/ExPEC. The results suggested zoonotic potential of ST117 APEC/ExPEC between birds and humans. Moreover, genomic analysis showed that a pool of diverse plasmids drove the virulence and multidrug resistance of ST117 APEC/ExPEC. Several types of large plasmids were scattered across the ST117 isolates, but there was no strong plasmid-clade adaptation. Combined with the pan-genome analysis, a double polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was designed for rapid and cost-effective detection of ST117 isolates from various avian and human APEC/ExPEC isolates. Overall, this study addressed a gap in current knowledge about the ST117 APEC/ExPEC genome, with significant implications to understand the success and spread of ST117 APEC/ExPEC.

RevDate: 2022-08-09

Goldman AD, B Kaçar (2022)

Very early evolution from the perspective of microbial ecology.

The universal ancestor at the root of the species tree of life depicts a population of organisms with a surprising degree of complexity, posessing genomes and translation systems much like that of microbial life today. As the first life forms were most likely to have been simple replicators, considerable evolutionary change must have taken place prior to the last universal common ancestor. It is often assumed that the lack of earlier branches on the tree of life is due to a prevalence of random horizontal gene transfer that obscured the delineations between lineages and hindered their divergence. Therefore, principles of microbial evolution and ecology may give us some insight into these early stages in the history of life. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of organismal and genome evolution from the perspective of microbial ecology and apply these evolutionary principles to the earliest stages of life on Earth. We focus especially on broad evolutionary modes pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, pangenome structure, and microbial mat communities.

RevDate: 2022-08-09

Camargo A, Guerrero-Araya E, Castañeda S, et al (2022)

Intra-species diversity of Clostridium perfringens: A diverse genetic repertoire reveals its pathogenic potential.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:952081.

Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of many enterotoxic diseases in humans and animals, and it is present in diverse environments (soil, food, sewage, and water). Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) have provided a general approach about genetic diversity of C. perfringens; however, those studies are limited to specific locations and often include a reduced number of genomes. In this study, 372 C. perfringens genomes from multiple locations and sources were used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of this pathogen. In silico MLST was used for typing the isolates, and the resulting sequence types (ST) were assigned to clonal complexes (CC) based on allelic profiles that differ from its founder by up to double-locus variants. A pangenome analysis was conducted, and a core genome-based phylogenetic tree was created to define phylogenetic groups. Additionally, key virulence factors, toxinotypes, and antibiotic resistance genes were identified using ABRicate against Virulence Factor Database (VFDB), TOXiper, and Resfinder, respectively. The majority of the C. perfringens genomes found in publicly available databases were derived from food (n = 85) and bird (n = 85) isolates. A total of 195 STs, some of them shared between sources such as food and human, horses and dogs, and environment and birds, were grouped in 25 CC and distributed along five phylogenetic groups. Fifty-three percent of the genomes were allocated to toxinotype A, followed by F (32%) and G (7%). The most frequently found virulence factors based on > 70% coverage and 99.95% identity were plc (100%), nanH (99%), ccp (99%), and colA (98%), which encode an alpha-toxin, a sialidase, an alpha-clostripain, and a collagenase, respectively, while tetA (39.5%) and tetB (36.2%), which mediate tetracycline resistance determinants, were the most common antibiotic resistance genes detected. The analyses conducted here showed a better view of the presence of this pathogen across several host species. They also confirm that the genetic diversity of C. perfringens is based on a large number of virulence factors that vary among phylogroups, and antibiotic resistance markers, especially to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. Those characteristics highlight the importance of C. perfringens as a one of the most common causes of foodborne illness.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Meleshko D, Yang R, Marks P, et al (2022)

Efficient detection and assembly of non-reference DNA sequences with synthetic long reads.

Nucleic acids research pii:6655589 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent pan-genome studies have revealed an abundance of DNA sequences in human genomes that are not present in the reference genome. A lion's share of these non-reference sequences (NRSs) cannot be reliably assembled or placed on the reference genome. Improvements in long-read and synthetic long-read (aka linked-read) technologies have great potential for the characterization of NRSs. While synthetic long reads require less input DNA than long-read datasets, they are algorithmically more challenging to use. Except for computationally expensive whole-genome assembly methods, there is no synthetic long-read method for NRS detection. We propose a novel integrated alignment-based and local assembly-based algorithm, Novel-X, that uses the barcode information encoded in synthetic long reads to improve the detection of such events without a whole-genome de novo assembly. Our evaluations demonstrate that Novel-X finds many non-reference sequences that cannot be found by state-of-the-art short-read methods. We applied Novel-X to a diverse set of 68 samples from the Polaris HiSeq 4000 PGx cohort. Novel-X discovered 16 691 NRS insertions of size > 300 bp (total length 18.2 Mb). Many of them are population specific or may have a functional impact.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Dereeper A, Summo M, DF Meyer (2022)

PanExplorer: A web-based tool for exploratory analysis and visualization of bacterial pan-genomes.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6653297 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: As pan-genome approaches are largely employed for bacterial comparative genomics and evolution analyses, but still difficult to be carried out by non-bioinformatician biologists, there is a need for an innovative tool facilitating the exploration of bacterial pan-genomes.

RESULTS: PanExplorer is a web application providing various genomic analyses and reports, giving intuitive views that enable a better understanding of bacterial pan-genomes. As an example, we produced the pan-genome for 121 Anaplasmataceae strains (including 30 Ehrlichia, 15 Anaplasma, 68 Wolbachia).

PanExplorer is written in Perl CGI and relies on several JavaScript libraries for visualization (hotmap.js, MauveViewer, CircosJS). It is freely available at The source code has been released in a GitHub repository A documentation section is available on PanExplorer website.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-09-02

Zheng X, Dai X, Zhu Y, et al (2022)

(Meta)Genomic Analysis Reveals Diverse Energy Conservation Strategies Employed by Globally Distributed Gemmatimonadota.

mSystems, 7(4):e0022822.

Gemmatimonadota is a phylum-level lineage distributed widely but rarely reported. Only six representatives of Gemmatimonadota have so far been isolated and cultured in laboratory. The physiology, ecology, and evolutionary history of this phylum remain unknown. The 16S rRNA gene survey of our salt lake and deep-sea sediments, and Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) samples, reveals that Gemmatimonadota exist in diverse environments globally. In this study, we retrieved 17 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from salt lake sediments (12 MAGs) and deep-sea sediments (5 MAGs). Analysis of these MAGs and the nonredundant MAGs or genomes from public databases reveals Gemmatimonadota can degrade various complex organic substrates, and mainly employ heterotrophic pathways (e.g., glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle) for growth via aerobic respiration. And the processes of sufficient energy being stored in glucose through gluconeogenesis, followed by the synthesis of more complex compounds, are prevalent in Gemmatimonadota. A highly expandable pangenome for Gemmatimonadota has been observed, which presumably results from their adaptation to thriving in diverse environments. The enrichment of the Na+/H+ antiporter in the SG8-23 order represents their adaptation to salty habitats. Notably, we identified a novel lineage of the SG8-23 order, which is potentially anoxygenic phototrophic. This lineage is not closely related to the phototrophs in the order of Gemmatimonadales. The two orders differ distinctly in the gene organization and phylogenetic relationship of their photosynthesis gene clusters, indicating photosystems in Gemmatimonadota have evolved in two independent routes. IMPORTANCE The phylum Gemmatimonadota is widely distributed in various environments. However, their physiology, ecology and evolutionary history remain unknown, primary due to the limited cultured isolates and available genomes. We were intrigued to find out how widespread this phylum is, and how it can thrive under diverse conditions. Our results here expand the knowledge of the genetic and metabolic diversity of Gemmatimonadota, and shed light on the diverse energy conservation strategies (i.e., oxidative phosphorylation, substrate phosphorylation, and photosynthetic phosphorylation) responsible for their global distribution. Moreover, gene organization and phylogenetic analysis of photosynthesis gene clusters in Gemmatimonadota provide a valuable insight into the evolutionary history of photosynthesis.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Zhang Y, Chu H, Yu L, et al (2022)

Analysis of the Taxonomy, Synteny, and Virulence Factors for Soft Rot Pathogen Pectobacterium aroidearum in Amorphophallus konjac Using Comparative Genomics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:868709.

Bacterial soft rot is a devastating disease for a wide range of crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants including konjac (Amorphophallus konjac). However, the pangenome and genomic plasticity of the konjac soft rot pathogens is little explored. In this study, we reported the complete genome sequences of 11 bacterial isolates that can cause typical soft rot symptoms in konjac by in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. Based on in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and phylogenomic analysis, all 11 isolates were determined to be Pectobacterium aroidearum. In addition, synteny analysis of these genomes revealed considerable chromosomal inversions, one of which is triggered by homologous recombination of ribose operon. Pangenome analysis and COG enrichment analysis showed that the pangenome of P. aroidearum is open and that accessory genes are enriched in replication, recombination, and repair. Variations in type IV secretion system and type VI secretion system were found, while plant cell wall degrading enzymes were conserved. Furthermore, sequence analyses also provided evidence for the presence of a type V secretion system in Pectobacterium. These findings advance our understanding of the pathogenicity determinants, genomic plasticity, and evolution of P. aroidearum.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Wu J, Xu XD, Liu L, et al (2022)

A Chromosome Level Genome Assembly of a Winter Turnip Rape (Brassica rapa L.) to Explore the Genetic Basis of Cold Tolerance.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:936958.

Winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) is an important overwintering oilseed crop that is widely planted in northwest China and suffers chronic low temperatures in winter. So the cold stress becomes one of the major constraints that limit its production. The currently existing genomes limit the understanding of the cold-tolerant genetic basis of rapeseed. Here we assembled a high-quality long-read genome of B. rapa "Longyou-7" cultivar, which has a cold-tolerant phenotype, and constructed a graph-based pan-genome to detect the structural variations within homologs of currently reported cold-tolerant related genes in the "Longyou-7" genome, which provides an additional elucidation of the cold-tolerant genetic basis of "Longyou-7" cultivar and promotes the development of cold-tolerant breeding in B. rapa.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-02

Aurongzeb M, Rashid Y, Habib Ahmed Naqvi S, et al (2022)

Insights into genome evolution, pan-genome, and phylogenetic implication through mitochondrial genome sequence of Naegleria fowleri species.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13152.

In the current study, we have systematically analysed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) isolate AY27, isolated from Karachi, Pakistan. The N. fowleri isolate AY27 has a circular mtDNA (49,541 bp), which harbours 69 genes (46 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs). The pan-genome analysis of N. fowleri species showed a Bpan value of 0.137048, which implies that the pan-genome is open. KEGG classified core, accessory and unique gene clusters for human disease, metabolism, environmental information processing, genetic information processing and organismal system. Similarly, COG characterization of protein showed that core and accessory genes are involved in metabolism, information storages and processing, and cellular processes and signaling. The Naegleria species (n = 6) formed a total of 47 gene clusters; 42 single-copy gene clusters and 5 orthologous gene clusters. It was noted that 100% genes of Naegleria species were present in the orthogroups. We identified 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the N. fowleri isolate AY27 mtDNA using N. fowleri strain V511 as a reference. Whole mtDNA phylogenetic tree analysis showed that N. fowleri isolates AY27 is closely related to N. fowleri (Accession no. JX174181.1). The ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) values presented a much clear grouping of the Naegleria species compared to the whole mtDNA based phylogenetic analysis. The current study gives a comprehensive understanding of mtDNA architecture as well as a comparison of Naegleria species (N. fowleri and N. gruberi species) at the mitochondrial genome sequence level.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Singh PK, Rawal HC, Panda AK, et al (2022)

Pan-genomic, transcriptomic, and miRNA analyses to decipher genetic diversity and anthocyanin pathway genes among the traditional rice landraces.

Genomics, 114(5):110436 pii:S0888-7543(22)00181-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Black rice is famous for containing high anthocyanin while Joha rice is aromatic with low anthocyanin containing rice from the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India. However, there are limited reports on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in Manipur Black rice. Therefore, the present study was aimed to understand the origin, domestication and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways in Black rice using the next generation sequencing approaches. With the sequencing data, various analyses were carried out for differential expression and construction of a pan-genome. Protein coding RNA and small RNA sequencing analysis aided in determining 7415 and 131 differentially expressed transcripts and miRNAs, respectively in NER rice. This is the first extensive study on identification and expression analysis of miRNAs and their target genes in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in NER rice. This study will aid in better understanding for decoding the theory of high or low anthocyanin content in different rice genotypes.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Alshabrmi FM, Alrumaihi F, Alrasheedi SF, et al (2022)

An In-Silico Investigation to Design a Multi-Epitopes Vaccine against Multi-Drug Resistant Hafnia alvei.

Vaccines, 10(7):.

Antimicrobial resistance has become a significant health issue because of the misuse of antibiotics in our daily lives, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Hafnia alvei is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The medical community has emphasized H. alvei's possible association with gastroenteritis. As of now, there is no licensed vaccine for H. alvei, and as such, computer aided vaccine design approaches could be an ideal approach to highlight the potential vaccine epitopes against this bacteria. By using bacterial pan-genome analysis (BPGA), we were able to study the entire proteomes of H. alvei with the aim of developing a vaccine. Based on the analysis, 20,370 proteins were identified as core proteins, which were further used in identifying potential vaccine targets based on several vaccine candidacy parameters. The prioritized vaccine targets against the bacteria are; type 1 fimbrial protein, flagellar hook length control protein (FliK), flagellar hook associated protein (FlgK), curli production assembly/transport protein (CsgF), fimbria/pilus outer membrane usher protein, fimbria/pilus outer membrane usher protein, molecular chaperone, flagellar filament capping protein (FliD), TonB-dependent hemoglobin /transferrin/lactoferrin family receptor, Porin (OmpA), flagellar basal body rod protein (FlgF) and flagellar hook-basal body complex protein (FliE). During the epitope prediction phase, different antigenic, immunogenic, non-Allergenic, and non-Toxic epitopes were predicted for the above-mentioned proteins. The selected epitopes were combined to generate a multi-epitope vaccine construct and a cholera toxin B subunit (adjuvant) was added to enhance the vaccine's antigenicity. Downward analyses of vaccines were performed using a vaccine three-dimensional model. Docking studies have confirmed that the vaccine strongly binds with MHC-I, MHC-II, and TLR-4 immune cell receptors. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that the vaccine epitopes were exposed to nature and to the host immune system and interpreted strong intermolecular binding between the vaccine and receptors. Based on the results of the study, the model vaccine construct seems to have the capacity to produce protective immune responses in the host, making it an attractive candidate for further in vitro and in vivo studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Bukhari SAR, Irfan M, Ahmad I, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomics and Pan-Genome Driven Prediction of a Reduced Genome of Akkermansia muciniphila.

Microorganisms, 10(7):.

Akkermanisia muciniphila imparts important health benefits and is considered a next-generation probiotic. It is imperative to understand the genomic diversity and metabolic potential of the species for safer applications as probiotics. As it resides with both health-promoting and pathogenic bacteria, understanding the evolutionary patterns are crucial, but this area remains largely unexplored. Moreover, pan-genome has previously been established based on only a limited number of strains and without careful strain selection. The pan-genomics have become very important for understanding species diversity and evolution. In the current study, a systematic approach was used to find a refined pan-genome profile of A. muciniphila by excluding too-diverse strains based on average nucleotide identity-based species demarcation. The strains were divided into four phylogroups using a variety of clustering techniques. Horizontal gene transfer and recombination patterns were also elucidated. Evolutionary patterns revealed that different phylogroups were expanding differently. Furthermore, a comparative evaluation of the metabolic potential of the pan-genome and its subsections was performed. Lastly, the study combines functional annotation, persistent genome, and essential genes to devise an approach to determine a minimal genome that can systematically remove unwanted genes, including virulent factors. The selection of one strain to be used as a chassis for the prediction of a reduced genome was very carefully performed by analyzing several genomic parameters, including the number of unique genes and the resistance and pathogenic potential of the strains. The strategy could be applied to other microbes, including human-associated microbiota, towards a common goal of predicting a minimal or a reduced genome.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Maphosa MN, Steenkamp ET, Kanzi AM, et al (2022)

Intra-Species Genomic Variation in the Pine Pathogen Fusarium circinatum.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(7):.

Fusarium circinatum is an important global pathogen of pine trees. Genome plasticity has been observed in different isolates of the fungus, but no genome comparisons are available. To address this gap, we sequenced and assembled to chromosome level five isolates of F. circinatum. These genomes were analysed together with previously published genomes of F. circinatum isolates, FSP34 and KS17. Multi-sample variant calling identified a total of 461,683 micro variants (SNPs and small indels) and a total of 1828 macro structural variants of which 1717 were copy number variants and 111 were inversions. The variant density was higher on the sub-telomeric regions of chromosomes. Variant annotation revealed that genes involved in transcription, transport, metabolism and transmembrane proteins were overrepresented in gene sets that were affected by high impact variants. A core genome representing genomic elements that were conserved in all the isolates and a non-redundant pangenome representing all genomic elements is presented. Whole genome alignments showed that an average of 93% of the genomic elements were present in all isolates. The results of this study reveal that some genomic elements are not conserved within the isolates and some variants are high impact. The described genome-scale variations will help to inform novel disease management strategies against the pathogen.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Li G, Shu J, Jin J, et al (2022)

Development of a Multi-Epitope Vaccine for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Evaluation of Its Immune Responses in Mice and Piglets.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(14):.

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), the primary pathogen causing Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS), brings massive economic losses worldwide. Genomic variability and post-translational protein modification can enhance the immune evasion of Mhp, which makes MPS prone to recurrent outbreaks on farms, even with vaccination or other treatments. The reverse vaccinology pipeline has been developed as an attractive potential method for vaccine development due to its high efficiency and applicability. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine for Mhp was developed, and its immune responses were evaluated in mice and piglets. Genomic core proteins of Mhp were retrieved through pan-genome analysis, and four immunodominant antigens were screened by host homologous protein removal, membrane protein screening, and virulence factor identification. One immunodominant antigen, AAV27984.1 (membrane nuclease), was expressed by E. coli and named rMhp597. For epitope prioritization, 35 B-cell-derived epitopes were identified from the four immunodominant antigens, and 10 MHC-I and 6 MHC-II binding epitopes were further identified. The MHC-I/II binding epitopes were merged and combined to produce recombinant proteins MhpMEV and MhpMEVC6His, which were used for animal immunization and structural analysis, respectively. Immunization of mice and piglets demonstrated that MhpMEV could induce humoral and cellular immune responses. The mouse serum antibodies could detect all 11 synthetic epitopes, and the piglet antiserum suppressed the nuclease activity of rMhp597. Moreover, piglet serum antibodies could also detect cultured Mhp strain 168. In summary, this study provides immunoassay results for a multi-epitope vaccine derived from the reverse vaccinology pipeline, and offers an alternative vaccine for MPS.

RevDate: 2022-08-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Rida T, Ahmad S, Ullah A, et al (2022)

Pan-Genome Analysis of Oral Bacterial Pathogens to Predict a Potential Novel Multi-Epitopes Vaccine Candidate.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(14):.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, mainly present in the oral cavity and causes periodontal infections. Currently, no licensed vaccine is available against P. gingivalis and other oral bacterial pathogens. To develop a vaccine against P. gingivalis, herein, we applied a bacterial pan-genome analysis (BPGA) on the bacterial genomes that retrieved a total number of 4908 core proteins, which were further utilized for the identification of good vaccine candidates. After several vaccine candidacy analyses, three proteins, namely lytic transglycosylase domain-containing protein, FKBP-type peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase and superoxide dismutase, were shortlisted for epitopes prediction. In the epitopes prediction phase, different types of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted and only those with an antigenic, immunogenic, non-allergenic, and non-toxic profile were selected. Moreover, all the predicted epitopes were joined with each other to make a multi-epitopes vaccine construct, which was linked further to the cholera toxin B-subunit to enhance the antigenicity of the vaccine. For downward analysis, a three dimensional structure of the designed vaccine was modeled. The modeled structure was checked for binding potency with major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) immune cell receptors which revealed that the designed vaccine performed proper binding with respect to immune cell receptors. Additionally, the binding efficacy of the vaccine was validated through a molecular dynamic simulation that interpreted strong intermolecular vaccine-receptor binding and confirmed the exposed situation of vaccine epitopes to the host immune system. In conclusion, the study suggested that the model vaccine construct has the potency to generate protective host immune responses and that it might be a good vaccine candidate for experimental in vivo and in vitro studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Ezzeroug Ezzraimi A, Hannachi N, Mariotti A, et al (2022)

The Antibacterial Effect of Platelets on Escherichia coli Strains.

Biomedicines, 10(7):.

Platelets play an important role in defense against pathogens; however, the interaction between Escherichia coli and platelets has not been well described and detailed. Our goal was to study the interaction between platelets and selected strains of E. coli in order to evaluate the antibacterial effect of platelets and to assess bacterial effects on platelet activation. Washed platelets and supernatants of pre-activated platelets were incubated with five clinical colistin-resistant and five laboratory colistin-sensitive strains of E. coli in order to study bacterial growth. Platelet activation was measured with flow cytometry by evaluating CD62P expression. To identify the difference in strain behavior toward platelets, a pangenome analysis using Roary and O-antigen serotyping was carried out. Both whole platelets and the supernatant of activated platelets inhibited growth of three laboratory colistin-sensitive strains. In contrast, platelets promoted growth of the other strains. There was a negative correlation between platelet activation and bacterial growth. The Roary results showed no logical clustering to explain the mechanism of platelet resistance. The diversity of the responses might be due to strains of different types of O-antigen. Our results show a bidirectional interaction between platelets and E. coli whose expression is dependent on the bacterial strain involved.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-30

Suraby EJ, Sruthi KB, G Antony (2022)

Genome-wide identification of type III effectors and other virulence factors in Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum causing bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale).

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG, 297(5):1371-1388.

Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum causes bacterial wilt in ginger, reducing ginger production worldwide. We sequenced the whole genome of a highly virulent phylotype I, race 4, biovar 3 Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum strain GRsMep isolated from a severely infected ginger field in India. R. pseudosolanacearum GRsMep genome is organised into two replicons: chromosome and megaplasmid with a total genome size of 5,810,605 bp. This strain encodes approximately 72 effectors which include a combination of core effectors as well as highly variable, diverse repertoire of type III effectors. Comparative genome analysis with GMI1000 identified conservation in the genes involved in the general virulence mechanism. Our analysis identified type III effectors, RipBJ and RipBO as present in GRsMep but absent in the reported genomes of other strains infecting Zingiberaceae family. GRsMep contains 126 unique genes when compared to the pangenome of the Ralstonia strains that infect the Zingiberaceae family. The whole-genome data of R. pseudosolanacearum strain will serve as a resource for exploring the evolutionary processes that structure and regulate the virulence determinants of the strain. Pathogenicity testing of the transposon insertional mutant library of GRsMep through virulence assay on ginger plants identified a few candidate virulence determinants specific to bacterial wilt in ginger.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Dang VH, Hill CB, Zhang XQ, et al (2022)

Multi-locus genome-wide association studies reveal novel alleles for flowering time under vernalisation and extended photoperiod in a barley MAGIC population.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 135(9):3087-3102.

KEY MESSAGE: Key genes controlling flowering and interactions of different photoperiod alleles with various environments were identified in a barley MAGIC population. A new candidate gene for vernalisation requirements was also detected. Optimal flowering time has a major impact on grain yield in crop species, including the globally important temperate cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Understanding the genetics of flowering is a key avenue to enhancing yield potential. Although bi-parental populations were used intensively to map genes controlling flowering, their lack of genetic diversity requires additional work to obtain desired gene combinations in the selected lines, especially when the two parental cultivars did not carry the genes. Multi-parent mapping populations, which use a combination of four or eight parental cultivars, have higher genetic and phenotypic diversity and can provide novel genetic combinations that cannot be achieved using bi-parental populations. This study uses a Multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) population from four commercial barley cultivars to identify genes controlling flowering time in different environmental conditions. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 5,112 high-quality markers from Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArT-seq), and Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) genetic markers were developed. Phenotypic data were collected from fifteen different field trials for three consecutive years. Planting was conducted at various sowing times, and plants were grown with/without additional vernalisation and extended photoperiod treatments. This study detected fourteen stable regions associated with flowering time across multiple environments. GWAS combined with pangenome data highlighted the role of CEN gene in flowering and enabled the prediction of different CEN alleles from parental lines. As the founder lines of the multi-parental population are elite germplasm, the favourable alleles identified in this study are directly relevant to breeding, increasing the efficiency of subsequent breeding strategies and offering better grain yield and adaptation to growing conditions.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Wang Z, Yang J, Cheng F, et al (2022)

Subgenome dominance and its evolutionary implications in crop domestication and breeding.

Horticulture research, 9:uhac090.

Polyploidization or whole-genome duplication (WGD) is a well-known speciation and adaptation mechanism in angiosperms, while subgenome dominance is a crucial phenomenon in allopolyploids, established following polyploidization. The dominant subgenomes contribute more to genome evolution and homoeolog expression bias, both of which confer advantages for short-term phenotypic adaptation and long-term domestication. In this review, we firstly summarize the probable mechanistic basis for subgenome dominance, including the effects of genetic [transposon, genetic incompatibility, and homoeologous exchange (HE)], epigenetic (DNA methylation and histone modification), and developmental and environmental factors on this evolutionary process. We then move to Brassica rapa, a typical allopolyploid with subgenome dominance. Polyploidization provides the B. rapa genome not only with the genomic plasticity for adapting to changeable environments, but also an abundant genetic basis for morphological variation, making it a representative species for subgenome dominance studies. According to the 'two-step theory', B. rapa experienced genome fractionation twice during WGD, in which most of the genes responding to the environmental cues and phytohormones were over-retained, enhancing subgenome dominance and consequent adaption. More than this, the pangenome of 18 B. rapa accessions with different morphotypes recently constructed provides further evidence to reveal the impacts of polyploidization and subgenome dominance on intraspecific diversification in B. rapa. Above and beyond the fundamental understanding of WGD and subgenome dominance in B. rapa and other plants, however, it remains elusive why subgenome dominance has tissue- and spatiotemporal-specific features and could shuffle between homoeologous regions of different subgenomes by environments in allopolyploids. We lastly propose acceleration of the combined application of resynthesized allopolyploids, omics technology, and genome editing tools to deepen mechanistic investigations of subgenome dominance, both genetic and epigenetic, in a variety of species and environments. We believe that the implications of genomic and genetic basis of a variety of ecologically, evolutionarily, and agriculturally interesting traits coupled with subgenome dominance will be uncovered and aid in making new discoveries and crop breeding.

RevDate: 2022-08-17
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Kopf A, Bunk B, Coldewey SM, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Human Pathogen Wohlfahrtiimonas Chitiniclastica Provides Insight Into the Identification of Antimicrobial Resistance Genotypes and Potential Virulence Traits.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:912427.

Recent studies suggest that Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica may be the cause of several diseases in humans including sepsis and bacteremia making the bacterium as a previously underappreciated human pathogen. However, very little is known about the pathogenicity and genetic potential of W. chitiniclastica; therefore, it is necessary to conduct systematic studies to gain a deeper understanding of its virulence characteristics and treatment options. In this study, the entire genetic repertoire of all publicly available W. chitiniclastica genomes was examined including in silico characterization of bacteriophage content, antibiotic resistome, and putative virulence profile. The pan-genome of W. chitiniclastica comprises 3819 genes with 1622 core genes (43%) indicating a putative metabolic conserved species. Furthermore, in silico analysis indicated presumed resistome expansion as defined by the presence of genome-encoded transposons and bacteriophages. While macrolide resistance genes macA and macB are located within the core genome, additional antimicrobial resistance genotypes for tetracycline (tetH, tetB, and tetD), aminoglycosides (ant(2'')-Ia, aac(6')-Ia,aph(3'')-Ib, aph(3')-Ia, and aph(6)-Id)), sulfonamide (sul2), streptomycin (strA), chloramphenicol (cat3), and beta-lactamase (blaVEB) are distributed among the accessory genome. Notably, our data indicate that the type strain DSM 18708T does not encode any additional clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes, whereas drug resistance is increasing within the W. chitiniclastica clade. This trend should be monitored with caution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome analysis of this species, providing new insights into the genome of this opportunistic human pathogen.

RevDate: 2022-07-23

Li Y, Wang Y, J Liu (2022)

Genomic Insights Into the Interspecific Diversity and Evolution of Mobiluncus, a Pathogen Associated With Bacterial Vaginosis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:939406.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection and has been associated with increased risk for a wide array of health issues. BV is linked with a variety of heterogeneous pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, among which Mobiluncus is strongly associated with BV diagnosis. However, their genetic features, pathogenicity, interspecific diversity, and evolutionary characters have not been illustrated at genomic level. The current study performed phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses of Mobiluncus. Phylogenomic analyses revealed remarkable phylogenetic distinctions among different species. Compared with M. curtisii, M. mulieris had a larger genome and pangenome size with more insertion sequences but less CRISPR-Cas systems. In addition, these two species were diverse in profile of virulence factors, but harbored similar antibiotic resistance genes. Statistically different functional genome profiles between strains from the two species were determined, as well as correlations of some functional genes/pathways with putative pathogenicity. We also showed that high levels of horizontal gene transfer might be an important strategy for species diversification and pathogenicity. Collectively, this study provides the first genome sequence level description of Mobiluncus, and may shed light on its virulence/pathogenicity, functional diversification, and evolutionary dynamics. Our study could facilitate the further investigations of this important pathogen, and might improve the future treatment of BV.

RevDate: 2022-08-15
CmpDate: 2022-08-15

Dindhoria K, Kumar S, Baliyan N, et al (2022)

Bacillus licheniformis MCC 2514 genome sequencing and functional annotation for providing genetic evidence for probiotic gut adhesion properties and its applicability as a bio-preservative agent.

Gene, 840:146744.

Bacillus licheniformis is a well-known probiotic that can be found in a variety of foods. The strain Bacillus licheniformis MCC 2514 was previously characterized by our group for its bio-physiological capabilities establishing it as a promising probiotic, but information on the genetic evidence for its attributes was lacking. In the current study, whole genome analysis identified the underlying molecular determinants responsible for its probiotic potential. The circular genome of MCC 2514 was 4,230,480 bp with 46.2% GC content, 24 rRNA, and 83 tRNA genes. The pangenome analysis between B. licheniformis MCC 2514 and 12 other B. licheniformis strains revealed a pangenome of 6008 genes and core genome of 3775 genes. Genome mining revealed NRPS and bacteriocins producing gene clusters indicating its biocontrol properties. Several genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes, which aid in proper food degradation in the intestine, were also observed. Stress tolerance, vitamin, and essential amino acids biosynthesis related genes were found, which are important characteristics of a probiotic strain. Additionally, vital genes responsible for gut adhesion and biofilm formation were observed in its genome. The bacterium has been shown to improve the shelf life of idli batter by preventing whey separation, CO2, and odour production while maintaining the pH of 3.96-4.29, especially at cold temperatures. It has significantly reduced coliform contamination at both room and low temperatures, demonstrating its bio-preservative ability, which is also corroborated by the presence of the NRPS and bacteriocin gene clusters in its genome. The present study helped to understand both, the ability of B. licheniformis MCC 2514 to adapt the intestinal gut environment and its probiotic functionality for food preservation.

RevDate: 2022-09-08
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Wang Z, Guo G, Li Q, et al (2022)

Combing Immunoinformatics with Pangenome Analysis To Design a Multiepitope Subunit Vaccine against Klebsiella pneumoniae K1, K2, K47, and K64.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(4):e0114822.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that has become a leading causative agent of nosocomial infections, mainly infecting patients with immunosuppressive diseases. Capsular (K) serotypes K1, K2, K47, and K64 are commonly associated with higher virulence (hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae), and more threateningly, isolates belonging to the last two K serotypes are also frequently associated with resistance to carbapenem (hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae). The prevalence of these isolates has posed significant threats to human health, and there are no appropriate therapies available against them. Therefore, in this study, a method combining immunoinformatics and pangenome analysis was applied for contriving a multiepitope subunit vaccine against these four threatening serotypes. To obtain cross-protection, 12 predicted conserved antigens were screened from the core genome of 274 complete Klebsiella pneumoniae genomes (KL1, KL2, KL47, and KL64), from which the epitopes of T and B cells were extracted for vaccine construction. In addition, the immunological properties, the interaction with Toll-like receptors, and the stability in a simulative humoral environment were evaluated by immunoinformatics methods, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. All of these evaluations indicated the potency of this constructed vaccine to be an effective therapeutic agent. Lastly, the cDNA of the designed vaccine was optimized and ligated to pET-28a(+) for expression vector construction. Overall, our research provides a newly cross-protective control strategy against these troublesome pathogens and paves the way for the development of a safe and effective vaccine. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that has become a leading causative agent of nosocomial infections. Among the numerous capsular serotypes, K1, K2, K47, and K64 are commonly associated with higher virulence (hypervirulent K. pneumoniae). More threateningly, the last two serotypes are frequently associated with resistance to carbapenem (hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae). However, there is currently no therapeutic agent or vaccine specifically against these isolates. Therefore, development of a vaccine against these pathogens is very essential. In this study, for the first time, a method combining pangenome analysis, reverse vaccinology, and immunoinformatics was applied for contriving a multiepitope subunit vaccine against K. pneumoniae isolates of K1, K2, K47, and K64. Also, the immunological properties of the constructed vaccine were evaluated and its high potency was revealed. Overall, our research will pave the way for the vaccine development against these four threatening capsular serotypes of K. pneumoniae.

RevDate: 2022-09-02

Sassi M, Bronsard J, Pascreau G, et al (2022)

Forecasting Staphylococcus aureus Infections Using Genome-Wide Association Studies, Machine Learning, and Transcriptomic Approaches.

mSystems, 7(4):e0037822.

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen, colonizing diverse ecological niches within its hosts. Predicting whether an isolate will infect a specific host and its subsequent clinical fate remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the S. aureus pangenome using a curated set of 356 strains, spanning a wide range of hosts, origins, and clinical display and antibiotic resistance profiles. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) and random forest (RF) algorithms to discriminate strains based on their origins and clinical sources. Here, we show that the presence of sak and scn can discriminate strains based on their host specificity, while other genes such as mecA are often associated with virulent outcomes. Both GWAS and RF indicated the importance of intergenic regions (IGRs) and coding DNA sequence (CDS) but not sRNAs in forecasting an outcome. Additional transcriptomic analyses performed on the most prevalent clonal complex 8 (CC8) clonal types, in media mimicking nasal colonization or bacteremia, indicated three RNAs as potential RNA markers to forecast infection, followed by 30 others that could serve as infection severity predictors. Our report shows that genetic association and transcriptomics are complementary approaches that will be combined in a single analytical framework to improve our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and ultimately identify potential predictive molecular markers. IMPORTANCE Predicting the outcome of bacterial colonization and infections, based on extensive genomic and transcriptomic data from a given pathogen, would be of substantial help for clinicians in treating and curing patients. In this report, genome-wide association studies and random forest algorithms have defined gene combinations that differentiate human from animal strains, colonization from diseases, and nonsevere from severe diseases, while it revealed the importance of IGRs and CDS, but not small RNAs (sRNAs), in anticipating an outcome. In addition, transcriptomic analyses performed on the most prevalent clonal types, in media mimicking either nasal colonization or bacteremia, revealed significant differences and therefore potent RNA markers. Overall, the use of both genomic and transcriptomic data in a single analytical framework can enhance our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Baseggio L, Silayeva O, Engelstädter J, et al (2022)

The Evolution of a Specialized, Highly Virulent Fish Pathogen through Gene Loss and Acquisition of Host-Specific Survival Mechanisms.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 88(14):e0022222.

Photobacterium damselae comprises two subspecies, P. damselae subsp. damselae and P. damselae subsp. piscicida, that contrast remarkably despite their taxonomic relationship. The former is opportunistic and free-living but can cause disease in compromised individuals from a broad diversity of taxa, while the latter is a highly specialized, primary fish pathogen. Here, we employ new closed curated genome assemblies from Australia to estimate the global phylogenetic structure of the species P. damselae. We identify genes responsible for the shift from an opportunist to a host-adapted fish pathogen, potentially via an arthropod vector as fish-to-fish transmission was not achieved in repeated cohabitation challenges despite high virulence for Seriola lalandi. Acquisition of ShdA adhesin and of thiol peroxidase may have allowed the environmental, generalist ancestor to colonize zooplankton and to occasionally enter in fish host sentinel cells. As dependence on the host has increased, P. damselae has lost nonessential genes, such as those related to nitrite and sulfite reduction, urea degradation, a type 6 secretion system (T6SS) and several toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. Similar to the evolution of Yersinia pestis, the loss of urease may be the crucial event that allowed the pathogen to stably colonize zooplankton vectors. Acquisition of host-specific genes, such as those required to form a sialic acid capsule, was likely necessary for the emergent P. damselae subsp. piscicida to become a highly specialized, facultative intracellular fish pathogen. Processes that have shaped P. damselae subsp. piscicida from subsp. damselae are similar to those underlying evolution of Yersinia pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis. IMPORTANCE Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a ubiquitous marine bacterium and opportunistic pathogen of compromised hosts of diverse taxa. In contrast, its sister subspecies P. damselae subsp. piscicida (Pdp) is highly virulent in fish. Pdp has evolved from a single subclade of Pdd through gene loss and acquisition. We show that fish-to-fish transmission does not occur in repeated infection models in the primary host, Seriola lalandi, and present genomic evidence for vector-borne transmission, potentially via zooplankton. The broad genomic changes from generalist Pdd to specialist Pdp parallel those of the environmental opportunist Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to vector-borne plague bacterium Y. pestis and demonstrate that evolutionary processes in bacterial pathogens are universal between the terrestrial and marine biosphere.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Jonkheer EM, van Workum DM, Sheikhizadeh Anari S, et al (2022)

PanTools v3: functional annotation, classification, and phylogenomics.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6647839 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: The ever-increasing number of sequenced genomes necessitates the development of pangenomic approaches for comparative genomics. Introduced in 2016, PanTools is a platform that allows pangenome construction, homology grouping and pangenomic read mapping. The use of graph database technology makes PanTools versatile, applicable from small viral genomes like SARS-CoV-2 up to large plant or animal genomes like tomato or human. Here we present our third major update to PanTools that enables the integration of functional annotations and provides both gene-level analyses and phylogenetics.

PanTools is implemented in Java 8 and released under the GNU GPLv3 license. Software and documentation are available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-09-08
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Guitart-Matas J, Gonzalez-Escalona N, Maguire M, et al (2022)

Revealing Genomic Insights of the Unexplored Porcine Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Using Whole Genome Sequencing.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(4):e0118522.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) is the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, one of the most relevant bacterial respiratory diseases in the swine industry. To date, 19 serotypes have been described based on capsular polysaccharide typing with significant virulence dissimilarities. In this study, 16 APP isolates from Spanish origin were selected to perform antimicrobial susceptibility tests and comparative genomic analysis using whole genome sequencing (WGS). To obtain a more comprehensive worldwide molecular epidemiologic analyses, all APP whole genome assemblies available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the time of the study were also included. An in-house in silico PCR approach enabled the correct serotyping of unserotyped or incorrectly serotyped isolates and allowed for the discrimination between serotypes 9 and 11. A pangenome analysis identified the presence or absence of gene clusters to be serotype specific, as well as virulence profile analyses targeting the apx operons. Antimicrobial resistance genes were correlated to the presence of specific plasmids. Altogether, this study provides new insights into the genetic variability within APP serotypes, correlates phenotypic tests with bioinformatic analyses and manifests the benefits of populated databases for a better assessment of diversity and variability of relatively unknown pathogens. Overall, genomic comparative analysis enhances the understanding of transmission and epidemiological patterns of this species and suggests vertical transmission of the pathogen, including the resistance genes, within the Spanish integrated systems. IMPORTANCE Pleuropneumonia is one of the most relevant respiratory infections in the swine industry. Despite Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) being one of the most important pathogens in the pig production, this is the first comparative study including all available whole genome sequencing data from NCBI. Moreover, this study also includes 16 APP isolates of Spanish origin with known epidemiological relationships through vertical integrated systems. Genomic comparisons provided a deeper understanding of molecular and epidemiological knowledge between different APP serotypes. Furthermore, determination of resistance and toxin profiles allowed correlation with the presence of mobile genetic elements and specific serotype, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-09-08
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Babiker A, Bower C, Lutgring JD, et al (2022)

Clinical and Genomic Epidemiology of mcr-9-Carrying Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Isolates in Metropolitan Atlanta, 2012 to 2017.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(4):e0252221.

Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. Recently, the ninth allele of the mobile colistin resistance (mcr) gene family, designated mcr-9, was reported. However, its clinical and public health significance remains unclear. We queried genomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) for mcr-9 from a convenience sample of clinical isolates collected between 2012 and 2017 through the Georgia Emerging Infections Program, a population- and laboratory-based surveillance program. Isolates underwent phenotypic characterization and whole-genome sequencing. Phenotypic characteristics, genomic features, and clinical outcomes of mcr-9-positive and -negative CRE cases were then compared. Among 235 sequenced CRE genomes, 13 (6%) were found to harbor mcr-9, all of which were Enterobacter cloacae complex. The median MIC and rates of heteroresistance and inducible resistance to colistin were similar between mcr-9-positive and -negative isolates. However, rates of resistance were higher among mcr-9-positive isolates across most antibiotic classes. All cases had significant health care exposures. The 90-day mortality was similarly high in both mcr-9-positive (31%) and -negative (7%) CRE cases. Nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis did not reveal geotemporal clustering. mcr-9-positive isolates had a significantly higher number of median [range] antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes (16 [4 to 22] versus 6 [2 to 15]; P < 0.001) than did mcr-9-negative isolates. Pangenome tests confirmed a significant association of mcr-9 detection with mobile genetic element and heavy metal resistance genes. Overall, the presence of mcr-9 was not associated with significant changes in colistin resistance or clinical outcomes, but continued genomic surveillance to monitor for emergence of AMR genes is warranted. IMPORTANCE Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. A recently described allele of the mobile colistin resistance (mcr) gene family, designated mcr-9, has been widely reported among Enterobacterales species. However, its clinical and public health significance remains unclear. We compared characteristics and outcomes of mcr-9-positive and -negative CRE cases. All cases were acquired in the health care setting and associated with a high rate of mortality. The presence of mcr-9 was not associated with significant changes in colistin resistance, heteroresistance, or inducible resistance but was associated with resistance to other antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence, and heavy metal resistance (HMR) genes. Overall, the presence of mcr-9 was not associated with significant phenotypic changes or clinical outcomes. However, given the increase in AMR and HMR gene content and potential clinical impact, continued genomic surveillance of multidrug-resistant organisms to monitor for emergence of AMR genes is warranted.

RevDate: 2022-08-26
CmpDate: 2022-08-18

Wang Y, Du F, Wang J, et al (2022)

Improving bread wheat yield through modulating an unselected AP2/ERF gene.

Nature plants, 8(8):930-939.

Crop breeding heavily relies on natural genetic variation. However, additional new variations are desired to meet the increasing human demand. Inflorescence architecture determines grain number per spike, a major determinant of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. Here, using Brachypodium distachyon as a wheat proxy, we identified DUO-B1, encoding an APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor, regulating spike inflorescence architecture in bread wheat. Mutations of DUO-B1 lead to mild supernumerary spikelets, increased grain number per spike and, importantly, increased yield under field conditions without affecting other major agronomic traits. DUO-B1 suppresses cell division and promotes the expression of BHt/WFZP, whose mutations could lead to branched 'miracle-wheat'. Pan-genome analysis indicated that DUO-B1 has not been utilized in breeding, and holds promise to increase wheat yield further.

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Liu Y, Z Tian (2022)

Super graph-based pan-genome: Bringing rice functional genomic study into a new dawn.

Molecular plant, 15(9):1409-1411.

RevDate: 2022-09-10
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Ksiezarek M, Grosso F, Ribeiro TG, et al (2022)

Genomic diversity of genus Limosilactobacillus.

Microbial genomics, 8(7):.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Zaidi SE, Zaheer R, Barbieri R, et al (2022)

Genomic Characterization of Enterococcus hirae From Beef Cattle Feedlots and Associated Environmental Continuum.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:859990.

Enterococci are commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, animals, and insects. They are also found in soil, water, and plant ecosystems. The presence of enterococci in human, animal, and environmental settings makes these bacteria ideal candidates to study antimicrobial resistance in the One-Health continuum. This study focused on Enterococcus hirae isolates (n = 4,601) predominantly isolated from beef production systems including bovine feces (n = 4,117, 89.5%), catch-basin water (n = 306, 66.5%), stockpiled bovine manure (n = 24, 0.5%), and natural water sources near feedlots (n = 145, 32%), and a few isolates from urban wastewater (n = 9, 0.2%) denoted as human-associated environmental samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of a subset (n = 1,319) of E. hirae isolates originating from beef production systems (n = 1,308) showed high resistance to tetracycline (65%) and erythromycin (57%) with 50.4% isolates harboring multi-drug resistance, whereas urban wastewater isolates (n = 9) were resistant to nitrofurantoin (44.5%) and tigecycline (44.5%) followed by linezolid (33.3%). Genes for tetracycline (tetL, M, S/M, and O/32/O) and macrolide resistance erm(B) were frequently found in beef production isolates. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. hirae isolates recovered from different environmental settings appeared to reflect the kind of antimicrobial usage in beef and human sectors. Comparative genomic analysis of E. hirae isolates showed an open pan-genome that consisted of 1,427 core genes, 358 soft core genes, 1701 shell genes, and 7,969 cloud genes. Across species comparative genomic analysis conducted on E. hirae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium genomes revealed that E. hirae had unique genes associated with vitamin production, cellulose, and pectin degradation, traits which may support its adaptation to the bovine digestive tract. E. faecium and E. faecalis more frequently harbored virulence genes associated with biofilm formation, iron transport, and cell adhesion, suggesting niche specificity within these species.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Shang L, Li X, He H, et al (2022)

A super pan-genomic landscape of rice.

Cell research [Epub ahead of print].

Pan-genomes from large natural populations can capture genetic diversity and reveal genomic complexity. Using de novo long-read assembly, we generated a graph-based super pan-genome of rice consisting of a 251-accession panel comprising both cultivated and wild species of Asian and African rice. Our pan-genome reveals extensive structural variations (SVs) and gene presence/absence variations. Additionally, our pan-genome enables the accurate identification of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat genes and characterization of their inter- and intraspecific diversity. Moreover, we uncovered grain weight-associated SVs which specify traits by affecting the expression of their nearby genes. We characterized genetic variants associated with submergence tolerance, seed shattering and plant architecture and found independent selection for a common set of genes that drove adaptation and domestication in Asian and African rice. This super pan-genome facilitates pinpointing of lineage-specific haplotypes for trait-associated genes and provides insights into the evolutionary events that have shaped the genomic architecture of various rice species.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Olsen KM (2022)

The rice pangenome branches out.

Cell research [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-08-17
CmpDate: 2022-07-13

Contreras-Moreira B, Del Río ÁR, Cantalapiedra CP, et al (2022)

Pangenome Analysis of Plant Transcripts and Coding Sequences.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2512:121-152.

The pangenome of a species is the sum of the genomes of its individuals. As coding sequences often represent only a small fraction of each genome, analyzing the pangene set can be a cost-effective strategy for plants with large genomes or highly heterozygous species. Here, we describe a step-by-step protocol to analyze plant pangene sets with the software GET_HOMOLOGUES-EST . After a short introduction, where the main concepts are illustrated, the remaining sections cover the installation and typical operations required to analyze and annotate pantranscriptomes and gene sets of plants. The recipes include instructions on how to call core and accessory genes, how to compute a presence-absence pangenome matrix, and how to identify and analyze private genes, present only in some genotypes. Downstream phylogenetic analyses are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-08-17
CmpDate: 2022-07-13

Tay Fernandez CG, Marsh JI, Nestor BJ, et al (2022)

An SGSGeneloss-Based Method for Constructing a Gene Presence-Absence Table Using Mosdepth.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2512:73-80.

Presence-absence variants (PAV) are genomic regions present in some individuals of a species, but not others. PAVs have been shown to contribute to genomic diversity, especially in bacteria and plants. These structural variations have been linked to traits and can be used to track a species' evolutionary history. PAVs are usually called by aligning short read sequence data from one or more individuals to a reference genome or pangenome assembly, and then comparing coverage. Regions where reads do not align define absence in that individual, and the regions are classified as PAVs. The method below details how to align sequence reads to a reference and how to use the sequencing-coverage calculator Mosdepth to identify PAVs and construct a PAV table for use in downstream comparative genome analysis.

RevDate: 2022-09-02
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

González-Díaz A, Berbel D, Ercibengoa M, et al (2022)

Genomic features of predominant non-PCV13 serotypes responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Spain.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 77(9):2389-2398.

BACKGROUND: Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) effectively prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype replacement has occurred.

OBJECTIVES: We studied the pangenome, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and presence of mobile elements in predominant non-PCV13 serotypes causing adult IPD after PCV13 vaccine introduction in Spain.

METHODS: We conducted a multicentre study comparing three periods in six Spanish hospitals and analysed through whole genome sequencing representative strains collected in the pre-PCV13, early-PCV13 and late-PCV13 periods.

RESULTS: Among 2197 cases of adult IPD identified, 110 pneumococci expressing non-PCV13 capsules were sequenced. Seven predominant serotypes accounted for 42.6% of IPD episodes in the late-PCV13 period: serotypes 8 (14.4%), 12F (7.5%), 9N (5.2%), 11A (4.1%), 22F (3.9%), 24F (3.9%) and 16F (3.6%). All predominant non-PCV13 serotypes were highly clonal, comprising one or two clonal complexes (CC). In general, CC538, CC4048, CC3016F, CC43322F and CC669N, related to predominant non-PCV13 serotypes, were antibiotic susceptible. CC15611A was associated with resistance to co-trimoxazole, penicillin and amoxicillin. CC23024F was non-susceptible to penicillin and resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Six composite transposon structures of the Tn5252-family were found in CC23024F, CC98912F and CC3016F carrying different combinations of erm(B), tet(M), and cat. Pangenome analysis revealed differences in accessory genomes among the different CC, with most variety in CC3016F (23.9%) and more conservation in CC15611A (8.5%).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified highly clonal predominant serotypes responsible for IPD in adults. The detection of not only conjugative elements carrying resistance determinants but also clones previously associated with vaccine serotypes (CC15611A and CC23024F) highlights the importance of the accessory genome.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Yang T, F Gao (2022)

High-quality pan-genome of Escherichia coli generated by excluding confounding and highly similar strains reveals an association between unique gene clusters and genomic islands.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 23(4):.

The pan-genome analysis of bacteria provides detailed insight into the diversity and evolution of a bacterial population. However, the genomes involved in the pan-genome analysis should be checked carefully, as the inclusion of confounding strains would have unfavorable effects on the identification of core genes, and the highly similar strains could bias the results of the pan-genome state (open versus closed). In this study, we found that the inclusion of highly similar strains also affects the results of unique genes in pan-genome analysis, which leads to a significant underestimation of the number of unique genes in the pan-genome. Therefore, these strains should be excluded from pan-genome analysis at the early stage of data processing. Currently, tens of thousands of genomes have been sequenced for Escherichia coli, which provides an unprecedented opportunity as well as a challenge for pan-genome analysis of this classical model organism. Using the proposed strategies, a high-quality E. coli pan-genome was obtained, and the unique genes was extracted and analyzed, revealing an association between the unique gene clusters and genomic islands from a pan-genome perspective, which may facilitate the identification of genomic islands.

RevDate: 2022-08-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Alshammari A, Alharbi M, Alghamdi A, et al (2022)

Computer-Aided Multi-Epitope Vaccine Design against Enterobacter xiangfangensis.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(13):.

Antibiotic resistance is a global public health threat and is associated with high mortality due to antibiotics' inability to treat bacterial infections. Enterobacter xiangfangensis is an emerging antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen from the Enterobacter genus and has the ability to acquire resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. Currently, there is no effective vaccine against Enterobacter species. In this study, a chimeric vaccine is designed comprising different epitopes screened from E. xiangfangensis proteomes using immunoinformatic and bioinformatic approaches. In the first phase, six fully sequenced proteomes were investigated by bacterial pan-genome analysis, which revealed that the pathogen consists of 21,996 core proteins, 3785 non-redundant proteins and 18,211 redundant proteins. The non-redundant proteins were considered for the vaccine target prioritization phase where different vaccine filters were applied. By doing so, two proteins; ferrichrome porin (FhuA) and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal) were shortlisted for epitope prediction. Based on properties of antigenicity, allergenicity, water solubility and DRB*0101 binding ability, three epitopes (GPAPTIAAKR, ATKTDTPIEK and RNNGTTAEI) were used in multi-epitope vaccine designing. The designed vaccine construct was analyzed in a docking study with immune cell receptors, which predicted the vaccine's proper binding with said receptors. Molecular dynamics analysis revealed that the vaccine demonstrated stable binding dynamics, and binding free energy calculations further validated the docking results. In conclusion, these in silico results may help experimentalists in developing a vaccine against E. xiangfangensis in specific and Enterobacter in general.

RevDate: 2022-07-23
CmpDate: 2022-07-08

Saraiva MMS, Benevides VP, da Silva NMV, et al (2022)

Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Type 198 Isolated From Livestock In East Africa.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:772829.

Since its emergence in the beginning of the 90's, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has become a significant public health problem, especially in East Africa. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the genotypic relatedness of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from animal sources in Ethiopia and Kenya (n=19). We also investigated population evolutionary dynamics through phylogenetic and pangenome analyses with additional publicly available Salmonella Kentucky ST198 genomes (n=229). All the 19 sequenced Salmonella Kentucky isolates were identified as ST198. Among these isolates, the predominant genotypic antimicrobial resistance profile observed in ten (59.7%) isolates included the aac(3)-Id, aadA7, strA-strB, bla TEM-1B, sul1, and tet(A) genes, which mediated resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, respectively; and gyrA and parC mutations associated to ciprofloxacin resistance. Four isolates harbored plasmid types Incl1 and/or Col8282; two of them carried both plasmids. Salmonella Pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) were highly conserved in the 19 sequenced Salmonella Kentucky isolates. Moreover, at least one Pathogenicity Island (SPI 1-4, SPI 9 or C63PI) was identified among the 229 public Salmonella Kentucky genomes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all Salmonella Kentucky ST198 isolates (17/19) stemmed from a single strain that has accumulated ciprofloxacin resistance-mediating mutations. A total of 8,104 different genes were identified in a heterogenic and still open Salmonella Kentucky ST198 pangenome. Considering the virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes detected in Salmonella Kentucky, the implications of this pathogen to public health and the epidemiological drivers for its dissemination must be investigated.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Garg G, Kamphuis LG, Bayer PE, et al (2022)

A pan-genome and chromosome-length reference genome of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) reveals genomic diversity and insights into key industry and biological traits.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 111(5):1252-1266.

Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius) is a key rotational crop for sustainable farming systems, whose grain is high in protein content. It is a gluten-free, non-genetically modified, alternative protein source to soybean (Glycine max) and as such has gained interest as a human food ingredient. Here, we present a chromosome-length reference genome for the species and a pan-genome assembly comprising 55 NLL lines, including Australian and European cultivars, breeding lines and wild accessions. We present the core and variable genes for the species and report on the absence of essential mycorrhizal associated genes. The genome and pan-genomes of NLL and its close relative white lupin (Lupinus albus) are compared. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence supporting LaRAP2-7 as the key alkaloid regulatory gene for NLL and demonstrate the NLL genome is underrepresented in classical NLR disease resistance genes compared to other sequenced legume species. The NLL genomic resources generated here coupled with previously generated RNA sequencing datasets provide new opportunities to fast-track lupin crop improvement.

RevDate: 2022-09-02

Sang J, Zhuang D, Zhang T, et al (2022)

Convergent and Divergent Age Patterning of Gut Microbiota Diversity in Humans and Nonhuman Primates.

mSystems, 7(4):e0151221.

The gut microbiome has significant effects on healthy aging and aging-related diseases, whether in humans or nonhuman primates. However, little is known about the divergence and convergence of gut microbial diversity between humans and nonhuman primates during aging, which limits their applicability for studying the gut microbiome's role in human health and aging. Here, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis for captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and compared this data set with other freely available gut microbial data sets containing four human populations (Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and British) and two nonhuman primates (wild lemurs [Lemur catta] and wild chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes]). Based on the consistent V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, beta diversity analysis suggested significantly separated gut microbial communities associated with host backgrounds of seven host groups, but within each group, significant gut microbial divergences were observed, and indicator bacterial genera were identified as associated with aging. We further discovered six common anti-inflammatory gut bacteria (Prevotellamassilia, Prevotella, Gemmiger, Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, and Roseburia) that had butyrate-producing potentials suggested by pangenomic analysis and that showed similar dynamic changes in at least two selected host groups during aging, independent of distinct host backgrounds. Finally, we found striking age-related changes in 66 plasma metabolites in macaques. Two highly changed metabolites, hydroxyproline and leucine, enriched in adult macaques were significantly and positively correlated with Prevotella and Prevotellamassilia. Furthermore, genus-level pangenome analysis suggested that those six common indicator bacteria can synthesize leucine and arginine as hydroxyproline and proline precursors in both humans and macaques. IMPORTANCE This study provides the first comprehensive investigation of age patterning of gut microbiota of four human populations and three nonhuman primates and found that Prevotellamassilia, Prevotella, Gemmiger, Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, and Roseburia may be common antiaging microbial markers in both humans and nonhuman primates due to their potential metabolic capabilities for host health benefits. Our results also provide key support for using macaques as animal models in studies of the gut microbiome's role during human aging.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Liu C, Wang Y, Peng J, et al (2022)

High-quality genome assembly and pan-genome studies facilitate genetic discovery in mung bean and its improvement.

Plant communications pii:S2590-3462(22)00107-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mung bean is an economically important legume crop species that is used as a food, consumed as a vegetable, and used as an ingredient and even as a medicine. To explore the genomic diversity of mung bean, we assembled a high-quality reference genome (Vrad_JL7) that was ∼479.35 Mb in size, with a contig N50 length of 10.34 Mb. A total of 40,125 protein-coding genes were annotated, representing ∼96.9% of the genetic region. We also sequenced 217 accessions, mainly landraces and cultivars from China, and identified 2,229,343 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Population structure revealed that the Chinese accessions diverged into two groups and were distinct from non-Chinese lines. Genetic diversity analysis based on genomic data from 750 accessions in 23 countries supported the hypothesis that mung bean was first domesticated in south Asia and introduced to east Asia probably through the Silk Road. We constructed the first pan-genome of mung bean germplasm and assembled 287.73 Mb of non-reference sequences. Among the genes, 83.1% were core genes and 16.9% were variable. Presence/absence variation (PAV) events of nine genes involved in the regulation of the photoperiodic flowering pathway were identified as being under selection during the adaptation process to promote early flowering in the spring. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) revealed 2,912 SNPs and 259 gene PAV events associated with 33 agronomic traits, including a SNP in the coding region of the SWEET10 homolog (jg24043) involved in crude starch content and a PAV event in a large fragment containing 11 genes for color-related traits. This high-quality reference genome and pan-genome will provide insights into mung bean breeding.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Guo G, Wang Z, Li Q, et al (2022)

Genomic characterization of Streptococcus parasuis, a close relative of Streptococcus suis and also a potential opportunistic zoonotic pathogen.

BMC genomics, 23(1):469.

Streptococcus parasuis (S. parasuis) is a close relative of Streptococcus suis (S. suis), composed of former members of S. suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26. S. parasuis could infect pigs and cows, and recently, human infection cases have been reported, making S. parasuis a potential opportunistic zoonotic pathogen. In this study, we analysed the genomic characteristics of S. parasuis, using pan-genome analysis, and compare some phenotypic determinants such as capsular polysaccharide, integrative conjugative elements, CRISPR-Cas system and pili, and predicted the potential virulence genes by associated analysis of the clinical condition of isolated source animals and genotypes. Furthermore, to discuss the relationship with S. suis, we compared these characteristics of S. parasuis with those of S. suis. We found that the characteristics of S. parasuis are similar to those of S. suis, both of them have "open" pan-genome, their antimicrobial resistance gene profiles are similar and a srtF pilus cluster of S. suis was identified in S. parasuis genome. But S. parasuis still have its unique characteristics, two novel pilus clusters are and three different type CRISPR-Cas system were found. Therefore, this study provides novel insights into the interspecific and intraspecific genetic characteristics of S. parasuis, which can be useful for further study of this opportunistic pathogen, such as serotyping, diagnostics, vaccine development, and study of the pathogenesis mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Huang G, Y Zhu (2022)

Insights of section-wide pan-genome into hybrid potato breeding.

Science China. Life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-07-26
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Menghwar H, J Perez-Casal (2022)

Comparative genomic analysis of Canadian Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Bison and Cattle.

Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 87:101835.

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in cattle causes pneumonia, arthritis, otitis media, and mastitis. In addition, multiple outbreaks have been recorded in North American bison. The genomic data on Canadian M. bovis in bison and cattle to date is limited. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to assess the degree of genome conservation across four Canadian M. bovis strains recovered from bison and cattle. Whole-genome sequences of four M. bovis isolates (Mb1, Mb160, Mb300, Mb304) and the PG45 reference genome were utilized to identify the M. bovis genomic similarity, whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (WGS-SNP), virulence determinants, and genomic islands. The pan-genome analysis showed that M. bovis encodes a minimum of 971 genes, while the core genome contained 637 genes. Comparative genomics revealed limited diversity in gene content between bison and cattle isolates. Whole-genome SNP analysis showed that the four M. bovis isolates differed from each other and to PG45. A total of 40 putative virulence genes associated with adhesion, colonization, and destruction of tissues were found in the bison and cattle isolates using the virulence factors database (VFDB). These putative virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates. Genomic Islands (GIs) ranging from 4 to 9 and associated with transposases, restriction-modification, ribosomal hypothetical proteins, variable surface lipoproteins, and unknowns were also identified. Overall, the genomic characterization of these isolates may provide new insights into the mechanisms of pathogenicity in M. bovis.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Kutyna DR, Onetto CA, Williams TC, et al (2022)

Construction of a synthetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae pan-genome neo-chromosome.

Nature communications, 13(1):3628.

The Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) represents the first foray into eukaryotic genome engineering and a framework for designing and building the next generation of industrial microbes. However, the laboratory strain S288c used lacks many of the genes that provide phenotypic diversity to industrial and environmental isolates. To address this shortcoming, we have designed and constructed a neo-chromosome that contains many of these diverse pan-genomic elements and which is compatible with the Sc2.0 design and test framework. The presence of this neo-chromosome provides phenotypic plasticity to the Sc2.0 parent strain, including expanding the range of utilizable carbon sources. We also demonstrate that the induction of programmable structural variation (SCRaMbLE) provides genetic diversity on which further adaptive gains could be selected. The presence of this neo-chromosome within the Sc2.0 backbone may therefore provide the means to adapt synthetic strains to a wider variety of environments, a process which will be vital to transitioning Sc2.0 from the laboratory into industrial applications.

RevDate: 2022-08-10

Li W, Liu J, Zhang H, et al (2022)

Plant pan-genomics: Recent advances, new challenges, and roads ahead.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(22)00162-X [Epub ahead of print].

Pan-genomics can encompass most of the genetic diversity of a species or population and has proved to be a powerful tool for studying genomic evolution and the origin and domestication of species, and for providing information for plant improvement. Plant genomics has greatly progressed because of improvements in sequencing technologies and the rapid reduction of sequencing costs. Nevertheless, pan-genomics still presents many challenges, including computationally intensive assembly methods, high costs with large numbers of samples, ineffective integration of big data, and difficulty in applying it to downstream multi-omics analysis and breeding research. In this review, we summarize the definition and recent achievements of plant pan-genomics, computational technologies used for pan-genome construction, and the applications of pan-genomes in plant genomics and molecular breeding. We also discuss challenges and perspectives for future pan-genomics studies and provide a detailed pipeline for sample selection, genome assembly and annotation, structural variation identification, and construction and application of graph-based pan-genomes. The aim is to provide important guidance for plant pan-genome research and a better understanding of the genetic basis of genome evolution, crop domestication, and phenotypic diversity for future studies.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Bradbury PJ, Casstevens T, Jensen SE, et al (2022)

The Practical Haplotype Graph, a platform for storing and using pangenomes for imputation.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Pangenomes provide novel insights for population and quantitative genetics, genomics, and breeding not available from studying a single reference genome. Instead, a species is better represented by a pangenome or collection of genomes. Unfortunately, managing and using pangenomes for genomically diverse species is computationally and practically challenging. We developed a trellis graph representation anchored to the reference genome that represents most pangenomes well and can be used to impute complete genomes from low density sequence or variant data.

RESULTS: The Practical Haplotype Graph (PHG) is a pangenome pipeline, database (PostGRES & SQLite), data model (Java, Kotlin, or R), and Breeding API (BrAPI) web service. The PHG has already been able to accurately represent diversity in four major crops including maize, one of the most genomically diverse species, with up to 1000-fold data compression. Using simulated data, we show that, at even 0.1X coverage, with appropriate reads and sequence alignment, imputation results in extremely accurate haplotype reconstruction. The PHG is a platform and environment for the understanding and application of genomic diversity.

AVAILABILITY: All resources listed here are freely available. The PHG Docker used to generate the simulation results is as maizegenetics/phg:0.0.27. PHG source code is at The code used for the analysis of simulated data is at The PHG database of NAM parent haplotypes is in the CyVerse data store ( and named /iplant/home/shared/panzea/panGenome/PHG_db_maize/phg_v5Assemblies_20200608.db.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )