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Bibliography on: Telomeres

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jul 2020 at 01:35 Created: 


Wikipedia: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) "end" and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) "part". For vertebrates, the sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG, with the complementary DNA strand being AATCCC, with a single-stranded TTAGGG overhang. This sequence of TTAGGG is repeated approximately 2,500 times in humans. In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age,[3] with average rate of decline being greater in men than in women. During chromosome replication, the enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of a chromosome, so in each duplication the end of the chromosome is shortened (this is because the synthesis of Okazaki fragments requires RNA primers attaching ahead on the lagging strand). The telomeres are disposable buffers at the ends of chromosomes which are truncated during cell division; their presence protects the genes before them on the chromosome from being truncated instead. The telomeres themselves are protected by a complex of shelterin proteins, as well as by the RNA that telomeric DNA encodes.

Created with PubMed® Query: telomere[title] OR telomeres[title] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-07-03

Mender I, Zhang A, Ren Z, et al (2020)

Telomere Stress Potentiates STING-Dependent Anti-tumor Immunity.

Cancer cell pii:S1535-6108(20)30270-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-tumor therapy as it is almost universally expressed in cancer cells. Here, we show that treatment with a telomere-targeting drug, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG), leads to tumor regression through innate and adaptive immune-dependent responses in syngeneic and humanized mouse models of telomerase-expressing cancers. 6-thio-dG treatment causes telomere-associated DNA damages that are sensed by dendritic cells (DCs) and activates the host cytosolic DNA sensing STING/interferon I pathway, resulting in enhanced cross-priming capacity of DCs and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell activation. Moreover, 6-thio-dG overcomes resistance to checkpoint blockade in advanced cancer models. Our results unveil how telomere stress increases innate sensing and adaptive anti-tumor immunity and provide strong rationales for combining telomere-targeting therapy with immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Anonymous (2020)

The Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and Telomere Length: A Meta-Analysis Involving 14,827 Persons: Erratum.

Psychosomatic medicine, 82(6):631.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Vahidi S, Norollahi SE, Agah S, et al (2020)

DNA Methylation Profiling of hTERT Gene Alongside with the Telomere Performance in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

Journal of gastrointestinal cancer pii:10.1007/s12029-020-00427-7 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Epigenetic modification including of DNA methylation, histone acetylation, histone methylation, histon phosphorylation and non-coding RNA can impress the gene expression and genomic stability and cause different types of malignancies and also main human disorder. Conspicuously, the epigenetic alteration special DNA methylation controls telomere length, telomerase activity and also function of different genes particularly hTERT expression. Telomeres are important in increasing the lifespan, health, aging, and the development and progression of some diseases like cancer.

METHODS: This review provides an assessment of the epigenetic alterations of telomeres, telomerase and repression of its catalytic subunit, hTERT and function of long non-coding RNAs such as telomeric-repeat containing RNA (TERRA) in carcinogenesis and tumorgenesis of gastric cancer.

RESULTS: hTERT expression is essential and indispensable in telomerase activation through immortality and malignancies and also plays an important role in maintaining telomere length. Telomeres and telomerase have been implicated in regulating epigenetic factors influencing certain gene expression. Correspondingly, these changes in the sub telomere and telomere regions are affected by the shortening of telomere length and increased telomerase activity and hTERT gene expression have been observed in many cancers, remarkably in gastric cancer.

CONCLUSION: Epigenetic alteration and regulation of hTERT gene expression are critical in controlling telomerase activity and its expression. Graphical Abstract.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Tsai CW, Chang WS, Xu J, et al (2020)

Leukocyte telomere length is associated with aggressive prostate cancer in localized African American prostate cancer patients.

Carcinogenesis pii:5866459 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres play important roles in cancer initiation and progression. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with the risk and prognosis of several cancers, but its association with prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis in African Americans has not been reported. In this study, we measured relative LTL from 317 African American PCa patients and assessed its associations with aggressive disease characteristics at diagnosis and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. LTL was shorter in patients with higher Gleason scores (GS) at diagnosis. Dichotomized into short and long LTL groups, patients with short LTL exhibited a 1.91-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.20, P=0.013) increased risk of being diagnosed with high-risk disease (GS =7 [4+3] and GS ≥8) than those with long LTL in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Moreover, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased risk of BCR (hazard ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.18-11.44, P=0.024) compared to longer LTL in localized patients receiving prostatectomy or radiotherapy in multivariable Cox analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed patients with short LTL had significantly shorter BCR-free survival time than patients with long LTL (Log rank P=0.011). In conclusion, our results showed for the first time that LTL was shorter in PCa patients with higher GS and short LTL was associated with worse prognosis in African American PCa patients receiving prostatectomy or radiotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Sun Y, Wang W, Jiao YR, et al (2020)

Leukocyte telomere length: a potential biomarker for the prognosis of coronary artery disease.

Biomarkers in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials & methods: We enrolled 366 CAD patients and 76 healthy subjects in this study. LTL was measured. All subjects were followed up for 6 months for further analysis regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Results: CAD patients had a significantly shortened LTL compared with healthy subjects (p < 0.05). The area under the curve for LTL prediction of MACEs was 0.769 (p < 0.001), with a shorter LTL being an independent predictor of MACEs (Cox proportional hazards regression, hazard ratio: 2.866; p < 0.001). Conclusion: LTL could be considered as an independent predictor of short-term MACEs in CAD.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Kahl VFS, Allen JAM, Nelson CB, et al (2020)

Telomere Length Measurement by Molecular Combing.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:493.

Telomeres are repetitive regions of DNA bound by specialized proteins at the termini of linear chromosomes that prevent the natural chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA double strand breaks. Telomeric DNA is gradually eroded with each round of cell division, resulting in the accumulation of critically short or dysfunctional telomeres that eventually trigger cellular senescence. Consequently, telomere length is indicative of the proliferative capacity of a cell. Multiple methods exist to measure telomere length and telomere content, but a simple and reliable technique to accurately measure individual telomere lengths is currently lacking. We have developed the Telomere length Combing Assay (TCA) to measure telomere length on stretched DNA fibers. We used TCA to measure telomere erosion in primary human fibroblasts, and to detect telomere lengthening in response to activation of telomere maintenance pathways. TCA was also used to accurately measure telomere length in healthy individuals, and to identify critically short telomeres in patients with telomere biology disorders. TCA is performed on isolated DNA, negating the need for cycling cells. TCA is amenable to semi-automated image analysis, and can be fully automated using the Genomic Vision molecular combing platform. This not only precludes sampling bias, but also provides the potential for high-throughput applications and clinical development. TCA is a simple and versatile technique to measure the distribution of individual telomere lengths in a cell population, offering improved accuracy, and more detailed biological insight for telomere length measurement applications.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Jumatovaite Z, Kriauciunas A, Vilkeviciute A, et al (2020)

Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length and Genes Involved in its Regulation With Oral Carcinoma.

In vivo (Athens, Greece), 34(4):1739-1747.

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the relative leukocyte telomere length (RLTL) and gene polymorphisms involved in its regulation with the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with OSCC and healthy subjects were examined. Genotyping and RLTL measurement were carried out using rPCR.

RESULTS: The OSCC group had longer telomeres than controls (p=0.001). Minor allele T at TERF1rs1545827 may increase RLTL shortening (p=0.047). TNKS2rs10509639 A/G and A/G+G/G genotypes were associated with a 2.6-fold increased odd (p=0.012) and a 2.4-fold increased odd (p=0.019) of RLTL elongation compared to A/A genotype. The A/G genotype was associated with a 2.6-fold increased odd (p=0.011) compared to the A/A+G/G genotypes. Each G allele was associated with a 2.1-fold increased odd of longer RLTL (p=0.036).

CONCLUSION: Longer telomeres were found in patients with OSCC than in controls. The TERF1 rs1545827 and the TNKS2 rs10509639 polymorphisms were associated with an increase in RLTL.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Valera-Gran D, Prieto-Botella D, Peral-Gómez P, et al (2020)

Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Telomere Length in Children: A Review of Scientific Literature.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(12): pii:ijerph17124593.

Telomere length in early life has been recently associated with biological aging and development of negative consequences in later adult life. A relevant area of research has emerged to understand the factors that impact telomere length in children. We conducted a bibliometric analysis to track research output and identify global trends and gaps in the knowledge of telomere length in children. Bibliographic data were retrieved from the Web of Science database and then analyzed by using Bibliometrix R package. A total of 840 publications were yielded from 1991 to 2019. The references were prominently published in journals, with 20 high ranked journals contributing to 30% of literature on telomere length in children. The USA was the most productive country (35.7%), followed by Europe (12.1%), and Asia (11.9%). A knowledge map of telomere length in children through keyword analyses revealed that there were two potential main lines of research based on two different approaches: genomic research and epidemiological research. This study shows that telomere length in children is a topic of research that has gained significant relevance in the last decade. This bibliometric study may be helpful in identifying research trends and finding research hot spots and gaps in this research field.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Coimbra BM, Carvalho CM, Ota VK, et al (2020)

A systematic review on the effects of social discrimination on telomere length.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 120:104766 pii:S0306-4530(20)30187-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Discrimination is unfair treatment against a certain group based on race, age, gender, sexual orientation, or other social identities. Discrimination is pervasive in society, elevates psychosocial stress, and is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. However, more research is needed to understand the biological mechanisms underlying discrimination-related health disparities. Telomere science may contribute to elucidate some of these aspects. Telomeres are protein-DNA complexes that shorten after cell division and are valuable markers of cellular aging. Short telomeres have been associated with the onset of age-related diseases. Evidence shows that chronic psychological stress may accelerate telomere shortening. Since discrimination can lead to psychological strain with cumulative impact on general health, we hypothesized that groups that report more discrimination show reduced telomere length (TL) as a consequence of psychosocial stress elevation. Through a systematic review of the literature we found 12 articles that met our criteria. Eligible studies measured racial, gender, unfair policing, and multiple forms of discrimination in association with TL. Our review showed mixed results, suggesting that there is weak evidence of a main association between discrimination and TL. However, discrimination may interact with several variables (such as depressive symptoms, acculturation, higher socioeconomic status, internalization of negative racial bias, and not discussing discrimination experiences with others) and contribute to shorten telomeres. Discrimination is a complex social construct composed of a vast sum of experiences, impressions, and contexts that in combination with other sources of stress may have an impact on TL. Telomeres may be a plausible pathway to investigate health discrepancies in discriminated groups in society, but more evidence is needed to investigate the potential harm of discrimination on cells.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Ogłuszka M, Te Pas MFW, Poławska E, et al (2020)

Omega-3 Alpha-Linolenic Fatty Acid Affects the Level of Telomere Binding Protein TRF1 in Porcine Skeletal Muscle.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 10(6): pii:ani10061090.

Omega-3 fatty acids are health-promoting nutrients that contribute to the amelioration of age-related diseases. Recent studies have reported the role of these fatty acids in the aging process, explicitly impacting telomere biology. The shelterin protein complex, located at the extremities of chromosomes, ensures telomere protection and length regulation. Here, we analyzed the impact of dietary omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid from linseed oil on skeletal muscle telomere biology using an animal model of female pigs. Fifteen animals were supplemented with linseed oil for nine weeks and an equal number of individuals were fed with a control diet. Linseed-oil-supplemented animals showed an increased level of alpha-linolenic acid in skeletal muscles compared to control animals. There was no difference between groups in the telomere length measured in leukocytes and muscles. However, muscles of the linseed-oil-supplemented pigs showed lower levels of the shelterin TRF1 protein compared to the control group. Our results suggest that omega-3 linolenic acid counteracts the elevation of TRF1 levels, which increase with age and due to the presence of reactive oxygen species in muscle. The observed effect may be due to attenuation of oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Shubin CB, CW Greider (2020)

The Role of Rif1 in telomere length regulation is separable from its role in origin firing.

eLife, 9: pii:58066 [Epub ahead of print].

To examine the established link between DNA replication and telomere length, we tested whether firing of telomeric origins would cause telomere lengthening. We found that RIF1 mutants that block Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding activated telomeric origins but did not elongate telomeres. In a second approach, we found overexpression of ∆N-Dbf4 and Cdc7 increased DDK activity and activated telomeric origins, yet telomere length was unchanged. We tested a third mechanism to activate origins using the sld3-A mcm5-bob1 mutant that de-regulates the pre-replication complex, and again saw no change in telomere length. Finally, we tested whether mutations in RIF1 that cause telomere elongation would affect origin firing. We found that neither rif1-∆1322 nor rif1HOOK affected firing of telomeric origins. We conclude that telomeric origin firing does not cause telomere elongation, and the role of Rif1 in regulating origin firing is separable from its role in regulating telomere length.

RevDate: 2020-06-28

Martínez-González K, Islas-Hernández A, Martínez-Ezquerro JD, et al (2020)

Telomere length and oxidative stress variations in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease progression.

The European journal of neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and aging is its major risk factor. Changes in telomere length have been associated with aging and some degenerative diseases. Our aim was to explore some of the molecular changes caused by the progression of AD in a transgenic murine model (3xTg-AD; B6; 129-Psen1 Tg (APPSwe, tauP301L) 1Lfa). Telomere length was assessed by qPCR in both brain tissue and peripheral blood cells and compared between three age groups: 5, 9, and 13 months. In addition, a possible effect of oxidative stress on telomere length and AD progression was explored. Shorter telomeres were found in blood cells of older transgenic mice compared to younger and wild type mice but no changes in telomere length in the hippocampus. An increase in oxidative stress with age was found for all strains but no correlation was found between oxidative stress and shorter telomere length for transgenic mice. Telomere length and oxidative stress are affected by AD progression in the 3xTg-AD murine model. Changes in blood cells are more noticeable than changes in brain tissue, suggesting that systemic changes can be detected early in the disease in this murine model.

RevDate: 2020-06-28

Martínez-González K, Islas-Hernández A, Martínez-Ezquerro JD, et al (2020)

Telomere length and oxidative stress variations in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease progression.

The European journal of neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and aging is its major risk factor. Changes in telomere length have been associated with aging and some degenerative diseases. Our aim was to explore some of the molecular changes caused by the progression of AD in a transgenic murine model (3xTg-AD; B6; 129-Psen1 Tg (APPSwe, tauP301L) 1Lfa). Telomere length was assessed by qPCR in both brain tissue and peripheral blood cells and compared between three age groups: 5, 9, and 13 months. In addition, a possible effect of oxidative stress on telomere length and AD progression was explored. Shorter telomeres were found in blood cells of older transgenic mice compared to younger and wild type mice but no changes in telomere length in the hippocampus. An increase in oxidative stress with age was found for all strains but no correlation was found between oxidative stress and shorter telomere length for transgenic mice. Telomere length and oxidative stress are affected by AD progression in the 3xTg-AD murine model. Changes in blood cells are more noticeable than changes in brain tissue, suggesting that systemic changes can be detected early in the disease in this murine model.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Peska V, Mátl M, Mandákova T, et al (2020)

Human-like telomeres in Zostera marina reveal a mode of transition from the plant to the human telomeric sequences.

Journal of experimental botany pii:5863406 [Epub ahead of print].

A previous study describing the genome of Zostera marina, the most widespread seagrass in the Northern hemisphere, revealed some genomic signatures of adaptation to the aquatic environment such as the loss of stomatal genes, while other functions like an algal-like cell wall composition were acquired. Beyond these, the genome structure and organization were comparable to the majority of plant genomes sequenced, except for one striking feature that went unnoticed at that time: the presence of human-like instead of the expected plant-type telomeric sequences. By using different experimental approaches including FISH, NGS and Bal31 analysis, we have confirmed its telomeric location in the chromosomes of Z. marina. We have also identified its telomerase RNA subunit (TR), confirming the presence of the human-type telomeric sequence in the template region. Remarkably, this region was found to be very variable even in clades with a highly conserved telomeric sequence across their species. Based on this observation, we propose that alternative annealing preferences in the template borders can explain the transition between the plant and human telomeric sequences. The further identification of paralogues of TR in several plant genomes brought us to the hypothesis that plants may keep an increased ability to change their telomeric sequence. We discuss the implications of this occurrence in the evolution of telomeres while introducing a mechanistic model for the transition from the plant to the human telomeric sequences.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Millan AL, Trobo SI, de Dios A, et al (2020)

MODY patients exhibit shorter telomere length than non-diabetic subjects.

Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Given the increasing evidence supporting the association between telomere shortening and diabetes, the aim of the present work was to establish whether MODY patients suffer a reduction in TL due to oxidative stress produced by chronic hyperglycemia, despite not presenting insulin resistance or inflammation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters in 35 MODY2 and 12 MODY3 patients compared with 48 Control subjects. The absolute telomere length (aTL) of peripheral blood leukocytes was measured using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was observed between aTL and age in the whole population, among MODY patients and in each subtype studied, MODY2 and MODY3, which allowed us to validate the method. We found, for the first time, that MODY patients have shorter aTL with respect to non-diabetic Controls (6.49 ± 3.31 Kbp vs 11.13 ± 7.82 Kbp, P = 0.006). However, no differences were found between MODY2 and MODY3. Additionally, aTL showed a negative correlation with duration of the disease and FPG levels in MODY patients in general and also with HbA1c in MODY2 patients in particular.

CONCLUSIONS: It can be thus inferred that both MODY types present telomere shortening, which, at least partly, responds to HbA1c and FPG levels. These findings suggest comparable mechanisms underlying the attrition of TL. Taken together, our results on aTL in MODY patients may provide a parameter relatively easy and inexpensive to quantify in order to measure the impact of high glucose levels and potentially carry out antidiabetic treatment with stricter targets.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Vysotskaya OV, Glukhov AI, Semochkina YP, et al (2020)

[Telomerase activity, mTert gene expression and the telomere length in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in the late period after γ- and γ,n-irradiation and in the tumors developed from these cells].

Biomeditsinskaia khimiia, 66(3):265-273.

In proliferating normal and tumor cells, the telomere length (TL) is maintained by high telomerase activity (TA). In the absence of TA the TL maintenance involves a mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The aim of this study was to investigate the level of TA, the mTert expression and TL in cultured normal and transformed by γ- and γ,n-irradiation mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow, in sarcomas that developed after the transplantation of these cells into syngeneic mice, and in fibrosarcoma cell lines obtained from these tumors to find out the role of AT or ALT in maintaining TL in these cells. During prolonged cultivation of normal and transformed under the influence of γ- (1 Gy and 6 Gy) and γ,n-irradiation (0.05 Gy, 0.5 Gy, and 2 Gy) MSCs from mouse bone marrow, a decrease in TA was detected in irradiated cells. Even deeper decrease in TA was found in sarcomas developed after administration of transformed MSCs to syngeneic mice and in fibrosarcoma cell lines isolated from these tumors in which TA was either absent or was found to be at a very low level. TL in three of the four lines obtained was halved compared to the initial MSCs. With absent or low TA and reduced TL, the cells of all the obtained fibrosarcoma lines successfully proliferated without signs of a change in survival. The mechanism of telomere maintainance in fibrosarcoma cell lines in the absence of TA needs further investigation and it can be assumed that it is associated with the use of the ALT. The detected decrease or absence of TA in transformed under the action of irradiation MSCs with the preservation or even an increase in the telomerase gene expression may be associated with the formation of inactive splicing variants, and requires further study. The obtained lines of transformed MSCs and fibrosarcomas with TA and without the activity of this enzyme can be a useful model for studying the efficacy of TA and ALT inhibitors in vitro and in vivo.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Maremanda KP, Sundar IK, Li D, et al (2020)

Age-dependent assessment of genes involved in cellular senescence, telomere and mitochondrial pathways in human lung tissue of smokers, COPD and IPF: Associations with SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 ACE2-TMPRSS2-Furin-DPP4 axis.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences.

Aging is one of the key contributing factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Cigarette smoke is a major etiological risk factor that has been shown to alter cellular processes involving mitochondrial function, cellular senescence and telomeric length. Here we determined how aging contribute to the alteration in the gene expression of above mentioned cellular processes that play an important role in the progression of COPD and IPF. We hypothesized that aging may differentially alter the expression of mitochondrial, cellular senescence and telomere genes in smokers and patients with COPD and IPF compared to non-smokers. Total RNA from human lung tissues from non-smokers, smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF were processed and analyzed based on their ages (younger: <55 yrs and older: >55 yrs). NanoString nCounter panel was used to analyze the gene expression profiles using a custom designed codeset containing 112 genes including 6 housekeeping controls (mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cellular senescence, telomere replication and maintenance). mRNA counts were normalized, log2 transformed for differential expression analysis using linear models in the limma package (R/Bioconductor). Data from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD and IPF were analyzed based on the age groups (pairwise comparisons between younger vs. older groups). Several genes were differentially expressed in younger and older smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF compared to non-smokers which were part of the mitochondrial biogenesis/function (HSPD1, FEN1, COX18, COX10, UCP2 & 3), cellular senescence (PCNA, PTEN, KLOTHO, CDKN1C, TNKS2, NFATC1 & 2, GADD45A) and telomere replication/maintenance (PARP1, SIRT6, NBN, TERT, RAD17, SLX4, HAT1) target genes. Interestingly, NOX4 and TNKS2 were increased in the young IPF as compared to the young COPD patients. Genes in the mitochondrial dynamics and other quality control mechanisms like FIS1 and RHOT2 were decreased in young IPF compared to their age matched COPD subjects. ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1) and GADD45B were higher in young COPD as compared to IPF. Aging plays an important role in various infectious diseases. Elderly patients with chronic lung disease and smokers were found to have high incidence and mortality rates in the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunoblot analysis in the lung homogenates of smokers, COPD and IPF subjects revealed increased protein abundance of important proteases and spike proteins like TMPRSS2, furin and DPP4 in association with a slight increase in SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 levels. This may further strengthen the observation that smokers, COPD and IPF subjects are more prone to COVID-19 infection. Overall, these findings suggest that altered transcription of target genes that regulate mitochondrial function, cellular senescence, and telomere attrition add to the pathobiology of lung aging in COPD and IPF and other smoking-related chronic lung disease in associated with alterations in SARS-CoV-2 ACE2-TMPRSS2-Furin-DPP4 axis for COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Yin H, Hardikar S, Lindström S, et al (2020)

Telomere maintenance variants and survival after colorectal cancer: Smoking- and sex-specific associations.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:1055-9965.EPI-19-1507 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after CRC diagnosis but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors such as smoking and sex also remain to be investigated.

METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of CRC prognosis in 4,896 invasive CRC cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO).1871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and CRC-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P-values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction.

RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with CRC-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected p-value=0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or CRC-specific survival in women but not in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose-response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted.

IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after CRC diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on CRC prognosis.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Koss KJ, Schneper LM, Brooks-Gunn J, et al (2020)

Early Puberty and Telomere Length in Preadolescent Girls and Mothers.

The Journal of pediatrics, 222:193-199.e5.

OBJECTIVE: To test the association between early puberty and telomere length in preadolescent girls and mothers from a large representative sample of US females.

STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from 1194 preadolescent girls and 2421 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Participants were from a population-based birth cohort (1998-2000) born in large US cities. Telomere length was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from saliva samples provided by preadolescent girls and mothers of preadolescent youth. Mothers completed a questionnaire about their child's pubertal development to determine concurrent Tanner stages and provided self-reports of her own age at menarche. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between pubertal development (status and timing) and telomere length.

RESULTS: Early pubertal timing but not pubertal status was associated with shorter telomere length in preadolescent girls (P < .01). Early age at menarche was associated with shorter telomere length in a sample of mothers of preadolescent youth (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence for the association between early puberty and shorter telomeres evidenced by associations in both preadolescent girls and mothers. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using longitudinal measurements of pubertal development assessed through medical examinations and repeated assessments of telomere length to capture telomere attrition.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Vakili SA, George A, Ayatollahi SA, et al (2020)

Phenolic compounds, saponins and alkaloids on cancer progression: emphasis on p53 expression and telomere length.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 66(4):110-119.

Telomere length is correlated with cell proliferation, and cancer cells are characterized by an uncontrolled cell cycle. Being apoptosis one of the checks and balances incorporated into cells cycle, due to its characteristics, cancer cells are able to overcome this process. In particular, the tumour suppressor protein p53 loss or inactivation can lead to activation of telomerase enzyme, which can make cells unable to detect DNA damages that spurs apoptosis. Some bioactive compounds, in particular phenolic compounds, saponins and alkaloids have revealed good abilities to affect p53 expression and indirectly control the telomere length. In this sense, this review gives a key emphasis to the ability of these compounds in blocking cancer progression by acting on p53 expression and controlling telomere length. As main findings, phenolic compounds, saponins and alkaloids interfere with cancer progression by stimulating p53 expression, which can cause pro-apoptotic onset and restrict the anti-apoptotic activity, in addition to preventing telomerase enzyme activity.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Fang C, Huang H, Zhang Q, et al (2020)

Relation between sex hormones and leucocyte telomere length in men with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: IPF is an ageing-related lung disorder featuring progressive lung scarring. IPF patients are frequently identified with short telomeres but coding mutations in telomerase can only explain a minority of cases. Sex hormones regulate telomerase activity in vitro and levels of sex hormones are related to LTL. The objective of this study was to explore whether sex hormones were associated with LTL, whether they interacted with genetic variants in telomerase and whether polymorphisms in the exon of androgen metabolism genes were associated with plasma testosterone concentrations in male IPF patients.

METHODS: A case-control study was performed on 101 male IPF subjects and 51 age-matched healthy controls. Early morning plasma sex hormones were quantified, and whole-exome sequencing was used to identify rare protein-altering variants of telomerase and SNP in the exon of androgen metabolism genes. LTL was analysed by PCR and expressed as a T/S ratio.

RESULTS: LTL, testosterone and DHT were decreased significantly in the IPF group. After adjustments for age and variant status in telomerase-related genes, only testosterone was positively associated with LTL (P = 0.001). No significant interaction (P = 0.661) was observed between rare protein-altering variants of telomerase and testosterone. No coding SNP in androgen metabolism genes were significantly associated with testosterone concentrations.

CONCLUSION: Plasma testosterone is associated with LTL independent of age or rare protein-altering variants of telomerase. No genetic variations of androgen-related pathway genes are associated with androgen concentrations. Further studies are warranted to examine whether hormonal interventions might retard telomere loss in male IPF patients.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Mir SM, Samavarchi Tehrani S, Goodarzi G, et al (2020)

Shelterin Complex at Telomeres: Implications in Ageing.

Clinical interventions in aging, 15:827-839 pii:256425.

Different factors influence the development‎ and control of ageing. It is well known that progressive telomere shorting is one of the molecular mechanisms underlying ageing. The shelterin complex consists of six telomere-specific proteins which are involved in the protection of chromosome ends. More particularly, this vital complex protects the telomeres from degradation, prevents from activation of unwanted repair systems, regulates the activity of telomerase, and has a crucial role in cellular senescent and ageing-related pathologies. This review explores the organization and function of telomeric DNA along with the mechanism of telomeres during ageing, followed by a discussion of the critical role of shelterin components and their changes during ageing.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Yang R, et al (2020)

Serum branched-chain amino acids are associated with leukocyte telomere length and frailty based on residents from Guangxi longevity county.

Scientific reports, 10(1):10252 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-67010-9.

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and telomere length are biologically associated with healthy aging. However, the association between them and their interaction on frailty remain unclear in humans. Here, a cross-sectional study based on residents from Guangxi longevity county was conducted to investigate the association of serum BCAAs, peripheral leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and frailty. A total of 1,034 subjects aged 20 to 110 years were recruited in the study. The real-time qPCR method and a targeted metabolomics approach based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method were used for measurement of LTL and BCAAs, respectively. A frailty score defined as the proportion of accumulated deficits based on 24 aging-related items was used assess the health status of elderly subjects. First, we found that a higher concentration of BCAAs was significantly associated with longer LTL only in middle-aged subjects, independent of age and BMI (P < 0.05). In the oldest-old subjects, we identified a significantly inverse association between BCAAs and frailty score (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for age and BMI (P < 0.05). Additionally, we recognized a statistically significant synergetic interaction between BCAAs and LTL on frailty score in the oldest-old subjects by the general linear model (P = 0.042), although we did not find any significant association between LTL and frailty score. In summary, our findings suggest a potentially protective effect of circulating BCAAs on LTL and frailty based on the subjects from longevity county in East Asia and indicate a potential synergetic interaction between BCAAs and LTL in healthy aging.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Seimiya H (2020)

Crossroads of telomere biology and anticancer drug discovery.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

The telomere is the specialized nucleoprotein complex at the end of the chromosome. Its highly conserved 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats and shelterin protein complexes form a protective loop structure to maintain the integrity and stability of linear chromosomes. Although human somatic cells gradually shorten telomeres to undergo senescence or crisis, cancer cells activate telomerase or the recombination-based mechanism to maintain telomeres and exhibit immortality. As the most frequent non-coding mutations in cancer, gain-of-function mutations in the promoter region of the telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, trigger telomerase activation. Promoter methylation and copy number gain are also associated with the enhanced TERT expression. Although telomerase inhibitors were pioneered from telomere-directed therapeutics, their efficacies are limited to cancer with short telomeres and some hematological malignancies. Other therapeutic approaches include a nucleoside analogue incorporated to telomeres and TERT promoter-driven oncolytic adenoviruses. Tankyrase poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a positive regulator of telomerase, has been rediscovered as a target for Wnt-driven cancer. Meanwhile, telomeric nucleic acids form a higher-order structure called G-quadruplex (G4). G4s are formed genome-widely and their dynamics affect various events, including replication, transcription and translation. G4-stabilizing compounds (G4 ligands) exert anticancer effects and are in clinical investigations. Collectively, telomere biology has provided clues for deeper understanding of cancer, which expands opportunities to discover innovative anticancer drugs.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Zhang H, Zhao R, Tones J, et al (2020)

Nuclear body phase separation drives telomere clustering in ALT cancer cells.

Molecular biology of the cell [Epub ahead of print].

Telomerase-free cancer cells employ a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway that depends on ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs), whose function is unclear. We find that APBs behave as liquid condensates in response to telomere DNA damage, suggesting two potential functions: condensation to enrich DNA repair factors and coalescence to cluster telomeres. To test these models, we developed a chemically-induced dimerization approach to induce de novo APB condensation in live cells without DNA damage. We show that telomere binding protein sumoylation nucleates APB condensation via SUMO-SIM (SUMO interaction motif) interactions, and that APB coalescence drives telomere clustering. The induced APBs lack DNA repair factors, indicating that APB functions in promoting telomere clustering can be uncoupled from enriching DNA repair factors. Indeed, telomere clustering relies only on liquid properties of the condensate, as an alternative condensation chemistry also induces clustering independent of sumoylation. Our findings introduce a chemical dimerization approach to manipulate phase separation and demonstrate how the material properties and chemical composition of APBs independently contribute to ALT, suggesting a general framework for how chromatin condensates promote cellular functions. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text].

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Sasamoto N, Yland J, Vitonis AF, et al (2020)

Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Telomere Length and Endometriosis.

Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) pii:10.1007/s43032-020-00214-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease defined by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. While its etiology is largely unknown, accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role. Our objective was to investigate the association between peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometriosis using data from two large population-based studies, the New England Case-Control Study (NEC; n = 877) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2268). NEC control participants were identified through a combination of random digit dialing, drivers' license lists, and town resident lists. In NHANES, selection algorithms were used to identify a nationally representative sample. Blood samples and demographic, reproductive, and health-related information were available from both data sources. Endometriosis was defined as self-reported of physician-diagnosed endometriosis. LTL was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between LTL and endometriosis. Shorter LTL was associated with greater odds of history of endometriosis. In NEC, women with the shortest LTL tertile compared with the longest had a 2.5-fold greater odds of endometriosis (ORT3/T1 = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.16-5.63; p value, test for linear trend = 0.02). The association was stronger among women who usually experienced moderate or severe menstrual pain (OR T3/T1 = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.12-10.97). In NHANES, the data suggested a similar but attenuated association (ORT3/T1 = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.85-1.96). The observed associations in NEC suggest that shorter LTL may be associated with greater odds of endometriosis. A better understanding of how LTL influences endometriosis risk could elucidate novel disease pathophysiology.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Courtwright AM, Lamattina AM, Takahashi M, et al (2020)

Shorter telomere length following lung transplantation is associated with clinically significant leukopenia and decreased chronic lung allograft dysfunction-free survival.

ERJ open research, 6(2): pii:00003-2020.

Patients with short telomeres and interstitial lung disease may have decreased chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)-free survival following lung transplantation. The relationship between post-transplant telomere length and outcomes following lung transplantation has not been characterised among all recipients, regardless of native lung disease. This was a single-centre prospective cohort study. Consenting transplant recipients had their telomere length measured using quantitative real-time PCR assays on peripheral blood collected at the time of surveillance bronchoscopy. We assessed the association between early post-transplant telomere length (as measured in the first 100 days) and CLAD-free survival, time to clinically significant leukopenia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) viraemia, chronic kidney disease, and acute cellular rejection. We also assessed the association between rate of telomere shortening and CLAD-free survival. Telomere lengths were available for 98 out of 215 (45.6%) recipients who underwent lung transplant during the study period (median measurement per patient=2 (interquartile range, 1-3)). Shorter telomere length was associated with decreased CLAD-free survival (hazard ratio (HR)=1.24; 95% CI=1.03-1.48; p=0.02), leukopenia requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (HR=1.17, 95% CI=1.01-1.35, p=0.03), and CMV viraemia among CMV-mismatch recipients (HR=4.04, 95% CI=1.05-15.5, p=0.04). Telomere length was not associated with acute cellular rejection or chronic kidney disease. Recipients with more rapid loss in telomere length (defined as the highest tertile of telomere shortening) did not have worse subsequent CLAD-free survival than those without rapid loss (HR=1.38, 95% CI=0.27-7.01, p=0.70). Shorter early post-transplant telomere length is associated with decreased CLAD-free survival and clinically significant leukopenia in lung transplant recipients, regardless of native lung disease.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Huang P, Li R, Shen L, et al (2020)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in telomere length-related genes are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in the Chinese Han population.

Therapeutic advances in medical oncology, 12:1758835920933029 pii:10.1177_1758835920933029.

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in telomere-related genes are associated with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the SNPs of telomere length-related genes and their correlation with HCC risk in the Chinese Han population.

Materials and methods: A total of 473 HCC patients and 564 healthy volunteers were recruited. Overall, 42 SNPs distributed in telomere-related genes were selected and identified. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Results: We found rs6713088 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07-1.52, p = 0.007), rs843711 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.09-1.54, p = 0.004) and rs843706 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.09-1.55, p = 0.003) in the ACYP2 gene, rs10936599 (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.44, p = 0.032) in the TERC gene and rs7708392 (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00-1.52, p = 0.042) in the TNIP1 gene were associated with high HCC risk (OR > 1). In contrast, rs1682111 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.94, p = 0.008) in the ACYP2 gene, rs2320615 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.99, p = 0.038) in the NAF1 gene, rs10069690 (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.96, p = 0.021) and rs2242652 (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90, p = 0.004) in the TERT gene were associated with low HCC risk (OR < 1). Based on genotype frequency distributions, rs6713088, rs843645, rs843711 and rs843706 located in the ACYP2 gene as well as rs10936599 in the TERC gene were associated with a high incidence of HCC (p < 0.05). In addition, SNPs in these genes could form a linkage imbalance haplotype. Specifically, the haploid 'GC' formed by rs10069690 and rs2242652 within the TERT gene increased the risk of HCC (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: SNPs in ACYP2, TERC, TERT and other genes were correlated with HCC risk in the Chinese Han population. These data may provide new insights into early diagnosis and screening of HCC.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Vaiciulis P, Liutkeviciene R, Liutkevicius V, et al (2020)

Association of Relative Leucocyte Telomere Length and Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (TERT, TRF1, TNKS2) in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancer genomics & proteomics, 17(4):431-439.

BACKGROUND/AIM: The study aimed to evaluate associations of relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and polymorphisms of telomere length-associated genes TERT (rs2736098), TERT-CLPTM1L (rs401681), TRF1 (rs1545827, rs10107605) and TNKS2 (rs10509637, rs10509639) in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 300 patients with LSCC and 369 healthy control subjects. Genotyping and relative LTL measuring were carried out using qPCR.

RESULTS: Relative LTL was statistically significantly shorter in the G3 (tumor differentiation grade) subgroup of patients with LSCC compared to the G1 and G2 subgroups. Significant differences were found in genotype distributions of TERT rs401681 and TNKS2 rs10509639 between the study groups. TERT rs401681 C/T and T/T genotypes were associated with approximately 30% decreased odds of LSCC development.

CONCLUSION: LTL was shorter in the G3 subgroup compared to the G2 and G1 subgroups of LSCC patients. TERT rs401681 and its C/T and T/T genotypes were associated with decreased odds of overall LSCC development.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Posch A, Hofer-Zeni S, Klieser E, et al (2020)

Hot Spot TERT Promoter Mutations Are Rare in Sporadic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Associated with Telomere Length and Epigenetic Expression Patterns.

Cancers, 12(6): pii:cancers12061625.

Cancer cells activate a telomere maintenance mechanism like telomerase in order to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase can be reactivated by gain-of-function Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations (TPMs) that occur in several cancer subtypes with high incidence and association with diagnosis, prognosis and epigenetics. However, such information about TPMs in sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) including tumor (pNET) and carcinoma (pNEC) is less well defined. We have studied two hot spot TPMs and telomere length (TL) in pNEN and compared the results with clinicopathological information and proliferation-associated miRNA/HDAC expression profiles. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue of 58 sporadic pNEN patients. T allele frequency of C250T and C228T TPM was analyzed by pyrosequencing, relative TL as telomeric content by qPCR. In total, five pNEN cases (9%) including four pNETs and one pNEC were identified with TPMs, four cases with exclusive C250T as predominant TPM and one case with both C250T and C228T. T allele frequencies of DNA isolated from adjacent high tumor cell content FFPE tissue varied considerably, which may indicate TPM tumor heterogeneity. Overall and disease-free survival was not associated with TPM versus wild-type pNEN cases. Binary category analyses indicated a marginally significant relationship between TPM status and longer telomeres (p = 0.086), and changes in expression of miR449a (p = 0.157), HDAC4 (p = 0.146) and HDAC9 (p = 0.149). Future studies with larger patient cohorts are needed to assess the true clinical value of these rare mutations in pNEN.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Semeraro MD, Smith C, Kaiser M, et al (2020)

Physical activity, a modulator of aging through effects on telomere biology.

Aging, 12: pii:103504 [Epub ahead of print].

Aging is a complex process that is not well understood but involves finite changes at the genetic and epigenetic level. Physical activity is a well-documented modulator of the physiological process of aging. It has been suggested that the beneficial health effects of regular exercise are at least partly mediated through its effects on telomeres and associated regulatory pathways. Telomeres, the region of repetitive nucleotide sequences functioning as a "cap" at the chromosomal ends, play an important role to protect genomic DNA from degradation. Telomeres of dividing cells progressively shorten with age. Leucocyte telomere length (TL) has been associated with age-related diseases. Epidemiologic evidence indicates a strong relationship between physical activity and TL. In addition, TL has also been shown to predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Experimental studies support a functional link between aerobic exercise and telomere preservation through activation of telomerase, an enzyme that adds nucleotides to the telomeric ends. However, unresolved questions regarding exercise modalities, pathomechanistic aspects and analytical issues limit the interpretability of available data. This review provides an overview about the current knowledge in the area of telomere biology, aging and physical activity. Finally, the capabilities and limitations of available analytical methods are addressed.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Honkonen M, Vääräniemi K, Saijonmaa O, et al (2020)

Leukocyte telomere length is inversely associated with arterial wave reflection in 566 normotensive and never-treated hypertensive subjects.

Aging, 12: pii:103459 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres are short segments in chromosome ends, the length of which is reduced during cell lifecycles. We examined the association of mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and short telomere proportion (STP) with hemodynamic variables in normotensive and never-treated hypertensive volunteers (n=566, 19-72 years). STP and mean LTL were determined using Southern blotting, and supine hemodynamics recorded using continuous tonometric pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography. The analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, smoking, plasma chemistry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In univariate analyses, mean LTL and STP both correlated with age, BMI, eGFR, aortic blood pressure, augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (p<0.05 for all). Mean LTL also correlated with systemic vascular resistance (p<0.05). In linear regression analyses of all hemodynamic variables, mean LTL was only an independent explanatory factor for augmentation index (Beta -0.006, p=0.032), while STP was not an explanatory factor for any of the hemodynamic variables, in contrast to age, BMI and several cardiovascular risk factors. To conclude, augmentation index was predominantly related with chronological aging, but also with mean LTL, suggesting that this variable of central wave reflection is a modest marker of vascular biological aging.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Keng SL, Yim OS, Lai PS, et al (2020)

Correction to: Association among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and leukocyte telomere length in Chinese adults.

BMC psychology, 8(1):65 pii:10.1186/s40359-020-00433-1.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Yu J, Liu H, He S, et al (2020)

Dietary Magnesium Intake and Leukocyte Telomere Attrition in Adults: The Regulatory Role of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor α.

Mediators of inflammation, 2020:7610436.

Objectives: In this study, we assessed the effects of dietary magnesium on leukocyte telomere length (LTL).

Designs: The current cross-sectional analysis was based on data collected within a type 2 diabetes project. Settings. Dietary magnesium intake is associated with peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, few epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of magnesium on LTL in the clinical setting. Participants. This cross-sectional analysis included 467 participants (34.8% men). Measurements. Serum blood lipid profile, HbA1c, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory mediator levels were measured. Detailed dietary data were obtained using a 24 h food recall. LTL was assessed using a real-time PCR assay. Regression models and simple regulatory models were used for data analysis.

Results: There was an inverse relationship between dietary magnesium and LTL (P < 0.001), with a between-extreme-quarter difference of -0.55. Conversely, there was a positive relationship between dietary magnesium and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, with an interquarter difference of 3.79 pmol/mL (P for trend = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (ORs) for shorter LTL and higher serum TNFα increased with magnesium intake, and the ORs of the differences between extreme quartiles were 2.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.36; P = 0.003) and 1.98 (95% CI: 1.09-3.59; P = 0.008). There was a direct negative effect of dietary magnesium intake on LTL (B = -0.002; P = 0.001), which appeared to be indirectly influenced by TNFα (-0.002 to -0.0005).

Conclusions: Dietary magnesium intake may be a critical component of the cellular aging process, and its effect could be partly mediated by TNFα.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Aguado J, d'Adda di Fagagna F, E Wolvetang (2020)

Telomere transcription in Ageing.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(20)30250-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, play a central role in the control of cellular senescence and organismal ageing and need to be protected in order to avoid being recognised as damaged DNA and activate DNA damage response pathways. Dysfunctional telomeres arise from critically short telomeres or altered telomere structures, which ultimately lead to replicative cellular senescence and chromosome instability: both hallmarks of ageing. The observation that telomeres are transcribed led to the discovery that telomeric transcripts play important roles in chromosome end protection and genome stability maintenance. Recent evidence indicates that particular long non-coding (nc)RNAs transcribed at telomeres, namely TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) and telomeric damage-induced long ncRNAs (tdilncRNA), play key roles in age-related pathways by actively orchestrating the mechanisms known to regulate telomere length, chromosome end protection and DNA damage signalling. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the telomere transcriptome, outlining how it functions as a regulatory platform with essential functions in safeguarding telomere integrity and stability. We next review emerging antisense oligonucleotides therapeutic strategies that target telomeric ncRNAs and discuss their potential for ameliorating ageing and age-related diseases. Altogether, this review provides insights on the biological relevance of telomere transcription mechanisms in human ageing physiology and pathology.

RevDate: 2020-06-21

Habib R, Kim R, Neitzel H, et al (2020)

Telomere attrition and dysfunction: a potential trigger of the progeroid phenotype in nijmegen breakage syndrome.

Aging, 12: pii:103453 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nibrin, as part of the NBN/MRE11/RAD50 complex, is mutated in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), which leads to impaired DNA damage response and lymphoid malignancy.

RESULTS: Telomere length (TL) was markedly reduced in homozygous patients (and comparably so in all chromosomes) by ~40% (qPCR) and was slightly reduced in NBS heterozygotes older than 30 years (~25% in qPCR), in accordance with the respective cancer rates. Humanized cancer-free NBS mice had normal TL. Telomere elongation was inducible by telomerase and/or alternative telomere lengthening but was associated with abnormal expression of telomeric genes involved in aging and/or cell growth. Lymphoblastoid cells from NBS patients with long survival times (>12 years) displayed the shortest telomeres and low caspase 7 activity.

CONCLUSIONS: NBS is a secondary telomeropathy. The two-edged sword of telomere attrition enhances the cancer-prone situation in NBS but can also lead to a relatively stable cellular phenotype in tumor survivors. Results suggest a modular model for progeroid syndromes with abnormal expression of telomeric genes as a molecular basis.

METHODS: We studied TL and function in 38 homozygous individuals, 27 heterozygotes, one homozygous fetus, six NBS lymphoblastoid cell lines, and humanized NBS mice, all with the same founder NBN mutation: c.657_661del5.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Liu Z, Han R, Zhu W, et al (2020)

Inverse changes in telomere length between the blood and brain in depressive-like mice.

Journal of affective disorders, 273:453-461.

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the end of chromosomes. Previous studies have confirmed that telomere length is reduced in the peripheral blood of depression patients. However, studies regarding whether telomere length is altered in brain regions associated with depression are limited. It remains unclear whether the peripheral blood telomere length indicates telomere variation in the brain.

METHODS: Using quantitative PCR, we measured telomere length in five brain regions (prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus, and hippocampus) from depressive-like mice and in peripheral blood from depressive-like mice and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We also examined the expression of telomerase- and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT)-related genes in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of depressive-like mice.

RESULTS: Telomeres were shortened in the peripheral blood of depressive-like mice and MDD patients, but were elongated in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala compared with healthy controls. We also observed that the expression of ALT-related genes increased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

LIMITATIONS: The amount of human sample was limited. The mechanism of telomere lengthening in the brain of depressive-like mice was not well explained. Mice and humans have inherently different telomere and telomere maintenance systems.

CONCLUSION: These findings illustrate that the telomere length in the peripheral blood may not indicate the dynamics of telomere length in the brain. They offer a new perspective on variable telomere length in different brain regions affected in depression and provide a new basis for understanding the relationship between variable telomere length and MDD.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Rahnama M, Novikova O, Starnes JH, et al (2020)

Transposon-mediated telomere destabilization: a driver of genome evolution in the blast fungus.

Nucleic acids research pii:5859951 [Epub ahead of print].

The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae causes devastating diseases of crops, including rice and wheat, and in various grasses. Strains from ryegrasses have highly unstable chromosome ends that undergo frequent rearrangements, and this has been associated with the presence of retrotransposons (Magnaporthe oryzae Telomeric Retrotransposons-MoTeRs) inserted in the telomeres. The objective of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which MoTeRs promote telomere instability. Targeted cloning, mapping, and sequencing of parental and novel telomeric restriction fragments (TRFs), along with MinION sequencing of genomic DNA allowed us to document the precise molecular alterations underlying 109 newly-formed TRFs. These included truncations of subterminal rDNA sequences; acquisition of MoTeR insertions by 'plain' telomeres; insertion of the MAGGY retrotransposons into MoTeR arrays; MoTeR-independent expansion and contraction of subtelomeric tandem repeats; and a variety of rearrangements initiated through breaks in interstitial telomere tracts that are generated during MoTeR integration. Overall, we estimate that alterations occurred in approximately sixty percent of chromosomes (one in three telomeres) analyzed. Most importantly, we describe an entirely new mechanism by which transposons can promote genomic alterations at exceptionally high frequencies, and in a manner that can promote genome evolution while minimizing collateral damage to overall chromosome architecture and function.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Ojeda-Rodríguez A, Morell-Azanza L, Zalba G, et al (2020)

Associations of telomere length with two dietary quality indices after a lifestyle intervention in children with abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

Pediatric obesity [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Dietary factors seem to influence telomere length. Moreover, associations between changes in adiposity indices and telomere length (TL) have been found in intervention studies.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated changes in two diet quality indices and their association with TL in children with abdominal obesity in a 12-month lifestyle intervention.

METHODS: Eighty-seven participants (7-16 years old) were assigned to the intervention (moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean diet) or usual care group (standard paediatric recommendations) for a 2-month intensive phase and a subsequent 10-month follow-up. Diet quality was assessed using the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) and the Healthy Lifestyle Diet Index (HLD-I). TL was measured by monochrome multiplex real-time quantitative PCR. The intra-class correlation coefficient for TL was 0.793 (95% CI 0.707, 0.857).

RESULTS: After a 12-month lifestyle intervention, a significant reduction in BMI-SDS (-0.57 and -0.49 for the intervention and usual care groups, respectively) and fat mass was observed in all subjects without differences between groups. Changes in DQI-A (+12.36% vs +5.53%, P = .005) and HLD-I (+4.43 vs +1.09, P < .001) were higher in the intervention subjects compared with usual care subjects after 2 months. Interestingly, we observed a positive change in TL between 2 and 12 months (P = .025), which was associated with higher scores on the DQI-A (β = 0.008, R2 = 0.088, P = .010) and HLD-I (β = 0.022, R2 = 0.198, P = .015), in the intervention group after the 2-month intensive phase.

CONCLUSION: Favourable changes in diet quality indices could contribute to telomere integrity in children with abdominal obesity enrolled in an intensive lifestyle intervention.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Lex K, Maia Gil M, Lopes-Bastos B, et al (2020)

Telomere shortening produces an inflammatory environment that increases tumor incidence in zebrafish.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1920049117 [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer incidence increases exponentially with age when human telomeres are shorter. Similarly, telomerase reverse transcriptase (tert) mutant zebrafish have premature short telomeres and anticipate cancer incidence to younger ages. However, because short telomeres constitute a road block to cell proliferation, telomere shortening is currently viewed as a tumor suppressor mechanism and should protect from cancer. This conundrum is not fully understood. In our current study, we report that telomere shortening promotes cancer in a noncell autonomous manner. Using zebrafish chimeras, we show increased incidence of invasive melanoma when wild-type (WT) tumors are generated in tert mutant zebrafish. Tissues adjacent to melanoma lesions (skin) and distant organs (intestine) in tert mutants exhibited higher levels of senescence and inflammation. In addition, we transferred second generation (G2) tert blastula cells into WT to produce embryo chimeras. Cells with very short telomeres induced increased tumor necrosis factor1-α (TNF1-α) expression and senescence in larval tissues in a noncell autonomous manner, creating an inflammatory environment. Considering that inflammation is protumorigenic, we transplanted melanoma-derived cells into G2 tert zebrafish embryos and observed that tissue environment with short telomeres leads to increased tumor development. To test if inflammation was necessary for this effect, we treated melanoma transplants with nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and show that higher melanoma dissemination can be averted. Thus, apart from the cell autonomous role of short telomeres in contributing to genome instability, we propose that telomere shortening with age causes systemic chronic inflammation leading to increased tumor incidence.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Naikawadi RP, Green G, Jones KD, et al (2020)

Airway Epithelial Telomere Dysfunction Drives Remodeling Similar to Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Telomere dysfunction is associated with multiple fibrotic lung processes, including chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)-the major limitation to long-term survival following lung transplantation. Although shorter donor telomere lengths are associated with an increased risk of CLAD, it is unknown whether short telomeres are a cause or consequence of CLAD pathology.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether telomere dysfunction contributes to pathologic changes observed in CLAD.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Histopathologic and molecular analysis of human CLAD lungs demonstrated shortened telomeres in lung epithelial cells quantified by teloFISH, increased numbers of surfactant protein C immunoreactive type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), and increased expression of senescence markers (beta-galactosidase, p16, p53 and p21) in lung epithelial cells.Telomere repeat binding factor 1 flox/flox (TRF1F/F) mice were crossed with tamoxifen inducible SCGB1a1-cre mice to generate SCGB1a1-creTRF1 F/F mice. Following 9 months of tamoxifen-induced deletion of TRF1 in club cells, mice developed mixed obstructive and restrictive lung physiology, small airway obliteration on micro-computed tomography, a 4-fold decrease in telomere length in airway epithelial cells, collagen deposition around bronchioles and adjacent lung parenchyma, increased type II AEC numbers, expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase in epithelial cells and decreased SCGB1a1 expression in airway epithelial cells.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that telomere dysfunction isolated to airway epithelial cells leads to airway-centric lung remodeling and fibrosis similar to that observed in patients with CLAD and suggest that lung epithelial cell telomere dysfunction may be a molecular driver of CLAD.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Nickels M, Mastana S, Hunter D, et al (2020)

The effect of a 12-week resistance training intervention on leukocyte telomere length.

Heliyon, 6(6):e04151.

Telomere dynamics are an active biological process and positive lifestyle factors such as exercise are proposed to potentiate their length. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low-resistance, high-repetition resistance training intervention on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and associated health parameters. 23 sedentary middle-aged adults volunteered for this study (16 female/7 male; age = 51.5 ± 4.9 years) and performed two one-hour sessions of Les Mills BODYPUMP™ per week for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were taken at baseline, after the training intervention and at 12-month follow-up. LTL remained unchanged following the training intervention (pre 0.819 ± 0.121 vs post 0.812 ± 0.114, p = 0.420), despite a borderline significant increase in hTERT expression (p = 0.050). Circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha were reduced after the intervention (p = 0.001). At 12-month follow-up, subjects who returned to a sedentary lifestyle (n = 10) displayed shorter telomeres compared to their pre (p = 0.036) values. In conclusion, no changes were observed in LTL following the 12-week training intervention, despite improvements in molecular parameters associated with telomere dynamics. It appears continued long-term exercise (>12 months) is necessary to preserve LTL in previously sedentary individuals.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Trindade AJ, Thaniyavarn T, Townsend K, et al (2020)

Alemtuzumab as a Therapy for Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction in Lung Transplant Recipients With Short Telomeres.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1063.

Alemtuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 that causes lymphocyte apoptosis, is a form of advanced immunosuppression that is currently used as a therapy for refractory acute cellular rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients (1-3). Side effects of alemtuzumab include bone marrow suppression, infection, and malignancy. Whether alemtuzumab can be safely used in allograft recipients that have an increased propensity for bone marrow suppression due to telomeropathies is unknown. In a retrospective case series, we report outcomes associated with alemtuzumab in three lung allograft recipients with short telomere lengths, comparing endpoints such as leukopenia, transfusion needs, infection, hospitalization and survival to those of 17 patients without known telomeropathies that received alemtuzumab. We show that the use of alemtuzumab in lung transplant recipients with short telomeres is safe, though is associated with an increased incidence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia requiring packed red blood cell transfusions. Alemtuzumab appears to be an acceptable advanced immunosuppressive therapy in patients with telomeropathies, though given the design and scope of this study, the actual clinical effect needs further evaluation in larger trials.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Maasen K, James PT, Prentice AM, et al (2020)

Periconceptional environment predicts leukocyte telomere length in a cross-sectional study of 7-9 year old rural Gambian children.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9675.

Early life exposures are important predictors of adult disease risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, telomere maintenance may be involved. This study investigated the relationship between seasonal differences in parental exposures at time of conception and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in their offspring. LTL was measured in two cohorts of children aged 2 yrs (N = 487) and 7-9 yrs (N = 218). The association between date of conception and LTL was examined using Fourier regression models, adjusted for age, sex, leukocyte cell composition, and other potential confounders. We observed an effect of season in the older children in all models [likelihood ratio test (LRT) χ²2 = 7.1, p = 0.03; fully adjusted model]. LTL was greatest in children conceived in September (in the rainy season), and smallest in those conceived in March (in the dry season), with an effect size (LTL peak-nadir) of 0.60 z-scores. No effect of season was evident in the younger children (LRT χ²2 = 0.87, p = 0.65). The different results obtained for the two cohorts may reflect a delayed effect of season of conception on postnatal telomere maintenance. Alternatively, they may be explained by unmeasured differences in early life exposures, or the increased telomere attrition rate during infancy.

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Abdisalaam S, Bhattacharya S, Mukherjee S, et al (2020)

Dysfunctional telomeres trigger cellular senescence mediated by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:RA120.012962 [Epub ahead of print].

Defective DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a common mechanism that initiates and maintains the cellular senescence phenotype. Dysfunctional telomeres activate DDR signaling, genomic instability, and cellular senescence, but the links among these events remains unclear. Here, using an array of biochemical and imaging techniques, including a highly regulatable CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to induce DNA double-strand breaks specifically in the telomeres, chromatin immunoprecipitation, telomere immunofluorescence, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), micronuclei imaging, and the telomere shortest length assay (TeSLA), we show that chromosome mis-segregation due to imperfect DDR signaling in response to dysfunctional telomeres creates a preponderance of chromatin fragments in the cytosol, which leads to a premature senescence phenotype. We found that this phenomenon is caused not by telomere shortening, but by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) recognizing cytosolic chromatin fragments and then activating the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream interferon signaling. Significantly, genetic and pharmacological manipulation of cGAS not only attenuated immune signaling, but also prevented premature cellular senescence in response to dysfunctional telomeres. The findings of our study uncover a cellular intrinsic mechanism involving the cGAS-mediated cytosolic self-DNA-sensing pathway that initiates premature senescence independently of telomere shortening.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Albizua I, Chopra P, Allen EG, et al (2020)

Study of telomere length in men who carry a fragile X premutation or full mutation allele.

Human genetics pii:10.1007/s00439-020-02194-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The fragile X premutation is defined by the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene to between 55 and 200 repeats, while repeat tracks longer than 200 are defined as full mutations. Men carrying a premutation are at increased risk for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS); those with > 200 repeats have fragile X syndrome, a common genetic form of intellectual disabilities. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that men carrying a fragile X premutation or full mutation are "biologically older", as suggested by the associated age-related disorder in the presence of the fragile X premutation or the altered cellular pathology that affects both the fragile X premutation and full mutation carriers. Thus, we predicted that both groups would have shorter telomeres than men carrying the normal size repeat allele. Using linear regression models, we found that, on average, premutation carriers had shorter telomeres compared with non-carriers (n = 69 vs n = 36; p = 0.02) and that there was no difference in telomere length between full mutation carriers and non-carriers (n = 37 vs n = 29; p > 0.10). Among premutation carriers only, we also asked whether telomere length was shorter among men with vs without symptoms of FXTAS (n = 28 vs n = 38 and n = 27 vs n = 41, depending on criteria) and found no evidence for a difference (p > 0.10). Previous studies have shown that the premutation is transcribed whereas the full mutation is not, and the expanded repeat track in FMR1 transcript is thought to lead to the risk for premutation-associated disorders. Thus, our data suggest that the observed premutation-only telomere shortening may be a consequence of the toxic effect of the premutation transcript and suggest that premutation carriers are "biologically older" than men carrying the normal size allele in the same age group.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Casagrande S, Stier A, Monaghan P, et al (2020)

Increased glucocorticoid concentrations in early life cause mitochondrial inefficiency and short telomeres.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:jeb.222513 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres are DNA structures that protect chromosome ends. However, telomeres shorten during cell replication and at critically low lengths can reduce cell replicative potential, induce cell senescence and decrease fitness. Stress exposure, which elevates glucocorticoid hormone concentrations, can exacerbate telomere attrition. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased oxidative stress generated by glucocorticoids ('oxidative stress hypothesis'). We recently suggested that glucocorticoids could increase telomere attrition during stressful periods by reducing the resources available for telomere maintenance through changes in the metabolic machinery ('metabolic telomere attrition hypothesis'). Here we tested whether experimental increases in glucocorticoid levels affected telomere length and mitochondrial function in wild great tit (Parus major) nestlings during the energy-demanding early growth. We monitored resulting corticosterone (Cort) concentrations in plasma, and in red blood cells, telomere lengths and mitochondrial metabolism (metabolic rate, proton leak, oxidative phosphorylation, maximal mitochondrial capacity and mitochondrial inefficiency). We assessed oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolites as well as the total non-enzymatic antioxidant protection in plasma. Compared with control (Ctrl) nestlings, Cort-nestlings had higher baseline corticosterone, shorter telomeres and higher mitochondrial metabolic rate. Importantly, Cort-nestlings showed increased mitochondrial proton leak, leading to a decreased ATP production efficiency. Treatment groups did not differ in oxidative damage or antioxidants. Hence, glucocorticoid-induced telomere attrition is associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism, but not with ROS production. These findings support the hypothesis that shortening of telomere length during stressful periods is mediated by glucocorticoids through metabolic rearrangements.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Aklilu BB, Peurois F, Saintomé C, et al (2020)

Functional Diversification of Replication Protein A Paralogs and Telomere Length Maintenance in Arabidopsis.

Genetics pii:genetics.120.303222 [Epub ahead of print].

Replication protein A (RPA) is essential for many facets of DNA metabolism. The RPA gene family expanded in Arabidopsis thaliana with five phylogenetically distinct RPA1 subunits (RPA1A-E), two RPA2 (RPA2A and B), and two RPA3 (RPA3A and B). RPA1 paralogs exhibit partial redundancy and functional specialization in DNA replication (RPA1B and RPA1D), repair (RPA1C and RPA1E), and meiotic recombination (RPA1A and RPA1C). Here we show that RPA subunits also differentially impact telomere length set point. Loss of RPA1 resets bulk telomeres at a shorter length, with a functional hierarchy for replication group over repair and meiosis group RPA1 subunits. Plants lacking RPA2A, but not RPA2B, harbor short telomeres similar to the replication group. Telomere shortening does not correlate with decreased telomerase activity or deprotection of chromosome ends in rpa mutants. However, in vitro assays show that RPA1B2A3B unfolds telomeric G-quadruplexes known to inhibit replications fork progression. We also found that ATR deficiency can partially rescue short telomeres in rpa2a mutants, although plants exhibit defects in growth and development. Unexpectedly, the telomere shortening phenotype of rpa2a mutants is completely abolished in plants lacking the RTEL1 helicase. RTEL1 has been implicated in a variety of nucleic acid transactions, including suppression of homologous recombination. Thus, the lack of telomere shortening in rpa2a mutants upon RTEL1 deletion suggests that telomere replication defects incurred by loss of RPA may be bypassed by homologous recombination. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into how RPA cooperates with replication and recombination machinery to sustain telomeric DNA.

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Slusher AL, Kim JJ, AT Ludlow (2020)

The Role of Alternative RNA Splicing in the Regulation of hTERT, Telomerase, and Telomeres: Implications for Cancer Therapeutics.

Cancers, 12(6): pii:cancers12061514.

Alternative RNA splicing impacts the majority (>90%) of eukaryotic multi-exon genes, expanding the coding capacity and regulating the abundance of gene isoforms. Telomerase (hTERT) is a key example of a gene that is alternatively spliced during human fetal development and becomes dysregulated in nearly all cancers. Approximately 90% of human tumors use telomerase to synthesize de novo telomere repeats and obtain telomere-dependent cellular immortality. Paradigm shifting data indicates that hTERT alternative splicing, in addition to transcription, plays an important role in the regulation of active telomerase in cells. Our group and others are pursuing the basic science studies to progress this emerging area of telomerase biology. Recent evidence demonstrates that switching splicing of hTERT from the telomerase activity producing full-length hTERT isoform to alternatively spliced, non-coding isoforms may be a novel telomerase inhibition strategy to prevent cancer growth and survival. Thus, the goals of this review are to detail the general roles of telomerase in cancer development, explore the emerging regulatory mechanisms of alternative RNA splicing of the hTERT gene in various somatic and cancer cell types, define the known and potential roles of hTERT splice isoforms in cancer cell biology, and provide insight into new treatment strategies targeting hTERT in telomerase-positive cancers.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Louzon M, Zahn S, Capelli N, et al (2020)

Impact of ageing and soil contaminants on telomere length in the land snail.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 201:110766 pii:S0147-6513(20)30605-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres (TLs) are non-coding DNA sequences that are usually shortened with ageing and/or chemical exposure. Bioindicators such as the land snail can be used to assess the environmental risk of contaminated soils. As for most invertebrates, the evolution of TLs with ageing or exposure to contaminants is unknown in this mollusc. The aims of this study were to explore the relationships between ageing, contaminant exposure, sublethal effects and TL length in the terrestrial gastropod Cantareus aspersus. TL length was investigated in haemocytes from five age classes of C. aspersus. The impact of contaminants on sub-adult snails exposed to Cd, Hg or a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils for one or two months was studied. Bioaccumulation, growth, sexual maturity and TLs were measured. TL attrition was significant for the juvenile and sub-adult stages, but not later. Exposure to Cd increased the mortality (around 30%). Exposure to polluted soils inhibited growth (19-40%) and sexual maturity (6-100%). Although the health of the snails exposed to Cd, Hg and PAHs was altered, TL length in haemocytes was not disturbed, suggesting a high capacity of this snail species to maintain its TLs in haemocytes under chemical stress. These results first address TL length in snails and reveal that the relationship commonly proposed for vertebrates between TL shortening and ageing or exposure to contaminants cannot be generalized.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Penrice DD, DA Simonetto (2020)

Short Telomeres: Cause and Consequence in Liver Disease.

Seminars in liver disease [Epub ahead of print].

Short telomere syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome resulting in premature telomere shortening. This premature shortening of telomeres can result in hematologic, pulmonary, vascular, gastrointestinal, and hepatic manifestations of disease. Identifying patients with short telomere syndrome can be a clinical challenge due to the multitude of potential manifestations and lack of widely available diagnostic tests. In this review, we will highlight hepatic manifestations of short telomere syndrome with a focus on diagnosis, testing, and potential treatments.

RevDate: 2020-06-21

Burraco P, Comas M, Reguera S, et al (2020)

Telomere length mirrors age structure along a 2200-m altitudinal gradient in a Mediterranean lizard.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 247:110741 pii:S1095-6433(20)30093-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The timing of organisms' senescence is developmentally programmed but also shaped by the interaction between environmental inputs and life-history traits. In ectotherms, ageing dynamics are still poorly understood even though their body temperature, metabolism, or growth trajectory are very sensitive to environmental changes. Here, we investigated the role of life-history traits such as age, sex, body size, body condition, and tail autotomy (i.e self-amputation) in shaping telomere length in six populations of the Algerian sand lizard (Psammodromus algirus) distributed along an elevational gradient from 300 to 2500 m above the sea level. Additionally, we compiled the available information on reptiles' telomere length in a review table. Our cross-sectional study shows that older lizards have longer telomeres, which might be mostly linked to the selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres or, alternatively, mediated by a higher expression of telomerase across their life. In fact, variation in telomere length across elevation was explained by age structure of lizards; thus, in contrast to our predictions, altitude had no effect on telomere length in this study system. Telomere length was unaffected by tail regeneration and was sex-independent, but positively correlated with body condition, which might be linked to high somatic investment. Hence, our results suggest that life-history traits such as age or body condition can be major drivers of telomere dynamics for this species, whereas environmental conditions apparently had scarce or no effects on lizard telomeres. Our findings emphasize the relevance of understanding species' life histories for fully disentangling the causes and consequences of differences in ageing in ectotherms.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Munroe M, Niero EL, Fok WC, et al (2020)

Telomere dysfunction activates p53 and represses HNF4α expression leading to impaired human hepatocyte development and function.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere attrition is a major risk factor for end-stage liver disease. Due to a lack of adequate models and intrinsic difficulties in studying telomerase in physiologically relevant cells, the molecular mechanisms responsible for liver disease in patients with telomere syndromes remain elusive. To circumvent that, we used genome editing to generate isogenic human embryonic stem cell lines (hESCs) harboring clinically relevant mutations in telomerase and subjected them to an in vitro, stage-specific hepatocyte differentiation protocol that resembles hepatocyte development in vivo. Utilizing this platform we observed that while telomerase is highly expressed in hESCs, it is quickly silenced, specifically due to TERT down-regulation, immediately after endoderm differentiation, and completely absent in in vitro derived hepatocytes, similar to what is observed in human primary hepatocytes. While endoderm derivation is not impacted by telomere shortening, progressive telomere dysfunction impaired hepatic endoderm formation. Consequently, hepatocyte-derivation, as measured by expression of specific hepatic markers, as well by albumin expression and secretion, is severely compromised in telomerase mutant cells with short telomeres. Interestingly, this phenotype was not caused by cell death induction or senescence. Rather, telomere shortening prevents the up-regulation and activation of the human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), in a p53-dependent manner. Both reactivation of telomerase and silencing of p53 rescued hepatocyte formation in telomerase mutants. Likewise, the conditional expression (doxycycline-controlled) of HNF4α even in cells that retained short telomeres, accrued DNA damage, and exhibited p53 stabilization, successfully restored hepatocyte formation from hESCS. In conclusion, our data shows that telomere dysfunction acts as a major regulator of HNF4α during hepatocyte development, pointing to a novel target in the treatment of liver disease in telomere-syndrome patients.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Khalangot M, Krasnienkov D, A Vaiserman (2020)

Telomere length in different metabolic categories: Clinical associations and modification potential.

Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) [Epub ahead of print].

IMPACT STATEMENT: Metabolic disorders are known to be associated with accelerated telomere attrition. Their pathophysiological heterogeneity suggests the importance of multiple tests in examining these associations. However, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has rarely been performed in such studies to date. There are few studies aimed at determining leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in different categories of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and those that do exist do not take into account the impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/IGT categorization. Therefore, we believe our study, when the OGTT was used, is important to the field. This testing made it possible to determine whether LTLs are associated with glucose levels in different hyperglycemic categories. Our data indicate that relationships between LTLs and IFG/IGT levels are not the same. This distinction can potentially be used in categorization of metabolic disorders and in determining the effectiveness of interventions aimed at treating diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Shanta K, Nakayama K, Ishikawa M, et al (2020)

Prognostic Value of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Telomere Length in Gynecologic Malignant Tumors.

Cancers, 12(6): pii:cancers12061469.

Background: Lymphocyte telomere length is strongly correlated with patient prognosis in several malignant tumor types and is thought to be related to tumor immunity. However, this correlation has not been studied in gynecological cancers. We determined the prognostic significance of peripheral blood lymphocyte telomere length in gynecologic cancers. Methods: Telomere length of lymphocytes from patients with gynecological malignant tumors (ovarian cancer (OC), N = 72; cervical cancer (CC), N = 63; endometrial cancer (EC), N = 87) was examined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR of isolated mononuclear cells. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to determine the association between lymphocyte telomere length and clinicopathological factors. Results: The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients were based on the dichotomized lymphocyte telomere length using the median as a threshold (OC: 0.75, CC: 1.94, and EC: 1.09). A short telomere length was significantly correlated with residual tumors (≥1 cm) in OC and with advanced stage (III and IV) of CC. In OC and CC, patients with shorter relative lymphocyte telomere length (RLT) had significantly poorer OS and PFS than patients with longer RLT (p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). However, in EC, RLT was not significantly associated with OS or PFS (p = 0.567 and p = 0.304, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis showed that shorter RLT was a significant independent prognostic factor of PFS and OS for OC (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively) and CC (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: Patients with OC and CC with shorter lymphocyte telomeres have significantly reduced survival; therefore, the peripheral blood lymphocyte telomere length is a prognostic biomarker in OC and CC.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Bloom SI, Tuluca A, Ives SJ, et al (2020)

High-fat diet induced obesity and age influence the telomere shelterin complex and telomerase gene expression in mouse adipose tissue.

Physiological reports, 8(11):e14461.

Obesity and aging are linked to inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. Telomeres are the endcaps of chromosomes that are regulated by telomerase, the enzyme that elongates telomeres, as well as a protein complex known as shelterin. Telomere dysfunction is associated with inflammation, aging, and disease. However, the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and advancing age on the shelterin complex and telomerase in adipose tissue is unknown. The present study investigated the effects of obesity and aging on C57BL/6J mice adipose tissue mRNA expression of shelterin complex genes. Young (YG) mice (3 mo) were randomly assigned to be fed either a high-fat diet (YG + HFD; 60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat diet (YG + LFD; 10% kcal from fat). A subset of mice were aged until 16 months. Body weight and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) weight increased with age or a HFD. There was a trend for increased Terf2 expression, as expression was increased in HFD + YG by ~47% and aged mice by ~80%. Pot1b expression was increased in aged mice by ~35%-60% compared to YG, independent of diet. mTert, the gene that codes for the catalytic subunit of telomerase, was significantly elevated in aged mice. Changes in telomere associated gene expression was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers Mcp1 and Tnfα. These findings suggest obesity and age impact expression of shelterin complex and telomerase related genes in adipose, perhaps altering telomere function in adipose tissue thereby increasing inflammation and risk of chronic disease.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Guan X, Fu W, Wei W, et al (2020)

Mediation of the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and telomere attrition by oxidative stress: A prospective cohort study.

Journal of hazardous materials, 399:123058 pii:S0304-3894(20)31047-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous studies have reported associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and telomere attrition, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the mediation role of oxidative stress on the effects of PAHs exposure on telomere attrition in a cohort study of 1180 coke-oven workers. We determined baseline urinary concentrations of ten urinary PAH metabolites, two oxidative stress biomarkers [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-isoPGF2α)] and peripheral leukocytes telomere length (TL) in both baseline and follow-up visits. Mediation analysis was applied to assess effects of oxidative stress biomarkers on the PAHs-TL attrition associations. The baseline 8-OHdG had a significant dose-response relationship with TL decline [β(95 %CI) = 0.07(0.03-0.12), P = 0.001] and TL ratio [β(95 %CI)]=0.07 (0.02-0.12), P = 0.003]. Mediation analyses indicated that 8-OHdG mediated a separate 39.1 %, 47.0 %, 43.3 %, and 58.0 % of the associations between 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHNa), 2-OHNa, ΣOHNa, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and TL decline (P = 0.016, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.014, respectively). Additionally, 8-OHdG mediated a separate 44.8 %, 49.4 %, 49.2 %, and 35.5 % of the associations between 1-OHNa, 2-OHNa, ΣOHNa, 1-OHP and TL ratio (P = 0.012, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.046, respectively). Our study proposed the positive association of 8-OHdG with TL attrition and revealed the mediation roles of 8-OHdG in PAHs-TL attrition associations.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Wysocki K, D Seibert (2020)

Genomics of aging: Genes, adducts, and telomeres.

Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 32(6):419-422.

Genomics influences the aging process in many different ways. This 10-part series of articles describes what is known about genetics and aging, including genes, adducts, and telomeres, decreased immune defenses, oxidation and inefficient mitochondria, toxins and radiation, glycosylation, caloric intake and sirtuin production, neurotransmitter imbalance, hormone mechanisms, reduced nitric oxide, and stem cell slowdown. This first article explores gene adducts as an epigenetic "sludge," the influence of telomeres and other mutations that contribute to DNA dysfunction, cell stress, and premature aging. Factors that contribute to adduct formation and reduced telomere length are presented along with some changes in behavior, environmental exposure, food/supplement use, weight, sleep, and exercise that have been found to reduce damage, potentially increasing longevity. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet that contains fruits and whole grains along with fiber, antioxidants (e.g., beta-carotene, vitamins C and E), omega-3 fatty acids, and soy protein may reduce DNA adducts and protect telomeres. So providers may want to recommend these simple but key clinical and individual changes to enhance DNA health, wellness, and longevity.

RevDate: 2020-06-06

Miga KH (2020)

Centromere studies in the era of 'telomere-to-telomere' genomics.

Experimental cell research pii:S0014-4827(20)30374-8 [Epub ahead of print].

We are entering into an exciting era of genomics where truly complete, high-quality assemblies of human chromosomes are available end-to-end, or from 'telomere-to-telomere' (T2T). This technological advance offers a new opportunity to include endogenous human centromeric regions in high-resolution, sequence-based studies. These emerging reference maps are expected to reveal a new functional landscape in the human genome, where centromere proteins, transcriptional regulation, and spatial organization can be examined with base-level resolution across different stages of development and disease. Such studies will depend on innovative assembly methods of extremely long tandem repeats (ETRs), or satellite DNAs, paired with the development of new, orthogonal validation methods to ensure accuracy and completeness. This review reflects the progress in centromere genomics, credited by recent advancements in long-read sequencing and assembly methods. In doing so, I will discuss the challenges that remain and the promise for a new period of scientific discovery for satellite DNA biology and centromere function.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Reddel RR, MacKenzie KL, TM Bryan (2020)

End Products of Telomere Research.

Cell stem cell, 26(6):804-805.

Most rare inherited telomere biology disorders and some common aging-related diseases are associated with shortened telomeres. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, insights into one of the rarest genetic causes of these disorders led to the discovery (Nagpal et al., 2020) of small molecules that lengthen telomeres.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Wu S, Ge Y, Li X, et al (2020)

BRM-SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex enables functional telomeres by promoting co-expression of TRF2 and TRF1.

PLoS genetics, 16(6):e1008799.

TRF2 and TRF1 are a key component in shelterin complex that associates with telomeric DNA and protects chromosome ends. BRM is a core ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Whether and how BRM-SWI/SNF complex is engaged in chromatin end protection by telomeres is unknown. Here, we report that depletion of BRM does not affect heterochromatin state of telomeres, but results in telomere dysfunctional phenomena including telomere uncapping and replication defect. Mechanistically, expression of TRF2 and TRF1 is jointly regulated by BRM-SWI/SNF complex, which is localized to promoter region of both genes and facilitates their transcription. BRM-deficient cells bear increased TRF2-free or TRF1-free telomeres due to insufficient expression. Importantly, BRM depletion-induced telomere uncapping or replication defect can be rescued by compensatory expression of exogenous TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. Together, these results identify a new function of BRM-SWI/SNF complex in enabling functional telomeres for maintaining genome stability.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Lili M, Yuxiang F, Zhongcheng H, et al (2020)

Genetic variations associated with telomere length affect the risk of gastric carcinoma.

Medicine, 99(23):e20551.

This study aimed to further understand the role of relative telomere length (RTL) in susceptibility to gastric carcinoma (GC) and investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in the telomere length related genes and GC risk.RTL was measured using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 1000 patients and 1100 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using the Agena MassARRAY platform. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square/ Welch T tests, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis.The association analysis of telomere length and GC showed that the RTL in the case group was shorter than in the controls, and the shorter RTL was associated with an increased risk of GC. The association analysis between telomere length related genes polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to GC indicated that: In the allele models and genetic models, TERT (rs10069690, rs2242652 and rs2853676) and TN1F1 (rs7708392 and rs10036748) were significantly associated with an increased risk of GC. In addition, the haplotype 'Grs10069690Crs2242652" of TERT and the haplotype 'Grs7708392Trs10036748" of TNIP1 were associated with an increased risk of GCOur results suggested that shorter RTL was associated with an increased risk of GC; The association analysis have identified that the TERT (rs10069690, rs2242652 and rs2853676) and TN1P1 (rs7708392 and rs10036748) were associated with GC risk.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

AlDehaini DMB, Al-Bustan SA, Ali ME, et al (2020)

Shortening of the leucocytes' telomeres length in T2DM independent of age and telomerase activity.

Acta diabetologica pii:10.1007/s00592-020-01550-4 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: This study aimed to examine the role of plasma telomerase (TE), plasma insulin, patient's age and disease duration in determination of the leucocytes' telomeres length (LTL) in T2DM.

METHODS: Blood samples from Kuwaiti patients with T2DM (110) and non-diabetic subjects (94) were analyzed by SYBR Green Quantitative PCR for estimation of the Absolute Human Telomere Length and by ELISA for estimation of the TE activity and insulin level. The body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR were calculated.

RESULTS: The results revealed marked shortening of the LTL in T2DM compared with the non-diabetic subjects (6.068, 2.276-11.652 vs. 10.979, 6.495-23.402 kb), p < 0.001, while the TE concentration was comparable between the two groups (3.16, 0.00-6.02 vs. 4.16, 1.38-7.94 U/L, respectively), p 0.100. Importantly, in T2DM the LTL did not vary significantly with the disease duration (1 month to 40 years), p 0.959, and did not correlate with age, BMI, insulin-resistance, or glycemic parameters. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the LTL and insulin levels in T2DM (CC 0.211, p 0.0419). Finally, in non-diabetic subjects, HbA1c ≥ 6% was associated significantly with shorter LTL, this observation together with the lack of association of the LTL with the disease duration, suggests a causal role of short telomeres in T2DM development.

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the LTL shortening in T2DM in Kuwaiti Arabs, and showed that the LTL was independent of age and TE activity but positively influenced by insulin levels. Furthermore, the study suggested that telomeres shortening could be a risk factor for T2DM.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Lambing C, Kuo PC, Tock AJ, et al (2020)

ASY1 acts as a dosage-dependent antagonist of telomere-led recombination and mediates crossover interference in Arabidopsis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(24):13647-13658.

During meiosis, interhomolog recombination produces crossovers and noncrossovers to create genetic diversity. Meiotic recombination frequency varies at multiple scales, with high subtelomeric recombination and suppressed centromeric recombination typical in many eukaryotes. During recombination, sister chromatids are tethered as loops to a polymerized chromosome axis, which, in plants, includes the ASY1 HORMA domain protein and REC8-cohesin complexes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show an ascending telomere-to-centromere gradient of ASY1 enrichment, which correlates strongly with REC8-cohesin ChIP-seq data. We mapped crossovers genome-wide in the absence of ASY1 and observe that telomere-led recombination becomes dominant. Surprisingly, asy1/+ heterozygotes also remodel crossovers toward subtelomeric regions at the expense of the pericentromeres. Telomeric recombination increases in asy1/+ occur in distal regions where ASY1 and REC8 ChIP enrichment are lowest in wild type. In wild type, the majority of crossovers show interference, meaning that they are more widely spaced along the chromosomes than expected by chance. To measure interference, we analyzed double crossover distances, MLH1 foci, and fluorescent pollen tetrads. Interestingly, while crossover interference is normal in asy1/+, it is undetectable in asy1 mutants, indicating that ASY1 is required to mediate crossover interference. Together, this is consistent with ASY1 antagonizing telomere-led recombination and promoting spaced crossover formation along the chromosomes via interference. These findings provide insight into the role of the meiotic axis in patterning recombination frequency within plant genomes.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Hagman M, Werner C, Kamp K, et al (2020)

Reduced telomere shortening in lifelong trained male football players compared to age-matched inactive controls.

Progress in cardiovascular diseases pii:S0033-0620(20)30117-1 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Current evidence points to cellular anti-ageing effects of regular endurance training which may differ from other sport modalities. Effects of football training on markers of cell senescence have not been tested.

METHODS: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including young elite football players aged 18-30 years (YF, n = 35, 21.6 ± 0.5 yrs), elderly football players aged 65-80 years (EF, n = 35, 71.9 ± 0.5 yrs), untrained young controls (YC, n = 35, 24.3 ± 0.6 yrs) and elderly controls (EC, n = 35, 70.1 ± 0.7 yrs). Besides body composition (DXA scan), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure (BP) and selected fasting blood variables, mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated. MNC telomere length was determined by flow-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was quantified using telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. mRNA expression of anti- and pro-senescent factors was measured with real-time PCR.

RESULTS: EF showed 2.5% higher (p = 0.047) granulocyte telomere length and 1.3% higher (p = 0.009) lymphocyte telomere length compared to EC. EF had 37% lower (p = 0.025) mRNA expression of the pro-senescent factor p16 compared to EC. No significant between-group differences (p > 0.050) were observed in telomerase activity or anti-senescent factors (TRF2, Ku70 and POT1a) for EF vs EC. YF had higher telomerase activity (4.2-fold, p = 0.001), telomere repeat binding factor (TRF) 2 mRNA expression (3.2-fold, p = 0.003), Ku70 mRNA expression (2.3-fold, p < 0.001) and POT1a mRNA expression (2.2-fold, p = 0.002) compared to YC, but there was no significant between-group difference in telomere length.

CONCLUSION: This study is the first cross-sectional, controlled trial showing effects of lifelong football participation on telomere shortening and senescence markers in circulating cells, suggesting that football induces cellular anti-senescence mechanisms implying positive long-term cardiovascular health effects.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Laprade H, Querido E, Smith MJ, et al (2020)

Single-Molecule Imaging of Telomerase RNA Reveals a Recruitment-Retention Model for Telomere Elongation.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(20)30306-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Extension of telomeres is a critical step in the immortalization of cancer cells. This complex reaction requires proper spatiotemporal coordination of telomerase and telomeres and remains poorly understood at the cellular level. To understand how cancer cells execute this process, we combine CRISPR genome editing and MS2 RNA tagging to image single molecules of telomerase RNA (hTR). Real-time dynamics and photoactivation experiments of hTR in Cajal bodies (CBs) reveal that hTERT controls the exit of hTR from CBs. Single-molecule tracking of hTR at telomeres shows that TPP1-mediated recruitment results in short telomere-telomerase scanning interactions, and then base pairing between hTR and telomere ssDNA promotes long interactions required for stable telomerase retention. Interestingly, POT1 OB-fold mutations that result in abnormally long telomeres in cancers act by enhancing this retention step. In summary, single-molecule imaging unveils the life cycle of telomerase RNA and provides a framework to reveal how cancer-associated mutations mechanistically drive defects in telomere homeostasis.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Furtado CLM, Iannetta R, Ferriani RA, et al (2020)

Telomere length is not altered in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty treated with a GnRH analog - leuprolide acetate.

Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (iCPP) presents a disproportionate advancement of bone age and maturation, as well as metabolic and endocrinological changes that may be related to effects on telomere biology.Objective: To investigate the telomere length in iCPP girls treated with GnRHa.Study design: Observational case-control study with 85 girls, including 45 iCPP treated with GnRHa and 40 controls. It was analyzed age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI), insulin, triglycerides, testosterone, insulin resistance by HOMA, and telomere length by real-time PCR. Statistical analyses were determined by Wilcoxon test and Spearman correlation was carried out.Results: Weight, BMI, insulin level and HOMA index were higher in the iCPP than in the control group (p < .01); without difference between mean ages. The telomere length did not differ between iCPP and control group. However, a negative correlation was observed between the telomere length and age in iCPP (p = .0009) and control group (p = .014), and weight in the iCPP (p = .017).Conclusions: We did not observe any difference in the telomere length in the iCPP and control group. Even though, some characteristics of the disease, such as increased weight and body fat, negatively influence the telomere biology.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Zhang S, Li R, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Longitudinal Association of Telomere Attrition with the Effects of Antihypertensive Treatment and Blood Pressure Lowering.

Aging and disease, 11(3):494-508.

Leukocytes telomere length has been associated with hypertension, but, whether longitudinal telomeres change could serve as a useful predictive tool in hypertension remains uncertain. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal trajectory of leukocytes telomere length in a population-based prospective study of 1,108 individuals with hypertension. Leukocytes telomere length were measured at baseline and again after a median 2.2 (range 1.5-2.4) years of follow-up. Age as an independent predictor was inversely associated with baseline telomeres and follow-up telomeres. Annual telomere attrition rate was calculated as (follow-up telomeres-baseline telomeres)/follow-up years, and participants were categorized into the shorten and the lengthen groups. Results showed that telomere lengthening was significantly correlated with decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β=-3.28; P=0.02) and pulse pressure (PP) (β=-2.53; P=0.02), and the differences were respectively -3.3 mmHg (95%CI, -6.2 to -0.3; P=0.03) in ∆SBP and -2.4 mmHg (95%CI, -4.9 to -0.1; P=0.04) in ∆PP between two groups after adjustment for vascular risk factors and baseline blood pressures. When stratified by age and gender, the correlations were observed in women and patients ≤60 years. Furthermore, among patients using calcium channel blocker (CCB) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), those with telomeres lengthening showed a significantly lower level of ∆SBP and ∆PP. There was no correlation between telomere attrition and incidence of cardiovascular events. Our data indicated that increased telomere length of leukocytes was associated with decreased SBP and PP, particularly for patients who received CCB and ARB, supporting that telomere attrition may provide new sight in clinical intervention for hypertension.

RevDate: 2020-06-06

Nichuguti N, H Fujiwara (2020)

Essential factors involved in the precise targeting and insertion of telomere-specific non-LTR retrotransposon, SART1Bm.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8963.

Telomere length maintenance is essential for most eukaryotes to ensure genome stability and integrity. A non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, SART1Bm, targets telomeric repeats (TTAGG)n of the silkworm Bombyx mori and is presumably involved in telomere length maintenance. However, how many telomeric repeats are required for its retrotransposition and how reverse transcription is initiated at the target site are not well understood. Here, using an ex vivo and trans-in vivo recombinant baculovirus retrotransposition system, we demonstrated that SART1Bm requires at least three (TTAGG) telomeric repeats and a longer poly(A) tail for its accurate retrotransposition. We found that SART1Bm retrotransposed only in the third (TTAGG) tract of three repeats and that the A residue of the (TTAGG) unit was essential for its retrotransposition. Interestingly, SART1Bm also retrotransposed into telomeric repeats of other species, such as human (TTAGGG)n repeats, albeit with low retrotransposition efficiency. We further showed that the reverse transcription of SART1Bm occurred inaccurately at the internal site of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) when using a short poly(A) tail but at the accurate site when using a longer poly(A) tail. These findings promote our understanding of the general mechanisms of site-specific retrotransposition and aid the development of a site-specific gene knock-in tool.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Nanthatanti N, Tantiworawit A, Piriyakhuntorn P, et al (2020)

Leukocyte telomere length in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

BMC medical genomics, 13(1):73.

BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is a hereditary hemolytic anemia with a severity ranging from mild, non-transfusion dependent to severe chronic anemia requiring lifelong transfusion. Transfusional iron overload is a major complication in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). Telomeres are sequences of nucleotides forming the end caps of chromosomes that act as a DNA repair system. Iron overload in thalassemia can cause increased oxidative stress which leads to cellular damage and senescence. This may result in telomere length shortening. The degree of telomere length shortening may reflect the severity of thalassemia.

METHODS: This research aimed to study the leukocyte telomere length in patients with TDT in comparison to non-thalassemic individuals and to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that are associated with telomere length. We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with TDT aged ≥18 years. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by real-time quantitative PCR.

RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with TDT were enrolled onto the study. There were 37 female patients (54.4%). The median age was 27 (18-57) years, and mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was 7.1 (± 1.07) g/dL. The mean telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratios of patients with TDT and the controls were 0.72 ± 0.18 and 0.99 ± 0.25, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between the T/S ratio and age (p = 0.0002), and hemoglobin level (p = 0.044). There was no correlation between telomere length and other factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that TDT patients had shorter leukocyte telomere length compared with controls. Leukocyte telomere shortening in TDT was an aging-dependent process and associated with lower hemoglobin level.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Toupance S, Stathopoulou MG, Petrelis AM, et al (2020)

TERC Variants Associated with Short Leukocyte Telomeres: Implication of Higher Early Life Leukocyte Telomere Attrition as Assessed by the Blood-and-Muscle Model.

Cells, 9(6): pii:cells9061360.

Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Mendelian randomisation studies, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with short LTL, infer a causal role of LTL in ASCVD. Recent results, using the blood-and-muscle model, indicate that higher early life LTL attrition, as estimated by the ratio between LTL and skeletal muscle telomere length (MTL), rather than short LTL at conception, as estimated by MTL, should be responsible of the ASCVD-LTL connection. We combined LTL and MTL measurements and SNPs profiling in 402 individuals to determine if 15 SNPs classically described as associated with short LTL at adult age were rather responsible for higher LTL attrition during early life than for shorter LTL at birth. Two of these SNPs (rs12696304 and rs10936599) were associated with LTL in our cohort (p = 0.027 and p = 0.025, respectively). These SNPs, both located on the TERC gene, were associated with the LTL/MTL ratio (p = 0.007 and p = 0.037, respectively), but not with MTL (p = 0.78 and p = 0.32 respectively). These results suggest that SNPs located on genes coding for telomere maintenance proteins may contribute to a higher LTL attrition during the highly replicative first years of life and have an impact later on the development of ASCVD.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Brenner KA, J Nandakumar (2020)

Small Molecules Restore Telomeres in Patient Stem Cells.

Trends in pharmacological sciences pii:S0165-6147(20)30127-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic defects in telomere maintenance result in stem cell exhaustion and a spectrum of telomere biology diseases. Systemic treatments beyond organ transplantation are lacking for these diseases. Nagpal and colleagues identified small molecules that restore telomere maintenance in patient-derived stem cells, offering a promising therapy for telomere biology diseases.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Thierry AD (2020)

Association between telomere length and neighborhood characteristics by race and region in US midlife and older adults.

Health & place, 62:102272.

Disadvantaged neighborhoods are correlated with worse health outcomes, particularly among US Blacks. However, less is known about the link between neighborhood characteristics and biomarkers of cellular age, such as telomere length (TL), which may be implicated in racial health inequities. Moreover, this relationship may vary across US region given patterns of racial segregation across the US. Therefore, this study analyzed 2008 Health and Retirement Study data on 3,869 US-born white and Black adults >50 years old to examine race differences in the relationship between salivary TL and (1) neighborhood safety, cleanliness, and social cohesion and (2) interactions between neighborhood characteristics and US region. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with TL in whites. However, significant associations were found among Blacks with variation by region. Blacks living in less clean neighborhoods in the Northeast (b = -0.03, SE = 0.01, p < 0.05), Midwest (b = -0.04, SE = 0.01, p < 0.01), and South (b = -0.05, SE = 0.01, p < 0.01) as well as those reporting less neighborhood safety and social cohesion in the Midwest (b = -0.03, SE = 0.02, p < 0.05 and b = -0.03, SE = 0.01, p < 0.05) and South (b = -0.03, SE = 0.01, p < 0.05 for both characteristics) had shorter TL than Blacks in the West. Therefore, exposure to neighborhood level historical discrimination and neglect may be detrimental to TL in Blacks. Future research should further examine how neighborhoods contribute to aging disparities.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Lee AG, Cowell W, Kannan S, et al (2020)

Prenatal particulate air pollution and newborn telomere length: Effect modification by maternal antioxidant intakes and infant sex.

Environmental research, 187:109707.

BACKGROUND: Evidence links gestational exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) with changes in leukocyte telomere length in cord blood with some studies showing sex-specific effects. PM2.5 exposure in utero increases oxidative stress, which can impact telomere biology. Thus, maternal antioxidant intakes may also modify the particulate air pollution effects.

METHODS: We examined associations among prenatal PM2.5 exposure and newborn relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL), and the modifying effects of maternal antioxidant intake and infant sex. We estimated daily PM2.5 exposures over gestation using a validated spatiotemporally resolved satellite-based model. Maternal dietary and supplemental antioxidant intakes over the prior three months were ascertained during the second trimester using the modified Block98 food frequency questionnaire; high and low antioxidant intakes were categorized based on a median split. We employed Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs) to identify both sensitive windows of exposure and cumulative effect estimates for prenatal PM2.5 exposure on newborn rLTL, and to examine effect modification by maternal antioxidant intakes. A 3-way interaction between PM2.5, maternal antioxidant intake and infant sex was also explored.

RESULTS: For the main effect of PM2.5, BDLIMs identified a sensitive window at 12-20 weeks gestation for the association between increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure and shorter newborn rLTL and a cumulative effect of PM2.5 over gestation on newborn telomere length [cumulative effect estimate (CEE) = -0.29 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10) per 1μg/m3 increase in PM2.5]. In models examining maternal antioxidant intake effects, BDLIMs found that children born to mothers reporting low antioxidant intakes were most vulnerable [CEE of low maternal antioxidant intake = -0.31 (95% CI -0.55 to -0.06) vs high maternal antioxidant intake = -0.07 (95% CI -0.34 to 0.17) per 1μg/m3 increase in PM2.5]. In exploratory models examining effect modification by both maternal antioxidant intakes and infant sex, the cumulative effect remained significant only in boys whose mothers reported low antioxidant intakes [CEE = -0.38 (95% CI -0.80 to -0.004)]; no sensitive windows were identified in any group.

CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure in mid-gestation was associated with reduced infant telomere length. Higher maternal antioxidant intakes mitigated these effects.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

de Krijger I, van der Torre J, Peuscher MH, et al (2020)

H3K36 dimethylation by MMSET promotes classical non-homologous end-joining at unprotected telomeres.

Oncogene, 39(25):4814-4827.

The epigenetic environment plays an important role in DNA damage recognition and repair, both at DNA double-strand breaks and at deprotected telomeres. To increase understanding on how DNA damage responses (DDR) at deprotected telomeres are regulated by modification and remodeling of telomeric chromatin we screened 38 methyltransferases for their ability to promote telomere dysfunction-induced genomic instability. As top hit we identified MMSET, a histone methyltransferase (HMT) causally linked to multiple myeloma and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. We show that MMSET promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) at deprotected telomeres through Ligase4-dependent classical NHEJ, and does not contribute to Ligase3-dependent alternative NHEJ. Moreover, we show that this is dependent on the catalytic activity of MMSET, enabled by its SET-domain. Indeed, in absence of MMSET H3K36-dimethylation (H3K36me2) decreases, both globally and at subtelomeric regions. Interestingly, the level of MMSET-dependent H3K36me2 directly correlates with NHEJ-efficiency. We show that MMSET depletion does not impact on recognition of deprotected telomeres by the DDR-machinery or on subsequent recruitment of DDR-factors acting upstream or at the level of DNA repair pathway choice. Our data are most consistent with an important role for H3K36me2 in more downstream steps of the DNA repair process. Moreover, we find additional H3K36me2-specific HMTs to contribute to NHEJ at deprotected telomeres, further emphasizing the importance of H3K36me2 in DNA repair.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

He S, Li J, Wang Z, et al (2020)

Early-life exposure to famine and late-life depression: Does leukocyte telomere length mediate the association?.

Journal of affective disorders, 274:223-228 pii:S0165-0327(20)30726-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: A positive association between early-life famine exposure and depression has been demonstrated. However, the mechanisms by which famine exposure in early life leads to late-life depression remains unclear. The present study examines the impact of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and/or religiosity on the relationship between early-life famine exposure and late-life depression in a Chinese minority sample.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults aged 55 or older was conducted in the Ningxia province of western China from 2013 to 2016. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the association between famine exposure and depression status, and a series mediation model was constructed to identify the mediation role of LTL and religiosity.

RESULTS: Compared with famine exposure during adulthood, fetal famine exposure was associated with a higher risk of late-life depression (adjusted odds ratio of 3.17, 95% CI: 1.36-7.38). A cumulative effect of fetal famine exposure on the risk of late-life depression was observed. Participants born in 1961 (the third year of the famine) had the strongest association with late-life depression. LTL played a mediating role in the association between famine exposure and depression which accounted for 21% of the total effect.

LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design prevents causal inferences regarding the relationships between famine and depression.

CONCLUSIONS: Fetal famine exposure was associated with an increased risk of late-life depression in a Chinese minority community-dwelling population. Telomere shortening partially mediated this association.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Savoy CD, Schmidt LA, McGowan PO, et al (2020)

Extremely low birth weight influences the relationship between stress and telomere length in adulthood.

Journal of developmental origins of health and disease pii:S2040174420000409 [Epub ahead of print].

This study examined the link between two biological markers of stress vulnerability at 22-26 years of age and telomere length at 30-35 among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors and normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 g) control participants. Sixteen ELBW and 22 NBW participants provided baseline afternoon salivary cortisol samples and resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry data at 22-26 years. Buccal cells were assayed for telomere length at 30-35 years. Analyses controlled for sex, postnatal steroid exposure, childhood socioeconomic status, time of cortisol sample collection, and body mass index at 22-26 years. Salivary cortisol and frontal asymmetry at age 22-26 independently predicted telomere length at age 30-35, such that relatively higher cortisol and greater relative right frontal asymmetry at rest predicted telomere shortening among NBW controls, but not among ELBW survivors. However, similar associations were not noted in ELBW survivors, suggesting that ELBW survivors may have different mechanisms of stress coping as a result of their early-life exposures. These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of the role of stress in the genesis of cellular senescence at least among those born at NBW, but that these links may differ in those born preterm.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Park MK, Lee JC, Lee JW, et al (2020)

Effects of fermented rice bran on DEN-induced oxidative stress in mice: GSTP1, LINE-1 methylation, and telomere length ratio.

Journal of food biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a well-known carcinogen, not only induces excessive reactive oxygen species but also suppresses DNA methylation. This study investigated the effect of fermented rice bran (FRB) treatment on DEN-induced oxidative stress through DNA methylation and telomere length analysis. To evaluate the potential protective role of FRB in oxidative stress, two different doses of FRB, DEN, and their combination were administered to mice that were preadapted or not to FRB. Glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) methylation levels significantly decreased at 2 and 24 hr after FRB and DEN co-administration in mice with and without pre-adaptation. Moreover, GSTP1 mRNA was upregulated under DEN-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, changes in long interspersed nuclear element-1 methylation were observed from the viewpoint of genomic instability. In addition, FRB preadapted mice displayed a lower telomere length ratio than the non-adapted mice, suggesting that FRB adaptation offers advantages over the non-adapted conditions in terms of inflammation suppression. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: DEN induces excessive ROS, which is associated with oxidative stress on DNA and other cellular components, resulting in inflammation. This study shows that FRB may alleviate DEN-triggered oxidative stress, based on changes in GSTP1, LINE-1 methylation, and telomere length ratios, thereby, revealing the potential of dietary intervention during inflammation. Furthermore, this study furthers the current understanding of DNA methylation mechanisms underlying the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of functional food components. These results indicate that dietary inclusion of FRB may help decrease oxidative DNA damage and its associated inflammation at early stages of a disease.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Wu J, DL Crowe (2020)

Telomere DNA damage signaling regulates prostate cancer tumorigenesis.

Molecular cancer research : MCR pii:1541-7786.MCR-19-1129 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere shortening has been demonstrated in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), which is associated with prostate epithelial cell senescence. Telomere shortening is the most frequently observed genetic alteration in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in prostate cancer. Gene expression database analysis revealed decreased TRF2 expression during malignant progression of the prostate gland. We reasoned that reduced TRF2 expression in prostate epithelium, by activating the telomere DNA damage response, would allow us to model both benign and malignant prostate disease. Prostate glands with reduced epithelial TRF2 expression developed age- and p53-dependent hypertrophy, senescence, ductal dilation, and smooth muscle hyperplasia similar to human BPH. Prostate tumors with reduced TRF2 expression were classified as high grade androgen receptor negative adenocarcinomas which exhibited decreased latency, increased proliferation, and distant metastases. Prostate cancer stem cells with reduced TRF2 expression were highly tumorigenic and maintained telomeres both by telomerase and alternative lengthening (ALT). Telomerase inhibition in prostate glands with reduced TRF2 expression produced significant reduction in prostate tumor incidence by halting progression at intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). These lesions were highly differentiated, exhibited low proliferation index, and high apoptotic cell fraction. Prostate tumors with reduced TRF2 expression and telomerase inhibition failed to metastasize and did not exhibit ALT. Implications: Our results demonstrate that the telomere DNA damage response regulates BPH, PIN, and prostate cancer and may be therapeutically manipulated to prevent prostate cancer progression.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Kosebent EG, Uysal F, S Ozturk (2020)

The altered expression of telomerase components and telomere-linked proteins may associate with ovarian aging in mouse.

Experimental gerontology, 138:110975 pii:S0531-5565(20)30323-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences localized at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and shorten during ovarian aging. The molecular background of telomere shortening during ovarian aging is not fully understood. As the telomerase components (TERT and Terc) and telomere-associated proteins (TRF1, TRF2, and POT1a) play key roles in the elongation and maintenance of telomeres, we aimed to determine their spatial and temporal expression and cellular localization in the mouse ovaries at the different ages of postnatal life. For this purpose, five groups were generated based on the ovarian histological changes in the postnatal mouse ovaries as follows: young (1- and 2-week-old; n = 3 from each week), prepubertal (3- and 4-week-old; n = 3 from each week), pubertal (5- and 6-week-old; n = 3 from each week), postpubertal (16- and 18-week-old; n = 3 from each week) and aged (52-, 60- and 72-week-old, n = 3 from each week). We found significant changes for the Tert, Terc, Trf1, Trf2, and Pot1a genes expression in the postnatal ovary groups from young to aged (P < 0.05) as well as in the follicles from primordial to antral stages and their oocytes and granulosa cells. Also, we have detected gradually decreasing telomere length from young to aged groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the altered Tert, Terc, Trf2, and Pot1a genes expression compatible with telomere shortening may be associated with ovarian aging.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Benati M, Montagnana M, Danese E, et al (2020)

Aberrant Telomere Length in Circulating Cell-Free DNA as Possible Blood Biomarker with High Diagnostic Performance in Endometrial Cancer.

Pathology oncology research : POR pii:10.1007/s12253-020-00819-x [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the diagnostic performance of relative telomere length (RTL) in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC). We measured RTL in cfDNA of 40 EC patients (65 ± 12 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (63 ± 13 years), excluding in both groups other oncologic and severe non-oncologic diseases to limit confounders. Circulating cfDNA was extracted from serum using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). After the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, telomere repeat copy number to single-gene copy number ratio was calculated. RTL in cfDNA was found to be significantly lower in EC patients than in HC (p < 0.0001). The diagnostic performance of cfDNA RTL was estimated with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, which showed a diagnostic accuracy for EC of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79-0.95, p < 0.0001). The cutoff cfDNA RTL value of 2.505 (T/S copy ratio) reported a sensitivity of 80.0% (95% CI: 64.35-90.95) and a specificity of 80.65% (95% CI: 62.53-92.55). Significant differences of RTL among EC stages or grades (p = 0.85 and p = 0.89, respectively) were not observed. Our results suggest that cfDNA RTL analysis may be a diagnostic tool for EC detection since the early stage, whilst its diagnostic performance seems unsatisfactory for cancer progression, staging, and grading. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. In particular, future investigations should focus on high-risk patients (such as those with atypical endometrial hyperplasia) that may benefit from this tool, because TL shortening is not specific for EC and is influenced by other oncologic and non-oncologic diseases.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Viblanc VA, Schull Q, Stier A, et al (2020)

Foster rather than biological parental telomere length predicts offspring survival and telomere length in king penguins.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Because telomere length and dynamics relate to individual growth, reproductive investment and survival, telomeres have emerged as possible markers of individual quality. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in species with parental care, parental telomere length can be a marker of parental quality that predicts offspring phenotype and survival. In king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), we experimentally swapped the single egg of 66 breeding pairs just after egg laying to disentangle the contribution of prelaying parental quality (e.g., genetics, investment in the egg) and/or postlaying parental quality (e.g., incubation, postnatal feeding rate) on offspring growth, telomere length and survival. Parental quality was estimated through the joint effects of biological and foster parent telomere length on offspring traits, both soon after hatching (day 10) and at the end of the prewinter growth period (day 105). We expected that offspring traits would be mostly related to the telomere lengths (i.e., quality) of biological parents at day 10 and to the telomere lengths of foster parents at day 105. Results show that chick survival up to 10 days was negatively related to biological fathers' telomere length, whereas survival up to 105 days was positively related to foster fathers' telomere lengths. Chick growth was not related to either biological or foster parents' telomere length. Chick telomere length was positively related to foster mothers' telomere length at both 10 and 105 days. Overall, our study shows that, in a species with biparental care, parents' telomere length is foremost a proxy of postlaying parental care quality, supporting the "telomere - parental quality hypothesis."

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Lyu L, He S, Zhang H, et al (2020)

TNFα Mediates the Interaction of Telomeres and Mitochondria Induced by Hyperglycemia: A Rural Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2020:8235873.

This study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in a noninterventional rural community of China with different glucose tolerance statuses. In addition, we investigate whether the indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation were involved and identify mediators among them. A total of 450 subjects in rural China were included and divided into two groups according to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): the abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM, n = 257, 57.1%) group and the normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 193, 42.9%) group. Indicators of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)) and inflammatory indices (tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were all determined by ELISA. LTL and mtDNAcn were measured using a real-time PCR assay. Linear regressions were used to adjust for covariates that might affect the relationship between LTL and mtDNAcn. Mediation analyses were utilized to evaluate the mediators. In the AGM, LTL was correlated with mtDNAcn (r = 0.214, p = 0.001), but no correlation was found in the NGT. The association between LTL and mtDNAcn was weakened after adjusting for inflammatory factors in the AGM (p = 0.087). LTL and mtDNAcn were both inversely related to HbA1c, IL-6, TNFα, and SOD activity. Mediation analysis demonstrated that TNFα was a significant mediator in the telomere-mitochondrial interactome in the AGM. This result suggests that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a vital role in telomere shortening as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. In the subjects with hyperglycemia, a significant positive correlation is observed between LTL and mtDNAcn, which is probably mediated by TNFα. TNFα may be considered a potential therapeutic target against aging-related disease in hyperglycemia.

RevDate: 2020-05-27
CmpDate: 2020-05-27

Gao YY, Guo JY, Zhang Z, et al (2020)

[Relationship of telomere length, mitochondrial DNA copy number of peripheral blood with hypertension in coal miners].

Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi, 41(5):727-732.

Objective: To explore the relationship of telomere length, mitochondrial DNA copy number of peripheral blood with hypertension and the interaction between telomere length and mtDNA-CN on hypertension in coal miners. Methods: A case control study was conducted in a coal mine of Shanxi province from July to December of 2013, in which 325 healthy workers were selected as the control group and 378 workers with hypertension as the case group. The information about general demographic characteristics and life behavior habits of the subjects were collected through questionnaire. Levels of telomere length and mtDNA-CN in peripheral blood were detected by real-time PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between hypertension and telomere length, mtDNA-CN. The interaction test between telomere length and mtDNA-CN on hypertension was performed by adding the interaction term in the corresponding model. Results: The mean telomere length of the workers in the case group was (1.50±0.55) kb, and that of the control group was (2.01±0.62) kb, the difference between two groups was significant (t=11.68, P<0.001). The correlation analysis showed that telomere length was positively correlated with mtDNA-CN (r=0.157, P=0.002) in the case group. Multivariate analysis showed that telomere length (OR=4.408, 95%CI: 3.012-6.452), age (OR=0.417, 95%CI: 0.284-0.613), BMI (OR=1.357, 95%CI: 1.162-1.584), monthly household income level (OR=0.656, 95%CI: 0.553-0.778) and work duration (OR=1.249, 95%CI: 1.100-1.417) were influencing factors of hypertension. The multiply interaction between telomere length and mtDNA-CN was significant on hypertension (OR=1.267, 95%CI: 1.094-1.468). Conclusions: The results suggest shorter telomere length is a risk factor of hypertension. There is a multiply interaction between telomere length and mtDNA-CN on hypertension. However, the association between mtDNA-CN and hypertension was not found.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Vita GL, Aguennouz M, Sframeli M, et al (2020)

Effect of exercise on telomere length and telomere proteins expression in mdx mice.

Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 470(1-2):189-197.

In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), telomere shortening has been postulated to contribute to the failure of regenerative activity promoting the premature senescence of satellite cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the telomere length and the expression of telomeric repeat-binding factor-1 (TRF1), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase (MTERT) in gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of the murine model of DMD, the mdx mouse and whether a chronic protocol of forced exercise impacts on them. Our results confirmed a telomere shortening in mdx muscles, more evident in the diaphragm, in which exercise induced a greater shortening than in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed for the first time in mdx an increased TRF1 and PARP1 expression and an augmented activity of MTERT, further enhanced by exercise. These results reinforce the hypothesis that a deregulation of mechanisms involved in telomere length occurs and may pave the way for the test of compounds targeting proteins modulating telomere maintenance as a novel strategy to treat dystrophinopathies.

RevDate: 2020-05-26

Vinayagamurthy S, Ganguly A, S Chowdhury (2020)

Extra-telomeric impact of telomeres: Emerging molecular connections in pluripotency or stemness.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:REV119.009710 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres comprise specialized nucleic acid-protein complexes that help protect chromosome ends from DNA damage. Moreover, telomeres associate with sub-telomeric regions through looping. This results in altered expression of sub-telomeric genes. Recent observations further reveal telomere length dependent gene regulation and epigenetic modifications at sites spread across the genome and distant from telomeres. This regulation is mediated through the telomere-binding protein telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2). These observations suggest a role of telomeres in extra-telomeric functions. Most notably, telomeres have a broad impact on pluripotency and differentiation. For example, cardiomyocytes differentiate with higher efficacy from pluripotent cells (iPSC) having long telomeres, and differentiated cells obtained from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with relatively long telomeres have a longer life-span. Here, we first highlight reports on these two seemingly distinct research areas: the extra-telomeric role of telomere-binding factors and the role of telomeres in pluripotency/stemness. On the basis of the observations reported in these studies, we draw attention to potential molecular connections between extra-telomeric biology and pluripotency. Finally, in the context of the non-local influence of telomeres on pluripotency and stemness, we discuss major opportunities for progress in molecular understanding of aging-related disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Pasquier E, RJ Wellinger (2020)

In vivo chromatin organization on native yeast telomeric regions is independent of a cis-telomere loopback conformation.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 13(1):23.

BACKGROUND: DNA packaging into chromatin regulates all DNA-related processes and at chromosomal ends could affect both essential functions of telomeres: protection against DNA damage response and telomere replication. Despite this primordial role of chromatin, little is known about chromatin organization, and in particular about nucleosome positioning on unmodified subtelomere-telomere junctions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

RESULTS: By ChEC experiments and indirect end-labeling, we characterized nucleosome positioning as well as specialized protein-DNA associations on most subtelomere-telomere junctions present in budding yeast. The results show that there is a relatively large nucleosome-free region at chromosome ends. Despite the absence of sequence homologies between the two major classes of subtelomere-telomere junctions (i.e.: Y'-telomeres and X-telomeres), all analyzed subtelomere-telomere junctions show a terminal nucleosome-free region just distally from the known Rap1-covered telomeric repeats. Moreover, previous evidence suggested a telomeric chromatin fold-back structure onto subtelomeric areas that supposedly was implicated in chromosome end protection. The in vivo ChEC method used herein in conjunction with several proteins in a natural context revealed no evidence for such structures in bulk chromatin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study allows a structural definition of the chromatin found at chromosome ends in budding yeast. This definition, derived with direct in vivo approaches, includes a terminal area that is free of nucleosomes, certain positioned nucleosomes and conserved DNA-bound protein complexes. This organization of subtelomeric and telomeric areas however does not include a telomeric cis-loopback conformation. We propose that the observations on such fold-back structures may report rare and/or transient associations and not stable or constitutive structures.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Davis SK, Xu R, Khan RJ, et al (2020)

Modifiable mediators associated with the relationship between adiposity and leukocyte telomere length in US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Preventive medicine, 138:106133 pii:S0091-7435(20)30157-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity is associated with age-related health conditions and telomere attrition - a marker of cellular aging. Obesity is attributable to adverse modifiable lifestyle factors. Little is known about the mediation effect of lifestyle factors associated with the relationship between obesity and telomere length. Our objective was to examine this association in the US. Pack years smoked, drinking level per day, physical activity (PA) per week and diet based on Healthy Eating Index (HEI) were assessed as mediators associated with the relationship between adiposity measures and leukocyte telomere length (LTL); adiposity measures included body mass index (BMI), % total body fat (TBF) and waist circumference (WC). Separate adjusted linear regressions and mediation analysis were conducted on a total of 4919 respondents aged 20-84 years using cross-sectional 1999-2002 data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Inadequate PA correlated with 1.28% shorter LTL and was a factor accounting for 35% of the relationship between BMI and LTL (β = -0.0128, 95% CI = 0.0259, 0.0004, p = .05). Smoking 30-≥59 pack years correlated with 4% shorter LTL and accounted for 21% of the relationship between %TBF and LTL (β = -0.0386, 95% CI = -0.0742, -0.0030, p = .03). Improvement in diet correlated with 0.11% longer LTL and contributed 25% of the association between %TBF and LTL (β = 0.0011, 95%CI =0.0004, 0.0018, p = .01). Diet correlated with 0.11% longer LTL and correspond to 28% of the relationship between WC and LTL (β = 0.0011, 95%CI = 0.0004, 0.0018, p = .03). Interventions to improve modifiable behaviors may ameliorate cellular aging and aging related health conditions due to obesity among US adults.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Kang JI, Mueller SG, Wu GWY, et al (2020)

Effect of Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Telomere Length and Amygdala Volume.

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging pii:S2451-9022(20)30076-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Traumatic stress can adversely affect physical and mental health through neurobiological stress response systems. We examined the effects of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, and volume of the amygdala, a key structure of stress regulation, in combat-exposed veterans. In addition, the relationships of psychopathological symptoms and autonomic function with telomere length and amygdala volume were examined.

METHODS: Male combat veterans were categorized as having PTSD diagnosis (n = 102) or no lifetime PTSD diagnosis (n = 111) based on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Subjects were assessed for stress-related psychopathology, trauma severity, autonomic function, and amygdala volumes by magnetic resonance imaging.

RESULTS: A significant interaction was found between trauma severity and PTSD status for telomere length and amygdala volume after adjusting for multiple confounders. Subjects with PTSD showed shorter telomere length and larger amygdala volume than those without PTSD among veterans exposed to high trauma, while there was no significant group difference in these parameters among those exposed to low trauma. Among veterans exposed to high trauma, greater telomere shortening was significantly correlated with greater norepinephrine, and larger amygdala volume was correlated with more severe psychological symptoms and higher heart rates.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the intensity of the index trauma event plays an important role in interacting with PTSD symptomatology and autonomic activity in predicting telomere length and amygdala volume. These results highlight the importance of trauma severity and PTSD status in predicting certain biological outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Li Y, Gu J, Ding Y, et al (2020)

A small molecule compound IX inhibits telomere and attenuates oncogenesis of drug-resistant leukemia cells.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Drug resistance is a common obstacle in leukemia treatment and failing to eradicate leukemia stem cells is the main cause of leukemia relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase activity is associated with deregulated self-renewal of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Here, we identified a novel compound IX, an imatinib derivative with a replacement fragment of a telomerase inhibitor, which can effectively eradicate LSCs but had no influence on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) survival. We showed that compound IX can decrease the viability of drug-resistant K562/G cells and blast crisis CML primary patient cells. Besides, IX can affect LSC survival, inhibit the colony-forming ability, and reduce LSC frequency. In vivo results showed that IX can relieve the tumor burden in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model and prolong the lifespan. We observed that compound IX can not only decrease telomerase activity, but also affect the alternative lengthening of telomeres. In addition, IX can inhibit both the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways. Our data suggested this novel compound IX as a promising candidate for drug-resistant leukemia therapy.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Vecoli C, Borghini A, MG Andreassi (2020)

The molecular biomarkers of vascular aging and atherosclerosis: telomere length and mitochondrial DNA4977 common deletion.

Mutation research, 784:108309.

Age is the dominant risk factor for the most prevalent atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease and stroke. In human, telomere erosion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage play a central role in the mechanisms leading to cellular aging decline. This review summarizes the most relevant findings on the role of telomere shortening and the common mtDNA4977 deletion in the progression and evolution of atherosclerosis by combining insight from experimental models and human clinical studies. The current evidence shows a link between telomere erosion and compromised mitochondrial function and provides a new perspective regarding their potential role as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Noguera JC, A Velando (2020)

Gull chicks grow faster but lose telomeres when prenatal cues mismatch the real presence of sibling competitors.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1927):20200242.

During embryonic life, individuals should adjust their phenotype to the conditions that they will encounter after birth, including the social environment, if they have access to (social) cues that allow them to forecast future conditions. In birds, evidence indicates that embryos are sensitive to cues from clutch mates, but whether embryos adjust their development to cope with the expected level of sibling competition has not hitherto been investigated. To tackle this question, we performed a 'match versus mismatch' experimental design where we manipulated the presence of clutch mates (i.e. clutch size manipulation) and the real (postnatal) level of sibling competition (i.e. brood size manipulation) in the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). We provide evidence that the prenatal cues of sibling presence induced developmental changes (such as epigenetic profiles) that had programming effects on chick begging behaviour and growth trajectories after hatching. While receiving mismatching information favoured chick begging and growth, this came at the cost of reduced antioxidant defences and a premature loss of telomeres. Our findings highlight the role of the prenatal social environment in developmental plasticity and suggest that telomere attrition may be an important physiological cost of phenotype-environment mismatch.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Gerritsen L, Hägg S, Reynolds CA, et al (2020)

The association of individual changes in stressful life events and telomere length over time in twins aged 50 years and above.

Psychosomatic medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to adverse stressors has been associated with shortening of leukocyte telomere length(LTL). The present longitudinal study investigates the time course of exposure to life events and LTL to determine whether increases in exposure to life events are related to subsequent accelerated LTL shortening.

METHODS: In the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) we assessed late-life stressful events and LTL in 543 individual participants (mean age 68.4 and 40% men, including 48 complete monozygotic twin pairs and 167 complete dizygotic twin pairs) in up to 5 separate measurements over a period of 25 years. LTL was measured using qPCR. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using time-varying mixed modeling, corrected for lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms.

RESULTS: When adjusting for differences in genetic makeup by looking only in monozygotic twins, we found that an increase in life stressors within an individual was related to decreased LTL over time (B=-0,02; 95%CI=-0,04 to 0,01; p=0,002). None of the findings were significant when only looking at dizygotic twins (all p values > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Our findings in an older population show a causal relation between increase in life stress on accelerated LTL shortening by using intra-individual time-varying analysis.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Aviv A (2020)

Telomeres and COVID-19.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 34(6):7247-7252.

The medical, public health, and scientific communities are grappling with monumental imperatives to contain COVID-19, develop effective vaccines, identify efficacious treatments for the infection and its complications, and find biomarkers that detect patients at risk of severe disease. The focus of this communication is on a potential biomarker, short telomere length (TL), that might serve to identify patients more likely to die from the SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of age. The common thread linking these patients is lymphopenia, which largely reflects a decline in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells but not B cells. These findings are consistent with data that lymphocyte TL dynamics impose a limit on T-cell proliferation. They suggest that T-cell lymphopoiesis might stall in individuals with short TL who are infected with SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

El Maï M, Marzullo M, de Castro IP, et al (2020)

Opposing p53 and mTOR/AKT promote an in vivo switch from apoptosis to senescence upon telomere shortening in zebrafish.

eLife, 9:.

Progressive telomere shortening during lifespan is associated with restriction of cell proliferation, genome instability and aging. Apoptosis and senescence are the two major outcomes upon irreversible cellular damage. Here, we show a transition of these two cell fates during aging of telomerase deficient zebrafish. In young telomerase mutants, proliferative tissues exhibit DNA damage and p53-dependent apoptosis, but no senescence. However, these tissues in older animals display loss of cellularity and senescence becomes predominant. Tissue alterations are accompanied by a pro-proliferative stimulus mediated by AKT signaling. Upon AKT activation, FoxO transcription factors are phosphorylated and translocated out of the nucleus. This results in reduced SOD2 expression causing an increase of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. These alterations induce p15/16 growth arrest and senescence. We propose that, upon telomere shortening, early apoptosis leads to cell depletion and insufficient compensatory proliferation. Following tissue damage, the mTOR/AKT is activated causing mitochondrial dysfunction and p15/16-dependent senescence.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

van der Spek A, Warner SC, Broer L, et al (2020)

Exome Sequencing Analysis Identifies Rare Variants in ATM and RPL8 That Are Associated With Shorter Telomere Length.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:337.

Telomeres are important for maintaining genomic stability. Telomere length has been associated with aging, disease, and mortality and is highly heritable (∼82%). In this study, we aimed to identify rare genetic variants associated with telomere length using whole-exome sequence data. We studied 1,303 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study, 1,259 of the Rotterdam Study (RS), and 674 of the British Heart Foundation Family Heart Study (BHF-FHS). We conducted two analyses, first we analyzed the family-based ERF study and used the RS and BHF-FHS for replication. Second, we combined the summary data of the three studies in a meta-analysis. Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in blood. We identified nine rare variants significantly associated with telomere length (p-value < 1.42 × 10-7, minor allele frequency of 0.2-0.5%) in the ERF study. Eight of these variants (in C11orf65, ACAT1, NPAT, ATM, KDELC2, and EXPH5) were located on chromosome 11q22.3 that contains ATM, a gene involved in telomere maintenance. Although we were unable to replicate the variants in the RS and BHF-FHS (p-value ≥ 0.21), segregation analysis showed that all variants segregate with shorter telomere length in a family. In the meta-analysis of all studies, a nominally significant association with LTL was observed with a rare variant in RPL8 (p-value = 1.48 × 10-6), which has previously been associated with age. Additionally, a novel rare variant in the known RTEL1 locus showed suggestive evidence for association (p-value = 1.18 × 10-4) with LTL. To conclude, we identified novel rare variants associated with telomere length. Larger samples size are needed to confirm these findings and to identify additional variants.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Morais M, Dias F, Resende T, et al (2020)

Leukocyte telomere length and hTERT genetic polymorphism rs2735940 influence the renal cell carcinoma clinical outcome.

Future oncology (London, England), 16(18):1245-1255.

Aim: Analysis of the genetic hTERT-1327 C>T (rs2735940) influence on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and tumor development, progression and overall survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Materials & methods: Using leukocyte DNA of RCC patients and healthy individuals, LTL measurement and allelic discrimination of rs2735940 was performed by real-time PCR. Results: RCC patients showed shorter LTL than healthy individuals and LTL increased with clinical stage. CC+TC genotypes healthy carriers' presented shorter LTL. However, no statistical association between the different genotypes and RCC risk. Nevertheless, CC homozygous presented a reduced time to disease progression and a lower overall survival. The use of hTERT-1327 single nucleotide polymorphism information increased the capacity to predict risk for RCC progression. Conclusion: In fact, in healthy individuals, hTERT-1327 CC+TC genotypes were associated with shorter LTL, and this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with time to disease progression, being a promising potential prognosis biomarker to be used in the future.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Wang C, Wolters PJ, Calfee CS, et al (2020)

Long-term ozone exposure is positively associated with telomere length in critically ill patients.

Environment international, 141:105780.

RATIONALE: Chronic air pollutant exposure has been associated with development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in patients at risk, particularly from severe trauma. We recently reported that shorter peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length (TL) was associated with worse outcomes and higher severity of ARDS in critically ill patients. Since most major air pollutants are potent oxidants that can induce cellular oxidative stress, and oxidative stress can accelerate telomere shortening, we hypothesized that higher levels of chronic air pollutant exposure would be associated with shorter telomere length in critically ill patients including patients with ARDS.

METHODS: PBL-TL was measured in genomic DNA collected on the morning of ICU day 2 in 772 critically ill patients enrolled in a prospective observational study. Exposures to air pollutants including ozone (warm-season only), particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10), CO, NO2 and SO2, were estimated by weighted average of daily levels from all monitors within 50 km of each patient's residential address for the 3 years prior to admission. Associations of each air pollutant exposure and PBL-TL were investigated by multivariable linear regression models adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking history, alcohol abuse, insurance status, median household income, history of malignancy and APACHE II.

RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, TL increased across exposure quartiles in both ozone and PM2.5 analyses (p < 0.05). In a regression model controlling for potential confounders, long term ozone exposure was significantly associated with an increase in TL in the entire cohort (0.31 kb per 10 ppb), as well as in subgroups with sepsis, trauma and ARDS (all p < 0.05). In multivariable models, entire-year exposure to PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2 and SO2 was not associated with TL after adjustment for potential confounders. In an analysis restricted to warm-season levels to assess the effect of seasonality, higher warm-season PM2.5 and CO exposures were independently associated with longer TL.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ozone is associated with longer peripheral blood TL in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms for this unexpected positive association between telomere length and air pollution exposure in critical illness.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Ren JC, Liu H, Zhang GH, et al (2020)

Interaction effects of environmental response gene polymorphisms and benzene exposure on telomere length in shoe-making workers.

Chemosphere, 255:126841.

Benzene is a globally occurring environmental and occupational pollutant that causes leukemia. To better understand telomere length (TL) as a function of benzene toxicity, we recruited 294 shoe-making workers and 102 controls from Wenzhou, China in 2011. Biomarkers of TL, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) frequency, and white blood cells (WBC) were measured. In total, 18 polymorphic sites in environmental response genes, including metabolic and DNA repair genes, were analyzed. Results indicate that benzene exposure led to a longer TL at a threshold of 32 mg/m3-year of cumulative exposure dose (CED). Furthermore, the TL was longer in members of the damaged group, when evaluated for MN frequency (P < 0.001) and reduced WBC (P < 0.001), than in those of the normal group. Workers carrying genotype TT (β = 0.32, P = 0.042) in rs3212986 of ERCC1 and genotype TC (β = 0.24, P = 0.082) in rs1051740 of mEH exon3 were associated with a longer TL as compared to the wild-type group. TA (β = -0.53, P < 0.001) in rs6413432 of CYP2E1 was associated with a shorter TL. Benzene exposure interacted with the TA type in rs6413432 (β = 0.003, 95% CI: 0, 0.006, P = 0.042) and the CC type in rs1051740 (β = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.013, P = 0.015) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our results indicate that benzene induces an increase in TL at a threshold of CED ≥32mg/m3-year. Rs1051740, rs3212986, and rs6413432 were found to be involved in benzene-induced telomere growth; in particular, rs1051740 and rs6413432 interacted with the benzene exposure, resulting in an extended TL.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Lee CY, Bisig CG, Conrad MN, et al (2020)

Telomere-led meiotic chromosome movements: recent update in structure and function.

Nucleus (Austin, Tex.), 11(9):111-116.

In S. cerevisiae prophase meiotic chromosomes move by forces generated in the cytoplasm and transduced to the telomere via a protein complex located in the nuclear membrane. We know that chromosome movements require actin cytoskeleton [13,31] and the proteins Ndj1, Mps3, and Csm4. Until recently, the identity of the protein connecting Ndj1-Mps3 with the cytoskeleton components was missing. It was also not known the identity of a cytoplasmic motor responsible for interacting with the actin cytoskeleton and a protein at the outer nuclear envelope. Our recent work [36] identified Mps2 as the protein connecting Ndj1-Mps3 with cytoskeleton components; Myo2 as the cytoplasmic motor that interacts with Mps2; and Cms4 as a regulator of Mps2 and Myo2 interaction and activities (Figure 1). Below we present a model for how Mps2, Csm4, and Myo2 promote chromosome movements by providing the primary connections joining telomeres to the actin cytoskeleton through the LINC complex.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Good Beginner's Books

Although multicellular eukaryotes (MCEs) are the most visible component of the biosphere, they represent a highly derived and constrained evolutionary subset of the biosphere, unrepresentative of the vast, mostly unseen, microbial world of prokaryotic life that comprises at least half of the planet's biomass and most of its genetic diversity. The existence of telomeres is one component of the specialized biology of eukaryotes. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )