Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Taste-Aversion Learning

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Oct 2019 at 01:50 Created: 

Taste-Aversion Learning

The notion of "conditioned taste aversions" refers to animals' ability to preferentially associate taste with illness, despite the passage of a significant time between ingestion and illness. When first described, this pattern seemed so at variance with the tenets of classical learning theory that one early reviewer claimed "results like that are no more likely than birdshit in a cuckoo clock." Now, however, the reality of the phenomenon is well established and has demonstrated relevance in practical areas ranging from rodent control to chemotherapy.

Created with PubMed® Query: "taste aversion" or "bait shyness" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-10-10

Kayyal H, Yiannakas A, Kolatt Chandran S, et al (2019)

Activity of Insula to Basolateral Amygdala Projecting Neurons is Necessary and Sufficient for Taste Valence Representation.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience pii:JNEUROSCI.0752-19.2019 [Epub ahead of print].

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an associative learning paradigm, wherein consumption of an appetitive tastant (e.g., saccharin) is paired to the administration of a malaise-inducing agent, such as intraperitoneal injection of LiCl. Aversive taste learning and retrieval require neuronal activity within the anterior insula (aIC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Here, we labeled neurons of the aIC projecting to the BLA in adult male mice using a retro-AAV construct and assessed their necessity in aversive and appetitive taste learning. By restricting the expression of chemogenetic receptors in aIC-to-BLA neurons, we demonstrate that activity within the aIC-to-BLA projection is necessary for both aversive taste memory acquisition and retrieval, but not for its maintenance, nor its extinction. Moreover, inhibition of the projection did not affect incidental taste learning per se, but effectively suppressed aversive taste memory retrieval when applied either during or prior to the encoding of the unconditioned stimulus for CTA (i.e. malaise). Remarkably, activation of the projection following novel taste consumption, without experiencing any internal discomfort, was sufficient to form an artificial aversive taste memory, resulting in strong aversive behavior upon retrieval. Our results indicate that aIC-to-BLA projecting neurons are an essential component in the ability of the brain to associate taste sensory stimuli with body states of negative valence and guide the expression of valence-specific behavior upon taste memory retrieval.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTIn the present study we subjected mice to the conditioned taste aversion paradigm, where animals learn to associate novel taste with malaise (i.e., assign it negative valence). We show that activation of neurons in the anterior insular cortex (aIC) that project into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in response to conditioned taste aversion is necessary to form a memory for a taste of negative valence. Moreover, artificial activation of this pathway (without any feeling of pain) following the sampling of a taste can also lead to such associative memory. Thus, activation of aIC-to-BLA projecting neurons is necessary and sufficient to form and retrieve aversive taste memory.

RevDate: 2019-09-28

Har-Paz I, Roisman N, Michaelson DM, et al (2019)

Extra-Hippocampal Learning Deficits in Young Apolipoprotein E4 Mice and Their Synaptic Underpinning.

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD pii:JAD190564 [Epub ahead of print].

The E4 allele of apolipoprotein (apoE4) is the primary genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the exact manner in which apoE4 leads to the development of AD is undetermined. Human and animal studies report that apoE4-related memory deficits appear earlier than the AD clinical manifestation, thus suggesting the existence of early, pre-pathological, apoE4 impairments that may later lead to AD onset. While current research regards the hippocampus as the initial and primary effected locus by apoE4, we presently investigate the possibility that apoE4 innately impairs any brain area that requires synaptic plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we trained young (3-4-month-old) target-replacement apoE3 and apoE4 mice in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) acquisition and extinction learnings- hippocampus-independent learnings that are easily performed at a young age. Synaptic vesicular markers analysis was conducted in the gustatory cortex (GC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and hippocampal CA3 to reveal underlying apoE4-related impairments. We have found that young apoE4 mice are severely impaired in CTA acquisition and extinction learning. CTA acquisition impairment was correlated with reduced vGat and vGlut levels in the BLA and GC, but not in CA3. CTA extinction was correlated with lower marker levels of synaptophysin and vGlut in the mPFC, a central region in CTA extinction. Our results support apoE4-related early-life plasticity impairments that precede the AD clinical manifestations and affect any brain area that depends on extensive plasticity; early impairments that may promote the development of AD pathologies later in life.

RevDate: 2019-09-19

Williams RSB, PLR Andrews (2019)

Advice on avoiding the Valley of Death: insights from a 3Rs model of aversive and emetic compound identification.

ALTEX, 36(3):466-469.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Bo Han He A, Lei Huang C, Kozłowska A, et al (2019)

Involvement of neural substrates in reward and aversion to methamphetamine addiction: Testing the reward comparison hypothesis and the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs.

Neurobiology of learning and memory pii:S1074-7427(19)30157-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Clinical studies of drug addiction focus on the reward impact of abused drugs that produces compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug dependence. However, a small amount of research has examined the opposite effect of aversion to abused drugs to balance the reward effect for drug taking. An aversive behavioral model of abused drugs in terms of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was challenged by the reward comparison hypothesis (Grigson, 1997). To test the reward comparison hypothesis, the present study examined the rewarding or aversive neural substrates involved in methamphetamine-induced conditioned suppression. The behavioral data showed that methamphetamine induced conditioned suppression on conditioning and reacquisition but extinguished it on extinction. A higher level of stressful aversive corticosterone occurred on conditioning and reacquisition but not extinction. The c-Fos or p-ERK immunohistochemical activity showed that the cingulated cortex area 1 (Cg1), infralimbic cortex (IL), prelimbic cortex (PrL), basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus were overexpressed in aversive CTA induced by methamphetamine. These data may indicate that the Cg1, IL, PrL, BLA, NAc, and DG probably mediated the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion. Altogether, our data conflicted with the reward comparison hypothesis, and methamphetamine may simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect of reward and aversion in the brain to support the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. The present data implicate some insights for drug addiction in clinical aspects.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Nakajima S (2019)

Further demonstration of running-based food avoidance learning in laboratory mice (Mus musculus).

Behavioural processes pii:S0376-6357(19)30172-X [Epub ahead of print].

Voluntary wheel running has hedonically bivalent properties in laboratory rats and mice. While it works as a reward for instrumental performance such as bar pressing, it also functions as an aversive stimulus to establish Pavlovian conditioned avoidance of the paired stimulus. The present study focused on the latter case. Running in closed wheels hampered habituation of a reluctance to eat a target snack in rats (Experiment 1A) and mice (Experiment 1B) trained by pairing access to a target snack with confinement to a wheel attached to the cage. Experiment 2 successfully confirmed and extended this finding with mice running in both open and closed wheels. A differential conditioning procedure employed in Experiment 3 ensured that this phenomenon is specific to the snack paired with running, implying that it reflects Pavlovian conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA). Free exploration in cages without wheels, however, did not results in a CFA.

RevDate: 2019-09-01

Osorio-Gómez D, Bermúdez-Rattoni F, K Guzmán-Ramos (2019)

Artificial taste avoidance memory induced by coactivation of NMDA and β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala.

Behavioural brain research pii:S0166-4328(19)30794-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The association between a taste and gastric malaise allows animals to avoid the ingestion of potentially toxic food. This association has been termed conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and relies on the activity of key brain structures such as the amygdala and the insular cortex. The establishment of this gustatory-avoidance memory is related to glutamatergic and noradrenergic activity within the amygdala during two crucial events: gastric malaise (unconditioned stimulus, US) and the post-acquisition spontaneous activity related to the association of both stimuli. To understand the functional implications of these neurochemical changes on avoidance memory formation we assessed the effects of pharmacological stimulation of β-adrenergic and glutamatergic NMDA receptors through the administration of a mixture of L-homocysteic acid and isoproterenol into the amygdala after saccharin exposure on specific times to emulate the US and post-acquisition local signals that would be occurring naturally under CTA training. Our results show that activation of NMDA and β-adrenergic receptors generated a long-term avoidance response to saccharin, like a naturally induced rejection induced with LiCl. Moreover, the behavioral outcome was accompanied by changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the insular cortex analogous to those displayed during memory retrieval of taste aversion memory. Therefore, we suggest that taste avoidance memory can be induced artificially through the emulation of specific amygdalar neurochemical signals, promoting changes in the amygdala-insular cortex circuit enabling memory establishment.

RevDate: 2019-08-22

Cunningham CL (2019)

Genetic Relationships Between Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Aversion and Other Ethanol Phenotypes in 15 Inbred Mouse Strains.

Brain sciences, 9(8): pii:brainsci9080209.

The genetic relationships between different behaviors used to index the aversive effects of ethanol are unknown. To address this issue, ethanol-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) was tested in a genetically diverse panel of 15 inbred mouse strains. Mice were exposed to an unbiased place conditioning procedure using ethanol doses of 0, 2, or 4 g/kg; all injections were given immediately after 5-min exposure to distinctive tactile cues. There were dose-dependent effects of ethanol on CPA and on the change in pre-injection activity rates between the first and last conditioning trials. Most strains (80%) developed CPA, demonstrating the generalizability of this behavior. Moreover, genotype had significant effects on CPA magnitude and locomotor activity rates. Strain means from this study and previously published studies were then used to examine genetic correlations. These analyses showed significant genetic correlations between CPA and ethanol intake/preference, conditioned taste aversion, and drug withdrawal (but not blood ethanol concentration or conditioned place preference), supporting the idea of commonality in the genes underlying CPA and each of these behaviors. The overall pattern of findings is consistent with previous data suggesting that genetic differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects play a role in determining strain differences in ethanol drinking. The broader implication is that individuals who are more sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol may be protected from developing the excessive drinking behaviors characteristic of alcohol use disorders.

RevDate: 2019-08-15

Galistu A, PS D'Aquila (2019)

Daily memantine treatment blunts hedonic response to sucrose in rats.

Psychopharmacology pii:10.1007/s00213-019-05348-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Preclinical and clinical studies suggest the potential use of memantine in the treatment of binge eating disorder. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms by which memantine influences the motivational aspects of ingestion through the analysis of licking microstructure. To interpret treatment effects in relation to drug action at specific functionally relevant times, we compared the effect of two different administration schedules.

METHODS: Memantine was administered daily for a week, either 1 h before or immediately after a 30-min daily session. The effects on the microstructure of licking for a 10% sucrose solution in rats were examined in the course of treatment and for 15 days after treatment discontinuation.

RESULTS: Treatment before testing reduced ingestion due to reduced burst size and increased latency in the first session. However, a progressive increase in burst number across sessions led to a full recovery of ingestion levels by the end of treatment. Daily post-session administration induced a dramatic decrease of activation of licking behaviour, indicated by reduced burst number, accompanied to reduced burst size. A slow recovery of ingestion took place after treatment discontinuation.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest a reduced hedonic/reward evaluation response, an effect likely due to NMDA receptor blockade occurring during the testing time and support the hypothesis that memantine interferes with the hedonic/non-homeostatic mechanisms regulating food intake and food-seeking. The effect of post-session administration might be explained by the development of conditioned taste aversion.

RevDate: 2019-08-14

Wills AJ, Edmunds CER, Le Pelley ME, et al (2019)

Dissociable learning processes, associative theory, and testimonial reviews: A comment on Smith and Church (2018).

Smith and Church (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 1565-1584 2018) present a "testimonial" review of dissociable learning processes in comparative and cognitive psychology, by which we mean they include only the portion of the available evidence that is consistent with their conclusions. For example, they conclude that learning the information-integration category-learning task with immediate feedback is implicit, but do not consider the evidence that people readily report explicit strategies in this task, nor that this task can be accommodated by accounts that make no distinction between implicit and explicit processes. They also consider some of the neuroscience relating to information-integration category learning, but do not report those aspects that are more consistent with an explicit than an implicit account. They further conclude that delay conditioning in humans is implicit, but do not report evidence that delay conditioning requires awareness; nor do they present the evidence that conditioned taste aversion, which should be explicit under their account, can be implicit. We agree with Smith and Church that it is helpful to have a clear definition of associative theory, but suggest that their definition may be unnecessarily restrictive. We propose an alternative definition of associative theory and briefly describe an experimental procedure that we think may better distinguish between associative and non-associative processes.

RevDate: 2019-08-26

Harris AC, Muelken P, Swain Y, et al (2019)

Non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol extract attenuate nicotine's aversive effects in adolescent rats.

Drug and alcohol dependence, 203:51-60 pii:S0376-8716(19)30250-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Development of preclinical methodology for evaluating the abuse liability of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in adolescents is urgently needed to inform FDA regulation of these products. We previously reported reduced aversive effects of EC liquids containing nicotine and a range of non-nicotine constituents (e.g., propylene glycol, minor tobacco alkaloids) compared to nicotine alone in adult rats as measured using intracranial self-stimulation. The goal of this study was to compare the aversive effects of nicotine alone and EC aerosol extracts in adolescent rats as measured using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which can be conducted during the brief adolescent period.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In Experiment 1, nicotine alone (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, s.c.) produced significant CTA in adolescent rats in a two-bottle procedure, thereby establishing a model to study the effects of EC extracts. At a nicotine dose of 1.0 mg/kg, CTA to Vuse Menthol EC extract, but not Aroma E-Juice EC extract, was attenuated compared to nicotine alone during repeated two-bottle CTA tests (Experiment 2a). At a nicotine dose of 0.5 mg/kg, CTA to Vuse Menthol EC extract did not differ from nicotine alone during the first two-bottle CTA test but extinguished more rapidly across repeated two-bottle tests (Experiment 2b).

CONCLUSIONS: Non-nicotine constituents in Vuse Menthol EC extracts attenuated CTA in a two-bottle procedure in adolescents. This model may be useful for anticipating the abuse liability of ECs in adolescents and for modeling FDA-mandated changes in product standards for nicotine or other constituents in ECs.

RevDate: 2019-08-12

Cui Y, Wu H, Li Q, et al (2019)

Impairment of Bitter Taste Sensor Transient Receptor Potential Channel M5-Mediated Aversion Aggravates High-Salt Intake and Hypertension.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) [Epub ahead of print].

Excessive salt consumption leads to cardiovascular diseases. Despite various measures designed to reduce salt intake, daily salt intake remains at a high level. Appropriate salt intake is balanced by salt taste preference triggered by epithelium sodium channel and salt taste aversion evoked by bitter taste sensor, transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). However, the behavioral mechanism of excessive salt intake remains largely elusive. In this study, wild type and TRPM5-/- mice were applied to study the influence of high-salt administration on epithelium sodium channel/TRPM5 and the associated behavior to salt consumption. We found that long-term high-salt intake impaired the aversive behavior to high-salt stimulation but did not alter the preference to low salt in mice. The mechanistic evidence demonstrated that high-salt intake blunted the TRPM5-mediated aversive behavior to noxious salt stimulation through inhibiting PKC (protein kinase C) activity and PKC-dependent threonine phosphorylation in the tongue epithelium but did not affect the epithelium sodium channel-dependent salt taste preference. Inhibition of TRPM5 also resulted in an impaired aversive response to high salt, with reduced taste perception in bitter cortical field of mice. TRPM5-/- mice showed a lowered aversion to high-salt diet and developed salt-induced hypertension. The impaired perception to bitter taste evoked by high-salt intake also existed in hypertensive patients with high-salt consumption. We demonstrate that long-term high-salt consumption impairs aversive response to concentrated salt by downregulating bitter taste sensor TRPM5. It suggests that enhancing TRPM5 function might antagonize excessive salt intake and high salt-induced hypertension.

RevDate: 2019-08-03

Ruiz F, Keeley A, Léglise P, et al (2019)

Sex Differences in Medicine Acceptability: A New Factor to Be Considered in Medicine Formulation.

Pharmaceutics, 11(8): pii:pharmaceutics11080368.

Palatability is a recognized driver of medicine acceptability in pediatrics but deemed less relevant in older populations due to sensory decline. Preliminary findings from an observational study implicated palatability problems with one Alzheimer's medicine. Among 1517 observer reports combining multiple measures on medicines uses in patients aged over 64, we focused on two original formulations of memantine (Ebixa®, tablets (n = 25) and oral solution (n = 60)). Evaluations were scored with an acceptability reference framework (CAST), the rodent Brief Access Taste Aversion (BATA) model tested aversiveness. Focusing on women treated with Ebixa® (n = 54), the oral formulation sub-group was classified as "negatively accepted", while the coated tablet was associated with the "positively accepted" cluster. In men, both formulations belonged to the "positively accepted" profile. Using BATA, the original oral solution was categorized as highly aversive/untolerated while solutions of excipients only were well tolerated. Furthermore, the number of licks was significantly lower in female than in male rats. These results revealed that medicine palatability remains important for acceptability in older populations. Moreover, converging results from humans and animal models highlighted that palatability profiles can significantly vary between the sexes. These drivers should be closely considered during drug development to enhance acceptability in this population.

RevDate: 2019-08-30

Olvera MJ, MI Miranda (2019)

Specific inter-stimulus interval effect of NMDA receptor activation in the insular cortex during conditioned taste aversion.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 164:107043 pii:S1074-7427(19)30110-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Taste memory recognition is crucial for species survival; thus, the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) protects animals against consuming poisons or toxins. In nature, food and poison are confined in the same edible item; however, in the laboratory these food constituents are usually presented separately for experimental analysis. The taste, or conditioned stimulus (CS), can be hours apart from the gastric malaise, or unconditioned stimulus (US); this extended inter-stimulus interval (ISI) allows the analysis of a particular learning phase. Evidence indicates a relevant function of glutamatergic activity in the insular cortex (IC) throughout the ISI. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are crucial during CTA acquisition and retrieval. However, the exact participation of NMDAR in the IC during the ISI has not been demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of temporal NMDAR activation during four time frames throughout the ISI of conditioned sugar aversion with bilateral injections of NMDA at a physiological dose (1 µg/µl) in the IC, given (1) immediately before or (2) immediately after sugar presentation, or (3) immediately before or (4) immediately after LiCl i.p. injection. The results showed that NMDAR activation in the IC had a specific ISI effect during CTA acquisition, increasing aversive memory formation and delaying extinction only after CS presentation. Overall, these results demonstrate that NMDAR in the IC have a particular enhancing associative effect after CS and suggest that there is a precise coincidence in neurochemical events in the IC that correlates with the stimulus to be associated and the glutamate NMDAR activity that must be finely tuned in the ISI during CTA acquisition.

RevDate: 2019-08-06

Tobajas J, Gómez-Ramírez P, María-Mojica P, et al (2019)

Selection of new chemicals to be used in conditioned aversion for non-lethal predation control.

Behavioural processes, 166:103905.

Globally, native predators and scavengers are threatened through the incidence of illegal poisoning due to increasing human-wildlife conflicts. The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) may mitigate such conflicts. CTA is a robust learning paradigm that occurs when animals associate a food with a discomfort induced by a chemical, thereby avoiding that food in subsequent encounters. We reviewed the potential of 167 chemical compounds to be used in CTA, considering effects, margin of safety, accessibility, and detectability. After the review, 15 compounds fulfilled the required characteristics, but only five (thiabendazole, thiram, levamisole, fluconazole and fluralaner) were finally selected to be tested in CTA assays with dogs. Of the tested compounds, thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole caused target food rejection by dogs and reduced the time spent eating during post-conditioning. However, despite being microencapsulated, levamisole appeared to be detectable by dogs, whereas thiram and thiabendazole were not. Fluconazole and fluralaner did not produce any CTA effect. Thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole can therefore induce CTA, and thus are potential candidates as aversive compounds for wildlife management. Thiram is an undetectable, relatively safe and accessible compound that can induce CTA in canids, and opens new possibilities to develop methods of non-lethal predation control.

RevDate: 2019-08-12

Tobajas J, Gómez-Ramírez P, Ferreras P, et al (2019)

Conditioned food aversion in domestic dogs induced by thiram.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The conflict between predators and humans for resources such as game species or livestock is an ancient issue, and it is especially sharp in the case of medium-large wild canids. In order to manage this conflict, lethal control methods are often used, which can sometimes be illegal, such as poisoning. As an alternative, conditioned food aversion (CFA) is a non-lethal method to reduce predation in which animals learn to avoid a given food due to the adverse effects caused by the ingestion of an undetectable chemical compound added to this food. The present study aimed to test thiram as a CFA agent in penned dogs as a first approach to use this substance for reducing the predation conflict associated with wild canids.

RESULTS: Thiram, with or without an additional odor cue, produced CFA in penned dogs for more than 2 months. Moreover, thiram seemed to be undetectable and safe after the third ingestion of a 40-60 mg kg-1 dose. Desirable adverse effects, such as vomits, appeared around 1 h after exposure. These characteristics make thiram optimal for its use in predation reduction through CFA. However, individual variability could prevent CFA acquisition by some animals.

CONCLUSIONS: Thiram has the potential to be used as a CFA agent in wildlife management and conservation to reduce predation by wild canids. Since thiram produced CFA without the problems of detectability and toxicity caused by other substances, it may be an alternative to lethal control methods used to reduce predation on game, livestock and endangered species. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Li LM, Liao YY, ES Jiang (2019)

[The electrophysiological response of chorda tympani nerve to taste stimuli in rats with conditioned taste aversion to saltiness].

Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology, 35(3):239-244.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristic changes of the peripheral chorda tympanic nerve (CT) electrophysiological responses to salty stimulus and other taste stimuli in rats with the conditioned taste aversion to saltiness.

METHODS: Fourteen adult SD male rats were divided into a conditioned taste aversion to salty group (CTA) and a control group (Ctrl) (n=7/group). On the first day of the experiment, rats were given a 0.1 mol/L NaCl intake for 30 min, then, the rats in CTA and Ctrl groups were injected intraperitoneally with 2 ml of 0.15 mol/L LiCl and the same amount of saline respectively. On day 2, 3 and 4, the 30 min consumption of NaCl and distilled water was measured for both groups of rats. On the 4th day after the behavioral test of that day, CT electrophysiological recording experiments were performed on CTA rats and control rats.

RESULTS: Compared with the rats in Ctrl group, the electrophysiological characteristics of CT in CTA group rats did not change significantly the responses to the series of NaCl and other four basic taste stimuli (P>0.05). The amiloride, the epithelial sodium channel blocker, strongly inhibited the response of CT to NaCl in CTA and Ctrl group rats (P<0.01).

CONCLUSION: The electrophysiological responses of CT to various gustatory stimuli do not significantly change in rats after the establishment of conditional taste aversion to the saltiness.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Inui T, Sugishita T, Inui-Yamamoto C, et al (2019)

The Basolateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Executes the Parallel Processes of Avoidance and Palatability in the Retrieval of Conditioned Taste Aversion in Male Rats.

eNeuro, 6(4): pii:ENEURO.0004-19.2019.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an essential behavior for animal survival. Conditioned animals show avoidance and decreased palatability to a conditioned stimulus (CS) on CTA retrieval. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is involved in CTA retrieval and whether avoidance and palatability in CTA retrieval are processed in the BLA. We developed an experimental chamber for time-course analysis of the behavior to approach a spout and lick a CS. In this experimental chamber, we analyzed the behavior of male rats following microinjections of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or saline into the BLA. The rats showed two types of approach behavior: they either (1) approached and licked the spout or (2) approached but did not lick the spout. Muscimol injection into the BLA decreased the frequency of the latter type of approach behavior, indicating that BLA inactivation reduced avoidance to the CS. The muscimol injection into the BLA also significantly increased the consumption of the CS. Lick microstructure analysis demonstrated that intra-BLA muscimol significantly increased licking burst number and size, indicating that BLA inactivation attenuated aversion to the CS as large burst licking is an indicator of high palatability. These results suggest that the increase in CS consumption with intra-BLA muscimol injection was due to alterations in approach and aversive responses to the CS. Therefore, we conclude that the BLA plays an essential role in CTA retrieval by parallel processing of avoidance and palatability.

RevDate: 2019-07-28

Tanaka DH, Li S, Mukae S, et al (2019)

Genetic Access to Gustatory Disgust-Associated Neurons in the Interstitial Nucleus of the Posterior Limb of the Anterior Commissure in Male Mice.

Neuroscience, 413:45-63.

Orofacial and somatic disgust reactions are observed in rats following intraoral infusion of not only bitter quinine (innate disgust) but also sweet saccharin previously paired with illness (learned disgust). It remains unclear, however, whether these innate and learned disgust reactions share a common neural basis and which brain regions, if any, host it. In addition, there is no established method to genetically access neurons whose firing is associated with disgust (disgust-associated neurons). Here, we examined the expression of cFos and Arc, two markers of neuronal activity, in the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) of male mice that showed innate disgust and mice that showed learned disgust. Furthermore, we used a targeted recombination in active populations (TRAP) method to genetically label the disgust-associated neurons in the IPAC with YFP. We found a significant increase of both cFos-positive neurons and Arc-positive neurons in the IPAC of mice that showed innate disgust and mice that showed learned disgust. In addition, TRAP following quinine infusion (Quinine-TRAP) resulted in significantly more YFP-positive neurons in the IPAC, compared to TRAP following water infusion. A significant number of the YFP-positive neurons following Quinine-TRAP were co-labeled with Arc following the second quinine infusion, confirming that Quinine-TRAP preferentially labeled quinine-activated neurons in the IPAC. Our results suggest that the IPAC activity is associated with both innate and learned disgust and that disgust-associated neurons in the IPAC are genetically accessible by TRAP.

RevDate: 2019-06-30

Schier LA, Hyde KM, AC Spector (2019)

Conditioned taste aversion versus avoidance: A re-examination of the separate processes hypothesis.

PloS one, 14(6):e0217458 pii:PONE-D-18-20473.

Rats not only avoid ingesting a substance associated with LiCl toxicosis, but they display rejection reflexes (e.g., gapes) to its taste; this latter response is thought to reflect disgust or taste aversion. Prior work has shown that rats also avoid consuming foods/fluids associated with other adverse gastrointestinal (GI) effects like lactose indigestion but without the concomitant change in oromotor responses (taste reactivity; TR) indicative of aversion. Because of interpretive limitations of the methods used in those studies, we revisited the taste aversion-avoidance distinction with a design that minimized non-treatment differences among groups. Effects on intake and preference (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2), as well as consummatory (TR, Experiment 1a and 1b) and appetitive (Progressive Ratio, Experiment 2) behaviors to the taste stimulus were assessed after training. In both experiments, rats were trained to associate 0.2% saccharin (CS) with intraduodenal infusions of LiCl, Lactose, or NaCl control. Rats trained with 18% lactose, 0.3 and 1.5 mEq/kg dose of LiCl subsequently avoided the taste CS in post-training single-bottle intake tests and two-bottle choice tests. However, only those trained with 1.5 mEq/kg LiCl displayed post-conditioning increases in taste CS-elicited aversive TR (Experiment 1a and 1b). This dose of LiCl also led to reductions in breakpoint for saccharin. The fact that conditioned avoidance is not always accompanied by changes in other common appetitive and/or consummatory indices of ingestive motivation further supports a functional dissociation between these processes, and highlights the intricacies of visceral influences on taste-guided ingestive motivation.

RevDate: 2019-06-22

Devineni AV, Sun B, Zhukovskaya A, et al (2019)

Acetic acid activates distinct taste pathways in Drosophila to elicit opposing, state-dependent feeding responses.

eLife, 8: pii:47677.

Taste circuits are genetically determined to elicit an innate appetitive or aversive response, ensuring that animals consume nutritious foods and avoid the ingestion of toxins. We have examined the response of Drosophila melanogaster to acetic acid, a tastant that can be a metabolic resource but can also be toxic to the fly. Our data reveal that flies accommodate these conflicting attributes of acetic acid by virtue of a hunger-dependent switch in their behavioral response to this stimulus. Fed flies show taste aversion to acetic acid, whereas starved flies show a robust appetitive response. These opposing responses are mediated by two different classes of taste neurons, the sugar- and bitter-sensing neurons. Hunger shifts the behavioral response from aversion to attraction by enhancing the appetitive sugar pathway as well as suppressing the aversive bitter pathway. Thus a single tastant can drive opposing behaviors by activating distinct taste pathways modulated by internal state.

RevDate: 2019-08-30

González-Sánchez H, Tovar-Díaz J, Morin JP, et al (2019)

NMDA receptor and nitric oxide synthase activity in the central amygdala is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned odor aversion.

Neuroscience letters, 707:134327.

Rats readily learn to avoid a tasteless odorized solution if they experience visceral malaise after consuming it. This phenomenon is referred to as conditioned odor aversion (COA). Several studies have shown that COA depends on the functional integrity of the amygdala, with most studies focusing on the basolateral nucleus. On the other hand, the role of the central amygdala (CeA) which is known to be involved in the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) remains to be established. To address this issue, we evaluated the effect of inhibiting NMDA receptor activity in this structure on COA memory formation. Intra-CeA infusions of non-competitive NMDA receptor inhibitor MK-801 prevented memory formation both when administered before and up to 15 min after COA conditioning, while no effect of this drug was observed when given before long-term memory test. We next evaluated the role of one of the main downstream effectors of brain NMDA receptor signaling, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), known to play a key role in a wide variety learning tasks including some types of olfactory conditioning. Similar results were obtained with inhibition of either NOS or neuron-specific NOS; which proved to be required both during and after COA training, though for a shorter time span than NMDA receptors. Also, neither isoform showed to be required to memory retrieval. These results suggest that the US signaling during acquisition and the initial consolidation step of COA depends on glutamate-NO system activation in the CeA.

RevDate: 2019-05-15

Dannenhoffer CA, LP Spear (2019)

Excitatory/inhibitory balance across ontogeny contributes to age-specific behavioral outcomes of ethanol-like challenge in conditioned taste aversion.

Developmental psychobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Adolescent-typical sensitivities to ethanol (EtOH) are characterized in part by reduced sensitivity to EtOH's aversive effects. Rodent studies have shown that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to aversive properties of EtOH in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. To the extent that EtOH exerts antagonist-like actions upon glutamate receptors and/or agonist-like actions upon γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, age differences in excitatory/inhibitory balance may regulate age-specific EtOH sensitivities, such as attenuated sensitivity of adolescents to EtOH aversion. In our experiments, adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats were tested for CTA following challenge with one of the following pharmacological agents: glutamatergic AMPA1 receptor antagonist NBQX, glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate NR2B receptor antagonist ifenprodil, and extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP to determine whether these induced age-specific aversive sensitivities like those seen with EtOH. NBQX administration did not induce CTA. The highest dose of extrasynaptic GABAA agonist THIP induced CTA in adolescents but not adults, an opposite ontogenetic profile as seen following EtOH. Ifenprodil exerted an age-specific pattern of CTA similar to that seen with EtOH in males, with adolescents being insensitive to ifenprodil's aversive effects relative to adults. Thus, only antagonism of NR2B receptors in male rats mimicked age-specific sensitivities to the aversive effects of EtOH.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Grau-Perales AB, Gómez-Chacón B, M Gallo (2019)

Differential activity pattern of c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens between adult and aged rats during flavor recognition memory.

Behavioural brain research, 371:111935.

Previous studies have addressed the role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbSh) in taste aversion learning and in the processing of taste palatability which is affected by aging. However, little is known about its implication in safe taste memory and the aging impact. To explore the role of the NAcb in flavor neophobia and its attenuation during aging, we applied c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an index of neural activity of the NAcbC and NAcbSh. Twenty one adult (5-month-old) and 24 aged (24-month-old) male Wistar rats were exposed to a 3% cider vinegar solution for 1, 2 or 6 consecutive days (n = 7 adult and n = 8 aged rats per group). Aged rats exhibited slower attenuation of flavor neophobia than adult rats. Adult rats showed increased NAcbSh c-Fos activity on day 2 compared to days 1 and 6, while this increase was delayed to day 6 in aged rats. There were no differences in the number of NAcbC c-Fos positive cells. This suggests that changes in the activity of neural circuits of palatability processing during normal aging could contribute to the slower attenuation of flavor neophobia in aged rats.

RevDate: 2019-04-21

Totani Y, Aonuma H, Oike A, et al (2019)

Monoamines, Insulin and the Roles They Play in Associative Learning in Pond Snails.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 13:65.

Molluscan gastropods have long been used for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. One such gastropod, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, exhibits long-term memory (LTM) following both classical and operant conditioning. Using Lymnaea, we have successfully elucidated cellular mechanisms of learning and memory utilizing an aversive classical conditioning procedure, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Here, we present the behavioral changes following CTA training and show that the memory score depends on the duration of food deprivation. Then, we describe the relationship between the memory scores and the monoamine contents of the central nervous system (CNS). A comparison of learning capability in two different strains of Lymnaea, as well as the filial 1 (F1) cross from the two strains, presents how the memory scores are correlated in these populations with monoamine contents. Overall, when the memory scores are better, the monoamine contents of the CNS are lower. We also found that as the insulin content of the CNS decreases so does the monoamine contents which are correlated with higher memory scores. The present review deepens the relationship between monoamine and insulin contents with the memory score.

RevDate: 2019-08-04

Ratner C, He Z, Grunddal KV, et al (2019)

Long-Acting Neurotensin Synergizes With Liraglutide to Reverse Obesity Through a Melanocortin-Dependent Pathway.

Diabetes, 68(6):1329-1340.

Neurotensin (NT), a gut hormone and neuropeptide, increases in circulation after bariatric surgery in rodents and humans and inhibits food intake in mice. However, its potential to treat obesity and the subsequent metabolic dysfunctions have been difficult to assess owing to its short half-life in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that a long-acting, pegylated analog of the NT peptide (P-NT) reduces food intake, body weight, and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice when administered once daily for 6 days. Strikingly, when P-NT was combined with the glucagon-like peptide 1 mimetic liraglutide, the two peptides synergized to reduce food intake and body weight relative to each monotherapy, without inducing a taste aversion. Further, P-NT and liraglutide coadministration improved glycemia and reduced steatohepatitis. Finally, we show that the melanocortin pathway is central for P-NT-induced anorexia and necessary for the full synergistic effect of P-NT and liraglutide combination therapy. Overall, our data suggest that P-NT and liraglutide combination therapy could be an enhanced treatment for obesity with improved tolerability compared with liraglutide monotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-05-06

Keeley A, Teo M, Ali Z, et al (2019)

In Vitro Dissolution Model Can Predict the in Vivo Taste Masking Performance of Coated Multiparticulates.

Molecular pharmaceutics, 16(5):2095-2105.

The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are bitter. Therefore, compliance can be a problem where adequate taste masking has not been achieved; this is most problematic in pediatrics. Taste masking is thus a key stage during pharmaceutical development with an array of strategies available to the formulation scientist. Solid oral dosage forms can be taste-masked quite simply by polymer coating, which prevents drug release in the mouth, without unwantedly impairing drug release further down the gastrointestinal tract. At the early stages of pharmaceutical development, an in vitro method for the assessment of taste masking is necessary given the lack of toxicological data preventing the use of human taste panels. Currently, there is no such tool allowing prediction of taste masking efficiency. In this study, drug dissolution in the context of aversive taste thresholds was proposed as a means to bridge this knowledge gap. Thus, a biorelevant buccal dissolution test was developed in which previously determined taste thresholds in vivo were used to evaluate taste masking efficiency: if drug release exceeded said thresholds, the formulation was deemed to be poorly taste-masked, and vice versa. This novel dissolution test was compared to the USP I (basket) dissolution test, and the biopharmaceutical implications of taste masking were also assessed by performing USP I (basket) dissolution testing in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). Chlorphenamine maleate, a model bitter BCS class 1 API, was layered onto sugar spheres and taste-masked using polymer coatings. An array of coating technologies were employed and assessed single blinded: two pH-independent water-insoluble coatings (Surelease:Opadry at 8, 12, and 16% weight gain and Opadry EC at 4, 6, and 8% weight gain) and a pH-dependent water-insoluble reverse-enteric coating (developmental fully formulated system based on Kollicoat Smartseal 100P at 10% weight gain). Both the biorelevant buccal and the USP I dissolution tests were capable of discriminating between both type and level of coating used. However, only the buccal dissolution test was able to provide absolute quantification of the level of taste masking achieved in the context of previously determined taste thresholds, while the USP I test merely provided a relative comparison between the different technologies assessed. When the release data from the buccal test were assessed in parallel to that in SGF, it was possible to predict in vitro optimized taste masking without compromising bioavailability. The fully formulated system based on Smartseal 100P was identified as the most effective coating and Surelease:Opadry the least effective. The developed methodology provides true insight for the formulator, enabling more informed patient-centric formulation decisions, better taste masking, and ultimately more effective medicines.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Saalfield J, L Spear (2019)

Fos activation patterns related to acute ethanol and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent and adult rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 78:57-68.

Studies in rats have revealed marked age differences in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol, with a developmental insensitivity to ethanol aversion that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion; however, it is unknown how ontogenetic changes within this reward/aversion circuitry contribute to developmental differences in aversive sensitivity. The current study examined early adolescent (postnatal day [P]28-30) and adult (P72-74) Sprague-Dawley male rats for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) after doses of 0, 1.0, or 2.5 g/kg ethanol, and patterns of neuronal activation in response to ethanol using Fos-like immunohistochemistry (Fos+) to uncover regions where age differences in activation are associated with ethanol aversion. An adolescent-specific ethanol-induced increase in Fos+ staining was seen within the nucleus accumbens shell and core. An age difference was also noted within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) following administration of the lower dose of ethanol, with 1 g/kg ethanol producing CTA in adults but not in adolescents and inducing a greater EW Fos response in adults than adolescents. Regression analysis revealed that greater numbers of Fos+ neurons within the EW and insula (Ins) were related to lower consumption of the conditioned stimulus (CS) on test day (reflecting greater CTA). Some regionally specific age differences in Fos+ were noted under baseline conditions, with adolescents displaying fewer Fos+ neurons than adults within the prelimbic (PrL) cortex, but more than adults in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). In the BNST (but not PrL), ethanol-induced increases in Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) were evident at both ages. Increased ethanol-induced activity within critical appetitive brain regions (NAc core and shell) supports a role for greater reward-related activation during adolescence, possibly along with attenuated responsiveness to ethanol in EW and Ins in the age-typical resistance of adolescents to the aversive properties of ethanol.

RevDate: 2019-04-20

Pohjanvirta R, S Mahiout (2019)

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is indispensable for β-naphthoflavone-induced novel food avoidance and may be involved in LiCl-triggered conditioned taste aversion in rats.

Physiology & behavior, 204:58-64.

Previous studies have shown that several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, including β-naphthoflavone (BNF), elicit avoidance of novel food items in rodents, with this behavioral response displaying a similar dose-response to hepatic induction of CYP1A1. The avoidance has been found to bear substantial similarity to conditioned taste avoidance/aversion (CTA). The present study set out to confirm the indispensability of AHR in the avoidance response, to verify whether vagal afferent fibers are involved in it, and to see if AHR signaling might interfere with the effect of the classic trigger of CTA, LiCl. To this end, globally AHR deficient (AHRKO) or vagotomized wildtype rats were treated by gavage with 60 mg/kg BNF or ip with 0.15 M LiCl (4 ml/kg), and presented with chocolate which was either novel or familiar to them. Both the avoidance response and Cyp1a1 induction were missing in AHRKO rats. In contrast, Ahr+/- rats exhibited them in full, save for a single outlier. Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy failed to interfere with the avoidance of novel or familiar chocolate or induction of Cyp1a1. After LiCl administration, male AHRKO rats showed a significantly mitigated suppression of chocolate consumption compared with wildtype animals (~60% vs. ~10% of control chocolate intake, respectively). A similar tendency was seen in females, but they were less responsive to LiCl. These findings corroborate AHR as a prerequisite of the BNF-induced novel food avoidance, prove vagal afferents unlikely mediators of this response, and imply an unforeseen involvement of AHR signaling in the thoroughly-characterized CTA instigated by LiCl.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Katzman DK, Norris ML, N Zucker (2019)

Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: First do no harm.

The International journal of eating disorders, 52(4):459-461.

OBJECTIVE: This opinion piece offers some considerations, both medical and psychological, for the use of nasogastric tube (NGT) feedings in the treatment of avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in children and adolescents.

METHOD: Although there is empirical support for the use of NGT feedings in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, this evidence base does not exist for the treatment of ARFID. As such, there is need to delineate pragmatic considerations in the use of this procedure.

RESULTS: Issues of medical necessity notwithstanding, we advise that the use of this procedure be considered more cautiously due to the oral sensitivities inherent in many individuals with ARFID and the potential psychological consequences. These sensitivities may make the experience of NGT feedings particularly aversive, with the potential of creating iatrogenic conditioned food aversions.

DISCUSSION: This article encourages clinicians to give careful thought and attention when considering NGT feedings in children and adolescents with ARFID.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Patel S, Alvarez-Guaita A, Melvin A, et al (2019)

GDF15 Provides an Endocrine Signal of Nutritional Stress in Mice and Humans.

Cell metabolism, 29(3):707-718.e8.

GDF15 is an established biomarker of cellular stress. The fact that it signals via a specific hindbrain receptor, GFRAL, and that mice lacking GDF15 manifest diet-induced obesity suggest that GDF15 may play a physiological role in energy balance. We performed experiments in humans, mice, and cells to determine if and how nutritional perturbations modify GDF15 expression. Circulating GDF15 levels manifest very modest changes in response to moderate caloric surpluses or deficits in mice or humans, differentiating it from classical intestinally derived satiety hormones and leptin. However, GDF15 levels do increase following sustained high-fat feeding or dietary amino acid imbalance in mice. We demonstrate that GDF15 expression is regulated by the integrated stress response and is induced in selected tissues in mice in these settings. Finally, we show that pharmacological GDF15 administration to mice can trigger conditioned taste aversion, suggesting that GDF15 may induce an aversive response to nutritional stress.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Crabbe JC, Metten P, Savarese AM, et al (2019)

Ethanol Conditioned Taste Aversion in High Drinking in the Dark Mice.

Brain sciences, 9(1): pii:brainsci9010002.

Two independent lines of High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1, HDID-2) mice have been bred to reach high blood alcohol levels after a short period of binge-like ethanol drinking. Male mice of both lines were shown to have reduced sensitivity to develop a taste aversion to a novel flavor conditioned by ethanol injections as compared with their unselected HS/NPT founder stock. We have subsequently developed inbred variants of each line. The current experiments established that reduced ethanol-conditioned taste aversion is also seen in the inbred variants, in both males and females. In other experiments, we asked whether HDID mice would ingest sufficient doses of ethanol to lead to a conditioned taste aversion upon retest. Different manipulations were used to elevate consumption of ethanol on initial exposure. Access to increased ethanol concentrations, to multiple tubes of ethanol, and fluid restriction to increase thirst motivation all enhanced initial drinking of ethanol. Each condition led to reduced intake the next day, consistent with a mild conditioned taste aversion. These experiments support the conclusion that one reason contributing to the willingness of HDID mice to drink to the point of intoxication is a genetic insensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol.

RevDate: 2019-08-27

Gore-Langton JK, LP Spear (2019)

Prenatal ethanol exposure attenuates sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol in adolescence and increases adult preference for a 5% ethanol solution in males, but not females.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 79:59-69.

The present set of experiments investigated the effects of a moderate dose of ethanol (2 g/kg; 20% v/v intragastrically) during late gestation (G17-20 [gestational day]) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in adolescence, and on ethanol consumption during adolescence and early adulthood. In experiment 1, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 30-min access to a sweetened "supersaccharin" (SS) solution or sodium chloride (NaCl), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol (0, 1, 1.25, or 1.5 g/kg) for three conditioning/test sessions. Among animals conditioned with SS, prenatally ethanol-exposed males exhibited attenuated ethanol-induced CTA relative to males prenatally gavaged with water or non-manipulated, whereas prenatal treatment had no effect on CTA in females. Among animals conditioned with NaCl, there were no exposure group differences in males, with modest evidence for attenuated CTA in prenatally ethanol-exposed females. In experiment 2, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on ethanol consumption in adolescents (P35 ± 1 day [postnatal day]) and adults (P56-60) were explored. At the beginning of the dark cycle, pair-housed rats were given three bottles containing 0, 5, and 10% ethanol for 18 h every other day (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for 3 weeks. Relative to water controls, adult males prenatally exposed to ethanol showed greater preference and more intake (g/kg) of 5% ethanol, while showing lower intake of 10% ethanol. These intake and preference differences were not evident in adolescent males. Among females at both ages, ethanol-exposed animals showed lower preference and intake (g/kg) of 5% ethanol than their water-exposed controls. Thus, moderate ethanol exposure during late gestation produced a largely male-specific attenuation in the aversive effects of ethanol during adolescence that could contribute to later increases in preference and intake of a 5% ethanol solution, although this emergent effect was not evident in adolescence (or in females), but only manifested in adulthood.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Mura E, Taruno A, Yagi M, et al (2018)

Innate and acquired tolerance to bitter stimuli in mice.

PloS one, 13(12):e0210032 pii:PONE-D-18-26259.

Tolerance to bitter foods and its potentiation by repetitive exposure are commonly experienced and potentially underlie the consumption of bitter foods, but it remains unknown whether permissive and adaptive responses are general phenomena for bitter-tasting substances or specific to certain substances, and they have not been rigorously studied in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to a bitter compound on both recognition and rejection behaviors to the same compound in mice. Paired measurements of rejection (RjT) and apparent recognition (aRcT) thresholds were conducted using brief-access two-bottle choice tests before and after taste aversion conditioning, respectively. First, RjT was much higher than aRcT for the bitter amino acids L-tryptophan and L-isoleucine, which mice taste daily in their food, indicating strong acceptance of those familiar stimuli within the concentration range between RjT and aRcT. Next, we tested five other structurally dissimilar bitter compounds, to which mice were naive at the beginning of experiments: denatonium benzoate, quinine-HCl, caffeine, salicin, and epigallocatechin gallate. RjT was moderately higher than aRcT for all the compounds tested, indicating the presence of innate acceptance to these various, unfamiliar bitter stimuli in mice. Lastly, a 3-week forced exposure increased RjT for all the bitter compounds except salicin, demonstrating that mice acquire tolerance to a broad array of bitter compounds after long-term exposure to them. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined, our studies provide behavioral evidence of innate and acquired tolerance to various bitter stimuli in mice, suggesting its generality among bitterants.

RevDate: 2018-12-22

Zhou D, Zhao Y, Hook M, et al (2018)

Ethanol's Effect on Coq7 Expression in the Hippocampus of Mice.

Frontiers in genetics, 9:602.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a well-studied molecule, present in every cell membrane in the body, best known for its roles as a mitochondrial electron transporter and a potent membrane anti-oxidant. Much of the previous work was done in vitro in yeast and more recent work has suggested that CoQ may have additional roles prompting calls for a re-assessment of its role using in vivo systems in mammals. Here we investigated the putative role of Coenzyme Q in ethanol-induced effects in vivo using BXD RI mice. We examined hippocampal expression of Coq7 in saline controls and after an acute ethanol treatment, noting enriched biologic processes and pathways following ethanol administration. We also identified 45 ethanol-related phenotypes that were significantly correlated with Coq7 expression, including six phenotypes related to conditioned taste aversion and ethanol preference. This analysis highlights the need for further investigation of Coq7 and related genes in vivo as well as previously unrecognized roles that it may play in the hippocampus.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-03-20

Nakajima S (2019)

Food avoidance learning based on voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus musculus).

Behavioural processes, 159:31-36.

Mice show a reluctance to eat unfamiliar food, when they first encounter it. This neophobic reaction is conventionally habituated by repeated trials: the mice gradually increase their consumption of the novel food. The new finding reported here is that the consumption remains low in mice that voluntarily run in activity wheels after the novel food access. This effect implies that running yields Pavlovian conditioned flavor aversion, which suppresses, otherwise increasing, consumption of the novel food. In the present research, the effect was demonstrated with a between-group design by pitting experimental mice receiving cheese-running paired treatment against cheese/running unpaired control mice (Experiment 1). The running-based food avoidance in mice was also shown in a differential conditioning paradigm, where one of two novel snacks (chocolate and marshmallow) was paired with running while the other was not, in non-deprived animals (Experiment 2 A) and food-deprived animals (Experiment 2B). These results concord with those previously reported in rats, indicating the generality of the phenomenon.

RevDate: 2019-08-21

Serita T, Miyahara M, Tanimizu T, et al (2019)

Dietary magnesium deficiency impairs hippocampus-dependent memories without changes in the spine density and morphology of hippocampal neurons in mice.

Brain research bulletin, 144:149-157.

Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential mineral for maintaining biological functions. One major action of Mg2+ in the brain is modulating the voltage-dependent blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptors, thereby controlling their opening, which is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Therefore, Mg2+ has been shown to play critical roles in learning and memory, and synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of dietary Mg2+ deficiency (MgD) on learning and memory and the morphology of neurons contributing to memory performance have not been examined in depth. Here, we show that MgD impairs hippocampus-dependent memories in mice. Mice fed an MgD diet showed deficits in hippocampus-dependent contextual fear, spatial and social recognition memories, although they showed normal amygdala- and insular cortex-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory, locomotor activity, and emotional behaviors such as anxiety-related and social behaviors. However, MgD mice showed normal spine density and morphology of hippocampal neurons. These findings suggest that MgD impairs hippocampus-dependent memory without affecting the morphology of hippocampal neurons.

RevDate: 2019-08-27

Barney TM, Vore AS, Gano A, et al (2019)

The influence of central interleukin-6 on behavioral changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication in adult male rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 79:37-45.

Recent studies have demonstrated brain cytokine fluctuations associated with acute ethanol intoxication (increased IL-6) and withdrawal (increased IL-1β and TNFα). The purpose of the present studies was to examine the potential functional role of increased central interleukin-6 (IL-6). We utilized two tests of ethanol sensitivity to establish a potential role for IL-6 after high (3.5-4.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or moderate (2.0 g/kg, i.p.) doses of ethanol: loss of righting reflex (LORR) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA), respectively. Briefly, guide cannulae were implanted into the third ventricle of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first experiments, rats were infused with 25, 50, 100, or 200 ng of IL-6; or 0.3, 3.0, or 9.0 μg of the JAK/STAT inhibitor AG490 30 min prior to a high-dose ethanol challenge. Although sleep time was not affected by exogenous IL-6, infusion of AG490 increased latency to lose the righting reflex relative to vehicle-infused rats. Next, we assessed whether IL-6 was sufficient to produce a CTA. Moderately water-deprived rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of 25, 50, or 100 ng IL-6 immediately after 60-min access to 5% sucrose solution. Forty-eight hours later, rats were returned to the context and given 60-min access to sucrose solution. IL-6 infusion had no significant effect on sucrose intake when all rats were considered together. However, a median split revealed that low sucrose-consuming rats significantly increased their drinking on test day, an effect that was not seen in rats that received 50 or 100 ng of IL-6. In the last study, AG490 had no effect on ethanol-induced CTA (2 g/kg). Overall, these studies suggest that IL-6 had only a minor influence on ethanol-induced behavioral changes, yet phenotypic differences in sensitivity to IL-6 were apparent. These studies are among the first to examine a potential functional role for IL-6 in ethanol-related behaviors, and may have important implications for understanding the relationship between acute ethanol intoxication and its associated behavioral alterations.

RevDate: 2019-07-31
CmpDate: 2019-07-31

Barik A, MJ Krashes (2018)

Remembering a Bad Taste.

Neuron, 100(4):765-767.

The phenomenon of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is generated after ingestion of a specific food is associated with an adverse outcome, i.e., sickness. In this issue of Neuron, Chen et al. (2018) interrogate the pivotal role of PBNCGRP neurons in both the acquisition and the expression of CTA.

RevDate: 2018-12-30

Delay ER, Weaver B, Lane DR, et al (2019)

Dried bonito dashi: Contributions of mineral salts and organic acids to the taste of dashi.

Physiology & behavior, 199:127-136.

Dried bonito dashi is often used in Japanese cuisine with a number of documented positive health effects. Its major taste is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. Previously we found that lactic acid, a major component of dried bonito dashi, enhanced the contribution of many of these amino acids to the taste of dried bonito dashi, and reduced the contribution of other amino acids. In addition to amino acids, dried bonito dashi also has a significant mineral salt component. The present study used conditioned taste aversion methods with mice (all had compromised olfactory systems) to compare the taste qualities of dried bonito dashi with four salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2), with and without lactic acid or citric acid. A conditioned taste aversion to 25% dried bonitio dashi generalized significantly to NaCl and KCl, with or without 0.9% lactic acid added but not when citric acid was added. Generalization of the CTA to dried bonito dashi was much stronger to the divalent salts, but when either lactic acid or citric acid was added, this aversion was eliminated. These results suggest that these salts contribute to the complex taste of dried bonito dashi and that both organic acids appear able to modify the tastes of divalent salts.

RevDate: 2018-12-14
CmpDate: 2018-12-14

Bernal-Gamboa R, Rosas JM, J Nieto (2018)

Extinction makes acquisition context-specific in conditioned taste aversion regardless of the context where acquisition and testing take place.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 44(4):385-395.

Retrieval of a flavor-illness association has been found to show contextual dependence when the association is learned after a nontarget flavor-illness association has been extinguished in what has been named as the extinction makes acquisition context-specific (EMACS) effect. Four experiments were designed to further explore the EMACS effect in conditioned taste aversion. Experiments 1 and 2 replicated the EMACS effect using rats that did not experience extinction, and rats that underwent extinction of a different flavor as controls. Experiments 3 and 4 found that the experience of extinction with the nontarget Flavor X in a given context (A) led to context-specificity of performance to the target Flavor Y both, when Y was trained in a highly familiar context (B) and tested in the context where X had been trained (Context A, Experiment 3), and when the test was conducted in a less familiar context (C) where no cues or outcomes were presented before (Experiment 4). These results are consistent with the idea that the experience of extinction encourages organism's attention to the contexts, making retrieval of new learning context-specific. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2018-12-14
CmpDate: 2018-12-14

Thrailkill EA, Trask S, Vidal P, et al (2018)

Stimulus control of actions and habits: A role for reinforcer predictability and attention in the development of habitual behavior.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 44(4):370-384.

Goal-directed actions are instrumental behaviors whose performance depends on the organism's knowledge of the reinforcing outcome's value. In contrast, habits are instrumental behaviors that are insensitive to the outcome's current value. Although habits in everyday life are typically controlled by stimuli that occasion them, most research has studied habits using free-operant procedures in which no discrete stimuli are present to occasion the response. We therefore studied habit learning when rats were reinforced for lever pressing on a random-interval 30-s schedule in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S) but not in its absence. In Experiment 1, devaluing the reinforcer with taste aversion conditioning weakened instrumental responding in a 30-s S after 4, 22, and 66 sessions of instrumental training. Even extensive practice thus produced goal-directed action, not habit. Experiments 2 and 3 contrastingly found habit when the duration of S was increased from 30 s to 8 min. Experiment 4 then found habit with the 30-s S when it always contained a reinforcer; goal-directed action was maintained when reinforcers were earned at the same rate but occurred in only 50% of Ss (as in the previous experiments). The results challenge the view that habits are an inevitable consequence of repeated reinforcement (as in the law of effect) and instead suggest that discriminated habits develop when the reinforcer becomes predictable. Under those conditions, organisms may pay less attention to their behavior, much as they pay less attention to signals associated with predicted reinforcers in Pavlovian conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2019-04-13

Yasumatsu K, Iwata S, Inoue M, et al (2019)

Fatty acid taste quality information via GPR120 in the anterior tongue of mice.

Acta physiologica (Oxford, England), 226(1):e13215.

AIM: To elucidate whether fatty acid taste has a quality that does not overlap with other primary qualities, we investigated potential neuron types coding fatty acid information and how GPR120 is involved.

METHODS: Single fibre recordings in the chorda tympani (CT) nerve and behavioural response measurements using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm were performed in GPR120-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice.

RESULTS: Single fibres can be classified into fatty acid (F)-, S-, M-, electrolyte (E)-, Q-, and N-type groups according to the maximal response among oleic acid, sucrose, monopotassium glutamate (MPG), HCl, quinine hydrochloride, and NaCl respectively. Among fibres, 4.0% in GPR120-KO and 17.9% in WT mice showed a maximal response to oleic acid (F-type). Furthermore, half or more of S- and M-type fibres showed responses to fatty acids in both mouse strains, although the thresholds in KO mice were significantly higher and impulse frequencies lower than those in WT mice. GPR120-KO mice conditioned to avoid linoleic acid showed generalized stimulus avoidances for MPG, indicating qualitative similarity between linoleic acid and MPG. The KO mice showed a higher generalization threshold for linoleic acid than that of WT mice.

CONCLUSION: Fatty acid taste is suggested to have a unique quality owing to the discovery of F-type fibres, with GPR120 involved in neural information pathways for a unique quality and palatable taste qualities in the mouse CT nerve. GPR120 plays roles in distinguishing fatty acid taste from other primary tastes and the detection of low linoleic acid concentrations.

RevDate: 2019-03-21
CmpDate: 2019-03-21

Schoenberg HL, Sola EX, Seyller E, et al (2019)

Female rats express habitual behavior earlier in operant training than males.

Behavioral neuroscience, 133(1):110-120.

Habitual behavior can be advantageous by increasing the availability of cognitive resources for use in other tasks. However, habitual behaviors are problematic when they are coopted to prolong the maladaptive responding present in several psychopathologies such as substance abuse, dysregulated fear responding in posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although sex differences exist in the occurrence or progression of these psychopathologies, there are no studies that compare the development of habitual behavior systematically in male and female animals. In the present study, male and female rats were identically trained on a variable interval 30-s (VI 30-s) schedule of reinforcement to nose-poke for sucrose pellet reinforcers. Subsequently, the sucrose was devalued in one half of the animals by pairing its presentation with injections of lithium chloride (LiCl) to induce nausea, thus conditioning a taste aversion. Habitual behavior was operationalized as continued operant responding in an extinction test following devaluation of the sucrose reinforcer. Successful devaluation was confirmed with both a consumption and reacquisition test. Given identical training to 240 sucrose pellets, female rats demonstrate habitual behavior whereas male rats remain goal-directed. Additionally, females are habitual after 200 or 160 reinforcers earned on a VI 30-s schedule, but remain goal-directed at 120 and 80 reinforcers on this schedule. These data suggest that behavioral flexibility may be compromised in female rats compared to males due to accelerated habit formation in females. These results are important because sex differences are present in several psychopathologies, which may be related to differences in the development of habitual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2019-08-12
CmpDate: 2019-08-12

Chen JY, Campos CA, Jarvie BC, et al (2018)

Parabrachial CGRP Neurons Establish and Sustain Aversive Taste Memories.

Neuron, 100(4):891-899.e5.

Food aversions develop when the taste of a novel food is associated with sickness, which often occurs after food poisoning or chemotherapy treatment. We identified calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) as sufficient and necessary for establishing a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Photoactivating projections from CGRPPBN neurons to either the central nucleus of the amygdala or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis can also induce robust CTA. CGRPPBN neurons undergo plasticity following CTA, and inactivation of either Arc or Grin1 (genes involved in memory consolidation) prevents establishment of a strong CTA. Calcium imaging reveals that the novel food re-activates CGRPPBN neurons after conditioning. Inhibition of these neurons or inactivation of the Grin1 gene after conditioning attenuates CTA expression. Our results indicate that CGRPPBN neurons not only play a key role for learning food aversions but also contribute to the maintenance and expression of those memories.

RevDate: 2019-05-22

Arthurs J, Lin JY, S Reilly (2018)

Inhibiting gustatory thalamus or medial amygdala has opposing effects on taste neophobia.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 156:24-32.

Taste neophobia is a feeding system defense mechanism that limits consumption of an unknown, and therefore potentially dangerous, edible until the post-ingestive consequences are experienced. We found that transient pharmacological inhibition (induced with the GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol) of the gustatory thalamus (GT; Experiment 1), but not medial amygdala (MeA; Experiment 2), during exposure to a novel saccharin solution attenuated taste neophobia. In Experiment 3 we found that inhibition of MeA neurons (induced with the chemogenetic receptor hM4DGi) enhanced the expression of taste neophobia whereas excitation of MeA neurons (with hM3DGq) had no influence of taste neophobia. Overall, these results refine the temporal involvement of the GT in the occurrence of taste neophobia and support the hypothesis that neuronal excitation in the GT is necessary for taste neophobia. Conversely, we show that chemogenetically, but not pharmacologically, inhibiting MeA neurons is sufficient to exaggerate the expression of taste neophobia.

RevDate: 2019-08-19
CmpDate: 2019-08-19

Flores VL, Parmet T, Mukherjee N, et al (2018)

The role of the gustatory cortex in incidental experience-evoked enhancement of later taste learning.

Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 25(11):587-600.

The strength of learned associations between pairs of stimuli is affected by multiple factors, the most extensively studied of which is prior experience with the stimuli themselves. In contrast, little data is available regarding how experience with "incidental" stimuli (independent of any conditioning situation) impacts later learning. This lack of research is striking given the importance of incidental experience to survival. We have recently begun to fill this void using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), wherein an animal learns to avoid a taste that has been associated with malaise. We previously demonstrated that incidental exposure to salty and sour tastes (taste preexposure-TPE) enhances aversions learned later to sucrose. Here, we investigate the neurobiology underlying this phenomenon. First, we use immediate early gene (c-Fos) expression to identify gustatory cortex (GC) as a site at which TPE specifically increases the neural activation caused by taste-malaise pairing (i.e., TPE did not change c-Fos induced by either stimulus in isolation). Next, we use site-specific infection with the optical silencer Archaerhodopsin-T to show that GC inactivation during TPE inhibits the expected enhancements of both learning and CTA-related c-Fos expression, a full day later. Thus, we conclude that GC is almost certainly a vital part of the circuit that integrates incidental experience into later associative learning.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2018-12-18

Kivell BM, Paton KF, Kumar N, et al (2018)

Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist Mesyl Sal B Attenuates Behavioral Sensitization to Cocaine with Fewer Aversive Side-Effects than Salvinorin A in Rodents.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(10):.

The acute activation of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) produces antinociceptive and anti-cocaine effects, however, their side-effects have limited further clinical development. Mesyl Sal B is a potent and selective KOPr analogue of Salvinorin A (Sal A), a psychoactive natural product isolated from the plant Salvia divinorum. We assessed the antinociceptive, anti-cocaine, and side-effects of Mesyl Sal B. The anti-cocaine effects are evaluated in cocaine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine in male Sprague Dawley rats. Mesyl Sal B was assessed for anhedonia (conditioned taste aversion), aversion (conditioned place aversion), pro-depressive effects (forced swim test), anxiety (elevated plus maze) and learning and memory deficits (novel object recognition). In male B6.SJL mice, the antinociceptive effects were evaluated in warm-water (50 °C) tail withdrawal and intraplantar formaldehyde (2%) assays and the sedative effects measured with the rotarod performance task. Mesyl Sal B (0.3 mg/kg) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine without modulating sucrose self-administration and without producing aversion, sedation, anxiety, or learning and memory impairment in rats. However, increased immobility was observed in the forced swim test indicating pro-depressive effects. Mesyl Sal B was not as potent as Sal A at reducing pain in the antinociceptive assays. In conclusion, Mesyl Sal B possesses anti-cocaine effects, is longer acting in vivo and has fewer side-effects when compared to Sal A, however, the antinociceptive effects are limited.

RevDate: 2019-04-23
CmpDate: 2019-02-21

Tai S, Vasiljevik T, Sherwood AM, et al (2018)

Assessment of rimonabant-like adverse effects of purported CB1R neutral antagonist / CB2R agonist aminoalkylindole derivatives in mice.

Drug and alcohol dependence, 192:285-293.

BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids may be useful in the treatment of CNS disorders including drug abuse and addiction, where both CB1R antagonists / inverse agonists and CB2R agonists have shown preclinical efficacy. TV-5-249 and TV-6-41, two novel aminoalkylindoles with dual action as neutral CB1R antagonists and CB2R agonists, previously attenuated abuse-related effects of ethanol in mice.

PURPOSE: To further characterize these drugs, TV-5-249 and TV-6-41 were compared with the CB1R antagonist / inverse agonist rimonabant in assays relevant to adverse effects and cannabinoid withdrawal.

PROCEDURES AND FINDINGS: The cannabinoid tetrad confirmed that TV-5-249 and TV-6-41 were devoid of CB1R agonist effects at behaviorally-relevant doses, and neither of the novel drugs induced rimonabant-like scratching. Generalized aversive effects were assessed, and rimonabant and TV-5-249 induced taste aversion, but TV-6-41 did not. Schedule-controlled responding and observation of somatic signs were used to assess withdrawal-like effects precipitated by rimonabant or TV-6-41 in mice previously treated with the high-efficacy CB1R agonist JWH-018 or vehicle. Rimonabant and TV-6-41 dose-dependently suppressed response rates in all subjects, but TV-6-41 did so more potently in JWH-018-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice, while rimonabant equally suppressed responding in both groups. Importantly, rimonabant elicited dramatic withdrawal signs, but TV-6-41 did not.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest differences in both direct adverse effects and withdrawal-related effects elicited by rimonabant, TV-5-249, and TV-6-41, which could relate to neutral CB1R antagonism, CB2R agonism, or a combination of both. Both mechanisms should be explored and exploited in future drug design efforts to develop pharmacotherapies for drug dependence.

RevDate: 2019-01-30
CmpDate: 2019-01-30

Molero-Chamizo A (2018)

Effects of extensive amygdaloid lesions on conditioned taste aversion in rats.

Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, 78(3):242-250.

The role of the amygdala in the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is unclear. The lesion studies that have explored specific nuclei of the amygdala point to a probable involvement of the basolateral amygdala, but it remains unclear whether the function of the amygdala in CTA is limited to the activity of the basolateral amygdala. In the current study, extensive bilateral lesions of the amygdala were performed in Wistar rats to explore if the destruction of the amygdala affects the acquisition of CTA, as has been reported with selective lesions of the basolateral amygdala. The magnitude of the taste aversion of animals with extensive lesions of the amygdala was compared with those of animals with similar lesions of the striatum (a structure apparently unrelated to CTA) and animals without lesions. Taste aversion was analyzed by the one‑bottle test and two‑bottle choice test. The results of the one‑bottle test indicated that amygdaloid lesions significantly reduced the magnitude of taste aversion compared with that of animals without lesions. Animals with lesions of the amygdala also showed a greater preference for the conditioned taste stimulus, but this preference did not reach statistical significance. Besides the effect on CTA, animals with amygdaloid lesions showed no evidence of taste neophobia on the day of conditioning. These findings suggest that amygdaloid lesions may affect CTA by disrupting the perception of novelty during conditioning in a manner similar to the effect reported with basolateral lesions.

RevDate: 2019-03-28
CmpDate: 2019-03-28

Nakajima S (2019)

Food aversion learning based on voluntary running in non-deprived rats: a technique for establishing aversive conditioning with minimized discomfort.

Experimental animals, 68(1):71-79.

This article presents an experimental preparation for establishing conditioned food aversion (CFA) by voluntary wheel running in rats with laboratory chow and water freely available. In Experiment 1, unfamiliar food (raisins) was avoided by rats when they first encountered it. This neophobic food avoidance was habituated by repeated tests; the rats gradually increased their raisin consumption. However, the consumption remained suppressed in rats that accessed the raisins after wheel running. This finding implies that running yielded CFA, which suppressed consumption of the unfamiliar food rather than increasing it. Because running generated kaolin clay ingestion, which is a behavioral marker of nausea, it is suggested that the running-based CFA was mediated by weak gastrointestinal discomfort. Experiment 2 supported the claim that the suppressed consumption is due to running-based CFA by showing the specificity of food suppression. Demonstration of CFA based on voluntary activity in non-deprived rats will contribute to basic research on learning and memory as an alternative technique for studying aversive conditioning with minimized discomfort in animals.

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Soto J, Keeley A, Keating AV, et al (2018)

Rats can predict aversiveness of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V, 133:77-84.

Taste is crucial for patient acceptability and compliance with prescribed medicines, in particular with pediatric patients. Evaluating the taste of new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is therefore essential to put in place adequate taste-masking techniques, if needed, which will lead to acceptable palatable formulations. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop and optimize taste assessment methods that could be used at different stages of the drug development process. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of the rat brief-access taste aversion (BATA) model as a screening tool for assessment of APIs aversiveness that could predict human taste responses. Presently, the taste intensity of nine marketed APIs known to have different levels of bitter intensity (quinine hydrochloride dihydrate, 6-n-propylthiouracil, sildenafil citrate, diclofenac sodium, ranitidine hydrochloride, caffeine citrate, isoniazid, telbivudine and paracetamol) was investigated at different overlapping concentrations with two in vivo taste assessment methods: the rat BATA model and human taste panels with the intention of determining the drugs' concentrations to produce half of the maximal rating. Overall there was a strong correlation (R2 = 0.896) between rats IC50 and humans EC50 values. This correlation verifies the BATA model as a rapid and reliable tool for quantitative assessment of API aversiveness. A comparable ranking order was obtained mainly for high and medium aversive compounds, whereas it was less aligned for weakly aversive compounds. It was nonetheless possible to propose a classification of poor taste intensity determined in rats that would predict human taste tolerability.

RevDate: 2019-04-16
CmpDate: 2019-04-16

Rodríguez-Blanco LA, Rivera-Olvera A, ML Escobar (2019)

Consolidation of an aversive taste memory requires two rounds of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in the insular cortex.

Behavioural brain research, 356:371-374.

The current view of the neurobiology of learning and memory suggests that long-term memory (LTM) depends not only on the de novo protein synthesis but also on the synthesis of mRNA even hours after the acquisition of memory, as well as that the regulation of transcription through the histone acetylation is essential for the memory establishment. Our previous studies showed that protein synthesis inhibition around the time of training and 5-7 hours after acquisition in the insular cortex (IC) prevents the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a well-established learning and memory paradigm in which an animal learns to associate a novel taste with nausea. However, the participation of mRNA synthesis and the epigenetic regulation through histone acetylation in this process remains unexplored. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the inhibition of transcription as well as deacetylation of histones at two temporal windows on the consolidation of CTA. Thus, immediately or seven hours after CTA acquisition animals received a microinfusion of 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) or MS-275 in the IC, respectively. The present results show that transcription inhibition immediately and 7 h after acquisition impairs the CTA memory consolidation, whereas the inhibition of histone deacetylation strengths this memory at those temporal windows. These findings reveal that CTA memory requires recurrent rounds of transcriptional modulation events in the IC in order to consolidate this memory trace, demonstrating that transcriptional and epigenetic modulation substantially contribute to memory-consolidation-related functions performed by a neocortical area even several hours after memory acquisition.

RevDate: 2019-05-22

Lin JY, Arthurs J, S Reilly (2018)

The effects of amygdala and cortical inactivation on taste neophobia.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 155:322-329.

The current study examined the effects of transient inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA; Experiment 1) and gustatory cortex (GC; Experiment 2) on the expression of taste neophobia and its recovery. We found that inactivation (induced by infusions of baclofen/muscimol) of each structure before exposure to a novel saccharin (0.5%) solution elevated intake on Trial 1 (i.e., taste neophobia was attenuated) and, surprisingly, decreased intake on Trial 2. It seems unlikely that this intake reduction on Trial 2 can be attributed to taste aversion learning caused by drug infusions because in the subsequent experiments with the same set of the implanted animals, the rats did not decrease intake when baclofen/muscimol was infused after taste presentation on Trial 1. The latter result suggests that BLA or GC inactivation that attenuates taste neophobia may also impair memory consolidation of a safe taste experience.

RevDate: 2019-05-01
CmpDate: 2019-05-01

Weera MM, Agim ZS, Cannon JR, et al (2019)

Genetic correlations between nicotine reinforcement-related behaviors and propensity toward high or low alcohol preference in two replicate mouse lines.

Genes, brain, and behavior, 18(3):e12515.

Common genetic factors may contribute to the high comorbidity between tobacco smoking and alcohol use disorder. Here, we assessed behavioral and biological effects of nicotine in replicate mouse lines selectively bred for high (HAP2/3) or low alcohol preference (LAP2/3). In Experiment 1, free-choice (FC) oral nicotine and quinine intake were assessed in HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mice. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockade by mecamylamine on nicotine intake in HAP2 mice were also examined. In Experiment 2, HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mice were tested for differences in sensitivity to nicotine-induced taste conditioning. In Experiment 3, the effects of a single nicotine injection on nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum monoamine levels in HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mice were tested. In Experiment 1, HAP2/3 mice showed greater nicotine intake and intake ratio than LAP2/3 mice. There were no line differences in quinine intake. Mecamylamine reduced nicotine intake and intake ratio in HAP2 mice. In Experiment 2, HAP2/3 mice showed weaker nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) compared with LAP2/3 mice. In Experiment 3, nicotine treatment increased NAc dopamine turnover across both HAP2/3 and LAP2/3 mouse lines. These results show that there is a positive genetic correlation between oral alcohol intake (high alcohol intake/preference selection phenotype) and oral nicotine intake and a negative genetic correlation between oral alcohol intake and sensitivity to nicotine-induced CTA.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Moschak TM, Wang X, RM Carelli (2018)

A Neuronal Ensemble in the Rostral Agranular Insula Tracks Cocaine-Induced Devaluation of Natural Reward and Predicts Cocaine Seeking.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 38(39):8463-8472.

In substance use disorders, negative affect associated with drug withdrawal can elicit strong drug craving and promote relapse. One brain region implicated in those processes is the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), although precisely how this region encodes negative affect associated with drug seeking is unknown. Here, a preclinical model was used where RAIC activity was examined in male Sprague Dawley rats during intraoral infusions of a sweet (saccharin) paired with impending but delayed access to cocaine self-administration, and for comparative purposes, during the sweet predicting saline self-administration or injection of lithium chloride (LiCl), or during intraoral infusions of a bitter taste (quinine). Consistent with previous work, cocaine-paired saccharin, LiCl-paired saccharin, and quinine all elicited aversive taste reactivity. However, the aversive taste reactivity elicited by the cocaine-paired tastant was qualitatively different from that evoked by the other two agents. Furthermore, differences in taste reactivity were reflected in RAIC cell firing, where distinct shifts in neural signaling were observed specifically after cocaine but not LiCl conditioning. Notably, low motivation for cocaine (indicated by low loading and slower latencies to lever press) was correlated with this shift in RAIC signaling, but aversive (gaping) responses were not. Collectively, these findings indicate that cocaine-paired tastants elicit unique aspects of aversive behaviors that differ from traditional conditioned taste aversion (LiCl) or quinine and that the RAIC plays a role in modulating drug-seeking behaviors driven by drug-induced dysphoria (craving), but not negative affect per se.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In substance use disorders, negative affect associated with drug cues can elicit craving and promote relapse; however, the underlying neurocircuitry of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the rostral agranular insula cortex (RAIC) in these processes using a preclinical model wherein intraoral delivery of a sweet is paired with delayed access to cocaine self-administration. The taste comes to elicit negative affect that predicts heightened drug seeking. Here, we found that a population of RAIC neurons became inhibited during presentation of the cocaine-paired tastant (when negative affect is high) and that this inhibitory neural profile predicted lower drug seeking. These findings suggest that the RAIC may function to oppose cue-induced cocaine craving and help reduce motivation for the drug.

RevDate: 2019-09-01
CmpDate: 2019-07-26

Kubilius RA, Kaplick PM, CT Wotjak (2018)

Highway to hell or magic smoke? The dose-dependence of Δ9-THC in place conditioning paradigms.

Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 25(9):446-454.

The prerequisites for responsible cannabis use are at the heart of current inquiries into cannabis decriminalization by policy makers as well as academic and nonacademic stakeholders at a global scale. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the prime psychoactive compound of the cannabis sativa, as well as cannabimimetics that resemble the pharmacological properties and psychological effects of Δ9-THC, lend themselves handsomely to the preclinical scrutiny of reward-related behavior because they carry marked translational value. Although a functional dichotomy of the psychological effects of Δ9-THC (rewarding versus aversive) has been abundantly reported in place conditioning (PC) paradigms, and might be best attributed to a dose-dependence of Δ9-THC, most PC studies with Δ9-THC feature no significant effects at all. Therefore, after decades of rigorous research, it still remains undetermined whether Δ9-THC generally exerts rewarding or aversive effects in rodents. Here, we set out to extrapolate the commonly alleged dose-dependence of the rewarding and aversive effects of Δ9-THC from the existing literature, at the behavioral pharmacological level of analysis. Specifically, our meta-analysis investigated: (i) the alleged bidirectional effects and dose-dependence of Δ9-THC in the PC test; (ii) methodological inconsistencies between PC studies; and (iii) other pharmacological studies on cannabinoids (i.e., dopamine release, anxiety, stress, conditioned taste aversion, catalepsy) to substantiate the validity of PC findings. Our findings suggest that: (i) Δ9-THC dose-dependently generates rewarding (1 mg/kg) and aversive (5 mg/kg) effects in PC; (ii) an inconsistent use of priming injections hampers a clear establishment of the rewarding effects of Δ9-THC in PC tests and might explain the seemingly contradictory plethora of nonsignificant THC studies in the PC test; and (iii) other pharmacological studies on Δ9-THC substantiate the dose-dependent biphasic effects of Δ9-THC in PC. A standardized experimental design would advance evidence-based practice in future PC studies with Δ9-THC and facilitate the pointed establishment of rewarding and aversive effects of the substance.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Agee LA, MH Monfils (2018)

Effect of demonstrator reliability and recency of last demonstration on acquisition of a socially transmitted food preference.

Royal Society open science, 5(6):172391.

In the social transmission of food preference paradigm, naive observer rats acquire safety information about novel food sources in the environment through social interaction with a demonstrator rat that has recently eaten said food. Research into the behavioural mechanisms governing this form of learning has found that observers show increased reliance on socially acquired information when the state of the environment makes personal examination of their surroundings risky. We aimed to (1) determine whether reliance on social information would decrease if previous reliance on social learning was unsuccessful, and (2) whether reliance on the specific demonstrator that had transmitted poor information would similarly decrease. By inducing illness in observers following consumption of a socially demonstrated food, we created an environmental situation in which reliance on socially acquired information was maladaptive. We found that under these conditions, observers showed no change in their reliance on a specific demonstrator or socially learned information in general. Our experiment also unexpectedly produced results showing that recent demonstrators were more influential in later transmissions than demonstrators that had been learned from less recently. Notably, this effect only emerged when the observer simultaneously interacted with both demonstrators, indicating that demonstrators must be in direct competition for this effect to manifest.

RevDate: 2019-04-18
CmpDate: 2019-04-18

Gartner SN, Klockars A, Prosser C, et al (2018)

Identification of central mechanisms underlying anorexigenic effects of intraperitoneal L-tryptophan.

Neuroreport, 29(15):1293-1300.

A free essential amino acid, L-tryptophan (TRP), administered through a diet or directly into the gut, decreases food intake by engaging neural mechanisms. The ability of intragastric TRP to cross into the general circulation and through the blood-brain barrier, at least partly underlies hypophagia. It is unclear although, whether TRP's anorexigenic effects and accompanying neural processes occur in the absence of the initial action of TRP on the gut mucosa. Here, we addressed this issue by using a fundamental approach of examining effects of intraperitoneally administered TRP on feeding and neuronal activation in rats. We found that 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, TRP decreases deprivation-induced intake of standard chow and thirst-driven water intake. A 100 mg/kg dose was necessary to suppress consumption of palatable chow and of sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. Intraperitoneally TRP did not induce a conditioned taste aversion; thus, its anorexigenic effects were unrelated to sickness/malaise. c-Fos mapping in feeding-related brain sites revealed TRP-induced changes in the dorsal vagal complex, hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and in the basolateral amygdala. TRP enhanced activation of hypothalamic neurons synthesizing an anorexigen, oxytocin (OT). Pharmacological blockade of the OT receptor with a blood-brain barrier -penetrant antagonist, L-368,899, attenuated TRP-induced decrease in deprivation-induced chow intake, but not in thirst-driven water consumption. We conclude that TRP triggers anorexigenic action and underlying neural responses even when it does not directly contact the gut mucosa. TRP requires OT to decrease energy intake, whereas OT is nonobligatory in TRP's effects on drinking behavior.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Chambers KC (2018)

Conditioned taste aversions.

World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery, 4(1):92-100.

When one becomes ill after consuming a meal, there is a propensity to target a particular taste as the cause of the illness. The qualities of the taste most likely targeted include more novel, less preferred, and higher protein content. This association between a particular taste and illness is a form of learning that is termed conditioned taste aversion (CTA). A consequence of the learned association is that the taste will become aversive. When experiencing the taste again, individuals will show aversive reactions such as expressions of loathing, will experience mimicked illness sensations such as nausea, and subsequently, will avoid further exposure to the taste. The ability to acquire CTA occurs across species and across ages within a species. In the rat animal model, however, age differences exist in the capability of acquiring CTAs when increasingly longer intervals are imposed between consumption of a novel sweet solution and onset of illness. Pups have a decreased ability compared to young adults while aged rats have an increased ability. Evidence suggests that the failure of pups to acquire CTA at longer intervals is due to an immature retrieval mechanism and the facilitated ability of aged rats is due to a compromised clock mechanism that tracks the passage of time. Learned taste-illness association serves the critical function of informing individuals of the toxic nature of certain foods, thus preventing further illness and potentially death. Additionally, it contributes to the hypophagia observed during cancer chemotherapy and may contribute to the hypophagia found while suffering from bacterial infection, chronic medical conditions such as cancer, and restrictive food intake disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

RevDate: 2019-09-01

Loney GC, Pautassi RM, Kapadia D, et al (2018)

Nicotine affects ethanol-conditioned taste, but not place, aversion in a simultaneous conditioning procedure.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 71:47-55.

The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by ethanol is a key factor limiting ethanol intake. Nicotine, a drug co-consumed with ethanol, may decrease this aversion by modulating the unconditioned effects of ethanol or by disrupting the association between ethanol and its associated cues. This study analyzed ethanol-induced CTA and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in Long-Evans rats with subchronic exposure to nicotine. The rats were treated with nicotine (0.0 or 0.4 mg/kg) three times before conditioning (on lickometer training sessions 3, 4, and 5) and across conditioning days. During the conditioning the rats were given ethanol (1.3 g/kg) preceded and followed by presentation of a taste (NaCl) and tactile (rod or hole floors) conditioned stimulus (CS+), respectively. On CS- conditioning days, the rats were given vehicle and exposed to alternative stimuli. Three CTA and CPA testing sessions were then conducted. It was found that nicotine reduced ethanol-induced CTA and enhanced locomotor activity, but did not significantly modify the magnitude of ethanol-induced CPA. The effects of nicotine on CTA were observed during both conditioning and testing sessions, and were specific to the NaCl CS+, having no effect on reactivity to water. The dissociation between the effect of nicotine on ethanol-induced CTA and CPA suggests that nicotine does not alter ethanol's motivational properties by generally increasing its positive rewarding effects, nor does it blunt all aversive-like responses to this drug. Instead, nicotine may impede ethanol-induced CTA induced by ethanol by disrupting the neural underpinnings of this specific form of associative learning.

RevDate: 2018-07-11

Lavi K, Jacobson GA, Rosenblum K, et al (2018)

Encoding of Conditioned Taste Aversion in Cortico-Amygdala Circuits.

Cell reports, 24(2):278-283.

Avoidance of potentially toxic food by means of conditioned taste aversion is critical for survival of many animals. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using two-photon calcium imaging of defined gustatory cortex neurons in vivo, we show that conditioned taste aversion dynamically shifts neuronal population coding by stimulus-specific recruitment of neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Aonuma H, Totani Y, Sakakibara M, et al (2018)

Comparison of brain monoamine content in three populations of Lymnaea that correlates with taste-aversive learning ability.

Biophysics and physicobiology, 15:129-135.

To find a causal mechanism of learning and memory is a heuristically important topic in neuroscience. In the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, the following experimental facts have accrued regarding a classical conditioning procedure known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA): (1) one-day food-deprived Dutch snails have superior CTA memory formation; (2) the one-day food-deprived snails have a low monoamine content (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, octopamine) in their central nervous system (CNS); (3) fed or five-day food-deprived snails have poorer CTA memory and a higher monoamine content; (4) the Dutch snails form better CTA memory than the Canadian TC1 strain; and, (5) the F1 cross snails between the Dutch and Canadian TC1 strains also form poor CTA memory. Here, in one-day food-deprived snails, we measured the monoamine content in the CNSs of the 3 populations. In most instances, the monoamine content of the Dutch strain was lower than in the other two populations. The F1 cross snails had the highest monoamine content. A lower monoamine content is correlated with the better CTA memory formation.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Angulo R (2018)

Pre-exposure Schedule Effects on Generalization of Taste Aversion and Palatability for Thirsty and Not Thirsty Rats.

Frontiers in psychology, 9:878.

The study reported four experiments aiming to test the effects of the pre-exposure schedule and water deprivation on the generalization of a conditioned taste aversion in rats, with a particular focus on testing whether or not the concurrent schedule might enhance generalization. In two experiments, non-water-deprived rats received concurrent, intermixed, or blocked exposure to a sweet-acid solution and a salty-acid solution before conditioning of one of these compounds and testing of both flavors. During pre-exposure, the rats consumed a greater amount of the sweet-acid solution than the salty-acid solution (Experiments 1 and 2), consumption of the former increasing during pre-exposure while consumption of the latter decreased (Experiment 1). Furthermore, consumption of the salty-acid solution was lower during concurrent than intermixed or blocked pre-exposure (Experiment 1 and 2) while consumption of the sweet-acid solution was greater during intermixed than concurrent or blocked pre-exposure (Experiment 1). It is discussed whether the pre-exposure schedule might modify stimulus perception beyond the mere enhancement of stimulus differentiation, by, for instance, affecting the palatability of gustatory stimuli. Evidence for enhanced generalization after concurrent pre-exposure was not found for either deprived (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or non-deprived rats (Experiments 3 and 4), with deprivation leading to a general increase in consumption of both the conditioned and test flavors. This then raised the question of whether or not concurrent pre-exposure to flavors always increases generalization between them. The present study highlights the importance of this issue for various accounts of perceptual learning.

RevDate: 2019-04-16
CmpDate: 2019-04-16

Caynas-Rojas S, Rodríguez-García G, Delint-Ramírez I, et al (2019)

Differential function of medial prefrontal cortex catecholaminergic receptors after long-term sugar consumption.

Behavioural brain research, 356:495-503.

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has reciprocal projections with many cerebral structures that are crucial in the control of food ingestion behavior and reward processing; Thus the mPFC has an important function in taste memory recognition. Previous results indicate that long-term consumption of sugar produces changes in appetitive re-learning and suggest that this could trigger an escalating consumption due to the inability to learn new negative consequences related to the same taste. Further evidence suggests that general identity reward value could be encoded in the mPFC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in rats whether after 21 days of sugar consumption the increase in sweet taste preference and latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) were affected differentially by pharmacological activation or blockage of dopaminergic and β-adrenergic receptors, in the mPFC, during CTA acquisition. Results showed that after long-term sugar exposure, mPFC activation of β-adrenergic receptors with clenbuterol delayed aversive memory extinction, but the blockade with propranolol or activation of dopaminergic receptors with apomorphine increased CTA latent inhibition and accelerated aversive memory extinction only after acute sugar exposure. Only dopaminergic blockade with haloperidol prevented sweet taste preference expression after long-term sugar consumption, increased CTA latent inhibition and accelerated extinction after acute sugar exposure. Taken together, the present data provide evidence that catecholaminergic receptors in the mPFC after prolonged sugar consumption underwent functional changes related to re-learning and new aversive taste learning.

RevDate: 2018-06-04

Vera-Rivera G, Miranda MI, Rangel-Hernández JA, et al (2018)

Effects of caloric or non-caloric sweetener long-term consumption on taste preferences and new aversive learning.

Nutritional neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Food palatability and caloric content are crucial factors in guiding diet choice and amount consumed; as a result, sweet caloric tastes are associated with a positive hedonic value. Recent evidence in rodents indicates that consumption of artificial (non-caloric) sweeteners, in which sweet taste is dissociated from normal caloric consequences, could induce changes in energy and body weight regulation, suggesting that sweeteners not only modify intake and appetitive behavior, but could also change taste-learning processes. Particularly, there are different properties in some artificial sweeteners, like saccharin, that might differ from sugar in the reward responses that, after long-term consumption, could also be associated with the inability to learn new negative consequences related to the same taste. Thus, the main goal of this study was to determine, in adult rats, the effects of long-term consumption (14 days) of sugar or saccharin, on taste preference, on new aversive learning, i.e. latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), and appetitive taste re-learning after aversive taste associations. The results showed that 14 days' exposure to sugar, but not to saccharin, induced a significant increment in the LI of CTA and that taste preference is rapidly recovered during the next 3 days (e.g. CTA extinctions), indicating that long-term sugar consumption significantly accelerates aversive memory extinction during appetitive re-learning of a specific sweet taste; furthermore, high familiarization to sugar, but not to saccharin, promotes appetitive learning for the same taste. Overall, the results indicate that long-term consumption of sugar, but not saccharin, produces changes in appetitive re-learning and suggests that long-term sugar consumption could trigger escalating consumption due to the inability to learn new negative consequences associated with the same taste.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Varnon CA, Dinges CW, Black TE, et al (2018)

Failure to Find Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 42(7):1260-1270.

BACKGROUND: Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning is a highly specialized form of conditioning found across taxa that leads to avoidance of an initially neutral stimulus, such as taste or odor, that is associated with, but is not the cause of, a detrimental health condition. This study examines if honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) develop ethanol (EtOH)-induced CTA.

METHODS: Restrained bees were first administered a sucrose solution that was cinnamon scented, lavender scented, or unscented, and contained either 0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20% EtOH. Then, 30 minutes later, we used a proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning procedure where the bees were taught to associate either cinnamon odor, lavender odor, or an air-puff with repeated sucrose feedings. For some bees, the odor of the previously consumed EtOH solution was the same as the odor associated with sucrose in the conditioning procedure. If bees are able to learn EtOH-induced CTA, they should show an immediate low level of response to odors previously associated with EtOH.

RESULTS: We found that bees did not develop CTA despite the substantial inhibitory and aversive effects EtOH has on behavior. Instead, bees receiving a conditioning odor that was previously associated with EtOH showed an immediate high level of response. While this demonstrates bees are capable of one-trial learning common to CTA experiments, this high level of response is the opposite of what would occur if the bees developed a CTA. Responding on subsequent trials also showed a general inhibitory effect of EtOH. Finally, we found that consumption of cinnamon extract reduced the effects of EtOH.

CONCLUSIONS: The honey bees' lack of learned avoidance to EtOH mirrors that seen in human alcoholism. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of honey bees as an insect model for EtOH consumption.

RevDate: 2018-11-05
CmpDate: 2018-11-05

Risco S, C Mediavilla (2018)

Orexin A in the ventral tegmental area enhances saccharin-induced conditioned flavor preference: The role of D1 receptors in central nucleus of amygdala.

Behavioural brain research, 348:192-200.

In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline in the VTA at 10 min before a 15-min flavor intake period. Preference and aversion were tested by a two-bottle test containing the flavors used for CS+ and CS-. Results indicate that intra-VTA orexin strengthens flavor-taste conditioned flavor preference (CFP) by saccharin but does not facilitate flavor-taste aversion induced by association of a neutral flavor with the unpalatable taste of quinine. Experiment 2 examines the acquisition of a flavor-taste preference after co-administration of an effective dose of orexin-A in the VTA and of D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (6 and 12 nmol) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). SCH23390 impedes the CFP strengthening observed after intra-VTA orexin administration, indicating that this effect may be mediated by dopaminergic receptors in the CeA. These data suggest that the simultaneous presentation of a flavor and a hedonically positive taste may be detected by orexinergic neurons that activate dopamine-releasing neurons of the VTA, thereby reinforcing the positive signals required to develop a taste preference.

RevDate: 2019-04-01
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Koh MT, Ahrens PS, M Gallagher (2018)

A greater tendency for representation mediated learning in a ketamine mouse model of schizophrenia.

Behavioral neuroscience, 132(2):106-113.

Representation mediated learning is a behavioral paradigm that could be used to potentially capture psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. In studies of mediated learning, representations of prior experience can enter into current associations. Using a ketamine model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether mice exposed to ketamine during late adolescence subsequently showed an increased tendency to use a representation of a prior gustatory experience to form associations in learning. Mice were given prior experience of an odor and a taste presented together. The odor was subsequently presented alone with gastrointestinal illness induced by a lithium chloride injection. A consumption test was then given to assess whether the taste, despite its absence during conditioning, entered into an association with the induced illness. Such learning would be mediated via a representation of the taste activated by the odor. Our results showed that control mice displayed no aversion to the taste following the procedures just described, but mice that had been treated developmentally with ketamine exhibited a significant taste aversion, suggesting a greater propensity for mediated learning. Complementary to that finding, ketamine-exposed mice also showed a greater susceptibility to mediated extinction. Chronic treatment with the antipsychotic drug, risperidone, in ketamine-exposed mice attenuated mediated learning, a finding that may be related to its known efficacy in reducing the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. These data provide a setting with potential relevance to preclinical research on schizophrenia, to study the neural mechanisms underlying a propensity for aberrant associations and assessment of therapeutics. (PsycINFO Database Record

RevDate: 2019-05-20

Rivera-Olvera A, Nelson-Mora J, Gonsebatt ME, et al (2018)

Extinction of aversive taste memory homeostatically prevents the maintenance of in vivo insular cortex LTP: Calcineurin participation.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 154:54-61.

Accumulating evidence indicates that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strength to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Our previous studies have shown that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) in vivo. We have also reported that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway modifies the CTA extinction. Memoryextinction involves the formation of a new associativememorythat inhibits a previously conditioned association. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of CTA extinction on the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, 48 h after CTA extinction animals received high frequency stimulation in order to induce IC-LTP. Our results show that extinction training allows the induction but not the maintenance of IC-LTP. In addition, with the purpose of exploring part of the mechanisms involved in this process and since a body of evidence suggests that protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks, we analyzed the participation of this phosphatase. The present results show that extinction training increases the CaN expression in the IC, as well as that the inhibition of this phosphatase reverts the effects of the CTA-extinction on the IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA extinction promotes a homeostatic regulation of subsequent IC synaptic plasticity maintenance through increases in CaN levels.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Garcia-Burgos D, Maglieri S, Vögele C, et al (2018)

How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders.

Frontiers in psychology, 9:264.

Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge-eating episodes. No trial registration was required for this protocol, which was approved by the Swiss ethics committee (CER-VD, n° 2016-02150) and the Ethics Review Panel of the University of Luxembourg.

RevDate: 2019-03-19
CmpDate: 2019-03-19

Yoshida Y, Kawabata F, Kawabata Y, et al (2018)

Short-term perception of and conditioned taste aversion to umami taste, and oral expression patterns of umami taste receptors in chickens.

Physiology & behavior, 191:29-36.

Umami taste is one of the five basic tastes (sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty), and is elicited by l-glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides. In chickens, the elucidation of the umami taste sense is an important step in the production of new feedstuff for the animal industry. Although previous studies found that chickens show a preference for umami compounds in long-term behavioral tests, there are limitations to our understanding of the role of the umami taste sense in chicken oral tissues because the long-term tests partly reflected post-ingestive effects. Here, we performed a short-term test and observed agonists of chicken umami taste receptor, l-alanine and l-serine, affected the solution intakes of chickens. Using this method, we found that chickens could respond to umami solutions containing monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) + inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) within 5 min. We also demonstrated that chickens were successfully conditioned to avoid umami solution by the conditioned taste aversion test. It is noted that conditioning to umami solution was generalized to salty and sweet solutions. Thus, chickens may perceive umami taste as a salty- and sweet-like taste. In addition, we found that umami taste receptor candidates were differentially expressed in different regions of the chicken oral tissues. Taken together, the present results strongly suggest that chickens have a sense of umami taste and have umami taste receptors in their oral tissue.

RevDate: 2018-04-10
CmpDate: 2018-04-10

Tingley R, Ward-Fear G, Schwarzkopf L, et al (2017)

New Weapons in the Toad Toolkit: A Review of Methods to Control and Mitigate the Biodiversity Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella Marina).

The Quarterly review of biology, 92(2):123-149.

Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology. New tools for containing spread include surveillance technologies (e.g., eDNA sampling and automated call detectors), as well as landscape-level barriers that exploit the toad’s vulnerability to desiccation—a strategy that could be significantly enhanced through the introduction of sedentary, range-core genotypes ahead of the invasion front. New methods to reduce the ecological impacts of toads include conditioned taste aversion in free-ranging predators, gene banking, and targeted gene flow. Lastly, recent advances in gene editing and gene drive technology hold the promise of modifying toad phenotypes in ways that may facilitate control or buffer impact. Synergies between these approaches hold great promise for novel and more effective means to combat the toad invasion and its consequent impacts on biodiversity.

RevDate: 2019-03-13
CmpDate: 2019-03-13

Brox BW, BA Ellenbroek (2018)

A genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter differentially influences MDMA and heroin induced behaviours.

Psychopharmacology, 235(7):1907-1914.

BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing study and research to better understand drug addiction, it continues to be a heavy burden. Only a small percentage of individuals who take drugs of abuse go on to develop addiction. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that a reduction in the serotonin transporter may play an important role for those that transition to compulsive drug taking. Studies have demonstrated that reduced serotonin transporter function potentiates self-administration of psychostimulant drugs ("ecstasy," MDMA; cocaine); however, additional research revealed no differences between genotypes when the opioid heroin was self-administered. These results suggest that a reduction in the serotonin transporter may confer susceptibility to the development of addiction to some classes of drugs but not others. Importantly, the mechanism underlying facilitated psychostimulant self-administration is currently unknown.

METHODS: Therefore, to continue investigating the relationship between compromised serotonergic function and different classes of drugs, a series of experiments was conducted investigating locomotor activity (LMA) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the serotonin transporter knockout (SERT KO) rat model.

RESULTS: MDMA-induced hyperactivity was reduced, while MDMA-induced CTA was enhanced, in SERT KO rats. However, there were no genotype differences in heroin-induced behaviours.

CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce the idea that a reduction in the serotonin transporter drives differential effects between disparate classes of drugs of abuse.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-07

Klockars OA, Klockars A, Levine AS, et al (2018)

Oxytocin administration in the basolateral and central nuclei of amygdala moderately suppresses food intake.

Neuroreport, 29(6):504-510.

Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals. We examined whether these effects are reversible by OT receptor (OTr) antagonism and whether OT presence in BLA or CNA induces taste aversion. We also determined the effect of energy deprivation and exposure to sweet saccharin on BLA and CNA expression of OTr mRNA. OT administration in BLA at 0.3 μg and in CNA at 1 μg reduced standard chow intake after deprivation by ~25%. Only administration of OT in BLA was effective in suppressing consumption of sucrose and saccharin solutions. The anorexigenic effects of OT in BLA and CNA were attenuated by OTr antagonist, L-368,899, pretreatment. OT at anorexigenic doses did not promote acquisition of taste aversion. BLA OTr mRNA expression was affected by exposure to palatable saccharin, whereas that of CNA OTr, by energy deprivation. OT in the amygdala moderately decreases food intake. The functional relationship between amygdalar OT and energy intake versus palatability-driven intake depends on the discrete localization of the OTr within this complex structure.

RevDate: 2018-10-22
CmpDate: 2018-10-22

Richardson RA, Michener PN, TR Schachtman (2018)

Effects of extinction of a nontarget CS on performance to a target CS.

Behavioural processes, 154:13-20.

When a target conditioned stimulus (CS A) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus in the presence of a second, conditioned stimulus (CS B) during compound conditioning trials, the associative strength of CS B can influence the magnitude of the conditioned response (CR) to CS A. For example, extinction of the competing, nontarget CS B can influence the CR to CS A. An enhancement of the CR to the target CS A due to extinction of the nontarget CS B after compound conditioning is sometimes referred to as "recovery from overshadowing" - a type of retrospective revaluation. The present experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. The experiments obtained an effect on the CR to CS A following extinction of CS B. The results are discussed with respect to the comparator hypothesis, within-compound associations, and retrieval as well as other relationships between the target CS and nontarget CS.

RevDate: 2019-06-15

Dadam F, Zádor F, Caeiro X, et al (2018)

The effect of increased NaCl intake on rat brain endogenous μ-opioid receptor signalling.

Journal of neuroendocrinology, 30(4):e12585.

Numerous studies demonstrate the significant role of central β-endorphin and its receptor, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), in sodium intake regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between chronic high-NaCl intake and brain endogenous MOR functioning. We examined whether short-term (4 days) obligatory salt intake (2% NaCl solution) in rats induces changes in MOR mRNA expression, G-protein activity and MOR binding capacity in brain regions involved in salt intake regulation. Plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations after sodium overload and the initial and final body weight of the animals were also examined. After 4 days of obligatory hypertonic sodium chloride intake, there was clearly no difference in MOR mRNA expression and G-protein activity in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). In the brainstem, MOR binding capacity also remained unaltered, although the maximal efficacy of MOR G-protein significantly increased. Finally, no significant alterations were observed in plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations. Interestingly, animals that received sodium gained significantly less weight than control animals. In conclusion, we found no significant alterations in the MnPO and brainstem in the number of available cell surface MORs or de novo syntheses of MOR after hypertonic sodium intake. The increased MOR G-protein activity following acute sodium overconsumption may participate in the maintenance of normal blood pressure levels and/or in enhancing sodium taste aversion and sodium overload-induced anorexia.

RevDate: 2019-06-19
CmpDate: 2019-06-19

Gartner SN, Aidney F, Klockars A, et al (2018)

Intragastric preloads of l-tryptophan reduce ingestive behavior via oxytocinergic neural mechanisms in male mice.

Appetite, 125:278-286.

Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used to assess whether hypophagia is unrelated to sickness. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was employed to detect TRP-induced activation of feeding-related brain sites and of oxytocin (OT) neurons, a crucial component of satiety circuits. Also, expression of OT mRNA was assessed with real-time PCR. The functional importance of OT in mediating TRP-driven hypophagia was substantiated by showing the ability of OT receptor blockade to abolish TRP-induced decrease in feeding. TRP reduced intake of energy-dense standard chow in deprived animals and energy-dense palatable chow in sated mice. Anorexigenic doses of TRP did not cause a CTA. TRP failed to affect intake of palatable yet calorie-dilute or noncaloric solutions (10% sucrose, 4.1% Intralipid or 0.1% saccharin) even for TRP doses that decreased water intake in thirsty mice. Fos analysis revealed that TRP increases activation of several key feeding-related brain areas, especially in the brain stem and hypothalamus. TRP activated hypothalamic OT neurons and increased OT mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with an OT antagonist abolished TRP-driven hypophagia. We conclude that intragastric TRP decreases food and water intake, and TRP-induced hypophagia is partially mediated via central circuits that encompass OT.

RevDate: 2019-07-25

Blednov YA, Da Costa AJ, Harris RA, et al (2018)

Apremilast Alters Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in Mice: II. Increased Sedation, Intoxication, and Reduced Acute Functional Tolerance.

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 42(5):939-951.

BACKGROUND: In our companion paper, we reported that the phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor apremilast reduced ethanol (EtOH) intake and preference in different drinking models in male and female C57BL/6J mice. In this study, we measured the effects of apremilast on other behaviors that are correlated with EtOH consumption.

METHODS: The effects of apremilast (20 mg/kg) on the following behaviors were studied in male and female C57BL/6J mice: locomotor response to a novel situation; EtOH- and lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin; conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place avoidance (CPA) to EtOH; severity of handling-induced convulsions after EtOH administration; EtOH-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in the elevated plus maze; duration of EtOH-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR); recovery from EtOH-induced motor impairment on the rotarod; and acute functional tolerance (AFT) to EtOH's ataxic effects.

RESULTS: Apremilast did not change the acquisition of EtOH-induced CPP, severity of acute withdrawal from EtOH, or EtOH's anxiolytic-like effect. Apremilast did not alter the extinction of EtOH- or LiCl-induced CTA, but may interfere with acquisition of CTA to EtOH. Apremilast increased the acquisition of CPA to EtOH, reduced locomotor responses to a novel situation, and prolonged the duration of LORR and the recovery from acute motor incoordination induced by EtOH. The longer recovery from the ataxic effect may be attributed to reduced development of AFT to EtOH.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that apremilast increases the duration of EtOH intoxication by reducing AFT. Apremilast also reduces some aspects of general reward and increases EtOH's aversive properties, which might also contribute to its ability to reduce EtOH drinking.

RevDate: 2019-06-15

Tooley J, Marconi L, Alipio JB, et al (2018)

Glutamatergic Ventral Pallidal Neurons Modulate Activity of the Habenula-Tegmental Circuitry and Constrain Reward Seeking.

Biological psychiatry, 83(12):1012-1023.

BACKGROUND: The ability to appropriately integrate and respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli is essential for survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. However, the VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how VP subpopulations integrate into larger reward networks to ultimately modulate these behaviors is not known. We identify a noncanonical population of glutamatergic VP neurons that play a unique role in responding to aversive stimuli and constraining inappropriate reward seeking.

METHODS: Using neurochemical, genetic, and electrophysiological approaches, we characterized glutamatergic VP neurons (n = 4-8 mice/group). We performed patch clamp and in vivo electrophysiology recordings in the lateral habenula, rostromedial tegmental nucleus, and ventral tegmental area to determine the effect of glutamatergic VP neuron activation in these target regions (n = 6-10 mice/group). Finally, we selectively optogenetically stimulated glutamatergic VP neurons in a real-time place preference task and ablated these neurons using a virally expressed caspase to determine their necessity for reward seeking.

RESULTS: Glutamatergic VP neurons exhibit little overlap with cholinergic or gamma-aminobutyric acidergic markers, the canonical VP subtypes, and exhibit distinct membrane properties. Glutamatergic VP neurons innervate and increase firing activity of the lateral habenula, rostromedial tegmental nucleus, and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic ventral tegmental area neurons. While nonselective optogenetic stimulation of the VP induced a robust place preference, selective activation of glutamatergic VP neurons induced a place avoidance. Viral ablation of glutamatergic VP neurons increased reward responding and abolished taste aversion to sucrose.

CONCLUSIONS: Glutamatergic VP neurons constitute a noncanonical subpopulation of VP neurons. These glutamatergic VP neurons increase activity of the lateral habenula, rostromedial tegmental nucleus, and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic ventral tegmental area neurons and adaptively constrain reward seeking.

RevDate: 2019-01-31
CmpDate: 2019-01-31

Nakajima S (2018)

Clay eating attenuates lithium-based taste aversion learning in rats: A remedial effect of kaolin on nausea.

Physiology & behavior, 188:199-204.

Kaolin clay eating has been considered as a marker of nausea in rats, because a variety of treatments, which evoke nausea in humans, generate consumption of kaolin clay in rats. The present study with two experiments replicated kaolin clay ingestion induced by an injection of emetic lithium chloride (LiCl). The LiCl injection, however, did not generate eating of wooden objects in rats. The present study also provides a new finding that consumption of kaolin clay alleviates rats' taste aversion learning caused by an LiCl injection. This finding is congruent with the contention that consumption of kaolin clay is not only a useful index of, but also an effective remedy for, drug-induced nausea in rats.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Reed C, Baba H, Zhu Z, et al (2017)

A Spontaneous Mutation in Taar1 Impacts Methamphetamine-Related Traits Exclusively in DBA/2 Mice from a Single Vendor.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 8:993.

Major gene effects on traits associated with substance use disorders are rare. Previous findings in methamphetamine drinking (MADR) lines of mice, bred for high or low voluntary MA intake, and in null mutants demonstrate a major impact of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) gene on a triad of MA-related traits: MA consumption, MA-induced conditioned taste aversion and MA-induced hypothermia. While inbred strains are fundamentally genetically stable, rare spontaneous mutations can become fixed and result in new or aberrant phenotypes. A single nucleotide polymorphism in Taar1 that encodes a missense proline to threonine mutation in the second transmembrane domain (Taar1m1J) has been identified in the DBA/2J strain. MA is an agonist at this receptor, but the receptor produced by Taar1m1J does not respond to MA or endogenous ligands. In the present study, we used progeny of the C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F2 cross, the MADR lines, C57BL/6J × DBA/2J recombinant inbred strains, and DBA/2 mice sourced from four vendors to further examine Taar1-MA phenotype relations and to define the chronology of the fixation of the Taar1m1J mutation. Mice homozygous for Taar1m1J were found at high frequency early in selection for high MA intake in multiple replicates of the high MADR line, whereas Taar1m1J homozygotes were absent in the low MADR line. The homozygous Taar1m1J genotype is causally linked to increased MA intake, reduced MA-induced conditioned taste aversion, and reduced MA-induced hypothermia across models. Genotype-phenotype correlations range from 0.68 to 0.96. This Taar1 polymorphism exists in DBA/2J mice sourced directly from The Jackson Laboratory, but not DBA/2 mice sourced from Charles River (DBA/2NCrl), Envigo (formerly Harlan Sprague Dawley; DBA/2NHsd) or Taconic (DBA/2NTac). By genotyping archived samples from The Jackson Laboratory, we have determined that this mutation arose in 2001-2003. Our data strengthen the conclusion that the mutant Taar1m1J allele, which codes for a non-functional receptor protein, increases risk for multiple MA-related traits, including MA intake, in homozygous Taar1m1J individuals.

RevDate: 2018-08-24
CmpDate: 2018-08-24

Guzmán-Ramos K, Venkataraman A, Morin JP, et al (2018)

Differential requirement of de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex and the amygdala for safe and aversive taste long-term memory formation.

Behavioural brain research, 342:89-93.

Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation. We found that acute inhibition of Arc protein synthesis through the infusion of antisense oligonucleotides administered in the IC before a novel taste presentation, affected consolidation of a safe taste memory trace (ST) but spared consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Conversely, blocking Arc synthesis within the AMY impaired CTA consolidation but had no effect on ST long-term memory formation. Our results suggest that Arc-dependent plasticity during taste learning is required within distinct structures of the medial temporal lobe, depending on the emotional valence of the memory trace.

RevDate: 2019-05-16

Aonuma H, Totani Y, Kaneda M, et al (2018)

Effects of 5-HT and insulin on learning and memory formation in food-deprived snails.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 148:20-29.

The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). How well they learn and form memory depends on the degree of food deprivation. Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in mediating feeding, and insulin enhances the memory consolidation process following CTA training. However, the relationship between these two signaling pathways has not been addressed. We measured the 5-HT content in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails subjected to different durations of food deprivation. One-day food-deprived snails, which exhibit the best learning and memory, had the lowest 5-HT content in the CNS, whereas 5-day food-deprived snails, which do not learn, had a high 5-HT content. Immersing 1-day food-deprived snails in 5-HT impaired learning and memory by causing an increase in 5-HT content, and that the injection of insulin into these snails reversed this impairment. We conclude that insulin rescues the CTA deficit and this may be due to a decrease in the 5-HT content in the CNS of Lymnaea.

RevDate: 2018-09-05
CmpDate: 2018-09-05

Li N, Song G, Wang Y, et al (2018)

Blocking constitutive activity of GHSR1a in the lateral amygdala facilitates acquisition of conditioned taste aversion.

Neuropeptides, 68:22-27.

Ghrelin is a circulating peptide hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Ghrelin functions by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which are widely distributed throughout the brain including the amygdala, a brain region important for regulating valenced behavior, such as aversion. Interestingly, GHSR1a was once characterized by highly constitutive, ligand-independent activity. However, the physiological importance of such ligand-independent signaling on aversive memory processing has not been tested yet. Here, we applied [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]-Substance P (D-SP), a full inverse agonist for GHSR1a, into the lateral amygdala (LA) and investigated the effect of blocking GHSR1a constitutive activity on conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. We found that intra-LA infusion of a single low dose of D-SP (8ng/0.5μl/side) facilitates CTA acquisition. Moreover, pre-administration of a high dose of D-SP into the LA abolishes the suppressive effect of exogenous ghrelin on CTA acquisition. In contrast, pre-administration of the same dose of D-SP does not affect the suppression of substance P, a potent neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor ligand, on CTA. Therefore, our data indicated that the spontaneous or basal activity of GHSR1a signaling in the LA might interfere with CTA memory formation. D-SP decreases the constitutive activity of GHSR1a and thus facilitates CTA. Altogether, our present findings along with previous results support the idea that ghrelin/GHSR1a signaling in the LA circuit blocks conditioned taste aversion.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Juárez-Muñoz Y, Ramos-Languren LE, ML Escobar (2017)

CaMKII Requirement for in Vivo Insular Cortex LTP Maintenance and CTA Memory Persistence.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 8:822.

Calcium-calmodulin/dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an essential role in LTP induction, but since it has the capacity to remain persistently activated even after the decay of external stimuli it has been proposed that it can also be necessary for LTP maintenance and therefore for memory persistence. It has been shown that basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla) stimulation induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region implicated in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Our previous studies have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway before CTA training increased the retention of this task. Although it is known that IC-LTP induction and CTA consolidation share similar molecular mechanisms, little is known about the molecular actors that underlie their maintenance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of CaMKII in the maintenance of in vivo Bla-IC LTP as well as in the persistence of CTA long-term memory (LTM). Our results show that acute microinfusion of myr-CaMKIINtide, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, in the IC of adult rats during the late-phase of in vivo Bla-IC LTP blocked its maintenance. Moreover, the intracortical inhibition of CaMKII 24 h after CTA acquisition impairs CTA-LTM persistence. Together these results indicate that CaMKII is a central key component for the maintenance of neocortical synaptic plasticity as well as for persistence of CTA-LTM.

RevDate: 2018-07-06
CmpDate: 2018-07-06

Hurtado MM, García R, A Puerto (2017)

Tiapride prevents the aversive but not the rewarding effect induced by parabrachial electrical stimulation in a place preference task.

Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, 77(3):236-243.

The parabrachial complex has been related to the processing of both rewarding and aversive signals. This pontine area is activated after the gastrointestinal administration of rewarding nutrients, in taste aversion learning, and in response to the reinforcing and aversive effects of some drugs of abuse. Electrical stimulation of this region can induce, in different animals, preference or aversion behaviors towards a place in a rectangular three-chamber maze task. This study examined the effect of tiapride, a D2/D3 receptor antagonist, on the aversive or rewarding effects induced by electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (NLPBe). As previously observed, administration of tiapride interrupted the aversive effect induced by NLPBe electrical stimulation. However, in contrast to the effects of dopamine antagonists on other rewarding systems, tiapride did not impair the place preference induced by NLPBe stimulation, an activation effect that is subject to tolerance. Tiapride administration also appeared to have no effect on the horizontal motor activity (crossings) of the electrically stimulated animals. We discuss the specific relevance of parabrachial reward with respect to other reinforcing brain components or systems, especially in relation to the preference effect of drugs of abuse, such as opiates, after dopamine antagonist administration.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-12

Hojo R, Takaya M, Yasuda A, et al (2018)

Examination of validity of a conditioned odor aversion (COA) procedure using low-dose of organic solvent as an applied procedure of the conditioned taste aversion.

Industrial health, 56(2):141-149.

Smell of very low dose of chemical might evoke subjective physical symptoms in human by some process of learning named the aversion conditioning. But few scientific evidences of the hypothesis have been reported so far. Validity of conditioned odor aversion (COA) using low-doses of organic solvent as odor conditioned stimulus (CS) was examined. In conditioning phase, water-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats were presented low, medium or high dose solution for 30 min followed by 0.3 M Lithium Chloride (LiCl) solution or saline injection. The xylene solution and drink water were simultaneously provided on the next day as two-bottle test. Consumption of medium dose of xylene solution was significantly decreased in LiCl injection group as compared with saline group. There was no difference between LiCl and saline injected animals in low group. Animals in high dose did not access to xylene even on the conditioning. These results indicate that animals showed high sensitivity for discrimination against concentration of xylene and that the medium dose of xylene functioned as the CS. We concluded that the COA used in the present study may be one of useful procedures to investigate olfaction of animal.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2018-06-20

Molero-Chamizo A (2018)

Changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the pre-exposure interfere with the latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion in rats.

Behavioural processes, 146:22-26.

In rats, the reduction of the magnitude of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that occurs after taste pre-exposures (that is, the latent inhibition of CTA) can be attenuated by contextual changes of the external cues in the conditioning stage. Similarly, circadian internal cues such as those induced by the time of day may also modulate the magnitude of the taste aversion. Under a long period of temporal-contextual habituation, the latent inhibition of CTA is reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. However, it is unknown if this effect is consistent when different changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the pre-exposure are compared. In this study, the effect of two different changes in the time of day of conditioning (one from morning to evening, and one from evening to morning) on the latent inhibition of CTA was compared with the response of a typical latent inhibition group without temporal change between stages, and with control groups without pre-exposures. The results indicate that the latent inhibition of CTA of both groups with temporal change between pre-exposure and conditioning is significantly reduced when compared with the latent inhibition of the group without temporal change. These findings suggest that the temporal context may be a critical cue for the latent inhibition of CTA, and they show that different changes in the time of day of conditioning interfere similarly with this learning.

RevDate: 2019-03-15
CmpDate: 2019-03-15

Kislal S, DA Blizard (2018)

Acquisition and retention of conditioned aversions to context and taste in laboratory mice.

Learning & behavior, 46(2):198-212.

We compared the rate of acquisition and strength of retention of conditioned context aversion (CCA) with conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using pigmented, genetically heterogeneous mice (derived from Large and Small strains). Extending previous findings, in Experiment 1, mice accustomed to drinking from large glass bottles in the colony room learned to avoid graduated tubes after a single conditioning trial when drinking from these novel tubes was paired with injections of LiCl. The results also showed that CCA could be developed even when there was a 30-minute delay between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus. Retention of the aversion lasted for 4 weeks in both Immediate and Delay groups. Studies of conditioned saccharin aversion were conducted in Experiment 2. CTA acquisition was very similar to that observed in CCA and duration of aversion retention was similar in the CCA and CTA Delay groups, although at least 2 weeks longer in the Immediate group. Thus, CCA acquisition and retention characteristics are closer to those seen for CTA than has previously been reported. In Experiment 3, we examined whether albino mice (which are known to have weaker visual abilities compared to pigmented mice) would develop CCA comparable to those of pigmented mice. The development of conditioned aversion and its duration of retention was similar in albinos and pigmented mice. Nonspecific aversion emerged as an important contributor to strength of aversion during retention trials in both CCA and CTA paradigms with pigmented (but not albino) mice and deserves additional scrutiny in this field of inquiry.

RevDate: 2019-03-15
CmpDate: 2019-03-15

Nakajima S (2018)

Running-based pica and taste avoidance in rats.

Learning & behavior, 46(2):182-197.

Running in an activity wheel generates pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats. Wheel running also results in Pavlovian conditioned avoidance of the taste solution consumed immediately before the running. Since pica has been considered a behavioral marker of nausea in rats, these findings suggest that wheel running induces nausea, which is the underlying physiological state for establishing taste avoidance. This article reports a replication of running-based pica in rats (Experiment 1) and concurrent demonstrations of running-based pica and taste avoidance in the same animals (Experiments 2 and 3). Also shown is that pica does not alleviate running-based taste avoidance (Experiment 3). Another finding is that pica is generated by a nausea-inducing lithium chloride injection but not by a pain-inducing hypertonic saline injection (Experiment 4). These results, when taken together, support the hypothesis that pica behavior generated by wheel running reflects nausea in rats.

RevDate: 2018-08-30
CmpDate: 2018-08-30

Cheung LC, Nguyen M, Tang E, et al (2018)

Taste evaluation of a novel midazolam tablet for pediatric patients: In vitro drug dissolution, in vivo animal taste aversion and clinical taste perception profiles.

International journal of pharmaceutics, 535(1-2):194-200.

Harmonized methodologies are urgently required for the taste evaluation of novel pediatric medicines. This study utilized in vitro, in vivo and clinical data to evaluate the palatability of a novel midazolam chocolate tablet. In vitro dissolution experiments showed the crushed tablet to release within 5 min 1.68 mg of midazolam into simulated saliva. This translated to a drug level of 0.84 mg/ml in the oral cavity, which would be higher than the midazolam bitterness detection threshold concentration of 0.03 mg/ml determined in a rat 'brief access taste aversion' (BATA) model. The visual analogue scale scores of patients aged 4-16 years prescribed with midazolam pre-surgery showed a clear preference for the midazolam chocolate tablets (3.35 ± 1.04, n = 20) compared to the control midazolam solution (1.47 ± 0.62, n = 17). The clinical data was in agreement with the in vivo rodent data in showing the novel chocolate tablet matrix to be effective at taste-masking the bitter midazolam.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-07-09

Lee MJ, Sung HY, Jo H, et al (2017)

Ionotropic Receptor 76b Is Required for Gustatory Aversion to Excessive Na+ in Drosophila.

Molecules and cells, 40(10):787-795.

Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na+-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b. Feeding aversion to caffeine and high concentrations of divalent cations and sorbitol was unimpaired in Ir76b-deficient animals, indicating sensory specificity of Ir76b-dependent Na+ detection and the irrelevance of hyperosmolarity-driven mechanosensation to Ir76b-mediated feeding aversion. Ir76b-dependent Na+-sensing GRNs in both L- and s-bristles are required for repulsion as opposed to the previous report where the L-bristle GRNs direct only low-Na+ attraction. Our work extends the physiological implications of Ir76b from low-Na+ attraction to high-Na+ aversion, prompting further investigation of the physiological mechanisms that modulate two competing components of Na+-evoked gustation coded in heterogeneous Ir76b-positive GRNs.

RevDate: 2018-05-03
CmpDate: 2018-05-03

Torrealba F, Madrid C, Contreras M, et al (2017)

Plasticity in the Interoceptive System.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1015:59-74.

The most outstanding manifestations of the plastic capacities of brain circuits and their neuronal and synaptic components in the adult CNS are learning and memory. A reduced number of basic plastic mechanisms underlie learning capacities at many levels and regions of the brain. The interoceptive system is no exception, and some of the most studied behavioral changes that involve learning and memory engage the interoceptive pathways at many levels of their anatomical and functional organization.In this chapter, we will review four examples of learning, mostly in rats, where the interoceptive system has a role. In the case of conditioned taste aversion, the interoceptive system is of outstanding importance. In drug addiction, the role of the insular cortex - the highest level of the interoceptive system- is unusual and complex, as many forebrain regions are engaged by the process of addiction. In the third example, neophobia, the gustatory region of the insular cortex plays a major role. Finally, the role of different areas of the insular cortex in different processes of aversive memory, particularly fear conditioning, will be reviewed.

RevDate: 2018-06-18
CmpDate: 2018-06-18

Rodriguez JA, Fehrentz JA, Martinez J, et al (2018)

The GHR-R antagonist JMV 2959 neither induces malaise nor alters the malaise property of LiCl in the adult male rat.

Physiology & behavior, 183:46-48.

The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion. This is a variable of interest given that nicotine alone can induce malaise which may be enhanced by JMV 2959. In the present study, we assessed the capacity of JMV 2959 to produce malaise using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task. Adult male rats were allowed to consume a 0.1% sodium saccharin solution and then injected IP with either vehicle, 0.4mg/kg nicotine, 3mg/kg JMV 2959, a combination of 0.4mg/kg nicotine and 3mg/kg JMV 2959, or 32mg/kg lithium chloride (a positive control known to support induction of CTA). Lithium chloride produced a robust avoidance of the saccharin solution in subsequent 2 bottle (water and saccharin) tests, whereas JMV 2959 alone did not induce CTA. The combination of JMV 2959 and nicotine induced a moderate degree of CTA that was similar to that produced by nicotine alone. These results suggest that JMV 2959 is unlikely to limit either reinforcement or food ingestion via induction of malaise.

RevDate: 2018-03-23
CmpDate: 2018-02-07

Ward M, Norman H, MS D'Souza (2018)

Effects of pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptors on the aversive effects of nicotine.

Behavioural brain research, 338:56-65.

Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0.03, 0.15 & 0.3mg/kg; s.c.) and inhibited using the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 15 & 30mg/kg; s.c.) in separate groups of rats using a between-subjects design. Pretreatment with the KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased aversion for the nicotine-associated solution. Additionally, (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) on its own induced aversion to the flavored solution associated with it even in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that the KOR agonist induced increase in nicotine-induced aversion was an additive effect. Interestingly, administration of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI (30mg/kg) prior to conditioning with nicotine/saline, but not after conditioning with nicotine/saline, attenuated nicotine-induced aversive effects compared to saline controls. Taken together, these data suggest a role for KORs in the aversive effects of nicotine.

RevDate: 2018-07-02
CmpDate: 2018-07-02

Song G, Zhu Q, Han F, et al (2018)

Local infusion of ghrelin into the lateral amygdala blocks extinction of conditioned taste aversion in rats.

Neuroscience letters, 662:71-76.

Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Our previous study showed that ghrelin locally infused into the lateral amygdala (LA) activates its receptor GHS-R1a and blocks acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling on extinction of CTA. We found that local infusion of ghrelin (5μM, 0.5μl/side) into the LA not only interfered with CTA memory formation, but also the extinction of CTA memory. Pre-administration of GHS-R1a antagonist blocked ghrelin's effect on both CTA acquisition and extinction. However, pre-treatment with PI3K inhibitor only abolished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on acquisition, but not on extinction. Altogether, our data indicated that ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling in the LA circuit modulates both acquisition and extinction of CTA, the two forms of taste aversion processes with distinct mechanisms may also share certain molecular and circuit components in common.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Vandaele Y, Pribut HJ, PH Janak (2017)

Lever Insertion as a Salient Stimulus Promoting Insensitivity to Outcome Devaluation.

Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 11:23.

Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets). Lever insertion thus constituted an audio-visual stimulus signaling the opportunity for reward. Using sensory-specific satiety-induced devaluation, we found that rats trained with grain-based pellets remained sensitive to outcome devaluation over the course of training with this procedure whereas rats trained with a solution of 20% sucrose rapidly developed habit, and that insensitivity to outcome devaluation in rats trained with sucrose did not result from a bias in general satiety. Importantly, although rats trained with pellets were sensitive to satiety-induced devaluation, their performance was not affected by degradation of instrumental contingency and devaluation by conditioned taste aversion (CTA), suggesting that these rats may also have developed habitual responding. To test whether the discrete-trials procedure biases subjects towards habitual responding, we compared discrete-trials to free-running instrumental responding, and found that rats trained with sucrose in a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) procedure with continuous presentation of the lever were goal-directed. Together, these results demonstrate that discrete presentations of a stimulus predictive of reward availability promoted the formation of S-R habit in rats trained with liquid sucrose. Further research is necessary to explain inconsistencies in sensitivity to outcome devaluation when rats are trained with grain-based pellets.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Sunada H, Totani Y, Nakamura R, et al (2017)

Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 11:161.

The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM) following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1) collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F1) cross snails) would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA). All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-06-08

Molero-Chamizo A, GN Rivera-Urbina (2017)

Effects of lesions in different nuclei of the amygdala on conditioned taste aversion.

Experimental brain research, 235(11):3517-3526.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning that depends on brain mechanisms not completely identified. The amygdala is one of the structures that make up these mechanisms, but the involvement of its nuclei in the acquisition of CTA is unclear. Lesion studies suggest that the basolateral complex of the amygdala, including the basolateral and lateral amygdala, could be involved in CTA. The central amygdala has also been considered as an important nucleus for the acquisition of CTA in some studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of lesions of the basolateral complex of the amygdala on the acquisition of CTA has not been directly compared with the effect of lesions of the central and medial nuclei of the amygdala. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of lesions of different nuclei of the amygdala (the central and medial amygdala and the basolateral complex) on the acquisition of taste aversion in male Wistar rats. The results indicate that lesions of the basolateral complex of the amygdala reduce the magnitude of the CTA when compared with lesions of the other nuclei and with animals without lesions. These findings suggest that the involvement of the amygdala in the acquisition of CTA seems to depend particularly on the integrity of the basolateral complex of the amygdala.

RevDate: 2019-03-29
CmpDate: 2019-03-29

Kwok DW, RA Boakes (2019)

Situational relevance: Context as a factor in serial overshadowing of taste aversion learning.

Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006), 72(2):263-273.

In a serial overshadowing procedure, a target stimulus, A, is followed after an interval by a potentially interfering stimulus, B, and this is then followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US). An untested proposal from over four decades ago was that the degree to which B overshadows conditioning of A depends on whether or not the two events take place in the same context. To test this, two experiments used a 1-trial long-delay conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure: sucrose served as the target taste (A) and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the overshadowing taste (B), with lithium chloride injection providing the US. In Experiment 1, these tastes were novel: weaker overshadowing by HCl of an aversion to sucrose was found when the two tastes were presented in different contexts. Experiment 2 tested whether the effect of pre-exposure to HCl, thereby rendering it less effective in overshadowing a sucrose aversion, was also context dependent. In the conditioning session, rats again received either context-same or context-different presentations of sucrose and HCl. However, for some rats, HCl was pre-exposed in the same context to which it was later presented during conditioning (Consistent), while others were pre-exposed to HCl in a different context to the one in which it was presented during conditioning (Inconsistent). The Inconsistent group produced greater overshadowing than the Consistent group and thus confirmed that the latent inhibition effect was also context dependent. This study confirms the concept of situational relevance.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )