Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account
picture

  MENU

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

icon

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993. More About:  ESP | OUR CONTENT | THIS WEBSITE | WHAT'S NEW | WHAT'S HOT

ESP Timelines

Comparative Timelines

The ESP Timeline (one of the site's most popular features) has been completely updated to allow the user to select (using the timeline controls above each column) different topics for the left and right sides of the display.

Select:

New Left Column

New Left Column

Dates

Decade

New Right Column

New Right Column

(no entry for this year)

1540

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1541

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1542

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1543

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1544

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1545

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1546

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1547

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1548

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1549

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1550

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1551

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1552

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1553

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1554

Venetian mathematician Giambattista Benedetti publishes two editions of Demonstratio proportionum motuum localium, developing his new doctrine of the speed of bodies in free fall.

(no entry for this year)

1555

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1556

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1557

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1558

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1559

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1560

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1561

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1562

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1563

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1564

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1565

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1566

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1567

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1568

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1569

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1570

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1571

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1572

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1573

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1574

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1575

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1576

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1577

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1578

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1579

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1580

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1581

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1582

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1583

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1584

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1585

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1586

Galileo publishes La Billancetta, describing an accurate balance to weigh objects in air or water.

(no entry for this year)

1587

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1588

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1589

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1590

Glass lenses are developed in the Netherlands and used for the first time in microscopes and telescopes.

(no entry for this year)

1591

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1592

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1593

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1594

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1595

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1596

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1597

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1598

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1599

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1600

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1601

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1602

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1603

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1604

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1605

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1606

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1607

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1608

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1609

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1610

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1611

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1612

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1613

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1614

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1615

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1616

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1617

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1618

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1619

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1620

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1621

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1622

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1623

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1624

Galileo presents to Cesi, founder of the Lincean Academy, a "little eyeglass" (a microscope). The invention will enable the Linceans to study natural objects with unprecedented precision. They will start with bees, then move on to flies and dust mites.

(no entry for this year)

1625

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1626

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1627

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1628

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1629

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1630

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1631

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1632

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1633

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1634

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1635

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1636

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1637

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1638

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1639

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1640

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1641

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1642

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1643

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1644

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1645

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1646

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1647

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1648

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1649

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1650

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1651

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1652

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1653

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1654

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1655

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1656

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1657

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1658

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1659

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1660

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1661

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1662

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1663

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1664

image Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors.

(no entry for this year)

1665

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1666

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1667

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1668

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1669

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1670

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1671

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1672

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1673

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1674

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1675

The English physicist Sir Isaac Newton argues that light is composed of particles, which are refracted by acceleration toward a denser medium, and posits the existence of “aether” to transmit forces between the particles.

(no entry for this year)

1676

image The first quantitative estimate of the speed of light was made in 1676 by Danish astronomer Ole Rømer. From the observation that the periods of Jupiter's innermost moon Io appeared to be shorter when the Earth was approaching Jupiter than when receding from it, he concluded that light travels at a finite speed, and estimated that it takes light 22 minutes to cross the diameter of Earth's orbit. Christiaan Huygens combined this estimate with an estimate for the diameter of the Earth's orbit to obtain an estimate of speed of light of 220000 km/s, 26% lower than the actual value.

(no entry for this year)

1677

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1678

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1679

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1680

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1681

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1682

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1683

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1684

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1685

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1686

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1687

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1688

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1689

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1690

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1691

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1692

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1693

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1694

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1695

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1696

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1697

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1698

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1699

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1700

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1701

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1702

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1703

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1704

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1705

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1706

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1707

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1708

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1709

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1710

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1711

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1712

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1713

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1714

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1715

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1716

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1717

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1718

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1719

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1720

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1721

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1722

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1723

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1724

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1725

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1726

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1727

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1728

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1729

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1730

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1731

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1732

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1733

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1734

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1735

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1736

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1737

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1738

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1739

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1740

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1741

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1742

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1743

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1744

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1745

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1746

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1747

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1748

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1749

(no entry for this year)

image Carolus Linnaeus's Philosophia Botanica rejects any notion of evolution and continues his work in classifying plants.

1750

(no entry for this year)

image Linnaeus's Species Plantarum completes his development of the use of binary nomenclature in botany. The work still provides the foundation for the modern classification of species.

1751

image Benjamin Franklin describes electricity as a single fluid and distinguishes between positive and negative electricity in Experiments and Observations on Electricity. He shows that electricity can magnetize and demagnetize iron needles.

(no entry for this year)

1752

image The lightning conductor is invented by Benjamin Franklin, whose experiments with lightning include a flying a kite in a thunderstorm. The kite experiment shows that lightning is a form of electricity, similar to the discharge from a Leyden jar.

(no entry for this year)

1753

image Russian scientist Georg Wilhelm Richmann is killed performing a lightning experiment in St. Petersburg. Richmann is electrocuted in while trying to quantify the response of an insulated rod to a nearby storm. The incident, reported worldwide, underscored the dangers inherent in experimenting with insulated rods and in using protective rods with faulty ground connections.

(no entry for this year)

1754

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1755

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1756

image William Cullen observes the cooling effect of evaporating liquids and publishes the results in An Essay on the Cold Produced by Evaporating Fluids and Other Means of Producing Cold.

(no entry for this year)

1757

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1758

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1759

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1760

image Photometria by German physicist Johann Lambert is an investigation of light reflections from planets, introducing the term ALBEDO (whiteness) for the differing reflectivities of planetary bodies.

image In experiments with primitive apparatus, Daniel Bernoulli decides that the electrical force obeys an inverse square law similar to that of gravity.

Jean-Baptiste Robinet's five-volume De la nature claims that organic species form a linear scale of progress, without gaps.

1761

image Joseph Black discovers latent heat by finding that ice, when melting, absorbs heat without changing in temperature. Later he measures the latent heat of steam — that is, the heat required to keep water boiling without raising its temperature.

(no entry for this year)

1762

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1763

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1764

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1765

image Leonhard Euler gives a general treatment of the motion of rigid bodies, including the precession and nutation of earth, in Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum (Theory of the motion of solid and rigid bodies).

(no entry for this year)

1766

image Horace-Bénédict de Saussure invents the electrometer, a device for measuring the electric potential by means of the attraction or repulsion of charged bodies.

(no entry for this year)

1767

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1768

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1769

image John Robison measures the repulsion between two charged bodies and shows that this force is inversely proportional to the distance between the two bodies.

(no entry for this year)

1770

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1771

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1772

Swedish scientist Johan Carl Wilcke calculates the latent heat of ice (the amount of heat absorbed when ice turns into water).

(no entry for this year)

1773

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1774

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1775

image Alessandro Volta describes his electrofore perpetuo device for producing and storing a charge of static electricity. This device replaces the Leyden jar and eventually leads to modern electrical condensers.

(no entry for this year)

1776

image Pierre-Simon Laplace states that if all of the forces on all objects in any one time are known, then the future can be completely predicted.

(no entry for this year)

1777

image Charles-Augustin Coulomb invents the torsion balance.

(no entry for this year)

1778

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1779

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1780

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1781

image Coloumb's Théorie des machiones simple (Theory of simple machines) is a study of friction.

Johan Carl Wilcke introduces the concept of SPECIFIC HEAT.

(no entry for this year)

1782

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1783

image Horace-Bénédict de Saussure's Essais sur l'hygromé (Essay on measuring humidity) describes how to construct a hygrometer from human hair that can measure relative humidity.

(no entry for this year)

1784

George Atwood accurately determines the acceleration of a free-falling body.

(no entry for this year)

1785

image Couloumb makes precise measurements of the forces of attraction and repulsion between charged bodies and between magnetic poles, using a torsion balance, demonstrating conclusively that electric charge and magnetism obey inverse-square laws like that of gravity. He also discovers that electrically charged bodies discharge spontaneously. In the 20th century, it is found that cosmic radiation is responsible for this discharge.

(no entry for this year)

1786

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1787

image Jacques-Alexandre Charles shows that different gases expand by the same amount for a given rise in temperature (Charles Law).

(no entry for this year)

1788

(no entry for this year)

image Johann Wolfgang Goethe's Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären (Attempt to explain the metamorphosis of plants) claims incorrectly that all plant structures are modified leaves, but clearly espouses evolution.

1789

The French chemist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier definitively states the Law of Conservation of Mass (although others had previously expressed similar ideas, including the ancient Greek Epicurus, the medieval Persian Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and the 18th Century scientists Mikhail Lomonosov, Joseph Black, Henry Cavendish and Jean Rey), and identifies (albeit slightly incorrectly) 23 elements which he claims can not be broken down into simpler substances.

(no entry for this year)

1790

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1791

image Luigi Galvani announces that electricity applied to severed frog's legs causes them to twitch and that frogs legs twitch in the presence of two different metals with no electric current present. The latter discovery eventually leads to Alessandro Volta's developing the electric battery.

image Pierre Prévost develops his theory of exchanges of radiation of heat. He correctly shows that cold is merely the absence of heat and that all bodies continually radiate heat. If they seem not to radiate heat, it means that they are in heat equilibrium with their environment.

(no entry for this year)

1792

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1793

(no entry for this year)

image Erasmus Darwin (Charles' grandfather) publishes Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life.

James Hutton publishes An Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge. Buried in the 2,138-page philosophical tome is a chapter about variety in nature in which Hutton anticipates Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

1794

image Alessandro Volta demonstrates that the electric force observed by Galvani is not connected with living creatures, but can be obtained whenever two different metals are placed in a conducting fluid.

image James Hutton's Theory of the Earth published, interpreting certain geological strata as former sea beds. Hutton proposes geological theory of gradualism.

1795

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1796

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1797

(no entry for this year)

image Publication of Thomas Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population, a work that Darwin asserted helped him frame the principle of evolution by natural selection.

1798

Henry Cavendish determines the mass of Earth by measuring the gravity between two small masses and two large masses. This gives the gravitational constant G, which was the only unknown in Newton's equations. Solving for G enables Cavendish to establish that Earth is about 5.5 times as dense as water.

image Enquiry concerning the source of heat which is excited by friction by Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson) describes his experiments with boring cannons that show that the caloric theory of heat cannot be true, and that heat should be considered a kind of motion.

image The first mammoth fossil fully documented by modern science is discovered near the delta of the Lena River in 1799 by Ossip Schumachov, a Siberian hunter. Schumachov allows it to thaw (a process taking several years) until he can retrieve the tusks for sale to the ivory trade in Yakutsk. He then abandons the specimen, allowing it to decay before its recovery. In 1806, Russian botanist Mikhail Adams rescues what remained of the specimen and brought it to the Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. The specimen, which became known as the Adams Mammoth, is stuffed and mounted, and continues to be on display at the Zoological Institute.

Charles White publishes An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man, and in Different Animals and Vegetables, a treatise on the great chain of being, showing people of color at the bottom of the human chain.

1799

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1800

image Alessandro Volta announces his invention, made in 1799, of the electric battery, also known as the Voltaic pile. It consists of a stack of alternating zinc and silver discs separated by felt soaked in brine. It is the first source of a steady electric current.

image William Herschel's "An investigation of the powers of prismatic colors to heat and illuminate objects" tells of his discovery of infrared radiation. While investigating the power of different parts of the spectrum to heat a thermometer, he finds that invisible light beyond the red produces the most heat.

image Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Système de Animaux sans Vertèbres (System for Animals without Vertebrae) includes a classification system for invertebrates and a preliminary view of his ideas of evolution.

1801

image The English scientist Thomas Young demonstrates, in his famous double-slit experiment, the interference of light and concludes that light is a wave, not a particle as Sir Isaac Newton had ruled.

In Natural Theology, William Paley uses the analogy of a watch requiring a watchmaker to argue that the universe implies an intelligent designer.

1802

image Thomas Young's On the theory of light and colors is the first of three pivotal papers describing his wave theory of light.

(no entry for this year)

1803

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1804

John Leslie's An experimental inquiry into the nature and propagation of heat establishes that the transmission of heat through radiation has the same properties as the propagation of light.

(no entry for this year)

1805

image Pierre-Simon Laplace measures molecular forces in liquids and announces his theory of capillary forces.

The English chemist John Dalton develops his atomic theory, proposing that each chemical element is composed of atoms of a single unique type, and that, though they are both immutable and indestructible, they can combine to form more complex structures.

(no entry for this year)

1806

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1807

image Thomas Young introduces the concept of, and is the first to use the word, ENERGY.

(no entry for this year)

1808

image Étienne-Louis Malus discovers that reflected light is polarized and introduces the term POLARIZATION.

image 12 Feb 1809

Charles Darwin is born

image Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory of evolution presented with the publication of his Philosophie Zoologique, which emphasized the fundamental unity of life and the capacity of species to vary.

1809

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1810

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1811

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1812

image William Hyde Wollaston invents the camera lucida, a device for projecting an image onto a flat surface, such as drawing paper, on which the object can then be traced.

image Swiss-French botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle introduces the word TAXONOMY in his lifelong project of a 21-volume plant encyclopedia. Seven volumes are published during his lifetime, the remainder after his death.

1813

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1814

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1815

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1816

image Augustin Fresnel demonstrates with his mirror experiment the wave nature of light. He also gives an explanation of polarization.

image Georges Cuvier's Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation (The animal kingdom, distributed according to its organization) gives an account of the whole animal kingdom, dividing it into four distinct groups.

1817

image image Thomas Young and Augustin Fresnel demonstrated that light waves must be transverse vibrations.

(no entry for this year)

1818

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1819

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1820

image André-Marie Ampère formulates one of the basic laws of electromagnetism, the right-hand rule for the influence of an electric current on the magnet and demonstrates that two wires that are carrying an electric current will attract or repel each other, depending on whether the occurrence are in opposite where the same directions.

image Dominique-François Arago discovers the magnetic effect of electricity passing through a copper wire, demonstrating that iron is not necessary for magnetism.

image Augustin-Jean Fresnel invents the so-called Fresnel lens, a lens used in lighthouses.

image The science of electrodynamics is born with the announcement of Hans Christian Ørsted's discovery of electromagnetism.

(no entry for this year)

1821

(no entry for this year)

Etienne Geoffroy publishes Anatomical Philosophy discussing similarities between skeletal structures — such as bat wings, paws and hands — that support the evolutionary claims of Lamarck. He also argues that arthropods and vertebrates have similar but inverse body plans, an assertion that will ultimately be widely accepted.

1822

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1823

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1824

image Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu (On the motive power of fire) by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot shows that work is done as heat passes from a high temperature to a low temperature; defines work; hints at the second law of thermodynamics; and suggests internal combustion engines.

(no entry for this year)

1825

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1826

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1827

image Theory of systems of rays by William Rowan Hamilton is a unification of the study of optics through the principle of "varying action". It contains his correct prediction of conical refraction. When his prediction is verified, he becomes a well-known and is knighted.

(no entry for this year)

1828

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1829

image Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis coins the term KINETIC ENERGY in On the calculation of mechanical action.

image Joseph Henry shows that passing an electric current through a wire wrapped into coils produces a greater magnetic field than is produced when that same current is passed through a straight wire, and that an insulated wire wrapped around an iron core can produce a powerful electromagnet.

image Charles Lyell's multi-volume Principles of Geology appear (between 1830 amd 1833), advancing the theory of uniformitarianism, i.e., the view that geological formations are explainable in terms of forces and conditions observable at present.

1830

(no entry for this year)

image Charles Darwin joins the crew of the HMS Beagle as the ship's naturalist. The Beagle plans a two-year voyage to map the coast of South America. This turns out to be a five-year trip.

Patrick Matthew publishes On Naval Timber and Arboriculture with an appendix describing what Charles Darwin will later name natural selection. After becoming aware of Matthew's hypothesis, Darwin will acknowledge it in a reprint of On the Origin of Species.

1831

Independently, Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry discover that electricity can be induced by changes in a magnetic field (electromagnetic induction), a discovery leading to the first electric generators.

(no entry for this year)

1832

(no entry for this year)

image The first volume of the five-volume Recherches sur les poissons fossiles (Researches on Fossil Fishes) by Jean-Louis-Rodolphe Agassiz is published.

1833

image image In correspondence, Michael Faraday and William Whewell introduce the terms ELECTRODE, ANODE, ION, CATHODE, ANION, CATION, ELECTROLYTE, and ELECTROLYSIS.

(no entry for this year)

1834

image Mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) shows that the origin of the Earth's magnetic field must lie deep inside the Earth. He makes use of the measurements of the magnetic field made by the physicist Paul Erman in 1828.

image While serving as scientific officer on the HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin visits the Galapagos Islands. He observes that the many varieties of finches on the islands seem to have developed from a common ancestor found on the mainland of South America.

1835

image Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis's Mémoire sur les equations du mouvement relatif des sytèms de corps (Memoir on the equations of relative movement of systems of bodies) describes the Coriolis effect: the deflection of a moving body caused by Earth's rotation. The Coriolis effect is important in the study of wind. However, the claim that the Coriolis effect determines the direction water rotates when going down a drain is a myth.

(no entry for this year)

1836

image John Frederic Danielle invents the Daniell cell, the first reliable source of electric current, based on the interactions of copper and zinc.

Charles Darwin formulates the theory of natural selection to explain evolution. Fearful of the reaction his theory will cause, he delays publishing.

1837

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1838

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1839

The English scientist Michael Faraday concludes from his work on electromagnetism that, contrary to scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various kinds of electricity are illusory. He also establishes that magnetism can affect rays of light, and that there is an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.

image Charles Darwin's Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle appears.

1840

image Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel shows that light can initiate chemical reactions that produce an electric current.

(no entry for this year)

1841

(no entry for this year)

image Charles Darwin's book The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, is published. During the year Darwin composes an abstract of his theory of species evolution.

1842

image German physician and physicist Julius Robert Mayer is the first to state the law of conservation of energy, noting specifically that heat and mechanical energy are two aspects of the same thing.

image On the uniform motion of heat in homogeneous solid bodies, by William Thomson, aka Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), is published. Thomson's concern with the physics of cooling bodies will draw him into debates concerning the age of the Earth. In 1846 he calculates that the Earth can be no more than 100 million years old.

image The change in the observed frequency of waves emitted from a source, moving relative to the observer, is described by Christian Johann Doppler (1803-1853). This phenomenon is now known as the Doppler Effect.

(no entry for this year)

1843

image James Prescott Joule determines the mechanical equivalent of heat by measuring the rise in temperature produced in water by stirring it.

image Charles Darwin first outlines his thoughts on natural selection in an unpublished essay.

image Robert Chambers, a Scottish journalist, publishes (anonymously) his Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, an early book outlining an evolutionary view of the natural world.

image The second part of the Geology of the Beagle, Charles Darwin's Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, is published. Darwin's book claims to supply evidence for the geological theories of Charles Lyell (1797-1875), from areas that Lyell himself had never seen.

1844

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1845

image Michael Faraday relates magnetism to light after finding the magnetic field effects the polarization of light in crystals. He proposes that light may be waves of electromagnetism. He also describes the phenomena of diamagnetism and paramagnetism, which he explains in terms of his concept of a magnetic field.

(no entry for this year)

1846

image James Prescott Joule discovers that the length of an iron bar changes slightly when the bar is magnetized.

(no entry for this year)

1847

image Über die Erhaltung der Kraft ("On the Conservation of Force"), by Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz (1821-1894), is published. It articulates what later becomes known as the Conservation of Energy.

image On the archetype and homologies of the vertebrate skeleton, by Richard Owen (1804-1892), is published. In the book Owen argues that the skull, and other parts of the body, are formed by the modification of the vertebra of different animals.

Richard Owen describes "homologies" — similarities of design in bird wings, fish fins and human hands.

1848

image An absolute scale of temperatures is proposed by William Thomson (1824-1907). Thomson will become Baron Kelvin of Largs, in 1892, and the scale will come to bear his name.

image Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau suggests that light from a source of moving away from the observer will be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, a phenomenon known as redshift. This is closely related to, but not exactly the same as, the Doppler effect.

(no entry for this year)

1849

image Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau measures the velocity of light in error by measuring the time it takes for a beam of light to pass between the teeth of a rotating gear. The light is reflected by a mirror and stopped by the next tooth of the gear. The result, 315,000 km/se4c (196,000 miles/sec), is within 5% of today's accepted value.

image In describing Sadi Carnot's theory of heat, published in 1824, William Thomson (1824-1907) uses the term THERMODYNAMICS.

image The speed of light is measured by physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (1819-1896) to be approximately 186,000 miles per second.

(no entry for this year)

1850

image In Über die bewegende Kraft der Wärme, mathematical physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius articulates what comes to be known as the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The law states that heat can only be transferred from a warmer body to a colder body. In 1865, he'll restate the Law, saying that in the closed system entropy always increases.

(no entry for this year)

1851

image Léon Foucault demonstrates that the Earth rotates using a pendulum, suspended from the ceiling of a church.

image Physicist William Thomson proposes a concept of "absolute zero", at which the energy of molecules is zero. He draws on Charles' Law to show that such a condition would hold at -273 degrees Celsius.

(no entry for this year)

1852

image image James Prescott Joule and William Thompson, later Lord Kelvin, establish that an expanding gas becomes cooler. This is now known as the Joule-Thompson effect.

(no entry for this year)

1853

image Léon Foucault demonstrates that the velocity of light is lesson water than in air, tending to confirm the wave theory of light.

image William John Macquorn Rankine introduces the concept of potential energy, or energy of position.

(no entry for this year)

1854

(no entry for this year)

image Alfred Russel Wallace publishes "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species," anticipating Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.

1855

(no entry for this year)

image The remains of the first known example of what come to be known as the "Neanderthals" is found in a cave near Düsseldorf, in the Neander Valley. The discovery was made by limestone quarry miners and consists of a skullcap, two femora, the three right arm bones, two of the left arm bones, ilium, and fragments of a scapula and ribs. The fossils were given to Johann Carl Fuhlrott, a local teacher and amateur naturalist. The first description of the remains was made by anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen and the find was announced jointly in 1857.In 1997, the specimen was the first to yield Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA fragments. The description of this discovery represents the beginning of paleoanthropology as a scientific discipline.

Louis Agassiz publishes Essay on Classification advocating a theory of multiple creations and contradicting both evolution and Noah's ark.

1856

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1857

image Über die Art der Bewegung, welche wir Wäe nennen (On the type of motion turned heat) by Rudolf Clausius is establishes his kinetic theory of heat of the mathematical basis. It also explains how evaporation occurs.

image Alfred Russel Wallace sends to Darwin a manuscript — "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type" — that shows clearly that Wallace has independently formulated a model of evolution by natural selection.

image image Darwin's and Wallace's ideas are jointly presented to the Linnaean Society of London.

1858

image Julius Plücker shows that cathode rays bend under the influence of a magnet, suggesting they are connected in some way with charge. This is an early step along the path that will lead in 1897 to the discovery that cathode rays are composed of electrons.

image Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

1859

image Gustav Kirchoff recognizes that sodium is found on the sun and discovers his black-body radiation law.

image image Physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and chemist R. W. Bunsen explain that when light passes through a gas, or heated material, only certain wavelengths of the light are absorbed. Therefore, an analysis of the spectrum of the light can reveal the chemical makeup of the gas or material.

image Louis Agassiz attacks Darwin's the origin of species, rejecting the idea of evolution of the species and arguing that each species was created separately.

image Thomas Henry Huxley (sometimes known as Darwin's bulldog) clashes with Bishop "Soapy Sam" Wilberforce about evolution at the annual meeting of The British Association for the Advancement of Science, in what has come to be known as the Huxley-Wilberforce debate.

Bishop Wilberforce is supposed to have asked Huxley sarcastically whether "it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed descent from a monkey." Huxley responded, "If then the question is put to me whether I would rather have a miserable ape for a grandfather or a man highly endowed by nature and possessed of great means of influence and yet employs these faculties and that influence for the mere purpose of introducing ridicule into a grave scientific discussion, I unhesitatingly affirm my preference for the ape." Or words to that effect.

1860

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1861

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1862

(no entry for this year)

Alfred Russel Wallace describes the "Wallace line," the dividing line between Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan fauna, in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London.

1863

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1864

image James Clerk Maxwell's A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field is the first of his publications to use Michael Faraday's concept of a field as the basis of the mathematical treatment of electricity and magnetism. It introduces Maxwell's equations to describe electromagnetism.

(no entry for this year)

1865

image Rudolf Clausius invents the term ENTROPY to describe the degradation of energy in the closed system.

German zoologist Ernst Haeckel publishes General Morphology of Organisms, the first detailed genealogical tree relating all known organisms, incorporating the principles of Darwinian evolution.

1866

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1867

(no entry for this year)

image Charles Darwin publishes The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, in which he offers his own theory of heredity, which he called the "Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis."

Ernst Haeckel publishes Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, subdividing humanity into 12 separate species. He also asserts that evolution consists of 22 phases, the 21st being the "missing link" between apes and humans.

Thomas Henry Huxley publishes "On the Animals which are Most Nearly Intermediate between Birds and Reptiles," arguing that birds are descendants of dinosaurs. This suggestion will not be taken very seriously for another century.

1868

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1869

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1870

(no entry for this year)

image Publication of Charles Darwin's Descent of Man, in which the role of sexual selection in evolution is described for the first time.

Lord Kelvin suggests that "the germs of life might have been brought to the Earth by some meteorite," an idea that will enjoy support a century later.

1871

image George Johnstone Stoney notes that the wavelengths of three lines in the hydrogen spectrum are found to have simple ratios, and anticipation of Balmer's formula, an important step towards understanding the structure of the atom.

image James Clerk Maxwell explains how his statistical theory of heat works by inventing MAXWELL'S DEMON, a mythical creature that can see and handle individual molecules. By opening a gate between two vessels containing a gas only one of fast molecules passing into one, the demon would make heat flow from cold to hot.

(no entry for this year)

1872

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1873

image James Clerk Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism contains the basic laws of electromagnetism and predicts, in great detail, such phenomena as radio waves and pressure caused by light rays.

(no entry for this year)

1874

image Irish physicist George J. Stoney estimates the charge of the then unknown electron to be about 10-20 coulomb, close to the modern value of 1.6021892 x 10-19. He also introduces the term ELECTRON.

image The Cavendish laboratory at Cambridge is completed. Although widely believed to have been named after the 18th-century physicist Henry Cavendish, it is, in fact, named after the entire Cavendish family, because the 19th century steel-making descendent of Henry, William Cavendish, financed the laboratory. The structure of DNA was worked out at the Cavendish many years later by Watson and Crick.

(no entry for this year)

1875

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1876

image Eugen Goldstein shows that the radiation in a vacuum tube produced when an electric current is forced through the tube starts at the cathode. Goldstein introduces the term CATHODE RAY to describe the light emitted.

(no entry for this year)

1877

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1878

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1879

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1880

image Pierre Curie discovers the piezoelectric effect: certain substances produce an electric current when they are physically distorted, and conversely they are physically distorted when an electric current is applied to them. This effect has many applications, including, in the 21st century, the construction of high-end tweeters in stereo systems.

(no entry for this year)

1881

image Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz shows that the electrical charges in atoms are divided into definite integral portions, suggesting the idea that there is a smallest unit of electricity.

(no entry for this year)

1882

image John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, discovers that the ratio of the atomic mass of oxygen to that of hydrogen is not 16 exactly, as had been assumed, but 15.882.

(no entry for this year)

1883

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1884

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1885

Johann Jakob Balmer discovers the formula for the hydrogen spectrum that will later inspire Niels Bohr to develop his model of the atom.

(no entry for this year)

1886

image William Crookes proposes that atomic weights measured by chemists are averages of the weights of different kinds of atoms of the same element (although it will not be until 1910 that Frederick Soddy identifies these different kinds of atoms as isotopes).

(no entry for this year)

1887

image image Albert Michelson and Edward Morley measure the velocity of light in two directions, attempting to detect the proper motion of Earth through the ether (a hypothesized fluid that was assumed to fill all space, providing a medium for the transport of electromagnetic waves). The Michelson Morley experiment reveals no evidence of motion.

image Ernst Mach notes that airflow becomes disturbed at the speed of sound.

(no entry for this year)

1888

image Heinrich Rudolf Hertz produces and detects radio waves for the first time. Radio waves will be called Hertzian waves until renamed by Marconi, who calls them radiotelegraphy waves.

(no entry for this year)

1889

image George Francis Fitzgerald formulates the principle that objects shrink slightly in the direction they are traveling, now known as the Fitzgerald-Lorenz contraction, since Hendrik Antoon Lorentz reaches the same conclusion a few years later.

(no entry for this year)

1890

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1891

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1892

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1893

image Wilhelm Wien discovers that the maximum wavelength emitted by hot body varies inversely with its absolute temperature. Wien's law becomes useful in establishing the temperature of stars. The problems he has with deriving an equation to describe black-body radiation lead to Max Planck's introduction of the quantum in 1900.

(no entry for this year)

1894

image Joseph John (J.J.) Thomson announces that he has found that the velocity of cathode rays is much lower than that of light.

(no entry for this year)

1895

image Charles Thomson Rees Wilson develops the CLOUD CHAMBER, a box containing a gas that is saturated. When a charged particle passes through the gas, small droplets are formed that make the track of the particle visible. The cloud chamber becomes a powerful tool in particle physics.

image Pierre Curie shows that as the temperature of the magnet is increased, there is a level at which the magnetism is disrupted and ceases to exist. This temperature is still called the Curie point.

image Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (Roentgen) discovers X-rays, which will soon be applied in the visualization of bodily structures and in the induction of genetic mutations (both intentionally and accidentally).

(no entry for this year)

1896

image Antoine-Henri Becquerel discovers rays produced by uranium — the first observation of natural radioactivity.

(no entry for this year)

1897

image Joseph John Thomson discovers the electron, the first known particle that is smaller than an atom, in part because he has better vacuum pumps that were previously available. He, and independently, Emil Wiechert, determine the ratio of mass to charge of the particles by deflecting them by electric and magnetic fields.

Marie Curie begins research of "uranium rays" that will lead to the discovery of radioactivity.

(no entry for this year)

1898

image image Marie and Pierre Curie discovered that thorium, gives off "uranium rays", which Marie renames RADIOACTIVITY.

(no entry for this year)

1899

image British physicist Ernest Rutherford discovers the radioactivity from uranium has at least two different forms, which he calls alpha and beta rays.

image image image Fritz Geisel, Antoine-Henri Becquerel, and Marie Curie proved the beta rays consist of high-speed electrons.

(no entry for this year)

1900

image Paul Karl Ludwig Drude shows that moving electrons conduct electricity in metals.

image Paul Ulrich Villard is the first to observe a radiation that is more penetrating than X-rays, now called gamma rays.

image On December 14, Max Planck announces the first step toward quantum theory. He states that substances can emit light only at certain energies, which implies that some physical processes are not continuous, but occur only in specified amounts called quanta.

(no entry for this year)

1901

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1902

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1903

Physicist Ernest Rutherford lectures the British Association that radioactivity could power the sun and maintain its heat, meaning the sun and Earth could be much older than Lord Kelvin's estimate.

(no entry for this year)

1904

(no entry for this year)

K. S. Merezhkovsky suggests that chloroplasts originated as a cyanobacterium swallowed by a protozoan, i.e., algal and plant cells result from two independent organisms that became symbionts. The idea will be largely forgotten until it is suggested again in the 1960s.

1905

Albert Einstein proposes the special theory of relativity (E=mc2).

(no entry for this year)

1906

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1907

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1908

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1909

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1910

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1911

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1912

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1913

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1914

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1915

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1916

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1917

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1918

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1919

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1920

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1921

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1922

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1923

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1924

(no entry for this year)

Tennessee schoolteacher John Thomas Scopes is tried for teaching evolution in the famous "Scopes Monkey Trial." Two-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan leads the prosecution. Labor lawyer Clarence Darrow leads the defense and goads Bryan into declaring that humans are not mammals. The conviction will be overturned on a technicality, and the anti-evolution law will remain on the books for decades.

1925

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1926

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1927

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1928

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1929

(no entry for this year)

image R. A. Fisher publishes Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, a formal analysis of the mathematics of selection.

1930

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1931

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1932

(no entry for this year)

Robert Broom publishes The Coming of Man: Was it Accident or Design? arguing that evolution is really driven by spiritual agencies, some with conflicting priorities, and that mankind is the ultimate aim of all evolution.

1933

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1934

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1935

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1936

(no entry for this year)

T. Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species — a milestone in evolutionary genetics.

1937

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1938

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1939

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1940

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1941

(no entry for this year)

Ernst Mayr publishes Systematics and the Origin of Species, and Julian Huxley publishes Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. Both books are significant contributions to the neo darwinian synthesis combining elements of natural selection, genetics, mutation, population biology and paleontology.

1942

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1943

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1944

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1945

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1946

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1947

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1948

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1949

(no entry for this year)

At a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium, Ernst Mayr argues that all hominid specimens so far found should be categorized in the genus Homo: H. transvaalensis, H. erectus, and H. sapiens.

1950

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1951

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1952

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1953

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1954

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1955

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1956

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1957

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1958

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1959

(no entry for this year)

Alister Hardy promotes his Homo aquaticus or "aquatic ape" hypothesis to the British Sub Aqua Club. He will follow up this announcement with several magazine articles.

1960

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1961

(no entry for this year)

Human geneticist James Neel develops the "thrifty genotype" hypothesis that human ancestors endured feast-famine cycles that made the human body very effective in storing fat for lean times.

1962

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1963

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1964

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1965

(no entry for this year)

Willi Hennig works on a new approach to assessing evolutionary relationships, known as cladistics. Although it will be hotly debated, this technique will eventually become standard practice in paleontology, botany and zoology.

1966

(no entry for this year)

Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) hypothesizes that chloroplasts originated as cyanobacteria, and that mitochondria originated as bacteria. She suggests that both were engulfed by other cells and began functioning as symbionts.

1967

(no entry for this year)

A.G. Cairns-Smith publishes a paper suggesting that the first life on Earth might have been fine-grained clay crystals. He will publish on this topic several more times before his death, but the experimental evidence will remain scant, perhaps in part because sufficient technology doesn't yet exist to test the hypothesis.

1968

(no entry for this year)

R. H. Whittaker proposes to divide all living things into five kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera.

1969

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1970

(no entry for this year)

Five pairs of adult wall lizards are moved between two islands in Croatia. Over the next few decades, the lizards on the new island will evolve larger heads, stronger bites, and a greater tolerance for an herbivorous diet than the original lizard population.

1971

(no entry for this year)

Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge publish their theory of punctuated equilibrium, stating that evolution often occurs in short bursts, followed by long periods of stability.

1972

(no entry for this year)

Half in jest, Francis Crick and Leslie Orgel suggest that ancient aliens may have seeded the early Earth with DNA, and all life on this planet arose from that.

Peter and Rosemary Grant begin a long-term study of finches on the Galápagos Islands. In succeeding years, as they watch finches adapt to alternating wet and dry conditions, the Grants will uncover evidence that evolution proceeds more rapidly than what Darwin estimated.

Taking a line from Through the Looking Glass, Leigh Van Valen establishes the "Red Queen" hypothesis of coevolution between predator and prey: "it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!"

1973

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1974

(no entry for this year)

Mary-Claire King and Allan Wilson publish their finding that human and chimpanzee DNA sequences differ by roughly 1 percent, meaning humans have more in common with chimps than chimps do with gorillas. King and Wilson suggest that humans and chimps differ largely in the DNA that switches on and off genes.

1975

(no entry for this year)

Overturning the classifications introduced by R. H. Whittaker seven years earlier, Carl Woese proposes to divide all living things into three categories: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.

1976

(no entry for this year)

Submersible vehicle Alvin reveals deep sea vents on the ocean floor that give rise to an ecosystem owing nothing to photosynthesis. This finding prompts speculation that life on Earth first arose in deep-sea, not shallow-water, ecosystems.

1977

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1978

(no entry for this year)

image Fresh out of law school and short on cash, Robert Heggestad buys an antique cabinet on an installment plan from a Virginia antique shop. The cabinet turns out to contain some 1,700 plant and invertebrate specimens from the personal collection of Alfred Russel Wallace.

1979

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1980

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1981

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1982

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1983

(no entry for this year)

David Raup and Jack Sepkoski publish the controversial claim that mass extinctions are regularly spaced at 26 million years.

1984

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1985

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1986

(no entry for this year)

Allan Wilson and Rebecca Cann announce that all humans share a common ancestor who lived in Africa as recently as 150,000 years ago. Because the discovery is based on examination of mitochondrial DNA, the ancestral entity will be given the popular (and somewhat misleading) name of "Mitochondrial Eve." The controversial finding will be supported by another discovery in 2000.

1987

(no entry for this year)

Molecular biologist John Cairns describes experiments suggesting that bacteria facing environmental stress can "direct" their mutations to produce favorable adaptations. Directed mutation will remain a controversial idea, but the possibility that organisms mutate at a greater rate (hypermutation) under environmental stress will gain more acceptance.

1988

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1989

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1990

(no entry for this year)

Chicxulub crater is discovered in the Yucatán Peninsula, supporting the asteroid impact theory first suggested in 1980.

1991

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1992

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1993

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1994

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1995

(no entry for this year)

Using "molecular clock" estimates of mutation rates, Greg Wray and collaborators hypothesize that metazoan phyla diverged from each other 1 billion years ago, or even earlier. In other words, they argue that metazoans existed hundreds of millions of years before the earliest metazoan fossils (about 600 million years old) yet found.

1996

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1997

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1998

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

1999

(no entry for this year)

Based on studies of Y chromosomes, Peter Underhill publishes his finding that all modern humans share a common ancestor, bolstering the 1987 announcement from Cann and Wilson. This suggests a "bottleneck" event (population crash) among human ancestors living in Africa roughly 150,000 years ago.

Sally McBearty and Alison Brooks publish "The Revolution that Wasn't" challenging the long-held notion of a "big bang" in human intellectual evolution approximately 40,000 years ago. Instead, they cite evidence for earlier appearances of modern behavior.

2000

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2001

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2002

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2003

(no entry for this year)

Peter Brown, Mike Morwood and collaborators announce the find of a 1-meter-tall hominid skeleton on the Indonesian island of Flores. Found near the remains of giant lizards and pygmy elephants, the new species is formally named Homo floresiensis and nicknamed the "hobbit." Though some suspect it's a kind of malformed, small-brained midget, this interpretation will be answered by braincase scans, wrist bones too primitive to be Homo sapiens, and the announcement of several more individuals of the same species. Later studies will suggest direct ancestry from Homo erectus, although another study will argue the remains really indicate Down syndrome. The species is initially given an estimated age as young as 11,000 years, but later research will indicate an age of at least 50,000 years.

2004

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2005

(no entry for this year)

Jean Moliner, Gerhard Ries, Cyril Zipfel and Barbara Hohn publish their findings on stressed plants that not only mutate at a greater rate, but also pass an increased mutation tendency to their offspring.

2006

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2007

(no entry for this year)

After studying grunting fish, Andrew Bass and colleagues report that the part of the brain controlling volcalization is extremely primitive, and propose that vertebrates evolved the ability to communicate through sound some 400 million years ago.

2008

(no entry for this year)

Gabriele Gentile and colleagues describe a previously overlooked pink iguana, referred to as "rosada," on the Galápagos Islands. The pink lizard species may represent the earliest divergence of land animals on the island chain that Charles Darwin made famous.

2009

(no entry for this year)

Ryan Kerney announces the discovery of algae (Oophila amblystomatis) living inside spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) embryo cells — the first discovery of a photosynthetic symbiont living inside vertebrate cells.

2010

(no entry for this year)

Two studies released in the same week indicate that modern Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians descended from an earlier migration out of Africa than did other populations. Further, the studies suggest that participants in the earlier migration interbred with Denisovans.

2011

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2012

(no entry for this year)

Based on new genetic research, David Reich, Svante Pääbo and collaborators announce at a Royal Society of London meeting that Denisovans bred with Neanderthals, ancestors of people now living in East Asia and Oceania, and another group of extinct archaic humans who were genetically dissimilar to both Neanderthals and modern humans. A few weeks later, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo and coauthors describe the oldest hominin DNA sequence to date, from a 400,000-year-old femur from Spain's Sima de los Huesos. The mitochondrial DNA indicate an unexpected link to Denisovans.

Using genetic material from more than 300 individuals, including aboriginal Australians from the Northern Territory, a team of geneticists argues that Australians — long believed isolated from other populations for some 45,000 years — received substantial gene flow from India about 4,230 years ago.

2013

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2014

(no entry for this year)

Bhart-Anjan Bhullar, Arhat Abzhanov and colleagues announce that they have reverse engineered dinosaur snouts in chicken embryos by altering beak-building gene expressions.

Stephen Hackley publishes a review article arguing that human brains retain vestigial neural circuitry, the same circuitry that currently allows other mammals (and once allowed our ancient ancestors) to orient their ears toward novel stimuli.

2015

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2016

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2017

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2018

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

2019

(no entry for this year)

ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

foobar

Timeline

The new, dynamic Timeline from the Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project gives users more control over the timeline display.

We seek your suggestions for timeline content, both for individual events and for entire subjects.

To submit a correction or a recommendation or to propose new Timeline content (or to volunteer as a Timeline Editor), click HERE.

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project needs help: with acquiring content, with writing, with editing, with graphic production, and with financial support.

CLICK HERE to see what ESP needs most.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 06 MAR 2017 )