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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 May 2024 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Kok CR, Rose DJ, Cui J, et al (2024)

Identification of carbohydrate gene clusters obtained from in vitro fermentations as predictive biomarkers of prebiotic responses.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):183.

BACKGROUND: Prebiotic fibers are non-digestible substrates that modulate the gut microbiome by promoting expansion of microbes having the genetic and physiological potential to utilize those molecules. Although several prebiotic substrates have been consistently shown to provide health benefits in human clinical trials, responder and non-responder phenotypes are often reported. These observations had led to interest in identifying, a priori, prebiotic responders and non-responders as a basis for personalized nutrition. In this study, we conducted in vitro fecal enrichments and applied shotgun metagenomics and machine learning tools to identify microbial gene signatures from adult subjects that could be used to predict prebiotic responders and non-responders.

RESULTS: Using short chain fatty acids as a targeted response, we identified genetic features, consisting of carbohydrate active enzymes, transcription factors and sugar transporters, from metagenomic sequencing of in vitro fermentations for three prebiotic substrates: xylooligosacharides, fructooligosacharides, and inulin. A machine learning approach was then used to select substrate-specific gene signatures as predictive features. These features were found to be predictive for XOS responders with respect to SCFA production in an in vivo trial.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the bifidogenic effect of commonly used prebiotic substrates along with inter-individual microbial responses towards these substrates. We successfully trained classifiers for the prediction of prebiotic responders towards XOS and inulin with robust accuracy (≥ AUC 0.9) and demonstrated its utility in a human feeding trial. Overall, the findings from this study highlight the practical implementation of pre-intervention targeted profiling of individual microbiomes to stratify responders and non-responders.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Chen X, Yang Y, Wang J, et al (2024)

Impacts of o-cresol spill on composition and function of river sediment and soil microbial communities.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 31(22):31978-31988.

o-Cresol is a toxic substance with strong irritating and corrosive effects on skin and mucous membranes. To date, information on the effects of o-cresol on microbial communities in the natural environment is very limited. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic technique were carried out to elucidate the effects of the o-cresol spill on microbial communities in river sediments and nearby soils. o-Cresol spill induced the increase in the relative abundance of phyla Planctomycetes and Gemmatimonadetes, suggesting their resilience to o-cresol-induced stress. Uncultured Gemmatimonadetes genera and the MND1 genus exhibited enrichment, while the Pseudomonas genus dominated across all samples, indicating their potential pivotal roles in adapting to the o-cresol spill. Moreover, o-cresol spill impaired the metabolic functions of microbes but triggered their defense mechanisms. Under o-cresol pressure, microbial functions related to carbon fixation were upregulated and functions associated with sulfur metabolism were downregulated. In addition, the o-cresol spill led to an increase in functional genes related to the conversion of o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol. Several genes involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds were also identified, potentially contributing to the biodegradation of o-cresol. This study provides fresh insights into the repercussions of an abrupt o-cresol spill on microbial communities in natural environments, shedding light on their adaptability, defense mechanisms, and biodegradation potential.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Sung C, Park CG, Maienschein-Cline M, et al (2024)

Associations Between Gut Microbial Features and Sickness Symptoms in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Biological research for nursing, 26(3):368-379.

PURPOSE: The study investigated the relationship of gut microbiome features and sickness symptoms in kidney transplant recipients.

METHODS: Employing a prospective, longitudinal design, we collected data from 19 participants who had undergone living-donor kidney transplant at three timepoints (pre-transplant and 1 week and 3 months post-transplant). Sickness symptom data and fecal specimens were collected at each timepoint. Participants were grouped either as high or low sickness symptom severity at baseline. Shotgun metagenomics sequencing characterized gut microbial structure and functional gene content. Fecal microbial features, including alpha (evenness and richness within samples) and beta (dissimilarities between samples) diversity and relative abundances, were analyzed using R statistical packages. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses examined relationships between gut microbial features and sickness symptoms.

RESULTS: Although our exploratory findings revealed no significant differences in alpha and beta diversity between groups, the high-severity group showed lower microbial richness and evenness than the low-severity group. The high-severity group had enriched relative abundance of bacteria from the genera Citrobacter and Enterobacter and reduced relative abundance of bacteria from the genus Akkermansia across timepoints. No functional genes differed significantly between groups or timepoints.

CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplant recipients with high symptom burden displayed increased putative proinflammatory bacteria and decreased beneficial bacteria. This study provides an effect size that future large cohort studies can employ to confirm associations between gut microbial features and sickness symptom experiences in the kidney transplant population. The study findings also have implications for future interventional studies aiming to alleviate the sickness symptom burden in this population.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Shenoy BD, Khandeparker RDS, Fernandes P, et al (2024)

Fungal diversity associated with Goa's tarballs: Insights from ITS region amplicon sequencing.

Fungal biology, 128(3):1751-1757.

This study explores the fungal diversity associated with tarballs, weathered crude oil deposits, on Goa's tourist beaches. Despite tarball pollution being a longstanding issue in Goa state in India, comprehensive studies on associated fungi are scarce. Our research based on amplicon sequence analysis of fungal ITS region fills this gap, revealing a dominance of Aspergillus, particularly Aspergillus penicillioides, associated with tarballs from Vagator and Morjim beaches. Other notable species, including Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Trichoderma species, were identified, all with potential public health and ecosystem implications. A FUNGuild analysis was conducted to investigate the potential ecological roles of these fungi, revealing a diverse range of roles, including nutrient cycling, disease propagation, and symbiotic relationships. The study underscores the need for further research and monitoring, given the potential health risks and contribution of tarball-associated fungi to the bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated beaches.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Bøifot KO, Skogan G, M Dybwad (2024)

Sampling efficiency and nucleic acid stability during long-term sampling with different bioaerosol samplers.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 196(6):577.

Aerosol microbiome studies have received increased attention as technological advancements have made it possible to dive deeper into the microbial diversity. To enhance biomass collection for metagenomic sequencing, long-term sampling is a common strategy. While the impact of prolonged sampling times on microorganisms' culturability and viability is well-established, its effect on nucleic acid stability remains less understood but is essential to ensure representative sample collection. This study evaluated four air samplers (SKC BioSampler, SASS3100, Coriolis μ, BioSpot-VIVAS 300-P) against a reference sampler (isopore membrane filters) to identify nucleic acid stability during long-term sampling. Physical sampling efficiencies determined with a fluorescent tracer for three particle sizes (0.8, 1, and 3 μm), revealed high efficiencies (> 80% relative to reference) for BioSampler, SASS3100, and BioSpot-VIVAS for all particle sizes, and for Coriolis with 3 μm particles. Coriolis exhibited lower efficiency for 0.8 μm (7%) and 1 μm (50%) particles. During 2-h sampling with MS2 and Pantoea agglomerans, liquid-based collection with Coriolis and BioSampler showed a decrease in nucleic acid yields for all test conditions. BioSpot-VIVAS displayed reduced sampling efficiency for P. agglomerans compared to MS2 and the other air samplers, while filter-based collection with SASS3100 and isopore membrane filters, showed indications of DNA degradation for 1 μm particles of P. agglomerans after long-term sampling. These findings show that long-term air sampling affects nucleic acid stability in both liquid- and filter-based collection methods. These results highlight bias produced by bioaerosol collection and should be considered when selecting an air sampler and interpreting aerosol microbiome data.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Chi R, Li M, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Exploring the Association between Anxiety, Depression, and Gut Microbiota during Pregnancy: Findings from a Pregnancy Cohort Study in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China.

Nutrients, 16(10):.

Negative emotions and gut microbiota during pregnancy both bear significant public health implications. However, the relationship between them has not been fully elucidated. This study, utilizing data from a pregnancy cohort, employed metagenomic sequencing to elucidate the relationship between anxiety, depression, and gut microbiota's diversity, composition, species, and functional pathways. Data from 87 subjects, spanning 225 time points across early, mid, and late pregnancy, were analyzed. The results revealed that anxiety and depression significantly corresponded to lower alpha diversity (including the Shannon entropy and the Simpson index). Anxiety and depression scores, along with categorical distinctions of anxiety/non-anxiety and depression/non-depression, were found to account for 0.723%, 0.731%, 0.651%, and 0.810% of the variance in gut-microbiota composition (p = 0.001), respectively. Increased anxiety was significantly positively associated with the abundance of Oscillibacter sp. KLE 1745, Oscillibacter sp. PEA192, Oscillibacter sp. KLE 1728, Oscillospiraceae bacterium VE202 24, and Treponema socranskii. A similar association was significantly noted for Oscillibacter sp. KLE 1745 with elevated depression scores. While EC. arginase appeared to be higher in the anxious group than in the non-anxious group, vitamin B12-related enzymes appeared to be lower in the depression group than in the non-depression group. The changes were found to be not statistically significant after post-multiple comparison adjustment.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Anantharam R, Duchen D, Cox AL, et al (2024)

Long-Read Nanopore-Based Sequencing of Anelloviruses.

Viruses, 16(5):.

Routinely used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) techniques often fail to detect low-level viremia (<10[4] copies/mL) and appear biased towards viruses with linear genomes. These limitations hinder the capacity to comprehensively characterize viral infections, such as those attributed to the Anelloviridae family. These near ubiquitous non-pathogenic components of the human virome have circular single-stranded DNA genomes that vary in size from 2.0 to 3.9 kb and exhibit high genetic diversity. Hence, species identification using short reads can be challenging. Here, we introduce a rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based metagenomic sequencing protocol tailored for circular single-stranded DNA genomes, utilizing the long-read Oxford Nanopore platform. The approach was assessed by sequencing anelloviruses in plasma drawn from people who inject drugs (PWID) in two geographically distinct cohorts. We detail the methodological adjustments implemented to overcome difficulties inherent in sequencing circular genomes and describe a computational pipeline focused on anellovirus detection. We assessed our protocol across various sample dilutions and successfully differentiated anellovirus sequences in conditions simulating mixed infections. This method provides a robust framework for the comprehensive characterization of circular viruses within the human virome using the Oxford Nanopore.

RevDate: 2024-05-27
CmpDate: 2024-05-27

Martínez-Fajardo C, Navarro-Simarro P, Morote L, et al (2024)

Exploring the viral landscape of saffron through metatranscriptomic analysis.

Virus research, 345:199389.

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), a historically significant crop valued for its nutraceutical properties, has been poorly explored from a phytosanitary perspective. This study conducted a thorough examination of viruses affecting saffron samples from Spanish cultivars, using high-throughput sequencing alongside a systematic survey of transcriptomic datasets from Crocus sativus at the Sequence Read Archive. Our analysis unveiled a broad diversity and abundance, identifying 17 viruses across the 52 analyzed libraries, some of which were highly prevalent. This includes known saffron-infecting viruses and previously unreported ones. In addition, we discovered 7 novel viruses from the Alphaflexiviridae, Betaflexiviridae, Potyviridae, Solemoviridae, and Geminiviridae families, with some present in libraries from various locations. These findings indicate that the saffron-associated virome is more complex than previously reported, emphasizing the potential of phytosanitary analysis to enhance saffron productivity.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

De Caro C, Spagnuolo R, Quirino A, et al (2024)

Gut Microbiota Profile Changes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Metagenomic Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(10):.

Gut microbiota imbalances have a significant role in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Herein, we compared gut microbial composition in patients diagnosed with either IBD or NAFLD or a combination of both. Seventy-four participants were stratified into four groups: IBD-NAFLD, IBD-only, NAFLD-only patients, and healthy controls (CTRLs). The 16S rRNA was sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencing. Bioinformatics and statistical analysis were performed. Bacterial α-diversity showed a significant lower value when the IBD-only group was compared to the other groups and particularly against the IBD-NAFLD group. β-diversity also showed a significant difference among groups. The higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was found only when comparing IBD groups and CTRLs. Comparing the IBD-only group with the IBD-NAFLD group, a decrease in differential abundance of Subdoligranulum, Parabacteroides, and Fusicatenibacter was found. Comparing the NAFLD-only with the IBD-NAFLD groups, there was a higher abundance of Alistipes, Odoribacter, Sutterella, and Lachnospira. An inverse relationship in the comparison between the IBD-only group and the other groups was shown. For the first time, the singularity of the gut microbial composition in IBD and NAFLD patients has been shown, implying a potential microbial signature mainly influenced by gut inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Kim S, Cho M, Jung ES, et al (2024)

Investigating Distinct Skin Microbial Communities and Skin Metabolome Profiles in Atopic Dermatitis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(10):.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder influenced by genetic predisposition, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier dysfunction. The skin microbiome and metabolome play crucial roles in modulating the skin's immune environment and integrity. However, their specific contributions to AD remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the distinct skin microbial communities and skin metabolic compounds in AD patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Seven patients with AD patients and seven HCs were enrolled, from whom skin samples were obtained for examination. The study involved 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatics analysis as well as the use of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) to detect metabolites associated with AD in the skin. We observed significant differences in microbial diversity between lesional and non-lesional skin of AD patients and HCs. Staphylococcus overgrowth was prominent in AD lesions, while Cutibacterium levels were decreased. Metabolomic analysis revealed elevated levels of several metabolites, including hypoxanthine and glycerol-3-phosphate in AD lesions, indicating perturbations in purine metabolism and energy production pathways. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between hypoxanthine and glycerol-3-phosphate and clinical severity of AD and Staphylococcus overgrowth. These findings suggest potential biomarkers for monitoring AD severity. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal relationships between microbial dysbiosis, metabolic alterations, and AD progression, paving the way for targeted therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-26
CmpDate: 2024-05-26

Dong B, Peng Y, Wang M, et al (2024)

Multi-omics integrated analyses indicated that non-polysaccharides of Sijunzi decoction ameliorated spleen deficiency syndrome via regulating microbiota-gut-metabolites axis and exerted synergistic compatibility.

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 331:118276.

As a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula to invigorating spleen and replenishing qi, Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) is composed of four herbs, which is applied to cure spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS) clinically. The non-polysaccharides (NPSs) of SJZD (SJZD_NPS) are important pharmacodynamic material basis. However, the amelioration mechanism of SJZD_NPS on SDS has not been fully elaborated. Additionally, the contribution of herbs compatibility to efficacy of this formula remains unclear.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim was to explore the underlying mechanisms of SJZD_NPS on improving SDS, and uncover the scientific connotation in SJZD compatibility.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A strategy integrating incomplete formulae (called "Chai-fang" in Chinese) comparison, pharmacodynamics, gut microbiome, and metabolome was employed to reveal the role of each herb to SJZD compatibility against SDS. Additionally, the underlying mechanism harbored by SJZD_NPS was further explored through targeted metabolomics, network pharmacology, molecular docking, pseudo-sterile model, and metagenomics.

RESULTS: SJZD_NPS significantly alleviated diarrhea, disordered secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and neurotransmitters, damage of ileal morphology and intestinal barrier in SDS rats, which was superior to the NPSs of Chai-fang. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics analyses revealed that SJZD_NPS effectively restored the disturbed gut microbiota community and abnormal metabolism caused by SDS, showing the most evident recovery. Moreover, SJZD_NPS recalled the levels of partial amino acids, short chain fatty acids and bile acids, which possessed strong binding affinity towards potential targets. The depletion of gut microbiota confirmed that the SDS-amelioration efficacy of SJZD_NPS is dependent on the intact gut microbiome, with the relative abundance of potential probiotics such as Lactobacillus_johnsonii and Lactobacillus_taiwanensis been enriched.

CONCLUSION: NPSs in SJZD can improve SDS-induced gastrointestinal-nervous system dysfunction through regulating microbiota-gut-metabolites axis, with four herbs exerting synergistic effects, which indicated the compatibility rationality of SJZD.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

da Silva Duarte V, de Paula Dias Moreira L, Skeie SB, et al (2024)

Database selection for shotgun metaproteomic of low-diversity dairy microbiomes.

International journal of food microbiology, 418:110706.

The metaproteomics field has recently gained more and more interest as a valuable tool for studying both the taxonomy and function of microbiomes, including those used in food fermentations. One crucial step in the metaproteomics pipeline is selecting a database to obtain high-quality taxonomical and functional information from microbial communities. One of the best strategies described for building protein databases is using sample-specific or study-specific protein databases obtained from metagenomic sequencing. While this is true for high-diversity microbiomes (such as gut and soil), there is still a lack of validation for different database construction strategies in low-diversity microbiomes, such as those found in fermented dairy products where starter cultures containing few species are used. In this study, we assessed the performance of various database construction strategies applied to metaproteomics on two low-diversity microbiomes obtained from cheese production using commercial starter cultures and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Substantial differences were detected between the strategies, and the best performance in terms of the number of peptides and proteins identified from the spectra was achieved by metagenomic-derived databases. However, extensive databases constructed from a high number of available online genomes obtained a similar taxonomical and functional annotation of the metaproteome compared to the metagenomic-derived databases. Our results indicate that, in the case of low-diversity dairy microbiomes, the use of publically available genomes to construct protein databases can be considered as an alternative to metagenome-derived databases.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Yin W, Li Y, Xu W, et al (2024)

Unveiling long-term combined effect of salinity and Lead(II) on anammox activity and microbial community dynamics in saline wastewater treatment.

Bioresource technology, 402:130767.

The study assessed the effect of salinity and lead (Pb(II)) on the anammox sludge for nitrogen removal from saline wastewater. Results showed decreased nitrogen removal and specific anammox activity (SAA) with elevated salinity and Pb(II). SAA reduced from 541.3 ± 4.3 mg N g[-1] VSS d[-1] at 0.5 mg/L Pb(II) to 436.0 ± 0.2 mg N g[-1] VSS d[-1] at 30 g/L NaCl, further to 303.6 ± 7.1 mg N g[-1] VSS d[-1] under 30 g/L NaCl + 0.5 mg/L Pb(II). Notably, the combined inhibition at salinity (15-20 g/L NaCl) and Pb(II) (0.3-0.4 mg/L) exhibited synergistic effect, while higher salinity and Pb(II) aligned with independent inhibition models. Combined inhibition decreased protein/polysaccharides ratio, indicating more severe negative effect on anammox aggregation capacity. Metagenomics confirmed decreased Candidatus Kuenenia, and enhanced denitrification under elevated salinity and Pb(II) conditions. This study offers insights into anammox operation for treating saline wastewater with heavy metals.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Tyagi S, P Katara (2024)

A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiome in patients with AMD, ASD, RA, T2D & VKH diseases.

Computational biology and chemistry, 110:108076.

Clinical studies have already illustrated the associations between gut microbes and diseases, yet fundamental questions remain unclear that how we can universalize this knowledge. Considering the important role of human gut microbial composition in maintaining overall health, it is important to understand the microbial diversity and altered disease conditions of the human gut. Metagenomics provides a way to analyze and understand the microbes and their role in a community manner. It provides qualitative as well as quantitative measurements, in terms of relative abundance. Various studies are already going on to find out the association between microbes and diseases; still, the mined knowledge is limited. Considering the current scenario, using the targeted metagenomics approach, we analyzed the gut microbiome of 99 samples from healthy and diseased individuals. Our metagenomic analysis mainly targeted five diseased microbiomes (i.e., Age-related macular degeneration, Autism spectrum disorder, Rheumatoid arthritis, Type 2 diabetes and Vogt-Koyanagi harada), with compare to healthy microbiome, and reported disease-associated microbiome shift in different conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Mang Q, Gao J, Li Q, et al (2024)

Integrative analysis of metagenome and metabolome provides new insights into intestinal health protection in Coilia nasus larvae via probiotic intervention.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part D, Genomics & proteomics, 50:101230.

With the development of large-scale intensive feeding, growth performance and animal welfare have attracted more and more attention. Exogenous probiotics can promote the growth performance of fish through improving intestinal microbiota; however, it remains unclear whether intestinal microbiota influence physiological biomarkers. Therefore, we performed metagenomic and metabolomic analysis to investigate the effects of a 90-day Lactiplantibacillus plantarum supplementation to a basal diet (1.0 × 10[8] CFU/g) on the growth performance, intestinal microbiota and their metabolites, and physiological biomarkers in Coilia nasus larvae. The results showed that the probiotic supplementation could significantly increase weight and body length. Moreover, it could also enhance digestive enzymes and tight junctions, and inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. The metagenomic analysis showed that L. plantarum supplementation could significantly decrease the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and increase the relative abundance of Firmicutes. Additionally, pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonadaceae, Aeromonas, and Enterobacterales) were inhibited and beneficial bacteria (Bacillales) were promoted. The metabolome analysis showed that acetic acid and propanoic acid were significantly elevated, and were associated with Kitasatospora, Seonamhaeicola, and Thauera. A correlation analysis demonstrated that the digestive enzymes, tight junction, oxidative stress, and inflammation effects were significantly associated with the increased acetic acid and propanoic acid levels. These results indicated that L. plantarum supplementation could improve intestinal microbial community structure and function, which could raise acetic acid and propanoic acid levels to protect intestinal health and improve growth performance in C. nasus larvae.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Sun Z, Ning Z, D Figeys (2024)

The Landscape and Perspectives of the Human Gut Metaproteomics.

Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, 23(5):100763.

The human gut microbiome is closely associated with human health and diseases. Metaproteomics has emerged as a valuable tool for studying the functionality of the gut microbiome by analyzing the entire proteins present in microbial communities. Recent advancements in liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques have expanded the detection range of metaproteomics. However, the overall coverage of the proteome in metaproteomics is still limited. While metagenomics studies have revealed substantial microbial diversity and functional potential of the human gut microbiome, few studies have summarized and studied the human gut microbiome landscape revealed with metaproteomics. In this article, we present the current landscape of human gut metaproteomics studies by re-analyzing the identification results from 15 published studies. We quantified the limited proteome coverage in metaproteomics and revealed a high proportion of annotation coverage of metaproteomics-identified proteins. We conducted a preliminary comparison between the metaproteomics view and the metagenomics view of the human gut microbiome, identifying key areas of consistency and divergence. Based on the current landscape of human gut metaproteomics, we discuss the feasibility of using metaproteomics to study functionally unknown proteins and propose a whole workflow peptide-centric analysis. Additionally, we suggest enhancing metaproteomics analysis by refining taxonomic classification and calculating confidence scores, as well as developing tools for analyzing the interaction between taxonomy and function.

RevDate: 2024-05-26
CmpDate: 2024-05-26

Gu W, Wu S, Liu X, et al (2024)

Algal-bacterial consortium promotes carbon sink formation in saline environment.

Journal of advanced research, 60:111-125.

INTRODUCTION: The level of atmospheric CO2 has continuously been increasing and the resulting greenhouse effects are receiving attention globally. Carbon removal from the atmosphere occurs naturally in various ecosystems. Among them, saline environments contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. Carbonate deposits in the sediments of salt lakes are omnipresent, and the biological effects, especially driven by halophilic microalgae and bacteria, on carbonate formation remain to be elucidated.

OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to characterize the carbonates formed in saline environments and demonstrate the mechanisms underlying biological-driven CO2 removal via microalgal-bacterial consortium.

METHODS: The carbonates naturally formed in saline environments were collected and analyzed. Two saline representative organisms, the photosynthetic microalga Dunaliella salina and its mutualistic halophilic bacteria Nesterenkonia sp. were isolated from the inhabiting saline environment and co-cultivated to study their biological effects on carbonates precipitation and isotopic composition. During this process, electrochemical parameters and Ca[2+] flux, and expression of genes related to CaCO3 formation were analyzed. Genome sequencing and metagenomic analysis were conducted to provide molecular evidence.

RESULTS: The results showed that natural saline sediments are enriched with CaCO3 and enrichment of genes related to photosynthesis and ureolysis. The co-cultivation stimulated 54.54% increase in CaCO3 precipitation and significantly promoted the absorption of external CO2 by 49.63%. A pH gradient was formed between the bacteria and algae culture, creating 150.22 mV of electronic potential, which might promote Ca[2+] movement toward D. salina cells. Based on the results of lab-scale induction and [13]C analysis, a theoretical calculation indicates a non-negligible amount of 0.16 and 2.3 Tg C/year carbon sequestration in China and global saline lakes, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The combined effects of these two typical representative species have contributed to the carbon sequestration in saline environments, by promoting Ca[2+] influx and increase of pH via microalgal and bacterial metabolic processes.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Lei Y, Ding D, Duan J, et al (2024)

Soil Microbial Community Characteristics and Their Effect on Tea Quality under Different Fertilization Treatments in Two Tea Plantations.

Genes, 15(5): pii:genes15050610.

Fertilization is an essential aspect of tea plantation management that supports a sustainable tea production and drastically influences soil microbial communities. However, few research studies have focused on the differences of microbial communities and the variation in tea quality in response to different fertilization treatments. In this work, the soil fertility, tea quality, and soil microbial communities were investigated in two domestic tea plantations following the application of chemical and organic fertilizers. We determined the content of mineral elements in the soil, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and found that the supplementation of chemical fertilizer directly increased the content of mineral elements. However, the application of organic fertilizer significantly improved the accumulation of tea polyphenols and reduced the content of caffeine. Furthermore, amplicon sequencing results showed that the different ways of applying fertilizer have limited effect on the alpha diversity of the microbial community in the soil while the beta diversity was remarkably influenced. This work also suggests that the bacterial community structure and abundance were also relatively constant while the fungal community structure and abundance were dramatically influenced; for example, Chaetomiaceae at the family level, Hypocreaceae at the order level, Trichoderma at the genus level, and Fusarium oxysporum at the species level were predominantly enriched in the tea plantation applying organic fertilizer. Moreover, the bacterial and fungal biomarkers were also analyzed and it was found that Proteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria (bacteria) and Tremellomycetes (fungi) were potentially characterized as biomarkers in the plantation under organic fertilization. These results provide a valuable basis for the application of organic fertilizer to improve the soil of tea plantations in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Zhang B, Xiao L, Lyu L, et al (2024)

Exploring the landscape of symbiotic diversity and distribution in unicellular ciliated protists.

Microbiome, 12(1):96.

BACKGROUND: The eukaryotic-bacterial symbiotic system plays an important role in various physiological, developmental, and evolutionary processes. However, our current understanding is largely limited to multicellular eukaryotes without adequate consideration of diverse unicellular protists, including ciliates.

RESULTS: To investigate the bacterial profiles associated with unicellular organisms, we collected 246 ciliate samples spanning the entire Ciliophora phylum and conducted single-cell based metagenome sequencing. This effort has yielded the most extensive collection of bacteria linked to unicellular protists to date. From this dataset, we identified 883 bacterial species capable of cohabiting with ciliates, unveiling the genomes of 116 novel bacterial cohabitants along with 7 novel archaeal cohabitants. Highlighting the intimate relationship between ciliates and their cohabitants, our study unveiled that over 90% of ciliates coexist with bacteria, with individual hosts fostering symbiotic relationships with multiple bacteria concurrently, resulting in the observation of seven distinct symbiotic patterns among bacteria. Our exploration of symbiotic mechanisms revealed the impact of host digestion on the intracellular diversity of cohabitants. Additionally, we identified the presence of eukaryotic-like proteins in bacteria as a potential contributing factor to their resistance against host digestion, thereby expanding their potential host range.

CONCLUSIONS: As the first large-scale analysis of prokaryotic associations with ciliate protists, this study provides a valuable resource for future research on eukaryotic-bacterial symbioses. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Joannard B, C Sanchez-Cid (2024)

Bacterial dynamics of the plastisphere microbiome exposed to sub-lethal antibiotic pollution.

Microbiome, 12(1):97.

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics and microplastics are two major aquatic pollutants that have been associated to antibiotic resistance selection in the environment and are considered a risk to human health. However, little is known about the interaction of these pollutants at environmental concentrations and the response of the microbial communities in the plastisphere to sub-lethal antibiotic pollution. Here, we describe the bacterial dynamics underlying this response in surface water bacteria at the community, resistome and mobilome level using a combination of methods (next-generation sequencing and qPCR), sequencing targets (16S rRNA gene, pre-clinical and clinical class 1 integron cassettes and metagenomes), technologies (short and long read sequencing), and assembly approaches (non-assembled reads, genome assembly, bacteriophage and plasmid assembly).

RESULTS: Our results show a shift in the microbial community response to antibiotics in the plastisphere microbiome compared to surface water communities and describe the bacterial subpopulations that respond differently to antibiotic and microplastic pollution. The plastisphere showed an increased tolerance to antibiotics and selected different antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Several metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) derived from the antibiotic-exposed plastisphere contained ARGs, virulence factors, and genes involved in plasmid conjugation. These include Comamonas, Chryseobacterium, the opportunistic pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and other MAGs belonging to genera that have been associated to human infections, such as Achromobacter. The abundance of the integron-associated ciprofloxacin resistance gene aac(6')-Ib-cr increased under ciprofloxacin exposure in both freshwater microbial communities and in the plastisphere. Regarding the antibiotic mobilome, although no significant changes in ARG load in class 1 integrons and plasmids were observed in polluted samples, we identified three ARG-containing viral contigs that were integrated into MAGs as prophages.

CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how the selective nature of the plastisphere influences bacterial response to antibiotics at sub-lethal selective pressure. The microbial changes identified here help define the selective role of the plastisphere and its impact on the maintenance of environmental antibiotic resistance in combination with other anthropogenic pollutants. This research highlights the need to evaluate the impact of aquatic pollutants in environmental microbial communities using complex scenarios with combined stresses. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Masuda Y, Mise K, Xu Z, et al (2024)

Global soil metagenomics reveals distribution and predominance of Deltaproteobacteria in nitrogen-fixing microbiome.

Microbiome, 12(1):95.

BACKGROUND: Biological nitrogen fixation is a fundamental process sustaining all life on earth. While distribution and diversity of N2-fixing soil microbes have been investigated by numerous PCR amplicon sequencing of nitrogenase genes, their comprehensive understanding has been hindered by lack of de facto standard protocols for amplicon surveys and possible PCR biases. Here, by fully leveraging the planetary collections of soil shotgun metagenomes along with recently expanded culture collections, we evaluated the global distribution and diversity of terrestrial diazotrophic microbiome.

RESULTS: After the extensive analysis of 1,451 soil metagenomic samples, we revealed that the Anaeromyxobacteraceae and Geobacteraceae within Deltaproteobacteria are ubiquitous groups of diazotrophic microbiome in the soils with different geographic origins and land usage types, with particular predominance in anaerobic soils (paddy soils and sediments).

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Deltaproteobacteria is a core bacterial taxon in the potential soil nitrogen fixation population, especially in anaerobic environments, which encourages a careful consideration on deltaproteobacterial diazotrophs in understanding terrestrial nitrogen cycling. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Gao Y, Zhong Z, Zhang D, et al (2024)

Exploring the roles of ribosomal peptides in prokaryote-phage interactions through deep learning-enabled metagenome mining.

Microbiome, 12(1):94.

BACKGROUND: Microbial secondary metabolites play a crucial role in the intricate interactions within the natural environment. Among these metabolites, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are becoming a promising source of therapeutic agents due to their structural diversity and functional versatility. However, their biosynthetic capacity and ecological functions remain largely underexplored.

RESULTS: Here, we aim to explore the biosynthetic profile of RiPPs and their potential roles in the interactions between microbes and viruses in the ocean, which encompasses a vast diversity of unique biomes that are rich in interactions and remains chemically underexplored. We first developed TrRiPP to identify RiPPs from ocean metagenomes, a deep learning method that detects RiPP precursors in a hallmark gene-independent manner to overcome the limitations of classic methods in processing highly fragmented metagenomic data. Applying this method to metagenomes from the global ocean microbiome, we uncover a diverse array of previously uncharacterized putative RiPP families with great novelty and diversity. Through correlation analysis based on metatranscriptomic data, we observed a high prevalence of antiphage defense-related and phage-related protein families that were co-expressed with RiPP families. Based on this putative association between RiPPs and phage infection, we constructed an Ocean Virus Database (OVD) and established a RiPP-involving host-phage interaction network through host prediction and co-expression analysis, revealing complex connectivities linking RiPP-encoding prokaryotes, RiPP families, viral protein families, and phages. These findings highlight the potential of RiPP families involved in prokaryote-phage interactions and coevolution, providing insights into their ecological functions in the ocean microbiome.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a systematic investigation of the biosynthetic potential of RiPPs from the ocean microbiome at a global scale, shedding light on the essential insights into the ecological functions of RiPPs in prokaryote-phage interactions through the integration of deep learning approaches, metatranscriptomic data, and host-phage connectivity. This study serves as a valuable example of exploring the ecological functions of bacterial secondary metabolites, particularly their associations with unexplored microbial interactions. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Vishal V, Das T, Lal S, et al (2024)

Endophytic bacterial diversity in the latex-bearing caulosphere of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Rubber trees are a commercial cash crop, and the milky latex or polyisoprene they produce is the natural source of rubber. Little is known about the bacterial populations found in active zone of latex-bearing caulosphere. We employed a tailored cloud microbial bioinformatic approach for the identification and potential hypothetical ecological roles of an uncultured endophytic hidden bacterial community in the active zone of the latex-bearing caulosphere of Hevea brasiliensis. Small pieces of slivers were collected from healthy plant from the village: Belonia, South Tripura, rubber plantation in Northeastern India. These uncultured bacteria were identified using the V3-V4 hypervariable amplicon region of the 16 S rDNA gene. A total of 209,586 contigs have been generated. EasyMAP Version 1.0, a cloud-based microbial bioinformatics tool with an integrated QIIME2 pipeline, was used to analyze contigs. We detected 15 phyla and 91 OTUs (operational taxonomic units). Proteobacteria (73.5%) was the most enriched phylum, followed by Firmicutes (13.8%), Bacteroidetes (5.2%), and Actinobacteria (3.2%). Ammonia oxidizers, sulfate reducers, dehalogenation, chitin degradation, nitrite reducers, and aromatic hydrocarbon degraders were the most prevalent functional categories in the active zones of caulosphere. Furthermore, Gammaproteobacteria (49.2%) and Erwinia (29.19%) were the most abundant classes and genera of endophytic bacterial communities. Thus, the presence of a substantial amount of phosphate-solubilizing Gammaproteobacteria (PSB) may stimulate growth, increase plant resilience, suppress disease, and aid in the rubber and sugar breakdown. This is the first report of microbial endophytes associated with Hevea caulosphere.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Nguyen CB, UN Vaishampayan (2024)

Clinical Applications of the Gut Microbiome in Genitourinary Cancers.

American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting, 44(3):e100041.

Recently recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, the microbiome consists of symbiotic microorganisms that play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis, the tumor microenvironment, and responses to therapy. With recent advances in microbiome metagenomic sequencing, a growing body of work has demonstrated that changes in gut microbiome composition are associated with differential responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) because of alterations in cytokine signaling and cytotoxic T-cell recruitment. Therefore, strategies to shape the gut microbiome into a more favorable, immunogenic profile may lead to improved responses with ICIs. Immunotherapy is commonly used in genitourinary (GU) cancers such as renal cell carcinoma, urothelial cancer, and to a limited extent, prostate cancer. However, a subset of patients do not derive clinical benefit with ICIs. Gut microbiome-based interventions are of particular interest given the potential to boost responses to ICIs in preclinical and early-phase prospective studies. Novel approaches using probiotic therapy (live bacterial supplementation) and fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with GU cancers are currently under investigation.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Goris T, A Braune (2024)

Genomics and physiology of Catenibacillus, human gut bacteria capable of polyphenol C-deglycosylation and flavonoid degradation.

Microbial genomics, 10(5):.

The genus Catenibacillus (family Lachnospiraceae, phylum Bacillota) includes only one cultivated species so far, Catenibacillus scindens, isolated from human faeces and capable of deglycosylating dietary polyphenols and degrading flavonoid aglycones. Another human intestinal Catenibacillus strain not taxonomically resolved at that time was recently genome-sequenced. We analysed the genome of this novel isolate, designated Catenibacillus decagia, and showed its ability to deglycosylate C-coupled flavone and xanthone glucosides and O-coupled flavonoid glycosides. Most of the resulting aglycones were further degraded to the corresponding phenolic acids. Including the recently sequenced genome of C. scindens and ten faecal metagenome-assembled genomes assigned to the genus Catenibacillus, we performed a comparative genome analysis and searched for genes encoding potential C-glycosidases and other polyphenol-converting enzymes. According to genome data and physiological characterization, the core metabolism of Catenibacillus strains is based on a fermentative lifestyle with butyrate production and hydrogen evolution. Both C. scindens and C. decagia encode a flavonoid O-glycosidase, a flavone reductase, a flavanone/flavanonol-cleaving reductase and a phloretin hydrolase. Several gene clusters encode enzymes similar to those of the flavonoid C-deglycosylation system of Dorea strain PUE (DgpBC), while separately located genes encode putative polyphenol-glucoside oxidases (DgpA) required for C-deglycosylation. The diversity of dgpA and dgpBC gene clusters might explain the broad C-glycoside substrate spectrum of C. scindens and C. decagia. The other Catenibacillus genomes encode only a few potential flavonoid-converting enzymes. Our results indicate that several Catenibacillus species are well-equipped to deglycosylate and degrade dietary plant polyphenols and might inhabit a corresponding, specific niche in the gut.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Yanushevich OO, Maev IV, Krikheli NI, et al (2023)

[Study of the resistome of human microbial communities using a targeted panel of antibiotic resistance genes in COVID-19 patients].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 95(12):1103-1111.

AIM: To study overall drug resistance genes (resistome) in the human gut microbiome and the changes in these genes during COVID-19 in-hospital therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. Only cases with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 RNA using polymerase chain reaction in oro-/nasopharyngeal swab samples were subject to analysis. The patients with a documented history of or current comorbidities of the hepatobiliary system, malignant neoplasms of any localization, systemic and autoimmune diseases, as well as pregnant women were excluded. Feces were collected from all study subjects for subsequent metagenomic sequencing. The final cohort was divided into two groups depending on the disease severity: mild (group 1) and severe (group 2). Within group 2, five subgroups were formed, depending on the use of antibacterial drugs (ABD): group 2A (receiving ABD), group 2AC (receiving ABD before hospitalization), group 2AD (receiving ABD during hospitalization), group 2AE (receiving ABD during and before hospitalization), group 2B (not receiving ABD).

RESULTS: The median number of antibiotic resistance (ABR) genes (cumulative at all time points) was significantly higher in the group of patients treated with ABD: 81.0 (95% CI 73.8-84.5) vs. 51.0 (95% CI 31.1-68.4). In the group of patients treated with ABD (2A), the average number of multidrug resistance genes (efflux systems) was significantly higher than in controls (group 2B): 47.0 (95% CI 46.0-51.2) vs. 21.5 (95% CI 7.0-43.9). Patients with severe coronavirus infection tended to have a higher median number of ABR genes but without statistical significance. Patients in the severe COVID-19 group who did not receive ABD before and during hospitalization also had more resistance genes than the patients in the comparison group.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that fewer ABR genes were identified in the group with a milder disease than in the group with a more severe disease associated with more ABR genes, with the following five being the most common: SULI, MSRC, ACRE, EFMA, SAT.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Hsieh YE, Tandon K, Verbruggen H, et al (2024)

Comparative analysis of metabolic models of microbial communities reconstructed from automated tools and consensus approaches.

NPJ systems biology and applications, 10(1):54.

Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) of microbial communities offer valuable insights into the functional capabilities of their members and facilitate the exploration of microbial interactions. These models are generated using different automated reconstruction tools, each relying on different biochemical databases that may affect the conclusions drawn from the in silico analysis. One way to address this problem is to employ a consensus reconstruction method that combines the outcomes of different reconstruction tools. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of community models reconstructed from three automated tools, i.e. CarveMe, gapseq, and KBase, alongside a consensus approach, utilizing metagenomics data from two marine bacterial communities. Our analysis revealed that these reconstruction approaches, while based on the same genomes, resulted in GEMs with varying numbers of genes and reactions as well as metabolic functionalities, attributed to the different databases employed. Further, our results indicated that the set of exchanged metabolites was more influenced by the reconstruction approach rather than the specific bacterial community investigated. This observation suggests a potential bias in predicting metabolite interactions using community GEMs. We also showed that consensus models encompassed a larger number of reactions and metabolites while concurrently reducing the presence of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, the usage of consensus models allows making full and unbiased use from aggregating genes from the different reconstructions in assessing the functional potential of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Islam MM, Jana SK, Sengupta S, et al (2024)

Impact of Rhizospheric Microbiome on Rice Cultivation.

Current microbiology, 81(7):188.

The rhizosphere niche is extremely important for the overall growth and development of plants. Evidently, it is necessary to understand the complete mechanism of plant microbe interactions of the rhizosphere for sustainable and low input productivity. To meet the increasing global food demand, rice (Oryza sativa L.) agriculture seeks optimal conditions. The unique oxic-anoxic interface of rice-growing soil has invited divergent microbes with dynamic biogeochemical cycles. This review provides the systematic analysis of microbes associated with the major biogeochemical cycles with the aim to generate better management strategies of rhizospheric microbiome in the field of rice agriculture. For instance, several methanogenic and methanotrophic bacteria in the rice rhizosphere make an equilibrium for methane concentration in the environment. The carbon sequestration in paddy soil is again done through many rhizospheric microorganisms that can directly assimilate CO2 with their photoautotrophic mode of nutrition. Also the phosphate solubilizing microbes remain to be the most important keys for the PGPR activity of the paddy ecosystem. In addition, rhizospheric microbiome remain crucial in degradation and solubilization of organo-sulfur and insoluble inorganic sulfides which can be taken by the plants. Further, this review elucidates on the advantages of using metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches as an alternative of traditional approaches to understand the overall metabolic pathways operational in paddy-field. These knowledges are expected to open new possibilities for designing the balanced microbiome used as inoculum for intensive farming and will eventually lead to exert positive impacts on rice cultivation.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Xu L, Mao T, Xia M, et al (2024)

New evidence for gut-muscle axis: Lactic acid bacteria-induced gut microbiota regulates duck meat flavor.

Food chemistry, 450:139354.

The interaction between gut microbiota and muscles through the gut-muscle axis has received increasing attention. This study attempted to address existing research gaps by investigating the effects of gut microbiota on meat flavor. Specifically, lactic acid bacteria were administered to ducks, and the results of e-nose and e-tongue showed significantly enhanced meat flavor in the treatment group. Further analyses using GC-MS revealed an increase in 6 characteristic volatile flavor compounds, including pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2,3-octanedione, and 2-pentylfuran. Linoleic acid was identified as the key fatty acid that influences meat flavor. Metagenomic and transcriptomic results further confirmed that cecal microbiota affects the duck meat flavor by regulating the metabolic pathways of fatty acids and amino acids, especially ACACB was related to fatty acid biosynthesis and ACAT2, ALDH1A1 with fatty acid degradation. This study sheds light on a novel approach to improving the flavor of animal-derived food.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Adeniyi-Ipadeola GO, Hoffman KL, Yang H, et al (2024)

Human milk cream alters intestinal microbiome of preterm infants: a prospective cohort study.

Pediatric research, 95(6):1564-1571.

BACKGROUND: In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, human milk cream added to standard human milk fortification is used to improve growth. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cream supplement on the intestinal microbiome of VLBW infants.

METHODS: Whole genome shotgun sequencing was performed on stool (n = 57) collected from a cohort of 23 infants weighing 500-1250 grams (control = 12, cream = 11). Both groups received an exclusive human milk diet (mother's own milk, donor human milk, and donor human milk-derived fortifier) with the cream group receiving an additional 2 kcal/oz cream at 100 mL/kg/day of fortified feeds and then 4 kcal/oz if poor growth.

RESULTS: While there were no significant differences in alpha diversity, infants receiving cream significantly differed from infants in the control group in beta diversity. Cream group samples had significantly higher prevalence of Proteobacteria and significantly lower Firmicutes compared to control group. Klebsiella species dominated the microbiota of cream-exposed infants, along with bacterial pathways involved in lipid metabolism and metabolism of cofactors and amino acids.

CONCLUSIONS: Cream supplementation significantly altered composition of the intestinal microbiome of VLBW infants to favor increased prevalence of Proteobacteria and functional gene content associated with these bacteria.

IMPACT: We report changes to the intestinal microbiome associated with administration of human milk cream; a novel supplement used to improve growth rates of preterm very low birth weight infants. Since little is known about the impact of cream on intestinal microbiota composition of very low birth weight infants, our study provides valuable insight on the effects of diet on the microbiome of this population. Dietary supplements administered to preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units have the potential to influence the intestinal microbiome composition which may affect overall health status of the infant.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Hou X, Dai P, Song X, et al (2024)

Understanding the Effect of Compound Probiotics on the Health of Rabbits and Its Mechanisms Through Metagenomics.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins, 16(3):815-828.

In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotics on growth performance, immunity, intestinal flora, and antioxidant capacity of rabbits. Three hundred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Groups A, B, C, and D were the lactobacillus group, compound probiotic group, control group, and antibiotic group, respectively. The results showed compared with the control group, the average weight of groups A, B, and D increased by 14.88%, 12.33%, and 11.97%, respectively. Moreover, the index of immune organs and the IgG and IgM in serum of group B were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in group B and catalase (CAT) in group A were significantly increased (P < 0.05). At week 5, the contents of rabbit cecum were taken for metagenome sequencing, and the results showed probiotics increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia, and decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we found probiotics could enrich metabolic pathways such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. According to the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD), we found antibiotic resistance ontology (ARO) in cecum mainly included β-lactamases, macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase II, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance protein. Among them, there were 1964, 2105, and 1982 types of ARO in group B, group D, and groups A and C, respectively. These results showed probiotics played a beneficial role in maintaining or enhancing the health and growth of rabbits and could replace antibiotics under certain feeding conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Guo Y, Wang W, Yu Y, et al (2024)

Crosstalk between human immunodeficiency virus infection and salivary bacterial function in men who have sex with men.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1341545.

BACKGROUND: Engaging in anal sexual intercourse markedly increases the risk of developing HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM); oral sexual activities tend to uniquely introduce gut-derived microbes to salivary microbiota, which, combined with an individual's positive HIV status, may greatly perturb oral microecology. However, till date, only a few published studies have addressed this aspect.

METHODS: Based on 16S rRNA sequencing data of bacterial taxa, MicroPITA picks representative samples for metagenomic analysis, effectively revealing how the development and progression of the HIV disease influences oral microbiota in MSM. Therefore, we collected samples from 11 HIV-negative and 44 HIV-positive MSM subjects (stage 0 was defined by HIV RNA positivity, but negative or indeterminate antibody status; stages 1, 2, and 3 were defined by CD4[+] T lymphocyte counts ≥ 500, 200-499, and ≤ 200 or opportunistic infection) and selected 25 representative saliva samples (5 cases/stage) using MicroPITA. Metagenomic sequencing analysis were performed to explore whether positive HIV status changes salivary bacterial KEGG function and metabolic pathway in MSM.

RESULTS: The core functions of oral microbiota were maintained across each of the five groups, including metabolism, genetic and environmental information processing. All HIV-positive groups displayed KEGG functions of abnormal proliferation, most prominently at stage 0, and others related to metabolism. Clustering relationship analysis tentatively identified functional relationships between groups, with bacterial function being more similar between stage 0-control groups and stage 1-2 groups, whereas the stage 3 group exhibited large functional changes. Although we identified most metabolic pathways as being common to all five groups, several unique pathways formed clusters for certain groups; the stage 0 group had several, while the stage 2 and 3 groups had few, such clusters. The abundance of K03046 was positively correlated with CD4 counts.

CONCLUSION: As HIV progresses, salivary bacterial function and metabolic pathways in MSM progressively changes, which may be related to HIV promoting abnormal energy metabolism and exacerbate pathogen virulence. Further, infection and drug resistance of acute stage and immune cell destruction of AIDS stage were abnormally increased, predicting an increased risk for MSM individuals to develop systemic and oral diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Hansen ZA, Schilmiller AL, Guzior DV, et al (2024)

Shifts in the functional capacity and metabolite composition of the gut microbiome during recovery from enteric infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1359576.

While enteric pathogens have been widely studied for their roles in causing foodborne infection, their impacts on the gut microbial community have yet to be fully characterized. Previous work has identified notable changes in the gut microbiome related to pathogen invasion, both taxonomically and genetically. Characterization of the metabolic landscape during and after enteric infection, however, has not been explored. Consequently, we investigated the metabolome of paired stools recovered from 60 patients (cases) during and after recovery from enteric bacterial infections (follow-ups). Shotgun metagenomics was applied to predict functional microbial pathways combined with untargeted metametabolomics classified by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Notably, cases had a greater overall metabolic capacity with significantly higher pathway richness and evenness relative to the follow-ups (p<0.05). Metabolic pathways related to central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid and fatty acid biosynthesis were more highly represented in cases and distinct signatures for menaquinone production were detected. By contrast, the follow-up samples had a more diverse metabolic landscape with enhanced richness of polar metabolites (p<0.0001) and significantly greater richness, evenness, and overall diversity of nonpolar metabolites (p<0.0001). Although many metabolites could not be annotated with existing databases, a marked increase in certain clusters of metabolites was observed in the follow-up samples when compared to the case samples and vice versa. These findings suggest the importance of key metabolites in gut health and recovery and enhance understanding of metabolic fluctuations during enteric infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Yan J, Chen H, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation significantly improved respiratory failure of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2353396.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to respiratory failure, and eventually death. However, there is a lack of effective treatments for ALS. Here we report the results of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in two patients with late-onset classic ALS with a Japan ALS severity classification of grade 5 who required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. In both patients, significant improvements in respiratory function were observed following two rounds of FMT, leading to weaning off mechanical ventilation. Their muscle strength improved, allowing for assisted standing and mobility. Other notable treatment responses included improved swallowing function and reduced muscle fasciculations. Metagenomic and metabolomic analysis revealed an increase in beneficial Bacteroides species (Bacteroides stercoris, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii after FMT, as well as elevated levels of metabolites involved in arginine biosynthesis and decreased levels of metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. These findings offer a potential rescue therapy for ALS with respiratory failure and provide new insights into ALS in general.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Li W, Baliu-Rodriguez D, Premathilaka SH, et al (2024)

Microbiome processing of organic nitrogen input supports growth and cyanotoxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa cultures.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Nutrient-induced blooms of the globally abundant freshwater toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis cause worldwide public and ecosystem health concerns. The response of Microcystis growth and toxin production to new and recycled nitrogen (N) inputs and the impact of heterotrophic bacteria in the Microcystis phycosphere on these processes are not well understood. Here, using microbiome transplant experiments, cyanotoxin analysis, and nanometer-scale stable isotope probing to measure N incorporation and exchange at single cell resolution, we monitored the growth, cyanotoxin production, and microbiome community structure of several Microcystis strains grown on amino acids or proteins as the sole N source. We demonstrate that the type of organic N available shaped the microbial community associated with Microcystis, and external organic N input led to decreased bacterial colonization of Microcystis colonies. Our data also suggest that certain Microcystis strains could directly uptake amino acids, but with lower rates than heterotrophic bacteria. Toxin analysis showed that biomass-specific microcystin production was not impacted by N source (i.e. nitrate, amino acids, or protein) but rather by total N availability. Single-cell isotope incorporation revealed that some bacterial communities competed with Microcystis for organic N, but other communities promoted increased N uptake by Microcystis, likely through ammonification or organic N modification. Our laboratory culture data suggest that organic N input could support Microcystis blooms and toxin production in nature, and Microcystis-associated microbial communities likely play critical roles in this process by influencing cyanobacterial succession through either decreasing (via competition) or increasing (via biotransformation) N availability, especially under inorganic N scarcity.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Zhao J, Nair S, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Macroalgal virosphere assists with host-microbiome equilibrium regulation and affects prokaryotes in surrounding marine environments.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

The microbiomes in macroalgal holobionts play vital roles in regulating macroalgal growth and ocean carbon cycling. However, the virospheres in macroalgal holobionts remain largely underexplored, representing a critical knowledge gap. Here we unveil that the holobiont of kelp (Saccharina japonica) harbors highly specific and unique epiphytic/endophytic viral species, with novelty (99.7% unknown) surpassing even extreme marine habitats (e.g. deep-sea and hadal zones), indicating that macroalgal virospheres, despite being closest to us, are among the least understood. These viruses potentially maintain microbiome equilibrium critical for kelp health via lytic-lysogenic infections and the expression of folate biosynthesis genes. In-situ kelp mesocosm cultivation and metagenomic mining revealed that kelp holobiont profoundly reshaped surrounding seawater and sediment virus-prokaryote pairings through changing surrounding environmental conditions and virus-host migrations. Some kelp epiphytic viruses could even infect sediment autochthonous bacteria after deposition. Moreover, the presence of ample viral auxiliary metabolic genes for kelp polysaccharide (e.g. laminarin) degradation underscores the underappreciated viral metabolic influence on macroalgal carbon cycling. This study provides key insights into understanding the previously overlooked ecological significance of viruses within macroalgal holobionts and the macroalgae-prokaryotes-virus tripartite relationship.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Balakrishnan K, Krishnaa D, Balakrishnan G, et al (2024)

Association of Bacterial Communities with Psychedelic Mushroom and Soil as Revealed in 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 196(5):2566-2590.

Microbial communities' resident in the mushroom fruiting body and the soil around it play critical roles in the growth and propagation of the mushroom. Among the microbial communities associated with psychedelic mushrooms and the rhizosphere soil, bacterial communities are considered vital since their presence greatly influences the health of the mushrooms. The present study aimed at finding the microbiota present in the psychedelic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and the soil the mushroom inhabits. The study was conducted at two different locations in Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The composition and structure of microbial communities in the mushroom fruiting body and the soil were deciphered. The genomes of the microbial communities were directly assessed. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed distinct microbial diversity in the mushroom and the related soil. The interaction of environmental and anthropogenic factors appeared to have a significant impact on the mushroom and soil microbiome. The most abundant bacterial genera were Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, and Brevundimonas. Thus, the study advances the knowledge of the composition of the microbiome and microbial ecology of a psychedelic mushroom, and paves the way for in-depth investigation of the influence of microbiota on the mushroom, with special emphasis on the impact of bacterial communities on mushroom growth. Further studies are required for a deeper understanding of the microbial communities that influence the growth of P. cubensis mushroom.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Ismaeil M, Alsharif SM, Saeed AM, et al (2024)

Metagenomic 16S rRNA analysis and predictive functional profiling revealed intrinsic organohalides respiration and bioremediation potential in mangrove sediment.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):176.

BACKGROUND: Mangrove sediment microbes are increasingly attracting scientific attention due to their demonstrated capacity for diverse bioremediation activities, encompassing a wide range of environmental contaminants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microbial communities of five Avicennia marina mangrove sediment samples collected from Al Rayyis White Head, Red Sea (KSA), were characterized using Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes.

RESULTS: Our study investigated the microbial composition and potential for organohalide bioremediation in five mangrove sediments from the Red Sea. While Proteobacteria dominated four microbiomes, Bacteroidetes dominated the fifth. Given the environmental concerns surrounding organohalides, their bioremediation is crucial. Encouragingly, we identified phylogenetically diverse organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) across all samples, including Dehalogenimonas, Dehalococcoides, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfuromonas, Geobacter, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio, Shewanella and Desulfitobacterium. These bacteria are known for their ability to dechlorinate organohalides through reductive dehalogenation. PICRUSt analysis further supported this potential, predicting the presence of functional biomarkers for organohalide respiration (OHR), including reductive dehalogenases targeting tetrachloroethene (PCE) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetate in most sediments. Enrichment cultures studies confirmed this prediction, demonstrating PCE dechlorination by the resident microbial community. PICRUSt also revealed a dominance of anaerobic metabolic processes, suggesting the microbiome's adaptation to the oxygen-limited environment of the sediments.

CONCLUSION: This study provided insights into the bacterial community composition of five mangrove sediments from the Red Sea. Notably, diverse OHRB were detected across all samples, which possess the metabolic potential for organohalide bioremediation through reductive dehalogenation pathways. Furthermore, PICRUSt analysis predicted the presence of functional biomarkers for OHR in most sediments, suggesting potential intrinsic OHR activity by the enclosed microbial community.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Starevich VA, Madueño L, Festa S, et al (2024)

Microbial community structure and metabolic profile of anthropized freshwater tributary channels from La Plata River, Argentina, to develop sustainable remediation strategies.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 196(6):566.

Microbial communities from freshwater sediments are involved in biogeochemical cycles and they can be modified by physical and chemical changes in the environment. Linking the microbial community structure (MCS) with physicochemistry of freshwater courses allows a better understanding of its ecology and can be useful to assess the ecological impact generated by human activity. The MCS of tributary channels from La Plata River affected by oil refinery (C, D, and E) and one also by urban discharges (C) was studied. For this purpose, 16S rRNA metabarcoding analysis, in silico metagenome functional prediction, and the hydrocarbon degradation potential (in silico predictions of hydrocarbon-degrading genes and their quantification by qPCR) of the MCS were studied. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the MCS was different between sites, and it was not structured by the hydrocarbon content. Site C showed physicochemical characteristics, bacterial taxa, and an in silico functional prediction related to fermentative/heterotrophic metabolism. Site D, despite having higher concentration of hydrocarbon, presented autotrophic, syntrophic, and methanogenic pathways commonly involved in natural processes in anoxic sediments. Site E showed and intermediate autotrophic/heterotrophic behavior. The hydrocarbon degradation potential showed no positive correlation between the hydrocarbon-degrading genes quantified and predicted. The results suggest that the hydrocarbon concentration in the sites was not enough selection pressure to structure the bacterial community composition. Understanding which is the variable that structures the bacterial community composition is essential for monitoring and designing of sustainable management strategies for contaminated freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Dorst M, Zeevenhooven N, Wilding R, et al (2024)

FAIR compliant database development for human microbiome data samples.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1384809.

INTRODUCTION: Sharing microbiome data among researchers fosters new innovations and reduces cost for research. Practically, this means that the (meta)data will have to be standardized, transparent and readily available for researchers. The microbiome data and associated metadata will then be described with regards to composition and origin, in order to maximize the possibilities for application in various contexts of research. Here, we propose a set of tools and protocols to develop a real-time FAIR (Findable. Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) compliant database for the handling and storage of human microbiome and host-associated data.

METHODS: The conflicts arising from privacy laws with respect to metadata, possible human genome sequences in the metagenome shotgun data and FAIR implementations are discussed. Alternate pathways for achieving compliance in such conflicts are analyzed. Sample traceable and sensitive microbiome data, such as DNA sequences or geolocalized metadata are identified, and the role of the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) data regulations are considered. For the construction of the database, procedures have been realized to make data FAIR compliant, while preserving privacy of the participants providing the data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: An open-source development platform, Supabase, was used to implement the microbiome database. Researchers can deploy this real-time database to access, upload, download and interact with human microbiome data in a FAIR complaint manner. In addition, a large language model (LLM) powered by ChatGPT is developed and deployed to enable knowledge dissemination and non-expert usage of the database.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Pfingstl T, Hiruta SF, S Shimano (2024)

Mitochondrial metagenomics reveal the independent colonization of the world's coasts by intertidal oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida, Ameronothroidea).

Scientific reports, 14(1):11634.

Oribatid mites are an ancient group that already roamed terrestrial ecosystems in the early and middle Devonian. The superfamily of Ameronothroidea, a supposedly monophyletic lineage, represents the only group of oribatid mites that has successfully invaded the marine coastal environment. By using mitogenome data and nucleic ribosomal RNA genes (18S, 5.8S, 28S), we show that Ameronothroidea are a paraphyletic assemblage and that the land-to-sea transition happened three times independently. Common ancestors of the tropical Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae were the first to colonize the coasts and molecular calibration of our phylogeny dates this event to a period in the Triassic and Jurassic era (225-146 mya), whereas present-day distribution indicates that this event might have happened early in this period during the Triassic, when the supercontinent Pangaea still existed. The cold temperate northern hemispheric Ameronothridae colonized the marine littoral later in the late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and had an ancient distribution on Laurasian coasts. The third and final land-to-sea transition happened in the same geological period, but approx. 30 my later when ancestors of Podacaridae invaded coastal marine environments of the Gondwanan landmasses.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Zhao Y, Deng S, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Exploring Alashan Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus) Diversity: Metagenomic and Transcriptomic Datasets from the Helan Mountains.

Scientific data, 11(1):517.

This study investigates the adaptive strategies of the Alashan Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus) in response to habitat changes, as rodents are sensitive indicators of ecosystem changes. Despite its ecological importance, the genome and microbiome of this species have not been thoroughly studied. This research fills this gap by presenting the first comprehensive metagenomic and transcriptomic datasets of the species. Transcriptomic data was collected from five tissue types, including heart, liver, cecum, muscle, and blood, resulting in the assembly of 72,156 unigenes. Metagenomic sequencing identified predominant bacterial groups such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Urovircota, and Proteobacteria. Our workflow involved RNA and DNA extraction, library preparation, assembly, and annotation, yielding valuable insights into gene discovery, microbial composition, and further genome and microbial function studies. In conclusion, our findings have significant implications for understanding the adaptive mechanisms of this species in response to environmental changes.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Sarkar S, Anyaso-Samuel S, Qiu P, et al (2024)

Multiblock partial least squares and rank aggregation: Applications to detection of bacteriophages associated with antimicrobial resistance in the presence of potential confounding factors.

Statistics in medicine, 43(13):2527-2546.

Urban environments, characterized by bustling mass transit systems and high population density, host a complex web of microorganisms that impact microbial interactions. These urban microbiomes, influenced by diverse demographics and constant human movement, are vital for understanding microbial dynamics. We explore urban metagenomics, utilizing an extensive dataset from the Metagenomics & Metadesign of Subways & Urban Biomes (MetaSUB) consortium, and investigate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns. In this pioneering research, we delve into the role of bacteriophages, or "phages"-viruses that prey on bacteria and can facilitate the exchange of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) through mechanisms like horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Despite their potential significance, existing literature lacks a consensus on their significance in ARG dissemination. We argue that they are an important consideration. We uncover that environmental variables, such as those on climate, demographics, and landscape, can obscure phage-resistome relationships. We adjust for these potential confounders and clarify these relationships across specific and overall antibiotic classes with precision, identifying several key phages. Leveraging machine learning tools and validating findings through clinical literature, we uncover novel associations, adding valuable insights to our comprehension of AMR development.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Osadchiy V, Belarmino A, Kianian R, et al (2024)

Urine microbes and predictive metagenomic profiles associate with abnormalities in sperm parameters: implications for male subfertility.

F&S science, 5(2):163-173.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the taxonomic and predicted functional relationship between the urine microbiome and alterations of semen analysis (SA) parameters.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Academic medical center.

PATIENT(S): Men presenting for fertility evaluation or men presenting for vasectomy consultation with proven biological paternity were recruited and stratified on the basis of alterations, or lack thereof, in SA parameters.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Changes in the functional and taxonomic urine microbiome profiles of participants with or without alterations in SA parameters.

RESULTS: Seventy-three participants were included in our study. Men with abnormal sperm motility (N = 27) showed a nearly 50-fold higher abundance of Dialister micraerophilus compared with those with normal sperm motility (N = 46). This relationship persisted on canonical correlational analysis (r = 0.439). Men with abnormal sperm concentration (N = 20) showed a lower abundance of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, compared with those with normal sperm concentration (N = 53). The urine of participants with impaired sperm motility demonstrated dramatic differences in predictive functional profiles in pathways involved in oxidation-reduction balance and cell longevity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore differences in the urinary microbiome and abnormalities in semen parameters, especially sperm motility. By incorporating predictive functional profiling, we also highlight possible mechanisms that may drive the observed differences in sperm parameters.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Lousada MB, Edelkamp J, Lachnit T, et al (2024)

Spatial Distribution and Functional Impact of Human Scalp Hair Follicle Microbiota.

The Journal of investigative dermatology, 144(6):1353-1367.e15.

Human hair follicles (HFs) constitute a unique microbiota habitat that differs substantially from the skin surface. Traditional HF sampling methods fail to eliminate skin microbiota contaminants or assess the HF microbiota incompletely, and microbiota functions in human HF physiology remain ill explored. Therefore, we used laser-capture microdissection, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and FISH to characterize the human scalp HF microbiota in defined anatomical compartments. This revealed significant compartment-, tissue lineage-, and donor age-dependent variations in microbiota composition. Greatest abundance variations between HF compartments were observed for viruses, archaea, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Cutibacterium acnes, and Malassezia restricta, with the latter 2 being the most abundant viable HF colonizers (as tested by propidium monoazide assay) and, surprisingly, most abundant in the HF mesenchyme. Transfection of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with S. epidermidis-specific lytic bacteriophages ex vivo downregulated transcription of genes known to regulate HF growth and development, metabolism, and melanogenesis, suggesting that selected microbial products may modulate HF functions. Indeed, HF treatment with butyrate, a metabolite of S. epidermidis and other HF microbiota, delayed catagen and promoted autophagy, mitochondrial activity, and gp100 and dermcidin expression ex vivo. Thus, human HF microbiota show spatial variations in abundance and modulate the physiology of their host, which invites therapeutic targeting.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Maleki-Ravasan N, Ghafari SM, Najafzadeh N, et al (2024)

Characterization of bacteria expectorated during forced salivation of the Phlebotomus papatasi: A neglected component of sand fly infectious inoculums.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 18(5):e0012165.

The infectious inoculum of a sand fly, apart from its metacyclic promastigotes, is composed of factors derived from both the parasite and the vector. Vector-derived factors, including salivary proteins and the gut microbiota, are essential for the establishment and enhancement of infection. However, the type and the number of bacteria egested during salivation is unclear. In the present study, sand flies of Phlebotomus papatasi were gathered from three locations in hyperendemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Isfahan Province, Iran. By using the forced salivation assay and targeting the 16S rRNA barcode gene, egested bacteria were characterized in 99 (44%) out of 224 sand flies. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods identified the members of Enterobacter cloacae and Spiroplasma species as dominant taxa, respectively. Ten top genera of Spiroplasma, Ralstonia, Acinetobacter, Reyranella, Undibacterium, Bryobacter, Corynebacterium, Cutibacterium, Psychrobacter, and Wolbachia constituted >80% of the saliva microbiome. Phylogenetic analysis displayed the presence of only one bacterial species for the Spiroplasma, Ralstonia, Reyranella, Bryobacter and Wolbachia, two distinct species for Cutibacterium, three for Undibacterium and Psychrobacter, 16 for Acinetobacter, and 27 for Corynebacterium, in the saliva. The abundance of microbes in P. papatasi saliva was determined by incorporating the data on the read counts and the copy number of 16S rRNA gene, about 9,000 bacterial cells, per sand fly. Both microbiological and metagenomic data indicate that bacteria are constant companions of Leishmania, from the intestine of the vector to the vertebrate host. This is the first forced salivation experiment in a sand fly, addressing key questions on infectious bite and competent vectors.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Moya-Gonzálvez EM, Zeuner B, Thorhallsson AT, et al (2024)

Synthesis of fucosyllactose using α-L-fucosidases GH29 from infant gut microbial metagenome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):338.

Fucosyl-oligosaccharides (FUS) provide many health benefits to breastfed infants, but they are almost completely absent from bovine milk, which is the basis of infant formula. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the development of enzymatic transfucosylation strategies for the production of FUS. In this work, the α-L-fucosidases Fuc2358 and Fuc5372, previously isolated from the intestinal bacterial metagenome of breastfed infants, were used to synthesize fucosyllactose (FL) by transfucosylation reactions using p-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) as donor and lactose as acceptor. Fuc2358 efficiently synthesized the major fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) with a 35% yield. Fuc2358 also produced the non-HMO FL isomer 3'-fucosyllactose (3'FL) and traces of non-reducing 1-fucosyllactose (1FL). Fuc5372 showed a lower transfucosylation activity compared to Fuc2358, producing several FL isomers, including 2'FL, 3'FL, and 1FL, with a higher proportion of 3'FL. Site-directed mutagenesis using rational design was performed to increase FUS yields in both α-L-fucosidases, based on structural models and sequence identity analysis. Mutants Fuc2358-F184H, Fuc2358-K286R, and Fuc5372-R230K showed a significantly higher ratio between 2'FL yields and hydrolyzed pNP-Fuc than their respective wild-type enzymes after 4 h of transfucosylation. The results with the Fuc2358-F184W and Fuc5372-W151F mutants showed that the residues F184 of Fuc2358 and W151 of Fuc5372 could have an effect on transfucosylation regioselectivity. Interestingly, phenylalanine increases the selectivity for α-1,2 linkages and tryptophan for α-1,3 linkages. These results give insight into the functionality of the active site amino acids in the transfucosylation activity of the GH29 α-L-fucosidases Fuc2358 and Fuc5372. KEY POINTS: Two α-L-fucosidases from infant gut bacterial microbiomes can fucosylate glycans Transfucosylation efficacy improved by tailored point-mutations in the active site F184 of Fuc2358 and W151 of Fuc5372 seem to steer transglycosylation regioselectivity.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Aplakidou E, Vergoulidis N, Chasapi M, et al (2024)

Visualizing metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data: A comprehensive review.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 23:2011-2033.

The fields of Metagenomics and Metatranscriptomics involve the examination of complete nucleotide sequences, gene identification, and analysis of potential biological functions within diverse organisms or environmental samples. Despite the vast opportunities for discovery in metagenomics, the sheer volume and complexity of sequence data often present challenges in processing analysis and visualization. This article highlights the critical role of advanced visualization tools in enabling effective exploration, querying, and analysis of these complex datasets. Emphasizing the importance of accessibility, the article categorizes various visualizers based on their intended applications and highlights their utility in empowering bioinformaticians and non-bioinformaticians to interpret and derive insights from meta-omics data effectively.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Ekpruke CD, Alford R, Parker E, et al (2024)

Gonadal sex and chromosome complement influence the gut microbiome in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

Physiological genomics, 56(6):417-425.

Evidence abounds that gut microbiome components are associated with sex disparities in the immune system. However, it remains unclear whether the observed sex disparity in asthma incidence is associated with sex-dependent differences in immune-modulating gut microbiota, and/or its influence on allergic airway inflammatory processes. Using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic inflammation and the four core genotypes (FCGs) model, we have previously reported sex differences in lung inflammatory phenotypes. Here, we investigated associations of gut microbiomes with these phenotypes by challenging FCG mice [mouse with female sex chromosome and male gonad (XXM), mouse with female sex chromosome and female gonad (XXF), mouse with male sex chromosome and male gonad (XYM), and mouse with male sex chromosome and female gonad (XYF); n = 7/group] with HDM (25 μg) or PBS intranasally for 5 wk and collecting fecal samples. We extracted fecal DNA and analyzed the 16S microbiome via Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing. We compared α and β diversity across genotypes and assessed the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio. When comparing baseline and after exposure for the FCG, we found that the gut F/B ratio was only increased in the XXM genotype. We also found that α diversity was significantly increased in all FCG mice upon HDM challenge, with the highest increase in the XXF, and the lowest in the XXM genotypes. Similarly, β diversity of the microbial community was also affected by challenge in a gonad- and chromosome-dependent manner. In summary, our results indicated that HDM treatment, gonads, and sex chromosomes significantly influence the gut microbial community composition. We concluded that allergic lung inflammation may be affected by the gut microbiome in a sex-dependent manner involving both hormonal and genetic influences.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Recently, the gut microbiome and its role in chronic respiratory disease have been the subject of extensive research and the establishment of its involvement in immune functions. Using the FCG mouse model, our findings revealed the influence of gonads and sex chromosomes on the microbial community structure before and after exposure to HDM. Our data provide a potential new avenue to better understand mediators of sex disparities associated with allergic airway inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Ravichandran A, Sivapackiam J, S Periasamy (2024)

Oral bacterial insights from a comparative study between healthy and comorbid diseased human individuals.

Microbial pathogenesis, 191:106643.

The human oral cavity is colonized by a diverse microbial community, which includes both native and transient colonizers. The microbial composition is crucial for maintaining oral homeostasis, but due to overgrowth or imbalances of these microbial communities, dysbiosis can occur. There is a lack of understanding of the research of native and transient colonizers in the oral cavity of the Indian subpopulation Therefore, in our present study, we explored the role and prevalence of transient and native colonizers between healthy and comorbid oral diseased human individuals. Culture-dependent techniques and culture-independent 16S r DNA metagenomic analyses were employed to isolate and study the interactions of native and transient colonizers from human oral samples. Among the 66 human individuals of both healthy and comorbid individuals, the most abundant isolate was found to be Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MCC 4424. In addition, the more prevalent culturable isolate from the healthy samples was Streptococcus salivarius MTCC 13009, whereas in comorbid samples Staphylococcus pasteuri MTCC 13076, Rothia dentocariosa MTCC 13010 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 13077 were prevalent to a greater extent. 16S rDNA metagenomic analyses revealed the prevalence and abundance of genera such as Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in healthy individuals; consequently, Fusobacteria and Firmicutes were observed mostly in comorbid individuals. The significant differences in bacterial population density were observed in terms of the Shannon index (p = 0.5145) and Simpson index (p = 0.9061) between the healthy and comorbid groups. B. amyloliquefaciens MCC 4424 exhibits antagonistic behavior when grown as a dual-species with native and transient colonizers. This result is very consistent with the findings of antibiofilm studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy, which revealed a significant reduction in biofilm biovolume (73 %) and maximum thickness (80 %) and an increase in the rough coefficient of biofilms (30 %). Our data suggested that B. amyloliquefaciens MCC 4424 can be a native colonizer of Indian sub-populations. It may act as a novel candidate for oral healthcare applications and greatly aids in the regulation of transient species in the oral cavity.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Li J, Yang Z, Yuan W, et al (2024)

Heme Metabolism Mediates the Effects of Smoking on Gut Microbiome.

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 26(6):742-751.

INTRODUCTION: The number of smokers worldwide increased greatly during the past decades and reached 1.14 billion in 2019, becoming a leading risk factor for human health. Tobacco smoking has wide effects on human genetics, epigenetics, transcriptome, and gut microbiome. Although many studies have revealed effects of smoking on host transcriptome, research on the relationship between smoking, host gene expression, and the gut microbiome is limited.

AIMS AND METHODS: We first explored transcriptome and metagenome profile differences between smokers and nonsmokers. To evaluate the relationship between host gene expression and gut microbiome, we then applied bidirectional mediation analysis to infer causal relationships between smoking, gene expression, and gut microbes.

RESULTS: Metagenome and transcriptome analyses revealed 71 differential species and 324 differential expressed genes between smokers and nonsmokers. With smoking as an exposure variable, we identified 272 significant causal relationships between gene expression and gut microbes, among which there were 247 genes that mediate the effect of smoking on gut microbes. Pathway-based enrichment analysis showed that these genes were significantly enriched in heme metabolic pathway, which mainly mediated the changes of Bacteroides finegoldii and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 9_1_43BFAA. Additionally, by performing metabolome data analysis in the Integrated Human Microbiome Project (iHMP) database, we verified the correlation between the intermediate products of the heme metabolism pathway (porphobilinogen, bilirubin, and biliverdin) and gut microbiome.

CONCLUSIONS: By investigating the bidirectional interaction between smoking-related host gene expression and gut microbes, this study provided evidence for the mediation of smoking on gut microbes through co-involvement or interaction of heme metabolism.

IMPLICATIONS: By comparing the metagenome and transcriptome sequencing profiles between 34 smokers and 33 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers, we are the first to reveal causal relationships among tobacco smoking, host gene expression, and gut microbes. These findings offer insight into how smoking affects gut microbes through host gene expression and metabolism, which highlights the importance of heme metabolism in modulating the effects of smoking on gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Ameer A, Saleem F, Keating C, et al (2024)

Dataset of 130 metagenome-assembled genomes of healthy and diseased broiler chicken caeca from Pakistan.

Data in brief, 54:110487.

This article presents metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) of prokaryotic organisms originating from chicken caeca. The samples originate from broiler chickens, one group was infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and one uninfected control group. There were four birds per group. Both groups were raised on commercially available antibiotic free feed under a semi-controlled setup. The binning step of the samples identified 130 MAGs with ≥50 % completion, and ≤10 % contamination. The data presented includes sequences in FASTA format, tables of functional annotation of genes, and data from two different approaches for phylogenetic tree construction using these MAGs. Major geochemical cycles at community level including carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles are also presented.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Glowacki AJ, Bosma ML, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of essential oil mouthrinses on clinical plaque microbiome: a parallel-group, randomized trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):578.

BACKGROUND: The rich diversity of microorganisms in the oral cavity plays an important role in the maintenance of oral health and development of detrimental oral health conditions. Beyond commonly used qualitative microbiome metrics, such as relative proportions or diversity, both the species-level identification and quantification of bacteria are key to understanding clinical disease associations. This study reports the first-time application of an absolute quantitative microbiome analysis using spiked DNA standards and shotgun metagenome sequencing to assess the efficacy and safety of product intervention on dental plaque microbiome.

METHODS: In this parallel-group, randomized clinical trial, essential oil mouthrinses, including LISTERINE® Cool Mint Antiseptic (LCM), an alcohol-containing prototype mouthrinse (ACPM), and an alcohol-free prototype mouthrinse (AFPM), were compared against a hydroalcohol control rinse on clinical parameters and the oral microbiome of subjects with moderate gingivitis. To enable a sensitive and clinically meaningful measure of bacterial abundances, species were categorized according to their associations with oral conditions based on published literature and quantified using known amounts of spiked DNA standards.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that both LCM and ACPM shifted the dysbiotic microbiome composition of subjects with gingivitis to a healthier state after 4 weeks of twice-daily use, resembling the composition of subjects with clinically healthy oral conditions recruited for observational reference comparison at baseline. The essential oil-containing mouthrinses evaluated in this study showed statistically significant reductions in clinical gingivitis and plaque measurements when compared to the hydroalcohol control rinse after 6 weeks of use.

CONCLUSIONS: By establishing a novel quantitative method for microbiome analysis, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of LCM mouthrinse efficacy on oral microbial ecology, demonstrating that repeated usage non-selectively resets a gingivitis-like oral microbiome toward that of a healthy oral cavity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on on 10/06/2021. The registration number is NCT04921371.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Nebauer DJ, Pearson LA, BA Neilan (2024)

Critical steps in an environmental metaproteomics workflow.

Environmental microbiology, 26(5):e16637.

Environmental metaproteomics is a rapidly advancing field that provides insights into the structure, dynamics, and metabolic activity of microbial communities. As the field is still maturing, it lacks consistent workflows, making it challenging for non-expert researchers to navigate. This review aims to introduce the workflow of environmental metaproteomics. It outlines the standard practices for sample collection, processing, and analysis, and offers strategies to overcome the unique challenges presented by common environmental matrices such as soil, freshwater, marine environments, biofilms, sludge, and symbionts. The review also highlights the bottlenecks in data analysis that are specific to metaproteomics samples and provides suggestions for researchers to obtain high-quality datasets. It includes recent benchmarking studies and descriptions of software packages specifically built for metaproteomics analysis. The article is written without assuming the reader's familiarity with single-organism proteomic workflows, making it accessible to those new to proteomics or mass spectrometry in general. This primer for environmental metaproteomics aims to improve accessibility to this exciting technology and empower researchers to tackle challenging and ambitious research questions. While it is primarily a resource for those new to the field, it should also be useful for established researchers looking to streamline or troubleshoot their metaproteomics experiments.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Laue HE, Bonham KS, Coker MO, et al (2024)

Prospective association of the infant gut microbiome with social behaviors in the ECHO consortium.

Molecular autism, 15(1):21.

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may inform interventions to reduce financial burden. The infant/toddler gut microbiome is one such feature that has been associated with social behaviors, but results vary between cohorts. We aimed to identify consistent overall and sex-specific associations between the early-life gut microbiome and autism-related behaviors.

METHODS: Utilizing the Environmental influences on Children Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium of United States (U.S.) pediatric cohorts, we gathered data on 304 participants with fecal metagenomic sequencing between 6-weeks to 2-years postpartum (481 samples). ASD-related social development was assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). Linear regression, PERMANOVA, and Microbiome Multivariable Association with Linear Models (MaAsLin2) were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Stratified models estimated sex-specific effects.

RESULTS: Genes encoding pathways for synthesis of short-chain fatty acids were associated with higher SRS-2 scores, indicative of ASDs. Fecal concentrations of butyrate were also positively associated with ASD-related SRS-2 scores, some of which may be explained by formula use.

LIMITATIONS: The distribution of age at outcome assessment differed in the cohorts included, potentially limiting comparability between cohorts. Stool sample collection methods also differed between cohorts. Our study population reflects the general U.S. population, and thus includes few participants who met the criteria for being at high risk of developing ASD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study is among the first multicenter studies in the U.S. to describe prospective microbiome development from infancy in relation to neurodevelopment associated with ASDs. Our work contributes to clarifying which microbial features associate with subsequent diagnosis of neuropsychiatric outcomes. This will allow for future interventional research targeting the microbiome to change neurodevelopmental trajectories.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Han B, He Y, Chen J, et al (2024)

Different microbial functional traits drive bulk and rhizosphere soil phosphorus mobilization in an alpine meadow after nitrogen input.

The Science of the total environment, 931:172904.

Enhanced nitrogen (N) input is expected to influence the soil phosphorus (P) cycling through biotic and abiotic factors. Among these factors, soil microorganisms play a vital role in regulating soil P availability. However, the divergent contribution of functional microorganisms to soil P availability in the rhizosphere and bulk soil under N addition remains unclear. We conducted an N addition experiment with four N input rates (0, 5, 10, and 15 g N m[-2] year[-1]) in an alpine meadow over three years. Metagenomics was employed to investigate the functional microbial traits in the rhizosphere and bulk soil. We showed that N addition had positive effects on microbial functional traits related to P-cycling in the bulk and rhizosphere soil. Specifically, high N addition significantly increased the abundance of most microbial genes in the bulk soil but only enhanced the abundance of five genes in the rhizosphere soil. The soil compartment, rather than the N addition treatment, was the dominant factor explaining the changes in the diversity and network of functional microorganisms. Furthermore, the abundance of functional microbial genes had a profound effect on soil available P, particularly in bulk soil P availability driven by the ppa and ppx genes, as well as rhizosphere soil P availability driven by the ugpE gene. Our results highlight that N addition stimulates the microbial potential for soil P mobilization in alpine meadows. Distinct microbial genes play vital roles in soil P availability in bulk and rhizosphere soil respectively. This indicates the necessity for models to further our knowledge of P mobilization processes from the bulk soil to the rhizosphere soil, allowing for more precise predictions of the effects of N enrichment on soil P cycling.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Zhu W, Zhao H, Ke J, et al (2024)

Deciphering the environmental adaptation and functional trait of core and noncore bacterial communities in impacted coral reef seawater.

The Science of the total environment, 931:172897.

Microorganisms play pivotal roles in different biogeochemical cycles within coral reef waters. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the microbially mediated processes following environmental perturbation is still limited. To gain a deeper insight into the environmental adaptation and nutrient cycling, particularly within core and noncore bacterial communities, it is crucial to understand reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we delved into the microbial community structure and function of seawater in a coral reef under different degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. To achieve this, we harnessed the power of 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics techniques. The results showed that a continuous temporal succession but little spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of core and noncore taxa and functional profiles involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling. Eutrophication state (i.e., nutrient concentration and turbidity) and temperature played pivotal roles in shaping both the microbial community composition and functional traits of coral reef seawater. Within this context, the core subcommunity exhibited a remarkably broader habitat niche breadth, stronger phylogenetic signal and lower environmental sensitivity when compared to the noncore taxa. Null model analysis further revealed that the core subcommunity was governed primarily by stochastic processes, while deterministic processes played a more significant role in shaping the noncore subcommunity. Furthermore, our observations indicated that changes in function related to N cycling were correlated to the variations in noncore taxa, while core taxa played a more substantial role in critical processes such as P cycling. Collectively, these findings facilitated our knowledge about environmental adaptability of core and noncore bacterial taxa and shed light on their respective roles in maintaining diverse nutrient cycling within coral reef ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Luo X, Hounmanou YMG, Ndayisenga F, et al (2024)

Spontaneous fermentation mitigates the frequency of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance spreading from the phyllosphere reservoir to the diet.

The Science of the total environment, 931:172712.

The phyllosphere microbiome of vegetable products constitutes an important reservoir for multidrug resistant bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARG). Vegetable products including fermented products such as Paocai therefore may serve as a shuttle for extrinsic microorganisms with ARGs into the gut of consumers. Here we study the effect of fermentation on Paocai ARG dissemination by metagenomic analysis. Microbial abundance and diversity of the Paocai microbiome were diminished during fermentation, which correlated with the reduction of abundance in ARGs. Specifically, as fermentation progressed, Enterobacterales overtook Pseudomonadales as the predominant ARG carriers, and Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales became the determinants of Paocai resistome variation. Moreover, the dual effect of microbes and metal resistance genes (MRGs) was the major contributor driving Paocai resistome dynamics. We recovered several metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) carrying acquired ARGs in the phyllosphere microbiome. ARGs of potential clinical and epidemiological relevance such as tet M and emrB-qacA, were mainly hosted by non-dominant bacterial genera. Overall, our study provides evidence that changes in microbial community composition by fermentation aid in constraining ARG dispersal from raw ingredients to the human microbiome but does not eliminate them.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Reygner J, Delannoy J, Barba-Goudiaby M-T, et al (2024)

Reduction of product composition variability using pooled microbiome ecosystem therapy and consequence in two infectious murine models.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 90(5):e0001624.

Growing evidence demonstrates the key role of the gut microbiota in human health and disease. The recent success of microbiotherapy products to treat recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection has shed light on its potential in conditions associated with gut dysbiosis, such as acute graft-versus-host disease, intestinal bowel diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, or even cancer. However, the difficulty in defining a "good" donor as well as the intrinsic variability of donor-derived products' taxonomic composition limits the translatability and reproducibility of these studies. Thus, the pooling of donors' feces has been proposed to homogenize product composition and achieve higher taxonomic richness and diversity. In this study, we compared the metagenomic profile of pooled products to corresponding single donor-derived products. We demonstrated that pooled products are more homogeneous, diverse, and enriched in beneficial bacteria known to produce anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids compared to single donor-derived products. We then evaluated pooled products' efficacy compared to corresponding single donor-derived products in Salmonella and C. difficile infectious mouse models. We were able to demonstrate that pooled products decreased pathogenicity by inducing a structural change in the intestinal microbiota composition. Single donor-derived product efficacy was variable, with some products failing to control disease progression. We further performed in vitro growth inhibition assays of two extremely drug-resistant bacteria, Enterococcus faecium vanA and Klebsiella pneumoniae oxa48, supporting the use of pooled microbiotherapies. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the heterogeneity of donor-derived products is corrected by pooled fecal microbiotherapies in several infectious preclinical models.IMPORTANCEGrowing evidence demonstrates the key role of the gut microbiota in human health and disease. Recent Food and Drug Administration approval of fecal microbiotherapy products to treat recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection has shed light on their potential to treat pathological conditions associated with gut dysbiosis. In this study, we combined metagenomic analysis with in vitro and in vivo studies to compare the efficacy of pooled microbiotherapy products to corresponding single donor-derived products. We demonstrate that pooled products are more homogeneous, diverse, and enriched in beneficial bacteria compared to single donor-derived products. We further reveal that pooled products decreased Salmonella and Clostridioides difficile pathogenicity in mice, while single donor-derived product efficacy was variable, with some products failing to control disease progression. Altogether, these findings support the development of pooled microbiotherapies to overcome donor-dependent treatment efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Bosma ML, John G, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing on supragingival and subgingival plaque microbiota: 12-week clinical trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):575.

BACKGROUND: Translational microbiome research using next-generation DNA sequencing is challenging due to the semi-qualitative nature of relative abundance data. A novel method for quantitative analysis was applied in this 12-week clinical trial to understand the mechanical vs. chemotherapeutic actions of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing against the supragingival dental plaque microbiome. Enumeration of viable bacteria using vPCR was also applied on supragingival plaque for validation and on subgingival plaque to evaluate interventional effects below the gingival margin.

METHODS: Subjects with gingivitis were enrolled in a single center, examiner-blind, virtually supervised, parallel group controlled clinical trial. Subjects with gingivitis were randomized into brushing only (B); brushing and flossing (BF); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Antiseptic (BA); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BZ); or brushing, flossing, and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BFZ). All subjects brushed twice daily for 1 min with a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Subjects who flossed used unflavored waxed dental floss once daily. Subjects assigned to mouthrinses rinsed twice daily. Plaque specimens were collected at the baseline visit and after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Bacterial cell number quantification was achieved by adding reference amounts of DNA controls to plaque samples prior to DNA extraction, followed by shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing.

RESULTS: 286 subjects completed the trial. The metagenomic data for supragingival plaque showed significant reductions in Shannon-Weaver diversity, species richness, and total and categorical bacterial abundances (commensal, gingivitis, and malodor) after 4 and 12 weeks for the BA, BZ, and BFZ groups compared to the B group, while no significant differences were observed between the B and BF groups. Supragingival plaque vPCR further validated these results, and subgingival plaque vPCR demonstrated significant efficacy for the BFZ intervention only.

CONCLUSIONS: This publication reports on a successful application of a quantitative method of microbiome analysis in a clinical trial demonstrating the sustained and superior efficacy of essential oil mouthrinses at controlling dental plaque compared to mechanical methods. The quantitative microbiological data in this trial also reinforce the safety and mechanism of action of EO mouthrinses against plaque microbial ecology and highlights the importance of elevating EO mouthrinsing as an integral part of an oral hygiene regimen.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on on 31/10/2022. The registration number is NCT05600231.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Li S, Li X, Ye Y, et al (2024)

The rhizosphere microbiome and its influence on the accumulation of metabolites in Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):409.

BACKGROUND: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (B. striata) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the Orchidaceae family known for its diverse pharmacological activities, such as promoting wound healing, hemostasis, anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidant properties, and immune regulation. Nevertheless, the microbe-plant-metabolite regulation patterns for B. striata remain largely undetermined, especially in the field of rhizosphere microbes. To elucidate the interrelationships between soil physics and chemistry and rhizosphere microbes and metabolites, a comprehensive approach combining metagenome analysis and targeted metabolomics was employed to investigate the rhizosphere soil and tubers from four provinces and eight production areas in China.

RESULTS: Our study reveals that the core rhizosphere microbiome of B. striata is predominantly comprised of Paraburkholderia, Methylibium, Bradyrhizobium, Chitinophaga, and Mycobacterium. These microbial species are recognized as potentially beneficial for plants health. Comprehensive analysis revealed a significant association between the accumulation of metabolites, such as militarine and polysaccharides in B. striata and the composition of rhizosphere microbes at the genus level. Furthermore, we found that the soil environment indirectly influenced the metabolite profile of B. striata by affecting the composition of rhizosphere microbes. Notably, our research identifies soil organic carbon as a primary driving factor influencing metabolite accumulation in B. striata.

CONCLUSION: Our fndings contribute to an enhanced understanding of the comprehensive regulatory mechanism involving microbe-plant-metabolite interactions. This research provides a theoretical basis for the cultivation of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine B. striata.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Wan B, Lei Y, Yuan Z, et al (2024)

Metagenomic dissection of the intestinal microbiome in the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Decapod iridescent virus 1.

Fish & shellfish immunology, 149:109617.

Microbiome in the intestines of aquatic invertebrates plays pivotal roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, especially when the host is exposed to pathogen invasion. Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) is a devastating virus seriously affecting the productivity and success of crustacean aquaculture. In this study, a metagenomic analysis was conducted to investigate the genomic sequences, community structure and functional characteristics of the intestinal microbiome in the giant river prawn Macrobrachiumrosenbergii infected with DIV1. The results showed that DIV1 infection could significantly reduce the diversity and richness of intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria represented the largest taxon at the phylum level, and at the species level, the abundance of Gonapodya prolifera and Solemya velum gill symbiont increased significantly following DIV1 infection. In the infected prawns, four metabolic pathways related to purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway, and five pathways related to nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, mismatch repair, base excision repair, and DNA replication were significantly enriched. Moreover, several immune response related pathways, such as shigellosis, bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, Salmonella infection, and Vibrio cholerae infection were repressed, indicating that secondary infection in M. rosenbergii may be inhibited via the suppression of these immune related pathways. DIV1 infection led to the induction of microbial carbohydrate enzymes such as the glycoside hydrolases (GHs), and reduced the abundance and number of antibiotic-resistant ontologies (AROs). A variety of AROs were identified from the microbiota, and mdtF and lrfA appeared as the dominant genes in the detected AROs. In addition, antibiotic efflux, antibiotic inactivation, and antibiotic target alteration were the main antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Collectively, the data would enable a deeper understanding of the molecular response of intestinal microbiota to DIV1, and offer more insights into its roles in prawn resistance to DIVI infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Ye T, He S, Li J, et al (2024)

Metagenomic and transcriptomic analysis revealing the impact of oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin on gut microbiota and gene expression in the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 271:106925.

Excessive antibiotic use has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), impacting gut microbiota and host health. However, the effects of antibiotics on amphibian populations remain unclear. We investigated the impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) on Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus), focusing on gut microbiota, ARGs, and gene expression by performing metagenome and transcriptome sequencing. A. davidianus were given OTC (20 or 40 mg/kg) or CIP (50 or 100 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. The results revealed that oral administration of OTC and CIP led to distinct changes in microbial composition and functional potential, with CIP treatment having a greater impact than OTC. Antibiotic treatment also influenced the abundance of ARGs, with an increase in fluoroquinolone and multi-drug resistance genes observed post-treatment. The construction of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) accurately validated that CIP intervention enriched fish-associated potential pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila carrying an increased number of ARGs. Additionally, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as phages and plasmids, were implicated in the dissemination of ARGs. Transcriptomic analysis of the gut revealed significant alterations in gene expression, particularly in immune-related pathways, with differential effects observed between OTC and CIP treatments. Integration of metagenomic and transcriptomic data highlighted potential correlations between gut gene expression and microbial composition, suggesting complex interactions between the host gut and its gut microbiota in response to antibiotic exposure. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the impact of antibiotic intervention on the gut microbiome and host health in amphibians, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance and immune function.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Lim TW, Huang S, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

A comparison of the prevalence of respiratory pathogens and opportunistic respiratory pathogenic profile of 'clean' and 'unclean' removable dental prostheses.

Journal of dentistry, 145:104968.

OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the opportunistic respiratory pathogenic index (ORPI) and prevalence of respiratory pathogens between clean and unclean removable prostheses.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 97 removable prosthesis wearers at a teaching dental hospital. Participants' prosthesis hygiene was grouped into clean and unclean. After prosthesis plaque samples were sequenced using the Type IIB Restriction-site Associated DNA Sequencing for Microbiome method, the prevalence was assessed for the presence of respiratory pathogens on each sample. The ORPIs for clean and unclean prostheses were quantified based on the sum of the relative abundance of respiratory pathogenic bacteria in a microbiome using a reference database that contains opportunistic respiratory pathogens and disease-associated information.

RESULTS: A total of 30 opportunistic respiratory pathogens were identified on the removable prostheses. Eighty-one (83.5 %) removable prostheses harboured respiratory pathogenic bacteria. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (34.0 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.8 %), and Streptococcus agalactiae (27.8 %) were the top three prevalent respiratory pathogens detected in plaque samples. There was a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory pathogens residing on unclean than clean prostheses (P = 0.046). However, the ORPIs in both groups showed no statistically significant difference (P = 0.516).

CONCLUSIONS: The ORPIs for both clean and unclean prostheses demonstrated a similar abundance of respiratory pathogens. However, the high prevalence of respiratory pathogens residing on unclean prostheses should not be underestimated. Therefore, maintaining good prosthesis hygiene is still important for overall oral and systemic health, even though the direct link between prosthesis cleanliness and reduced abundance of respiratory pathogens has not been established.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The association between the prevalence of respiratory pathogens and unclean removable prostheses has been demonstrated and might increase the theoretical risk of respiratory disease development.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Yang S, Sun J, Wang C, et al (2024)

Residue quality drives SOC sequestration by altering microbial taxonomic composition and ecophysiological function in desert ecosystem.

Environmental research, 250:118518.

Plant residues are important sources of soil organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The degradation of plant residue by microbes can influence the soil carbon cycle and sequestration. However, little is known about the microbial composition and function, as well as the accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in response to the inputs of different quality plant residues in the desert environment. The present study evaluated the effects of plant residue addition from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pi), Artemisia desertorum (Ar) and Amorpha fruticosa (Am) on desert soil microbial community composition and function in a field experiment in the Mu Us Desert. The results showed that the addition of the three plant residues with different C/N ratios induced significant variation in soil microbial communities. The Am treatment (low C/N ratio) improved microbial diversity compared with the Ar and Pi treatments (medium and high C/N ratios). The variations in the taxonomic and functional compositions of the dominant phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were higher than those of the other phyla among the different treatments. Moreover, the network links between Proteobacteria and other phyla and the CAZyme genes abundances from Proteobacteria increased with increasing residue C/N, whereas those decreased for Actinobacteria. The SOC content of the Am, Ar and Pi treatments increased by 45.73%, 66.54% and 107.99%, respectively, as compared to the original soil. The net SOC accumulation was positively correlated with Proteobacteria abundance and negatively correlated with Actinobacteria abundance. These findings showed that changing the initial quality of plant residue from low C/N to high C/N can result in shifts in taxonomic and functional composition from Actinobacteria to Proteobacteria, which favors SOC accumulation. This study elucidates the ecophysiological roles of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the desert carbon cycle, expands our understanding of the potential microbial-mediated mechanisms by which plant residue inputs affect SOC sequestration in desert soils, and provides valuable guidance for species selection in desert vegetation reconstruction.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Zhao J, Guan G, Li D, et al (2024)

Study on the gut symbiotic microbiota in long- and short-winged brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

Scientific reports, 14(1):11306.

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most important rice pests in Asia rice regions. BPH has monophagy, migration, rapid reproduction and strong environmental adaptability, and its control is a major problem in pest management. Adult BPH exhibit wing dimorphism, and the symbiotic microbiota enriched in the gut can provide energy for wing flight muscles as a source of nutrition. In order to study the diversity of symbiotic microbiota in different winged BPHs, this paper takes female BPH as the research object. It was found that the number of symbiotic microbiota of different winged BPHs would change at different development stages. Then, based on the 16S rRNA and ITS sequences, a metagenomic library was constructed, combined with fluorescent quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing, the dominant symbiotic microbiota flora in the gut of different winged BPHs was found, and the community structure and composition of symbiotic microbiota in different winged BPHs were further determined. Together, our results preliminarily revealed that symbiotic microbiota in the gut of BPHs have certain effects on wing morphology, and understanding the mechanisms underlying wing morph differentiation will clarify how nutritional factors or environmental cues alter or regulate physiological and metabolic pathways. These findings also establish a theoretical basis for subsequent explorations into BPH-symbiont interplay.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Elbakary M, Hammad SF, Youseif SH, et al (2024)

Revealing the diversity of Jojoba-associated fungi using amplicon metagenome approach and assessing the in vitro biocontrol activity of its cultivable community.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(7):205.

Jojoba shrubs are wild plants cultivated in arid and semiarid lands and characterized by tolerance to drought, salinity, and high temperatures. Fungi associated with such plants may be attributed to the tolerance of host plants against biotic stress in addition to the promotion of plant growth. Previous studies showed the importance of jojoba as jojoba oil in the agricultural field; however, no prior study discussed the role of jojoba-associated fungi (JAF) in reflecting plant health and the possibility of using JAF in biocontrol. Here, the culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches were performed to study the diversity of the jojoba-associated fungi. Then, the cultivable fungi were evaluated for in-vitro antagonistic activity and in vitro plant growth promotion assays. The metagenome analysis revealed the existence of four fungal phyla: Ascomycota, Aphelidiomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota. The phylum Ascomycota was the most common and had the highest relative abundance in soil, root, branch, and fruit samples (59.7%, 50.7%, 49.8%, and 52.4%, respectively). Alternaria was the most abundant genus in aboveground tissues: branch (43.7%) and fruit (32.1%), while the genus Discosia had the highest abundance in the underground samples: soil (24%) and root (30.7%). For the culture-dependent method, a total of 14 fungi were isolated, identified, and screened for their chitinolytic and antagonist activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani) as well as their in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) activity. Based on ITS sequence analysis, the selected potent isolates were identified as Aspergillus stellatusEJ-JFF3, Aspergillus flavus EJ-JFF4, Stilbocrea sp. EJ-JLF1, Fusarium solani EJ-JRF3, and Amesia atrobrunneaEJ-JSF4. The endophyte strain A. flavus EJ-JFF4 exhibited the highest chitinolytic activity (9 Enzyme Index) and antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, and Rhizoctonia solani phytopathogens with inhibitory percentages of 72, 70, and 80 respectively. Also, A. flavus EJ-JFF4 had significant multiple PGP properties, including siderophore production (69.3%), phosphate solubilization (95.4 µg ml[-1]). The greatest production of Indol-3-Acetic Acid was belonged to A. atrobrunnea EJ-JSF4 (114.5 µg ml[-1]). The analysis of FUNGuild revealed the abundance of symbiotrophs over other trophic modes, and the guild of endophytes was commonly assigned in all samples. For the first time, this study uncovered fungal diversity associated with jojoba plants using a culture-independent approach and in-vitro assessed the roles of cultivable fungal strains in promoting plant growth and biocontrol. The present study indicated the significance of jojoba shrubs as a potential source of diverse fungi with high biocontrol and PGP activities.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Norenhag J, Edfeldt G, Stålberg K, et al (2024)

Compositional and functional differences of the vaginal microbiota of women with and without cervical dysplasia.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11183.

Alterations in the vaginal microbiota, including both species composition and functional pathways, have been associated with HPV infection and progression of dysplasia to cervical cancer. To further explore this, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to taxonomically and functionally characterize the vaginal microbiota of women with and without cervical dysplasia. Women with histologically verified dysplasia (n = 177; low grade dysplasia (LSIL) n = 81, high-grade dysplasia (HSIL) n = 94, cancer n = 2) were compared with healthy controls recruited from the cervical screening programme (n = 177). Women with dysplasia had a higher vaginal microbial diversity, and higher abundances of Gardnerella vaginalis, Aerococcus christensenii, Peptoniphilus lacrimalis and Fannyhessea vaginae, while healthy controls had higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus crispatus. Genes involved in e.g. nucleotide biosynthesis and peptidoglycan biosynthesis were more abundant in women with dysplasia. Healthy controls showed higher abundance of genes important for e.g. amino acid biosynthesis, (especially L-lysine) and sugar degradation. These findings suggest that the microbiota may have a role in creating a pro-oncogenic environment in women with dysplasia. Its role and potential interactions with other components in the microenvironment deserve further exploration.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Singh P, Singh SM, Segawa T, et al (2024)

Bacterial diversity and biopotentials of Hamtah glacier cryoconites, Himalaya.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1362678.

Cryoconite is a granular structure present on the glaciers and ice sheets found in polar regions including the Himalayas. It is composed of organic and inorganic matter which absorb solar radiations and reduce ice surface albedo, therefore impacting the melting and retreat of glaciers. Though climate warming has a serious impact on Himalayan glaciers, the biodiversity of sub-glacier ecosystems is poorly understood. Moreover, cryoconite holes are unique habitats for psychrophile biodiversity hotspots in the NW Himalayas, but unfortunately, studies on the microbial diversity of such habitats remain elusive. Therefore, the current study was designed to explore the bacterial diversity of the Hamtah Glacier Himalaya using both culturable and non-culturable approaches. The culturable bacterial count ranged from 2.0 × 10[3] to 8.8 × 10[5] colony-forming units (CFUs)/g at the different locations of the glacier. A total of 88 bacterial isolates were isolated using the culturable approach. Based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA), the identified species belong to seven genera, namely, Cryobacterium, Duganella, Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, Peribacillus, Psychrobacter, and Sphingomonas. In the non-culturable approach, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (using MiSeq) showed unique bacterial community profiles and represented 440 genera belonging to 20 phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Spirochaetes, Elusimicrobia, Armatimonadetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Nitrospirae, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Deferribacteres, Fusobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and others. High relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were observed in the samples. Phototrophic (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) and nitrifier (Nitrospirae) in bacterial populations indicated sustenance of the micro-ecosystem in the oligotrophic glacier environment. The isolates varied in their phenotypic characteristics, enzyme activities, and antibiotic sensitivity. Furthermore, the fatty acid profiles of bacterial isolates indicate the predominance of branched fatty acids. Iso-, anteiso-, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids together constituted a major proportion of the total fatty acid composition. High cold-adapted enzyme activities such as lipase and cellulase expressed by Cryobacterium arcticum (KY783365) and protease and cellulase activities by Pseudomonas sp. strains (KY783373, KY783377-79, KY783382) provide evidence of the possible applications of these organisms. Additionally, antibiotic tests indicated that most isolates were sensitive to antibiotics. In conclusion, the present study contributed for the first time to bacterial diversity and biopotentials of cryoconites of Hamtah Glacier, Himalayas. Furthermore, the cold-adapted enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may provide an opportunity for biotechnology in the Himalayas. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) analyses showed the presence of several elements in cryoconites, providing a clue for the accelerating melting and retreating of the Hamtah glacier.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Kaijser W, Lorenz AW, Brauer VS, et al (2024)

Differential associations of five riverine organism groups with multiple stressors.

The Science of the total environment, 934:173105 pii:S0048-9697(24)03252-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The decline of river and stream biodiversity results from multiple simultaneous occuring stressors, yet few studies explore responses explore responses across various taxonomic groups at the same locations. In this study, we address this shortcoming by using a coherent data set to study the association of nine commonly occurring stressors (five chemical, one morphological and three hydraulic) with five taxonomic groups (bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macro-invertebrates and fish). According to studies on single taxonomic groups, we hypothesise that gradients of chemical stressors structure community composition of all taxonomic groups, while gradients of hydraulic and morphological stressors are mainly related to larger organisms such as benthic macro-invertebrates and fish. Organisms were sampled over two years at 20 sites in two catchments: a recently restored urban lowland catchment (Boye) and a moderately disturbed rural mountainous catchment (Kinzig). Dissimilarity matrices were computed for each taxonomic group within a catchment. Taxonomic dissimilarities between sites were linked to stressor dissimilarities using multivariable Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Stressor gradients were longer in the Boye, but did in contrast to the Kinzig not cover low stress intensities. Accordingly, responses of the taxonomic groups were stronger in the Kinzig catchment than in the recently restored Boye catchment. The discrepancy between catchments underlines that associations to stressors strongly depend on which part of the stressor gradient is covered in a catchment. All taxonomic groups were related to conductivity. Bacteria, fungi and macro-invertebrates change with dissolved oxygen, and bacteria and fungi with total nitrogen. Morphological and hydraulic stressors had minor correlations with bacteria, fungi and diatoms, while macro-invertebrates were strongly related to fine sediment and discharge, and fish to high flow peaks. The results partly support our hypotheses about the differential associations of the different taxonomic groups with the stressors.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Kuster R, M Staton (2024)

Readsynth: short-read simulation for consideration of composition-biases in reduced metagenome sequencing approaches.

BMC bioinformatics, 25(1):191.

BACKGROUND: The application of reduced metagenomic sequencing approaches holds promise as a middle ground between targeted amplicon sequencing and whole metagenome sequencing approaches but has not been widely adopted as a technique. A major barrier to adoption is the lack of read simulation software built to handle characteristic features of these novel approaches. Reduced metagenomic sequencing (RMS) produces unique patterns of fragmentation per genome that are sensitive to restriction enzyme choice, and the non-uniform size selection of these fragments may introduce novel challenges to taxonomic assignment as well as relative abundance estimates.

RESULTS: Through the development and application of simulation software, readsynth, we compare simulated metagenomic sequencing libraries with existing RMS data to assess the influence of multiple library preparation and sequencing steps on downstream analytical results. Based on read depth per position, readsynth achieved 0.79 Pearson's correlation and 0.94 Spearman's correlation to these benchmarks. Application of a novel estimation approach, fixed length taxonomic ratios, improved quantification accuracy of simulated human gut microbial communities when compared to estimates of mean or median coverage.

CONCLUSIONS: We investigate the possible strengths and weaknesses of applying the RMS technique to profiling microbial communities via simulations with readsynth. The choice of restriction enzymes and size selection steps in library prep are non-trivial decisions that bias downstream profiling and quantification. The simulations investigated in this study illustrate the possible limits of preparing metagenomic libraries with a reduced representation sequencing approach, but also allow for the development of strategies for producing and handling the sequence data produced by this promising application.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Jang CS, Kim H, Kim D, et al (2024)

MicroPredict: predicting species-level taxonomic abundance of whole-shotgun metagenomic data using only 16S amplicon sequencing data.

Genes & genomics, 46(6):701-712.

BACKGROUND: The importance of the human microbiome in the analysis of various diseases is emerging. The two main methods used to profile the human microbiome are 16S rRNA gene sequencing (16S sequencing) and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGS). Owing to the full coverage of the genome in sequencing, WGS has multiple advantages over 16S sequencing, including higher taxonomic profiling resolution at the species-level and functional profiling analysis. However, 16S sequencing remains widely used because of its relatively low cost. Although WGS is the standard method for obtaining accurate species-level data, we found that 16S sequencing data contained rich information to predict high-resolution species-level abundances with reasonable accuracy.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we proposed MicroPredict, a method for accurately predicting WGS-comparable species-level abundance data using 16S taxonomic profile data.

METHODS: We employed a mixed model using two key strategies: (1) modeling both sample- and species-specific information for predicting WGS abundances, and (2) accounting for the possible correlations among different species.

RESULTS: We found that MicroPredict outperformed the other machine learning methods.

CONCLUSION: We expect that our approach will help researchers accurately approximate the species-level abundances of microbiome profiles in datasets for which only cost-effective 16S sequencing has been applied.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Liao Q, Zhao Y, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Kiwifruit resistance to gray mold is enhanced by yeast-induced modulation of the endophytic microbiome.

The Science of the total environment, 932:173109.

The influence of endophytic microbial community on plant growth and disease resistance is of considerable importance. Prior research indicates that pre-treatment of kiwifruit with the biocontrol yeast Debaryomyces hansenii suppresses gray mold disease induced by Botrytis cinerea. However, the specific underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, Metagenomic sequencing was utilized to analyze the composition of the endophytic microbiome of kiwifruit under three distinct conditions: the healthy state, kiwifruit inoculated with B. cinerea, and kiwifruit treated with D. hansenii prior to inoculation with B. cinerea. Results revealed a dominance of Proteobacteria in all treatment groups, accompanied by a notable increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Ascomycota emerged as the major dominant group within the fungal community. Treatment with D. hansenii induced significant alterations in microbial community diversity, specifically enhancing the relative abundance of yeast and exerting an inhibitory effect on B. cinerea. The introduction of D. hansenii also enriched genes associated with energy metabolism and signal transduction, positively influencing the overall structure and function of the microbial community. Our findings highlight the potential of D. hansenii to modulate microbial dynamics, inhibit pathogenic organisms, and positively influence functional attributes of the microbial community.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Nguyen SM, Tran HTT, Long J, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome in association with chemotherapy-induced toxicities among patients with breast cancer.

Cancer, 130(11):2014-2030.

BACKGROUND: Little research has focused on the relationship between gut microbiome and chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

METHODS: This prospective study involves 301 patients with breast cancer who had prechemotherapy stool samples collected. Gut microbiome was sequenced by shotgun metagenomics; associations with chemotherapy-induced toxicities during first-line treatment by gut microbial diversity, composition, and metabolic pathways with severe (i.e., grade ≥3) hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities were evaluated via multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: High prechemotherapy α-diversity was associated with a significantly reduced risk of both severe hematological toxicity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99; p = .048) and neutropenia (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99; p = .016). A high abundance of phylum Synergistota, class Synergistia, and order Synergistales were significantly associated with a reduced risk of severe neutropenia; conversely, enrichment of phylum Firmicutes C, class Negativicutes, phylum Firmicutes I, and class Bacilli A, order Paenibacillales were significantly associated with an increased risk of severe neutropenia (p range: 0.012-2.32 × 10[-3]; false discovery rate <0.1). Significant positive associations were also observed between severe nausea/vomiting and high Chao1 indexes, β-diversity (p < .05), 20 species belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, Oscillospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae (p value range: 6.14 × 10[-3] to 1.33 × 10[-5]; false discovery rate <0.1), and three metabolic pathways involved in reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle I and cycle II, and an incomplete reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (p < .01). Conversely, a high abundance of species Odoribacter laneus and the pathway related to the L-proline biosynthesis II were inversely associated with severe nausea/vomiting.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that gut microbiota may be a potential preventive target to reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Zhang M, Shi Z, Wu C, et al (2024)

Cushing Syndrome Is Associated With Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Cortisol-Degrading Bacteria.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 109(6):1474-1484.

CONTEXT: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a severe endocrine disease characterized by excessive secretion of cortisol with multiple metabolic disorders. While gut microbial dysbiosis plays a vital role in metabolic disorders, the role of gut microbiota in CS remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to examine the alteration of gut microbiota in patients with CS.

METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples from 78 patients with CS and 78 healthy controls matched for age and body mass index. Furthermore, we verify the cortisol degradation capacity of Ruminococcus gnavus in vitro and identify the potential metabolite by LC-MC/MS.

RESULTS: We observed significant differences in microbial composition between CS and controls in both sexes, with CS showing reduced Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides vulgatus) and elevated Firmicutes (Erysipelotrichaceae_bacterium_6_1_45) and Proteobacteria (Enterobacter cloacae). Despite distinct causes of hypercortisolism in ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent CS, we found no significant differences in metabolic profiles or gut microbiota between the 2 subgroups. Furthermore, we identified a group of gut species, including R. gnavus, that were positively correlated with cortisol levels in CS. These bacteria were found to harbor cortisol-degrading desAB genes and were consistently enriched in CS. Moreover, we demonstrated the efficient capacity of R. gnavus to degrade cortisol to 11-oxygenated androgens in vitro.

CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of gut microbial dysbiosis in patients with CS and identifies a group of CS-enriched bacteria capable of degrading cortisol. These findings highlight the potential role of gut microbiota in regulating host steroid hormone levels, and consequently host health.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Naliukhin AN, Kozlov AV, Eregin AV, et al (2024)

Responses of soil physico-chemical properties, structure of the microbial community and crop yields to different fertilization practices in Russia's conventional farming system.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e282493 pii:S1519-69842024000101135.

The use of fertilizers affects not only the soil fertility and crop yield, but also significantly changes the taxonomic structure of the soil microbiocenosis. Here, based on stationary field experiment, we studied the influence of organo-mineral fertilizer (ОМF), modified by bacteria Bacillus subtilis, H-13 in comparison with different fertilizer systems (organic, mineral, organo-mineral) on (i) crop yield, (ii) physical and chemical properties, and (iii) alpha and beta diversity of the microbial community Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric). The studies were carried out against the background of liming (рНКCl - 5.9) and without it (рНКCl - 5.1). The use of only one cattle farmyard manure was less effective than its co-application with mineral fertilizers in half doses. A similar effect was obtained when applying ОМF. In addition, the use of OMF contributes to a significant increase in the reserves of soil organic carbon in the soil layer 0-20 cm by 18%-32%. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA variable V4 gene sequence libraries, 10.759 taxa from 456 genera were identified, assigned to 34 fila (31 bacterial and 3 archaeotic. Unilateral application of mineral fertilizers leads to a significant decrease in the alpha diversity of the structure of soil microbial communities (OTE (other things equal) and Shannon index). A clear clustering of the microbiota was found in the variants with and without the introduction of сattle farmyard manure. It is revealed that the taxonomic structure of the microbiocenosis is formed under the influence of two main factors: crop rotation culture and applied fertilizers. The type of cultivated crop determines the dynamics of the microbiota at the level of larger taxa, such as domains, and fertilizers affect the structure of the microbial community at a lower taxonomic level (phyla, orders, bloodlines). On the basis of the Deseq analysis, marker taxa were identified, according to the share participation of which it is possible to determine the type of cultivated crop and fertilizers used in the experiment. Understanding the dynamics of taxa association and other influential factors can lead to the creation of universal systems of metagenomic indication, where tracking the dynamics of microbial communities will allow for a comprehensive assessment of the agroecological state of soils and timely decisions to prevent their degradation.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Qi YL, Chen YT, Xie YG, et al (2024)

Analysis of nearly 3000 archaeal genomes from terrestrial geothermal springs sheds light on interconnected biogeochemical processes.

Nature communications, 15(1):4066.

Terrestrial geothermal springs are physicochemically diverse and host abundant populations of Archaea. However, the diversity, functionality, and geological influences of these Archaea are not well understood. Here we explore the genomic diversity of Archaea in 152 metagenomes from 48 geothermal springs in Tengchong, China, collected from 2016 to 2021. Our dataset is comprised of 2949 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes spanning 12 phyla and 392 newly identified species, which increases the known species diversity of Archaea by ~48.6%. The structures and potential functions of the archaeal communities are strongly influenced by temperature and pH, with high-temperature acidic and alkaline springs favoring archaeal abundance over Bacteria. Genome-resolved metagenomics and metatranscriptomics provide insights into the potential ecological niches of these Archaea and their potential roles in carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism. Furthermore, our findings illustrate the interplay of competition and cooperation among Archaea in biogeochemical cycles, possibly arising from overlapping functional niches and metabolic handoffs. Taken together, our study expands the genomic diversity of Archaea inhabiting geothermal springs and provides a foundation for more incisive study of biogeochemical processes mediated by Archaea in geothermal ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Warwick-Dugdale J, Tian F, Michelsen ML, et al (2024)

Long-read powered viral metagenomics in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea.

Nature communications, 15(1):4089.

Dominant microorganisms of the Sargasso Sea are key drivers of the global carbon cycle. However, associated viruses that shape microbial community structure and function are not well characterised. Here, we combined short and long read sequencing to survey Sargasso Sea phage communities in virus- and cellular fractions at viral maximum (80 m) and mesopelagic (200 m) depths. We identified 2,301 Sargasso Sea phage populations from 186 genera. Over half of the phage populations identified here lacked representation in global ocean viral metagenomes, whilst 177 of the 186 identified genera lacked representation in genomic databases of phage isolates. Viral fraction and cell-associated viral communities were decoupled, indicating viral turnover occurred across periods longer than the sampling period of three days. Inclusion of long-read data was critical for capturing the breadth of viral diversity. Phage isolates that infect the dominant bacterial taxa Prochlorococcus and Pelagibacter, usually regarded as cosmopolitan and abundant, were poorly represented.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Yue J, Zhang D, Cao M, et al (2024)

Response of microbial community composition and function to land use in mining soils of Xikuang Mountain in Hunan.

PloS one, 19(5):e0299550 pii:PONE-D-23-38267.

Nine land types in the northern mining area (BKQ) (mining land, smelting land, living area), the old mining area (LKQ) (whole-ore heap, wasteland, grassland), and southern mining area (NKQ) (grassland, shrubs, farmland) of Xikuang Mountain were chosen to explore the composition and functions of soil bacterial communities under different habitats around mining areas. The composition and functions of soil bacterial communities were compared among the sampling sites using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. α diversity analysis showed the soil bacterial diversity and abundance in the old mining area were significantly higher than those in the northern mining area. β diversity analysis demonstrated that the soil bacterial community composition was highly similar among different vegetation coverages in the southern mining area. Microbial community function analysis showed the annotated KEGG function pathways and eggNOG function composition were consistent between the grassland of the old mining area and the grassland of the southern mining area. This study uncovers the soil bacterial community composition and functions among different habitats in the mining areas of Xikuang Mountain and will underlie soil ecosystem restoration in different habitats under heavy metal pollution around the mining areas there.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Aguilar C, Alwali A, Mair M, et al (2024)

Actinomycetota bioprospecting from ore-forming environments.

Microbial genomics, 10(5):.

Natural products from Actinomycetota have served as inspiration for many clinically relevant therapeutics. Despite early triumphs in natural product discovery, the rate of unearthing new compounds has decreased, necessitating inventive approaches. One promising strategy is to explore environments where survival is challenging. These harsh environments are hypothesized to lead to bacteria developing chemical adaptations (e.g. natural products) to enable their survival. This investigation focuses on ore-forming environments, particularly fluoride mines, which typically have extreme pH, salinity and nutrient scarcity. Herein, we have utilized metagenomics, metabolomics and evolutionary genome mining to dissect the biodiversity and metabolism in these harsh environments. This work has unveiled the promising biosynthetic potential of these bacteria and has demonstrated their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. This research constitutes a pioneering endeavour in bioprospection within fluoride mining regions, providing insights into uncharted microbial ecosystems and their previously unexplored natural products.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Phan J, Calvo DC, Nair D, et al (2024)

Precision synbiotics increase gut microbiome diversity and improve gastrointestinal symptoms in a pilot open-label study for autism spectrum disorder.

mSystems, 9(5):e0050324.

UNLABELLED: The efficacy of prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics when combined) to improve symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shown considerable inter-study variation, likely due to the complex, heterogeneous nature of the disorder and its associated behavioral, developmental, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Here, we present a precision synbiotic supplementation study in 296 children and adults diagnosed with ASD versus 123 age-matched neurotypical controls. One hundred seventy ASD participants completed the study. Baseline and post-synbiotic assessment of ASD and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and deep metagenomic sequencing were performed. Within the ASD cohort, there were significant differences in microbes between subpopulations based on the social responsiveness scale (SRS2) survey (Prevotella spp., Bacteroides, Fusicatenibacter, and others) and gluten and dairy-free diets (Bifidobacterium spp., Lactococcus, Streptococcus spp., and others). At the baseline, the ASD cohort maintained a lower taxonomic alpha diversity and significant differences in taxonomic composition, metabolic pathways, and gene families, with a greater proportion of potential pathogens, including Shigella, Klebsiella, and Clostridium, and lower proportions of beneficial microbes, including Faecalibacterium compared to controls. Following the 3-month synbiotic supplementation, the ASD cohort showed increased taxonomic alpha diversity, shifts in taxonomy and metabolic pathway potential, and improvements in some ASD-related symptoms, including a significant reduction in GI discomfort and overall improved language, comprehension, cognition, thinking, and speech. However, the open-label study design may include some placebo effects. In summary, we found that precision synbiotics modulated the gut microbiome and could be used as supplementation to improve gastrointestinal and ASD-related symptoms.

IMPORTANCE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is prevalent in 1 out of 36 children in the United States and contributes to health, financial, and psychological burdens. Attempts to identify a gut microbiome signature of ASD have produced varied results. The limited pre-clinical and clinical population sizes have hampered the success of these trials. To understand the microbiome associated with ASD, we employed whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing to classify microbial composition and genetic functional potential. Despite being one of the most extensive ASD post-synbiotic assessment studies, the results highlight the complexity of performing such a case-control supplementation study in this population and the potential for a future therapeutic approach in ASD.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Bei Q, Reitz T, Schädler M, et al (2024)

Metabolic potential of Nitrososphaera-associated clades.

The ISME journal pii:7671376 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) play a crucial role in converting ammonia to nitrite, thereby mobilizing reactive nitrogen species into their soluble form, with a significant impact on nitrogen losses from terrestrial soils. Yet, our knowledge regarding their diversity and functions remains limited. In this study, we reconstructed 97 high-quality AOA metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 180 soil samples collected in Central Germany during 2014-2019 summers. These MAGs were affiliated with the order Nitrososphaerales (NS) and clustered into four family-level clades (NS-α/γ/δ/ε). Among these MAGs, 75 belonged to the most abundant but least understood δ-clade. Within the δ-clade, the amoA genes in three MAGs from neutral soils showed a 99.5% similarity to the fosmid clone 54d9, which has served as representative of the δ-clade for the past two decades since even today no cultivated representatives are available. 72 MAGs constituted a distinct δ sub-clade, and their abundance and expression activity were more than twice that of other MAGs in slightly acidic soils. Unlike the less abundant clades (α, γ, and ε), the δ-MAGs possessed multiple highly expressed intracellular and extracellular carbohydrate-active enzymes responsible for carbohydrate binding (CBM32) and degradation (GH5), along with highly expressed genes involved in ammonia oxidation. Together, these results suggest metabolic versatility of uncultured soil AOA and a potential mixotrophic or chemolithoheterotrophic lifestyle among 54d9-like AOA.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Yang L, Canarini A, Zhang W, et al (2024)

Microbial life-history strategies mediate microbial carbon pump efficacy in response to N management depending on stoichiometry of microbial demand.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17311.

The soil microbial carbon pump (MCP) is increasingly acknowledged as being directly linked to soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and stability. Given the close coupling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and the constraints imposed by their stoichiometry on microbial growth, N addition might affect microbial growth strategies with potential consequences for necromass formation and carbon stability. However, this topic remains largely unexplored. Based on two multi-level N fertilizer experiments over 10 years in two soils with contrasting soil fertility located in the North (Cambisol, carbon-poor) and Southwest (Luvisol, carbon-rich), we hypothesized that different resource demands of microorganism elicit a trade-off in microbial growth potential (Y-strategy) and resource-acquisition (A-strategy) in response to N addition, and consequently on necromass formation and soil carbon stability. We combined measurements of necromass metrics (MCP efficacy) and soil carbon stability (chemical composition and mineral associated organic carbon) with potential changes in microbial life history strategies (assessed via soil metagenomes and enzymatic activity analyses). The contribution of microbial necromass to SOC decreased with N addition in the Cambisol, but increased in the Luvisol. Soil microbial life strategies displayed two distinct responses in two soils after N amendment: shift toward A-strategy (Cambisol) or Y-strategy (Luvisol). These divergent responses are owing to the stoichiometric imbalance between microbial demands and resource availability for C and N, which presented very distinct patterns in the two soils. The partial correlation analysis further confirmed that high N addition aggravated stoichiometric carbon demand, shifting the microbial community strategy toward resource-acquisition which reduced carbon stability in Cambisol. In contrast, the microbial Y-strategy had the positive direct effect on MCP efficacy in Luvisol, which greatly enhanced carbon stability. Such findings provide mechanistic insights into the stoichiometric regulation of MCP efficacy, and how this is mediated by site-specific trade-offs in microbial life strategies, which contribute to improving our comprehension of soil microbial C sequestration and potential optimization of agricultural N management.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Cai H, McLimans CJ, Jiang H, et al (2024)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs play important roles in nutrient cycling within cyanobacterial Microcystis bloom microbiomes.

Microbiome, 12(1):88.

BACKGROUND: During the bloom season, the colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis forms complex aggregates which include a diverse microbiome within an exopolymer matrix. Early research postulated a simple mutualism existing with bacteria benefitting from the rich source of fixed carbon and Microcystis receiving recycled nutrients. Researchers have since hypothesized that Microcystis aggregates represent a community of synergistic and interacting species, an interactome, each with unique metabolic capabilities that are critical to the growth, maintenance, and demise of Microcystis blooms. Research has also shown that aggregate-associated bacteria are taxonomically different from free-living bacteria in the surrounding water. Moreover, research has identified little overlap in functional potential between Microcystis and members of its microbiome, further supporting the interactome concept. However, we still lack verification of general interaction and know little about the taxa and metabolic pathways supporting nutrient and metabolite cycling within Microcystis aggregates.

RESULTS: During a 7-month study of bacterial communities comparing free-living and aggregate-associated bacteria in Lake Taihu, China, we found that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria were significantly more abundant within Microcystis aggregates than in free-living samples, suggesting a possible functional role for AAP bacteria in overall aggregate community function. We then analyzed gene composition in 102 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of bloom-microbiome bacteria from 10 lakes spanning four continents, compared with 12 complete Microcystis genomes which revealed that microbiome bacteria and Microcystis possessed complementary biochemical pathways that could serve in C, N, S, and P cycling. Mapping published transcripts from Microcystis blooms onto a comprehensive AAP and non-AAP bacteria MAG database (226 MAGs) indicated that observed high levels of expression of genes involved in nutrient cycling pathways were in AAP bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong corroboration of the hypothesized Microcystis interactome and the first evidence that AAP bacteria may play an important role in nutrient cycling within Microcystis aggregate microbiomes. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Buysse M, Koual R, Binetruy F, et al (2024)

Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia bacteria in humans, wildlife, and ticks in the Amazon rainforest.

Nature communications, 15(1):3988.

Tick-borne bacteria of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma cause several emerging human infectious diseases worldwide. In this study, we conduct an extensive survey for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the rainforests of the Amazon biome of French Guiana. Through molecular genetics and metagenomics reconstruction, we observe a high indigenous biodiversity of infections circulating among humans, wildlife, and ticks inhabiting these ecosystems. Molecular typing identifies these infections as highly endemic, with a majority of new strains and putative species specific to French Guiana. They are detected in unusual rainforest wild animals, suggesting they have distinctive sylvatic transmission cycles. They also present potential health hazards, as revealed by the detection of Candidatus Anaplasma sparouinense in human red blood cells and that of a new close relative of the human pathogen Ehrlichia ewingii, Candidatus Ehrlichia cajennense, in the tick species that most frequently bite humans in South America. The genome assembly of three new putative species obtained from human, sloth, and tick metagenomes further reveals the presence of major homologs of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma virulence factors. These observations converge to classify health hazards associated with Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in the Amazon biome as distinct from those in the Northern Hemisphere.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Mady EA, Osuga H, Toyama H, et al (2024)

Relationship between the components of mare breast milk and foal gut microbiome: shaping gut microbiome development after birth.

The veterinary quarterly, 44(1):1-9.

The gut microbiota (GM) is essential for mammalian health. Although the association between infant GM and breast milk (BM) composition has been well established in humans, such a relationship has not been investigated in horses. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the GM formation of foals during lactation and determine the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites in mares' BM and their role in shaping foals' GM. The fecal and BM samples from six pairs of foals and mares were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, respectively. The composition of foal GM changed during lactation time; hierarchical cluster analysis divided the fetal GM into three groups corresponding to different time points in foal development. The level of most metabolites in milk decreased over time with increasing milk yield, while threonic acid and ascorbic acid increased. Further analyses revealed gut bacteria that correlated with changes in milk metabolites; for instance, there was a positive correlation between Bacteroidaceae in the foal's gut microbiota and serine/glycine in the mother's milk. These findings help improve the rearing environment of lactating horses and establish artificial feeding methods for foals.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Chai X, Chen X, Yan T, et al (2024)

Intestinal Barrier Impairment Induced by Gut Microbiome and Its Metabolites in School-Age Children with Zinc Deficiency.

Nutrients, 16(9):.

Zinc deficiency affects the physical and intellectual development of school-age children, while studies on the effects on intestinal microbes and metabolites in school-age children have not been reported. School-age children were enrolled to conduct anthropometric measurements and serum zinc and serum inflammatory factors detection, and children were divided into a zinc deficiency group (ZD) and control group (CK) based on the results of serum zinc. Stool samples were collected to conduct metagenome, metabolome, and diversity analysis, and species composition analysis, functional annotation, and correlation analysis were conducted to further explore the function and composition of the gut flora and metabolites of children with zinc deficiency. Beta-diversity analysis revealed a significantly different gut microbial community composition between ZD and CK groups. For instance, the relative abundances of Phocaeicola vulgatus, Alistipes putredinis, Bacteroides uniformis, Phocaeicola sp000434735, and Coprococcus eutactus were more enriched in the ZD group, while probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense showed the reverse trend. The functional profile of intestinal flora was also under the influence of zinc deficiency, as reflected by higher levels of various glycoside hydrolases in the ZD group. In addition, saccharin, the pro-inflammatory metabolites, and taurocholic acid, the potential factor inducing intestinal leakage, were higher in the ZD group. In conclusion, zinc deficiency may disturb the gut microbiome community and metabolic function profile of school-age children, potentially affecting human health.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Park G, Kim S, Lee W, et al (2024)

Deciphering the Impact of Defecation Frequency on Gut Microbiome Composition and Diversity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

This study explores the impact of defecation frequency on the gut microbiome structure by analyzing fecal samples from individuals categorized by defecation frequency: infrequent (1-3 times/week, n = 4), mid-frequent (4-6 times/week, n = 7), and frequent (daily, n = 9). Utilizing 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and LC-MS/MS metabolome profiling, significant differences in microbial diversity and community structures among the groups were observed. The infrequent group showed higher microbial diversity, with community structures significantly varying with defecation frequency, a pattern consistent across all sampling time points. The Ruminococcus genus was predominant in the infrequent group, but decreased with more frequent defecation, while the Bacteroides genus was more common in the frequent group, decreasing as defecation frequency lessened. The infrequent group demonstrated enriched biosynthesis genes for aromatic amino acids and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), in contrast to the frequent group, which had a higher prevalence of genes for BCAA catabolism. Metabolome analysis revealed higher levels of metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids and BCAA metabolism in the infrequent group, and lower levels of BCAA-derived metabolites in the frequent group, consistent with their predicted metagenomic functions. These findings underscore the importance of considering stool consistency/frequency in understanding the factors influencing the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

An K, Jia Y, Xie B, et al (2024)

Alterations in the gut mycobiome with coronary artery disease severity.

EBioMedicine, 103:105137.

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a prevalent cardiovascular condition, and numerous studies have linked gut bacterial imbalance to CAD. However, the relationship of gut fungi, another essential component of the intestinal microbiota, with CAD remains poorly understood.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed fecal samples from 132 participants, split into 31 healthy controls and 101 CAD patients, further categorized into stable CAD (38), unstable angina (41), and acute myocardial infarction (22) groups. We conducted internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 16S sequencing to examine gut fungal and bacterial communities.

FINDINGS: Based on ITS1 analyses, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant fungal phyla in all the groups. The α diversity of gut mycobiome remained unaltered among the control group and CAD subgroups; however, the structure and composition of the mycobiota differed significantly with the progression of CAD. The abundances of 15 taxa gradually changed with the occurrence and progression of the disease and were significantly correlated with major CAD risk factor indicators. The mycobiome changes were closely linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis in patients with CAD. Furthermore, disease classifiers based on gut fungi effectively identified subgroups with different degrees of CAD. Finally, the FUNGuild analysis further categorized these fungi into distinct ecological guilds.

INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, the structure and composition of the gut fungal community differed from healthy controls to various subtypes of CAD, revealing key fungi taxa alterations linked to the onset and progression of CAD. Our study highlights the potential role of gut fungi in CAD and may facilitate the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CAD.

FUNDING: This work was supported by the grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 82170302, 92168117, 82370432), National clinical key specialty construction project- Cardiovascular Surgery, the Reform and Development Program of Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine (No. Ggyfz202417, Ggyfz202308), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 7222068); and the Clinical Research Incubation Program of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (No. CYFH202209).

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Mishra S, Zhang X, X Yang (2024)

Plant communication with rhizosphere microbes can be revealed by understanding microbial functional gene composition.

Microbiological research, 284:127726.

Understanding rhizosphere microbial ecology is necessary to reveal the interplay between plants and associated microbial communities. The significance of rhizosphere-microbial interactions in plant growth promotion, mediated by several key processes such as auxin synthesis, enhanced nutrient uptake, stress alleviation, disease resistance, etc., is unquestionable and well reported in numerous literature. Moreover, rhizosphere research has witnessed tremendous progress due to the integration of the metagenomics approach and further shift in our viewpoint from taxonomic to functional diversity over the past decades. The microbial functional genes corresponding to the beneficial functions provide a solid foundation for the successful establishment of positive plant-microbe interactions. The microbial functional gene composition in the rhizosphere can be regulated by several factors, e.g., the nutritional requirements of plants, soil chemistry, soil nutrient status, pathogen attack, abiotic stresses, etc. Knowing the pattern of functional gene composition in the rhizosphere can shed light on the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial ecology and the strength of cooperation between plants and associated microbes. This knowledge is crucial to realizing how microbial functions respond to unprecedented challenges which are obvious in the Anthropocene. Unraveling how microbes-mediated beneficial functions will change under the influence of several challenges, requires knowledge of the pattern and composition of functional genes corresponding to beneficial functions such as biogeochemical functions (nutrient cycle), plant growth promotion, stress mitigation, etc. Here, we focus on the molecular traits of plant growth-promoting functions delivered by a set of microbial functional genes that can be useful to the emerging field of rhizosphere functional ecology.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Garvin ZK, Abades SR, Trefault N, et al (2024)

Prevalence of trace gas-oxidizing soil bacteria increases with radial distance from Polloquere hot spring within a high-elevation Andean cold desert.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

High-elevation arid regions harbor microbial communities reliant on metabolic niches and flexibility to survive under biologically stressful conditions, including nutrient limitation that necessitates the utilization of atmospheric trace gases as electron donors. Geothermal springs present "oases" of microbial activity, diversity, and abundance by delivering water and substrates, including reduced gases. However, it is unknown whether these springs exhibit a gradient of effects, increasing their impact on trace gas-oxidizers in the surrounding soils. We assessed whether proximity to Polloquere, a high-altitude geothermal spring in an Andean salt flat, alters the diversity and metabolic structure of nearby soil bacterial populations compared to the surrounding cold desert. Recovered DNA and metagenomic analyses indicate that the spring represents an oasis for microbes in this challenging environment, supporting greater biomass with more diverse metabolic functions in proximal soils that declines sharply with radial distance from the spring. Despite the sharp decrease in biomass, potential rates of atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) uptake increase away from the spring. Kinetic estimates suggest this activity is due to high-affinity trace gas consumption, likely as a survival strategy for energy/carbon acquisition. These results demonstrate that Polloquere regulates a gradient of diverse microbial communities and metabolisms, culminating in increased activity of trace gas-oxidizers as the influence of the spring yields to that of the regional salt flat environment. This suggests the spring holds local importance within the context of the broader salt flat and potentially represents a model ecosystem for other geothermal systems in high-altitude desert environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Zhang S, Chau HT, Tun HM, et al (2024)

Virological response to nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients is associated with Bacteroides-dominant gut microbiome.

EBioMedicine, 103:105101.

BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis is present in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we integrated microbiome and metabolome analysis to investigate the role of gut microbiome in virological response to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) treatment.

METHODS: Chronic HBV patients were prospectively recruited for steatosis and fibrosis assessments via liver elastography, with full-length 16S sequencing performed to identify the compositional gut microbiota differences. Fasting plasma bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

FINDINGS: All patients (n = 110) were characterized into three distinct microbial clusters by their dominant genus: c-Bacteroides, c-Blautia, and c-Prevotella. Patients with c-Bacteroides had a higher plasma ursodeoxycholic acids (UDCA) level and an increase in 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (secondary bile acid biotransformation) than other clusters. In NAs-treated patients (n = 84), c-Bacteroides was associated with higher odds of plasma HBV-DNA undetectability when compared with non-c-Bacteroides clusters (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.43-8.96, p = 0.01). c-Blautia was positively associated with advanced fibrosis (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.09-7.31, p = 0.04). No such associations were found in treatment-naïve patients. Increased Escherichia coli relative abundance (0.21% vs. 0.03%, p = 0.035) was found in on-treatment patients (median treatment duration 98.1 months) with advanced fibrosis despite HBV DNA undetectability. An enrichment in l-tryptophan biosynthesis was observed in patients with advanced fibrosis, which exhibited a positive correlation with Escherichia coli.

INTERPRETATION: Collectively, unique bacterial signatures, including c-Bacteroides and c-Blautia, were associated with virological undetectability and fibrosis evolution during NAs therapy in chronic HBV, setting up intriguing possibilities in optimizing HBV treatment.

FUNDING: This study was supported by the Guangdong Natural Science Fund (2019A1515012003).

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Rekadwad BN, Shouche YS, K Jangid (2024)

A culture-independent approach, supervised machine learning, and the characterization of the microbial community composition of coastal areas across the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):162.

BACKGROUND: Coastal areas are subject to various anthropogenic and natural influences. In this study, we investigated and compared the characteristics of two coastal regions, Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Goa (GA), focusing on pollution, anthropogenic activities, and recreational impacts. We explored three main factors influencing the differences between these coastlines: The Bay of Bengal's shallower depth and lower salinity; upwelling phenomena due to the thermocline in the Arabian Sea; and high tides that can cause strong currents that transport pollutants and debris.

RESULTS: The microbial diversity in GA was significantly higher than that in AP, which might be attributed to differences in temperature, soil type, and vegetation cover. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics analysis indicated the presence of diverse microbial phyla, including candidate phyla radiation (CPR). Statistical analysis, random forest regression, and supervised machine learning models classification confirm the diversity of the microbiome accurately. Furthermore, we have identified 450 cultures of heterotrophic, biotechnologically important bacteria. Some strains were identified as novel taxa based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showing promising potential for further study.

CONCLUSION: Thus, our study provides valuable insights into the microbial diversity and pollution levels of coastal areas in AP and GA. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of anthropogenic activities and climate variations on biology of coastal ecosystems and biodiversity.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Díaz L, Castellá G, Bragulat MR, et al (2024)

Mycobiome of the external ear canal of healthy cows.

Medical mycology, 62(5):.

Malassezia yeasts belong to the normal skin microbiota of a wide range of warm-blooded animals. However, their significance in cattle is still poorly understood. In the present study, the mycobiota of the external ear canal of 20 healthy dairy Holstein cows was assessed by cytology, culture, PCR, and next-generation sequencing. The presence of Malassezia was detected in 15 cows by cytology and PCR. The metagenomic analysis revealed that Ascomycota was the predominant phylum but M. pachydermatis the main species. The Malassezia phylotype 131 was detected in low abundance. Nor M. nana nor M. equina were detected in the samples.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Sankar J, Thakral V, Bharadwaj K, et al (2024)

The Microbiome and Metabolome of the Gut of Children with Sepsis and Septic Shock.

Journal of intensive care medicine, 39(6):514-524.

BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of alteration of gut microbiota and metabolome in children with sepsis/septic shock.

METHODS: In this prospective observational study carried out in a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care center from 2020 to 2022, patients aged <17 years with sepsis/septic shock and healthy children (HC) were enrolled. We characterized the gut bacterial compositions by metagenome sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The primary outcome was to compare the gut microbiota and metabolome of children with sepsis/septic shock with that of HC. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was compared between children with sepsis/septic shock and HC. Key secondary outcomes were to evaluate association of factors associated with a low F/B ratio in children with sepsis/septic shock.

RESULTS: A total of 40 children (63% boys) (15 children with sepsis and septic shock and 10 healthy children) with a median (IQR) age of 5.5 (1.5, 10) years were enrolled. In the fecal microbiota, the α-diversity index including Shannon and Simpson indices of the sepsis/septic shock groups was significantly lower than that of the HC. The samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae. There was reduction in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in patients with sepsis/septic shock as compared to healthy children. A lower F/B ratio (≤1.57) of the gut microbiota discriminated well between children with sepsis/septic shock and HC. Factors associated with lower F/B ratio were male gender, clinical GI dysfunction, elevated inflammatory markers, and higher organ failure scores.

CONCLUSION: There were significant alterations in the gut microbiota and metabolome in children with sepsis/septic shock as compared to healthy children. Larger study is needed to confirm these exploratory findings and develop potential therapeutic targets that will improve outcomes in children with sepsis/septic shock.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-12

Wang YC, Fu HM, Shen Y, et al (2024)

Biosynthetic potential of uncultured anammox community bacteria revealed through multi-omics analysis.

Bioresource technology, 401:130740.

Microbial secondary metabolites (SMs) and their derivatives have been widely used in medicine, agriculture, and energy. Growing needs for renewable energy and the challenges posed by antibiotic resistance, cancer, and pesticides emphasize the crucial hunt for new SMs. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidation (anammox) systems harbor many uncultured or underexplored bacteria, representing potential resources for discovering novel SMs. Leveraging HiFi long-read metagenomic sequencing, 1,040 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were unearthed from the anammox microbiome with 58% being complete and showcasing rich diversity. Most of them showed distant relations to known BGCs, implying novelty. Members of the underexplored lineages (Chloroflexota and Planctomycetota) and Proteobacteria contained lots of BGCs, showcasing substantial biosynthetic potential. Metaproteomic results indicated that Planctomycetota members harbored the most active BGCs, particularly those involved in producing potential biofuel-ladderane. Overall, these findings underscore that anammox microbiomes could serve as valuable resources for mining novel BGCs and discovering new SMs for practical application.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-12

Clagnan E, Petrini S, Pioli S, et al (2024)

Conventional activated sludge vs. photo-sequencing batch reactor for enhanced nitrogen removal in municipal wastewater: Microalgal-bacterial consortium and pathogenic load insights.

Bioresource technology, 401:130735.

Municipal wastewater treatment plants are mostly based on traditional activated sludge (AS) processes. These systems are characterised by major drawbacks: high energy consumption, large amount of excess sludge and high greenhouse gases emissions. Treatment through microalgal-bacterial consortia (MBC) is an alternative and promising solution thanks to lower energy consumption and emissions, biomass production and water sanitation. Here, microbial difference between a traditional anaerobic sludge (AS) and a consortium-based system (photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR)) with the same wastewater inlet were characterised through shotgun metagenomics. Stable nitrification was achieved in the PSBR ensuring ammonium removal > 95 % and significant total nitrogen removal thanks to larger flocs enhancing denitrification. The new system showed enhanced pathogen removal, a higher abundance of photosynthetic and denitrifying microorganisms with a reduced emissions potential identifying this novel PSBR as an effective alternative to AS.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Li X, Brejnrod A, Trivedi U, et al (2024)

Co-localization of antibiotic resistance genes is widespread in the infant gut microbiome and associates with an immature gut microbial composition.

Microbiome, 12(1):87.

BACKGROUND: In environmental bacteria, the selective advantage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) can be increased through co-localization with genes such as other ARGs, biocide resistance genes, metal resistance genes, and virulence genes (VGs). The gut microbiome of infants has been shown to contain numerous ARGs, however, co-localization related to ARGs is unknown during early life despite frequent exposures to biocides and metals from an early age.

RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of genetic co-localization of resistance genes in a cohort of 662 Danish children and examined the association between such co-localization and environmental factors as well as gut microbial maturation. Our study showed that co-localization of ARGs with other resistance and virulence genes is common in the early gut microbiome and is associated with gut bacteria that are indicative of low maturity. Statistical models showed that co-localization occurred mainly in the phylum Proteobacteria independent of high ARG content and contig length. We evaluated the stochasticity of co-localization occurrence using enrichment scores. The most common forms of co-localization involved tetracycline and fluoroquinolone resistance genes, and, on plasmids, co-localization predominantly occurred in the form of class 1 integrons. Antibiotic use caused a short-term increase in mobile ARGs, while non-mobile ARGs showed no significant change. Finally, we found that a high abundance of VGs was associated with low gut microbial maturity and that VGs showed even higher potential for mobility than ARGs.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that the phenomenon of co-localization between ARGs and other resistance and VGs was prevalent in the gut at the beginning of life. It reveals the diversity that sustains antibiotic resistance and therefore indirectly emphasizes the need to apply caution in the use of antimicrobial agents in clinical practice, animal husbandry, and daily life to mitigate the escalation of resistance. Video Abstract.