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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2021 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-12-06

Thomas P, PK Sahu (2021)

Vertical Transmission of Diverse Cultivation-Recalcitrant Endophytic Bacteria Elucidated Using Watermelon Seed Embryos.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:635810.

Seed transmission of endophytic microorganisms is a growing research area in plant biology and microbiology. We employed cultivation versus cultivation-independent approaches on excised embryos from watermelon seeds (6-12 months in storage) and on embryo-derived in vitro seedlings (EIVS) to assess the vertical transmission of endophytic bacteria. Surface-disinfected watermelon seeds bore abundant residual bacteria in the testa and perisperm tissues, predominantly Bacillus spp. propounding the essentiality of excluding all non-embryonic tissues for vertical transmission studies. Tissue homogenates from re-disinfected seed embryos displayed no cultivable bacteria during the 1-week monitoring. Bright-field live microscopy revealed abundant bacteria in tissue homogenates and in embryo sections as intracellular motile particles. Confocal imaging on embryo sections after SYTO-9 staining and eubacterial fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) endorsed enormous bacterial colonization. Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME)-based 16S rRNA V3-V4 taxonomic profiling excluding the preponderant chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences revealed a high bacterial diversity in watermelon seed embryos mainly Firmicutes barring spore formers followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, and other minor phyla. Embryo-base (comprising the radicle plus plumule parts) and embryo-cotyledon parts differed in bacterial profiles with the abundance of Firmicutes in the former and Proteobacteria dominance in the latter. EIVS displayed a higher bacterial diversity over seed embryos indicating the activation from the dormant stage of more organisms in seedlings or their better amenability to DNA techniques. It also indicated embryo-to-seedling bacterial transmission, varying taxonomic abundances for seed embryos and seedlings, and differing phylogenic profiles for root, hypocotyl, and cotyledon/shoot-tip tissues. Investigations on different watermelon cultivars confirmed the embryo transmission of diverse cultivation recalcitrant endophytic bacteria. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes formed the core phyla across different cultivars with 80-90% similarity at genus to phylum levels. Conversely, freshly harvested seeds displayed a dominance of Proteobacteria. The findings revealed that dicot seeds such as in different watermelon cultivars come packaged with abundant and diverse vertical and seedling-transmissible cultivation recalcitrant endophytic bacteria with significant implications for plant biology.

RevDate: 2021-12-05

Maran MIJ, DJ Davis G (2021)

Benefits of merging paired-end reads before pre-processing environmental metagenomics data.

Marine genomics, 61:100914 pii:S1874-7787(21)00080-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing of environmental DNA has applications in biodiversity monitoring, taxa abundance estimation, understanding the dynamics of community ecology, and marine species studies and conservation. Environmental DNA, especially, marine eDNA, has a fast degradation rate. Aside from the good quality reads, the data could have a significant number of reads that fall slightly below the default PHRED quality threshold of 30 on sequencing. For quality control, trimming methods are employed, which generally precede the merging of the read pairs. However, in the case of eDNA, a significant percentage of reads within the acceptable quality score range are also dropped.

METHODS: To infer the ideal merge tool that is sensitive to eDNA, two Hiseq paired-end eDNA datasets were utilized to study the merging by the tools - FLASH (Fast Length Adjustment of SHort reads), PANDAseq, COPE, BBMerge, and VSEARCH without preprocessing. We assessed these tools on the following parameters: Time taken to process, the quality, and the number of merged reads. Trimmomatic, a widely-used preprocessing tool, was also assessed by preprocessing the datasets at different parameters for the two approaches of preprocessing: Sliding Window and Maximum Information. The preprocessed read pairs were then merged using the ideal merge tool identified earlier.

RESULTS: FLASH is the most efficient merge tool balancing data conservation, quality of reads, and processing time. We compared Trimmomatic's two quality trimming options with increasing strictness with FLASH's direct merge. The raw reads processed with Trimmomatic then merged, yielded a significant drop in reads compared to the direct merge. An average of 29% of reads was dropped when directly merged with FLASH. Maximum Information option resulted in 30.7% to 68.05% read loss with lowest and highest stringency parameters, respectively. The Sliding Window approach conserves approximately 10% more reads at a PHRED score of 25 set as the threshold for a window of size 4. The lowered PHRED cut off conserves about 50% of the reads that could potentially be informative. We noted no significant reduction of data while optimizing the number of reads read in a window with the ideal quality (Q) score.

CONCLUSIONS: Losing reads can negatively impact the downstream processing of the environmental data, especially for sequence alignment studies. The quality trim-first-merge-later approach can significantly decrease the number of reads conserved. However, direct merging of pair-end reads using FLASH conserved more than 60% of the reads. Therefore, direct merging of the paired-end reads can prevent potential removal of informative reads that do not comply by the trimming tool's strict checks. FLASH to be an efficient tool in conserving reads while carrying out quality trimming in moderation. Overall, our results show that merging paired-end reads of eDNA data before trimming can conserve more reads.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Armstrong AJS, Parmar V, MJ Blaser (2021)

Assessing saliva microbiome collection and processing methods.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):81.

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Su H, Yuan P, Lei H, et al (2022)

Long-term chronic exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate induces obesity via disruption of host lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in mice.

Chemosphere, 287(Pt 4):132414.

BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological findings have shown that di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), one of industrial plasticizers with endocrine-disrupting properties, positively contributes to high incidence of obesity. However, potential pathogenesis of dietary DEHP exposure-induced obesity remains largely unknown.

METHODS: Chronic DEHP exposure at different doses (0.05 and 5 mg/kg body weight) to mice had been continuously lasted for 14 weeks through the diet. A combination of targeted quantitative metabolomics (LC/GC-MS) with global 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to explore the effects of dietary DEHP exposure with different doses on host lipid metabolism of mice. Metagenomics (16S rRNA gene sequencing) was also employed to examine the alterations of gut microbiota composition in the cecal contents of mice after dietary DEHP exposure.

RESULTS: Dietary exposure to DEHP at both doses induced weight gain and hepatic lipogenesis of mice by promoting the uptake of fatty acids and disrupting phospholipids and choline metabolism. Dietary DEHP exposure altered the gut microbiota community with disruption of intestinal morphology and reduction of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in the cecal contents of mice. Furthermore, DEHP exposure activated gut microbiota fermentation process producing excess short chain fatty acids of mice.

CONCLUSION: These findings provide systematic evidence that long-term chronic DEHP exposure induces obesity through disruption of host lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in mice, which not only confirm the epidemiological results, but also expand our understanding of metabolic diseases caused by environmental pollutants exposure.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Xia Y, Wang J, Fang X, et al (2021)

Combined analysis of metagenomic data revealed consistent changes of gut microbiome structure and function in inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of applied microbiology, 131(6):3018-3031.

AIMS: To reveal the consistency and discrepancy in the gut microbial structure and function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients from different regions.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbes, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors genes (VFGs) were analysed using metagenome data from three cohorts. The abundance of Escherichia coli extensively increased in IBD patients, whereas Subdoligranulum unclassified decreased dramatically in IBD patients from three countries. Escherichia coli showed a positive correlation with multiple ARGs and VFGs in cohorts from China and the United States, including multidrug-related resistance genes and Capsule and LOS-related virulence factors genes. Escherichia coli biofilm synthesis pathways significantly enriched in IBD patients from three different regions. Notably, Subdoligranulum unclassified and Eubacterium hallii were negatively related to ARGs and VFGs.

CONCLUSIONS: Consistent changes of microbiome structure and function were observed in IBD patients from three different regions. As pathogenic bacteria, E. coli may accelerate IBD progression through encapsulation in biofilms by upregulating antibiotic resistance in Crohn's disease patients. Subdoligranulum unclassified and E. hallii may be beneficial for IBD patients and could serve as potential probiotics for IBD treatment.

This work dispels worries about the regional differences in gut microbial changes in IBD patients and provides useful guidance for more rational microbiome-based therapies.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Shaiber A, Willis AD, Delmont TO, et al (2020)

Functional and genetic markers of niche partitioning among enigmatic members of the human oral microbiome.

Genome biology, 21(1):292.

INTRODUCTION: Microbial residents of the human oral cavity have long been a major focus of microbiology due to their influence on host health and intriguing patterns of site specificity amidst the lack of dispersal limitation. However, the determinants of niche partitioning in this habitat are yet to be fully understood, especially among taxa that belong to recently discovered branches of microbial life.

RESULTS: Here, we assemble metagenomes from tongue and dental plaque samples from multiple individuals and reconstruct 790 non-redundant genomes, 43 of which resolve to TM7, a member of the Candidate Phyla Radiation, forming six monophyletic clades that distinctly associate with either plaque or tongue. Both pangenomic and phylogenomic analyses group tongue-specific clades with other host-associated TM7 genomes. In contrast, plaque-specific TM7 group with environmental TM7 genomes. Besides offering deeper insights into the ecology, evolution, and mobilome of cryptic members of the oral microbiome, our study reveals an intriguing resemblance between dental plaque and non-host environments indicated by the TM7 evolution, suggesting that plaque may have served as a stepping stone for environmental microbes to adapt to host environments for some clades of microbes. Additionally, we report that prophages are widespread among oral-associated TM7, while absent from environmental TM7, suggesting that prophages may have played a role in adaptation of TM7 to the host environment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data illuminate niche partitioning of enigmatic members of the oral cavity, including TM7, SR1, and GN02, and provide genomes for poorly characterized yet prevalent members of this biome, such as uncultivated Flavobacteriaceae.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Accorsi EK, Franzosa EA, Hsu T, et al (2020)

Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in the developing infant nasal microbiome.

Genome biology, 21(1):301.

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of healthcare- and community-associated infections and can be difficult to treat due to antimicrobial resistance. About 30% of individuals carry S. aureus asymptomatically in their nares, a risk factor for later infection, and interactions with other species in the nasal microbiome likely modulate its carriage. It is thus important to identify ecological or functional genetic elements within the maternal or infant nasal microbiomes that influence S. aureus acquisition and retention in early life.

RESULTS: We recruited 36 mother-infant pairs and profiled a subset of monthly longitudinal nasal samples from the first year after birth using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The infant nasal microbiome is highly variable, particularly within the first 2 months. It is weakly influenced by maternal nasal microbiome composition, but primarily shaped by developmental and external factors, such as daycare. Infants display distinctive patterns of S. aureus carriage, positively associated with Acinetobacter species, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Veillonella species and inversely associated with maternal Dolosigranulum pigrum. Furthermore, we identify a gene family, likely acting as a taxonomic marker for an unclassified species, that is significantly anti-correlated with S. aureus in infants and mothers. In gene content-based strain profiling, infant S. aureus strains are more similar to maternal strains.

CONCLUSIONS: This improved understanding of S. aureus colonization is an important first step toward the development of novel, ecological therapies for controlling S. aureus carriage.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Ahrens AP, Culpepper T, Saldivar B, et al (2021)

A Six-Day, Lifestyle-Based Immersion Program Mitigates Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Induces Shifts in Gut Microbiota, Specifically Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: A Pilot Study.

Nutrients, 13(10):.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence remains elevated globally. We have previously shown that a one-week lifestyle "immersion program" leads to clinical improvements and sustained improvements in quality of life in moderate to high atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk individuals. In a subsequent year of this similarly modeled immersion program, we again collected markers of cardiovascular health and, additionally, evaluated intestinal microbiome composition. ASCVD risk volunteers (n = 73) completed the one-week "immersion program" involving nutrition (100% plant-based foods), stress management education, and exercise. Anthropometric measurements and CVD risk factors were compared at baseline and post intervention. A subgroup (n = 22) provided stool, which we analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing. We assessed abundance changes within-person, correlated the abundance shifts with clinical changes, and inferred functional pathways using PICRUSt. Reductions in blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides, were observed without reduction in weight. Significant increases in butyrate producers were detected, including Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospirales. Within-person, significant shifts in relative abundance (RA) occurred, e.g., increased Lachnospiraceae (+58.8% RA, p = 0.0002), Ruminococcaceae (+82.1%, p = 0.0003), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (+54.5%, p = 0.002), and diversification and richness. Microbiota changes significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) changes. Pairwise decreases were inferred in microbial genes corresponding to cancer, metabolic disease, and amino acid metabolism. This brief lifestyle-based intervention improved lipids and BP and enhanced known butyrate producers, without significant weight loss. These results demonstrate a promising non-pharmacological preventative strategy for improving cardiovascular health.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Frizzera A, Bojko J, Cremonte F, et al (2021)

Symbionts of invasive and native crabs, in Argentina: The most recently invaded area on the Southwestern Atlantic coastline.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 184:107650.

Biological invasions have the capacity to introduce non-native parasites. This study aimed to determine whether the invasive green crab population, Carcinus spp., on the Southwestern Atlantic coast of Argentina harbours any symbionts, and whether these may spillover or spillback between native crabs, Cyrtograpsus altimanus and C. angulatus. Macroscopy, histology, and molecular analyses of some parasites were used to describe and compare their diversity across the three species of crab. We also evaluated the susceptibility of invasive Carcinus spp. to a native digenean, Maritrema madrynense, via experimental infections (exposure and cohabitation). Our results revealed that the green crab pathobiome included similar symbiotic groups to native crabs. This included putative viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites. Haplosporidium-like observations were recorded in all crab species, and a single green crab was found to be parasitized by an Agmasoma-like microsporidium. Metagenomic analysis of one individual revealed additional symbiotic diversity (46 bacteria, 5 eukaryotic species). The green crabs were infected by more microparasite taxa than the native crabs (5:3). Wild populations of Carcinus spp. were free of metazoan parasites and are shown not to be susceptible to M. madryense under experimental conditions. Our results suggest a reduction/escape of macroparasites (trematode Maritrema madrynense; acanthocephalan Profilicollis chasmagnathi) in invasive Carcinus spp. compared to their native competitors.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Kullapanich C, Jandang S, Palasuk M, et al (2021)

First dynamics of bacterial community during development of Acropora humilis larvae in aquaculture.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11762.

A symbiosis of bacterial community (sometimes called microbiota) play essential roles in developmental life cycle and health of coral, starting since a larva. For examples, coral bacterial holobionts function nitrogen fixation, carbon supply, sulfur cycling and antibiotic production. Yet, a study of the dynamic of bacteria associated coral larvae development is complicated owning to a vast diversity and culturable difficulty of bacteria; hence this type of study remains unexplored for Acropora humilis larvae in Thai sea. This study represented the first to utilize 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the timely bacterial compositions during successfully cultured and reared A. humilis larval transformation in aquaculture (gametes were collected from Sattahip Bay, Chonburi province, Thailand), from gamete spawning (0 h) and fertilization stage (1 h), to embryonic cleavage (8 h), round cell development (28, 39 and 41 h), and planula formation (48 h). The sequencing results as estimated by Good's coverage at genus level covered 99.65 ± 0.24% of total bacteria. While core phyla of bacteria were observed (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes), changes in bacterial population structures and differential predominant core bacterial orders were denoted for each larval developmental stage, from fertilization to embryonic cleavage and subsequently from the embryonic cleavage to round cell development (P = 0.007). For instances, Pseudoalteromonas and Oceanospirillales were found prevalent at 8 h, and Rhizobiales were at 48 h. The bacterial population structures from the round cell stage, particularly at 41 h, showed gradual drift towards those of the planula formation stage, suggesting microbial selection. Overall, this study provides preliminary insights into the dynamics of bacterial community and their potentially functional association (estimated from the bacterial compositions) during the developmental embryonic A. humilis in a cultivation system in Southeast Asia region.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Berland M, Cadiou J, Levenez F, et al (2021)

High engraftment capacity of frozen ready-to-use human fecal microbiota transplants assessed in germ-free mice.

Scientific reports, 11(1):4365.

The number of indications for fecal microbiota transplantation is expected to rise, thus increasing the needs for production of readily available frozen or freeze-dried transplants. Using shotgun metagenomics, we investigated the capacity of two novel human fecal microbiota transplants prepared in maltodextrin-trehalose solutions (abbreviated MD and TR for maltodextrin:trehalose, 3:1, w/w, and trehalose:maltodextrin 3:1, w/w, respectively), to colonize a germ-free born mouse model. Gavage with frozen-thawed MD or TR suspensions gave the taxonomic profiles of mouse feces that best resembled those obtained with the fresh inoculum (Spearman correlations based on relative abundances of metagenomic species around 0.80 and 0.75 for MD and TR respectively), while engraftment capacity of defrosted NaCl transplants most diverged (Spearman correlations around 0.63). Engraftment of members of the family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminoccocaceae was the most challenging in all groups of mice, being improved with MD and TR transplants compared to NaCl, but still lower than with the fresh preparation. Improvement of engraftment of this important group in maintaining health represents a challenge that could benefit from further research on fecal microbiota transplant manufacturing.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Ray P, Pandey U, Das D, et al (2021)

Vancomycin-Induced Changes in Host Immunity and Behavior: Comparative Genomic and Metagenomic Analysis in C57BL/6 and BALB/c Mice.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 66(11):3776-3791.

BACKGROUND: The consequence of treatment with antibiotics on the gut microbiota can be destructive. The antibiotics, however, can be utilized to understand the role of gut microbiota on the host physiology.

AIM: Earlier, we reported the efficacy of vancomycin in gut microbiota perturbation. We continued to understand the effect of restoration kinetics of perturbed gut microbiota on the immunity and behavior of Th1 (C57BL/6)- and Th2 (BALB/c)-biased mice.

METHODS: We studied restoration kinetics of the gut microbiota for two months following the withdrawal of vancomycin treatment in both mice strains. We analyzed cecal microbiome composition, different behavioral assays, and expression of select genes associated with stress and barrier function in gut and brain.

RESULTS: Metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota revealed that the treatment with vancomycin caused a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla with a time-dependent increase in Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Maximum restoration (> 70%) of gut microbiota happened by the 15th day of withdrawal of vancomycin. BALB/c mice showed a more efficient restoration of gut microbiota compared to C57BL/6 mice. We established the correlation patterns of gut microbiota alteration and its effect on (a) the behavior of mice, (b) expression of key brain molecules, and (c) immunity-related genes.

CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that the gut microbiome profiling, behavior, and immune responses varied significantly between Th1- and Th2-biased mice. By withdrawing the treatment with vancomycin of major gut microbes, important physiological and behavioral changes of both mice strains returned to the normal (untreated control) level.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Barbieri F, Tabanelli G, Montanari C, et al (2021)

Mediterranean Spontaneously Fermented Sausages: Spotlight on Microbiological and Quality Features to Exploit Their Bacterial Biodiversity.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:foods10112691.

The wide array of spontaneously fermented sausages of the Mediterranean area can represent a reservoir of microbial biodiversity and can be an important source of new technological and functional strains able to preserve product properties, counteracting the impoverishment of their organoleptic typical features due to the introduction of commercial starter cultures. We analysed 15 artisanal salamis from Italy, Spain, Croatia and Slovenia to evaluate the microbiota composition, through culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques (i.e., metagenomic analysis), chemical-physical features, biogenic amines and aroma profile. The final pH varied according to origin and procedures (e.g., higher pH in Italian samples due to long ripening and mold growth). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were the dominant population, with highest LAB counts in Croatian and Italian samples. Metagenomic analysis showed high variability in qualitative and quantitative microbial composition: among LAB, Latilactobacillus sakei was the dominant species, but Companilactobacillus spp. was present in high amounts (45-55% of the total ASVs) in some Spanish sausages. Among staphylococci, S. epidermidis, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, S. succinus and S. xylosus were detected. As far as biogenic amines, tyramine was always present, while histamine was found only in two Spanish samples. These results can valorize the bacterial genetic heritage present in Mediterranean products, to find new candidates of autochthonous starter cultures or bioprotective agents.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Lach J, Jęcz P, Strapagiel D, et al (2021)

The Methods of Digging for "Gold" within the Salt: Characterization of Halophilic Prokaryotes and Identification of Their Valuable Biological Products Using Sequencing and Genome Mining Tools.

Genes, 12(11): pii:genes12111756.

Halophiles, the salt-loving organisms, have been investigated for at least a hundred years. They are found in all three domains of life, namely Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and occur in saline and hypersaline environments worldwide. They are already a valuable source of various biomolecules for biotechnological, pharmaceutical, cosmetological and industrial applications. In the present era of multidrug-resistant bacteria, cancer expansion, and extreme environmental pollution, the demand for new, effective compounds is higher and more urgent than ever before. Thus, the unique metabolism of halophilic microorganisms, their low nutritional requirements and their ability to adapt to harsh conditions (high salinity, high pressure and UV radiation, low oxygen concentration, hydrophobic conditions, extreme temperatures and pH, toxic compounds and heavy metals) make them promising candidates as a fruitful source of bioactive compounds. The main aim of this review is to highlight the nucleic acid sequencing experimental strategies used in halophile studies in concert with the presentation of recent examples of bioproducts and functions discovered in silico in the halophile's genomes. We point out methodological gaps and solutions based on in silico methods that are helpful in the identification of valuable bioproducts synthesized by halophiles. We also show the potential of an increasing number of publicly available genomic and metagenomic data for halophilic organisms that can be analysed to identify such new bioproducts and their producers.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Benmazouz I, Jokimäki J, Lengyel S, et al (2021)

Corvids in Urban Environments: A Systematic Global Literature Review.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11): pii:ani11113226.

Urbanization is one of the most prevalent drivers of biodiversity loss, yet few taxonomic groups are remarkably successful at adapting to urban environments. We systematically surveyed the global literature on the effects of urbanization on species of family Corvidae (crows, choughs, jackdaws, jays, magpies, nutcrackers, ravens, rooks, treepies) to assess the occurrence of corvids in urban environments and the factors affecting their success. We found a total of 424 primary research articles, and the number of articles has increased exponentially since the 1970s. Most studies were carried out in cities of Europe and North America (45.5% and 31.4%, respectively) and were directed on a single species (75.2). We found that 30 corvid species (23% of 133 total) regularly occur in urban environments. The majority (72%) of the studies reported positive effects of urbanization on corvids, with 85% of studies detecting population increases and 64% of studies detecting higher breeding success with urbanization. Of the factors proposed to explain corvids' success (availability of nesting sites and food sources, low predation and persecution), food availability coupled with diet shifts emerged as the most important factors promoting Corvidae to live in urban settings. The breeding of corvids in urban environments was further associated with earlier nesting, similar or larger clutches, lower hatching but higher fledging success, reduced home range size and limited territoriality, increased tolerance towards humans and increasing frequency of conflicts with humans. Despite geographic and taxonomic biases in our literature sample, our review indicates that corvids show both flexibility in resource use and behavioral plasticity that enable them to exploit novel resources for nesting and feeding. Corvids can thus be urban exploiters of the large-scale modifications of ecosystems caused by urbanization.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Hernández-Álvarez C, García-Oliva F, Cruz-Ortega R, et al (2022)

Squash root microbiome transplants and metagenomic inspection for in situ arid adaptations.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150136.

Arid zones contain a diverse set of microbes capable of survival under dry conditions, some of which can form relationships with plants under drought stress conditions to improve plant health. We studied squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) root microbiome under historically arid and humid sites, both in situ and performing a common garden experiment. Plants were grown in soils from sites with different drought levels, using in situ collected soils as the microbial source. We described and analyzed bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (N = 48) from the soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum present in humid and arid samples, while Actinobacteriota abundance was higher in arid ones. The β-diversity analyses showed split microbiomes between arid and humid microbiomes, and aridity and soil pH levels could explain it. These differences between humid and arid microbiomes were maintained in the common garden experiment, showing that it is possible to transplant in situ diversity to the greenhouse. We detected a total of 1009 bacterial genera; 199 exclusively associated with roots under arid conditions. By 16S and shotgun metagenomics, we identified dry-associated taxa such as Cellvibrio, Ensifer adhaerens, and Streptomyces flavovariabilis. With shotgun metagenomic sequencing of rhizospheres (N = 6), we identified 2969 protein families in the squash core metagenome and found an increased number of exclusively protein families from arid (924) than humid samples (158). We found arid conditions enriched genes involved in protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress, compatible solute synthesis, and ion pumps associated with osmotic regulation. Plant phenotyping allowed us to correlate bacterial communities with plant growth. Our study revealed that it is possible to evaluate microbiome diversity ex-situ and identify critical species and genes involved in plant-microbe interactions in historically arid locations.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Zheng L, Sun R, Zhu Y, et al (2021)

Lung microbiome alterations in NSCLC patients.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11736.

Lung is colonized by a diverse array of microbes and the lung microbiota is profoundly involved in the development of respiratory diseases. There is little knowledge about the role of lung microbiota dysbiosis in lung cancer. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from two different sampling methods in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and non-cancer controls. We found the obvious variation between bronchoscopy samples and lobectomy samples. Oral taxa can be found in both bronchoscopy and lobectomy samples and higher abundance of oral taxa can be found in bronchoscopy samples. Although the NSCLC patients had similar microbial communities with non-cancer controls, rare species such as Lactobacillus rossiae, Bacteroides pyogenes, Paenibacillus odorifer, Pseudomonas entomophila, Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, fungus Chaetomium globosum et al. showed obvious difference between NSCLC patients and non-cancer controls. Age-, gender-, and smoking-specific species and EGFR expression-related species in NSCLC patients were detected. There results implicated that different lung segments have differential lung microbiome composition. The oral taxa are found in the lobectomy samples suggesting that oral microbiota are the true members of lung microbiota, rather than contamination during bronchoscopy. Lung cancer does not obviously alter the global microbial composition, while rare species are altered more than common species. Certain microbes may be associated with lung cancer progression.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Huang G, Wang X, Hu Y, et al (2021)

Diet drives convergent evolution of gut microbiomes in bamboo-eating species.

Science China. Life sciences, 64(1):88-95.

Gut microbiota plays a critical role in host physiology and health. The coevolution between the host and its gut microbes facilitates animal adaptation to its specific ecological niche. Multiple factors such as host diet and phylogeny modulate the structure and function of gut microbiota. However, the relative contribution of each factor in shaping the structure of gut microbiota remains unclear. The giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red (Ailurus styani) pandas belong to different families of order Carnivora. They have evolved as obligate bamboo-feeders and can be used as a model system for studying the gut microbiome convergent evolution. Here, we compare the structure and function of gut microbiota of the two pandas with their carnivorous relatives using 16S rRNA and metagenome sequencing. We found that both panda species share more similarities in their gut microbiota structure with each other than each species shares with its carnivorous relatives. This indicates that the specialized herbivorous diet rather than host phylogeny is the dominant driver of gut microbiome convergence within Arctoidea. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the symbiotic gut microbiota of both pandas possesses a high level of starch and sucrose metabolism and vitamin B12 biosynthesis. These findings suggest a diet-driven convergence of gut microbiomes and provide new insight into host-microbiota coevolution of these endangered species.

RevDate: 2021-11-25

Soto DF, Franzetti A, Gómez I, et al (2022)

Functional filtering and random processes affect the assembly of microbial communities of snow algae blooms at Maritime Antarctic.

The Science of the total environment, 805:150305.

The increasing temperatures at the West Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctic) could lead to a higher occurrence of snow algal blooms which are ubiquitous events that change the snow coloration, reducing albedo and in turn exacerbating melting. However, there is a limited understanding of snow algae blooms biodiversity, composition, and their functional profiles, especially in one of the world's areas most affected by climate change. In this study we used 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA metabarcoding, and shotgun metagenomics to assess the diversity, composition, and functional potential of the snow algae blooms bacterial and eukaryotic communities at three different sites of Maritime Antarctic, between different colors of the algae blooms and between seasonal and semi-permanent snowfields. We tested the hypothesis that the functional potential of snow algae blooms is conserved despite a changing taxonomic composition. Furthermore, we determined taxonomic co-occurrence patterns of bacteria and eukaryotes and assessed the potential for the exchange of metabolites among bacterial taxa. Here, we tested the prediction that there are co-occurring taxa within snow algae whose biotic interactions are marked by the exchange of metabolites. Our results show that the composition of snow algae blooms vary significantly among sites. For instance, a higher abundance of fungi and protists were detected in Fildes Peninsula compared with Doumer Island and O'Higgins. Likewise, the composition varied between snow colors and snow types. However, the functional potential varied only among sampling sites with a higher abundance of genes involved in tolerance to environmental stress at O'Higgins. Co-occurrence patterns of dominant bacterial genera such as Pedobacter, Polaromonas, Flavobacterium and Hymenobacter were recorded, contrasting the absence of co-occurring patterns displayed by Chlamydomonadales algae with other eukaryotes. Finally, genome-scale metabolic models revealed that bacteria within snow algae blooms likely compete for resources instead of forming cooperative communities.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Essigmann HT, Hoffman KL, Petrosino JF, et al (2021)

The impact of the Th17:Treg axis on the IgA-Biome across the glycemic spectrum.

PloS one, 16(10):e0258812.

Secretory IgA (SIgA) is released into mucosal surfaces where its function extends beyond that of host defense to include the shaping of resident microbial communities by mediating exclusion/inclusion of respective microbes and regulating bacterial gene expression. In this capacity, SIgA acts as the fulcrum on which host immunity and the health of the microbiota are balanced. We recently completed an analysis of the gut and salivary IgA-Biomes (16S rDNA sequencing of SIgA-coated/uncoated bacteria) in Mexican-American adults that identified IgA-Biome differences across the glycemic spectrum. As Th17:Treg ratio imbalances are associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis and chronic inflammatory conditions such as type 2 diabetes, the present study extends our prior work by examining the impact of Th17:Treg ratios (pro-inflammatory:anti-inflammatory T-cell ratios) and the SIgA response (Th17:Treg-SIgA axis) in shaping microbial communities. Examining the impact of Th17:Treg ratios (determined by epigenetic qPCR lymphocyte subset quantification) on the IgA-Biome across diabetes phenotypes identified a proportional relationship between Th17:Treg ratios and alpha diversity in the stool IgA-Biome of those with dysglycemia, significant changes in community composition of the stool and salivary microbiomes across glycemic profiles, and genera preferentially abundant by T-cell inflammatory phenotype. This is the first study to associate epigenetically quantified Th17:Treg ratios with both the larger and SIgA-fractionated microbiome, assess these associations in the context of a chronic inflammatory disease, and offers a novel frame through which to evaluate mucosal microbiomes in the context of host responses and inflammation.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Grisnik M, Grinath JB, DM Walker (2021)

The presence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen of bats, correlates with changes in microbial metacommunity structure.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11685.

Metacommunity theory provides a framework for how community patterns arise from processes across scales, which is relevant for understanding patterns in host-associated microbial assemblages. Microbial metacommunities may have important roles in host health through interactions with pathogens; however, it is unclear how pathogens affect host microbial metacommunities. Here, we studied relationships between a fungal pathogen and a host-associated microbial metacommunity. We hypothesized that a fungal pathogen of bats, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, correlates with a shift in metacommunity structure and changes in relationships between community composition, and factors shaping these assemblages, such as ecoregion. We sampled bat cutaneous microbial assemblages in the presence/absence of P. destructans and analyzed microbial metacommunity composition and relationships with structuring variables. Absence of P. destructans correlated with a metacommunity characterized by a common core microbial group that was lacking in disease positive bats. Additionally, P. destructans presence correlated with a change in the relationship between community structure and ecoregion. Our results suggest that the fungal pathogen intensifies local processes influencing a microbial metacommunity and highlights the importance of cutaneous microbial assemblages in host-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Wojno JM, Du Toit E, Deffur A, et al (2021)

Statement on analysis and interpretation of clinical human gastrointestinal microbiome testing using next-generation sequencing in South Africa.

South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 111(3):203-205.

Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools over the past few years have led to vast improvements in the metagenomic analysis of the human microbiota. While this has also significantly improved our understanding of the role of the host-microbiome interaction in health and disease, the current clinical expectation is that testing, particularly of the gastrointestinal biome, can be used to diagnose, manage and treat patients. The authors outline the available technologies and highlight current limitations of these techniques to address this clinical demand. Through understanding the limitations of and need for more research and data collection, one can improve the appropriate utilisation and interpretation, as well as the current rational clinical application of these techniques.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Cai HZ, Zhang H, Yang J, et al (2021)

Preliminary assessment of viral metagenome from cancer tissue and blood from patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Journal of medical virology, 93(8):5126-5133.

In this study, using a viral metagenomic method, we investigated the composition of virome in blood and cancer tissue samples that were collected from 25 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Results indicated that virus sequences showing similarity to human pegivirus (HPgV), anellovirus, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV), and polyomavirus were recovered from this cohort. Three different complete genomes of HPgV were acquired from the blood samples and one complete genome of polyomavirus was determined from the cancer tissue sample. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three HPgV strains belonged to genotype 3 and the polyomavirus showed the highest sequence identity (99.73%) to trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. PCR screening results indicated that the three HPgVs were present in 5 out of the 25 blood samples and the polyomavirus only existed in a cancer tissue sample pool. Whether infections with viruses have an association with lung cancer needs further study with a larger size of sampling.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Foroozandeh Shahraki M, Farhadyar K, Kavousi K, et al (2021)

A generalized machine-learning aided method for targeted identification of industrial enzymes from metagenome: A xylanase temperature dependence case study.

Biotechnology and bioengineering, 118(2):759-769.

Growing industrial utilization of enzymes and the increasing availability of metagenomic data highlight the demand for effective methods of targeted identification and verification of novel enzymes from various environmental microbiota. Xylanases are a class of enzymes with numerous industrial applications and are involved in the degradation of xylose, a component of lignocellulose. The optimum temperature of enzymes is an essential factor to be considered when choosing appropriate biocatalysts for a particular purpose. Therefore, in silico prediction of this attribute is a significant cost and time-effective step in the effort to characterize novel enzymes. The objective of this study was to develop a computational method to predict the thermal dependence of xylanases. This tool was then implemented for targeted screening of putative xylanases with specific thermal dependencies from metagenomic data and resulted in the identification of three novel xylanases from sheep and cow rumen microbiota. Here we present thermal activity prediction for xylanase, a new sequence-based machine learning method that has been trained using a selected combination of various protein features. This random forest classifier discriminates non-thermophilic, thermophilic, and hyper-thermophilic xylanases. The model's performance was evaluated through multiple iterations of sixfold cross-validations as well as holdout tests, and it is freely accessible as a web-service at

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-25

Sato N, Kakuta M, Hasegawa T, et al (2021)

Metagenomic profiling of gut microbiome in early chronic kidney disease.

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, 36(9):1675-1684.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the gut microbiome, which interact through chronic inflammation, uraemic toxin production and immune response regulation, has gained interest in the development of CKD therapies. However, reports using shotgun metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome are scarce, especially for early CKD. Here we characterized gut microbiome differences between non-CKD participants and ones with early CKD using metagenomic sequencing.

METHODS: In total, 74 non-CKD participants and 37 participants with early CKD were included based on propensity score matching, controlling for various factors including dietary intake. Stool samples were collected from participants and subjected to shotgun sequencing. Bacterial and pathway abundances were profiled at the species level with MetaPhlAn2 and HUMAnN2, respectively, and overall microbiome differences were determined using Bray-Curtis dissimilarities. Diabetic and non-diabetic populations were analysed separately.

RESULTS: For diabetic and non-diabetic participants, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rates of the CKD group were 53.71 [standard deviation (SD) 3.87] and 53.72 (SD 4.44), whereas those of the non-CKD group were 72.63 (SD 7.72) and 76.10 (SD 9.84), respectively. Alpha and beta diversities were not significantly different between groups. Based on taxonomic analysis, butyrate-producing species Roseburia inulinivorans, Ruminococcus torques and Ruminococcus lactaris were more abundant in the non-CKD group, whereas Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides coprocora were more abundant in the non-diabetic CKD group.

CONCLUSIONS: Although gut microbiome changes in individuals with early CKD were subtle, the results suggest that changes related to producing short-chain fatty acids can already be observed in early CKD.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Pang L, Wang Y, Ye Y, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Analysis of Dental Plaque on Pit and Fissure Sites With and Without Caries Among Adolescents.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:740981.

Caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is driven by the dysbiosis of dental biofilms adhering to tooth surfaces. The pits and fissured surfaces are the most susceptible sites of caries. However, information on the taxonomic composition and functional characteristics of the plaque microbiota in the pit and fissure sites is very limited. This study aimed to use metagenomic sequencing analyses to investigate the relationship between the plaque microbiome in the pit and fissure site and caries in adolescents. A total of 20 adolescents with active pit and fissure surface caries were involved as well as 20 age-matched, caries-free teenagers for control tests. Plaque samples were collected from the pit and fissure site and were subjected to metagenomic analyses, in which the microbial communities were investigated. Our results showed that the microbiota diversity was similar between those two groups. At the species level, the relative abundances of A. gerencseriae, P. acidifaciens, P. multisaccharivorax, S. oralis, S. mutans, and P. denticolens were higher in the caries-active group. N. elongata, C. hominis, and A. johnsonii were relatively more abundant in the caries-free groups. Functional analysis suggested that the metabolic pathway was the most abundant pathway, and the functional traits of the level 2 pathways included amino acid metabolism, metabolism of cofactors, and vitamins and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results also revealed that the caries group displayed several alterations in metabolic pathways, including enriched functions in carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This study suggested that in addition to the specific anatomical structures of the pit and fissured surfaces, the fundamental differences in the plaque microbiome may also be related to the susceptibility of pit and fissure caries.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Xie J, Cho H, Lin BM, et al (2021)

Improved Metabolite Prediction Using Microbiome Data-Based Elastic Net Models.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:734416.

Microbiome data are becoming increasingly available in large health cohorts, yet metabolomics data are still scant. While many studies generate microbiome data, they lack matched metabolomics data or have considerable missing proportions of metabolites. Since metabolomics is key to understanding microbial and general biological activities, the possibility of imputing individual metabolites or inferring metabolomics pathways from microbial taxonomy or metagenomics is intriguing. Importantly, current metabolomics profiling methods such as the HMP Unified Metabolic Analysis Network (HUMAnN) have unknown accuracy and are limited in their ability to predict individual metabolites. To address this gap, we developed a novel metabolite prediction method, and we present its application and evaluation in an oral microbiome study. The new method for predicting metabolites using microbiome data (ENVIM) is based on the elastic net model (ENM). ENVIM introduces an extra step to ENM to consider variable importance (VI) scores, and thus, achieves better prediction power. We investigate the metabolite prediction performance of ENVIM using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data in a supragingival biofilm multi-omics dataset of 289 children ages 3-5 who were participants of a community-based study of early childhood oral health (ZOE 2.0) in North Carolina, United States. We further validate ENVIM in two additional publicly available multi-omics datasets generated from studies of gut health. We select gene family sets based on variable importance scores and modify the existing ENM strategy used in the MelonnPan prediction software to accommodate the unique features of microbiome and metabolome data. We evaluate metagenomic and metatranscriptomic predictors and compare the prediction performance of ENVIM to the standard ENM employed in MelonnPan. The newly developed ENVIM method showed superior metabolite predictive accuracy than MelonnPan when trained with metatranscriptomics data only, metagenomics data only, or both. Better metabolite prediction is achieved in the gut microbiome compared with the oral microbiome setting. We report the best-predictable compounds in all these three datasets from two different body sites. For example, the metabolites trehalose, maltose, stachyose, and ribose are all well predicted by the supragingival microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Orellana E, Guerrero LD, Davies-Sala C, et al (2022)

Extracellular hydrolytic potential drives microbiome shifts during anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste.

Bioresource technology, 343:126102.

Bacterial community structure and dynamics in anaerobic digesters are primarily influenced by feedstock composition. It is therefore important to unveil microbial traits that explain microbiome variations in response to substrate changes. Here, gene and genome-centric metagenomics were used to examine microbiome dynamics in four laboratory-scale reactors, in which sewage sludge was co-digested with increasing amounts of food waste. A co-occurrence network revealed microbiome shifts in response to changes in substrate composition and concentration. Food waste concentration correlated with extracellular enzymes and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) involved in the degradation of complex carbohydrates commonly found in fruits and plant cell walls as well as with the abundance of hydrolytic MAGs. A key role was attributed to Proteiniphillum for being the only bacteria that encoded the complete pectin degradation pathway. These results suggest that changes of feedstock composition establish new microbial niches for bacteria with the capacity to degrade newly added substrates.

RevDate: 2021-11-24

Tripathi S, Purchase D, Al-Rashed S, et al (2022)

Microbial community dynamics and their relationships with organic and metal pollutants of sugarcane molasses-based distillery wastewater sludge.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 292(Pt A):118267.

Distillery sludge is a major source of aquatic pollution, but little is known about their microbial community and their association with the organic and metal pollutants. Sugarcane molasses-based distillery is an important industry in India, although the waste is usually treated prior to disposal, the treatment is often inadequate. The adverse effects of the organic and metal pollutants in sugarcane molasses-based distillery sludge on the microbial biodiversity and abundance in the disposal site have not been elucidated. This study aims to address this gap of knowledge. Samples were collected from the discharge point, 1 and 2 km downstream (D1, D2, and D3, respectively) of a sugarcane distillery in Uttar Pradesh, India, and their physico-chemical properties characterised. Using QIIME, taxonomic assignment for the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of 16 S rRNA was performed. The phyla Proteobacteria (28-39%), Firmicutes (20-28%), Bacteriodetes (9-10%), Actinobacteria (5-10%), Tenericutes (1-9%) and Patescibacteria (2%) were the predominant bacteria in all three sites. Euryechaeota, were detected in sites D1 and D2 (1-2%) but absent in D3. Spirochaetes (5%), Sinergistetes (2%) and Cloacimonetes (1%) were only detected in samples from site D1. Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, and Observed-species indices indicated that site D1 (10.18, 0.0013, 36706.55 and 45653.84, respectively) has higher bacterial diversity and richness than D2 (6.66, 0.0001, 25987.71 and 49655.89, respectively) and D3 (8.31, 0.002, 30345.53 and 30654.88, respectively), suggesting the organic and metal pollutants provided the stressors to favour the survival of microbial community that can biodegrade and detoxify them in the distillery sludge. This study confirmed that the treatment of the distillery waste was not sufficiently effective and provided new metagenomic information on its impact on the surrounding microbial community. It also offered new insights into potential bioremediation candidates.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Sun S, Zhu X, Huang X, et al (2021)

On the robustness of inference of association with the gut microbiota in stool, rectal swab and mucosal tissue samples.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14828.

The gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. Stool, rectal swab and rectal mucosal tissue samples have been used in individual studies to survey the microbial community but the consequences of using these different sample types are not completely understood. In this study, we report differences in stool, rectal swab and rectal mucosal tissue microbial communities with shotgun metagenome sequencing of 1397 stool, swab and mucosal tissue samples from 240 participants. The taxonomic composition of stool and swab samples was distinct, but less different to each other than mucosal tissue samples. Functional profile differences between stool and swab samples are smaller, but mucosal tissue samples remained distinct from the other two types. When the taxonomic and functional profiles were used for inference in association with host phenotypes of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), antibiotics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use, hypothesis testing using either stool or rectal swab gave broadly significantly correlated results, but inference performed on mucosal tissue samples gave results that were generally less consistent with either stool or swab. Our study represents an important resource for determination of how inference can change for taxa and pathways depending on the choice of where to sample within the human gut.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Jones J, Reinke SN, Ali A, et al (2021)

Fecal sample collection methods and time of day impact microbiome composition and short chain fatty acid concentrations.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13964.

Associations between the human gut microbiome and health outcomes continues to be of great interest, although fecal sample collection methods which impact microbiome studies are sometimes neglected. Here, we expand on previous work in sample optimization, to promote high quality microbiome data. To compare fecal sample collection methods, amplicons from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4) and fungal (ITS2) region, as well as short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in fecal material over three timepoints. We demonstrated that spot sampling of stool results in variable detection of some microbial members, and inconsistent levels of SCFA; therefore, sample homogenization prior to subsequent analysis or subsampling is recommended. We also identify a trend in microbial and metabolite composition that shifts over two consecutive stool collections less than 25 h apart. Lastly, we show significant differences in bacterial composition that result from collecting stool samples in OMNIgene·Gut tube (DNA Genotec) or Stool Nucleic Acid Collection and Preservation Tube (NORGEN) compared to immediate freezing. To assist with planning fecal sample collection and storage procedures for microbiome investigations with multiple analyses, we recommend participants to collect the first full bowel movement of the day and freeze the sample immediately after collection.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Li W, KE Nelson (2021)

Microbial Species that Initially Colonize the Human Gut at Birth or in Early Childhood Can Stay in Human Body for Lifetime.

Microbial ecology, 82(4):1074-1079.

In recent years, many studies have described the composition and function of the human microbiome at different body sites and suggested a role for the microbiome in various diseases and health conditions. Some studies, using longitudinal samples, have also suggested how the microbiome changes over time due to disease, diet, development, travel, and other environmental factors. However, to date, no study has demonstrated whether the microorganisms established at birth or in early childhood, either transmitted from parents or obtained from the environment, can stay in the human body until adult or senior age. To directly answer this question is difficult, because microbiome samples at childhood and at later adulthood for the same individual will need to be compared and the field is not old enough to have allowed for that type of sample collection. Here, using a metagenomic approach, we analyzed 1004 gut microbiome samples from senior adults (65 ± 7.8 years) from the TwinsUK cohort. Our data indicate that many species in the human gut acquired in early childhood can stay for a lifetime until senior ages. We identified the rare genomic variants (single nucleotide variation and indels) for 27 prevalent species with enough sequencing coverage for confident genomic variant identification. We found that for some species, twin pairs, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, share significantly more rare variants than unrelated subject pairs. But no significant difference is found between MZ and DZ twin pairs. These observations strongly suggest that these species acquired in early childhood remained in these persons until senior adulthood.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Hutchinson MI, Bell TAS, Gallegos-Graves V, et al (2021)

Merging Fungal and Bacterial Community Profiles via an Internal Control.

Microbial ecology, 82(2):484-497.

Integrated measurements of fungi and bacteria are critical to understand how interactions between these taxa drive key processes in ecosystems ranging from soils to animal guts. High-throughput amplicon sequencing is commonly used to census microbiomes, but the genetic markers targeted for fungi and bacteria (typically ribosomal regions) are domain-specific so profiling must be performed separately, obscuring relationships between these groups. To solve this problem, we developed a spike-in method with an internal control (IC) construct containing primer sites commonly used for bacterial and fungal taxonomic profiling. The internal control offers several advantages: estimation of absolute abundances, estimation of fungal to bacterial ratios (F:B), integration of bacterial and fungal profiles for holistic community analysis, and lower costs compared to other quantitation methods. To validate the IC as a scaling method, we compared IC-derived measures of F:B to measures from quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a commercial mock community (the ZymoBiomic Microbial Community DNA Standard II, containing two fungi and eight bacteria) and complex environmental samples. For both the mock community and the environmental samples, the IC produced F:B values that were statistically consistent with qPCR. Merging the environmental fungal and bacterial profiles based on the IC-derived F:B values revealed new relationships among samples in terms of community similarity. This IC method is the first spike-in method to employ a single construct for cross-domain amplicon sequencing, offering more reliable measurements.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Gomez JA, TP Primm (2021)

A Slimy Business: the Future of Fish Skin Microbiome Studies.

Microbial ecology, 82(2):275-287.

Fish skin contains a mucosal microbiome for the largest and oldest group of vertebrates, a location ideal for microbial community ecology and practical applications in agriculture and veterinary medicine. These selective microbiomes are dominated by Proteobacteria, with compositions different from the surrounding water. Core taxa are a small percentage of those present and are currently functionally uncharacterized. Methods for skin sampling, DNA extraction and amplification, and sequence data processing are highly varied across the field, and reanalysis of recent studies using a consistent pipeline revealed that some conclusions did change in statistical significance. Further, the 16S gene sequencing approaches lack quantitation of microbes and copy number adjustment. Thus, consistency in the field is a serious limitation in comparing across studies. The most significant area for future study, requiring metagenomic and metabolomics data, is the biochemical pathways and functions within the microbiome community, the interactions between members, and the resulting effects on fish host health being linked to specific nutrients and microbial species. Genes linked to skin colonization, such as those for attachment or mucin degradation, need to be uncovered and explored. Skin immunity factors need to be directly linked to microbiome composition and individual taxa. The basic foundation has been laid, and many exciting future discoveries remain.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Yavitt JB, Roco CA, Debenport SJ, et al (2021)

Community Organization and Metagenomics of Bacterial Assemblages Across Local Scale pH Gradients in Northern Forest Soils.

Microbial ecology, 81(3):758-769.

Soil pH has shown to predict bacterial diversity, but mechanisms are still poorly understood. To investigate how bacteria distribute themselves as a function of soil pH, we assessed community composition, diversity, assembly, and gene abundance across local (ca. 1 km) scale gradients in soil pH from ~ 3.8 to 6.5 created by differences in soil parent material in three northern forests. Plant species were the same on all sites, with no evidence of agriculture in the past. Concentrations of extractable calcium, iron, and phosphorus also varied significantly across the pH gradients. Among taxa, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were more common in soils with acidic pH values. Overall richness and diversity of OTUs peaked at intermediate pH values. Variations in OTU richness and diversity also had a quadratic fit with concentrations of extractable calcium and phosphorus. Community assembly was via homogeneous deterministic processes in soils with acidic pH values, whereas stochastic processes dominated in soils with near-neutral pH values. Although we expected selection via genes for acid tolerance response in acidic soils, genes for genetic information processing were more selective. Taxa in higher pH soils had differential abundance of transporter genes, suggesting adaptation to acquire metabolic substrates from soils. Soil bacterial communities in northern forest soils are incredibly diverse, and we still have much to learn about how soil pH and co-varying soil parameters directly drive gene selection in this critical component of ecosystem structure.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Basile A, Campanaro S, Kovalovszki A, et al (2020)

Revealing metabolic mechanisms of interaction in the anaerobic digestion microbiome by flux balance analysis.

Metabolic engineering, 62:138-149.

Anaerobic digestion is a key biological process for renewable energy, yet the mechanistic knowledge on its hidden microbial dynamics is still limited. The present work charted the interaction network in the anaerobic digestion microbiome via the full characterization of pairwise interactions and the associated metabolite exchanges. To this goal, a novel collection of 836 genome-scale metabolic models was built to represent the functional capabilities of bacteria and archaea species derived from genome-centric metagenomics. Dominant microbes were shown to prefer mutualistic, parasitic and commensalistic interactions over neutralism, amensalism and competition, and are more likely to behave as metabolite importers and profiteers of the coexistence. Additionally, external hydrogen injection positively influences microbiome dynamics by promoting commensalism over amensalism. Finally, exchanges of glucogenic amino acids were shown to overcome auxotrophies caused by an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our novel strategy predicted the most favourable growth conditions for the microbes, overall suggesting strategies to increasing the biogas production efficiency. In principle, this approach could also be applied to microbial populations of biomedical importance, such as the gut microbiome, to allow a broad inspection of the microbial interplays.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Lucyshyn DR, Maggs DJ, Cooper AE, et al (2021)

Feline conjunctival microbiota in a shelter: effects of time, upper respiratory disease and famciclovir administration.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(4):316-330.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the conjunctival microbiota of shelter-housed cats with time, upper respiratory disease (URD) and famciclovir administration.

METHODS: Cats were assigned to treatment groups on shelter entry. Healthy cats or cats with URD received ~30 mg/kg or ~90 mg/kg of famciclovir or placebo PO q12h for 7 days, or were untreated. Swabs were collected from ventral conjunctival fornices prior to (day 1) and immediately after (day 8) the treatment period. Microbiota analysis was conducted on 124 randomly selected swabs from healthy (56 swabs) or URD-affected (68 swabs) cats. Following DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, sequences were assembled into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Over-represented OTUs (as determined by linear discriminate analysis effect size), alpha and beta diversity, and median relative abundance of known feline ocular surface pathogens were assessed for the entire population and in 10 clinically relevant subpopulations of cats.

RESULTS: Bacteria from 33 phyla and 70 genera were identified. Considering all cats, median relative abundance of Mycoplasma increased from day 1 to day 8, while Proteobacteria decreased. Community membership and structure (beta diversity) differed between days 1 and 8 for all famciclovir-treated cats (regardless of health status or dose) and healthy or URD-affected cats (regardless of famciclovir dose). Differences in taxonomic diversity within a sample (alpha diversity) between day 1 and day 8 were not detected in any subpopulations.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Within 1 week of shelter entry, there were significant changes in community structure and membership of the feline conjunctival microbiota, with a shift towards over-representation of feline ocular surface pathogens. Although famciclovir may impact beta diversity of the feline conjunctival microbiota, absence of change in alpha diversity suggests minimal shift in individual cats.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Zhou X, Wang JT, Wang WH, et al (2021)

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Tomatoes of Healthy and Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

Microbial ecology, 81(4):1004-1017.

Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is one of the most devastating soilborne diseases of tomato. To evaluate whether microbial community composition associated with Fol-infected tomato is different from healthy tomato, we analyzed the tomato-associated microbes in both healthy and Fol-infected tomato plants at both the taxonomic and functional levels; both bacterial and fungal communities have been characterized from bulk soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere of tomatoes using metabarcoding and metagenomics approaches. The microbial community (bacteria and fungi) composition of healthy tomato was significantly different from that of diseased tomato, despite similar soil physicochemical characteristics. Both fungal and bacterial diversities were significantly higher in the tomato plants that remained healthy than in those that became diseased; microbial diversities were also negatively correlated with the concentration of Fol pathogen. Network analysis revealed the microbial community of healthy tomato formed a larger and more complex network than that of diseased tomato, probably providing a more stable community beneficial to plant health. Our findings also suggested that healthy tomato contained significantly greater microbial consortia, including some well-known biocontrol agents (BCAs), and enriched more functional genes than diseased tomato. The microbial taxa enriched in healthy tomato plants are recognized as potential suppressors of Fol pathogen invasion.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Shimada Y, Terasawa M, Okazaki F, et al (2021)

Rhamnan sulphate from green algae Monostroma nitidum improves constipation with gut microbiome alteration in double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13384.

Rhamnan sulphate (RS), a sulphated polysaccharide from Monostroma nitidum, possesses several biological properties that help in treating diseases such as viral infection, thrombosis, and obesity. In the present study, we first administered RS (0.25 mg/g food volume) orally to high-fat diet-treated mice for 4 weeks. RS increased the faecal volume and calorie excretion with decreased plasma lipids, which was in accordance with the results of our previous zebrafish study. Notably, as the excretion amount by RS increased in the mice, we hypothesised that RS could decrease the chance of constipation in mice and also in human subjects because RS is considered as a dietary fibre. We administrated RS (100 mg/day) to subjects with low defaecation frequencies (3-5 times/week) for 2 weeks in double-blind placebo-controlled manner. As a result, RS administration significantly increased the frequency of dejection without any side effects, although no effect was observed on the body weight and blood lipids. Moreover, we performed 16s rRNA-seq analysis of the gut microbiota in these subjects. Metagenomics profiling using PICRUSt revealed functional alternation of the KEGG pathways, which could be involved in the therapeutic effect of RS for constipation.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Xu X, Ran X, Tang J, et al (2021)

Skin Microbiota in Non-inflammatory and Inflammatory Lesions of Acne Vulgaris: The Underlying Changes within the Pilosebaceous Unit.

Mycopathologia, 186(6):863-869.

Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical manifestations include seborrhea, non-inflammatory lesions, inflammatory lesions, or scar formation. Fourteen eligible participants of either sex, aged 18-28 years old, with mild to moderate acne lesions, were recruited in this observational study. The contents of 10 pilosebaceous units of non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) were collected from each participant's face and examined by amplicon metagenomics sequencing and real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Male participants, participants with a higher body mass index (BMI) than normal, and participants younger than 20 years old, were revealed to have a higher proportion of Malassezia in their non-inflammatory lesions than that in inflammatory lesions. There was an increased abundance of Malassezia restricta (M. restricta) and Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) in the non-inflammatory group. Correlation analysis indicated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and M. restricta have similar proliferation trends with C. acnes during the transformation from non-inflammatory to inflammatory lesions. M. restricta probably involve in the microecological balance within the pilosebaceous unit.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Tenorio-Salgado S, Castelán-Sánchez HG, Dávila-Ramos S, et al (2021)

Metagenomic analysis and antimicrobial activity of two fermented milk kefir samples.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(2):e1183.

In recent years, the fermented milk product kefir has been intensively studied because of its health benefits. Here, we evaluated the microbial consortia of two kefir samples, from Escarcega, Campeche, and Campeche (México). We considered a functional comparison between both samples, including fungal and bacterial inhibition; second, we applied shotgun metagenomics to assess the structure and functional diversity of the communities of microorganisms. These two samples exhibited antagonisms against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Bioactive polyketides and nonribosomal peptides were identified by LC-HRMS analysis. We also observed a high bacterial diversity and an abundance of Actinobacteria in both kefir samples, and a greater abundance of Saccharomyces species in kefir of Escarcega than in the Campeche kefir. When the prophage compositions were evaluated, the Campeche sample showed a higher diversity of prophage sequences. In Escarcega, we observed a prevalence of prophage families that infect Enterobacteria and Lactobacillus. The sequences associated with secondary metabolites, such as plipastatin, fengycin, and bacillaene, and also bacteriocins like helveticin and zoocin, were also found in different proportions, with greater diversity in the Escarcega sample. The analyses described in this work open the opportunity to understand the microbial diversity in kefir samples from two distant localities.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Tan X, Chai T, Duan J, et al (2021)

Dynamic changes occur in the DNA gut virome of female cynomolgus macaques during aging.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(2):e1186.

Aging is a critical factor affecting physical health and disease in mammals. Emerging evidence indicates that aging may affect the gut bacteriome in cynomolgus macaques, but little is known about whether or how the gut virome changes with age. Here, we compared the DNA gut viral composition of 16 female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at three life stages (young, adult, and old) using the shotgun metagenome sequencing method. We found that the DNA gut virome from these monkeys differed substantially among the three groups. The gut viruses were dominated by bacteriophages, the most abundant of which was the Caudovirales order (i.e., Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae families). Additionally, the co-occurrence analysis revealed that the age-related bacteriophages were correlated in an extensive and complex manner with the main intestinal bacteria (i.e., Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla). Furthermore, the age-related DNA gut viral functions were enriched for genetic information processing, nucleotide, and folate metabolism. Our gut virome analysis provides new insight into how aging influences the gut virome of non-human primates.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Chang Y, Fan Q, Hou J, et al (2021)

A community-supported metaproteomic pipeline for improving peptide identifications in hydrothermal vent microbiota.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(5):.

Microorganisms in deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide valuable insights into life under extreme conditions. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been widely used to identify protein expression and function. However, the metaproteomic studies in deep-sea microbiota have been constrained largely by the low identification rates of protein or peptide. To improve the efficiency of metaproteomics for hydrothermal vent microbiota, we firstly constructed a microbial gene database (HVentDB) based on 117 public metagenomic samples from hydrothermal vents and proposed a metaproteomic analysis strategy, which takes the advantages of not only the sample-matched metagenome, but also the metagenomic information released publicly in the community of hydrothermal vents. A two-stage false discovery rate method was followed up to control the risk of false positive. By applying our community-supported strategy to a hydrothermal vent sediment sample, about twice as many peptides were identified when compared with the ways against the sample-matched metagenome or the public reference database. In addition, more enriched and explainable taxonomic and functional profiles were detected by the HVentDB-based approach exclusively, as well as many important proteins involved in methane, amino acid, sugar, glycan metabolism and DNA repair, etc. The new metaproteomic analysis strategy will enhance our understanding of microbiota, including their lifestyles and metabolic capabilities in extreme environments. The database HVentDB is freely accessible from

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Yang F, Q Zou (2021)

DisBalance: a platform to automatically build balance-based disease prediction models and discover microbial biomarkers from microbiome data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(5):.

How best to utilize the microbial taxonomic abundances in regard to the prediction and explanation of human diseases remains appealing and challenging, and the relative nature of microbiome data necessitates a proper feature selection method to resolve the compositional problem. In this study, we developed an all-in-one platform to address a series of issues in microbiome-based human disease prediction and taxonomic biomarkers discovery. We prioritize the interpretation, runtime and classification accuracy of the distal discriminative balances analysis (DBA-distal) method in selecting a set of distal discriminative balances, and develop DisBalance, a comprehensive platform, to integrate and streamline the workflows of disease model building, disease risk prediction and disease-related biomarker discovery for microbiome-based binary classifications. DisBalance allows the de novo model-building and disease risk prediction in a very fast and convenient way. To facilitate the model-driven and knowledge-driven discoveries, DisBalance dedicates multiple strategies for the mining of microbial biomarkers. The independent validation of the models constructed by the DisBalance pipeline is performed on seven microbiome datasets from the original article of DBA-distal. The implementation of the DisBalance platform is demonstrated by a complete analysis of a shotgun metagenomic dataset of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). As a free and open-source, DisBlance can be accessed at The source code and demo data for Disbalance are available at

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Davis ML, Huang Y, K Wang (2021)

Rank normalization empowers a t-test for microbiome differential abundance analysis while controlling for false discoveries.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(5):.

A major task in the analysis of microbiome data is to identify microbes associated with differing biological conditions. Before conducting analysis, raw data must first be adjusted so that counts from different samples are comparable. A typical approach is to estimate normalization factors by which all counts in a sample are multiplied or divided. However, the inherent variation associated with estimation of normalization factors are often not accounted for in subsequent analysis, leading to a loss of precision. Rank normalization is a nonparametric alternative to the estimation of normalization factors in which each count for a microbial feature is replaced by its intrasample rank. Although rank normalization has been successfully applied to microarray analysis in the past, it has yet to be explored for microbiome data, which is characterized by high frequencies of 0s, strongly correlated features and compositionality. We propose to use rank normalization as an alternative to the estimation of normalization factors and examine its performance when paired with a two-sample t-test. On a rigorous 3rd-party benchmarking simulation, it is shown to offer strong control over the false discovery rate, and at sample sizes greater than 50 per treatment group, to offer an improvement in performance over commonly used normalization factors paired with t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and methodologies implemented by R packages. On two real datasets, it yielded valid and reproducible results that were strongly in agreement with the original findings and the existing literature, further demonstrating its robustness and future potential. Availability: The data underlying this article are available online along with R code and supplementary materials at

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Boccella N, Paolillo R, Coretti L, et al (2021)

Transverse aortic constriction induces gut barrier alterations, microbiota remodeling and systemic inflammation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7404.

Accumulating evidence suggests that modifications of gut function and microbiota composition might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). In this study we systematically analysed gut microbiota composition, intestinal barrier integrity, intestinal and serum cytokines and serum endotoxin levels in C57BL/6 mice undergoing pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 and 4 weeks. Compared to sham-operated animals, TAC induced prompt and strong weakening of intestinal barrier integrity, long-lasting decrease of colon anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, significant increases of serum levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory cytokines. TAC also exerted effects on microbiota composition, inducing significant differences in bacterial genera inside Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and TM7 phyla as shown by 16S rDNA sequencing of fecal samples from TAC or sham mice. These results suggest that gut modifications represent an important element to be considered in the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction in response to TAC and support this animal model as a valuable tool to establish the role and mechanisms of gut-heart crosstalk in HF. Evidence arising in this field might identify new treatment options targeting gut integrity and microbiota components to face adverse cardiac events.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Yang F, Zou Q, B Gao (2021)

GutBalance: a server for the human gut microbiome-based disease prediction and biomarker discovery with compositionality addressed.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(5):.

The compositionality of the microbiome data is well-known but often neglected. The compositional transformation pertains to the supervised learning of microbiome data and is a critical step that decides the performance and reliability of the disease classifiers. We value the excellent performance of the distal discriminative balance analysis (DBA) method, which selects distal balances of pairs and trios of bacteria, in addressing the classification of high-dimensional microbiome data. By applying this method to the species-level abundances of all the disease phenotypes in the GMrepo database, we build a balance-based model repository for the classification of human gut microbiome-related diseases. The model repository supports the prediction of disease risks for new sample(s). More importantly, we highlight the concept of balance-disease associations rather than the conventional microbe-disease associations and develop the human Gut Balance-Disease Association Database (GBDAD). Each predictable balance for each disease model indicates a potential biomarker-disease relationship and can be interpreted as a bacteria ratio positively or negatively correlated with the disease. Furthermore, by linking the balance-disease associations to the evidenced microbe-disease associations in MicroPhenoDB, we surprisingly found that most species-disease associations inferred from the shotgun metagenomic datasets can be validated by external evidence beyond MicroPhenoDB. The balance-based species-disease association inference will accelerate the generation of new microbe-disease association hypotheses in gastrointestinal microecology research and clinical trials. The model repository and the GBDAD database are deployed on the GutBalance server, which supports interactive visualization and systematic interrogation of the disease models, disease-related balances and disease-related species of interest.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Karpinets TV, Solley TN, Mikkelson MD, et al (2020)

Effect of Antibiotics on Gut and Vaginal Microbiomes Associated with Cervical Cancer Development in Mice.

Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.), 13(12):997-1006.

Antibiotics affect microbial diversity in the gut, leading to dysbiosis and impaired immunity. However, the impact of antibiotics on microbial communities at other sites, such as vagina is less understood. It is also not clear whether changes induced by antibiotics in both microbiomes affect the development of cervical cancer. In this study, we utilized the murine model to evaluate these questions. We show that oral application of broad-spectrum antibiotics in mice changed not only diversity, but composition and sharing of gut and vaginal microbiomes in mice and influenced cervical cancer development in an orthotopic tumor model. Antibiotics decreased richness and diversity indexes in the gut but increased them in the vagina. Some beneficial taxa, such as Bacteroides, Ruminococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae increased their abundance in the vagina while other pathogenic species, such as Proteobacteria, were decreased. As a result of the changes, mice with greater richness and diversity of the vaginal microbiome after antibiotics exposure were less likely developed tumors. No association between richness and diversity of the gut microbiome and tumor development was identified.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Lu X, Hua X, Wang Y, et al (2021)

Comparison of gut viral communities in diarrhoea and healthy dairy calves.

The Journal of general virology, 102(10):.

Calf diarrhoea has been a major cause of economic losses in the global dairy industry. Many factors, including multiple pathogen infections, can directly or indirectly cause calf diarrhoea. This study compared the faecal virome between 15 healthy calves and 15 calves with diarrhoea. Significantly lower diversity of viruses was found in samples from animals with diarrhoea than those in the healthy ones, and this feature may also be related to the age of the calves. Viruses belonging to the families Astroviridae and Caliciviridae that may cause diarrhoea in dairy calves have been characterized, which revealed that reads of caliciviruses and astroviruses in diarrhoea calves were much higher than those in healthy calves. Five complete genomic sequences closely related to Smacoviridae have been identified, which may participate in the regulation of the gut virus community ecology of healthy hosts together with bacteriophages. This research provides a theoretical basis for further understanding of known or potential enteric pathogens related to calf diarrhoea.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Perez-Mon C, Qi W, Vikram S, et al (2021)

Shotgun metagenomics reveals distinct functional diversity and metabolic capabilities between 12 000-year-old permafrost and active layers on Muot da Barba Peider (Swiss Alps).

Microbial genomics, 7(4):.

The warming-induced thawing of permafrost promotes microbial activity, often resulting in enhanced greenhouse gas emissions. The ability of permafrost microorganisms to survive the in situ sub-zero temperatures, their energetic strategies and their metabolic versatility in using soil organic materials determine their growth and functionality upon thawing. Hence, functional characterization of the permafrost microbiome, particularly in the underexplored mid-latitudinal alpine regions, is a crucial first step in predicting its responses to the changing climate, and the consequences for soil-climate feedbacks. In this study, for the first time, the functional potential and metabolic capabilities of a temperate mountain permafrost microbiome from central Europe has been analysed using shotgun metagenomics. Permafrost and active layers from the summit of Muot da Barba Peider (MBP) [Swiss Alps, 2979 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] revealed a strikingly high functional diversity in the permafrost (north-facing soils at a depth of 160 cm). Permafrost metagenomes were enriched in stress-response genes (e.g. cold-shock genes, chaperones), as well as in genes involved in cell defence and competition (e.g. antiviral proteins, antibiotics, motility, nutrient-uptake ABC transporters), compared with active-layer metagenomes. Permafrost also showed a higher potential for the synthesis of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and an overrepresentation of genes involved in fermentation, carbon fixation, denitrification and nitrogen reduction reactions. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential capabilities of permafrost microorganisms to thrive in cold and oligotrophic conditions, and highlight their metabolic versatility in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Our study provides a first insight into the high functional gene diversity of the central European mountain permafrost microbiome. Our findings extend our understanding of the microbial ecology of permafrost and represent a baseline for future investigations comparing the functional profiles of permafrost microbial communities at different latitudes.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Kayani MUR, Huang W, Feng R, et al (2021)

Genome-resolved metagenomics using environmental and clinical samples.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(5):.

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and computational methods have added a new dimension to metagenomic data analysis i.e. genome-resolved metagenomics. In general terms, it refers to the recovery of draft or high-quality microbial genomes and their taxonomic classification and functional annotation. In recent years, several studies have utilized the genome-resolved metagenome analysis approach and identified previously unknown microbial species from human and environmental metagenomes. In this review, we describe genome-resolved metagenome analysis as a series of four necessary steps: (i) preprocessing of the sequencing reads, (ii) de novo metagenome assembly, (iii) genome binning and (iv) taxonomic and functional analysis of the recovered genomes. For each of these four steps, we discuss the most commonly used tools and the currently available pipelines to guide the scientific community in the recovery and subsequent analyses of genomes from any metagenome sample. Furthermore, we also discuss the tools required for validation of assembly quality as well as for improving quality of the recovered genomes. We also highlight the currently available pipelines that can be used to automate the whole analysis without having advanced bioinformatics knowledge. Finally, we will highlight the most widely adapted and actively maintained tools and pipelines that can be helpful to the scientific community in decision making before they commence the analysis.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Choi S, Sohn KH, Jung JW, et al (2021)

Lung virome: New potential biomarkers for asthma severity and exacerbation.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 148(4):1007-1015.e9.

BACKGROUND: Although some respiratory virus infections are known to contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, commensal viromes in airway have not been extensively studied due to technical challenges.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the characteristics of the virome in asthmatic airways.

METHODS: Both the bacteriome and virome profiles in sputum from 12 healthy individuals, 15 patients with nonsevere asthma, and 15 patients with severe asthma were analyzed and assessed for the association with clinical characteristics such as severity, exacerbation, Asthma Control Test (ACT), and lung function.

RESULTS: While analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA bacteriome in the airway showed no differences, clear contrasts in the diversity and composition of airway viromes were observed between healthy controls and patients with asthma. Herpesviruses were the most abundant type of virus in the asthma group (44.6 ± 4.6%), mainly with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and EBV accounting for 24.5 ± 3.3% and 16.9 ± 3.5%, respectively, in contrast to those in the healthy controls (5.4 ± 2.5% and 7.1 ± 3.0%, respectively). CMV and EBV were more abundant in patients with asthma who experienced exacerbation, and their abundance showed correlation with more severe asthma, lower ACT score, and lower lung function. On the contrary, bacteriophage that is abundant in healthy controls was severely reduced in patients with asthma in the order of nonsevere and severe asthma and presented significant positive correlation with ACT and FEV1/forced vital capacity.

CONCLUSIONS: Lung viromes, especially, CMV, EBV, and bacteriophage may be potential biomarkers of asthma severity and exacerbation.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Arruda A, Ferreira GEM, Santos Júnior A, et al (2021)

Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From the Feces of Wild Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the Brazilian Amazon.

Journal of medical entomology, 58(4):1900-1907.

Microorganisms living in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes have been studied to fight vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Studies on the microbiota of the Neotropical Anopheles darlingi, the most important Brazilian vector for malaria, have been reported for the same purpose. Our aims were to isolate and identify culturable bacteria from An. darlingi mosquito guts through their feces and to estimate the species richness and the frequency distribution of the sampled bacteria. Sixty wild females of An. darlingi mosquitoes were captured at two rural locations, near Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. Bacteria were isolated from mosquito feces, which were collected using cages which permit the collection of feces on LB nutrient agar plates. Sixty bacterial colonies were isolated and stored in glycerol at -80°C. Bacteria were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene obtained using PCR and Sanger sequencing. To aid in species identification, MALDI-TOF, VITEK2, and BBL Crystal were used as complementary protocols. The sequences obtained from the 60 bacterial isolates were compared to sequences deposited in GenBank (NCBI) using BLAST. Homology greater than 97% between the query and the subject was used as the criteria for assigning the identity of each isolate. Fourteen species from eight different genera were identified among the 60 isolates. The most frequent species were Serratia liquefaciens (20%) and Serratia marcescens (15%). Due to their established apathogenicity and according to previous studies, we suggest Serratia and Pantoea species as suitable for paratransgenesis development to fight malaria in Brazilian Amazon.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Fadiji AE, Kanu JO, OO Babalola (2021)

Metagenomic profiling of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity associated with maize plant as affected by cropping systems.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology, 24(3):325-335.

Soil microbial diversity is believed to be vital in maintaining soil quality and health. Limited knowledge exists on the impact of cropping systems (mono-cropping and crop rotation) on the diversity of the whole soil microbiome. In this study, we investigated the effects of two cropping systems, namely crop rotation and mono-cropping, on the community structure and diversity of rhizosphere microbiome in the rhizosphere and bulk soil associated with maize plant using shotgun metagenomics. Whole DNA was extracted from bulk, and rhizosphere soils associated with maize plant from the mono-cropping (LT and LTc) and crop rotation (VD and VDc) sites, respectively, and sequenced employing shotgun metagenomics. The results obtained via the Subsystem database showed 23 bacteria, 2 fungi, and 3 archaea most abundant phyla. The major bacterial phyla are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Spirochaetes, Aquificae, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Chlorobi. The major fungi phyla observed were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, while the dominant archaea phyla are Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota. Our diversity assessment showed that the rhizosphere microbial community was more abundant in the samples from the rotational crop site following VD>VDc>LT>LTc. Alpha diversity showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the soil microbial communities (P>0.05), while better diversity indicated that a significant difference (P = 0.01) occurred. Taken together, crop rotational practice was found to positively influence the rhizosphere microbial community associated with the maize plant.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Benítez-Páez A, Hess AL, Krautbauer S, et al (2021)

Sex, Food, and the Gut Microbiota: Disparate Response to Caloric Restriction Diet with Fiber Supplementation in Women and Men.

Molecular nutrition & food research, 65(8):e2000996.

SCOPE: Dietary-based strategies are regularly explored in controlled clinical trials to provide cost-effective therapies to tackle obesity and its comorbidities. The article presents a complementary analysis based on a multivariate multi-omics approach of a caloric restriction intervention (CRD) with fiber supplementation to unveil synergic effects on body weight control, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The study explores fecal bile acids (BAs) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), plasma BAs, and fecal shotgun metagenomics on 80 overweight participants of a 12-week caloric restriction clinical trial (-500 kcal day-1) randomly allocated into fiber (10 g day-1 inulin + 10 g day-1 resistant maltodextrin) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplementation groups. The multi-omic data integration analysis uncovered the benefits of the fiber supplementation and/or the CRD (e.g., increase of Parabacteroides distasonis and fecal propionate), showing sex-specific effects on either adiposity and fasting insulin; effects thought to be linked to changes of specific gut microbiota species, functional genes, and bacterially produced metabolites like SCFAs and secondary BAs.

CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies diet-microbe-host interactions helping to design personalised interventions. It also suggests that sex perspective should be considered routinely in future studies on dietary interventions efficacy. All in all, the study uncovers that the dietary intervention is more beneficial for women than men.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Lai WT, Deng WF, Xu SX, et al (2021)

Shotgun metagenomics reveals both taxonomic and tryptophan pathway differences of gut microbiota in major depressive disorder patients.

Psychological medicine, 51(1):90-101.

BACKGROUND: The microbiota-gut-brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.

METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.

RESULTS: The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Zakham F, Albalawi AE, Alanazi AD, et al (2021)

Viral RNA Metagenomics of Hyalomma Ticks Collected from Dromedary Camels in Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia.

Viruses, 13(7):.

Arthropod-borne infections are a medical and economic threat to humans and livestock. Over the last three decades, several unprecedented viral outbreaks have been recorded in the Western part of the Arabian Peninsula. However, little is known about the circulation and diversity of arthropod-borne viruses in this region. To prepare for new outbreaks of vector-borne diseases, it is important to detect which viruses circulate in each vector population. In this study, we used a metagenomics approach to characterize the RNA virome of ticks infesting dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Makkah province, Saudi Arabia. Two hundred ticks of species Hyalomma dromedarii (n = 196) and Hyalomma impeltatum (n = 4) were collected from the Alkhurma district in Jeddah and Al-Taif city. Virome analysis showed the presence of several tick-specific viruses and tick-borne viruses associated with severe illness in humans. Some were identified for the first time in the Arabian Peninsula. The human disease-associated viruses detected included Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus and Tamdy virus (family Nairoviridae), Guertu virus (family Phenuiviridae), and a novel coltivirus that shares similarities with Tarumizu virus, Tai forest reovirus and Kundal virus (family Reoviridae). Furthermore, Alkhurma hemorrhagic virus (Flaviviridae) was detected in two tick pools by specific qPCR. In addition, tick-specific viruses in families Phenuiviridae (phleboviruses), Iflaviridae, Chuviridae, Totiviridae and Flaviviridae (Pestivirus) were detected. The presence of human pathogenetic viruses warrants further efforts in tick surveillance, xenosurveillence, vector control, and sero-epidemiological investigations in human and animal populations to predict, contain and mitigate future outbreaks in the region.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Jung TH, KS Han (2021)

Imbalanced dietary intake alters the colonic microbial profile in growing rats.

PloS one, 16(6):e0253959.

An imbalanced dietary intake is associated with alteration of intestinal ecosystem. We investigated the impact of imbalanced diets on colonic microbiota, concentrations of short chain fatty acid in colonic digesta and serum immunoglobulins (Igs) of growing rats. Compared to the control diet, consuming diets high in fat, sucrose, or processed meat, or low in iron, increased the abundance of the pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella species, and decreased the beneficial bacteria, like Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, Phascolarctobacterium, Alistipes, and butyrate producing species of bacteria in the colon of growing rats. The heatmap of metagenomics indicated that each group was separated into distinct clusters, and the ID group in particular, showed significantly (P < 0.01) reduced alpha diversity of colonic microbiota in comparison to the control group. All experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) decreased concentration of acetate and butyrate in the colonic digesta and lower levels of serum IgG or IgA, compared to the control. These results indicated that the imbalanced dietary intake negatively altered intestinal ecosystem and immunity.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Hong Y, Sheng L, Zhong J, et al (2021)

Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a potent acetic acid-producing bacterium, attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-20.

The emerging evidence supports the use of prebiotics like herb-derived polysaccharides for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by modulating gut microbiome. The present study was initiated on the microbiota-dependent anti-NAFLD effect of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) extracted from Astragalus mongholicus Bunge in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of APS on NAFLD formation remain poorly understood.Co-housing experiment was used to assess the microbiota dependent anti-NAFLD effect of APS. Then, targeted metabolomics and metagenomics were adopted for determining short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacteria that were specifically enriched by APS. Further in vitro experiment was carried out to test the capacity of SCFAs-producing of identified bacterium. Finally, the anti-NAFLD efficacy of identified bacterium was tested in HFD-fed mice.Our results first demonstrated the anti-NAFLD effect of APS in HFD-fed mice and the contribution of gut microbiota. Moreover, our results indicated that SCFAs, predominantly acetic acid were elevated in APS-supplemented mice and ex vivo experiment. Metagenomics revealed that D. vulgaris from Desulfovibrio genus was not only enriched by APS, but also a potent generator of acetic acid, which showed significant anti-NAFLD effects in HFD-fed mice. In addition, D. vulgaris modulated the hepatic gene expression pattern of lipids metabolism, particularly suppressed hepatic fatty acid synthase (FASN) and CD36 protein expression.Our results demonstrate that APS enriched D. vulgaris is effective on attenuating hepatic steatosis possibly through producing acetic acid, and modulation on hepatic lipids metabolism in mice. Further studies are warranted to explore the long-term impacts of D. vulgaris on host metabolism and the underlying mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Lindstad LJ, Lo G, Leivers S, et al (2021)

Human Gut Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Deploys a Highly Efficient Conserved System To Cross-Feed on β-Mannan-Derived Oligosaccharides.

mBio, 12(3):e0362820.

β-Mannans are hemicelluloses that are abundant in modern diets as components in seed endosperms and common additives in processed food. Currently, the collective understanding of β-mannan saccharification in the human colon is limited to a few keystone species, which presumably liberate low-molecular-weight mannooligosaccharide fragments that become directly available to the surrounding microbial community. Here, we show that a dominant butyrate producer in the human gut, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, is able to acquire and degrade various β-mannooligosaccharides (β-MOS), which are derived by the primary mannanolytic activity of neighboring gut microbiota. Detailed biochemical analyses of selected protein components from their two β-MOS utilization loci (F. prausnitzii β-MOS utilization loci [FpMULs]) supported a concerted model whereby the imported β-MOS are stepwise disassembled intracellularly by highly adapted enzymes. Coculturing experiments of F. prausnitzii with the primary degraders Bacteroides ovatus and Roseburia intestinalis on polymeric β-mannan resulted in syntrophic growth, thus confirming the high efficiency of the FpMULs' uptake system. Genomic comparison with human F. prausnitzii strains and analyses of 2,441 public human metagenomes revealed that FpMULs are highly conserved and distributed worldwide. Together, our results provide a significant advance in the knowledge of β-mannan metabolism and the degree to which its degradation is mediated by cross-feeding interactions between prominent beneficial microbes in the human gut. IMPORTANCE Commensal butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes phylum are abundant in the human gut and are crucial for maintaining health. Currently, insight is lacking into how they target otherwise indigestible dietary fibers and into the trophic interactions they establish with other glycan degraders in the competitive gut environment. By combining cultivation, genomic, and detailed biochemical analyses, this work reveals the mechanism enabling F. prausnitzii, as a model Ruminococcaceae within Firmicutes, to cross-feed and access β-mannan-derived oligosaccharides released in the gut ecosystem by the action of primary degraders. A comprehensive survey of human gut metagenomes shows that FpMULs are ubiquitous in human populations globally, highlighting the importance of microbial metabolism of β-mannans/β-MOS as a common dietary component. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of the β-MOS utilization capability by F. prausnitzii that may be exploited to select dietary formulations specifically boosting this beneficial symbiont, and thus butyrate production, in the gut.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Wang K, Zhang Z, Mo ZS, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota as prognosis markers for patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-15.

The gut microbiota in the hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is poorly defined. We aim to uncover the characteristics of the gut microbiota in HBV-ACLF and in other HBV associated pathologies. We analyzed the gut microbiome in patients with HBV-ACLF or other HBV associated pathologies and healthy individuals by 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. 212 patients with HBV-ACLF, 252 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 162 with HBV-associated cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and 877 healthy individuals were recruited for the study. CHB and HBV-LC patients are grouped as HBV-Other. We discovered striking differences in the microbiome diversity between the HBV-ACLF, HBV-Other and healthy groups using 16S rRNA sequencing. The ratio of cocci to bacilli was significantly elevated in the HBV-ACLF group compared with healthy group. Further analysis within the HBV-ACLF group identified 52 genera showing distinct richness within the group where Enterococcus was enriched in the progression group whilst Faecalibacterium was enriched in the regression group. Metagenomic sequencing validated these findings and further uncovered an enrichment of Lactobacillus casei paracasei in progression group, while Alistipes senegalensis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Parabacteroides merdae dominated the regression group. Importantly, our analysis revealed that there was a rapid increase of Enterococcus faecium during the progression of HBV-ACLF. The gut microbiota displayed distinct composition at different phases of HBV-ACLF. High abundance of Enterococcus is associated with progression while that of Faecalibacterium is associated with regression of HBV-ACLF. Therefore, the microbiota features hold promising potential as prognostic markers for HBV-ACLF.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Engevik MA, Herrmann B, Ruan W, et al (2021)

Bifidobacterium dentium-derived y-glutamylcysteine suppresses ER-mediated goblet cell stress and reduces TNBS-driven colonic inflammation.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-21.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress compromises the secretion of MUC2 from goblet cells and has been linked with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although Bifidobacterium can beneficially modulate mucin production, little work has been done investigating the effects of Bifidobacterium on goblet cell ER stress. We hypothesized that secreted factors from Bifidobacterium dentium downregulate ER stress genes and modulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to promote MUC2 secretion. We identified by mass spectrometry that B. dentium secretes the antioxidant γ-glutamylcysteine, which we speculate dampens ER stress-mediated ROS and minimizes ER stress phenotypes. B. dentium cell-free supernatant and γ-glutamylcysteine were taken up by human colonic T84 cells, increased glutathione levels, and reduced ROS generated by the ER-stressors thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Moreover, B. dentium supernatant and γ-glutamylcysteine were able to suppress NF-kB activation and IL-8 secretion. We found that B. dentium supernatant, γ-glutamylcysteine, and the positive control IL-10 attenuated the induction of UPR genes GRP78, CHOP, and sXBP1. To examine ER stress in vivo, we first examined mono-association of B. dentium in germ-free mice which increased MUC2 and IL-10 levels compared to germ-free controls. However, no changes were observed in ER stress-related genes, indicating that B. dentium can promote mucus secretion without inducing ER stress. In a TNBS-mediated ER stress model, we observed increased levels of UPR genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in TNBS treated mice, which were reduced with addition of live B. dentium or γ-glutamylcysteine. We also observed increased colonic and serum levels of IL-10 in B. dentium- and γ-glutamylcysteine-treated mice compared to vehicle control. Immunostaining revealed retention of goblet cells and mucus secretion in both B. dentium- and γ-glutamylcysteine-treated animals. Collectively, these data demonstrate positive modulation of the UPR and MUC2 production by B. dentium-secreted compounds.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Zhao X, Oduro PK, Tong W, et al (2021)

Therapeutic potential of natural products against atherosclerosis: Targeting on gut microbiota.

Pharmacological research, 163:105362.

Gut microbiota (GM) has emerged as an essential and integral factor for maintaining human health and affecting pathological outcomes. Metagenomics and metabolomics characterization have furthered gut metagenome's understanding and unveiled that deviation of specific GM community members and GM-dependent metabolites imbalance orchestrate metabolic or cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Restoring GM ecosystem with nutraceutical supplements keenly prebiotics and probiotics relatively decreases CVDs incidence and overall mortality. In Atherosclerosis, commensal and pathogenic gut microbes correlate with atherogenesis events. GM-dependent metabolites-trimethylamine N-oxide and short-chain fatty acids regulate atherosclerosis-related metabolic processes in opposite patterns to affect atherosclerosis outcomes. Therefore, GM might be a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. In atherogenic animal models, natural products with cardioprotective properties could modulate the GM ecosystem by revitalizing healthier GM phylotypes and abrogating proatherogenic metabolites, paving future research paths for clinical therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Hossain F, Majumder S, David J, et al (2021)

Obesity Modulates the Gut Microbiome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Nutrients, 13(10):.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, molecularly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with increased incidence and worse prognosis in TNBC through various potential mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays a central role in the progression of cancer, and that imbalances or dysbiosis in the population of commensal microbiota can lead to inflammation and contribute to tumor progression. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, and gut dysbiosis is associated with obesity, chronic inflammation, and failure of cancer immunotherapy. However, the debate on what constitutes a "healthy" gut microbiome is ongoing, and the connection among the gut microbiome, obesity, and TNBC has not yet been addressed. This study aims to characterize the role of obesity in modulating the gut microbiome in a syngeneic mouse model of TNBC. 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses were performed to analyze and annotate genus and taxonomic profiles. Our results suggest that obesity decreases alpha diversity in the gut microbiome. Metagenomic analysis revealed that obesity was the only significant factor explaining the similarity of the bacterial communities according to their taxonomic profiles. In contrast to the analysis of taxonomic profiles, the analysis of variation of functional profiles suggested that obesity status, tumor presence, and the obesity-tumor interaction were significant in explaining the variation of profiles, with obesity having the strongest correlation. The presence of tumor modified the profiles to a greater extent in obese than in lean animals. Further research is warranted to understand the impact of the gut microbiome on TNBC progression and immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Chang CJ, Zhang J, Tsai YL, et al (2021)

Compositional Features of Distinct Microbiota Base on Serum Extracellular Vesicle Metagenomics Analysis in Moderate to Severe Psoriasis Patients.

Cells, 10(9):.

The bacterial microbiota in the skin and intestine of patients with psoriasis were different compared with that of healthy individuals. However, the presence of a distinct blood microbiome in patients with psoriasis is yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the differences in bacterial communities in plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) between patients with moderate to severe psoriasis (PSOs) and healthy controls (HCs). The plasma EVs from the PSO (PASI > 10) (n = 20) and HC (n = 8) groups were obtained via a series of centrifugations, and patterns were examined and confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EV-specific markers. The taxonomic composition of the microbiota was determined by using full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The PSO group had lower bacterial diversity and richness compared with HC group. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA)-based clustering was used to assess diversity and validated dysbiosis for both groups. Differences at the level of amplicon sequence variant (ASV) were observed, suggesting alterations in specific ASVs according to health conditions. The HC group had higher levels of the phylum Firmicutes and Fusobacteria than in the PSO group. The order Lactobacillales, family Brucellaceae, genera Streptococcus, and species Kingella oralis and Aquabacterium parvum were highly abundant in the HC group compared with the PSO group. Conversely, the order Bacillales and the genera Staphylococcus and Sphihgomonas, as well as Ralstonia insidiosa, were more abundant in the PSO group. We further predicted the microbiota functional capacities, which revealed significant differences between the PSO and HC groups. In addition to previous studies on microbiome changes in the skin and gut, we demonstrated compositional differences in the microbe-derived EVs in the plasma of PSO patients. Plasma EVs could be an indicator for assessing the composition of the microbiome of PSO patients.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

de la Cruz Peña MJ, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Garcia-Heredia I, et al (2021)

Minimal-moderate variation of human oral virome and microbiome in IgA deficiency.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14913.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the dominant antibody found in our mucosal secretions and has long been recognized to play an important role in protecting our epithelium from pathogens. Recently, IgA has been shown to be involved in gut homeostatic regulation by 'recognizing' and shaping our commensal microbes. Paradoxically, yet selective IgA-deficiency is often described as asymptomatic and there is a paucity of studies only focused on the mice and human gut microbiome context fully ignoring other niches of our body and our commensal viruses. Here, we used as a model the human oral cavity and employed a holistic view and studied the impact of IgA deficiency and also common variable IgA and IgM immunodeficiencies (CVID), on both the human virome and microbiome. Unexpectedly, metagenomic and experimental data in human IgA deficiency and CVID indicate minimal-moderate changes in microbiome and virome composition compared to healthy control group and point out to a rather functional, resilient oral commensal viruses and microbes. However, a significant depletion (two fold) of bacterial cells (p-value < 0.01) and viruses was observed in IgA-deficiency. Our results demonstrate that, within the limits of our cohort, IgA role is not critical for maintaining a rather functional salivary microbiome and suggest that IgA is not a major influence on the composition of abundant commensal microbes.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Lannes R, Cavaud L, Lopez P, et al (2021)

Marine Ultrasmall Prokaryotes Likely Affect the Cycling of Carbon, Methane, Nitrogen, and Sulfur.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(1):.

Recently, we uncovered the genetic components from six carbon fixation autotrophic pathways in cleaned ultrasmall size fractions from marine samples (<0.22 µm) gathered worldwide by the Tara Oceans Expedition. This first finding suggested that prokaryotic nanoorganisms, phylogenetically distantly related to the known CPR and DPANN groups, could collectively impact carbon cycling and carbon fixation across the world's ocean. To extend our mining of the functional and taxonomic microbial dark matter from the ultrasmall size fraction from the Tara Oceans Expedition, we investigated the distribution of 28 metabolic pathways associated with the cycling of carbon, methane, nitrogen, and sulfur. For all of these pathways, we report the existence not only of novel metabolic homologs in the ultrasmall size fraction of the oceanic microbiome, associated with nanoorganisms belonging to the CPR and DPANN lineages, but also of metabolic homologs exclusively found in marine host taxa belonging to other (still unassigned) microbial lineages. Therefore, we conclude that marine nanoorganisms contribute to a greater diversity of key biogeochemical cycles than currently appreciated. In particular, we suggest that oceanic nanoorganisms may be involved in a metabolic loop around Acetyl-CoA, have an underappreciated genetic potential to degrade methane, contribute to sustaining redox-reactions by producing Coenzyme F420, and affect sulfur cycling, notably as they harbor a complete suite of homologs of enzymes of the SOX system.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Li R, Huang X, Liang X, et al (2021)

Integrated omics analysis reveals the alteration of gut microbe-metabolites in obese adults.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(3):.

Obesity, a risk to health, is a global problem in modern society. The prevalence of obesity was approximately 13% among world's adult population. Recently, several reports suggested that the interference of gut microbiota composition and function is associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity. Gut microbiota produce a board range of metabolites involved in energy and glucose homeostasis, leading to the alteration in host metabolism. However, systematic evaluation of the relationship between gut microbiota, gut metabolite and host metabolite profiles in obese adults is still lacking. In this study, we used comparative metagenomics and metabolomics analysis to determine the gut microbiota and gut-host metabolite profiles in six normal and obese adults of Chinese origin, respectively. Following the functional and pathway analysis, we aimed to understand the possible impact of gut microbiota on the host metabolites via the change in gut metabolites. The result showed that the change in gut microbiota may result in the modulation of gut metabolites contributing to glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and homolactic fermentation. Furthermore, integrated metabolomic analysis demonstrated a possible positive correlation of dysregulated metabolites in the gut and host, including l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, uric acid, kynurenic acid, cholesterol sulfate and glucosamine, which were reported to contribute to metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. The findings of this study provide the possible association between gut microbiota-metabolites and host metabolism in obese adults. The identified metabolite changes could serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of obesity and metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Zhang Q, Yu K, Li S, et al (2021)

gutMEGA: a database of the human gut MEtaGenome Atlas.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(3):.

The gut microbiota plays important roles in human health through regulating both physiological homeostasis and disease emergence. The accumulation of metagenomic sequencing studies enables us to better understand the temporal and spatial variations of the gut microbiota under different physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is inconvenient for scientists to query and retrieve published data; thus, a comprehensive resource for the quantitative gut metagenome is urgently needed. In this study, we developed gut MEtaGenome Atlas (gutMEGA), a well-annotated comprehensive database, to curate and host published quantitative gut microbiota datasets from Homo sapiens. By carefully curating the gut microbiota composition, phenotypes and experimental information, gutMEGA finally integrated 59 132 quantification events for 6457 taxa at seven different levels (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species) under 776 conditions. Moreover, with various browsing and search functions, gutMEGA provides a fast and simple way for users to obtain the relative abundances of intestinal microbes among phenotypes. Overall, gutMEGA is a convenient and comprehensive resource for gut metagenome research, which can be freely accessed at

RevDate: 2021-11-16
CmpDate: 2021-11-16

Nagy-Szakal D, Couto-Rodriguez M, Wells HL, et al (2021)

Targeted Hybridization Capture of SARS-CoV-2 and Metagenomics Enables Genetic Variant Discovery and Nasal Microbiome Insights.

Microbiology spectrum, 9(2):e0019721.

The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic variants that may alter viral fitness highlights the urgency of widespread next-generation sequencing (NGS) surveillance. To profile genetic variants of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome, we developed and clinically validated a hybridization capture SARS-CoV-2 NGS assay, integrating novel methods for panel design using double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) biotin-labeled probes, and built accompanying software. This test is the first hybrid capture-based NGS assay given Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emergency use authorization for detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The positive and negative percent agreement (PPA and NPA, respectively) were defined in comparison to the results for an orthogonal real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay (PPA and NPA, 96.7 and 100%, respectively). The limit of detection was established to be 800 copies/ml with an average fold enrichment of 46,791. Furthermore, utilizing the research-use-only analysis to profile the variants, we identified 55 novel mutations, including 11 in the functionally important spike protein. Finally, we profiled the full nasopharyngeal microbiome using metagenomics and found overrepresentation of 7 taxa and evidence of macrolide resistance in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. This hybrid capture NGS assay, coupled with optimized software, is a powerful approach to detect and comprehensively map SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants for tracking viral evolution and guiding vaccine updates. IMPORTANCE This is the first FDA emergency-use-authorized hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Viral metagenomics and the novel hybrid capture NGS-based assay, along with its research-use-only analysis, can provide important genetic insights into SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging pathogens and improve surveillance and early detection, potentially preventing or mitigating new outbreaks. Better understanding of the continuously evolving SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and the impact of genetic variants may provide individual risk stratification, precision therapeutic options, improved molecular diagnostics, and population-based therapeutic solutions.

RevDate: 2021-11-16
CmpDate: 2021-11-16

Li YQ, Chai YH, Wang XS, et al (2021)

Bacterial community in saline farmland soil on the Tibetan plateau: responding to salinization while resisting extreme environments.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):119.

BACKGROUND: Salinization damages the health of soil systems and reduces crop yields. Responses of microbial communities to salinized soils and their functional maintenance under high salt stress are valuable scientific problems. Meanwhile, the microbial community of the salinized soil in the plateau environment is less understood. Here, we applied metagenomics technology to reveal the structure and function of microorganisms in salinized soil of the Tibetan Plateau.

RESULTS: The diversity of composition and function of microbial community in saline soil have changed significantly. The abundances of chemoautotrophic and acidophilic bacteria comprising Rhodanobacter, Acidobacterium, Candidatus Nitrosotalea, and Candidatus Koribacter were significantly higher in saline soil. The potential degradation of organic carbon in the saline soil, as well as the production of NO and N2O via denitrification, and the production of sulfate by sulfur oxidation were significantly higher than the non-saline soil. Both types of soils were rich in genes encoding resistance to environmental stresses (i.e., cold, ultraviolet light, and hypoxia in Tibetan Plateau). The resistance of the soil microbial communities to the saline environment is based on the absorption of K+ as the main mechanism, with cross-protection proteins and absorption buffer molecules as auxiliary mechanisms in our study area. Network analysis showed that functional group comprising chemoautotrophic and acidophilic bacteria had significant positive correlations with electrical conductivity and total sulfur, and significant negative correlations with the total organic carbon, pH, and available nitrogen. The soil moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity are likely to affect the bacterial carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the specific environment of the Tibetan Plateau and salinization jointly shape the structure and function of the soil bacterial community, and that the bacterial communities respond to complex and harsh living conditions. In addition, environmental feedback probably exacerbates greenhouse gas emissions and accelerates the reduction in the soil pH. This study will provide insights into the microbial responses to soil salinization and the potential ecological risks in the special plateau environment.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Carasso S, Fishman B, Lask LS, et al (2021)

Metagenomic analysis reveals the signature of gut microbiota associated with human chronotypes.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(11):e22011.

Patterns of diurnal activity differ substantially between individuals, with early risers and late sleepers being examples of opposite chronotypes. Growing evidence suggests that the late chronotype significantly impacts the risk of developing mood disorders, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Despite the vast potential of utilizing chronotype information for precision medicine, those factors that shape chronotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the various chronotypes are associated with different gut microbiome compositions. Using metagenomic sequencing analysis, we established a distinct signature associated with chronotype based on two bacterial genera, Alistipes (elevated in "larks") and Lachnospira (elevated in "owls"). We identified three metabolic pathways associated with the early chronotype, and linked distinct dietary patterns with different chronotypes. Our work demonstrates an association between the gut microbiome and chronotype and may represent the first step towards developing dietary interventions aimed at ameliorating the deleterious health correlates of the late chronotype.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Chiou WC, Chang BH, Tien HH, et al (2021)

Synbiotic Intervention with an Adlay-Based Prebiotic and Probiotics Improved Diet-Induced Metabolic Disturbance in Mice by Modulation of the Gut Microbiota.

Nutrients, 13(9):.

Metabolic syndrome and its associated conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are a major public health issue in modern societies. Dietary interventions, including microbiota-directed foods which effectively modulate the gut microbiome, may influence the regulation of obesity and associated comorbidities. Although research on probiotics and prebiotics has been conducted extensively in recent years, diets with the use of synbiotics remain relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the effects of a novel synbiotic intervention, consisting of an adlay seed extrusion cooked (ASEC)-based prebiotic and probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei and Bacillus coagulans) on metabolic disorders and microbial dysbiosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The ASEC-based synbiotic intervention helped improve HFD-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and inflammation of the adipose and liver tissues. In addition, data from fecal metagenomics indicated that the ASEC-based synbiotic intervention fostered reconstitution of gut bacterial diversity and composition in HFD-induced obese mice. In particular, the ASEC-based synbiotic intervention increased the relative abundance of families Ruminococcaceae and Muribaculaceae and order Bacteroidales and reduced that of families Lactobacillaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Streptococcaceae in HFD-induced obese mice. Collectively, our results suggest that delayed dietary intervention with the novel ASEC-based synbiotic ameliorates HFD-induced obesity, metabolic disorders, and dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-11-15
CmpDate: 2021-11-15

Bendia AG, Lemos LN, Mendes LW, et al (2021)

Metabolic potential and survival strategies of microbial communities across extreme temperature gradients on Deception Island volcano, Antarctica.

Environmental microbiology, 23(7):4054-4073.

Active volcanoes in Antarctica have remarkable temperature and geochemical gradients that could select for a wide variety of microbial adaptive mechanisms and metabolic pathways. Deception Island is a stratovolcano flooded by the sea, resulting in contrasting ecosystems such as permanent glaciers and active fumaroles, which creates steep gradients that have been shown to affect microbial diversity. In this study, we used shotgun metagenomics and metagenome-assembled genomes to explore the metabolic potentials and survival strategies of microbial communities along an extreme temperature gradient in fumarole and glacier sediments on Deception Island. We observed that communities from a 98 °C fumarole were significantly enriched in genes related to hyperthermophilic (e.g. reverse gyrase, GroEL/GroES and thermosome) and oxidative stress responses, as well as genes related to sulfate reduction, ammonification and carbon fixation. Communities from <80 °C fumaroles possessed more genes related osmotic, cold- and heat-shock responses, and diverse metabolic potentials, such as those related to sulfur oxidation and denitrification, while glacier communities showed abundant metabolic potentials mainly related to heterotrophy. Through the reconstruction of genomes, we were able to reveal the metabolic potentials and different survival strategies of underrepresented taxonomic groups, especially those related to Nanoarchaeota, Pyrodictiaceae and thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaeal lineages.

RevDate: 2021-11-11
CmpDate: 2021-11-11

Hildebrand F, Gossmann TI, Frioux C, et al (2021)

Dispersal strategies shape persistence and evolution of human gut bacteria.

Cell host & microbe, 29(7):1167-1176.e9.

Human gut bacterial strains can co-exist with their hosts for decades, but little is known about how these microbes persist and disperse, and evolve thereby. Here, we examined these processes in 5,278 adult and infant fecal metagenomes, longitudinally sampled in individuals and families. Our analyses revealed that a subset of gut species is extremely persistent in individuals, families, and geographic regions, represented often by locally successful strains of the phylum Bacteroidota. These "tenacious" bacteria show high levels of genetic adaptation to the human host but a high probability of loss upon antibiotic interventions. By contrast, heredipersistent bacteria, notably Firmicutes, often rely on dispersal strategies with weak phylogeographic patterns but strong family transmissions, likely related to sporulation. These analyses describe how different dispersal strategies can lead to the long-term persistence of human gut microbes with implications for gut flora modulations.

RevDate: 2021-11-15
CmpDate: 2021-11-15

Teh JJ, Berendsen EM, Hoedt EC, et al (2021)

Novel strain-level resolution of Crohn's disease mucosa-associated microbiota via an ex vivo combination of microbe culture and metagenomic sequencing.

The ISME journal, 15(11):3326-3338.

The mucosa-associated microbiota is widely recognized as a potential trigger for Crohn's disease pathophysiology but remains largely uncharacterised beyond its taxonomic composition. Unlike stool microbiota, the functional characterisation of these communities using current DNA/RNA sequencing approaches remains constrained by the relatively small microbial density on tissue, and the overwhelming amount of human DNA recovered during sample preparation. Here, we have used a novel ex vivo approach that combines microbe culture from anaerobically preserved tissue with metagenome sequencing (MC-MGS) to reveal patient-specific and strain-level differences among these communities in post-operative Crohn's disease patients. The 16 S rRNA gene amplicon profiles showed these cultures provide a representative and holistic representation of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and MC-MGS produced both high quality metagenome-assembled genomes of recovered novel bacterial lineages. The MC-MGS approach also produced a strain-level resolution of key Enterobacteriacea and their associated virulence factors and revealed that urease activity underpins a key and diverse metabolic guild in these communities, which was confirmed by culture-based studies with axenic cultures. Collectively, these findings using MC-MGS show that the Crohn's disease mucosa-associated microbiota possesses taxonomic and functional attributes that are highly individualistic, borne at least in part by novel bacterial lineages not readily isolated or characterised from stool samples using current sequencing approaches.

RevDate: 2021-11-15
CmpDate: 2021-11-15

Ni Y, Lohinai Z, Heshiki Y, et al (2021)

Distinct composition and metabolic functions of human gut microbiota are associated with cachexia in lung cancer patients.

The ISME journal, 15(11):3207-3220.

Cachexia is associated with decreased survival in cancer patients and has a prevalence of up to 80%. The etiology of cachexia is poorly understood, and limited treatment options exist. Here, we investigated the role of the human gut microbiome in cachexia by integrating shotgun metagenomics and plasma metabolomics of 31 lung cancer patients. The cachexia group showed significant differences in the gut microbial composition, functional pathways of the metagenome, and the related plasma metabolites compared to non-cachectic patients. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), methylhistamine, and vitamins were significantly depleted in the plasma of cachexia patients, which was also reflected in the depletion of relevant gut microbiota functional pathways. The enrichment of BCAAs and 3-oxocholic acid in non-cachectic patients were positively correlated with gut microbial species Prevotella copri and Lactobacillus gasseri, respectively. Furthermore, the gut microbiota capacity for lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis was significantly enriched in cachectic patients. The involvement of the gut microbiome in cachexia was further observed in a high-performance machine learning model using solely gut microbial features. Our study demonstrates the links between cachectic host metabolism and specific gut microbial species and functions in a clinical setting, suggesting that the gut microbiota could have an influence on cachexia with possible therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Ruiz-Padilla A, Rodríguez-Romero J, Gómez-Cid I, et al (2021)

Novel Mycoviruses Discovered in the Mycovirome of a Necrotrophic Fungus.

mBio, 12(3):.

Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important plant-pathogenic fungus. Products based on microorganisms can be used in biocontrol strategies alternative to chemical control, and mycoviruses have been explored as putative biological agents in such approaches. Here, we have explored the mycovirome of B. cinerea isolates from grapevine of Italy and Spain to increase the knowledge about mycoviral diversity and evolution, and to search for new widely distributed mycoviruses that could be active ingredients in biological products to control this hazardous fungus. A total of 248 B. cinerea field isolates were used for our metatranscriptomic study. Ninety-two mycoviruses were identified: 62 new mycoviral species constituting putative novel viral genera and families. Of these mycoviruses, 57 had a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome, 19 contained a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, 15 had a negative-sense ssRNA genome, and 1 contained a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome. In general, ssRNA mycoviruses were widely distributed in all sampled regions, the ssDNA mycovirus was more frequently found in Spain, and dsRNA mycoviruses were scattered in some pools of both countries. Some of the identified mycoviruses belong to clades that have never been found associated with Botrytis species: Botrytis-infecting narnaviruses; alpha-like, umbra-like, and tymo-like ssRNA+ mycoviruses; trisegmented ssRNA- mycovirus; bisegmented and tetrasegmented dsRNA mycoviruses; and finally, an ssDNA mycovirus. Among the results obtained in this massive mycovirus screening, the discovery of novel bisegmented viruses, phylogenetically related to narnaviruses, is remarkable.IMPORTANCE The results obtained here have expanded our knowledge of mycoviral diversity, horizontal transfers, and putative cross-kingdom events. To date, this study presents the most extensive and wide diversity collection of mycoviruses infecting the necrotrophic fungus B. cinerea The collection included all types of mycoviruses, with dsRNA, ssRNA+, ssRNA-, and ssDNA genomes, most of which were discovered here, and some of which were previously reported as infecting B. cinerea or other plant-pathogenic fungi. Some of these mycoviruses are reported for the first time here associated with B. cinerea, as a trisegmented ssRNA- mycovirus and as an ssDNA mycovirus, but even more remarkablly, we also describe here four novel bisegmented viruses (binarnaviruses) not previously described in nature. The present findings significantly contribute to general knowledge in virology and more particularly in the field of mycovirology.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Sukhum KV, Vargas RC, Boolchandani M, et al (2021)

Manure Microbial Communities and Resistance Profiles Reconfigure after Transition to Manure Pits and Differ from Those in Fertilized Field Soil.

mBio, 12(3):.

In agricultural settings, microbes and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) have the potential to be transferred across diverse environments and ecosystems. The consequences of these microbial transfers are unclear and understudied. On dairy farms, the storage of cow manure in manure pits and subsequent application to field soil as a fertilizer may facilitate the spread of the mammalian gut microbiome and its associated ARGs to the environment. To determine the extent of both taxonomic and resistance similarity during these transitions, we collected fresh manure, manure from pits, and field soil across 15 different dairy farms for three consecutive seasons. We used a combination of shotgun metagenomic sequencing and functional metagenomics to quantitatively interrogate taxonomic and ARG compositional variation on farms. We found that as the microbiome transitions from fresh dairy cow manure to manure pits, microbial taxonomic compositions and resistance profiles experience distinct restructuring, including decreases in alpha diversity and shifts in specific ARG abundances that potentially correspond to fresh manure going from a gut-structured community to an environment-structured community. Further, we did not find evidence of shared microbial community or a transfer of ARGs between manure and field soil microbiomes. Our results suggest that fresh manure experiences a compositional change in manure pits during storage and that the storage of manure in manure pits does not result in a depletion of ARGs. We did not find evidence of taxonomic or ARG restructuring of soil microbiota with the application of manure to field soils, as soil communities remained resilient to manure-induced perturbation.IMPORTANCE The addition of dairy cow manure-stored in manure pits-to field soil has the potential to introduce not only organic nutrients but also mammalian microbial communities and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) to soil communities. Using shotgun sequencing paired with functional metagenomics, we showed that microbial community composition changed between fresh manure and manure pit samples with a decrease in gut-associated pathobionts, while ARG abundance and diversity remained high. However, field soil communities were distinct from those in manure in both microbial taxonomic and ARG composition. These results broaden our understanding of the transfer of microbial communities in agricultural settings and suggest that field soil microbial communities are resilient against the deposition of ARGs or microbial communities from manure.

RevDate: 2021-11-15
CmpDate: 2021-11-15

Lei WT, Huang KY, Jhong JH, et al (2021)

Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome composition associated with vitamin D supplementation in Taiwanese infants.

Scientific reports, 11(1):2856.

Early childhood is a critical stage for the foundation and development of the gut microbiome, large amounts of essential nutrients are required such as vitamin D. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium homeostasis, and deficiency can impair bone mineralization. In addition, most people know that breastfeeding is advocated to be the best thing for a newborn; however, exclusively breastfeeding infants are not easily able to absorb an adequate amount of vitamin D from breast milk. Understanding the effects of vitamin D supplementation on gut microbiome can improve the knowledge of infant health and development. A total of 62 fecal sample from healthy infants were collected in Taiwan. Of the 62 infants, 31 were exclusively breastfed infants and 31 were mixed- or formula-fed infants. For each feeding type, one subgroup of infants received 400 IU of vitamin D per day, and the remaining infants received a placebo. In total, there are 15 breastfed and 20 formula-fed infants with additional vitamin D supplementation, and 16 breastfed and 11 formula-fed infants belong to control group, respectively. We performed a comparative metagenomic analysis to investigate the distribution and diversity of infant gut microbiota among different types of feeding regimes with and without vitamin D supplementation. Our results reveal that the characteristics of infant gut microbiota not only depend on the feeding types but also on nutrients intake, and demonstrated that the vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the infant gut microbiota, especially increase the proportion of probiotics in breast-fed infants.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Zhao Z, Fei K, Bai H, et al (2021)

Metagenome association study of the gut microbiome revealed biomarkers linked to chemotherapy outcomes in locally advanced and advanced lung cancer.

Thoracic cancer, 12(1):66-78.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is important in the development and immunotherapy efficacy of lung cancer. However, the relationship between the intestinal flora and chemotherapy outcomes remains unclear and was investigated in this study.

METHODS: We analyzed baseline stool samples from patients with locally advanced and advanced lung cancer before chemotherapy treatment, through metagenomics of the gut microbiota. The composition, diversity, function, and metabolic pathway analysis were compared among patients with different clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: From 64 patients, 33 responded to treatment (responders) and 31 did not (nonresponders). Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus casseliflavus were enriched in responders (P < 0.05), while 11 bacteria including Leuconostoc lactis and Eubacterium siraeum were enriched in nonresponders (P < 0.05) by variance analysis. Responders were associated with significantly higher Acidobacteria and Granulicella, while Streptococcus oligofermentans, Megasphaera micronuciformis, and Eubacterium siraeum were more abundant in nonresponders by Lefse analysis. Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus casseliflavus were further identified as bacterial markers relevant to responders using unsupervised clustering, and Leuconostoc lactis and Eubacterium siraeum were related to nonresponders. The L-glutamate degradation VIII pathway was enriched in responders (P = 0.014), and the C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, reductive TCA cycle I, and hexitol fermentation to lactate, formate, ethanol, and acetate were enriched in nonresponders (P < 0.05). Additionally, significant associations of bacterial species with clinical phenotypes were observed by Spearman correlation analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: The specific gut microbiome of patients with lung cancer might be connected to the clinical outcomes of chemotherapy.

KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study Lung cancer patients with different gut microbiome compositions and microbiome metabolic pathways have different responses to chemotherapy. Microbiome species are also associated with different lung cancer clinical phenotypes. What this study adds We have identified specific gut microbiome species that can be used as relevant biomarkers for chemotherapy outcomes. This can potentially be used to guide clinical treatment decisions.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Comin M, Di Camillo B, Pizzi C, et al (2021)

Comparison of microbiome samples: methods and computational challenges.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(1):88-95.

The study of microbial communities crucially relies on the comparison of metagenomic next-generation sequencing data sets, for which several methods have been designed in recent years. Here, we review three key challenges in the comparison of such data sets: species identification and quantification, the efficient computation of distances between metagenomic samples and the identification of metagenomic features associated with a phenotype such as disease status. We present current solutions for such challenges, considering both reference-based methods relying on a database of reference genomes and reference-free methods working directly on all sequencing reads from the samples.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Liu Z, Ma A, Mathé E, et al (2021)

Network analyses in microbiome based on high-throughput multi-omics data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(2):1639-1655.

Together with various hosts and environments, ubiquitous microbes interact closely with each other forming an intertwined system or community. Of interest, shifts of the relationships between microbes and their hosts or environments are associated with critical diseases and ecological changes. While advances in high-throughput Omics technologies offer a great opportunity for understanding the structures and functions of microbiome, it is still challenging to analyse and interpret the omics data. Specifically, the heterogeneity and diversity of microbial communities, compounded with the large size of the datasets, impose a tremendous challenge to mechanistically elucidate the complex communities. Fortunately, network analyses provide an efficient way to tackle this problem, and several network approaches have been proposed to improve this understanding recently. Here, we systemically illustrate these network theories that have been used in biological and biomedical research. Then, we review existing network modelling methods of microbial studies at multiple layers from metagenomics to metabolomics and further to multi-omics. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of present studies and provide a perspective for further directions in support of the understanding of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Zhu M, Kang K, K Ning (2021)

Meta-Prism: Ultra-fast and highly accurate microbial community structure search utilizing dual indexing and parallel computation.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(1):557-567.

Microbiome samples are accumulating at an unprecedented speed. As a result, a massive amount of samples have become available for the mining of the intrinsic patterns among them. However, due to the lack of advanced computational tools, fast yet accurate comparisons and searches among thousands to millions of samples are still in urgent need. In this work, we proposed the Meta-Prism method for comparing and searching the microbial community structures amongst tens of thousands of samples. Meta-Prism is at least 10 times faster than contemporary methods serving the same purpose and can provide very accurate search results. The method is based on three computational techniques: dual-indexing approach for sample subgrouping, refined scoring function that could scrutinize the minute differences among samples, and parallel computation on CPU or GPU. The superiority of Meta-Prism on speed and accuracy for multiple sample searches is proven based on searching against ten thousand samples derived from both human and environments. Therefore, Meta-Prism could facilitate similarity search and in-depth understanding among massive number of heterogenous samples in the microbiome universe. The codes of Meta-Prism are available at:

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Bharti R, DG Grimm (2021)

Current challenges and best-practice protocols for microbiome analysis.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 22(1):178-193.

Analyzing the microbiome of diverse species and environments using next-generation sequencing techniques has significantly enhanced our understanding on metabolic, physiological and ecological roles of environmental microorganisms. However, the analysis of the microbiome is affected by experimental conditions (e.g. sequencing errors and genomic repeats) and computationally intensive and cumbersome downstream analysis (e.g. quality control, assembly, binning and statistical analyses). Moreover, the introduction of new sequencing technologies and protocols led to a flood of new methodologies, which also have an immediate effect on the results of the analyses. The aim of this work is to review the most important workflows for 16S rRNA sequencing and shotgun and long-read metagenomics, as well as to provide best-practice protocols on experimental design, sample processing, sequencing, assembly, binning, annotation and visualization. To simplify and standardize the computational analysis, we provide a set of best-practice workflows for 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing data (available at

RevDate: 2021-11-10

Briscoe AG, Nichols S, Hartikainen H, et al (2021)

High-Throughput Sequencing of faeces provides evidence for dispersal of parasites and pathogens by migratory waterbirds.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Examination of faecal material has demonstrated how a broad range of organisms are distributed by bird movements. Such research has largely focused on dispersal of plant seeds by frugivores and of freshwater organisms by waterbirds. However, with few exceptions (e.g. avian influenza, Ebola virus), there is a dearth of evidence for transport of parasites and pathogens. High-throughput sequencing methods now provide a powerful means of addressing this knowledge gap by elucidating faecal contents in unprecedented detail. We collected faeces excreted by a range of migratory waterbirds in south-west Spain and pooled faecal DNA to create libraries reflective of feeding behavior. We created sets of libraries using high-throughput metagenomic and amplicon sequencing. For the latter we employed two sets of primers to broadly target the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene (one set amplifying the region across all eukaryotes, the other excluding amplification of metazoans). Libraries revealed a wide diversity of eukaryotes, including parasites of the faecal producers themselves, parasites of food items, or those incidentally ingested. We also detected novel microbial eukaryotic taxa and found that parasite assemblage profiles were relatively distinct. Comparing the performance of the methods used supports their joint use for future studies of diversity and abundance. Because viable stages of many parasites are likely to be present in faeces, our results suggest significant levels of bird-mediated dispersal of parasites (both from avian and other hosts). Our methods revealed much hidden biodiversity, and allowed identification of the individuals who produced the faecal samples to species level, facilitating the study of interaction networks.

RevDate: 2021-11-10
CmpDate: 2021-11-10

Durazzi F, Sala C, Castellani G, et al (2021)

Comparison between 16S rRNA and shotgun sequencing data for the taxonomic characterization of the gut microbiota.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3030.

In this paper we compared taxonomic results obtained by metataxonomics (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and metagenomics (whole shotgun metagenomic sequencing) to investigate their reliability for bacteria profiling, studying the chicken gut as a model system. The experimental conditions included two compartments of gastrointestinal tracts and two sampling times. We compared the relative abundance distributions obtained with the two sequencing strategies and then tested their capability to distinguish the experimental conditions. The results showed that 16S rRNA gene sequencing detects only part of the gut microbiota community revealed by shotgun sequencing. Specifically, when a sufficient number of reads is available, Shotgun sequencing has more power to identify less abundant taxa than 16S sequencing. Finally, we showed that the less abundant genera detected only by shotgun sequencing are biologically meaningful, being able to discriminate between the experimental conditions as much as the more abundant genera detected by both sequencing strategies.

RevDate: 2021-11-10
CmpDate: 2021-11-10

Seppey M, Manni M, EM Zdobnov (2020)

LEMMI: a continuous benchmarking platform for metagenomics classifiers.

Genome research, 30(8):1208-1216.

Studies of microbiomes are booming, along with the diversity of computational approaches to make sense out of the sequencing data and the volumes of accumulated microbial genotypes. A swift evaluation of newly published methods and their improvements against established tools is necessary to reduce the time between the methods' release and their adoption in microbiome analyses. The LEMMI platform offers a novel approach for benchmarking software dedicated to metagenome composition assessments based on read classification. It enables the integration of newly published methods in an independent and centralized benchmark designed to be continuously open to new submissions. This allows developers to be proactive regarding comparative evaluations and guarantees that any promising methods can be assessed side by side with established tools quickly after their release. Moreover, LEMMI enforces an effective distribution through software containers to ensure long-term availability of all methods. Here, we detail the LEMMI workflow and discuss the performances of some previously unevaluated tools. We see this platform eventually as a community-driven effort in which method developers can showcase novel approaches and get unbiased benchmarks for publications, and users can make informed choices and obtain standardized and easy-to-use tools.

RevDate: 2021-11-07

Sakoula D, Smith GJ, Frank J, et al (2021)

Universal activity-based labeling method for ammonia- and alkane-oxidizing bacteria.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

The advance of metagenomics in combination with intricate cultivation approaches has facilitated the discovery of novel ammonia-, methane-, and other short-chain alkane-oxidizing microorganisms, indicating that our understanding of the microbial biodiversity within the biogeochemical nitrogen and carbon cycles still is incomplete. The in situ detection and phylogenetic identification of novel ammonia- and alkane-oxidizing bacteria remain challenging due to their naturally low abundances and difficulties in obtaining new isolates from complex samples. Here, we describe an activity-based protein profiling protocol allowing cultivation-independent unveiling of ammonia- and alkane-oxidizing bacteria. In this protocol, 1,7-octadiyne is used as a bifunctional enzyme probe that, in combination with a highly specific alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction, enables the fluorescent or biotin labeling of cells harboring active ammonia and alkane monooxygenases. Biotinylation of these enzymes in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the subcellular localization of the tagged proteins, which corroborated expected enzyme targets in model strains. In addition, fluorescent labeling of cells harboring active ammonia or alkane monooxygenases provided a direct link of these functional lifestyles to phylogenetic identification when combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, we show that this activity-based labeling protocol can be successfully coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the enrichment of nitrifiers and alkane-oxidizing bacteria from complex environmental samples, enabling the recovery of high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a novel, functional tagging technique for the reliable detection, identification, and enrichment of ammonia- and alkane-oxidizing bacteria present in complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2021-11-09
CmpDate: 2021-11-09

Chimetto Tonon LA, Rua C, Crnkovic CM, et al (2021)

Microbiome associated with the tetrodotoxin-bearing anuran Brachycephalus pitanga.

Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology, 203:139-146.

The genus Brachycephalus includes small species of aposematic anurans known as microendemic, occurring in the mountains of the Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus ephippium, B. nodoterga and B. pernix have been reported to contain the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin in skin and viscera. The biological conservation of several Brachycephalus species is currently threatened by climate change, deforestation, and the pandemic caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the well-known importance of amphibians' associated bacteria in the defensive role against pathogens, there is still a poor understanding of amphibian microbiome composition. The present study investigated the composition of B. pitanga microbial community and the presence of TTX in the host and in cultures of bacterial isolates, using a combination of metagenomics, bacterial culture isolation, mass spectrometry and metabolomic analyses. Results of culture-dependent and -independent analyses characterized the microbial communities associated with the skin and viscera of B. pitanga. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of TTX in host tissues, while bacterial production of TTX was not observed under the experimental conditions used in this investigation. This is the first report confirming the occurrence of TTX in B. pitanga.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Khalyfa A, Qiao Z, Raju M, et al (2021)

Monocarboxylate Transporter-2 Expression Restricts Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Lung Cancer: A Multi-Omic Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(19):.

Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a major high-affinity pyruvate transporter encoded by the SLC16A7 gene, and is associated with glucose metabolism and cancer. Changes in the gut microbiota and host immune system are associated with many diseases, including cancer. Using conditionally expressed MCT2 in mice and the TC1 lung carcinoma model, we examined the effects of MCT2 on lung cancer tumor growth and local invasion, while also evaluating potential effects on fecal microbiome, plasma metabolome, and bulk RNA-sequencing of tumor macrophages. Conditional MCT2 mice were generated in our laboratory using MCT2loxP mouse intercrossed with mCre-Tg mouse to generate MCT2loxP/loxP; Cre+ mouse (MCT2 KO). Male MCT2 KO mice (8 weeks old) were treated with tamoxifen (0.18 mg/g BW) KO or vehicle (CO), and then injected with mouse lung carcinoma TC1 cells (10 × 105/mouse) in the left flank. Body weight, tumor size and weight, and local tumor invasion were assessed. Fecal DNA samples were extracted using PowerFecal kits and bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons were also performed. Fecal and plasma samples were used for GC-MS Polar, as well as non-targeted UHPLC-MS/MS, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were subjected to bulk RNAseq. Tamoxifen-treated MCT2 KO mice showed significantly higher tumor weight and size, as well as evidence of local invasion beyond the capsule compared with the controls. PCoA and hierarchical clustering analyses of the fecal and plasma metabolomics, as well as microbiota, revealed a distinct separation between the two groups. KO TAMs showed distinct metabolic pathways including the Acetyl-coA metabolic process, activation of immune response, b-cell activation and differentiation, cAMP-mediated signaling, glucose and glutamate processes, and T-cell differentiation and response to oxidative stress. Multi-Omic approaches reveal a substantial role for MCT2 in the host response to TC1 lung carcinoma that may involve alterations in the gut and systemic metabolome, along with TAM-related metabolic pathway. These findings provide initial opportunities for potential delineation of oncometabolic immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Dery KJ, Kupiec-Weglinski JW, TS Dong (2021)

The human microbiome in transplantation: the past, present, and future.

Current opinion in organ transplantation, 26(6):595-602.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 20 years, DNA sequencing technology has transformed human microbiome research from identity characterizations to metagenomics approaches that reveal how microbials correlate with human health and disease. New studies are showing unprecedented opportunity for deep characterization of the human microbial ecosystem, with benefits to the field of organ transplantation.

RECENT FINDINGS: In the present review, we focus on past milestones of human-associated microbiota research, paying homage to microbiota pioneers. We highlight the role of sequencing efforts to provide insights beyond taxonomic identification. Recent advances in microbiome technology is now integrating high-throughput datasets, giving rise to multi'omics - a comprehensive assessment modeling dynamic biologic networks. Studies that show benefits and mechanisms in peritransplant antibiotic (Abx)-conditioned recipients are reviewed. We describe how next-generation microbial sequencing has the potential to combine with new technologies like phage therapy (PT) to translate into life-saving therapeutics.

SUMMARY: The study of the microbiome is advancing the field of transplantation by enhancing our knowledge of precision medicine. Sequencing technology has allowed the use of the microbiome as a biomarker to risk stratify patients. Further research is needed to better understand how microbiomes shape transplantation outcomes while informing immune cell - tissue crosstalk platforms.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Kobiyama A, Rashid J, Reza MS, et al (2021)

Seasonal and annual changes in the microbial communities of Ofunato Bay, Japan, based on metagenomics.

Scientific reports, 11(1):17277.

Five years of datasets from 2015 to 2019 of whole genome shotgun sequencing for cells trapped on 0.2-µm filters of seawater collected monthly from Ofunato Bay, an enclosed bay in Japan, were analysed, which included the 2015 data that we had reported previously. Nucleotide sequences were determined for extracted DNA from three locations for both the upper (1 m) and deeper (8 or 10 m) depths. The biotic communities analysed at the domain level comprised bacteria, eukaryotes, archaea and viruses. The relative abundance of bacteria was over 60% in most months for the five years. The relative abundance of the SAR86 cluster was highest in the bacterial group, followed by Candidatus Pelagibacter and Planktomarina. The relative abundance of Ca. Pelagibacter showed no relationship with environmental factors, and those of SAR86 and Planktomarina showed positive correlations with salinity and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The bacterial community diversity showed seasonal changes, with high diversity around September and low diversity around January for all five years. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis also revealed that the bacterial communities in the bay were grouped in a season-dependent manner and linked with environmental variables such as seawater temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen.

RevDate: 2021-11-09
CmpDate: 2021-11-09

Didion EM, Sabree ZL, Kenyon L, et al (2021)

Microbiome reduction prevents lipid accumulation during early diapause in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens pipiens.

Journal of insect physiology, 134:104295.

The mosquito microbiome is critical to multiple facets of their biology, including larval development and disease transmission. For mosquitoes that reside in temperate regions, periods of diapause are critical to overwintering survival, but how the microbiome impacts this state is unknown. In this study, we compared the midgut microbial communities of diapausing and non-diapausing Culex pipiens and assessed how a reduced midgut microbiome influences diapause preparation. High community variability was found within and between non-diapausing and diapausing individuals, but no specific diapause-based microbiome was noted. Emergence of adult, diapausing mosquitoes under sterile conditions generated low bacterial load (LBL) lines with nearly a 1000-fold reduction in bacteria levels. This reduction in bacterial content resulted in significantly lower survival of diapausing females after two weeks, indicating acquisition of the microbiome in adult females is critical for survival throughout diapause. LBL diapausing females had high carbohydrate levels, but did not accumulate lipid reserves, suggesting an inability to process ingested sugars necessary for diapause-associated lipid accumulation. Expression patterns of select genes associated with mosquito lipid metabolism during diapause showed no significant differences between LBL and control lines, suggesting transcriptional changes may not underlie impaired lipid accumulation. Overall, a diverse, adult-acquired microbiome is critical for diapause in C. pipiens to process sugar reserves and accumulate lipids that are necessary to survive prolonged overwintering.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Sun P, Yang J, Wang B, et al (2021)

The effects of combined environmental factors on the intestinal flora of mice based on ground simulation experiments.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11373.

The composition and function of intestinal microbial communities are important for human health. However, these intestinal floras are sensitive to changes in the environment. Adverse changes to intestinal flora can affect the health of astronauts, resulting in difficulties in implementing space missions. We randomly divided mice into three groups and placed each group in either a normal environment, simulated microgravity environment or a combined effects environment, which included simulated microgravity, low pressure and noise. Fecal samples of the mice were collected for follow-up analysis based on metagenomics technology. With the influence of different space environmental factors, the species composition at the phylum and genus levels were significantly affected by the combined effects environment, especially the abundance of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, screening was conducted to identify biomarkers that could be regarded as environmental markers. And there have also been some noticeable changes in the function of intestinal floras. Moreover, the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also found to be changed under different environmental conditions, such as bacitracin and vancomycin. The combined effects environment could significantly affect the species composition, function, and the expression of ARGs of intestinal flora of mice which may provide a theoretical basis for space medical supervision and healthcare.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Ishak S, Dormontt E, JM Young (2021)

Microbiomes in forensic botany: a review.

Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 17(2):297-307.

Fragments of botanical material can often be found at crime scenes (on live and dead bodies, or on incriminating objects) and can provide circumstantial evidence on various aspects of forensic investigations such as determining crime scene locations, times of death or possession of illegal species. Morphological and genetic analysis are the most commonly applied methods to analyze plant fragment evidence but are limited by their low capacity to differentiate between potential source locations, especially at local scales. Here, we review the current applications and limitations of current plant fragment analysis for forensic investigations and introduce the potential of microbiome analysis to complement the existing forensic plant fragment analysis toolkit. The potential for plant fragment provenance identification at geographic scales meaningful to forensic investigations warrants further investigation of the phyllosphere microbiome in this context. To that end we identify three key areas of future research: 1) Retrieval of microbial DNA of sufficient quality and quantity from botanical material; 2) Variability of the phyllosphere microbiome at different taxonomic and spatial scales, with explicit reference to assignment capacity; 3) Impacts on assignment capacity of time, seasonality and movement of fragments between locations. The development of robust microbiome analysis tools for forensic purposes in botanical material could increase the evidentiary value of the botanical evidence commonly encountered in casework, aiding in the identification of crime scene locations.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Burokas A, et al (2020)

Obesity Impairs Short-Term and Working Memory through Gut Microbial Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids.

Cell metabolism, 32(4):548-560.e7.

The gut microbiome has been linked to fear extinction learning in animal models. Here, we aimed to explore the gut microbiome and memory domains according to obesity status. A specific microbiome profile associated with short-term memory, working memory, and the volume of the hippocampus and frontal regions of the brain differentially in human subjects with and without obesity. Plasma and fecal levels of aromatic amino acids, their catabolites, and vegetable-derived compounds were longitudinally associated with short-term and working memory. Functionally, microbiota transplantation from human subjects with obesity led to decreased memory scores in mice, aligning this trait from humans with that of recipient mice. RNA sequencing of the medial prefrontal cortex of mice revealed that short-term memory associated with aromatic amino acid pathways, inflammatory genes, and clusters of bacterial species. These results highlight the potential therapeutic value of targeting the gut microbiota for memory impairment, specifically in subjects with obesity.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Chevalier C, Kieser S, Çolakoğlu M, et al (2020)

Warmth Prevents Bone Loss Through the Gut Microbiota.

Cell metabolism, 32(4):575-590.e7.

Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration. Here, we show that warmth exposure (34°C) protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by increasing trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, and thickness, leading to improved biomechanical bone strength in adult female, as well as in young male mice. Transplantation of the warm-adapted microbiota phenocopies the warmth-induced bone effects. Both warmth and warm microbiota transplantation revert the ovariectomy-induced transcriptomics changes of the tibia and increase periosteal bone formation. Combinatorial metagenomics/metabolomics analysis shows that warmth enhances bacterial polyamine biosynthesis, resulting in higher total polyamine levels in vivo. Spermine and spermidine supplementation increases bone strength, while inhibiting polyamine biosynthesis in vivo limits the beneficial warmth effects on the bone. Our data suggest warmth exposure as a potential treatment option for osteoporosis while providing a mechanistic framework for its benefits in bone disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-05
CmpDate: 2021-11-05

Wingfield B, Lapsley C, McDowell A, et al (2021)

Variations in the oral microbiome are associated with depression in young adults.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15009.

A growing body of evidence supports an important role for alterations in the brain-gut-microbiome axis in the aetiology of depression and other psychiatric disorders. The potential role of the oral microbiome in mental health has received little attention, even though it is one of the most diverse microbiomes in the body and oral dysbiosis has been linked to systemic diseases with an underlying inflammatory aetiology. This study examines the structure and composition of the salivary microbiome for the first time in young adults who met the DSM-IV criteria for depression (n = 40) and matched controls (n = 43) using 16S rRNA gene-based next generation sequencing. Subtle but significant differences in alpha and beta diversity of the salivary microbiome were observed, with clear separation of depressed and healthy control cohorts into distinct clusters. A total of 21 bacterial taxa were found to be differentially abundant in the depressed cohort, including increased Neisseria spp. and Prevotella nigrescens, while 19 taxa had a decreased abundance. In this preliminary study we have shown that the composition of the oral microbiome is associated with depression in young adults. Further studies are now warranted, particuarly investigations into whether such shifts play any role in the underling aetiology of depression.

RevDate: 2021-11-05
CmpDate: 2021-11-05

Verspecht T, Van Holm W, Boon N, et al (2021)

Comparison of the modulatory effects of three structurally similar potential prebiotic substrates on an in vitro multi-species oral biofilm.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15033.

Previous research identified potential prebiotic substrates for oral health like the structural analogues N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (NADM) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NADG). The main hypothesis of the current study was twofold. Firstly, it was hypothesized that the modulatory effects of NADM are not limited to changes in multi-species oral biofilm composition, but also include effects on metabolism, virulence, and inflammatory potential. Secondly, the presence and orientation of their N-acetyl group could play a role. Therefore, a comparison was made between the effects of NADM, NADG and D-(+)-mannose on multi-species oral biofilms. Besides a beneficial compositional shift, NADM-treated biofilms also showed an altered metabolism, a reduced virulence and a decreased inflammatory potential. At a substrate concentration of 1 M, these effects were pronounced for all biofilm aspects, whereas at ~ 0.05 M (1%(w/v)) only the effects on virulence were pronounced. When comparing between substrates, both the presence and orientation of the N-acetyl group played a role. However, this was generally only at 1 M and dependent on the biofilm aspect. Overall, NADM was found to have different effects at two concentrations that beneficially modulate in vitro multi-species oral biofilm composition, metabolism, virulence and inflammatory potential. The presence and orientation of the N-acetyl group influenced these effects.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )