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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Jul 2024 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Sun Y, Gan Z, Wang X, et al (2024)

Integrative metagenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis reveal the microbiota-host interplay in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma among non-smokers.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):652.

BACKGROUND: The incidence of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (ES-LUAD) is steadily increasing among non-smokers. Previous research has identified dysbiosis in the gut microbiota of patients with lung cancer. However, the local microbial profile of non-smokers with ES-LUAD remains largely unknown. In this study, we systematically characterized the local microbial community and its associated features to enable early intervention.

METHODS: A prospective collection of ES-LUAD samples (46 cases) and their corresponding normal tissues adjacent to the tumor (41 cases), along with normal lung tissue samples adjacent to pulmonary bullae in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax (42 cases), were subjected to ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing, host transcriptomic sequencing, and proteomic sequencing. The obtained omics data were subjected to both individual and integrated analysis using Spearman correlation coefficients.

RESULTS: We concurrently detected the presence of bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the lung tissues. The microbial profile of ES-LUAD exhibited similarities to NAT but demonstrated significant differences from the healthy controls (HCs), characterized by an overall reduction in species diversity. Patients with ES-LUAD exhibited local microbial dysbiosis, suggesting the potential pathogenicity of certain microbial species. Through multi-omics correlations, intricate local crosstalk between the host and local microbial communities was observed. Additionally, we identified a significant positive correlation (rho > 0.6) between Methyloversatilis discipulorum and GOLM1 at both the transcriptional and protein levels using multi-omics data. This correlated axis may be associated with prognosis. Finally, a diagnostic model composed of six bacterial markers successfully achieved precise differentiation between patients with ES-LUAD and HCs.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study depicts the microbial spectrum in patients with ES-LUAD and provides evidence of alterations in lung microbiota and their interplay with the host, enhancing comprehension of the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie ES-LUAD. The specific model incorporating lung microbiota can serve as a potential diagnostic tool for distinguishing between ES-LUAD and HCs.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

He C, Fucich D, Sosa A, et al (2024)

Deep metagenomic sequencing unveils novel SAR202 lineages and their vertical adaptation in the ocean.

Communications biology, 7(1):853.

SAR202 bacteria in the Chloroflexota phylum are abundant and widely distributed in the ocean. Their genome coding capacities indicate their potential roles in degrading complex and recalcitrant organic compounds in the ocean. However, our understanding of their genomic diversity, vertical distribution, and depth-related metabolisms is still limited by the number of assembled SAR202 genomes. In this study, we apply deep metagenomic sequencing (180 Gb per sample) to investigate microbial communities collected from six representative depths at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station. We obtain 173 SAR202 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Intriguingly, 154 new species and 104 new genera are found based on these 173 SAR202 genomes. We add 12 new subgroups to the current SAR202 lineages. The vertical distribution of 20 SAR202 subgroups shows their niche partitioning in the euphotic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic oceans, respectively. Deep-ocean SAR202 bacteria contain more genes and exhibit more metabolic potential for degrading complex organic substrates than those from the euphotic zone. With deep metagenomic sequencing, we uncover many new lineages of SAR202 bacteria and their potential functions which greatly deepen our understanding of their diversity, vertical profile, and contribution to the ocean's carbon cycling, especially in the deep ocean.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Su X, Huang X, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Nitrifying niche in estuaries is expanded by the plastisphere.

Nature communications, 15(1):5866.

The estuarine plastisphere, a novel ecological habitat in the Anthropocene, has garnered global concerns. Recent geochemical evidence has pointed out its potential role in influencing nitrogen biogeochemistry. However, the biogeochemical significance of the plastisphere and its mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling remain elusive. Using [15]N- and [13]C-labelling coupled with metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, here we unveil that the plastisphere likely acts as an underappreciated nitrifying niche in estuarine ecosystems, exhibiting a 0.9 ~ 12-fold higher activity of bacteria-mediated nitrification compared to surrounding seawater and other biofilms (stone, wood and glass biofilms). The shift of active nitrifiers from O2-sensitive nitrifiers in the seawater to nitrifiers with versatile metabolisms in the plastisphere, combined with the potential interspecific cooperation of nitrifying substrate exchange observed among the plastisphere nitrifiers, collectively results in the unique nitrifying niche. Our findings highlight the plastisphere as an emerging nitrifying niche in estuarine environment, and deepen the mechanistic understanding of its contribution to marine biogeochemistry.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Melchior PP, Reiss E, Payne Z, et al (2024)

Analysis of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.) phytotelm bacteriome throughout a temperate region growing season.

PloS one, 19(7):e0306602.

The insectivorous Northern Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia purpurea, recruits a dynamic biotic community in the rainwater collected by its pitcher-shaped leaves. Insect capture and degradation within the pitcher fluid (phytotelma) has been well documented as a mechanism for supplementing the plant's nitrogen, phosphorous, and micronutrient requirements. Metagenomic studies have shown a diverse microbiome in this phytotelm environment, including taxa that contribute metabolically to prey digestion. In this investigation, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing and bioinformatics to analyze the S. purpurea phytotelm bacteriome as it changes through the growing season (May-September) in plants from the north-central region of the species' native range. Additionally, we used molecular techniques to detect and quantify bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) in all phytotelm samples to explore the hypothesis that diazotrophy is an additional mechanism of supplying biologically available nitrogen to S. purpurea. The results of this study indicate that while prokaryote diversity remains relatively stable in plants at different locations within our region, diversity changes significantly as the growing season progresses. Furthermore, nifH genes were detected at biologically significant concentrations in one hundred percent of samples, suggesting that nitrogen fixation may be an important contributor to the S. purpurea nutrient budget.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Van Den Bossche T, Verschaffelt P, Vande Moortele T, et al (2024)

Biodiversity Analysis of Metaproteomics Samples with Unipept: A Comprehensive Tutorial.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2836:183-215.

Metaproteomics has become a crucial omics technology for studying microbiomes. In this area, the Unipept ecosystem, accessible at https://unipept.ugent.be , has emerged as a valuable resource for analyzing metaproteomic data. It offers in-depth insights into both taxonomic distributions and functional characteristics of complex ecosystems. This tutorial explains essential concepts like Lowest Common Ancestor (LCA) determination and the handling of peptides with missed cleavages. It also provides a detailed, step-by-step guide on using the Unipept Web application and Unipept Desktop for thorough metaproteomics analyses. By integrating theoretical principles with practical methodologies, this tutorial empowers researchers with the essential knowledge and tools needed to fully utilize metaproteomics in their microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Leech SM, Borg DJ, Rae KM, et al (2024)

Delivery mode is a larger determinant of infant gut microbiome composition at 6 weeks than exposure to peripartum antibiotics.

Microbial genomics, 10(7):.

Background. Previous research has shown that delivery mode can shape infant gut microbiome composition. However, mothers delivering by caesarean section routinely receive prophylactic antibiotics prior to delivery, resulting in antibiotic exposure to the infant via the placenta. Previously, only a small number of studies have examined the effect of delivery mode versus antibiotic exposure on the infant gut microbiome with mixed findings.Objective. We aimed to determine the effect of delivery mode compared to antibiotic use during labour and delivery on the infant and maternal gut microbiome at 6 weeks post-partum.Methodology. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads were selected from the longitudinal Queensland Family Cohort Study. The selected dyads comprised nine vaginally delivered infants without antibiotics, seven vaginally delivered infants exposed to antibiotics and nine infants born by caesarean section with routine maternal prophylactic antibiotics. Shotgun-metagenomic sequencing of DNA from stool samples collected at 6 weeks post-partum from mother and infant was used to assess microbiome composition.Results. Caesarean section infants exhibited decreases in Bacteroidetes (ANCOM-BC q<0.0001, MaAsLin 2 q=0.041), changes to several functional pathways and altered beta diversity (R [2]=0.056, P=0.029), while minimal differences due to antibiotic exposure were detected. For mothers, caesarean delivery (P=0.0007) and antibiotic use (P=0.016) decreased the evenness of the gut microbiome at 6 weeks post-partum without changing beta diversity. Several taxa in the maternal microbiome were altered in association with antibiotic use, with few differentially abundant taxa associated with delivery mode.Conclusion. For infants, delivery mode appears to have a larger effect on gut microbiome composition at 6 weeks post-partum than intrapartum antibiotic exposure. For mothers, both delivery mode and intrapartum antibiotic use have a small effect on gut microbiome composition at 6 weeks post-partum.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Arikan M, T Muth (2024)

gNOMO2: a comprehensive and modular pipeline for integrated multi-omics analyses of microbiomes.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, omics technologies have offered an exceptional chance to gain a deeper insight into the structural and functional characteristics of microbial communities. As a result, there is a growing demand for user-friendly, reproducible, and versatile bioinformatic tools that can effectively harness multi-omics data to provide a holistic understanding of microbiomes. Previously, we introduced gNOMO, a bioinformatic pipeline tailored to analyze microbiome multi-omics data in an integrative manner. In response to the evolving demands within the microbiome field and the growing necessity for integrated multi-omics data analysis, we have implemented substantial enhancements to the gNOMO pipeline.

RESULTS: Here, we present gNOMO2, a comprehensive and modular pipeline that can seamlessly manage various omics combinations, ranging from 2 to 4 distinct omics data types, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics. Furthermore, gNOMO2 features a specialized module for processing 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data to create a protein database suitable for metaproteomics investigations. Moreover, it incorporates new differential abundance, integration, and visualization approaches, enhancing the toolkit for a more insightful analysis of microbiomes. The functionality of these new features is showcased through the use of 4 microbiome multi-omics datasets encompassing various ecosystems and omics combinations. gNOMO2 not only replicated most of the primary findings from these studies but also offered further valuable perspectives.

CONCLUSIONS: gNOMO2 enables the thorough integration of taxonomic and functional analyses in microbiome multi-omics data, offering novel insights in both host-associated and free-living microbiome research. gNOMO2 is available freely at https://github.com/muzafferarikan/gNOMO2.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Zomer A, Ingham CJ, von Meijenfeldt FAB, et al (2024)

Structural color in the bacterial domain: The ecogenomics of a 2-dimensional optical phenotype.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(29):e2309757121.

Structural color is an optical phenomenon resulting from light interacting with nanostructured materials. Although structural color (SC) is widespread in the tree of life, the underlying genetics and genomics are not well understood. Here, we collected and sequenced a set of 87 structurally colored bacterial isolates and 30 related strains lacking SC. Optical analysis of colonies indicated that diverse bacteria from at least two different phyla (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) can create two-dimensional packing of cells capable of producing SC. A pan-genome-wide association approach was used to identify genes associated with SC. The biosynthesis of uroporphyrin and pterins, as well as carbohydrate utilization and metabolism, was found to be involved. Using this information, we constructed a classifier to predict SC directly from bacterial genome sequences and validated it by cultivating and scoring 100 strains that were not part of the training set. We predicted that SCr is widely distributed within gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of over 13,000 assembled metagenomes suggested that SC is nearly absent from most habitats associated with multicellular organisms except macroalgae and is abundant in marine waters and surface/air interfaces. This work provides a large-scale ecogenomics view of SC in bacteria and identifies microbial pathways and evolutionary relationships that underlie this optical phenomenon.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Schaible GA, Jay ZJ, Cliff J, et al (2024)

Multicellular magnetotactic bacteria are genetically heterogeneous consortia with metabolically differentiated cells.

PLoS biology, 22(7):e3002638.

Consortia of multicellular magnetotactic bacteria (MMB) are currently the only known example of bacteria without a unicellular stage in their life cycle. Because of their recalcitrance to cultivation, most previous studies of MMB have been limited to microscopic observations. To study the biology of these unique organisms in more detail, we use multiple culture-independent approaches to analyze the genomics and physiology of MMB consortia at single-cell resolution. We separately sequenced the metagenomes of 22 individual MMB consortia, representing 8 new species, and quantified the genetic diversity within each MMB consortium. This revealed that, counter to conventional views, cells within MMB consortia are not clonal. Single consortia metagenomes were then used to reconstruct the species-specific metabolic potential and infer the physiological capabilities of MMB. To validate genomic predictions, we performed stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments and interrogated MMB consortia using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). By coupling FISH with bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT), we explored their in situ activity as well as variation of protein synthesis within cells. We demonstrate that MMB consortia are mixotrophic sulfate reducers and that they exhibit metabolic differentiation between individual cells, suggesting that MMB consortia are more complex than previously thought. These findings expand our understanding of MMB diversity, ecology, genomics, and physiology, as well as offer insights into the mechanisms underpinning the multicellular nature of their unique lifestyle.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Parab AS, CS Manohar (2024)

Insights into the seasonal changes in the taxonomic and functional diversity of bacteria in the eastern Arabian Sea: Shotgun metagenomics approach.

Marine environmental research, 199:106616.

The eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) is known for its unique oceanographic features such as the seasonal monsoonal winds, upwelling of nutrient-rich waters and a significant increase in primary productivity during the monsoon season. In this study, we utilised the shotgun metagenomics approach to determine the seasonal variations in bacterial taxonomic and functional profiles during the non-monsoon and monsoon seasons in the EAS. Significant seasonal variations in the bacterial community structure were observed at the phylum and genera levels. These findings also correspond with seasonal shifts in the functional profiles of the bacterial communities based on the variations of genes encoding enzymes associated with different metabolic pathways. Pronounced seasonal variation of bacterial taxa was evident with an increased abundance of Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Psychrobacter and Alteromonas of Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Staphylococcus of Firmicutes during the non-monsoon season. These taxa were linked to elevated nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, amino acid and lipid degradation. Conversely, during the monsoon, the taxa composition changed with Alteromonas, Candidatus Pelagibacter of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria Synechococcus; contributing largely to the amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, fermentation and inorganic nutrient metabolism which was evident from functional analysis. Regression analysis confirmed that increased seasonal primary productivity significantly influenced the abundance of genes associated with carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. These highlight the pivotal role of seasonal changes in primary productivity in shaping the bacterial communities, their functional profiles and driving the biogeochemical cycling in the EAS.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Yang Y, Olah P, Radai Z, et al (2024)

Exploratory multi-omics analysis reveals host-microbe interactions associated with disease severity in psoriatic skin.

EBioMedicine, 105:105222.

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis (Pso) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that poses both physical and psychological challenges. Dysbiosis of the skin microbiome has been implicated in Pso, yet a comprehensive multi-omics analysis of host-microbe interactions is still lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an exploratory study by adopting the integrated approach that combines whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing with skin transcriptomics.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, adult patients with plaque-type Psoriasis (Pso) and healthy volunteers were included. Skin microbiota samples and biopsies were collected from both lesional and non-lesional skin areas on the lower back. Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA) was employed for co-expression network analysis, and cell deconvolution was conducted to estimate cell fractions. Taxonomic and functional features of the microbiome were identified using whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Association between host genes and microbes was analyzed using Spearman correlation.

FINDINGS: Host anti-viral responses and interferon-related networks were identified and correlated with the severity of psoriasis. The skin microbiome showed a greater prevalence of Corynebacterium simulans in the PASI severe-moderate groups, which correlated with interferon-induced host genes. Two distinct psoriatic clusters with varying disease severities were identified. Variations in the expression of cell apoptosis-associated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and microbial aerobic respiration I pathway may partly account for these differences in disease severity.

INTERPRETATION: Our multi-omics analysis revealed for the first time anti-viral responses and the presence of C. simulans associated with psoriasis severity. It also identified two psoriatic subtypes with distinct AMP and metabolic pathway expression. Our study provides new insights into understanding the host-microbe interaction in psoriasis and lays the groundwork for developing subtype-specific strategies for managing this chronic skin disease.

FUNDING: The research has received funding from the FP7 (MAARS-Grant 261366) and the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 821511 (BIOMAP). The JU receives support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA. This publication reflects only the author's view and the JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. GAM was supported by a scholarship provided by CAPES-PRINT, financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES (Brazilian Government Agency). The authors thank all patients who participated in our study.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Ling CW, Deng K, Yang Y, et al (2024)

Mapping the gut microecological multi-omics signatures to serum metabolome and their impact on cardiometabolic health in elderly adults.

EBioMedicine, 105:105209.

BACKGROUND: Mapping gut microecological features to serum metabolites (SMs) will help identify functional links between gut microbiome and cardiometabolic health.

METHODS: This study encompassed 836-1021 adults over 9.7 year in a cohort, assessing metabolic syndrome (MS), carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP), and other metadata triennially. We analyzed mid-term microbial metagenomics, targeted fecal and serum metabolomics, host genetics, and serum proteomics.

FINDINGS: Gut microbiota and metabolites (GMM) accounted for 15.1% overall variance in 168 SMs, with individual GMM factors explaining 5.65%-10.1%, host genetics 3.23%, and sociodemographic factors 5.95%. Specifically, GMM elucidated 5.5%-49.6% variance in the top 32 GMM-explained SMs. Each 20% increase in the 32 metabolite score (derived from the 32 SMs) correlated with 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53%-95%) and 19% (95% CI: 11%-27%) increases in MS and CAP incidences, respectively. Among the 32 GMM-explained SMs, sebacic acid, indoleacetic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid were linked to MS or CAP incidence. Serum proteomics revealed certain proteins, particularly the apolipoprotein family, mediated the relationship between GMM-SMs and cardiometabolic risks.

INTERPRETATION: This study reveals the significant influence of GMM on SM profiles and illustrates the intricate connections between GMM-explained SMs, serum proteins, and the incidence of MS and CAP, providing insights into the roles of gut dysbiosis in cardiometabolic health via regulating blood metabolites.

FUNDING: This study was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Key Research and Development Program of Guangzhou, 5010 Program for Clinical Research of Sun Yat-sen University, and the 'Pioneer' and 'Leading goose' R&D Program of Zhejiang.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Nanetti E, Scicchitano D, Palladino G, et al (2024)

The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) gut microbiome, seasonal dynamics, and potential application in lignocellulose bioconversion.

iScience, 27(7):110194.

Aiming to shed light on the biology of wild ruminants, we investigated the gut microbiome seasonal dynamics of the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) from the Central Italian Alps. Feces were collected in spring, summer, and autumn during non-invasive sampling campaigns. Samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, as well as targeted and untargeted metabolomics. Our findings revealed season-specific compositional and functional profiles of the ibex gut microbiome that may allow the host to adapt to seasonal changes in available forage, by fine-tuning the holobiont catabolic layout to fully exploit the available food. Besides confirming the importance of the host-associated microbiome in providing the phenotypic plasticity needed to buffer dietary changes, we obtained species-level genome bins and identified minimal gut microbiome community modules of 11-14 interacting strains as a possible microbiome-based solution for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to high-value compounds, such as volatile fatty acids.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Zhao JT, Zhang Y, Wang XW, et al (2024)

Long-term effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on gut microbiota after Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth quadruple therapy: A randomized controlled trial.

Helicobacter, 29(4):e13079.

BACKGROUND: Eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection by bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT) is effective. However, the effect of BQT and subsequent fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) on the gut microbiota is less known.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary hospital in China from January 2019 to October 2020, with the primary endpoints the effect of BQT on the gut microbiota and the effect of FMT on the gut microbiota after bismuth quadruple therapy eradication therapy. A 14-day BQT with amoxicillin and clarithromycin was administered to H. pylori-positive subjects, and after eradication therapy, patients received a one-time FMT or placebo treatment. We then collected stool samples to assess the effects of 14-day BQT and FMT on the gut microbiota. 16 s rDNA and metagenomic sequencing were used to analyze the structure and function of intestinal flora. We also used Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) to evaluate gastrointestinal symptom during treatment.

RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were recruited and 15 were assigned to either FMT or placebo groups. After eradication therapy, alpha-diversity was decreased in both groups. At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased, while Proteobacteria increased. At the genus level, the abundance of beneficial bacteria decreased, while pathogenic bacteria increased. Eradication therapy reduced some resistance genes abundance while increased the resistance genes abundance linked to Escherichia coli. While they all returned to baseline by Week 10. Besides, the difference was observed in Week 10 by the diarrhea score between two groups. Compared to Week 2, the GSRS total score and diarrhea score decreased in Week 3 only in FMT group.

CONCLUSIONS: The balance of intestinal flora in patients can be considerably impacted by BQT in the short term, but it has reverted back to baseline by Week 10. FMT can alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms even if there was no evidence it promoted restoration of intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Jin LX, Fang YP, Xia CM, et al (2024)

Helicobacter pylori infection alters gastric microbiota structure and biological functions in patients with gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.

World journal of gastroenterology, 30(24):3076-3085.

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is closely associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Our preliminary studies have indicated that H. pylori infection had a significant impact on the mucosal microbiome structure in patients with gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU).

AIM: To investigate the contributions of H. pylori infection and the mucosal microbiome to the pathogenesis and progression of ulcerative diseases.

METHODS: Patients with H. pylori infection and either GU or DU, and healthy individuals without H. pylori infection were included. Gastric or duodenal mucosal samples was obtained and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. The compositions of the microbial communities and their metabolic functions in the mucosal tissues were analyzed.

RESULTS: Compared with that in the healthy individuals, the gastric mucosal microbiota in the H. pylori-positive patients with GU was dominated by H. pylori, with significantly reduced biodiversity. The intergroup differential functions, which were enriched in the H. pylori-positive GU patients, were all derived from H. pylori, particularly those concerning transfer RNA queuosine-modification and the synthesis of demethylmenaquinones or menaquinones. A significant enrichment of the uibE gene was detected in the synthesis pathway. There was no significant difference in microbial diversity between the H. pylori-positive DU patients and healthy controls.

CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection significantly alters the gastric microbiota structure, diversity, and biological functions, which may be important contributing factors for GU.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Yao G, Zhao Z, Yang C, et al (2024)

Evaluating the probiotic effects of spraying lactiplantibacillus plantarum P-8 in neonatal piglets.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):253.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes play an important role in the growth and health of neonatal piglets. Probiotics can promote the healthy growth of neonatal piglets by regulating their gut microbes. The study investigated the effects of spraying Lactiplantibacillus plantarum P-8 (L. plantarum P-8) fermentation broth on the growth performance and gut microbes of neonatal piglets.

RESULTS: The animals were randomly divided into probiotics groups (109 neonatal piglets) and control groups (113 neonatal piglets). The probiotics group was sprayed with L. plantarum P-8 fermented liquid from 3 day before the expected date of the sow to the 7-day-old of piglets, while the control group was sprayed with equal dose of PBS. Average daily gain (ADG), immune and antioxidant status and metagenome sequencing were used to assess the changes in growth performance and gut microbiota of neonatal piglets. The results showed that L. plantarum P-8 treatment significantly improved the average daily gain (P < 0.05) of neonatal piglets. L. plantarum P-8 increased the activities of CAT and SOD but reduced the levels of IL-2 and IL-6, effectively regulating the antioxidant capacity and immunity in neonatal piglets. L. plantarum P-8 adjusted the overall structure of gut microflora improving gut homeostasis to a certain extent, and significantly increased the relative abundance of gut beneficial bacteria such as L. mucosae and L. plantarum.

CONCLUSION: Spraying L. plantarum P-8 can be a feasible and effective probiotic intervention not only improving the growth of neonatal piglets, regulating the antioxidant capacity and immunity of neonatal piglets, but also improving the gut homeostasis to a certain extent.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Shukla R, Tsuchiya Y, Behari A, et al (2024)

Metagenomic Analysis of Biliary Microbial Flora in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer or Gallstones-Associated Chronic Cholecystitis.

Cancer investigation, 42(6):478-490.

Biliary dysbiosis is associated with gallbladder cancer (GBC). We aimed to look for biliary bacteria specifically detected in GBC patients. We used 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to elucidate biliary microbiota in 30 GBC and 30 gallstones-associated chronic cholecystitis patients. Relative abundance of five genera, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Caulobacter was significantly associated with GBC. Of 15-species, 7 were detected significantly higher in GBC, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, Actinomyces bowdenii, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, and Escherichia fergusonii were biosafety level-2 infectious bacteria; other 8 species were biosafety level-1 bacteria. These bacterial species may be involved in pathogenesis of GBC.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-08

Wei Y, Li J, Zhu B, et al (2024)

Metagenomic comparison of intestinal microbiota between normal and liver fibrotic rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

Scientific reports, 14(1):15677.

Liver fibrosis is an important pathological process in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Recent studies have found a close association between intestinal microbiota and the development of liver fibrosis. To determine whether there are differences in the intestinal microbiota between rhesus macaques with liver fibrosis (MG) and normal rhesus macaques (MN), fecal samples were collected from 8 male MG and 12 male MN. The biological composition of the intestinal microbiota was then detected using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed statistically significant differences in ASVs and Chao1 in the alpha-diversity and the beta-diversity of intestinal microbiota between MG and MN. Both groups shared Prevotella and Lactobacillus as common dominant microbiota. However, beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus were significantly less abundant in MG (P = 0.02). Predictive functional analysis using PICRUSt2 gene prediction revealed that MG exhibited a higher relative abundance of functions related to substance transport and metabolic pathways. This study may provide insight into further exploration of the mechanisms by which intestinal microbiota affect liver fibrosis and its potential future use in treating liver fibrosis.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-08

Zachariasen T, Russel J, Petersen C, et al (2024)

MAGinator enables accurate profiling of de novo MAGs with strain-level phylogenies.

Nature communications, 15(1):5734.

Metagenomic sequencing has provided great advantages in the characterisation of microbiomes, but currently available analysis tools lack the ability to combine subspecies-level taxonomic resolution and accurate abundance estimation with functional profiling of assembled genomes. To define the microbiome and its associations with human health, improved tools are needed to enable comprehensive understanding of the microbial composition and elucidation of the phylogenetic and functional relationships between the microbes. Here, we present MAGinator, a freely available tool, tailored for profiling of shotgun metagenomics datasets. MAGinator provides de novo identification of subspecies-level microbes and accurate abundance estimates of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). MAGinator utilises the information from both gene- and contig-based methods yielding insight into both taxonomic profiles and the origin of genes and genetic content, used for inference of functional content of each sample by host organism. Additionally, MAGinator facilitates the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships between the MAGs, providing a framework to identify clade-level differences.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-07

Lee S, I Lee (2024)

Comprehensive assessment of machine learning methods for diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases through whole metagenome sequencing data.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2375679.

The gut microbiome, linked significantly to host diseases, offers potential for disease diagnosis through machine learning (ML) pipelines. These pipelines, crucial in modeling diseases using high-dimensional microbiome data, involve selecting profile modalities, data preprocessing techniques, and classification algorithms, each impacting the model accuracy and generalizability. Despite whole metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMS) gaining popularity for human gut microbiome profiling, a consensus on the optimal methods for ML pipelines in disease diagnosis using WMS data remains elusive. Addressing this gap, we comprehensively evaluated ML methods for diagnosing Crohn's disease and colorectal cancer, using 2,553 fecal WMS samples from 21 case-control studies. Our study uncovered crucial insights: gut-specific, species-level taxonomic features proved to be the most effective for profiling; batch correction was not consistently beneficial for model performance; compositional data transformations markedly improved the models; and while nonlinear ensemble classification algorithms typically offered superior performance, linear models with proper regularization were found to be more effective for diseases that are linearly separable based on microbiome data. An optimal ML pipeline, integrating the most effective methods, was validated for generalizability using holdout data. This research offers practical guidelines for constructing reliable disease diagnostic ML models with fecal WMS data.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Wang S, Liu Y, Tam WH, et al (2024)

Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus associates with altered gut microbiome composition and head circumference abnormalities in male offspring.

Cell host & microbe, 32(7):1192-1206.e5.

The impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on maternal or infant microbiome trajectory remains poorly understood. Utilizing large-scale longitudinal fecal samples from 264 mother-baby dyads, we present the gut microbiome trajectory of the mothers throughout pregnancy and infants during the first year of life. GDM mothers had a distinct microbiome diversity and composition during the gestation period. GDM leaves fingerprints on the infant's gut microbiome, which are confounded by delivery mode. Further, Clostridium species positively correlate with a larger head circumference at month 12 in male offspring but not females. The gut microbiome of GDM mothers with male fetuses displays depleted gut-brain modules, including acetate synthesis I and degradation and glutamate synthesis II. The gut microbiome of female infants of GDM mothers has higher histamine degradation and dopamine degradation. Together, our integrative analysis indicates that GDM affects maternal and infant gut composition, which is associated with sexually dimorphic infant head growth.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Kumbhari A, Cheng TNH, Ananthakrishnan AN, et al (2024)

Discovery of disease-adapted bacterial lineages in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Cell host & microbe, 32(7):1147-1162.e12.

Gut bacteria are implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the strains driving these associations are unknown. Large-scale studies of microbiome evolution could reveal the imprint of disease on gut bacteria, thus pinpointing the strains and genes that may underlie inflammation. Here, we use stool metagenomes of thousands of IBD patients and healthy controls to reconstruct 140,000 strain genotypes, revealing hundreds of lineages enriched in IBD. We demonstrate that these strains are ancient, taxonomically diverse, and ubiquitous in humans. Moreover, disease-associated strains outcompete their healthy counterparts during inflammation, implying long-term adaptation to disease. Strain genetic differences map onto known axes of inflammation, including oxidative stress, nutrient biosynthesis, and immune evasion. Lastly, the loss of health-associated strains of Eggerthella lenta was predictive of fecal calprotectin, a biomarker of disease severity. Our work identifies reservoirs of strain diversity that may impact inflammatory disease and can be extended to other microbiome-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Lu Y, Zhang L, Liu X, et al (2024)

Red pandas with different diets and environments exhibit different gut microbial functional composition and capacity.

Integrative zoology, 19(4):662-682.

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a distinctive mammal known for its reliance on a diet primarily consisting of bamboo. The gut microbiota and overall health of animals are strongly influenced by diets and environments. Therefore, conducting research to explore the taxonomical and functional variances within the gut microbiota of red pandas exposed to various dietary and environmental conditions could shed light on the dynamic complexities of their microbial communities. In this study, normal fecal samples were obtained from red pandas residing in captive and semi-free environments under different dietary regimes and used for metabolomic, 16S rRNA, and metagenomic sequencing analysis, with the pandas classified into four distinct cohorts according to diet and environment. In addition, metagenomic sequencing was conducted on mucus fecal samples to elucidate potential etiological agents of disease. Results revealed an increased risk of gastrointestinal diseases in red pandas consuming bamboo shoots due to the heightened presence of pathogenic bacteria, although an increased presence of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites appeared to facilitate intestinal balance. The red pandas fed bamboo leaves also exhibited a decrease in gut microbial diversity, which may be attributed to the antibacterial flavonoids and lower protein levels in leaves. Notably, red pandas residing in semi-free environments demonstrated an enriched gut microbial diversity. Moreover, the occurrence of mucus secretion may be due to an increased presence of species associated with diarrhea and a reduced level of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites. In summary, our findings substantiate the influential role of diet and environment in modulating the gut microbiota of red pandas, offering potential implications for improved captive breeding practices.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Zhao J, Feng T, An X, et al (2024)

Livestock grazing is associated with the gut microbiota and antibiotic resistance genes in sympatric plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

Integrative zoology, 19(4):646-661.

With the overuse of antibiotics in health care and animal husbandry, antibiotic resistance becomes a serious threat to public health. Antibiotic residues from veterinary medicine have increased the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by horizontal gene transfer globally, leading to the enrichment of ARGs in wildlife. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a small herbivore endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous studies reveal that pika evolves a coprophagy behavior toward cohabitated yak, which makes the pika population a potential reservoir of ARGs. Yet, little is known about the resistome of pika under different grazing intensities. Here, we sampled the cecum content of pika from three different grazing intensity areas in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to evaluate the effect of grazing on its gut microbiota and resistome. By using the 16S full-length amplicon and metagenomic sequencing, our study revealed that livestock grazing significantly altered the gut microbial community of plateau pika as compared to prohibited grazing areas. We found bacterial lineage Prevotellaceae, Lachnospirales, and RF39 increased in grazing areas. Analysis of the resistome revealed that pika from continuous grazing areas enriched a higher abundance of colistin (MCR) and streptogramin (vat) resistance genes. Moreover, we observed significant correlations between the gut microbial community, ARGs, and mobile genetic element profiles, hinting that pika gut microbiota was an important shaping force of the resistome. In future studies, the continuous monitoring of wildlife gut resistome and environmental antibiotic residues is imperative for a better understanding and for tackling the horizontal gene transfer of ARGs across the wildlife-livestock interface.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-07

Villani A, Fontana A, Panebianco C, et al (2024)

A powerful machine learning approach to identify interactions of differentially abundant gut microbial subsets in patients with metastatic and non-metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2375483.

Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis, as it is often diagnosed at stage IV of the disease and is characterized by metastatic spread. Gut microbiota and its metabolites have been suggested to influence the metastatic spread by modulating the host immune system or by promoting angiogenesis. To date, the gut microbial profiles of metastatic and non-metastatic patients need to be explored. Taking advantage of the 16S metagenomic sequencing and the PEnalized LOgistic Regression Analysis (PELORA) we identified clusters of bacteria with differential abundances between metastatic and non-metastatic patients. An overall increase in Gram-negative bacteria in metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic ones was identified using this method. Furthermore, to gain more insight into how gut microbes can predict metastases, a machine learning approach (iterative Random Forest) was performed. Iterative Random Forest analysis revealed which microorganisms were characterized by a different level of relative abundance between metastatic and non-metastatic patients and established a functional relationship between the relative abundance and the probability of having metastases. At the species level, the following bacteria were found to have the highest discriminatory power: Anaerostipes hadrus, Coprobacter secundus, Clostridium sp. 619, Roseburia inulinivorans, Porphyromonas and Odoribacter at the genus level, and Rhodospirillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Peptococcaceae at the family level. Finally, these data were intertwined with those from a metabolomics analysis on fecal samples of patients with or without metastasis to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the metastatic process. Artificial intelligence has been applied in different areas of the medical field. Translating its application in the field of gut microbiota analysis may help fully exploit the potential information contained in such a large amount of data aiming to open up new supportive areas of intervention in the management of cancer.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-06

Huang X, Zeng J, Li S, et al (2024)

16S rRNA, metagenomics and 2bRAD-M sequencing to decode human thanatomicrobiome.

Scientific data, 11(1):736.

Microorganisms are essential in the decomposition of corpses and play a significant role in forensic science. However, previous studies have primarily focused on animal remains, specifically the gut, skin, and burial environment. Insufficient research has been conducted on the microbiota of human cadavers, especially in cases of advanced decomposition and additional tissues, resulting in a lack of relevant reference data. In this study, the microbiota of eight cadavers at different stages of decomposition were detected using 16S rRNA, metagenomic sequencing and 2bRAD-M sequencing. Nine different sites, including oral and nasal cavities, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle and gut, were analysed and the efficacy of these methods was evaluated. The results showed that 16S rRNA sequencing was the most cost-effective method for the study of cadavers in the early stages of decomposition, whereas for cadaveric tissues in the late stages of decomposition, 2bRAD-M could overcome host contamination more effectively than metagenomic sequencing. This paves the way for new opportunities in data retrieval and promotes in-depth investigations into the microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-07-08
CmpDate: 2024-07-06

Wang X, Sun J, Zhang X, et al (2024)

Metagenomics reveals unique gut mycobiome biomarkers in psoriasis.

Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI), 30(7):e13822.

PURPOSE: In present, the diagnosis of psoriasis is mainly based on the patient's typical clinical manifestations, dermoscopy and skin biopsy, and unlike other immune diseases, psoriasis lacks specific indicators in the blood. Therefore, we are required to search novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of psoriasis.

METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the composition and the differences of intestinal fungal communities composition between psoriasis patients and healthy individuals in order to find the intestinal fungal communities associated with the diagnosis of psoriasis. We built a machine learning model and identified potential microbial markers for the diagnosis of psoriasis.

RESULTS: The results of AUROC (area under ROC) showed that Aspergillus puulaauensis (AUROC = 0.779), Kazachstania africana (AUROC = 0.750) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (AUROC = 0.745) had high predictive ability (AUROC > 0.7) for predicting psoriasis, While Fusarium keratoplasticum (AUROC = 0.670) was relatively lower (AUROC < 0.7).

CONCLUSION: The strategy based on the prediction of intestinal fungal communities provides a new idea for the diagnosis of psoriasis and is expected to become an auxiliary diagnostic method for psoriasis.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

You HS, Park JY, Seo H, et al (2024)

Increasing correlation between oral and gastric microbiota during gastric carcinogenesis.

The Korean journal of internal medicine, 39(4):590-602.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent research has increasingly focused on the role of the gastric microbiome in the development of gastric cancer. We aimed to investigate the changes in the microbiome during gastric carcinogenesis in structural and functional aspects, with a specific focus on the association between oral and gastric microbiomes.

METHODS: We collected saliva, gastric juice, and gastric tissue samples from 141 patients at different stages of gastric carcinogenesis and processed them for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene profiling. The alpha and beta diversities were analyzed, and the differences in microbiome composition and function profiles were analyzed among the groups, as well as the correlation between changes in the oral and gastric microbiomes during carcinogenesis.

RESULTS: We observed significant differences in microbial diversity and composition between the disease and control groups, primarily in the gastric juice. Specific bacterial strains, including Schaalia odontolytica, Streptococcus cristatus, and Peptostreptococcus stomatis, showed a significant increase in abundance in the gastric juice in the low-grade dysplasia and gastric cancer groups. Notably, the correlation between the oral and gastric microbiota compositions, increased as the disease progressed. Predictive analysis of the metagenomic functional profiles revealed changes in functional pathways that may be associated with carcinogenesis (ABC transport and two-component systems).

CONCLUSION: During gastric carcinogenesis, the abundance of oral commensals associated with cancer increased in the stomach. The similarity in microbial composition between the stomach and oral cavity also increased, implying a potential role of oral-gastric bacterial interactions in gastric cancer development.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Balasundaram D, Veerasamy V, Sylvia Singarayar M, et al (2024)

Therapeutic potential of probiotics in gut microbial homeostasis and Rheumatoid arthritis.

International immunopharmacology, 137:112501.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and joint damage. Existing treatment options primarily focus on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression, often with side effects and limitations. The gut microbiome, a vast community of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a crucial role in health and disease. Recent research suggests a bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and RA, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic option. This review focuses on the interaction between the gut microbiome and RA development, by discussing how dysbiosis, an imbalance in gut bacteria, can contribute to RA through multiple mechanisms such as molecular mimicry, leaky gut, and metabolic dysregulation. Probiotics, live microorganisms with health benefits, are emerging as promising tools for managing RA. They can prevent the negative effects of dysbiosis by displacing harmful bacteria, producing anti-inflammatory metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), Directly influencing immune cells, and modifying host metabolism. animal and clinical studies demonstrate the potential of probiotics in improving RA symptoms and disease outcomes. However, further research is needed to optimize probiotic strains, dosages, and treatment protocols for personalized and effective management of RA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the gut microbiome and its role in RA and discusses future research directions. In addition to the established role of gut dysbiosis in RA, emerging strategies like fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, and postbiotics offer exciting possibilities. However, individual variations in gut composition necessitate personalized treatment plans. Long-term effects and clear regulations need to be established. Future research focusing on metagenomic analysis, combination therapies, and mechanistic understanding will unlock the full potential of gut microbiome modulation for effective RA management.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Chen X, Wei J, Li Z, et al (2024)

Dysregulation of Gut Microbiota-Derived Neuromodulatory Amino Acid Metabolism in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: An Integrative Metagenomic and Metabolomic Analysis.

Annals of neurology, 96(2):306-320.

OBJECTIVE: Although accumulating evidence implicating altered gut microbiota in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and neurodegenerative disorders; however, the association between dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolites in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains unclear.

METHODS: Fecal and plasma samples were obtained from 3 cohorts (HAND, HIV-non-HAND, and healthy controls), metagenomic analysis and metabolomic profiling were performed to investigate alterations in the gut microbial composition and circulating metabolites in HAND.

RESULTS: The gut microbiota of people living with HIV (PLWH) had an increased relative abundance of Prevotella and a decreased relative abundance of Bacteroides. In contrast, Prevotella and Megamonas were substantially decreased, and Bacteroides and Phocaeicola were increased in HAND patients. Moreover, untargeted metabolomics identified several neurotransmitters and certain amino acids associated with neuromodulation, and the differential metabolic pathways of amino acids associated with neurocognition were depleted in HAND patients. Notably, most neuromodulatory metabolites are associated with an altered abundance of specific gut bacteria.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the intricate interplay between the gut and microbiome-brain axis in the pathogenesis of HAND, highlighting the potential for developing novel therapeutic strategies that specifically target the gut microbiota. ANN NEUROL 2024;96:306-320.

RevDate: 2024-07-09
CmpDate: 2024-07-09

Kortman GAM, Hester ER, Schaafsma A, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome composition and functionality impact the responsiveness to a dairy-based product containing galacto-oligosaccharides for improving sleep quality in adults.

Beneficial microbes, 15(4):373-385.

Sleep quality and duration can be impacted by diet, and has been linked to gut microbiota composition and function as the result of communication via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. As one strategy to improve sleep quality could be through the modulation of the gut microbiome, we assessed the effects of a dairy-based product containing whey protein, galacto-oligosaccharides, tryptophan, vitamins and minerals after a 3 weeks intervention on gut microbiota composition and (gut-brain related) functions on basis of 67 healthy subjects with moderate sleep disturbances. Associations of the gut microbiota with sleep quality and with response/non-response to the treatment were revealed by shotgun metagenomics sequencing of faecal DNA samples, and subsequent analyses of microbiota taxonomy and generic functionality. A database of manually curated Gut-Brain Modules (GBMs) was applied to analyse specific microbial functions/pathways that have the potential to interact with the brain. A moderate discriminating effect of the DP treatment on gut microbiota composition was revealed which could be mainly attributed to a decrease in Pseudomonas resinovorans, Flintibacter sp. KGM00164, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Flavonifractor plautii. As interindividual variance in microbiota composition could have given rise to a heterogenous responsiveness of the subjects in the intervention group, we zoomed in on the differences between responders and non-responders. A significant difference in baseline microbiota composition between responders and non-responders was apparent, showing lower Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and higher Faecalibacterium prausnitzii relative abundances in responders. The findings provide leads with respect to the effectiveness and potential underlying mechanisms of mode of action in sleep improvement that could support future nutritional interventions to aid sleep improvement.

RevDate: 2024-07-08
CmpDate: 2024-07-06

Zuppi M, Vatanen T, Wilson BC, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation alters gut phage communities in a clinical trial for obesity.

Microbiome, 12(1):122.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a therapeutic intervention used to treat diseases associated with the gut microbiome. In the human gut microbiome, phages have been implicated in influencing human health, with successful engraftment of donor phages correlated with FMT treatment efficacy. The impact that gastrointestinal phages exert on human health has primarily been connected to their ability to modulate the bacterial communities in the gut. Nonetheless, how FMT affects recipients' phage populations, and in turn, how this influences the gut environment, is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of FMT on the phageome composition of participants within the Gut Bugs Trial (GBT), a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the efficacy of FMT in treating obesity and comorbidities in adolescents. Stool samples collected from donors at the time of treatment and recipients at four time points (i.e., baseline and 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks post-intervention), underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Phage sequences were identified and characterized in silico to examine evidence of phage engraftment and to assess the extent of FMT-induced alterations in the recipients' phageome composition.

RESULTS: Donor phages engrafted stably in recipients following FMT, composing a significant proportion of their phageome for the entire course of the study (33.8 ± 1.2% in females and 33.9 ± 3.7% in males). Phage engraftment varied between donors and donor engraftment efficacy was positively correlated with their phageome alpha diversity. FMT caused a shift in recipients' phageome toward the donors' composition and increased phageome alpha diversity and variability over time.

CONCLUSIONS: FMT significantly altered recipients' phage and, overall, microbial populations. The increase in microbial diversity and variability is consistent with a shift in microbial population dynamics. This proposes that phages play a critical role in modulating the gut environment and suggests novel approaches to understanding the efficacy of FMT in altering the recipient's microbiome.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Gut Bugs Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTR N12615001351505). Trial protocol: the trial protocol is available at https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e026174 . Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-07-08
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Yan W, Wang D, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Metatranscriptomics-guided genome-scale metabolic reconstruction reveals the carbon flux and trophic interaction in methanogenic communities.

Microbiome, 12(1):121.

BACKGROUND: Despite rapid advances in genomic-resolved metagenomics and remarkable explosion of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), the function of uncultivated anaerobic lineages and their interactions in carbon mineralization remain largely uncertain, which has profound implications in biotechnology and biogeochemistry.

RESULTS: In this study, we combined long-read sequencing and metatranscriptomics-guided metabolic reconstruction to provide a genome-wide perspective of carbon mineralization flow from polymers to methane in an anaerobic bioreactor. Our results showed that incorporating long reads resulted in a substantial improvement in the quality of metagenomic assemblies, enabling the effective recovery of 132 high-quality genomes meeting stringent criteria of minimum information about a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG). In addition, hybrid assembly obtained 51% more prokaryotic genes in comparison to the short-read-only assembly. Metatranscriptomics-guided metabolic reconstruction unveiled the remarkable metabolic flexibility of several novel Bacteroidales-affiliated bacteria and populations from Mesotoga sp. in scavenging amino acids and sugars. In addition to recovering two circular genomes of previously known but fragmented syntrophic bacteria, two newly identified bacteria within Syntrophales were found to be highly engaged in fatty acid oxidation through syntrophic relationships with dominant methanogens Methanoregulaceae bin.74 and Methanothrix sp. bin.206. The activity of bin.206 preferring acetate as substrate exceeded that of bin.74 with increasing loading, reinforcing the substrate determinantal role.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our study uncovered some key active anaerobic lineages and their metabolic functions in this complex anaerobic ecosystem, offering a framework for understanding carbon transformations in anaerobic digestion. These findings advance the understanding of metabolic activities and trophic interactions between anaerobic guilds, providing foundational insights into carbon flux within both engineered and natural ecosystems. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-07-08
CmpDate: 2024-07-08

Güven Gülhan Ü, Nikerel E, Çakır T, et al (2024)

Species-level identification of enterotype-specific microbial markers for colorectal cancer and adenoma.

Molecular omics, 20(6):397-416.

Enterotypes have been shown to be an important factor for population stratification based on gut microbiota composition, leading to a better understanding of human health and disease states. Classifications based on compositional patterns will have implications for personalized microbiota-based solutions. There have been limited enterotype based studies on colorectal adenoma and cancer. Here, an enterotype-based meta-analysis of fecal shotgun metagenomic studies was performed, including 1579 samples of healthy controls (CTR), colorectal adenoma (ADN) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in total. Gut microbiota of healthy people were clustered into three enterotypes (Ruminococcus-, Bacteroides- and Prevotella-dominated enterotypes). Reference-based enterotype assignments were performed for CRC and ADN samples, using the supervised machine learning algorithm, K-nearest neighbors. Differential abundance analyses and random forest classification were conducted on each enterotype between healthy controls and CRC-ADN groups, revealing novel enterotype-specific microbial markers for non-invasive CRC screening strategies. Furthermore, we identified microbial species unique to each enterotype that play a role in the production of secondary bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, unveiling the correlation between cancer-associated gut microbes and dietary patterns. The enterotype-based approach in this study is promising in elucidating the mechanisms of differential gut microbiome profiles, thereby improving the efficacy of personalized microbiota-based solutions.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Łopucki R, Sajnaga E, Kalwasińska A, et al (2024)

Green spaces contribute to structural resilience of the gut microbiota in urban mammals.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15508.

The gut microbiome of wild animals is subject to various environmental influences, including those associated with human-induced alterations to the environment. We investigated how the gut microbiota of a synurbic rodent species, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), change in cities of varying sizes, seeking the urban microbiota signature for this species. Fecal samples for analysis were collected from animals living in non-urbanized areas and green spaces of different-sized cities (Poland). Metagenomic 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further bioinformatics analyses were conducted. Significant differences in the composition of gut microbiomes among the studied populations were found. However, the observed changes were dependent on local habitat conditions, without strong evidence of a correlation with the size of the urbanized area. The results suggest that ecological detachment from a more natural, non-urban environment does not automatically lead to the development of an "urban microbiome" model in the studied rodent. The exposure to the natural environment in green spaces may serve as a catalyst for microbiome transformations, providing a previously underestimated contribution to the maintenance of native gut microbial communities in urban mammals.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Lee J, Wellenstein K, Rahnavard A, et al (2024)

Beneficial metabolic effects of PAHSAs depend on the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese mice but not in chow-fed mice.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(28):e2318691121.

Dietary lipids play an essential role in regulating the function of the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tract, and these luminal interactions contribute to mediating host metabolism. Palmitic Acid Hydroxy Stearic Acids (PAHSAs) are a family of lipids with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties, but whether the gut microbiota contributes to their beneficial effects on host metabolism is unknown. Here, we report that treating chow-fed female and male germ-free (GF) mice with PAHSAs improves glucose tolerance, but these effects are lost upon high fat diet (HFD) feeding. However, transfer of feces from PAHSA-treated, but not vehicle-treated, chow-fed conventional mice increases insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed GF mice. Thus, the gut microbiota is necessary for, and can transmit, the insulin-sensitizing effects of PAHSAs in HFD-fed GF male mice. Analyses of the cecal metagenome and lipidome of PAHSA-treated mice identified multiple lipid species that associate with the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and with insulin sensitivity resulting from PAHSA treatment. Supplementing live, and to some degree, heat-killed Bt to HFD-fed female mice prevented weight gain, reduced adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, fortified the colonic mucus barrier and reduced systemic inflammation compared to HFD-fed controls. These effects were not observed in HFD-fed male mice. Furthermore, ovariectomy partially reversed the beneficial Bt effects on host metabolism, indicating a role for sex hormones in mediating the Bt probiotic effects. Altogether, these studies highlight the fact that PAHSAs can modulate the gut microbiota and that the microbiota is necessary for the beneficial metabolic effects of PAHSAs in HFD-fed mice.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Wu EH, L Qiao (2024)

[Microbial metaproteomics--From sample processing to data acquisition and analysis].

Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography, 42(7):658-668.

Microorganisms are closely associated with human diseases and health. Understanding the composition and function of microbial communities requires extensive research. Metaproteomics has recently become an important method for throughout and in-depth study of microorganisms. However, major challenges in terms of sample processing, mass spectrometric data acquisition, and data analysis limit the development of metaproteomics owing to the complexity and high heterogeneity of microbial community samples. In metaproteomic analysis, optimizing the preprocessing method for different types of samples and adopting different microbial isolation, enrichment, extraction, and lysis schemes are often necessary. Similar to those for single-species proteomics, the mass spectrometric data acquisition modes for metaproteomics include data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition (DIA). DIA can collect comprehensive peptide information from a sample and holds great potential for future development. However, data analysis for DIA is challenged by the complexity of metaproteome samples, which hinders the deeper coverage of metaproteomes. The most important step in data analysis is the construction of a protein sequence database. The size and completeness of the database strongly influence not only the number of identifications, but also analyses at the species and functional levels. The current gold standard for metaproteome database construction is the metagenomic sequencing-based protein sequence database. A public database-filtering method based on an iterative database search has been proven to have strong practical value. The peptide-centric DIA data analysis method is a mainstream data analysis strategy. The development of deep learning and artificial intelligence will greatly promote the accuracy, coverage, and speed of metaproteomic analysis. In terms of downstream bioinformatics analysis, a series of annotation tools that can perform species annotation at the protein, peptide, and gene levels has been developed in recent years to determine the composition of microbial communities. The functional analysis of microbial communities is a unique feature of metaproteomics compared with other omics approaches. Metaproteomics has become an important component of the multi-omics analysis of microbial communities, and has great development potential in terms of depth of coverage, sensitivity of detection, and completeness of data analysis.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Dong Y, Chen WH, XM Zhao (2024)

VirRep: a hybrid language representation learning framework for identifying viruses from human gut metagenomes.

Genome biology, 25(1):177.

Identifying viruses from metagenomes is a common step to explore the virus composition in the human gut. Here, we introduce VirRep, a hybrid language representation learning framework, for identifying viruses from human gut metagenomes. VirRep combines a context-aware encoder and an evolution-aware encoder to improve sequence representation by incorporating k-mer patterns and sequence homologies. Benchmarking on both simulated and real datasets with varying viral proportions demonstrates that VirRep outperforms state-of-the-art methods. When applied to fecal metagenomes from a colorectal cancer cohort, VirRep identifies 39 high-quality viral species associated with the disease, many of which cannot be detected by existing methods.

RevDate: 2024-07-06
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

de Freitas STF, Silva FG, Bessa LA, et al (2024)

Low microbial diversity, yeast prevalence, and nematode-trapping fungal presence in fungal colonization and leaf microbiome of Serjania erecta.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15456.

Medicinal plant microbiomes undergo selection due to secondary metabolite presence. Resident endophytic/epiphytic microorganisms directly influence plant's bioactive compound synthesis. Hypothesizing low microbial diversity in Serjania erecta leaves, we assessed leaf colonization by epiphytic and endophytic fungi. Given its traditional medicinal importance, we estimated diversity in the endophytic fungal microbiome. Analyses included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), isolation of cultivable species, and metagenomics. Epiphytic fungi interacted with S. erecta leaf tissues, horizontally transmitted via stomata/trichome bases, expressing traits for nematode trapping. Cultivable endophytic fungi, known for phytopathogenic habits, didn't induce dysbiosis symptoms. This study confirms low leaf microbiome diversity in S. erecta, with a tendency towards more fungal species, likely due to antibacterial secondary metabolite selection. The classification of Halicephalobus sp. sequence corroborated the presence of nematode eggs on the epidermal surface of S. erecta by SEM. In addition, we confirmed the presence of methanogenic archaea and a considerable number of methanotrophs of the genus Methylobacterium. The metagenomic study of endophytic fungi highlighted plant growth-promoting yeasts, mainly Malassezia, Leucosporidium, Meyerozyma, and Hannaella. Studying endophytic fungi and S. erecta microbiomes can elucidate their impact on beneficial bioactive compound production, on the other hand, it is possible that the bioactive compounds produced by this plant can recruit specific microorganisms, impacting the biological system.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Xing Y, Liu Y, Sha S, et al (2024)

Multikingdom characterization of gut microbiota in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

Journal of medical virology, 96(7):e29781.

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is a serious and common extra-articular disease manifestation. Patients with RA-ILD experience reduced bacterial diversity and gut bacteriome alterations. However, the gut mycobiome and virome in these patients have been largely neglected. In this study, we performed whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing on fecal samples from 30 patients with RA-ILD, and 30 with RA-non-ILD, and 40 matched healthy controls. The gut bacteriome and mycobiome were explored using a reference-based approach, while the gut virome was profiled based on a nonredundant viral operational taxonomic unit (vOTU) catalog. The results revealed significant alterations in the gut microbiomes of both RA-ILD and RA-non-ILD groups compared with healthy controls. These alterations encompassed changes in the relative abundances of 351 bacterial species, 65 fungal species, and 4,367 vOTUs. Bacteria such as Bifidobacterium longum, Dorea formicigenerans, and Collinsella aerofaciens were enriched in both patient groups. Ruminococcus gnavus (RA-ILD), Gemmiger formicilis, and Ruminococcus bromii (RA-non-ILD) were uniquely enriched. Conversely, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides spp., and Roseburia inulinivorans showed depletion in both patient groups. Mycobiome analysis revealed depletion of certain fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, in patients with RA compared with healthy subjects. Notably, gut virome alterations were characterized by an increase in Siphoviridae and a decrease in Myoviridae, Microviridae, and Autographiviridae in both patient groups. Hence, multikingdom gut microbial signatures showed promise as diagnostic indicators for both RA-ILD and RA-non-ILD. Overall, this study provides comprehensive insights into the fecal virome, bacteriome, and mycobiome landscapes of RA-ILD and RA-non-ILD gut microbiota, thereby offering potential biomarkers for further mechanistic and clinical research.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Mehra P, A Kumar (2024)

Emerging importance of stool preservation methods in OMICS studies with special focus on cancer biology.

Cell biochemistry and function, 42(5):e4063.

The intricate consortium of microorganisms in the human gut plays a crucial role in different physiological functions. The complex known-unknown elements of the gut microbiome are perplexing and the absence of standardized procedures for collecting and preserving samples has hindered continuous research in comprehending it. The technological bias produced because of lack of standard protocols has affected the reproducibility of results. The complex nature of diseases like colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer require a thorough understanding of its etiology for an efficient and timely diagnosis. The designated protocols for collection and preservation of stool specimens have great variance, hence generate inconsistencies in OMICS studies. Due to the complications associated to the nature of sample, it is important to preserve the sample to be studied later in a laboratory or to be used in the future research purpose. Stool preservation is gaining importance due to the increased use of treatment options like fecal microbiota transplantation to cure conditions like recurrent Clostridium difficile infections and for OMICS studies including metagenomics, metabolomics and culturomics. This review provides an insight into the importance of omics studies for the identification and development of novel biomarkers for quick and noninvasive diagnosis of various diseases.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Rosell-Díaz M, Petit-Gay A, Molas-Prat C, et al (2024)

Metformin-induced changes in the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome are associated with cognition in men.

Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 157:155941.

BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiome characterized by reduced abundance of butyrate producing bacteria and reduced gene richness is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An important complication of T2D is increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. The biguanide metformin is a commonly prescribed medication for the control of T2D and metformin treatment has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia and improved cognition, particularly in people with T2D.

AIM: To investigate the associations of metformin use with cognition exploring potential mechanisms by analyzing the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome using shotgun metagenomics and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively.

METHODS: We explored two independent cohorts: an observational study (Aging Imageomics) and a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized pilot study (MEIFLO). From the two studies, we analyzed four study groups: (1) individuals with no documented medical history or medical treatment (n = 172); (2) people with long-term T2D on metformin monotherapy (n = 134); (3) people with long-term T2D treated with oral hypoglycemic agents other than metformin (n = 45); (4) a newly diagnosed T2D subjects on metformin monotherapy (n = 22). Analyses were also performed stratifying by sex.

RESULTS: Several bacterial species belonging to the Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli) and Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia muciniphila) phyla were positively associated with metformin treatment, while bacterial species belonging to the Firmicutes phylum (Romboutsia timonensis, Romboutsia ilealis) were negatively associated. Due to the consistent increase in A. muciniphila and decrease in R.ilealis in people with T2D subjects treated with metformin, we investigated the association between this ratio and cognition. In the entire cohort of metformin-treated T2D subjects, the A.muciniphila/R.ilealis ratio was not significantly associated with cognitive test scores. However, after stratifying by sex, the A.muciniphila/R. ilealis ratio was significantly and positively associated with higher memory scores and improved memory in men. Metformin treatment was associated with an enrichment of microbial pathways involved in the TCA cycle, and butanoate, arginine, and proline metabolism in both cohorts. The bacterial genes involved in arginine metabolism, especially in production of glutamate (astA, astB, astC, astD, astE, putA), were enriched following metformin intake. In agreement, in the metabolomics analysis, metformin treatment was strongly associated with the amino acid proline, a metabolite involved in the metabolism of glutamate.

CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of metformin may be mediated by changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and microbial-host-derived co-metabolites.

RevDate: 2024-07-06
CmpDate: 2024-07-06

Pourafshar S, Sharma B, Allen J, et al (2024)

Longitudinal Pilot Evaluation of the Gut Microbiota Comparing Patients With and Without Chronic Kidney Disease.

Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, 34(4):302-312.

OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota contributes to metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, but is poorly characterized in chronic kidney disease (CKD).

DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 24 adults within household pairs, in which at least one member had self-reported kidney disease, diabetes, or hypertension. CKD was classified based on estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m[2] or urine-albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥ 30 mg/g. Participants collected stool and dietary recalls seasonally over a year. Gut microbiota was characterized using 16s rRNA and metagenomic sequencing.

RESULTS: Ten participants had CKD (42%) with a median (interquartile range) estimated glomerular filtration rate of 49 (44, 54) mL/min/1.73 m[2]. By 16s rRNA sequencing, there was moderate to high intraclass correlation (ICC = 0.63) for seasonal alpha diversity (Shannon index) within individuals and modest differences by season (P < .01). ICC was lower with metagenomics, which has resolution at the species level (ICC = 0.26). There were no differences in alpha or beta diversity by CKD with either method. Among 79 genera, Frisingicoccus, Tuzzerella, Faecalitalea, and Lachnoclostridium had lower abundance in CKD, while Collinsella, Lachnospiraceae_ND3007, Veillonella, and Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG_003 were more abundant in CKD (each nominal P < .05) using 16s rRNA sequencing. Higher Collinsella and Veillonella and lower Lachnoclostridium in CKD were also identified by metagenomics. By metagenomics, Coprococcus catus and Bacteroides stercoris were more and less abundant in CKD, respectively, at false discovery rate corrected P = .02.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified candidate taxa in the gut microbiota associated with CKD. High ICC in individuals with modest seasonal impacts implies that follow-up studies may use less frequent sampling.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Montgomery TL, Wang Q, Mirza A, et al (2024)

Identification of commensal gut microbiota signatures as predictors of clinical severity and disease progression in multiple sclerosis.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15292.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system and a leading cause of neurological disability in young adults. Clinical presentation and disease course are highly heterogeneous. Typically, disease progression occurs over time and is characterized by the gradual accumulation of disability. The risk of developing MS is driven by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including the gut microbiome. How the commensal gut microbiota impacts disease severity and progression over time remains unknown. In a longitudinal study, disability status and associated clinical features in 58 MS patients were tracked over 4.2 ± 0.98 years, and the baseline fecal gut microbiome was characterized via 16S amplicon sequencing. Progressor status, defined as patients with an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), were correlated with features of the gut microbiome to determine candidate microbiota associated with risk of MS disease progression. We found no overt differences in microbial community diversity and overall structure between MS patients exhibiting disease progression and non-progressors. However, a total of 41 bacterial species were associated with worsening disease, including a marked depletion in Akkermansia, Lachnospiraceae, and Oscillospiraceae, with an expansion of Alloprevotella, Prevotella-9, and Rhodospirillales. Analysis of the metabolic potential of the inferred metagenome from taxa associated with progression revealed enrichment in oxidative stress-inducing aerobic respiration at the expense of microbial vitamin K2 production (linked to Akkermansia), and a depletion in SCFA metabolism (linked to Oscillospiraceae). Further, as a proof of principle, statistical modeling demonstrated that microbiota composition and clinical features were sufficient to predict disease progression. Additionally, we found that constipation, a frequent gastrointestinal comorbidity among MS patients, exhibited a divergent microbial signature compared with progressor status. These results demonstrate a proof of principle for the utility of the gut microbiome for predicting disease progression in MS in a small well-defined cohort. Further, analysis of the inferred metagenome suggested that oxidative stress, vitamin K2, and SCFAs are associated with progression, warranting future functional validation and mechanistic study.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Mac Aogáin M, Dicker AJ, Mertsch P, et al (2024)

Infection and the microbiome in bronchiectasis.

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society, 33(173):.

Bronchiectasis is marked by bronchial dilatation, recurrent infections and significant morbidity, underpinned by a complex interplay between microbial dysbiosis and immune dysregulation. The identification of distinct endophenotypes have refined our understanding of its pathogenesis, including its heterogeneous disease mechanisms that influence treatment and prognosis responses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised the way we view airway microbiology, allowing insights into the "unculturable". Understanding the bronchiectasis microbiome through targeted amplicon sequencing and/or shotgun metagenomics has provided key information on the interplay of the microbiome and host immunity, a central feature of disease progression. The rapid increase in translational and clinical studies in bronchiectasis now provides scope for the application of precision medicine and a better understanding of the efficacy of interventions aimed at restoring microbial balance and/or modulating immune responses. Holistic integration of these insights is driving an evolving paradigm shift in our understanding of bronchiectasis, which includes the critical role of the microbiome and its unique interplay with clinical, inflammatory, immunological and metabolic factors. Here, we review the current state of infection and the microbiome in bronchiectasis and provide views on the future directions in this field.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Wang Y, Bi S, Li X, et al (2024)

Perturbations in gut microbiota composition in schizophrenia.

PloS one, 19(7):e0306582.

Schizophrenia is a severe, complex and long-term psychiatric disorder with unclear etiology. Gut microbes influence the central nervous system via the gut-brain axis. Consequently, investigations of the relationship between gut microbes and schizophrenia are warranted. This study involved 29 patients with schizophrenia and 30 age-matched normal controls. After 16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we analyzed microbial diversity, composition, and function. According to 16S rRNA and metagenomic gene sequencing results, patients with schizophrenia had higher abundances of Clostridium and Megasphaera. Functional analysis showed that sphingolipid, phosphonates and phosphinates, as well as glutamine metabolism were associated with the occurrence and development of schizophrenia. Our data suggest that the gut microbiota exerts an effect on patients with schizophrenia, providing valuable insights into the potential regulation of in the context of this disorder.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Cao S, Ren X, Zhang G, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota metagenomics and mediation of phenol degradation in Bactrocera minax (Diptera, Tephritidae).

Pest management science, 80(8):3935-3944.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota mediating insect-plant interactions have many manifestations, either by provisioning missing nutrients, or by overcoming plant defensive reactions. However, the mechanism by which gut microbiota empower insects to survive by overcoming a variety of plant secondary metabolites remains largely unknown. Bactrocera minax larvae develop in immature citrus fruits, which present numerous phenolic compounds that challenge the larvae. To explore the role of gut microbes in host use and adaptability, we uncovered the mechanisms of phenol degradation by gut microbes using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses, and verified the degradation ability of isolated and cultured bacteria. Research on this subject can help develop potential strain for the environmental friendly pest management operations.

RESULTS: We demonstrated the ability of gut microbes in B. minax larvae to degrade phenols in unripe citrus. After antibiotic treatment, coniferyl alcohol and coumaric aldehyde significantly reduced the survival rate, body length and body weight of the larvae. The metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses in B. minax provided evidence for the presence of genes in bacteria and the related pathway involved in phenol degradation. Among them, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens, isolated from the gut of B. minax larvae, played critical roles in phenol degradation. Furthermore, supplementation of E. faecalis and S. marcescens in artificial diets containing coniferyl alcohol and coumaric aldehyde increased the survival rate of larvae.

CONCLUSION: In summary, our results provided the first comprehensive analysis of gut bacterial communities by high-throughput sequencing and elucidated the role of bacteria in phenol degradation in B. minax, which shed light on the mechanism underlying specialist insect adaption to host secondary metabolites via gut bacteria. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Zou S, Chen Z, Tan Y, et al (2024)

Microbiomes detected by cerebrospinal fluid metagenomic next-generation sequencing among patients with and without HIV with suspected central nervous system infection.

HIV medicine, 25(7):794-804.

BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections in the central nervous system (CNS) can be a serious threat to people living with HIV. Early aetiological diagnosis and targeted treatment are crucial but difficult. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has significant advantages over traditional detection methods. However, differences in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiome profiles of patients living with and without HIV with suspected CNS infections using mNGS and conventional testing methods have not yet been adequately evaluated.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the first hospital of Changsha between January 2019 and June 2022 to investigate the microbiomes detected using mNGS of the CSF of patients living with and without HIV with suspected CNS infections. The pathogens causing CNS infections were concurrently identified using both mNGS and traditional detection methods. The spectrum of pathogens identified was compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients (140 with and 33 without HIV) with suspected CNS infection were enrolled in our study. In total, 106 (75.7%) patients with and 16 (48.5%) patients without HIV tested positive with mNGS (p = 0.002). Among the enrolled patients, 71 (50.7%) with HIV and five (15.2%) without HIV tested positive for two or more pathogens (p < 0.001). Patients with HIV had significantly higher proportions of fungus (20.7% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.016) and DNA virus (59.3% vs. 21.2%, p < 0.001) than those without HIV. Epstein-Barr virus (33.6%) was the most commonly identified potential pathogen in the CSF of patients living with HIV using mNGS, followed by cytomegalovirus (20.7%) and torque teno virus (13.8%). The top three causative pathogens identified in patients without HIV were Streptococcus (18.2%), Epstein-Barr virus (12.1%), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9.1%). In total, 113 patients living with HIV were diagnosed as having CNS infections. The rate of pathogen detection in people living with HIV with a CNS infection was significantly higher with mNGS than with conventional methods (93.8% vs. 15.0%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: CSF microbiome profiles differ between patients living with and without HIV with suspected CNS infection. mNGS is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of CNS infection among people living with HIV, especially in those with mixed infections.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Bredon M, Danne C, Pham HP, et al (2024)

Faecalibaterium prausnitzii strain EXL01 boosts efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Oncoimmunology, 13(1):2374954.

Gut microbiota impacts responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). A high level of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii have been associated with a positive response to ICI in multiple cancer types. Here, based on fecal shotgun metagenomics data, we show in two independent cohorts of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and advanced melanoma that a high level of F. prausnitzii at baseline is positively associated with a better clinical response to ICI. In MCA205 tumor-bearing mice, administration of F. prausnitzii strain EXL01, already in clinical development for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, restores the anti-tumor response to ICI in the context of antibiotic-induced microbiota perturbation at clinical and tumor transcriptomics level. In vitro, EXL01 strain enhances T cell activation in the presence of ICI. Interestingly, oral administration of EXL01 strain did not induce any change in fecal microbiota diversity or composition, suggesting a direct effect on immune cells in the small intestine. F. prausnitzii strain EXL01 will be evaluated as an adjuvant to ICI in multiple cancers in the near future.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Kifle BA, Sime AM, Gemeda MT, et al (2024)

Shotgun metagenomic insights into secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters reveal taxonomic and functional profiles of microbiomes in natural farmland soil.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15096.

Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem that imposes a devastating effect on developing countries and requires immediate interventions. Initially, most of the antibiotic drugs were identified by culturing soil microbes. However, this method is prone to discovering the same antibiotics repeatedly. The present study employed a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic diversity, functional potential, and biosynthetic capacity of microbiomes from two natural agricultural farmlands located in Bekeka and Welmera Choke Kebelle in Ethiopia for the first time. Analysis of the small subunit rRNA revealed bacterial domain accounting for 83.33% and 87.24% in the two selected natural farmlands. Additionally, the analysis showed the dominance of Proteobacteria representing 27.27% and 28.79% followed by Actinobacteria making up 12.73% and 13.64% of the phyla composition. Furthermore, the analysis revealed the presence of unassigned bacteria in the studied samples. The metagenome functional analysis showed 176,961 and 104, 636 number of protein-coding sequences (pCDS) from the two samples found a match with 172,655 and 102, 275 numbers of InterPro entries, respectively. The Genome ontology annotation suggests the presence of 5517 and 3293 pCDS assigned to the "biosynthesis process". Numerous Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes modules (KEGG modules) involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids and polyketides were identified. Furthermore, both known and novel Biosynthetic gene clusters, responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, such as polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (Ripp), and Terpene, were discovered. Generally, from the results it can be concluded that the microbiomes in the selected sampling sites have a hidden functional potential for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Overall, this study can serve as a strong preliminary step in the long journey of bringing new antibiotics to the market.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Pan H, Wattiez R, D Gillan (2024)

Soil Metaproteomics for Microbial Community Profiling: Methodologies and Challenges.

Current microbiology, 81(8):257.

Soil represents a complex and dynamic ecosystem, hosting a myriad of microorganisms that coexist and play vital roles in nutrient cycling and organic matter transformation. Among these microorganisms, bacteria and fungi are key members of the microbial community, profoundly influencing the fate of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon in terrestrial environments. Understanding the intricacies of soil ecosystems and the biological processes orchestrated by microbial communities necessitates a deep dive into their composition and metabolic activities. The advent of next-generation sequencing and 'omics' techniques, such as metagenomics and metaproteomics, has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and the functional dynamics of soil microbial communities. Metagenomics enables the identification of microbial community composition in soil, while metaproteomics sheds light on the current biological functions performed by these communities. However, metaproteomics presents several challenges, both technical and computational. Factors such as the presence of humic acids and variations in extraction methods can influence protein yield, while the absence of high-resolution mass spectrometry and comprehensive protein databases limits the depth of protein identification. Notwithstanding these limitations, metaproteomics remains a potent tool for unraveling the intricate biological processes and functions of soil microbial communities. In this review, we delve into the methodologies and challenges of metaproteomics in soil research, covering aspects such as protein extraction, identification, and bioinformatics analysis. Furthermore, we explore the applications of metaproteomics in soil bioremediation, highlighting its potential in addressing environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Li L, Flores M, Salvador A, et al (2024)

Impact of paprika and dextrose addition on dry cured loins microbiota and its effect on aroma development.

International journal of food microbiology, 421:110782.

The impact of paprika and dextrose addition on the surface of dry cured loins was analysed attending to differences in microbiota composition and aroma profile. Three different types of loins containing either dextrose (D), paprika (P) or a mixture of dextrose and paprika (DP) were manufactured. The loins were characterized using physic-chemical parameters, free amino acids, volatile compounds and aroma sensorial analysis, as well as applying microbiological counts and metagenomics of the 16S rRNA gene and its rDNA region. The analysis of volatile compounds clearly distinguished all loins, whereas the total content of free amino acids only separated P from D and DP loins. The main sensory differences were linked to paprika addition, which increased the perception of paprika and smoky odors as well as cured, savoury and cheesy notes. Microbial counts analysis could not differentiate between the three loin types; however, metagenomics analysis revealed clear differences in key bacterial and fungal genera among the three loins. Paprika addition favoured dominance of Latilactobacillus in the microbiota of P loins. On the contrary, dextrose addition caused the dominance of Staphylococcus in the microbiota of D loins. In DP loins, both genera were similarly represented in the bacterial community. Regarding fungi, large differences could be observed within the P and D loins, whereas the proportion of Debaryomyces in DP loins increased. The microbiota composition of DP loins controlled the lipid oxidation phenomenon, reducing the generation of derived volatiles producing rancid notes and increase the volatile compounds derived from amino acids such as branched aldehydes, pyrazines and pyrroles, providing particular aroma notes to the loins.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Hirsch P, Molano LG, Engel A, et al (2024)

Mibianto: ultra-efficient online microbiome analysis through k-mer based metagenomics.

Nucleic acids research, 52(W1):W407-W414.

Quantifying microbiome species and composition from metagenomic assays is often challenging due to its time-consuming nature and computational complexity. In Bioinformatics, k-mer-based approaches were long established to expedite the analysis of large sequencing data and are now widely used to annotate metagenomic data. We make use of k-mer counting techniques for efficient and accurate compositional analysis of microbiota from whole metagenome sequencing. Mibianto solves this problem by operating directly on read files, without manual preprocessing or complete data exchange. It handles diverse sequencing platforms, including short single-end, paired-end, and long read technologies. Our sketch-based workflow significantly reduces the data volume transferred from the user to the server (up to 99.59% size reduction) to subsequently perform taxonomic profiling with enhanced efficiency and privacy. Mibianto offers functionality beyond k-mer quantification; it supports advanced community composition estimation, including diversity, ordination, and differential abundance analysis. Our tool aids in the standardization of computational workflows, thus supporting reproducibility of scientific sequencing studies. It is adaptable to small- and large-scale experimental designs and offers a user-friendly interface, thus making it an invaluable tool for both clinical and research-oriented metagenomic studies. Mibianto is freely available without the need for a login at: https://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/mibianto.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Koci O, Russell RK, Shaikh MG, et al (2024)

CViewer: a Java-based statistical framework for integration of shotgun metagenomics with other omics datasets.

Microbiome, 12(1):117.

BACKGROUND: Shotgun metagenomics for microbial community survey recovers enormous amount of information for microbial genomes that include their abundances, taxonomic, and phylogenetic information, as well as their genomic makeup, the latter of which then helps retrieve their function based on annotated gene products, mRNA, protein, and metabolites. Within the context of a specific hypothesis, additional modalities are often included, to give host-microbiome interaction. For example, in human-associated microbiome projects, it has become increasingly common to include host immunology through flow cytometry. Whilst there are plenty of software approaches available, some that utilize marker-based and assembly-based approaches, for downstream statistical analyses, there is still a dearth of statistical tools that help consolidate all such information in a single platform. By virtue of stringent computational requirements, the statistical workflow is often passive with limited visual exploration.

RESULTS: In this study, we have developed a Java-based statistical framework (https://github.com/KociOrges/cviewer) to explore shotgun metagenomics data, which integrates seamlessly with conventional pipelines and offers exploratory as well as hypothesis-driven analyses. The end product is a highly interactive toolkit with a multiple document interface, which makes it easier for a person without specialized knowledge to perform analysis of multiomics datasets and unravel biologically relevant patterns. We have designed algorithms based on frequently used numerical ecology and machine learning principles, with value-driven from integrated omics tools which not only find correlations amongst different datasets but also provide discrimination based on case-control relationships.

CONCLUSIONS: CViewer was used to analyse two distinct metagenomic datasets with varying complexities. These include a dietary intervention study to understand Crohn's disease changes during a dietary treatment to include remission, as well as a gut microbiome profile for an obesity dataset comparing subjects who suffer from obesity of different aetiologies and against controls who were lean. Complete analyses of both studies in CViewer then provide very powerful mechanistic insights that corroborate with the published literature and demonstrate its full potential. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Qiu H, Kan C, Han F, et al (2024)

Metagenomic and metabolomic analysis showing the adverse risk-benefit trade-off of the ketogenic diet.

Lipids in health and disease, 23(1):207.

BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets are increasingly popular for addressing obesity, but their impacts on the gut microbiota and metabolome remain unclear. This paper aimed to investigate how a ketogenic diet affects intestinal microorganisms and metabolites in obesity.

METHODS: Male mice were provided with one of the following dietary regimens: normal chow, high-fat diet, ketogenic diet, or high-fat diet converted to ketogenic diet. Body weight and fat mass were measured weekly using high-precision electronic balances and minispec body composition analyzers. Metagenomics and non-targeted metabolomics data were used to analyze differences in intestinal contents.

RESULTS: Obese mice on the ketogenic diet exhibited notable improvements in weight and body fat. However, these were accompanied by a significant decrease in intestinal microbial diversity, as well as an increase in Firmicutes abundance and a 247% increase in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. The ketogenic diet also altered multiple metabolic pathways in the gut, including glucose, lipid, energy, carbohydrate, amino acid, ketone body, butanoate, and methane pathways, as well as bacterial secretion and colonization pathways. These changes were associated with increased intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis in obese mice. Furthermore, the ketogenic diet enhanced the secretion of bile and the synthesis of aminoglycoside antibiotics in obese mice, which may impair the gut microbiota and be associated with intestinal inflammation and immunity.

CONCLUSIONS: The study suggest that the ketogenic diet had an unfavorable risk-benefit trade-off and may compromise metabolic homeostasis in obese mice.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Li W, Cheng L, He X, et al (2024)

Gut fungi of black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) respond to dietary changes during wintering.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):232.

BACKGROUND: Migratory birds exhibit heterogeneity in foraging strategies during wintering to cope with environmental and migratory pressures, and gut bacteria respond to changes in host diet. However, less is known about the dynamics of diet and gut fungi during the wintering period in black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis).

RESULTS: In this work, we performed amplicon sequencing of the trnL-P6 loop and ITS1 regions to characterize the dietary composition and gut fungal composition of black-necked cranes during wintering. Results indicated that during the wintering period, the plant-based diet of black-necked cranes mainly consisted of families Poaceae, Solanaceae, and Polygonaceae. Among them, the abundance of Solanaceae, Polygonaceae, Fabaceae, and Caryophyllaceae was significantly higher in the late wintering period, which also led to a more even consumption of various food types by black-necked cranes during this period. The diversity of gut fungal communities and the abundance of core fungi were more conserved during the wintering period, primarily dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. LEfSe analysis (P < 0.05, LDA > 2) found that Pyxidiophora, Pseudopeziza, Sporormiella, Geotrichum, and Papiliotrema were significantly enriched in early winter, Ramularia and Dendryphion were significantly enriched in mid-winter, Barnettozyma was significantly abundant in late winter, and Pleuroascus was significantly abundant in late winter. Finally, mantel test revealed a significant correlation between winter diet and gut fungal.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the dynamic changes in the food composition and gut fungal community of black-necked cranes during wintering in Dashanbao. In the late wintering period, their response to environmental and migratory pressures was to broaden their diet, increase the intake of non-preferred foods, and promote a more balanced consumption ratio of various foods. Balanced food composition played an important role in stabilizing the structure of the gut fungal community. While gut fungal effectively enhanced the host's food utilization rate, they may also faced potential risks of introducing pathogenic fungi. Additionally, we recongnized the limitations of fecal testing in studying the composition of animal gut fungal, as it cannot effectively distinguished between fungal taxa from food or soil inadvertently ingested and intestines. Future research on functions such as cultivation and metagenomics may further elucidate the role of fungi in the gut ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Kallapura G, Prakash AS, Sankaran K, et al (2024)

Microbiota based personalized nutrition improves hyperglycaemia and hypertension parameters and reduces inflammation: a prospective, open label, controlled, randomized, comparative, proof of concept study.

PeerJ, 12:e17583.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that gut microbiota composition, abundance and diversity can influence many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Modulating gut microbiota through targeted nutrition can provide beneficial effects leading to the concept of personalized nutrition for health improvement. In this prospective clinical trial, we evaluated the impact of a microbiome-based targeted personalized diet on hyperglycaemic and hyperlipidaemic individuals. Specifically, BugSpeaks[®]-a microbiome profile test that profiles microbiota using next generation sequencing and provides personalized nutritional recommendation based on the individual microbiota profile was evaluated.

METHODS: A total of 30 participants with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidaemia were recruited for this study. The microbiome profile of the 15 participants (test arm) was evaluated using whole genome shotgun metagenomics and personalized nutritional recommendations based on their microbiota profile were provided. The remaining 15 participants (control arm) were provided with diabetic nutritional guidance for 3 months. Clinical and anthropometric parameters such as HbA1c, systolic/diastolic pressure, c-reactive protein levels and microbiota composition were measured and compared during the study.

RESULTS: The test arm (microbiome-based nutrition) showed a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c level from 8.30 (95% confidence interval (CI), [7.74-8.85]) to 6.67 (95% CI [6.2-7.05]), p < 0.001 after 90 days. The test arm also showed a 5% decline in the systolic pressure whereas the control arm showed a 7% increase. Incidentally, a sub-cohort of the test arm of patients with >130 mm Hg systolic pressure showed a statistically significant decrease of systolic pressure by 14%. Interestingly, CRP level was also found to drop by 19.5%. Alpha diversity measures showed a significant increase in Shannon diversity measure (p < 0.05), after the microbiome-based personalized dietary intervention. The intervention led to a minimum two-fold (Log2 fold change increase in species like Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens, Bifidobacterium angulatum, and Levilactobacillus brevis which might have a beneficial role in the current context and a similar decrease in species like Alistipes finegoldii, and Sutterella faecalis which have been earlier shown to have some negative effects in the host. Overall, the study indicated a net positive impact of the microbiota based personalized dietary regime on the gut microbiome and correlated clinical parameters.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

du Preez LL, van der Walt E, Valverde A, et al (2024)

A metagenomic survey of the fecal microbiome of the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana).

Animal genetics, 55(4):621-643.

The African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) is the largest terrestrial animal on Earth and is found primarily in Southern and Eastern Africa. It is a hindgut, colonic fermenter and subsists on a diet of raw plant materials found in its grazing area. In this study the bacterial, archaeal and fungal populations of seven African savanna elephant fecal metagenomes were first characterized using amplicon sequencing. On the genus level it was observed that the p-1088-a5 gut group in the bacteriome, Methanocorpusulum and Methanobrevibacter in the archaeome and Alternaria, Aurobasidium, Didymella and Preussia in the mycome, predominated. Subsequently, metagenomic shotgun sequencing was employed to identify possible functional pathways and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Carbohydrate catabolic pathways represented the main degradation pathways, and the fecal metagenome was enriched in the glycohydroside (GH) class of CAZymes. Additionally, the top GH families identified - GH43, GH2, GH13 and GH3 - are known to be associated with cellulytic, hemicellulytic and pectolytic activities. Finally, the CAZymes families identified in the African savanna elephant were compared with those found in the Asian elephant and it was demonstrated that there is a unique repository of CAZymes that could be leveraged in the biotechnological context such as the degradation of lignocellulose for the production of second-generation biofuels and energy.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Nasseri SA, Lazarski AC, Lemmer IL, et al (2024)

An alternative broad-specificity pathway for glycan breakdown in bacteria.

Nature, 631(8019):199-206.

The vast majority of glycosidases characterized to date follow one of the variations of the 'Koshland' mechanisms[1] to hydrolyse glycosidic bonds through substitution reactions. Here we describe a large-scale screen of a human gut microbiome metagenomic library using an assay that selectively identifies non-Koshland glycosidase activities[2]. Using this, we identify a cluster of enzymes with extremely broad substrate specificities and thoroughly characterize these, mechanistically and structurally. These enzymes not only break glycosidic linkages of both α and β stereochemistry and multiple connectivities, but also cleave substrates that are not hydrolysed by standard glycosidases. These include thioglycosides, such as the glucosinolates from plants, and pseudoglycosidic bonds of pharmaceuticals such as acarbose. This is achieved through a distinct mechanism of hydrolysis that involves oxidation/reduction and elimination/hydration steps, each catalysed by enzyme modules that are in many cases interchangeable between organisms and substrate classes. Homologues of these enzymes occur in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria associated with the gut microbiome and other body parts, as well as other environments, such as soil and sea. Such alternative step-wise mechanisms appear to constitute largely unrecognized but abundant pathways for glycan degradation as part of the metabolism of carbohydrates in bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Tierney BT, Kim J, Overbey EG, et al (2024)

Longitudinal multi-omics analysis of host microbiome architecture and immune responses during short-term spaceflight.

Nature microbiology, 9(7):1661-1675.

Maintenance of astronaut health during spaceflight will require monitoring and potentially modulating their microbiomes. However, documenting microbial shifts during spaceflight has been difficult due to mission constraints that lead to limited sampling and profiling. Here we executed a six-month longitudinal study to quantify the high-resolution human microbiome response to three days in orbit for four individuals. Using paired metagenomics and metatranscriptomics alongside single-nuclei immune cell profiling, we characterized time-dependent, multikingdom microbiome changes across 750 samples and 10 body sites before, during and after spaceflight at eight timepoints. We found that most alterations were transient across body sites; for example, viruses increased in skin sites mostly during flight. However, longer-term shifts were observed in the oral microbiome, including increased plaque-associated bacteria (for example, Fusobacteriota), which correlated with immune cell gene expression. Further, microbial genes associated with phage activity, toxin-antitoxin systems and stress response were enriched across multiple body sites. In total, this study reveals in-depth characterization of microbiome and immune response shifts experienced by astronauts during short-term spaceflight and the associated changes to the living environment, which can help guide future missions, spacecraft design and space habitat planning.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Liu Y, Fachrul M, Inouye M, et al (2024)

Harnessing human microbiomes for disease prediction.

Trends in microbiology, 32(7):707-719.

The human microbiome has been increasingly recognized as having potential use for disease prediction. Predicting the risk, progression, and severity of diseases holds promise to transform clinical practice, empower patient decisions, and reduce the burden of various common diseases, as has been demonstrated for cardiovascular disease or breast cancer. Combining multiple modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, including high-dimensional genomic data, has been traditionally favored, but few studies have incorporated the human microbiome into models for predicting the prospective risk of disease. Here, we review research into the use of the human microbiome for disease prediction with a particular focus on prospective studies as well as the modulation and engineering of the microbiome as a therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Li Y, Qi X, Wang Q, et al (2024)

Comprehensive analysis of key host gene-microbe networks in the cecum tissues of the obese rabbits induced by a high-fat diet.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1407051.

The Cecum is a key site for cellulose digestion in nutrient metabolism of intestine, but its mechanisms of microbial and gene interactions has not been fully elucidated during pathogenesis of obesity. Therefore, the cecum tissues of the New Zealand rabbits and their contents between the high-fat diet-induced group (Ob) and control group (Co) were collected and analyzed using multi-omics. The metagenomic analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Corallococcus_sp._CAG:1435 and Flavobacteriales bacterium species were significantly lower, while those of Akkermansia glycaniphila, Clostridium_sp._CAG:793, Mycoplasma_sp._CAG:776, Mycoplasma_sp._CAG:472, Clostridium_sp._CAG:609, Akkermansia_sp._KLE1605, Clostridium_sp._CAG:508, and Firmicutes_bacterium_CAG:460 species were significantly higher in the Ob as compared to those in Co. Transcriptomic sequencing results showed that the differentially upregulated genes were mainly enriched in pathways, including calcium signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway, while the differentially downregulated genes were mainly enriched in pathways of NF-kappaB signaling pathway and T cell receptor signaling pathway. The comparative analysis of metabolites showed that the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism and cysteine and methionine metabolism were the important metabolic pathways between the two groups. The combined analysis showed that CAMK1, IGFBP6, and IGFBP4 genes were highly correlated with Clostridium_sp._CAG:793, and Akkermansia_glycaniphila species. Thus, the preliminary study elucidated the microbial and gene interactions in cecum of obese rabbit and provided a basis for further studies in intestinal intervention for human obesity.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-29

Larzul C, Estellé J, Borey M, et al (2024)

Driving gut microbiota enterotypes through host genetics.

Microbiome, 12(1):116.

BACKGROUND: Population stratification based on interindividual variability in gut microbiota composition has revealed the existence of several ecotypes named enterotypes in humans and various animal species. Enterotypes are often associated with environmental factors including diet, but knowledge of the role of host genetics remains scarce. Moreover, enterotypes harbor functionalities likely associated with varying abilities and susceptibilities of their host. Previously, we showed that under controlled conditions, 60-day-old pig populations consistently split into two enterotypes with either Prevotella and Mitsuokella (PM enterotype) or Ruminococcus and Treponema (RT enterotype) as keystone taxa. Here, our aim was to rely on pig as a model to study the influence of host genetics to assemble enterotypes, and to provide clues on enterotype functional differences and their links with growth traits.

RESULTS: We established two pig lines contrasted for abundances of the genera pairs specifying each enterotype at 60 days of age and assessed them for fecal microbiota composition and growth throughout three consecutive generations. Response to selection across three generations revealed, per line, an increase in the prevalence of the selected enterotype and in the average relative abundances of directly and indirectly selected bacterial genera. The PM enterotype was found less diverse than the RT enterotype but more efficient for piglet growth during the post-weaning period. Shotgun metagenomics revealed differentially abundant bacterial species between the two enterotypes. By using the KEGG Orthology database, we show that functions related to starch degradation and polysaccharide metabolism are enriched in the PM enterotype, whereas functions related to general nucleoside transport and peptide/nickel transport are enriched in the RT enterotype. Our results also suggest that the PM and RT enterotypes might differ in the metabolism of valine, leucin, and isoleucine, favoring their biosynthesis and degradation, respectively.

CONCLUSION: We experimentally demonstrated that enterotypes are functional ecosystems that can be selected as a whole by exerting pressure on the host genetics. We also highlight that holobionts should be considered as units of selection in breeding programs. These results pave the way for a holistic use of host genetics, microbiota diversity, and enterotype functionalities to understand holobiont shaping and adaptation. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-29

Laux M, Ciapina LP, de Carvalho FM, et al (2024)

Living in mangroves: a syntrophic scenario unveiling a resourceful microbiome.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):228.

BACKGROUND: Mangroves are complex and dynamic coastal ecosystems under frequent fluctuations in physicochemical conditions related to the tidal regime. The frequent variation in organic matter concentration, nutrients, and oxygen availability, among other factors, drives the microbial community composition, favoring syntrophic populations harboring a rich and diverse, stress-driven metabolism. Mangroves are known for their carbon sequestration capability, and their complex and integrated metabolic activity is essential to global biogeochemical cycling. Here, we present a metabolic reconstruction based on the genomic functional capability and flux profile between sympatric MAGs co-assembled from a tropical restored mangrove.

RESULTS: Eleven MAGs were assigned to six Bacteria phyla, all distantly related to the available reference genomes. The metabolic reconstruction showed several potential coupling points and shortcuts between complementary routes and predicted syntrophic interactions. Two metabolic scenarios were drawn: a heterotrophic scenario with plenty of carbon sources and an autotrophic scenario with limited carbon sources or under inhibitory conditions. The sulfur cycle was dominant over methane and the major pathways identified were acetate oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction, heterotrophic acetogenesis coupled to carbohydrate catabolism, ethanol production and carbon fixation. Interestingly, several gene sets and metabolic routes similar to those described for wastewater and organic effluent treatment processes were identified.

CONCLUSION: The mangrove microbial community metabolic reconstruction reflected the flexibility required to survive in fluctuating environments as the microhabitats created by the tidal regime in mangrove sediments. The metabolic components related to wastewater and organic effluent treatment processes identified strongly suggest that mangrove microbial communities could represent a resourceful microbial model for biotechnological applications that occur naturally in the environment.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Fo X, Pei ML, Liu PJ, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis revealed the association between gut microbiota and different ovary responses to controlled ovarian stimulation.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14930.

The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between gut microbial taxonomy and various ovarian responses to controlled ovarian stimulation. A total of 22 IVF cycles with a follicle-to-oocyte index (FOI) < 0.5 and 25 IVF cycles with FOI ≥ 0.5 were included in this study. Baseline demographic characteristics were compared between the two groups. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to analyze fecal microbial community profiles. Mice were used to evaluate the effect of Bifidobacterium_longum on ovarian response to stimulation. Compared with FOI < 0.5 group, women in group with FOI ≥ 0.5 had significant more oocytes retrieved (p < 0.01). Prevotella_copri, Bateroides_vulgatus, Escherichia_coli and Bateroides_stercoris were more abundant in FOI < 0.5 group while Bifidobacterium_longum, Faecalibacterium_prausnitzii, Ruminococcus_gnavus and Bifidobacterium_pseudocatenula were more abundant in FOI ≥ 0.5 group. After adjusting for women's age and BMI, Pearson correlation analysis indicated alteration of gut microbiome was related with serum E2, FSH, number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate. Animal study showed ovarian response will be improved after Bifidobacterium_longum applied. An increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and Prevotella copri, as well as a decreased abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, have been found to be associated with poor ovarian responsiveness. Changes in gut microbiomes have been observed to be correlated with certain clinical characteristics. The potential enhancement of ovarian response may be facilitated by the integration of Bifidobacterium longum.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Liu Y, Huang Q, Zhuang Z, et al (2024)

Gut virome alterations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Microbiology spectrum, 12(7):e0428723.

UNLABELLED: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the primary causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The gut microbiome, particularly the bacteriome, has been demonstrated to contribute to the progression of COPD. However, the influence of gut virome on the pathogenesis of COPD is rarely studied. Recent advances in viral metagenomics have enabled the rapid discovery of its remarkable role in COPD. In this study, deep metagenomics sequencing of fecal virus-like particles and bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on 92 subjects from China to characterize alterations of the gut virome in COPD. Lower richness and diversity of the gut virome were observed in the COPD subjects compared with the healthy individuals. Sixty-four viral species, including Clostridium phage, Myoviridae sp., and Synechococcus phage, showed positive relationships with pulmonary ventilation functions and had markedly declined population in COPD subjects. Multiple viral functions, mainly involved in bacterial susceptibility and the interaction between bacteriophages and bacterial hosts, were significantly declined in COPD. In addition, COPD was characterized by weakened viral-bacterial interactions compared with those in the healthy cohort. The gut virome showed diagnostic performance with an area under the curve (AUC) of 88.7%, which indicates the potential diagnostic value of the gut virome for COPD. These results suggest that gut virome may play an important role in the development of COPD. The information can provide a reference for the future investigation of diagnosis, treatment, and in-depth mechanism research of COPD.

IMPORTANCE: Previous studies showed that the bacteriome plays an important role in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little is known about the involvement of the gut virome in COPD. Our study explored the disease-specific virome signatures of patients with COPD. We found the diversity and compositions altered of the gut virome in COPD subjects compared with healthy individuals, especially those viral species positively correlated with pulmonary ventilation functions. Additionally, the declined bacterial susceptibility, the interaction between bacteriophages and bacterial hosts, and the weakened viral-bacterial interactions in COPD were observed. The findings also suggested the potential diagnostic value of the gut virome for COPD. The results highlight the significance of gut virome in COPD. The novel strategies for gut virome rectifications may help to restore the balance of gut microecology and represent promising therapeutics for COPD.

RevDate: 2024-06-29

Ogola HJO, Ijoma GN, JN Edokpayi (2024)

Exploring the dichotomy: Shotgun metagenomics reveals diversity of beneficial and pathogenic protist community in arid wetlands of northeastern South Africa.

The Science of the total environment, 946:174306 pii:S0048-9697(24)04454-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Arid regions harbor seasonal and permanent wetlands, as biodiversity hotspots crucial for ecosystem services despite harsh conditions. These wetlands, typically dependent on episodic intense rainfall, are understudied compared to their humid counterparts. While the diversity of plants and animals in these wetlands is well-known, the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. To address this knowledge gap, we employed metagenome sequencing technologies to profile protist communities, including pathogenic protozoa, and their associated functional pathways, in sediment of permanent and seasonal arid freshwater wetlands across northern South Africa. Results revealed a core community of protists dominated by phylum Apicomplexa (66.73 %), Euglenazoa (19.03 %), Bacillariophyta (5.44 %), Metamonada (4.65 %), Cryptophyta (1.90 %), and Amoebazoa (1.21 %). Seasonal wetlands showed significantly higher protist diversity compared to permanent wetlands (Shannon index, p = 0.019; Chao1, p = 0.0095). A high abundance and diversity of human and zoonotic pathogenic protists (87.67 %) was observed, with lower levels of photoautotrophs (6.69 %) and limited diversity of phagotrophs (5.64 %). Key photoautotrophs identified included diatoms (Thalassiosiraceae and Phaeodactylaceae) and cryptophytes (genus Hemiselmis and Cryptophyta), with consumers/phagotrophs exhibited a correlation with the bacterial community abundance (r[2] = 0.218, p < 0.001). Pathogenic protozoans identified, include malaria-causing Plasmodium, kinetoplastids (genus Besnoita, Theilleria, Neospora, Toxoplasma, Encephalitozoon, and Babesia) and waterborne protozoans of public health importance (such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia). Furthermore, the enrichment of pathogenesis-associated pathways (amino acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan maturation, heme biosynthesis and degradation, and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle), along with virulence gene families identified, highlighted these wetlands as potential reservoirs for infectious diseases. Our results unveil a baseline protist taxonomic and functional composition within arid wetlands, including beneficial and pathogenic protozoa. The close proximity of these wetlands to human activity raises concern for local and transboundary spread of these pathogens. Thus, continued monitoring is vital for disease control and preserving these unique ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Holstein T, T Muth (2024)

Bioinformatic Workflows for Metaproteomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2820:187-213.

The strong influence of microbiomes on areas such as ecology and human health has become widely recognized in the past years. Accordingly, various techniques for the investigation of the composition and function of microbial community samples have been developed. Metaproteomics, the comprehensive analysis of the proteins from microbial communities, allows for the investigation of not only the taxonomy but also the functional and quantitative composition of microbiome samples. Due to the complexity of the investigated communities, methods developed for single organism proteomics cannot be readily applied to metaproteomic samples. For this purpose, methods specifically tailored to metaproteomics are required. In this work, a detailed overview of current bioinformatic solutions and protocols in metaproteomics is given. After an introduction to the proteomic database search, the metaproteomic post-processing steps are explained in detail. Ten specific bioinformatic software solutions are focused on, covering various steps including database-driven identification and quantification as well as taxonomic and functional assignment.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Li M, Shao D, Fan Z, et al (2024)

Non-invasive early detection on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions by microbial biomarkers combining epidemiological factors in China.

Journal of gastroenterology, 59(7):531-542.

BACKGROUND: Microbiota may be associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development. However, it is not known the predictive value of microbial biomarkers combining epidemiological factors for the early detection of ESCC and precancerous lesions.

METHODS: A total of 449 specimens (esophageal swabs and saliva) were collected from 349 participants with different esophageal statuses in China to explore and validate ESCC-associated microbial biomarkers from genes level to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing, metagenomic sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: A bacterial biomarker panel including Actinomyces graevenitzii (A.g_1, A.g_2, A.g_3, A.g_4), Fusobacteria nucleatum (F.n_1, F.n_2, F.n_3), Haemophilus haemolyticus (H.h_1), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g_1, P.g_2, P.g_3) and Streptococcus australis (S.a_1) was explored by metagenomic sequencing to early detect the participants in Need group (low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC) vs participants without these lesions as the Noneed group. Significant quantitative differences existed for each microbial target in which the detection efficiency rate was higher in saliva than esophageal swab. In saliva, the area under the curve (AUC) based on the microbial biomarkers (A.g_4 ∩ P.g_3 ∩ H.h_1 ∩ S.a_1 ∩ F.n_2) was 0.722 (95% CI 0.621-0.823) in the exploration cohort. Combining epidemiological factors (age, smoking, drinking, intake of high-temperature food and toothache), the AUC improved to 0.869 (95% CI 0.802-0.937) in the exploration cohort, which was validated with AUC of 0.757 (95% CI 0.663-0.852) in the validation cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to combine microbial biomarkers in saliva and epidemiological factors to early detect ESCC and precancerous lesions in China.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Mac Aogáin M, Xaverius Ivan F, Jaggi TK, et al (2024)

Airway "Resistotypes" and Clinical Outcomes in Bronchiectasis.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 210(1):47-62.

Rationale: Chronic infection and inflammation shapes the airway microbiome in bronchiectasis. Utilizing whole-genome shotgun metagenomics to analyze the airway resistome provides insight into interplay between microbes, resistance genes, and clinical outcomes. Objectives: To apply whole-genome shotgun metagenomics to the airway microbiome in bronchiectasis to highlight a diverse pool of antimicrobial resistance genes: the "resistome," the clinical significance of which remains unclear. Methods: Individuals with bronchiectasis were prospectively recruited into cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts (n = 280), including the international multicenter cross-sectional Cohort of Asian and Matched European Bronchiectasis 2 (CAMEB 2) study (n = 251) and two independent cohorts, one describing patients experiencing acute exacerbation and a further cohort of patients undergoing Pseudomonas aeruginosa eradication treatment. Sputum was subjected to metagenomic sequencing, and the bronchiectasis resistome was evaluated in association with clinical outcomes and underlying host microbiomes. Measurements and Main Results: The bronchiectasis resistome features a unique resistance gene profile and increased counts of aminoglycoside, bicyclomycin, phenicol, triclosan, and multidrug resistance genes. Longitudinally, it exhibits within-patient stability over time and during exacerbations despite between-patient heterogeneity. Proportional differences in baseline resistome profiles, including increased macrolide and multidrug resistance genes, associate with shorter intervals to the next exacerbation, whereas distinct resistome archetypes associate with frequent exacerbations, poorer lung function, geographic origin, and the host microbiome. Unsupervised analysis of resistome profiles identified two clinically relevant "resistotypes," RT1 and RT2, the latter characterized by poor clinical outcomes, increased multidrug resistance, and P. aeruginosa. Successful targeted eradication in P. aeruginosa-colonized individuals mediated reversion from RT2 to RT1, a more clinically favorable resistome profile demonstrating reduced resistance gene diversity. Conclusions: The bronchiectasis resistome associates with clinical outcomes, geographic origin, and the underlying host microbiome. Bronchiectasis resistotypes link to clinical disease and are modifiable through targeted antimicrobial therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-28

Finnegan PM, Garber PA, McKenney AC, et al (2024)

Group membership, not diet, structures the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiome in a wild primate.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The gut microbiome has the potential to buffer temporal variations in resource availability and consumption, which may play a key role in the ability of animals to adapt to a broad range of habitats. We investigated the temporal composition and function of the gut microbiomes of wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) exploiting a hot, dry environment-Caatinga-in northeastern Brazil. We collected fecal samples during two time periods (July-August and February-March) for 2 years from marmosets belonging to eight social groups. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, metagenomic sequencing, and butyrate RT-qPCR to assess changes in the composition and potential function of their gut microbiomes. Additionally, we identified the plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate components of the marmosets' diet via DNA metabarcoding. Invertebrate, but not plant or vertebrate, consumption varied across the year. However, gut microbiome composition and potential function did not markedly vary across study periods or as a function of diet composition. Instead, the gut microbiome differed markedly in both composition and potential function across marmosets residing in different social groups. We highlight the likely role of factors, such as behavior, residence, and environmental heterogeneity, in modulating the structure of the gut microbiome.

IMPORTANCE: In a highly socially cohesive and cooperative primate, group membership more strongly predicts gut microbiome composition and function than diet.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Zeng Y, Fan N, Gu X, et al (2024)

Characteristics of gut microbiota and serum metabolism in patients with atopic dermatitis.

Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI), 30(7):e13792.

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 15%-30% of children and 10% of adults globally, with its incidence being influenced by genetic, environmental, and various other factors. While the immune plays a crucial role in the development, the composition of gut microbiota and serum metabolites also contribute to its pathogenesis.

SUBJECT: Study the characteristics of gut microbiota and serum metabolites in patients with atopic dermatitis METHOD: In this study, we collected stool and serum samples from 28 AD patients and 23 healthy individuals (NC) for metagenomic sequencing of gut microbiota and non-targeted metabolomic sequencing of serum.

RESULT: Our results revealed a lower diversity of gut microbiota in the AD group compared to the NC group. The predominant Phylum in AD patients were Bacteroidetes, Pseudomonas, and Verrucomicrobia, with the most dominant bacterial genus being Faecalibacterium. At the species level, Prevotella copri and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were found to be the most abundant bacteria. Significant differences in serum metabolite profiles were observed between NC and AD patients, with noticeable variations in metabolite expression levels. The majority of metabolites in the serum of AD patients exhibited low expression, while a few showed high expression levels. Notably, metabolites such as Cholesterol glucuronide, Styrene, Lutein, Betaine, Phosphorylcholine, Taurine, and Creatinine displayed the most pronounced alterations.

CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to a further understanding of the complexities underlying this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Shaw J, Gounot JS, Chen H, et al (2024)

Floria: fast and accurate strain haplotyping in metagenomes.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 40(Supplement_1):i30-i38.

SUMMARY: Shotgun metagenomics allows for direct analysis of microbial community genetics, but scalable computational methods for the recovery of bacterial strain genomes from microbiomes remains a key challenge. We introduce Floria, a novel method designed for rapid and accurate recovery of strain haplotypes from short and long-read metagenome sequencing data, based on minimum error correction (MEC) read clustering and a strain-preserving network flow model. Floria can function as a standalone haplotyping method, outputting alleles and reads that co-occur on the same strain, as well as an end-to-end read-to-assembly pipeline (Floria-PL) for strain-level assembly. Benchmarking evaluations on synthetic metagenomes show that Floria is > 3× faster and recovers 21% more strain content than base-level assembly methods (Strainberry) while being over an order of magnitude faster when only phasing is required. Applying Floria to a set of 109 deeply sequenced nanopore metagenomes took <20 min on average per sample and identified several species that have consistent strain heterogeneity. Applying Floria's short-read haplotyping to a longitudinal gut metagenomics dataset revealed a dynamic multi-strain Anaerostipes hadrus community with frequent strain loss and emergence events over 636 days. With Floria, accurate haplotyping of metagenomic datasets takes mere minutes on standard workstations, paving the way for extensive strain-level metagenomic analyses.

Floria is available at https://github.com/bluenote-1577/floria, and the Floria-PL pipeline is available at https://github.com/jsgounot/Floria_analysis_workflow along with code for reproducing the benchmarks.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Curry KD, Yu FB, Vance SE, et al (2024)

Reference-free structural variant detection in microbiomes via long-read co-assembly graphs.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 40(Supplement_1):i58-i67.

MOTIVATION: The study of bacterial genome dynamics is vital for understanding the mechanisms underlying microbial adaptation, growth, and their impact on host phenotype. Structural variants (SVs), genomic alterations of 50 base pairs or more, play a pivotal role in driving evolutionary processes and maintaining genomic heterogeneity within bacterial populations. While SV detection in isolate genomes is relatively straightforward, metagenomes present broader challenges due to the absence of clear reference genomes and the presence of mixed strains. In response, our proposed method rhea, forgoes reference genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) by encompassing all metagenomic samples in a series (time or other metric) into a single co-assembly graph. The log fold change in graph coverage between successive samples is then calculated to call SVs that are thriving or declining.

RESULTS: We show rhea to outperform existing methods for SV and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) detection in two simulated mock metagenomes, particularly as the simulated reads diverge from reference genomes and an increase in strain diversity is incorporated. We additionally demonstrate use cases for rhea on series metagenomic data of environmental and fermented food microbiomes to detect specific sequence alterations between successive time and temperature samples, suggesting host advantage. Our approach leverages previous work in assembly graph structural and coverage patterns to provide versatility in studying SVs across diverse and poorly characterized microbial communities for more comprehensive insights into microbial gene flux.

rhea is open source and available at: https://github.com/treangenlab/rhea.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Tansirichaiya S, Songsomboon K, Chaianant N, et al (2024)

Impact of cell lysis treatment before saliva metagenomic DNA extraction on the oral microbiome and the associated resistome.

Clinical and experimental dental research, 10(4):e905.

OBJECTIVES: The human oral microbiome, a complex ecosystem linked to oral and systemic health, harbors a diverse array of microbial populations, including antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). As a critical component of the One Health approach to tackle antibiotic resistance, comprehending the oral resistome's composition and diversity is imperative. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of chemical cell lysis treatment using MetaPolyzyme on the detectability of the oral microbiome, resistome, and DNA quality and quantity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from five healthy individuals, and each of the samples was subjected to DNA extraction with and without the treatment with MetaPolyzyme. Through metagenomic sequencing, we analyzed, assessed, and compared the microbial composition, resistome, and DNA characteristics between both groups of extracted DNA.

RESULTS: Our study revealed that MetaPolyzyme treatment led to significant shifts in the detectability of microbial composition, favoring Gram-positive bacteria, notably Streptococcus, over Gram-negative counterparts. Moreover, the MetaPolyzyme treatment also resulted in a distinct change in ARG distribution. This shift was characterized by an elevated proportion of ARGs linked to fluoroquinolones and efflux pumps, coupled with a reduction in the prevalence of tetracycline and β-lactam resistance genes when compared with the nontreated group. Alpha diversity analysis demonstrated altered species and ARG distribution without affecting overall diversity, while beta diversity analysis confirmed significant differences in the taxonomical composition and oral resistome between treated and nontreated groups.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the critical role of cell lysis treatment in optimizing oral metagenomic studies and enhance our understanding of the oral resistome's dynamics in the context of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Liébana R, Viver T, Ramos-Barbero MD, et al (2024)

Extremely halophilic brine community manipulation shows higher robustness of microbiomes inhabiting human-driven solar saltern than naturally driven lake.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Hypersaline ecosystems display taxonomically similar assemblages with low diversities and highly dense accompanying viromes. The ecological implications of viral infection on natural microbial populations remain poorly understood, especially at finer scales of diversity. Here, we sought to investigate the influence of changes in environmental physicochemical conditions and viral predation pressure by autochthonous and allochthonous viruses on host dynamics. For this purpose, we transplanted two microbiomes coming from distant hypersaline systems (solar salterns of Es Trenc in Spain and the thalassohaline lake of Aran-Bidgol lake in Iran), by exchanging the cellular fractions with the sterile-filtered accompanying brines with and without the free extracellular virus fraction. The midterm exposure (1 month) of the microbiomes to the new conditions showed that at the supraspecific taxonomic range, the assemblies from the solar saltern brine more strongly resisted the environmental changes and viral predation than that of the lake. The metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) analysis revealed an intraspecific transition at the ecotype level, mainly driven by changes in viral predation pressure, by both autochthonous and allochthonous viruses.

IMPORTANCE: Viruses greatly influence succession and diversification of their hosts, yet the effects of viral infection on the ecological dynamics of natural microbial populations remain poorly understood, especially at finer scales of diversity. By manipulating the viral predation pressure by autochthonous and allochthonous viruses, we uncovered potential phage-host interaction, and their important role in structuring the prokaryote community at an ecotype level.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Liu C, Tang Z, Li L, et al (2024)

Enhancing antimicrobial resistance detection with MetaGeneMiner: Targeted gene extraction from metagenomes.

Chinese medical journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Accurately and efficiently extracting microbial genomic sequences from complex metagenomic data is crucial for advancing our understanding in fields such as clinical diagnostics, environmental microbiology, and biodiversity. As sequencing technologies evolve, this task becomes increasingly challenging due to the intricate nature of microbial communities and the vast amount of data generated. Especially in intensive care units (ICUs), infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasingly prevalent among critically ill patients, significantly impacting the effectiveness of treatments and patient prognoses. Therefore, obtaining timely and accurate information about infectious pathogens is of paramount importance for the treatment of patients with severe infections, which enables precisely targeted anti-infection therapies, and a tool that can extract microbial genomic sequences from metagenomic dataset would be of help.

METHODS: We developed MetaGeneMiner to help with retrieving specific microbial genomic sequences from metagenomes using a k-mer-based approach. It facilitates the rapid and accurate identification and analysis of pathogens. The tool is designed to be user-friendly and efficient on standard personal computers, allowing its use across a wide variety of settings. We validated MetaGeneMiner using eight metagenomic samples from ICU patients, which demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy.

RESULTS: The software extensively retrieved coding sequences of pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii and herpes simplex virus type 1 and detected a variety of resistance genes. All documentation and source codes for MetaGeneMiner are freely available at https://gitee.com/sculab/MetaGeneMiner.

CONCLUSIONS: It is foreseeable that MetaGeneMiner possesses the potential for applications across multiple domains, including clinical diagnostics, environmental microbiology, gut microbiome research, as well as biodiversity and conservation biology. Particularly in ICU settings, MetaGeneMiner introduces a novel, rapid, and precise method for diagnosing and treating infections in critically ill patients. This tool is capable of efficiently identifying infectious pathogens, guiding personalized and precise treatment strategies, and monitoring the development of antibiotic resistance, significantly impacting the diagnosis and treatment of severe infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Conradie T, Caparros-Martin JA, Egan S, et al (2024)

Exploring the Complexity of the Human Respiratory Virome through an In Silico Analysis of Shotgun Metagenomic Data Retrieved from Public Repositories.

Viruses, 16(6):.

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses significantly impact global morbidity and mortality, causing more disease in humans than any other infectious agent. Beyond pathogens, various viruses and bacteria colonize the respiratory tract without causing disease, potentially influencing respiratory diseases' pathogenesis. Nevertheless, our understanding of respiratory microbiota is limited by technical constraints, predominantly focusing on bacteria and neglecting crucial populations like viruses. Despite recent efforts to improve our understanding of viral diversity in the human body, our knowledge of viral diversity associated with the human respiratory tract remains limited.

METHODS: Following a comprehensive search in bibliographic and sequencing data repositories using keyword terms, we retrieved shotgun metagenomic data from public repositories (n = 85). After manual curation, sequencing data files from 43 studies were analyzed using EVEREST (pipEline for Viral assEmbly and chaRactEriSaTion). Complete and high-quality contigs were further assessed for genomic and taxonomic characterization.

RESULTS: Viral contigs were obtained from 194 out of the 868 FASTQ files processed through EVEREST. Of the 1842 contigs that were quality assessed, 8% (n = 146) were classified as complete/high-quality genomes. Most of the identified viral contigs were taxonomically classified as bacteriophages, with taxonomic resolution ranging from the superkingdom level down to the species level. Captured contigs were spread across 25 putative families and varied between RNA and DNA viruses, including previously uncharacterized viral genomes. Of note, airway samples also contained virus(es) characteristic of the human gastrointestinal tract, which have not been previously described as part of the lung virome. Additionally, by performing a meta-analysis of the integrated datasets, ecological trends within viral populations linked to human disease states and their biogeographical distribution along the respiratory tract were observed.

CONCLUSION: By leveraging publicly available repositories of shotgun metagenomic data, the present study provides new insights into viral genomes associated with specimens from the human respiratory tract across different disease spectra. Further studies are required to validate our findings and evaluate the potential impact of these viral communities on respiratory tract physiology.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Jiao G, Ye Z, Feng K, et al (2024)

Discovery of Two Novel Viruses of the Willow-Carrot Aphid, Cavariella aegopodii.

Viruses, 16(6):.

The advancement of bioinformatics and sequencing technology has resulted in the identification of an increasing number of new RNA viruses. This study systematically identified the RNA virome of the willow-carrot aphid, Cavariella aegopodii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), using metagenomic sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. C. aegopodii is a sap-sucking insect widely distributed in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The deleterious effects of C. aegopodii on crop growth primarily stem from its feeding activities and its role as a vector for transmitting plant viruses. The virome includes Cavariella aegopodii virga-like virus 1 (CAVLV1) and Cavariella aegopodii iflavirus 1 (CAIV1). Furthermore, the complete genome sequence of CAVLV1 was obtained. Phylogenetically, CAVLV1 is associated with an unclassified branch of the Virgaviridae family and is susceptible to host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi), resulting in the accumulation of a significant number of 22nt virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). CAIV1, on the other hand, belongs to the Iflaviridae family, with vsiRNAs ranging from 18 to 22 nt. Our findings present a comprehensive analysis of the RNA virome of C. aegopodii for the first time, offering insights that could potentially aid in the future control of the willow-carrot aphid.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Faraj S, Sequeira-Bisson IR, Lu L, et al (2024)

Effect of a Higher-Protein Nut versus Higher-Carbohydrate Cereal Enriched Diet on the Gut Microbiomes of Chinese Participants with Overweight and Normoglycaemia or Prediabetes in the Tū Ora Study.

Nutrients, 16(12): pii:nu16121971.

Global increases in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially within Asian populations, highlight the need for novel approaches to dietary intervention. The Tū Ora study previously evaluated the effects on metabolic health of including a nut product into the diet of a New Zealand cohort of Chinese participants with overweight and normoglycaemia or prediabetes through a 12-week randomised, parallel-group clinical trial. In this current study, we compared the impact of this higher-protein nut bar (HP-NB) versus a higher-carbohydrate cereal bar (HC-CB) on the faecal microbiome by employing both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of pre- and post-intervention pairs from 84 participants. Despite the higher fibre, protein, and unsaturated fat content of nuts, there was little difference between dietary groups in gut microbiome composition or functional potential, with the bacterial phylum Firmicutes dominating irrespective of diet. The lack of observed change suggests the dietary impact of the bars may have been insufficient to affect the gut microbiome. Manipulating the interplay between the diet, microbiome, and metabolic health may require a more substantial and/or prolonged dietary perturbation to generate an impactful modification of the gut ecosystem and its functional potential to aid in T2D risk reduction.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Liu Y, Pang H, Li N, et al (2024)

The Metabolic Functional Feature of Gut Microbiota in Mongolian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 34(6):1214-1221.

The accumulating evidence substantiates the indispensable role of gut microbiota in modulating the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Uncovering the intricacies of the mechanism is imperative in aiding disease control efforts. Revealing key bacterial species, their metabolites and/or metabolic pathways from the vast array of gut microorganisms can significantly contribute to precise treatment of the disease. With a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Inner Mongolia, China, we recruited volunteers from among the Mongolian population to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and the disease. Fecal samples were collected from the Volunteers of Mongolia with Type 2 Diabetes group and a Control group, and detected by metagenomic analysis and untargeted metabolomics analysis. The findings suggest that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla are the predominant gut microorganisms that exert significant influence on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the Mongolian population. In the disease group, despite an increase in the quantity of most gut microbial metabolic enzymes, there was a concomitant weakening of gut metabolic function, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be in a compensatory state during the disease stage. β-Tocotrienol may serve as a pivotal gut metabolite produced by gut microorganisms and a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. The metabolic biosynthesis pathways of ubiquinone and other terpenoid quinones could be the crucial mechanism through which the gut microbiota regulates type 2 diabetes. Additionally, certain Clostridium gut species may play a pivotal role in the progression of the disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

McGovern CJ, González-Orozco BD, R Jiménez-Flores (2024)

Evaluation of kefir grain microbiota, grain viability, and bioactivity from fermenting dairy processing by-products.

Journal of dairy science, 107(7):4259-4276.

Four dairy foods processing by-products (acid whey permeate [AWP], buttermilk [BM], sweet whey permeate [SWP], and sweet whey permeate with added milk fat globule ingredient [SWP+MFGM]) were fermented for 4 wk and compared with traditional kefir milks for production of novel kefir-like dairy products. Sweet whey permeates and SWP supplemented with 1.5% milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proved to be the most viable by-products for kefir grain fermentation, exhibiting diverse abundance of traditional kefir microorganisms and positive indicators of bioactive properties. Grain viability was assessed with shotgun metagenomics, texture profile analysis, live cell counts, and scanning electron microscopy. Assessed bioactivities of the kefir-like products included antibacterial, antioxidant, potential anticancerogenic properties, and membrane barrier effects on human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. All kefir grains were most abundant in Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens when analyzed with shotgun metagenomics. When analyzed with live cell counts on selective media, AWP kefir-like product had no countable Lactococcus spp., indicating suboptimal conditions for kefir grain microbiota survival and application for fermented dairy starter culture bacterium. Live cell counts were affirmed with kefir grain surface scanning electron microscopy images. The SWP treatment had the most adhesive kefir grain surface, and SWP+MFGM had the largest exopolysaccharide yield from grain extraction. All kefir and kefir-like products were able to achieve a 6-log reduction against Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli. Traditional milk kefirs had the highest antioxidant capacity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; ABTS) assay. The AWP formulation had a significantly higher DPPH antioxidant activity compared with the other kefir and kefir-like products, and SWP had the lowest Trolox equivalence concentration in the ABTS assay. Sweet whey and supplemented milk fat sweet whey had upregulation of Cldn-1 and Ocln-1 gene expression, which correspond with a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Zhang Y, Yu P, F Tao (2024)

Dynamic Interplay between Microbiota Shifts and Differential Metabolites during Dairy Processing and Storage.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 29(12): pii:molecules29122745.

Due to the intricate complexity of the original microbiota, residual heat-resistant enzymes, and chemical components, identifying the essential factors that affect dairy quality using traditional methods is challenging. In this study, raw milk, pasteurized milk, and ultra-heat-treated (UHT) milk samples were collectively analyzed using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), high-throughput liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that raw milk and its corresponding heated dairy products exhibited different trends in terms of microbiota shifts and metabolite changes during storage. Via the analysis of differences in microbiota and correlation analysis of the microorganisms present in differential metabolites in refrigerated pasteurized milk, the top three differential microorganisms with increased abundance, Microbacterium (p < 0.01), unclassified Actinomycetia class (p < 0.05), and Micrococcus (p < 0.01), were detected; these were highly correlated with certain metabolites in pasteurized milk (r > 0.8). This indicated that these genera were the main proliferating microorganisms and were the primary genera involved in the metabolism of pasteurized milk during refrigeration-based storage. Microorganisms with decreased abundance were classified into two categories based on correlation analysis with certain metabolites. It was speculated that the heat-resistant enzyme system of a group of microorganisms with high correlation (r > 0.8), such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, was the main factor causing milk spoilage and that the group with lower correlation (r < 0.3) had a lower impact on the storage process of pasteurized dairy products. By comparing the metabolic pathway results based on metagenomic and metabolite annotation, it was proposed that protein degradation may be associated with microbial growth, whereas lipid degradation may be linked to raw milk's initial heat-resistant enzymes. By leveraging the synergy of metagenomics and metabolomics, the interacting factors determining the quality evolution of dairy products were systematically investigated, providing a novel perspective for controlling dairy processing and storage effectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Khan I, Bu R, Ali Z, et al (2024)

Metagenomics Analysis Reveals the Composition and Functional Differences of Fecal Microbiota in Wild, Farm, and Released Chinese Three-Keeled Pond Turtles (Mauremys reevesii).

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(12): pii:ani14121750.

The intestine of living organisms harbors different microbiota associated with the biological functioning and health of the host and influences the process of ecological adaptation. Here, we studied the intestinal microbiota's composition and functional differences using 16S rRNA and metagenomic analysis in the wild, farm, and released Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii). At the phylum level, Bacteroidota dominated, followed by Firmicutes, Fusobacteriota, and Actinobacteriota in the wild group, but Chloroflexi was more abundant in the farm and released groups. Moreover, Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Sphingobacterium, and Rhodobacter were abundant in the released and farm cohorts, respectively. Cetobacterium, Paraclostridium, Lysobacter, and Leucobacter showed an abundance in the wild group. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database revealed that the relative abundance of most pathways was significantly higher in the wild turtles (carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, metabolism of cofactors, and vitamins). The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database (CARD) showed that the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) subtype macB was the most abundant in the farm turtle group, while tetA was higher in the wild turtles, and srpYmcr was higher in the released group. Our findings shed light on the association between the intestinal microbiota of M. reevesii and its habitats and could be useful for tracking habitats to protect and conserve this endangered species.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

De Sales-Millán A, Reyes-Ferreira P, Aguirre-Garrido JF, et al (2024)

Comprehensive Analysis of Gut Microbiota Composition and Functional Metabolism in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurotypical Children: Implications for Sex-Based Differences and Metabolic Dysregulation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(12): pii:ijms25126701.

This study aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical (NT) children, with a focus on identifying potential differences in gut bacteria between these groups. The microbiota was analyzed through the massive sequencing of region V3-V4 of the 16S RNA gene, utilizing DNA extracted from stool samples of participants. Our findings revealed no significant differences in the dominant bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobiota) between the ASD and NT groups. However, at the genus level, notable disparities were observed in the abundance of Blautia, Prevotella, Clostridium XI, and Clostridium XVIII, all of which have been previously associated with ASD. Furthermore, a sex-based analysis unveiled additional discrepancies in gut microbiota composition. Specifically, three genera (Megamonas, Oscilibacter, Acidaminococcus) exhibited variations between male and female groups in both ASD and NT cohorts. Particularly noteworthy was the exclusive presence of Megamonas in females with ASD. Analysis of predicted metabolic pathways suggested an enrichment of pathways related to amine and polyamine degradation, as well as amino acid degradation in the ASD group. Conversely, pathways implicated in carbohydrate biosynthesis, degradation, and fermentation were found to be underrepresented. Despite the limitations of our study, including a relatively small sample size (30 ASD and 31 NT children) and the utilization of predicted metabolic pathways derived from 16S RNA gene analysis rather than metagenome sequencing, our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting a potential association between gut microbiota composition and ASD. Future research endeavors should focus on validating these findings with larger sample sizes and exploring the functional significance of these microbial differences in ASD. Additionally, there is a critical need for further investigations to elucidate sex differences in gut microbiota composition and their potential implications for ASD pathology and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Martins D, Silva C, Ferreira AC, et al (2024)

Unravelling the Gut Microbiome Role in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.

Biomolecules, 14(6): pii:biom14060731.

A notable shift in understanding the human microbiome's influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is underway, although the causal association remains elusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesise current knowledge on microbial taxonomy and metabolite variations between healthy controls (HCs) and those with CVD. An extensive search encompassing three databases identified 67 relevant studies (2012-2023) covering CVD pathologies from 4707 reports. Metagenomic and metabolomic data, both qualitative and quantitative, were obtained. Analysis revealed substantial variability in microbial alpha and beta diversities. Moreover, specific changes in bacterial populations were shown, including increased Streptococcus and Proteobacteria and decreased Faecalibacterium in patients with CVD compared with HC. Additionally, elevated trimethylamine N-oxide levels were reported in CVD cases. Biochemical parameter analysis indicated increased fasting glucose and triglycerides and decreased total cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in diseased individuals. This study revealed a significant relationship between certain bacterial species and CVD. Additionally, it has become clear that there are substantial inconsistencies in the methodologies employed and the reporting standards adhered to in various studies. Undoubtedly, standardising research methodologies and developing extensive guidelines for microbiome studies are crucial for advancing the field.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Huang JK, Wu PH, Chen ZF, et al (2024)

Identification of Gut Microbiome Signatures Associated with Indole Pathway in Tryptophan Metabolism in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

Biomolecules, 14(6): pii:biom14060623.

Microbiota tryptophan metabolism and the biosynthesis of indole derivatives play an important role in homeostasis and pathogenesis in the human body and can be affected by the gut microbiota. However, studies on the interplay between gut microbiota and tryptophan metabolites in patients undergoing dialysis are lacking. This study aimed to identify the gut microbiota, the indole pathway in tryptophan metabolism, and significant functional differences in ESRD patients with regular hemodialysis. We performed the shotgun metagenome sequencing of stool samples from 85 hemodialysis patients. Using the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), we examined the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolic features across varying concentrations of tryptophan and indole metabolites. Higher tryptophan levels promoted tyrosine degradation I and pectin degradation I metabolic modules; lower tryptophan levels were associated with glutamate degradation I, fructose degradation, and valine degradation modules. Higher 3-indoxyl sulfate concentrations were characterized by alanine degradation I, anaerobic fatty acid beta-oxidation, sulfate reduction, and acetyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. Contrarily, lower 3-indoxyl sulfate levels were related to propionate production III, arabinoxylan degradation, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glutamate degradation II. The present study provides a better understanding of the interaction between tryptophan, indole metabolites, and the gut microbiota as well as their gut metabolic modules in ESRD patients with regular hemodialysis.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Sané S, Diouara AAM, Coundoul S, et al (2024)

A metagenomic assessment of bacterial community in spices sold open-air markets in Saint-Louis, Senegal.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14709.

Natural spices play an essential role in human nutrition and well-being. However, their processing on different scales can expose them to potential sources of contamination. This study aimed to describe the bacterial community genomic footprint in spices sold in Senegal. Spice samples were collected in August 2022 in Saint-Louis, Senegal. The genomic region coding bacterial 16S rRNA was then amplified and sequenced using Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). Sequencing was carried out on two batches of samples, one containing part of the "Local Spices or Herbs" (n = 10), and the other, a mixture of 7 spices, Curcuma, Thyme and the other part of the "Local Spices or Herbs" (n = 39). Results showed high bacterial diversity and the predominance of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in samples, with total reads of 65,744 and 165,325 for the two batches, respectively. The sample category "Homemade mixture of food condiments ", which includes all "Local Spices or Herbs" samples, showed remarkable bacterial diversity. These were followed by Curcuma, a blend of 7 spices and thyme. Also, the different categories of spices studied show similarities in their bacterial composition. These results highlight the microbial community's highly diverse genomic profile, including pathogenic bacteria, in spice samples.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Mo J, Song Z, Che Y, et al (2024)

Effects of aeolian deposition on soil properties and microbial carbon metabolism function in farmland of Songnen Plain, China.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14791.

The effects of wind erosion, one of the crucial causes of soil desertification in the world, on the terrestrial ecosystem are well known. However, ecosystem responses regarding soil microbial carbon metabolism to sand deposition caused by wind erosion, a crucial driver of biogeochemical cycles, remain largely unclear. In this study, we collected soil samples from typical aeolian deposition farmland in the Songnen Plain of China to evaluate the effects of sand deposition on soil properties, microbial communities, and carbon metabolism function. We also determined the reads number of carbon metabolism-related genes by high-throughput sequencing technologies and evaluated the association between sand deposition and them. The results showed that long-term sand deposition resulted in soil infertile, roughness, and dryness. The impacts of sand deposition on topsoil were more severe than on deep soil. The diversity of soil microbial communities was significantly reduced due to sand deposition. The relative abundances of Nitrobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhodanobacteraceae belonging to α-Proteobacteria significantly decreased, while the relative abundances of Streptomycetaceae and Geodermatophilaceae belonging to Actinobacteria increased. The results of the metagenomic analysis showed that the gene abundances of carbohydrate metabolism and carbohydrate-activity enzyme (GH and CBM) significantly decreased with the increase of sand deposition amount. The changes in soil microbial community structure and carbon metabolism decreased soil carbon emissions and carbon cycling in aeolian deposition farmland, which may be the essential reasons for land degradation in aeolian deposition farmland.

RevDate: 2024-06-26

Sajib MSI, Brunker K, Oravcova K, et al (2024)

Advances in host depletion and pathogen enrichment methods for rapid sequencing-based diagnosis of bloodstream infection.

The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD pii:S1525-1578(24)00128-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Bloodstream infection remains a major cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Timely and appropriate treatment can reduce mortality among critically ill patients. Current diagnostic methods are too slow to inform precise antibiotic choice leading to the prescription of empirical antibiotics which may fail to cover the resistance profile of the pathogen, risking poor patient outcomes. Additionally, overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics may lead to more resistant organisms, putting further pressure on the dwindling pipeline of antibiotics, and risk transmission of these resistant organisms in the healthcare environment. Therefore, rapid diagnostics are urgently required to better inform antibiotic choice early in the course of treatment. Sequencing offers great promise in reducing time to microbiological diagnosis; however, the amount of host DNA compared to the pathogen in patient samples presents a significant obstacle. To address this, various host-depletion and bacterial-enrichment strategies have been utilized in samples such as saliva, urine or tissue. However, these methods have yet to be collectively integrated and/or extensively explored for rapid bloodstream infection diagnosis. While most of these workflows possess individual strengths, their lack of analytical/clinical sensitivity and/or comprehensiveness demands additional improvements or synergistic application. Therefore, this review provides a distinctive classification system for these methods based on their working principles to guide future research, discusses their strengths and limitations, and explores potential avenues for improvement.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Bomberg M, Miettinen H, P Kinnunen (2024)

Seasonal variation in metabolic profiles and microbial communities in a subarctic ore processing plant.

Environmental microbiology reports, 16(3):e13284.

The mining industry strives to reduce its water footprint by recycling water in ore processing. This leads to build-up of ions, flotation chemicals and microbial biomass, which may affect the process. The Boliden Kevitsa mine in Northern Finland is exposed to seasonal change and recycles up to 90% of the process water. We studied the variation in size, composition and putative functions of microbial communities in summer and winter in the ore processing plant. The raw water, Cu and Ni thickener overflow waters had statistically significantly higher bacterial numbers in winter compared to summer, and specific summer and winter communities were identified. Metagenomic analysis indicated that Cu and Hg resistance genes, sulphate/thiosulphate, molybdate, iron(III) and zinc ABC transporters, nitrate reduction, denitrification, thiosulphate oxidation and methylotrophy were more common in winter than in summer. Raw water drawn from the nearby river did not affect the microbial communities in the process samples, indicating that the microbial communities and metabolic capacities develop within the process over time in response to the conditions in the processing plant, water chemistry, used chemicals, ore properties and seasonal variation. We propose that the microbial community structures are unique to the Boliden Kevitsa mine and processing plant.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Lawruk-Desjardins C, Storck V, Ponton DE, et al (2024)

A genome catalogue of mercury-methylating bacteria and archaea from sediments of a boreal river facing human disturbances.

Environmental microbiology, 26(6):e16669.

Methyl mercury, a toxic compound, is produced by anaerobic microbes and magnifies in aquatic food webs, affecting the health of animals and humans. The exploration of mercury methylators based on genomes is still limited, especially in the context of river ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we developed a genome catalogue of potential mercury-methylating microorganisms. This was based on the presence of hgcAB from the sediments of a river affected by two run-of-river hydroelectric dams, logging activities and a wildfire. Through the use of genome-resolved metagenomics, we discovered a unique and diverse group of mercury methylators. These were dominated by members of the metabolically versatile Bacteroidota and were particularly rich in microbes that ferment butyrate. By comparing the diversity and abundance of mercury methylators between sites subjected to different disturbances, we found that ongoing disturbances, such as the input of organic matter related to logging activities, were particularly conducive to the establishment of a mercury-methylating niche. Finally, to gain a deeper understanding of the environmental factors that shape the diversity of mercury methylators, we compared the mercury-methylating genome catalogue with the broader microbial community. The results suggest that mercury methylators respond to environmental conditions in a manner similar to the overall microbial community. Therefore, it is crucial to interpret the diversity and abundance of mercury methylators within their specific ecological context.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Yan Z, Hao T, Yan Y, et al (2024)

Quantitative and dynamic profiling of human gut core microbiota by real-time PCR.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):396.

The human gut microbiota refers to a diverse community of microorganisms that symbiotically exist in the human intestinal system. Altered microbial communities have been linked to many human pathologies. However, there is a lack of rapid and efficient methods to assess gut microbiota signatures in practice. To address this, we established an appraisal system containing 45 quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays targeting gut core microbes with high prevalence and/or abundance in the population. Through comparative genomic analysis, we selected novel species-specific genetic markers and primers for 31 of the 45 core microbes with no previously reported specific primers or whose primers needed improvement in specificity. We comprehensively evaluated the performance of the qPCR assays and demonstrated that they showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and quantitative linearity for each target. The limit of detection ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 pg/µL for the genomic DNA of these targets. We also demonstrated the high consistency (Pearson's r = 0.8688, P < 0.0001) between the qPCR method and metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) method in analyzing the abundance of selected bacteria in 22 human fecal samples. Moreover, we quantified the dynamic changes (over 8 weeks) of these core microbes in 14 individuals using qPCR, and considerable stability was demonstrated in most participants, albeit with significant individual differences. Overall, this study enables the simple and rapid quantification of 45 core microbes in the human gut, providing a promising tool to understand the role of gut core microbiota in human health and disease. KEY POINTS: • A panel of original qPCR assays was developed to quantify human gut core microbes. • The qPCR assays were evaluated and compared with mNGS using real fecal samples. • This method was used to dynamically profile the gut core microbiota in individuals.

RevDate: 2024-06-25
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Wu Z, Li M, Qu L, et al (2024)

Metagenomic insights into microbial adaptation to the salinity gradient of a typical short residence-time estuary.

Microbiome, 12(1):115.

BACKGROUND: Microbial adaptation to salinity has been a classic inquiry in the field of microbiology. It has been demonstrated that microorganisms can endure salinity stress via either the "salt-in" strategy, involving inorganic ion uptake, or the "salt-out" strategy, relying on compatible solutes. While these insights are mostly based on laboratory-cultured isolates, exploring the adaptive mechanisms of microorganisms within natural salinity gradient is crucial for gaining a deeper understanding of microbial adaptation in the estuarine ecosystem.

RESULTS: Here, we conducted metagenomic analyses on filtered surface water samples collected from a typical subtropical short residence-time estuary and categorized them by salinity into low-, intermediate-, and high-salinity metagenomes. Our findings highlighted salinity-driven variations in microbial community composition and function, as revealed through taxonomic and Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) functional annotations. Through metagenomic binning, 127 bacterial and archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed. These MAGs were categorized as stenohaline-specific to low-, intermediate-, or high-salinity-based on the average relative abundance in one salinity category significantly exceeding those in the other two categories by an order of magnitude. Those that did not meet this criterion were classified as euryhaline, indicating a broader range of salinity tolerance. Applying the Boruta algorithm, a machine learning-based feature selection method, we discerned important genomic features from the stenohaline bacterial MAGs. Of the total 12,162 COGs obtained, 40 were identified as important features, with the "inorganic ion transport and metabolism" COG category emerging as the most prominent. Furthermore, eight COGs were implicated in microbial osmoregulation, of which four were related to the "salt-in" strategy, three to the "salt-out" strategy, and one to the regulation of water channel activity. COG0168, annotated as the Trk-type K[+] transporter related to the "salt-in" strategy, was ranked as the most important feature. The relative abundance of COG0168 was observed to increase with rising salinity across metagenomes, the stenohaline strains, and the dominant Actinobacteriota and Proteobacteria phyla.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that salinity exerts influences on both the taxonomic and functional profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the estuarine ecosystem. Our findings shed light on diverse salinity adaptation strategies employed by the estuarine microbial communities, highlighting the crucial role of the "salt-in" strategy mediated by Trk-type K[+] transporters for microorganisms thriving under osmotic stress in the short residence-time estuary. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-25
CmpDate: 2024-06-25

Sajid M, Sharma U, Srivastava S, et al (2024)

Microbial community and functions involved in smokeless tobacco product: a metagenomic approach.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):395.

Smokeless tobacco products (STPs) are attributed to oral cancer and oral pathologies in their users. STP-associated cancer induction is driven by carcinogenic compounds including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The TSNAs synthesis could enhanced due to the metabolic activity (nitrate metabolism) of the microbial populations residing in STPs, but identifying microbial functions linked to the TSNAs synthesis remains unexplored. Here, we rendered the first report of shotgun metagenomic sequencing to comprehensively determine the genes of all microorganisms residing in the Indian STPs belonging to two commercial (Moist-snuff and Qiwam) and three loose (Mainpuri Kapoori, Dohra, and Gudakhu) STPs, specifically consumed in India. Further, the level of nicotine, TSNAs, mycotoxins, and toxic metals were determined to relate their presence with microbial activity. The microbial population majorly belongs to bacteria with three dominant phyla including Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Furthermore, the STP-linked microbiome displayed several functional genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and antibiotic resistance. The chemical analysis revealed that the Mainpuri Kapoori product contained a high concentration of ochratoxins-A whereas TSNAs and Zink (Zn) quantities were high in the Moist-snuff, Mainpuri Kapoori, and Gudakhu products. Hence, our observations will help in attributing the functional potential of STP-associated microbiome and in the implementation of cessation strategies against STPs. KEY POINTS: •Smokeless tobacco contains microbes that can assist TSNA synthesis. •Antibiotic resistance genes present in smokeless tobacco-associated bacteria. •Pathogens in STPs can cause infections in smokeless tobacco users.

RevDate: 2024-06-25
CmpDate: 2024-06-25

Goussarov G, Mysara M, Cleenwerck I, et al (2024)

Benchmarking short-, long- and hybrid-read assemblers for metagenome sequencing of complex microbial communities.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 170(6):.

Metagenome community analyses, driven by the continued development in sequencing technology, is rapidly providing insights in many aspects of microbiology and becoming a cornerstone tool. Illumina, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) are the leading technologies, each with their own advantages and drawbacks. Illumina provides accurate reads at a low cost, but their length is too short to close bacterial genomes. Long reads overcome this limitation, but these technologies produce reads with lower accuracy (ONT) or with lower throughput (PacBio high-fidelity reads). In a critical first analysis step, reads are assembled to reconstruct genomes or individual genes within the community. However, to date, the performance of existing assemblers has never been challenged with a complex mock metagenome. Here, we evaluate the performance of current assemblers that use short, long or both read types on a complex mock metagenome consisting of 227 bacterial strains with varying degrees of relatedness. We show that many of the current assemblers are not suited to handle such a complex metagenome. In addition, hybrid assemblies do not fulfil their potential. We conclude that ONT reads assembled with CANU and Illumina reads assembled with SPAdes offer the best value for reconstructing genomes and individual genes of complex metagenomes, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-26

Trouche B, Schrieke H, Duron O, et al (2024)

Wolbachia populations across organs of individual Culex pipiens: highly conserved intra-individual core pangenome with inter-individual polymorphisms.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae078.

Wolbachia is a maternally inherited intracellular bacterium that infects a wide range of arthropods including mosquitoes. The endosymbiont is widely used in biocontrol strategies due to its capacity to modulate arthropod reproduction and limit pathogen transmission. Wolbachia infections in Culex spp. are generally assumed to be monoclonal but the potential presence of genetically distinct Wolbachia subpopulations within and between individual organs has not been investigated using whole genome sequencing. Here we reconstructed Wolbachia genomes from ovary and midgut metagenomes of single naturally infected Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Southern France to investigate patterns of intra- and inter-individual differences across mosquito organs. Our analyses revealed a remarkable degree of intra-individual conservancy among Wolbachia genomes from distinct organs of the same mosquito both at the level of gene presence-absence signal and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Yet, we identified several synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions between individuals, demonstrating the presence of some level of genomic heterogeneity among Wolbachia that infect the same C. pipiens field population. Overall, the absence of genetic heterogeneity within Wolbachia populations in a single individual confirms the presence of a dominant Wolbachia that is maintained under strong purifying forces of evolution.

RevDate: 2024-06-24
CmpDate: 2024-06-25

Yan J, Zhou G, Ren R, et al (2024)

Siderophore-harboring gut bacteria and fecal siderophore genes for predicting the responsiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation for active ulcerative colitis.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):589.

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