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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 27 May 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Otake-Kasamoto Y, Kayama H, Kishikawa T, et al (2022)

Lysophosphatidylserines derived from microbiota in Crohn's disease elicit pathological Th1 response.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 219(7):.

Microbiota alteration and IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cell overactivation are implicated in Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear how dysbiosis enhances Th1 responses, leading to intestinal inflammation. Here, we identified key metabolites derived from dysbiotic microbiota that induce enhanced Th1 responses and exaggerate colitis in mouse models. Patients with CD showed elevated lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) concentration in their feces, accompanied by a higher relative abundance of microbiota possessing a gene encoding the phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase A. LysoPS induced metabolic reprogramming, thereby eliciting aberrant effector responses in both human and mouse IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells. Administration of LysoPS into two mouse colitis models promoted large intestinal inflammation. LysoPS-induced aggravation of colitis was impaired in mice lacking P2ry10 and P2ry10b, and their CD4+ T cells were hyporesponsive to LysoPS. Thus, our findings elaborate on the mechanism by which metabolites elevated in patients with CD harboring dysbiotic microbiota promote Th1-mediated intestinal pathology.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Shi H, Nelson JW, Phillips S, et al (2022)

Alterations of the gut microbial community structure and function with aging in the spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8534.

Gut dysbiosis, a pathological imbalance of bacteria, has been shown to contribute to the development of hypertension (HT), systemic- and neuro-inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHRSP). However, to date individual species that contribute to HT in the SHRSP model have not been identified. One potential reason, is that nearly all studies of the SHRSP gut microbiota have analyzed samples from rats with established HT. The goal of this study was to examine the SHRSP gut microbiota before, during, and after the onset of hypertension, and in normotensive WKY control rats over the same age range. We hypothesized that we could identify key microbes involved in the development of HT by comparing WKY and SHRSP microbiota during the pre-hypertensive state and longitudinally. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography and fecal microbiota analyzed by16S rRNA gene sequencing. SHRSP showed significant elevations in SBP, as compared to WKY, beginning at 8 weeks of age (p < 0.05 at each time point). Bacterial community structure was significantly different between WKY and SHRSP as early as 4 weeks of age, and remained different throughout the study (p = 0.001-0.01). At the phylum level we observed significantly reduced Firmicutes and Deferribacterota, and elevated Bacteroidota, Verrucomicrobiota, and Proteobacteria, in pre-hypertensive SHRSP, as compared to WKY. At the genus level we identified 18 bacteria whose relative abundance was significantly different in SHRSP versus WKY at the pre-hypertensive ages of 4 or 6 weeks. In an attempt to further refine bacterial candidates that might contribute to the SHRSP phenotype, we compared the functional capacity of WKY versus SHRSP microbial communities. We identified significant differences in amino acid metabolism. Using untargeted metabolomics we found significant reductions in metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and increased indole metabolites in SHRSP versus WKY plasma. Overall, we provide further evidence that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension in the SHRSP model, and suggest for the first time the potential involvement of tryptophan metabolizing microbes.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Gao S, Khan MI, Kalsoom F, et al (2022)

Role of gene regulation and inter species interaction as a key factor in gut microbiota adaptation.

Archives of microbiology, 204(6):342.

Gut microbiota is a class of microbial flora present in various eukaryotic multicellular complex animals such as human beings. Their community's growth and survival are greatly influenced by various factors such as host-pathogen, pathogen-environment and genetic regulation. Modern technologies like metagenomics have particularly extended our capacity to uncover the microbial treasures in challenging conditions like communities surviving at high altitude. Molecular characterizations by newly developed sequencing tools have shown that this complex interaction greatly influences microbial adaptation to the environment. Literature shows that gut microbiota alters the genetic expression and switches to an alternative pathway under the influence of unfavorable conditions. The remarkable adaptability of microbial genetic regulatory networks enables them to survive and expand in tough and energy-limited conditions. Variable prevalence of species in various regions has strengthened this initial evidence. In view of the interconnection of the world in the form of a global village, this phenomenon must be explored more clearly. In this regard, recently there has been significant addition of knowledge to the field of microbial adaptation. This review summarizes and shed some light on mechanisms of microbial adaptation via gene regulation and species interaction in gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Parente E, Zotta T, A Ricciardi (2022)

FoodMicrobionet v4: A large, integrated, open and transparent database for food bacterial communities.

International journal of food microbiology, 372:109696.

With the availability of high-throughput sequencing techniques our knowledge of the structure and dynamics of food microbial communities has made a quantum leap. However, this knowledge is dispersed in a large number of papers and hard data are only partly available through powerful on-line databases and tools such as QIITA, MGnify and the Integrated Microbial Next Generation Sequencing platform, whose annotation is not optimized for foods. Here, we present the 4th iteration of FoodMicrobionet, a database of the composition of bacterial microbial communities of foods and food environments. With 180 studies and 10,151 samples belonging to 8 major food groups FoodMicrobionet 4.1.2 is arguably the largest and best annotated database on food bacterial communities. This version includes 1684 environmental samples and 8467 food samples, belonging to 16 L1 categories and 196 L6 categories of the EFSA FoodEx2 classification and is approximately 4 times larger than previous version (3.1, As a representative case study among the many potential applications of FoodMicrobionet, we confirm that taxonomic assignment at the genus level can be performed confidently for the majority of amplicon sequence variants using the most commonly used 16S RNA gene target regions (V1-V3, V3-V4, V4), with best results with higher quality sequences and longer fragment lengths, but that care should be exercised in confirming the assignment at species level. Both FoodMicrobionet and related data and software conform to FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable/reproducible) criteria for scientific data and software and are freely available on public repositories (GitHub, Mendeley data). Even if FoodMicrobionet does not have the sophistication of QIITA, IMNGS and MGnify, we feel that this iteration, due to its size and diversity, provides a valuable asset for both the scientific community and industrial and regulatory stakeholders.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Hegarty B, Dai Z, Raskin L, et al (2022)

A snapshot of the global drinking water virome: Diversity and metabolic potential vary with residual disinfectant use.

Water research, 218:118484.

Viruses are important drivers of microbial community ecology and evolution, influencing microbial mortality, metabolism, and horizontal gene transfer. However, the effects of viruses remain largely unknown in many environments, including in drinking water systems. Drinking water metagenomic studies have offered a whole community perspective of bacterial impacts on water quality, but have not yet considered the influences of viruses. In this study, we address this gap by mining viral DNA sequences from publicly available drinking water metagenomes from distribution systems in six countries around the world. These datasets provide a snapshot of the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of the global drinking water virome; and provide an opportunity to investigate the effects of geography, climate, and drinking water treatment practices on viral diversity. Both environmental conditions and differences in sample processing were found to influence the viral composition. Using free chlorine as the residual disinfectant was associated with clear differences in viral taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential, with significantly fewer viral populations and less even viral community structures than observed in distribution systems without residual disinfectant. Additionally, drinking water viruses carry antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as well as genes to survive oxidative stress and nitrogen limitation. Through this study, we have demonstrated that viral communities are diverse across drinking water systems and vary with the use of residual disinfectant. Our findings offer directions for future research to develop a more robust understanding of how virus-bacteria interactions in drinking water distribution systems affect water quality.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Carrell AA, Lawrence TJ, Cabugao KGM, et al (2022)

Habitat-adapted microbial communities mediate Sphagnum peatmoss resilience to warming.

The New phytologist, 234(6):2111-2125.

Sphagnum peatmosses are fundamental members of peatland ecosystems, where they contribute to the uptake and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon. Warming threatens Sphagnum mosses and is known to alter the composition of their associated microbiome. Here, we use a microbiome transfer approach to test if microbiome thermal origin influences host plant thermotolerance. We leveraged an experimental whole-ecosystem warming study to collect field-grown Sphagnum, mechanically separate the associated microbiome and then transfer onto germ-free laboratory Sphagnum for temperature experiments. Host and microbiome dynamics were assessed with growth analysis, Chla fluorescence imaging, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and 16S rDNA profiling. Microbiomes originating from warming field conditions imparted enhanced thermotolerance and growth recovery at elevated temperatures. Metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses revealed that warming altered microbial community structure in a manner that induced the plant heat shock response, especially the HSP70 family and jasmonic acid production. The heat shock response was induced even without warming treatment in the laboratory, suggesting that the warm-microbiome isolated from the field provided the host plant with thermal preconditioning. Our results demonstrate that microbes, which respond rapidly to temperature alterations, can play key roles in host plant growth response to rapidly changing environments.

RevDate: 2022-05-23
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Szóstak N, Szymanek A, Havránek J, et al (2022)

The standardisation of the approach to metagenomic human gut analysis: from sample collection to microbiome profiling.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8470.

In recent years, the number of metagenomic studies increased significantly. Wide range of factors, including the tremendous community complexity and variability, is contributing to the challenge in reliable microbiome community profiling. Many approaches have been proposed to overcome these problems making hardly possible to compare results of different studies. The significant differences between procedures used in metagenomic research are reflected in a variation of the obtained results. This calls for the need for standardisation of the procedure, to reduce the confounding factors originating from DNA isolation, sequencing and bioinformatics analyses in order to ensure that the differences in microbiome composition are of a true biological origin. Although the best practices for metagenomics studies have been the topic of several publications and the main aim of the International Human Microbiome Standard (IHMS) project, standardisation of the procedure for generating and analysing metagenomic data is still far from being achieved. To highlight the difficulties in the standardisation of metagenomics methods, we thoroughly examined each step of the analysis of the human gut microbiome. We tested the DNA isolation procedure, preparation of NGS libraries for next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis, aimed at identifying microbial taxa. We showed that the homogenisation time is the leading factor impacting sample diversity, with the recommendation for a shorter homogenisation time (10 min). Ten minutes of homogenisation allows for better reflection of the bacteria gram-positive/gram-negative ratio, and the obtained results are the least heterogenous in terms of beta-diversity of samples microbial composition. Besides increasing the homogenisation time, we observed further potential impact of the library preparation kit on the gut microbiome profiling. Moreover, our analysis revealed that the choice of the library preparation kit influences the reproducibility of the results, which is an important factor that has to be taken into account in every experiment. In this study, a tagmentation-based kit allowed for obtaining the most reproducible results. We also considered the choice of the computational tool for determining the composition of intestinal microbiota, with Kraken2/Bracken pipeline outperforming MetaPhlAn2 in our in silico experiments. The design of an experiment and a detailed establishment of an experimental protocol may have a serious impact on determining the taxonomic profile of the intestinal microbiome community. Results of our experiment can be helpful for a wide range of studies that aim to better understand the role of the gut microbiome, as well as for clinical purposes.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Yan J, Liao C, Taylor BP, et al (2022)

A compilation of fecal microbiome shotgun metagenomics from hematopoietic cell transplantation patients.

Scientific data, 9(1):219.

Hospitalized patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplants provide a unique opportunity to study the human gut microbiome. We previously compiled a large-scale longitudinal dataset of fecal microbiota and associated metadata, but we had limited that analysis to taxonomic composition of bacteria from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Here we augment those data with shotgun metagenomics. The compilation amounts to a nested subset of 395 samples compiled from different studies at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Shotgun metagenomics describes the microbiome at the functional level, particularly in antimicrobial resistances and virulence factors. We provide accession numbers that link each sample to the paired-end sequencing files deposited in a public repository, which can be directly accessed by the online services of PATRIC to be analyzed without the users having to download or transfer the files. Then, we show how shotgun sequencing enables the assembly of genomes from metagenomic data. The new data, combined with the metadata published previously, enables new functional studies of the microbiomes of patients with cancer receiving bone marrow transplantation.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

de Souza Colombo G, Viana Mendes I, de Morais Souto B, et al (2022)

Identification and functional expression of a new xylose isomerase from the goat rumen microbiome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Letters in applied microbiology, 74(6):941-948.

The current climate crisis demands replacement of fossil energy sources with sustainable alternatives. In this scenario, second-generation bioethanol, a product of lignocellulosic biomass fermentation, represents a more sustainable alternative. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize pentoses, such as xylose, present as a major component of lignocellulosic biomass. Xylose isomerase (XI) is an enzyme that allows xylose consumption by yeasts, because it converts xylose into xylulose, which is further converted to ethanol by the pentose-phosphate pathway. Only a few XI were successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae strains. This work presents a new bacterial XI, named GR-XI 1, obtained from a Brazilian goat rumen metagenomic library. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the bacterial origin of the gene, which is related to Firmicutes XIs. After codon optimization, this enzyme, renamed XySC1, was functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, allowing growth in media with xylose as sole carbon source. Overexpression of XySC1 in S. cerevisiae allowed the recombinant strain to efficiently consume and metabolize xylose under aerobic conditions.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Besaury L, C Rémond (2022)

Culturable and metagenomic approaches of wheat bran and wheat straw phyllosphere's highlight new lignocellulolytic microorganisms.

Letters in applied microbiology, 74(6):840-850.

The phyllosphere, defined as the aerial parts of plants, is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. The microorganisms present on the phyllosphere can have several interactions with the plant. The phyllosphere represents then a unique niche where microorganisms have evolved through time in that stressful environment and may have acquired the ability to degrade lignocellulosic plant cell walls in order to survive to oligotrophic conditions. The dynamic lignocellulolytic potential of two phyllospheric microbial consortia (wheat straw and wheat bran) has been studied. The microbial diversity rapidly changed between the native phyllospheres and the final degrading microbial consortia after 48 h of culture. Indeed, the initial microbial consortia was dominated by the Ralstonia (35·8%) and Micrococcus (75·2%) genera for the wheat bran and wheat straw whereas they were dominated by Candidatus phytoplasma (59%) and Acinetobacter (31·8%) in the final degrading microbial consortia respectively. Culturable experiments leading to the isolation of several new lignocellulolytic isolates (belonging to Moraxella and Atlantibacter genera) and metagenomic reconstruction of the microbial consortia highlighted the existence of an unpredicted microbial diversity involved in lignocellulose fractionation but also the existence of new pathways in known genera (presence of CE2 for Acinetobacter, several AAs for Pseudomonas and several GHs for Bacillus in different metagenomes-assembled genomes). The phyllosphere from agricultural co-products represents then a new niche as a lignocellulolytic degrading ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Sim M, Lee J, Wy S, et al (2022)

Generation and application of pseudo-long reads for metagenome assembly.

GigaScience, 11:.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic assembly using high-throughput sequencing data is a powerful method to construct microbial genomes in environmental samples without cultivation. However, metagenomic assembly, especially when only short reads are available, is a complex and challenging task because mixed genomes of multiple microorganisms constitute the metagenome. Although long read sequencing technologies have been developed and have begun to be used for metagenomic assembly, many metagenomic studies have been performed based on short reads because the generation of long reads requires higher sequencing cost than short reads.

RESULTS: In this study, we present a new method called PLR-GEN. It creates pseudo-long reads from metagenomic short reads based on given reference genome sequences by considering small sequence variations existing in individual genomes of the same or different species. When applied to a mock community data set in the Human Microbiome Project, PLR-GEN dramatically extended short reads in length of 101 bp to pseudo-long reads with N50 of 33 Kbp and 0.4% error rate. The use of these pseudo-long reads generated by PLR-GEN resulted in an obvious improvement of metagenomic assembly in terms of the number of sequences, assembly contiguity, and prediction of species and genes.

CONCLUSIONS: PLR-GEN can be used to generate artificial long read sequences without spending extra sequencing cost, thus aiding various studies using metagenomes.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Goh CE, Bohn B, Marotz C, et al (2022)

Nitrite Generating and Depleting Capacity of the Oral Microbiome and Cardiometabolic Risk: Results from ORIGINS.

Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(10):e023038.

Background The enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO3-NO2-NO) pathway generates NO following oral microbiota-mediated production of salivary nitrite, potentially linking the oral microbiota to reduced cardiometabolic risk. Nitrite depletion by oral bacteria may also be important for determining the net nitrite available systemically. We examine if higher abundance of oral microbial genes favoring increased oral nitrite generation and decreased nitrite depletion is associated with a better cardiometabolic profile cross-sectionally. Methods and Results This study includes 764 adults (mean [SD] age 32 [9] years, 71% women) enrolled in ORIGINS (Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study). Microbial DNA from subgingival dental plaques underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing; PICRUSt2 was used to estimate functional gene profiles. To represent the different components and pathways of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, predicted gene abundances were operationalized to create summary scores by (1) bacterial nitrogen metabolic pathway or (2) biochemical product (NO2, NO, or ammonia [NH3]) formed by the action of the bacterial reductases encoded. Finally, nitrite generation-to-depletion ratios of gene abundances were created from the above summary scores. A composite cardiometabolic Z score was created from cardiometabolic risk variables, with higher scores associated with worse cardiometabolic health. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis with cardiometabolic Z score as the outcome and the gene abundance summary scores and ratios as predictor variables, adjusting for sex, age, race, and ethnicity in the simple adjusted model. A 1 SD higher NO versus NH3 summary ratio was inversely associated with a -0.10 (false discovery rate q=0.003) lower composite cardiometabolic Z score in simple adjusted models. Higher NH3 summary score (suggestive of nitrite depletion) was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk, with a 0.06 (false discovery rate q=0.04) higher composite cardiometabolic Z score. Conclusions Increased net capacity for nitrite generation versus depletion by oral bacteria, assessed through a metagenome estimation approach, is associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Bickhart DM, Kolmogorov M, Tseng E, et al (2022)

Generating lineage-resolved, complete metagenome-assembled genomes from complex microbial communities.

Nature biotechnology, 40(5):711-719.

Microbial communities might include distinct lineages of closely related organisms that complicate metagenomic assembly and prevent the generation of complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Here we show that deep sequencing using long (HiFi) reads combined with Hi-C binning can address this challenge even for complex microbial communities. Using existing methods, we sequenced the sheep fecal metagenome and identified 428 MAGs with more than 90% completeness, including 44 MAGs in single circular contigs. To resolve closely related strains (lineages), we developed MAGPhase, which separates lineages of related organisms by discriminating variant haplotypes across hundreds of kilobases of genomic sequence. MAGPhase identified 220 lineage-resolved MAGs in our dataset. The ability to resolve closely related microbes in complex microbial communities improves the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters and the precision of assigning mobile genetic elements to host genomes. We identified 1,400 complete and 350 partial biosynthetic gene clusters, most of which are novel, as well as 424 (298) potential host-viral (host-plasmid) associations using Hi-C data.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Porto BN (2022)

Insights Into the Role of the Lung Virome During Respiratory Viral Infections.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:885341.

The virome constitutes the viral component of the microbiome and it consists of the genomes of all the viruses that inhabit a particular region of the human body, including those that cause acute, persistent or latent infection, and retroviral elements integrated to host chromosomes. The human virome is composed by eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophages and archaeal viruses. The understanding of the virome composition and role on human health has been delayed by the absence of specific tools and techniques to accurately characterize viruses. However, more recently, advanced methods for viral diagnostics, such as deep sequencing and metagenomics, have allowed a better understanding of the diverse viral species present in the human body. Previous studies have shown that the respiratory virome modulates the host immunity and that, since childhood, the human lung is populated by viruses for whom there is no disease association. Whether these viruses are potentially pathogenic and the reason for their persistence remain elusive. Increased respiratory viral load can cause exacerbation of chronic pulmonary diseases, including COPD, cystic fibrosis, and asthma. Moreover, the presence of resident viral populations may contribute to the pathogenesis of community-acquired respiratory virus infections. In this mini review, I will discuss the recent progress on our understanding of the human lung virome and summarize the up-to-date knowledge on the relationships among community-acquired respiratory viruses, the lung virome and the immune response to better understand disease pathophysiology and the factors that may lead to viral persistence.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Diao Z, Han D, Zhang R, et al (2022)

Metagenomics next-generation sequencing tests take the stage in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections.

Journal of advanced research, 38:201-212 pii:S2090-1232(21)00193-4.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has changed the diagnosis landscape of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs). With the development of newer sequencing assays, it is now possible to assess all microorganisms in a sample using a single mNGS analysis. The applications of mNGS for LRIs span a wide range of areas including LRI diagnosis, airway microbiome analyses, human host response analyses, and prediction of drug resistance. mNGS is currently in an exciting transitional period; however, before implementation in a clinical setting, there are several barriers to overcome, such as the depletion of human nucleic acid, discrimination between colonization and infection, high costs, and so on. Aim of Review: In this review, we summarize the potential applications and challenges of mNGS in the diagnosis of LRIs to promote the integration of mNGS into the management of patients with respiratory tract infections in a clinical setting. Key Scientific Concepts of Review: Once its analytical validation, clinical validation and clinical utility been demonstrated, mNGS will become an important tool in the field of infectious disease diagnosis.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Yu X, Xing Y, Liu H, et al (2022)

Effects of a Formula with scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and Glycomacropeptide (GMP) Supplementation on the Gut Microbiota of Very Preterm Infants.

Nutrients, 14(9):.

Microbial colonization of very preterm (VPT) infants is detrimentally affected by the complex interplay of physiological, dietary, medical, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an infant formula containing the specific prebiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and glycomacropeptide (GMP) on the composition and function of VPT infants' gut microbiota. Metagenomic analysis was performed on the gut microbiota of VPT infants sampled at four time points: 24 h before the trial and 7, 14, and 28 days after the trial. Functional profiling was aggregated into gut and brain modules (GBMs) and gut metabolic modules (GMMs) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were dominant species in both the test group and the control group. After the 4-week intervention, the abundance of Bifidobacterium in the test group was significantly increased. We found two GBMs (quinolinic acid synthesis and kynurenine degradation) and four GMMs (glutamine degradation, glyoxylate bypass, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and preparatory phase of glycolysis) were significantly enriched in the test group, respectively. The results of this study suggested that formula enriched with scGOS/lcFOS (9:1) and GPM is beneficial to the intestinal microecology of VPT infants.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Hernandez AR, Kemp KM, Burke SN, et al (2022)

Influence of Aging, Macronutrient Composition and Time-Restricted Feeding on the Fischer344 x Brown Norway Rat Gut Microbiota.

Nutrients, 14(9):.

Both ketogenic diets (KD) and time-restricted feeding (TRF) regimens have the ability to influence several parameters of physical health, including gut microbiome composition and circulating cytokine concentration. Moreover, both of these dietary interventions prevent common impairments associated with the aging process. However, significantly altering macronutrient intake, which is required for a KD, may be unappealing to individuals and decrease compliance to dietary treatments. In contrast to a KD, TRF allows individuals to continue eating the foods they are used to, and only requires a change in the time of day at which they eat. Therefore, we investigated both a KD and a diet with a more Western-like macronutrient profile in the context of TRF, and compared both diets to animals allowed access to standard chow ad libitum in young adult and aged rats. While limited effects on cytokine levels were observed, both methods of microbiome analysis (16S sequencing and metagenomics) indicate that TRF and KDs significantly altered the gut microbiome in aged rats. These changes were largely dependent on changes to feeding paradigm (TRF vs. ad libitum) alone regardless of macronutrient content for many gut microbiota, but there were also macronutrient-specific changes. Specifically, functional analysis indicates significant differences in several pathways, including those involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and neurodegenerative disease. These data indicate that age- and disease-related gut dysbiosis may be ameliorated through the use of TRF with both standard diets and KDs.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Chen L, Zheng T, Yang Y, et al (2022)

Integrative multiomics analysis reveals host-microbe-metabolite interplays associated with the aging process in Singaporeans.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2070392.

The age-associated alterations in microbiomes vary across populations due to the influence of genetics and lifestyles. To the best of our knowledge, the microbial changes associated with aging have not yet been investigated in Singapore adults. We conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal and saliva samples, as well as fecal metabolomics to characterize the gut and oral microbial communities of 62 healthy adult male Singaporeans, including 32 young subjects (age, 23.1 ± 1.4 years) and 30 elderly subjects (age, 69.0 ± 3.5 years). We identified 8 gut and 13 oral species that were differentially abundant in elderly compared to young subjects. By combining the gut and oral microbiomes, 25 age-associated oral-gut species connections were identified. Moreover, oral bacteria Acidaminococcus intestine and Flavonifractor plautii were less prevalent/abundant in elderly gut samples than in young gut samples, whereas Collinsella aerofaciens and Roseburia hominis showed the opposite trends. These results indicate the varied gut-oral communications with aging. Subsequently, we expanded the association studies on microbiome, metabolome and host phenotypic parameters. In particular, Eubacterium eligens increased in elderly compared to young subjects, and was positively correlated with triglycerides, which implies that the potential role of E. eligens in lipid metabolism is altered during the aging process. Our results demonstrated aging-associated changes in the gut and oral microbiomes, as well as the connections between metabolites and host-microbe interactions, thereby deepening the understanding of alterations in the human microbiome during the aging process in a Singapore population.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Liu S, Moon CD, Zheng N, et al (2022)

Opportunities and challenges of using metagenomic data to bring uncultured microbes into cultivation.

Microbiome, 10(1):76.

Although there is now an extensive understanding of the diversity of microbial life on earth through culture-independent metagenomic DNA sequence analyses, the isolation and cultivation of microbes remains critical to directly study them and confirm their metabolic and physiological functions, and their ecological roles. The majority of environmental microbes are as yet uncultured however; therefore, bringing these rare or poorly characterized groups into culture is a priority to further understand microbiome functions. Moreover, cultivated isolates may find utility in a range of applications, such as new probiotics, biocontrol agents, and agents for industrial processes. The growing abundance of metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequence information from a wide range of environments provides more opportunities to guide the isolation and cultivation of microbes of interest. In this paper, we discuss a range of successful methodologies and applications that have underpinned recent metagenome-guided isolation and cultivation of microbe efforts. These approaches include determining specific culture conditions to enrich for taxa of interest, to more complex strategies that specifically target the capture of microbial species through antibody engineering and genome editing strategies. With the greater degree of genomic information now available from uncultivated members, such as via metagenome-assembled genomes, the theoretical understanding of their cultivation requirements will enable greater possibilities to capture these and ultimately gain a more comprehensive understanding of the microbiomes. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Russell A, Copio JN, Shi Y, et al (2022)

Reduced housing density improves statistical power of murine gut microbiota studies.

Cell reports, 39(6):110783.

The gut microbiome of humans and animals is critical to host health. Mice are used to investigate the microbiome and its influences; however, the predictive value of such studies is hindered by cage effects due to coprophagy. Our objectives were to evaluate the influence of cage density on the statistical power to detect treatment-dependent effects of a selective pressure on microbiome composition. C57BL/6 mice were separated into groups of 2 or 4 mice per cage and then assigned to groups receiving enrofloxacin, broad-spectrum antibiotics, or control. Fecal samples were collected at weeks 0, 1, and 4, along with contents of the jejunum and cecum. Bacterial DNA analysis examined microbiome richness, diversity, and variability within and between cages. Statistical analyses reveal that reduced housing density consistently results in comparable susceptibility to antibiotics, reduced cage effects, and increased statistical power to detect treatment-associated effects, justifying the practice of reduced housing density.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Tsitsiklis A, Osborne CM, Kamm J, et al (2022)

Lower respiratory tract infections in children requiring mechanical ventilation: a multicentre prospective surveillance study incorporating airway metagenomics.

The Lancet. Microbe, 3(4):e284-e293.

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a leading cause of critical illness and mortality in mechanically ventilated children; however, the pathogenic microbes frequently remain unknown. We combined traditional diagnostics with metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) to evaluate the cause of LRTI in critically ill children.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study of critically ill children aged 31 days to 17 years with respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (>72 h) in the USA. By combining bacterial culture and upper respiratory viral PCR testing with mNGS of tracheal aspirate collected from all patients within 24 h of intubation, we determined the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens detected by either method in children with or without LRTI.

FINDINGS: Between Feb 26, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, of the 514 enrolled patients, 397 were eligible and included in the study (276 children with LRTI and 121 with no evidence of LRTI). A presumptive microbiological cause was identified in 255 (92%) children with LRTI, with respiratory syncytial virus (127 [46%]), Haemophilus influenzae (70 [25%]), and Moraxella catarrhalis (65 [24%]) being most prevalent. mNGS identified uncommon pathogens including Ureaplasma parvum and Bocavirus. Co-detection of viral and bacterial pathogens occurred in 144 (52%) patients. Incidental carriage of potentially pathogenic microbes occurred in 82 (68%) children without LRTI, with rhinovirus (30 [25%]) being most prevalent. Respiratory syncytial virus (p<0·0001), H influenzae (p=0·0006), and M catarrhalis (p=0·0002) were most common in children younger than 5 years. Viral and bacterial LRTI occurred predominantly during winter months.

INTERPRETATION: These findings demonstrate that respiratory syncytial virus, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis contribute disproportionately to severe paediatric LRTI, co-infections are common, and incidental carriage of potentially pathogenic microbes occurs frequently. Further, we provide a framework for future epidemiological and emerging pathogen surveillance studies, highlighting the potential for metagenomics to enhance clinical diagnosis.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and CZ Biohub.

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Shin J, Noh JR, Choe D, et al (2022)

Comprehensive 16S rRNA and metagenomic data from the gut microbiome of aging and rejuvenation mouse models.

Scientific data, 9(1):197.

The gut microbiota is associated with the health and longevity of the host. A few methods, such as fecal microbiota transplantation and oral administration of probiotics, have been applied to alter the gut microbiome and promote healthy aging. The changes in host microbiomes still remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized both the changes in gut microbial communities and their functional potential derived from colon samples in mouse models during aging. We achieved this through four procedures including co-housing, serum injection, parabiosis, and oral administration of Akkermansia muciniphila as probiotics using bacterial 16 S rRNA sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The dataset comprised 16 S rRNA sequencing (36,249,200 paired-end reads, 107 sequencing data) and metagenomic sequencing data (307,194,369 paired-end reads, 109 sequencing data), characterizing the taxonomy of bacterial communities and their functional potential during aging and rejuvenation. The generated data expand the resources of the gut microbiome related to aging and rejuvenation and provide a useful dataset for research on developing therapeutic strategies to achieve healthy active aging.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

You HS, Lee SH, Lee YJ, et al (2022)

Next-Generation Sequencing Results Vary Between Cultured and Uncultured Microbes.

Current microbiology, 79(6):187.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has led to innovations in environmental metagenomics and investigations involving humans and microbes. However, it is necessary to analyze the components that will affect analysis of the method upon processing a large amount of information. In particular, the processing method after sample collection affects the NGS results, and it is necessary to check for inaccurate results. Here, we show that the microbial communities obtained from fingertip samples differ from those obtained from fingertips remaining on mobile phones and desks, when cultured or not for 24 h. We also confirmed changes in microbial communities in fingertip samples from desks incubated for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. Samples of prints from mobile phones that are considerably vulnerable to external factors were not analyzed. Ratios of Firmicutes and Bacillus were, respectively, increased in cultures at the phylum and species levels. Collectively, we identified bacterial species that can aid in determining whether a sample has been cultured. In addition, although microbial communities differed depending on sample types, we confirmed changes after culture for 4 and 8 h. However, since this study is a sample limited to three types, it is necessary to analyze other types of samples in the same way and check whether they are applicable to all types. This strategy can verify the suitability of samples for deriving informative results from cultured or uncultured bacterial communities.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Cobos M, Estela SL, Rodríguez HN, et al (2022)

Soil microbial diversity and functional profiling of a tropical rainforest of a highly dissected low hill from the upper Itaya river basin revealed by analysis of shotgun metagenomics sequencing data.

Data in brief, 42:108205.

The tropical rainforest of a highly dissected low hill from the upper Itaya river basin belongs to the western Amazonia region. Some investigations on the biodiversity of these rainforests were more focused on animals and plants diversity. The soils of this region are composed of moderately fertile sediments deposited recently from the initiation of the Andean orogenesis in the Miocene until now. However, scientific information about the soil microbial and functional diversity is still missing. This report presents shotgun metagenomics sequencing data from soils of this rainforest type. A composite loamy soil sample was collected from a primary forest, and metagenomic DNA was purified with standardized methods. Furthermore, libraries were prepared and paired-end sequenced on the Illumina NextSeq 550 platform. Raw Illumina paired-end reads have been uploaded and analysed in the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST). The raw sequence data in fastq format is available at NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) with accession number SRX12846710.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Sheehy L, Cutler J, Weedall GD, et al (2022)

Microbiome Analysis of Malacopathogenic Nematodes Suggests No Evidence of a Single Bacterial Symbiont Responsible for Gastropod Mortality.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:878783.

Nematodes and bacteria are prevalent in soil ecosystems, and some have evolved symbiotic relationships. In some cases, symbionts carry out highly specialized functions: a prime example being entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), which vector bacteria (Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus) into insect hosts, killing them to provide a food source for the nematodes. It is thought that the commercially available malacopathogenic (kills slugs and snails) biocontrol nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita vectors a bacterium (Moraxella osloensis) into slugs to kill them. To investigate this further we used a metagenomic approach to profile the bacteria present in the commercial strain of P. hermaphrodita, a wild strain of P. hermaphrodita and two other Phasmarhabditis species (P. californica and P. neopapillosa), after they had killed their slug host (Deroceras invadens). We show that these nematodes do not exclusively associate with one bacterium but a range of species, with members of the phyla Pseudomonadota, Bacillota, Actinobacteriota and Bacteroidota the most prevalent. The commercial strain of P. hermaphrodita had the least diverse bacterial community. Furthermore, we found that the bacterium P. hermaphrodita has been cultured on for 25 years is not the expected species M. osloensis but is Psychrobacter spp. and the only strain of the Phasmarhabditis species to associate with Psychrobacter spp. was the commercial strain of P. hermaphrodita. In summary, we found no evidence to show that P. hermaphrodita rely exclusively on one bacterium to cause host mortality but found variable and diverse bacterial communities associated with these nematodes in their slug hosts.

RevDate: 2022-05-05
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Pronk LJU, MH Medema (2022)

Whokaryote: distinguishing eukaryotic and prokaryotic contigs in metagenomes based on gene structure.

Microbial genomics, 8(5):.

Metagenomics has become a prominent technology to study the functional potential of all organisms in a microbial community. Most studies focus on the bacterial content of these communities, while ignoring eukaryotic microbes. Indeed, many metagenomics analysis pipelines silently assume that all contigs in a metagenome are prokaryotic, likely resulting in less accurate annotation of eukaryotes in metagenomes. Early detection of eukaryotic contigs allows for eukaryote-specific gene prediction and functional annotation. Here, we developed a classifier that distinguishes eukaryotic from prokaryotic contigs based on foundational differences between these taxa in terms of gene structure. We first developed Whokaryote, a random forest classifier that uses intergenic distance, gene density and gene length as the most important features. We show that, with an estimated recall, precision and accuracy of 94, 96 and 95 %, respectively, this classifier with features grounded in biology can perform almost as well as the classifiers EukRep and Tiara, which use k-mer frequencies as features. By retraining our classifier with Tiara predictions as an additional feature, the weaknesses of both types of classifiers are compensated; the result is Whokaryote+Tiara, an enhanced classifier that outperforms all individual classifiers, with an F1 score of 0.99 for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, while still being fast. In a reanalysis of metagenome data from a disease-suppressive plant endospheric microbial community, we show how using Whokaryote+Tiara to select contigs for eukaryotic gene prediction facilitates the discovery of several biosynthetic gene clusters that were missed in the original study. Whokaryote (+Tiara) is wrapped in an easily installable package and is freely available from

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Mesnage R, Bowyer RCE, El Balkhi S, et al (2022)

Impacts of dietary exposure to pesticides on faecal microbiome metabolism in adult twins.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 21(1):46.

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits have a profound influence on the metabolic activity of gut microorganisms and their influence on health. Concerns have been raised as to whether the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with pesticides can contribute to the development of chronic disease by affecting the gut microbiome. We performed the first pesticide biomonitoring survey of the British population, and subsequently used the results to perform the first pesticide association study on gut microbiome composition and function from the TwinsUK registry.

METHODS: Dietary exposure of 186 common insecticide, herbicide, or fungicide residues and the faecal microbiome in 65 twin pairs in the UK was investigated. We evaluated if dietary habits, geographic location, or the rural/urban environment, are associated with the excretion of pesticide residues. The composition and metabolic activity of faecal microbiota was evaluated using shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics respectively. We performed a targeted urine metabolomics analysis in order to evaluate whether pesticide urinary excretion was also associated with physiological changes.

RESULTS: Pyrethroid and/or organophosphorus insecticide residues were found in all urine samples, while the herbicide glyphosate was found in 53% of individuals. Food frequency questionnaires showed that residues from organophosphates were higher with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. A total of 34 associations between pesticide residue concentrations and faecal metabolite concentrations were detected. Glyphosate excretion was positively associated with an overall increased bacterial species richness, as well as to fatty acid metabolites and phosphate levels. The insecticide metabolite Br2CA, reflecting deltamethrin exposure, was positively associated with the phytoestrogens enterodiol and enterolactone, and negatively associated with some N-methyl amino acids. Urine metabolomics performed on a subset of samples did not reveal associations with the excretion of pesticide residues.

CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of conventionally grown fruit and vegetables leads to higher ingestion of pesticides with unknown long-term health consequences. Our results highlight the need for future dietary intervention studies to understand effects of pesticide exposure on the gut microbiome and possible health consequences.

RevDate: 2022-05-07
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Jiang C, Zhu S, Feng J, et al (2022)

Slope aspect affects the soil microbial communities in karst tiankeng negative landforms.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):54.

BACKGROUND: Karst tiankeng is a large-scale negative surface terrain, and slope aspects affect the soil conditions, vegetation and microbial flora in the tiankeng. However, the influence of the slope aspect on the soil microbial community in tiankeng has not been elucidated.

METHODS: In this study, metagenomic sequencing technology was used to analyze the soil microbial community structure and functional potentials on the shady and sunny slopes of karst tiankeng.

RESULTS: The Shannon-Wiener diversity of microbial communities on shady slope (SHS) was significantly higher than that on sunny slope (SUS). Although the composition of dominant phyla on shady slope (SHS) and sunny slope (SUS) was similar, there were significant differences in beta-diversity. The linear discriminate analysis (LDA) results showed that biomarkers mainly belongs to Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. Functional pathways and CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes) genes also had a remarkable response to slope aspect change. LEfSe results indicated several biomarker pathways in sunny slope involved in human disease. Moreover, the abundance of CAZy genes was higher in shady slope and had stronger ability in decomposing litter. The microbial communities were mainly correlation with the vegetation characteristics (species richness and coverage) and soil properties (SOC and pH).

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate slope aspect has a pronounced influence on microbial community composition, structure and function at karst tiankeng. In the future, the conservation of karst tiankeng biodiversity should pay more attention to topographical factors.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Pan S, Zhu C, Zhao XM, et al (2022)

A deep siamese neural network improves metagenome-assembled genomes in microbiome datasets across different environments.

Nature communications, 13(1):2326.

Metagenomic binning is the step in building metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) when sequences predicted to originate from the same genome are automatically grouped together. The most widely-used methods for binning are reference-independent, operating de novo and enable the recovery of genomes from previously unsampled clades. However, they do not leverage the knowledge in existing databases. Here, we introduce SemiBin, an open source tool that uses deep siamese neural networks to implement a semi-supervised approach, i.e. SemiBin exploits the information in reference genomes, while retaining the capability of reconstructing high-quality bins that are outside the reference dataset. Using simulated and real microbiome datasets from several different habitats from GMGCv1 (Global Microbial Gene Catalog), including the human gut, non-human guts, and environmental habitats (ocean and soil), we show that SemiBin outperforms existing state-of-the-art binning methods. In particular, compared to other methods, SemiBin returns more high-quality bins with larger taxonomic diversity, including more distinct genera and species.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Paranhos AGO, Pereira AR, da Fonseca YA, et al (2022)

Tylosin in anaerobic reactors: degradation kinetics, effects on methane production and on the microbial community.

Biodegradation, 33(3):283-300.

Tylosin eliminated in animal waste, during therapeutic treatment, can be efficiently removed in anaerobic systems. The present study investigated the influence of tylosin concentration and assessed its degradation kinetics and the microorganisms involved in each stage of its anaerobic digestion (hydrolysis/acidogenesis; acetogenesis; methanogenesis). The results showed a stimulating effect on methane production with increasing tylosin concentration in the poultry litter up to 80 mg kg-1 tylosin (232.9 NL CH4 kg SV-1). As for tylosin degradation, greater removal of antibiotics was observed in the methanogenic phase (88%), followed by acetogenic (84%) and hydrolytic/acidogenic (76%) phases. The higher rate of tylosin degradation obtained in the methanogenic step, is mainly related to the co-metabolic effect exerted by the presence of acetate and its degradation by acetoclastic methanogens. Indeed, metagenomic analyses suggested a syntrophic action between archaea of ​​the genus Methanobacterium, and bacteria such as Clostridium and Flexilinea, which seemed decisive for tylosin degradation.

RevDate: 2022-05-01
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Wang H, Yang GX, Hu Y, et al (2022)

Comprehensive human amniotic fluid metagenomics supports the sterile womb hypothesis.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6875.

As metagenomic approaches for detecting infectious agents have improved, each tissue that was once thought to be sterile has been found to harbor a variety of microorganisms. Controversy still exists over the status of amniotic fluid, which is part of an immunologically privileged zone that is required to prevent maternal immune system rejection of the fetus. Due to this privilege, the exclusion of microbes has been proposed to be mandatory, leading to the sterile womb hypothesis. Since nucleic acid yields from amniotic fluid are very low, contaminating nucleic acid found in water, reagents and the laboratory environment frequently confound attempts to address this hypothesis. Here we present metagenomic criteria for microorganism detection and a metagenomic method able to be performed with small volumes of starting material, while controlling for exogenous contamination, to circumvent these and other pitfalls. We use this method to show that human mid-gestational amniotic fluid has no detectable virome or microbiome, supporting the sterile womb hypothesis.

RevDate: 2022-04-27
CmpDate: 2022-04-27

Zhu Y, Ma L, Wei W, et al (2022)

Metagenomics analysis of cultured mucosal bacteria from colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosal tissues.

Journal of medical microbiology, 71(4):.

Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Multiple risk factors are involved in CRC development, including age, genetics, lifestyle, diet and environment. Of these, the role of the gut microbiota in cancer biology is increasingly recognized.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Micro-organisms have been widely detected in stool samples, but few mucosal samples have been detected and sequenced in depth.Aim. Analysis of cultured mucosal bacteria from colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosal tissues with metagenomics sequencing.Methodology. Twenty-eight paired tumour and non-tumour tissues from 14 patients undergoing surgery for CRC were analysed. We removed the influence of eukaryotic cells via culture. The composition of mucosal microbiota in intestinal mucosa were detected and analysed with metagenomic sequencing.Results. Compared with non-cultured mucosal sample, 80 % bacteria species could be detected after culture. Moreover, after culture, additional 30 % bacteria could be detected, compared with non-cultured samples. Since after culture it was difficult to estimate the original abundance of microbiome, we focused on the identification of the CRC tissue-specific species. There were 298 bacterial species, which could only be cultured and detected in CRC tissues. Myroides odoratimimus and Cellulophaga baltica could be isolated from all the tumour samples of 14 CRC patients, suggesting that these species may be related to tumour occurrence and development. Further functional analysis indicated that bacteria from CRC tissues showed more active functions, including basic metabolism, signal transduction and survival activities.Conclusion. We used a new method based on culture to implement information on prokaryotic taxa, and related functions, which samples were from colorectal tissues. This method is suitable for removing eukaryotic contamination and detecting micro-organisms from other tissues.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Henry C, Bassignani A, Berland M, et al (2022)

Modern Metaproteomics: A Unique Tool to Characterize the Active Microbiome in Health and Diseases, and Pave the Road towards New Biomarkers-Example of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Flare-Ups.

Cells, 11(8):.

Thanks to the latest developments in mass spectrometry, software and standards, metaproteomics is emerging as the vital complement of metagenomics, to make headway in understanding the actual functioning of living and active microbial communities. Modern metaproteomics offers new possibilities in the area of clinical diagnosis. This is illustrated here, for the still highly challenging diagnosis of intestinal bowel diseases (IBDs). Using bottom-up proteomics, we analyzed the gut metaproteomes of the same twenty faecal specimens processed either fresh or after a two-month freezing period. We focused on metaproteomes of microbial cell envelopes since it is an outstanding way of capturing host and host-microbe interaction signals. The protein profiles of pairs of fresh and frozen-thawed samples were closely related, making feasible deferred analysis in a distant diagnosis centre. The taxonomic and functional landscape of microbes in diverse IBD phenotypes-active ulcerative colitis, or active Crohn's disease either with ileo-colonic or exclusive colonic localization-differed from each other and from the controls. Based on their specific peptides, we could identify proteins that were either strictly overrepresented or underrepresented in all samples of one clinical group compared to all samples of another group, paving the road for promising additional diagnostic tool for IBDs.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Lu JL, Jia P, Feng SW, et al (2022)

Remarkable effects of microbial factors on soil phosphorus bioavailability: A country-scale study.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Low soil phosphorus (P) bioavailability causes the widespread occurrence of P-limited terrestrial ecosystems around the globe. Exploring the factors influencing soil P bioavailability at large spatial scales is critical for managing these ecosystems. However, previous studies have mostly focused on abiotic factors. In this study, we explored the effects of microbial factors on soil P bioavailability of terrestrial ecosystems using a country-scale sampling effort. Our results showed that soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and acid phosphatase were important predictors of soil P bioavailability of agro- and natural ecosystems across China although they appeared less important than total soil P. The two microbial factors had a positive effect on soil P bioavailability of both ecosystem types and were able to mediate the effects of several abiotic factors (e.g., mean annual temperature). Meanwhile, we revealed that soil phytase could affect soil P bioavailability at the country scale via ways similar to those of soil MBC and acid phosphatase, a pattern being more pronounced in agroecosystems than in natural ecosystems. Moreover, we obtained evidence for the positive effects of microbial genes encoding these enzymes on soil P bioavailability at the country scale although their effect sizes varied between the two ecosystem types. Taken together, this study demonstrated the remarkable effects of microbial factors on soil P bioavailability at a large spatial scale, highlighting the importance to consider microbial factors in managing the widespread P-limited terrestrial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Raina JB, Lambert BS, Parks DH, et al (2022)

Chemotaxis shapes the microscale organization of the ocean's microbiome.

Nature, 605(7908):132-138.

The capacity of planktonic marine microorganisms to actively seek out and exploit microscale chemical hotspots has been widely theorized to affect ocean-basin scale biogeochemistry1-3, but has never been examined comprehensively in situ among natural microbial communities. Here, using a field-based microfluidic platform to quantify the behavioural responses of marine bacteria and archaea, we observed significant levels of chemotaxis towards microscale hotspots of phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) at a coastal field site across multiple deployments, spanning several months. Microscale metagenomics revealed that a wide diversity of marine prokaryotes, spanning 27 bacterial and 2 archaeal phyla, displayed chemotaxis towards microscale patches of DOM derived from ten globally distributed phytoplankton species. The distinct DOM composition of each phytoplankton species attracted phylogenetically and functionally discrete populations of bacteria and archaea, with 54% of chemotactic prokaryotes displaying highly specific responses to the DOM derived from only one or two phytoplankton species. Prokaryotes exhibiting chemotaxis towards phytoplankton-derived compounds were significantly enriched in the capacity to transport and metabolize specific phytoplankton-derived chemicals, and displayed enrichment in functions conducive to symbiotic relationships, including genes involved in the production of siderophores, B vitamins and growth-promoting hormones. Our findings demonstrate that the swimming behaviour of natural prokaryotic assemblages is governed by specific chemical cues, which dictate important biogeochemical transformation processes and the establishment of ecological interactions that structure the base of the marine food web.

RevDate: 2022-04-23
CmpDate: 2022-04-22

Lin PC, Yang YSH, Lin SC, et al (2022)

Clinical significance and intestinal microbiota composition in immunocompromised children with norovirus gastroenteritis.

PloS one, 17(4):e0266876.

BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) infection is common in pediatric patients with immunodeficiency and is more likely to cause severe disease. Objective Our study aims to figure out the clinical differences and distribution of intestinal microbiota in immunocompromised children with NoV gastroenteritis.

METHODS: Pediatric patients admitted to Shang-Ho Hospital with diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis including different immune status were enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. NoV gastroenteritis was validated using RT-PCR molecular methods. Viral shedding period was determined by real-time RT-PCR assays. Intestinal microbiota enrichment analysis was carried out by next generation sequencing after fecal DNA extraction and subsequent Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Effect Size (LEfSe) method.

RESULTS: Significantly higher frequency of diarrhea [mean, (IQR), 3.8 (3-5) /day] and longer viral shedding time [mean, IQR, 8.5 (5-13) days] was found in immunocompromised NoV infections than in immunocompetent patients without NoV infections (p = 0.013*) and immunocompetent patients with NoV infections (p = 0.030**). The fever prevalence was significantly lower in immunocompromised NoV infections than in different immune or infection status. Intestinal microbiota metagenomics analysis showed no significant community richness difference while the LEfSe analysis showed a significant difference in commensal richness at the phylum level, the family level, and the genus level in patients under different immune status.

CONCLUSION: We evaluated the clinical significances and microbiota composition in immunocompromised children with norovirus gastroenteritis. This will further facilitate studies of the interaction between the intestinal microbiota in such patients with precise determination of their bacterial infection control and probiotic supplements strategy.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-21

Li C, Luan Z, Zhao Y, et al (2022)

Deep insights into the gut microbial community of extreme longevity in south Chinese centenarians by ultra-deep metagenomics and large-scale culturomics.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):28.

The gut microbes play important roles in human longevity and the gut microbiota profile of centenarians shows some unique features from young adults. Nowadays, most microbial studies on longevity are commonly based on metagenomic sequencing which may lose information about the functional microbes with extremely low abundance. Here, we combined in-depth metagenomic sequencing and large-scale culturomics to reveal the unique gut microbial structure of a Chinese longevity population, and to explore the possible relationship between intestinal microbes and longevity. Twenty-five healthy Hainan natives were enrolled in the study, including 12 centenarians and 13 senior neighbors. An average of 51.1 Gb raw sequencing data were obtained from individual fecal sample. We assembled 1778 non-redundant metagenomic assembled genomes (MAGs), 33.46% of which cannot be classified into known species. Comparison with the ordinary people in Hainan province, the longevous cohort displayed significantly decreased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and largely increased proportion of Escherichia coli, Desulfovibrio piger and Methanobrevibacter smithii. These species showed a constant change with aging. We also isolated 8,030 strains from these samples by large-scale culturomics, most of which belonged to 203 known species as identified by MALDI-TOF. Surprisingly, only 42.17% of the isolated species were also detected by metagenomics, indicating obvious complementarity between these two approaches. Combination of two complement methods, in-depth metagenomic sequencing and culturomics, provides deeper insights into the longevity-related gut microbiota. The uniquely enriched gut microbes in Hainan extreme decades population may help to promote health and longevity.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-21

Wolf PG, Cowley ES, Breister A, et al (2022)

Diversity and distribution of sulfur metabolic genes in the human gut microbiome and their association with colorectal cancer.

Microbiome, 10(1):64.

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence implicates microbial sulfidogenesis as a potential trigger of colorectal cancer (CRC), highlighting the need for comprehensive knowledge of sulfur metabolism within the human gut. Microbial sulfidogenesis produces genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the human colon using inorganic (sulfate) and organic (taurine/cysteine/methionine) substrates; however, the majority of studies have focused on sulfate reduction using dissimilatory sulfite reductases (Dsr).

RESULTS: Here, we show that genes for microbial sulfur metabolism are more abundant and diverse than previously observed and are statistically associated with CRC. Using ~ 17,000 bacterial genomes from publicly available stool metagenomes, we studied the diversity of sulfur metabolic genes in 667 participants across different health statuses: healthy, adenoma, and carcinoma. Sulfidogenic genes were harbored by 142 bacterial genera and both organic and inorganic sulfidogenic genes were associated with carcinoma. Significantly, the anaerobic sulfite reductase (asr) genes were twice as abundant as dsr, demonstrating that Asr is likely a more important contributor to sulfate reduction in the human gut than Dsr. We identified twelve potential pathways for reductive taurine metabolism and discovered novel genera harboring these pathways. Finally, the prevalence of metabolic genes for organic sulfur indicates that these understudied substrates may be the most abundant source of microbially derived H2S.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings significantly expand knowledge of microbial sulfur metabolism in the human gut. We show that genes for microbial sulfur metabolism in the human gut are more prevalent than previously known, irrespective of health status (i.e., in both healthy and diseased states). Our results significantly increase the diversity of pathways and bacteria that are associated with microbial sulfur metabolism in the human gut. Overall, our results have implications for understanding the role of the human gut microbiome and its potential contributions to the pathogenesis of CRC. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Wang K, Qaisar M, Chen B, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis of microbial community and metabolic pathway of simultaneous sulfide and nitrite removal process exposed to divergent hydraulic retention times.

Bioresource technology, 354:127186.

The role of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on S0 production was assessed through metagenomics analyses. Considering comprehensive performance for the tested HRTs (0.25-13.33 h), the optimal HRT was 1 h, while respective sulfide and nitrite loading rate could reach 6.84 kg S/(m3·d) and 1.95 kg N/(m3·d), and total S0 yield was 0.36 kg S/(kg (VSS)·d). Bacterial community richness decreased along the shortening of HRT. Microbacterium, Sulfurimonas, Sulfurovum, Paracoccus and Thauera were highly abundant bacteria. During sulfur metabolism, high expression of sqr gene was the main reason of maintaining high desulfurization load, while lacking soxB caused the continuous increase of S0. Regarding nitrogen metabolism, the rapid decrease of nitrite transporter prevented nitrite to enter in cells, which caused a rapid decrease of nitrite removal under extreme HRT. Adjusting HRT is an effective way to enhance S0 production for the application of the simultaneous sulfide and nitrite removal process.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Latz MAC, Grujcic V, Brugel S, et al (2022)

Short- and long-read metabarcoding of the eukaryotic rRNA operon: Evaluation of primers and comparison to shotgun metagenomics sequencing.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of microbial diversity has evolved vastly over the last decade. Currently, the go-to method for studying microbial eukaryotes is short-read metabarcoding of variable regions of the 18S rRNA gene with <500 bp amplicons. However, there is a growing interest in applying long-read sequencing of amplicons covering the rRNA operon for improving taxonomic resolution. For both methods, the choice of primers is crucial. It determines if community members are covered, if they can be identified at a satisfactory taxonomic level, and if the obtained community profile is representative. Here, we designed new primers targeting 18S and 28S rRNA based on 177,934 and 21,072 database sequences, respectively. The primers were evaluated in silico along with published primers on reference sequence databases and marine metagenomics data sets. We further evaluated a subset of the primers for short- and long-read sequencing on environmental samples in vitro and compared the obtained community profile with primer-unbiased metagenomic sequencing. Of the short-read pairs, a new V6-V8 pair and the V4_Balzano pair used with a simplified PCR protocol provided good results in silico and in vitro. Fewer differences were observed between the long-read primer pairs. The long-read amplicons and ITS1 alone provided higher taxonomic resolution than V4. Together, our results represent a reference and guide for selection of robust primers for research on and environmental monitoring of microbial eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2022-04-23
CmpDate: 2022-04-20

Song J, Li T, Zheng Z, et al (2022)

Carbendazim shapes microbiome and enhances resistome in the earthworm gut.

Microbiome, 10(1):63.

BACKGROUND: It is worrisome that several pollutants can enhance the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, including agricultural fungicides. As an important bioindicator for environmental risk assessment, earthworm is still a neglected focus that the effects of the fungicide carbendazim (CBD) residues on the gut microbiome and resistome are largely unknown. In this study, Eisenia fetida was selected to investigate the effects of CBD in the soil-earthworm systems using shotgun metagenomics and qPCR methods.

RESULTS: CBD could significantly perturb bacterial community and enrich specific bacteria mainly belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria. More importantly, CBD could serve as a co-selective agent to elevate the abundance and diversity of ARGs, particularly for some specific types (e.g., multidrug, glycopeptide, tetracycline, and rifamycin resistance genes) in the earthworm gut. Additionally, host tracking analysis suggested that ARGs were mainly carried in some genera of the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Meanwhile, the level of ARGs was positively relevant to the abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and some representative co-occurrence patterns of ARGs and MGEs (e.g., cmx-transposase and sul1-integrase) were further found on the metagenome-assembled contigs in the CBD treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the enhancement effect of CBD on the resistome in the earthworm gut may be attributed to its stress on the gut microbiome and facilitation on the ARGs dissemination mediated by MGEs, which may provide a novel insight into the neglected ecotoxicological risk of the widely used agrochemicals on the gut resistome of earthworm dwelling in soil. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Liu Z, Wei Y, Li J, et al (2022)

Integrating 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics and selective culture for developing thermophilic bacterial inoculants to enhance manure composting.

Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 144:357-365.

Composting is an important method for treating and recycling organic waste, and the use of microbial inoculants can increase the efficiency of composting. Herein, we illustrate an approach that integrate 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics and selective culture of thermophilic bacteria for the development of inoculants to improve manure composting. The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis revealed that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were dominant in the composting mixture, and that different microbial hubs succeeded during the thermophilic stage. All isolated thermophilic bacteria were affiliated with the order Bacillales, such as Geobacillus, Bacillus, and Aeribacillus. These isolated thermophilic bacteria were grouped into 11 phylotypes, which shared >99% sequence identity to 0.15% to 5.32% of 16S rRNA reads by the amplicon sequencing. Three of these phylotypes transiently enriched during the thermophilic stage. Six thermophilic bacteria were selected from the three phylotypes to obtain seven microbial inoculants. Five out of seven of the microbial inoculants enhanced the thermophilic stage of composting by 16.9% to 52.2%. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix analysis further revealed that two inoculants (Thermoactinomyces intermedius and Ureibacillus thermophilus) stimulated humification. Additionally, the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis revealed that inoculation with thermophilic bacteria enhanced the succession of the microbial community during composting. In conclusion, 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics is a useful tool for the development of microbial inoculants to enhance manure composting.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Podowski JC, Paver SF, Newton RJ, et al (2022)

Genome Streamlining, Proteorhodopsin, and Organic Nitrogen Metabolism in Freshwater Nitrifiers.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial nitrification is a critical process governing nitrogen availability in aquatic systems. Freshwater nitrifiers have received little attention, leaving many unanswered questions about their taxonomic distribution, functional potential, and ecological interactions. Here, we reconstructed genomes to infer the metabolism and ecology of free-living picoplanktonic nitrifiers across the Laurentian Great Lakes, a connected series of five of Earth's largest lakes. Surprisingly, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) related to Nitrosospira dominated over ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) at nearly all stations, with distinct ecotypes prevailing in the transparent, oligotrophic upper lakes compared to Lakes Erie and Ontario. Unexpectedly, one ecotype of Nitrosospira encodes proteorhodopsin, which could enhance survival under conditions where ammonia oxidation is inhibited or substrate limited. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) "Candidatus Nitrotoga" and Nitrospira fluctuated in dominance, with the latter prevailing in deeper, less-productive basins. Genome reconstructions reveal highly reduced genomes and features consistent with genome streamlining, along with diverse adaptations to sunlight and oxidative stress and widespread capacity for organic nitrogen use. Our findings expand the known functional diversity of nitrifiers and establish their ecological genomics in large lake ecosystems. By elucidating links between microbial biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, our work also informs ecosystem models of the Laurentian Great Lakes, a critical freshwater resource experiencing rapid environmental change. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms play critical roles in Earth's nitrogen cycle. In lakes, microorganisms called nitrifiers derive energy from reduced nitrogen compounds. In doing so, they transform nitrogen into a form that can ultimately be lost to the atmosphere by a process called denitrification, which helps mitigate nitrogen pollution from fertilizer runoff and sewage. Despite their importance, freshwater nitrifiers are virtually unexplored. To understand their diversity and function, we reconstructed genomes of freshwater nitrifiers across some of Earth's largest freshwater lakes, the Laurentian Great Lakes. We discovered several new species of nitrifiers specialized for clear low-nutrient waters and distinct species in comparatively turbid Lake Erie. Surprisingly, one species may be able to harness light energy by using a protein called proteorhodopsin, despite the fact that nitrifiers typically live in deep dark water. Our work reveals the unique biodiversity of the Great Lakes and fills key gaps in our knowledge of an important microbial group, the nitrifiers.

RevDate: 2022-05-07
CmpDate: 2022-04-19

Wang Y, Gao X, Lv J, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiome Signature Are Correlated With Bone Mineral Density Alterations in the Chinese Elders.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:827575.

Objective: Osteoporosis (OP), clinically featured with a low bone mineral density (BMD) and high risk of bone fracture, has become a major risk factor of disability and death in the elders, especially in postmenopausal women. The gut microbiome (GM) is thought to be implicated in bone metabolism. Herein, we clarified the composition signature and gene functional profile of GM in older people with normal and low BMD.

Design and Methods: A total of 455 participants underwent the BMD measurement and biochemical detection. GM analysis was further performed on 113 cases of postmenopausal women and men aged over 50, including both 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing.

Results: Generally, the BMD value was significantly lower in the older age groups, especially in the postmenopausal women. Consistently, we observed obvious vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in females (compared to the male, P < 0.0001). The results from 16S rRNA sequencing revealed higher numbers of OTUs and diversity indexes in females than in males. The abundance in composition of Firmicutes and Clostridiales were correlated with the BMD values in females. LEfSe analysis discovered several enriched bacteria taxons in OP and normal control (NC) subgroups. A positive correlation between the number of genes and BMD values was observed in females based on metagenomic sequencing analysis. Furthermore, we identified the connecting modules among the GM composition - gene functional signature - BMD value/T score in both females and males.

Conclusions: This study provides evidences upon which to understand the mechanisms of the effects of GM on bone health, consequently revealing the physiology status and potential diagnostic/therapeutic targets based on GM for OP and postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP). Besides, the status of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency need to be concerned and improved in the Chinese people.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Zhou Y, Liu M, J Yang (2022)

Recovering metagenome-assembled genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequencing data: Methods, applications, challenges, and opportunities.

Microbiological research, 260:127023.

Reference genomes are essential for analyzing the metabolic and functional potentials of microbiomes. However, microbial genome resources are limited because most of microorganisms are difficult to culture. Genome binning is a culture-independent approach that can recover a vast number of microbial genomes from short-read high throughput shotgun metagenomic sequencing data. In this review, we summarize methods commonly used for reconstructing metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to provide a reference for researchers to choose propriate software programs among the numerous and complicated tools and pipelines that are available for these analyses. In addition, we discuss application prospects, challenges, and opportunities for recovering MAGs from metagenomic sequencing data.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-18

Dsouza M, Menon R, Crossette E, et al (2022)

Colonization of the live biotherapeutic product VE303 and modulation of the microbiota and metabolites in healthy volunteers.

Cell host & microbe, 30(4):583-598.e8.

Manipulation of the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown clinical promise in diseases such as recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). However, the variable nature of this approach makes it challenging to describe the relationship between fecal strain colonization, corresponding microbiota changes, and clinical efficacy. Live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) consisting of defined consortia of clonal bacterial isolates have been proposed as an alternative therapeutic class because of their promising preclinical results and safety profile. We describe VE303, an LBP comprising 8 commensal Clostridia strains under development for rCDI, and its early clinical development in healthy volunteers (HVs). In a phase 1a/b study in HVs, VE303 is determined to be safe and well-tolerated at all doses tested. VE303 strains optimally colonize HVs if dosed over multiple days after vancomycin pretreatment. VE303 promotes the establishment of a microbiota community known to provide colonization resistance.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Lyalina S, Stepanauskas R, Wu F, et al (2022)

Single cell genome sequencing of laboratory mouse microbiota improves taxonomic and functional resolution of this model microbial community.

PloS one, 17(4):e0261795.

Laboratory mice are widely studied as models of mammalian biology, including the microbiota. However, much of the taxonomic and functional diversity of the mouse gut microbiome is missed in current metagenomic studies, because genome databases have not achieved a balanced representation of the diverse members of this ecosystem. Towards solving this problem, we used flow cytometry and low-coverage sequencing to capture the genomes of 764 single cells from the stool of three laboratory mice. From these, we generated 298 high-coverage microbial genome assemblies, which we annotated for open reading frames and phylogenetic placement. These genomes increase the gene catalog and phylogenetic breadth of the mouse microbiota, adding 135 novel species with the greatest increase in diversity to the Muribaculaceae and Bacteroidaceae families. This new diversity also improves the read mapping rate, taxonomic classifier performance, and gene detection rate of mouse stool metagenomes. The novel microbial functions revealed through our single-cell genomes highlight previously invisible pathways that may be important for life in the murine gastrointestinal tract.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Yang C, Su Q, Tang M, et al (2022)

Amplicon Sequencing of Single-Copy Protein-Coding Genes Reveals Accurate Diversity for Sequence-Discrete Microbiome Populations.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(2):e0210521.

An in-depth understanding of microbial function and the division of ecological niches requires accurate delineation and identification of microbes at a fine taxonomic resolution. Microbial phylotypes are typically defined using a 97% small subunit (16S) rRNA threshold. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of taxonomic units of distinct functions within phylotypes. These so-called sequence-discrete populations (SDPs) have used to be mainly delineated by disjunct sequence similarity at the whole-genome level. However, gene markers that could accurately identify and quantify SDPs are lacking in microbial community studies. Here, we developed a pipeline to screen single-copy protein-coding genes that could accurately characterize SDP diversity via amplicon sequencing of microbial communities. Fifteen candidate marker genes were evaluated using three criteria (extent of sequence divergence, phylogenetic accuracy, and conservation of primer regions) and the selected genes were subject to test the efficiency in differentiating SDPs within Gilliamella, a core honeybee gut microbial phylotype, as a proof-of-concept. The results showed that the 16S V4 region failed to report accurate SDP diversities due to low taxonomic resolution and changing copy numbers. In contrast, the single-copy genes recommended by our pipeline were able to successfully quantify Gilliamella SDPs for both mock samples and honeybee guts, with results highly consistent with those of metagenomics. The pipeline developed in this study is expected to identify single-copy protein coding genes capable of accurately quantifying diverse bacterial communities at the SDP level. IMPORTANCE Microbial communities can be distinguished by discrete genetic and ecological characteristics. These sequence-discrete populations are foundational for investigating the composition and functional structures of microbial communities at high resolution. In this study, we screened for reliable single-copy protein-coding marker genes to identify sequence-discrete populations through our pipeline. Using marker gene amplicon sequencing, we could accurately and efficiently delineate the population diversity in microbial communities. These results suggest that single copy protein-coding genes can be an accurate, quantitative, and economical alternative for characterizing population diversity. Moreover, the feasibility of a gene as marker for any bacterial population identification can be quickly evaluated by the pipeline proposed here.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Shalon N, Relman DA, E Yaffe (2022)

Precise genotyping of circular mobile elements from metagenomic data uncovers human-associated plasmids with recent common ancestors.

Genome research, 32(5):986-1003.

Mobile genetic elements with circular genomes play a key role in the evolution of microbial communities. Their circular genomes correspond to circular walks in metagenome graphs, and yet, assemblies derived from natural microbial communities produce graphs riddled with spurious cycles, complicating the accurate reconstruction of circular genomes. We present DomCycle, an algorithm that reconstructs likely circular genomes based on the identification of so-called "dominant" graph cycles. In the implementation, we leverage paired reads to bridge assembly gaps and scrutinize cycles through a nucleotide-level analysis, making the approach robust to misassembly artifacts. We validated the approach using simulated and real sequencing data. Application of DomCycle to 32 publicly available DNA shotgun sequence data sets from diverse natural environments led to the reconstruction of hundreds of circular mobile genomes. Clustering revealed 20 highly prevalent and cryptic plasmids that have clonal population structures with recent common ancestors. This method facilitates the study of microbial communities that evolve through horizontal gene transfer.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-04-14

Martínez-Álvaro M, Auffret MD, Duthie CA, et al (2022)

Bovine host genome acts on rumen microbiome function linked to methane emissions.

Communications biology, 5(1):350.

Our study provides substantial evidence that the host genome affects the comprehensive function of the microbiome in the rumen of bovines. Of 1,107/225/1,141 rumen microbial genera/metagenome assembled uncultured genomes (RUGs)/genes identified from whole metagenomics sequencing, 194/14/337 had significant host genomic effects (heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.61), revealing that substantial variation of the microbiome is under host genomic control. We found 29/22/115 microbial genera/RUGs/genes host-genomically correlated (|0.59| to |0.93|) with emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4), highlighting the strength of a common host genomic control of specific microbial processes and CH4. Only one of these microbial genes was directly involved in methanogenesis (cofG), whereas others were involved in providing substrates for archaea (e.g. bcd and pccB), important microbial interspecies communication mechanisms (ABC.PE.P), host-microbiome interaction (TSTA3) and genetic information processes (RP-L35). In our population, selection based on abundances of the 30 most informative microbial genes provided a mitigation potential of 17% of mean CH4 emissions per generation, which is higher than for selection based on measured CH4 using respiration chambers (13%), indicating the high potential of microbiome-driven breeding to cumulatively reduce CH4 emissions and mitigate climate change.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Li L, Xiao Y, Wang C, et al (2022)

Exploring the resistome, virulome, mobilome and microbiome along pork production chain using metagenomics.

International journal of food microbiology, 371:109674.

In order to understand and minimize microbial contaminants spread from animal to raw pork products, we explored the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), virulence factors (VFs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the bacterial community composition in feces of pigs, processing areas as well as the end pork products in a large-scale pig slaughterhouse in China using metagenomics. The abundance and diversity of microbial community was higher in arrival and slaughtering room area and decreased sharply in the end pork products. Furthermore, the relative abundance of some clinically relevant pathogens and opportunity pathogens were greater in the end pork products and cutter samples. We identified 1412 subtypes of ARGs related to 30 antibiotic classes, in which ARGs related to multidrug resistance and β-lactamase were dominant. Resistance determinants to clinically critical important antibiotics, including sequences related to mcr, optrA, poxtA, tetX and β-lactamase genes (i.e. blaOXA, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaGES, blaNDM, blaKPC and blaSME) were detected. More than 42 general virulence features, mainly adherence, secretion system, iron uptake, toxin, antiphagocytosis and immune evasion, were identified. A total of 1922 types of MGEs, mainly plasmids were observed. Most of the ARGs are predicted to be associated with MGEs. The prevalence of ARGs, VFs and MGEs decreased over subsequential processing steps. Most of the remaining ARGs, VFs and MGEs in end pork products were also present on other samples, indicating the flow of these genes through the production line. These results broaden our understanding of the global ARGs, VFs and MGEs diversity along the pork production chain, with the suggestion of implementing improved control measures to reduce the risk of spread of pathogenic bacteria and their associated resistome, virulome and mobilome from animal to the food chain and the surrounding environment.

RevDate: 2022-05-07
CmpDate: 2022-04-14

Passarini MRZ, Ottoni JR, Costa PEDS, et al (2022)

Fungal community diversity of heavy metal contaminated soils revealed by metagenomics.

Archives of microbiology, 204(5):255.

The inappropriate disposal of toxic compounds generated by industrial activity has been impacting the environment considerably. Microbial communities inhabiting contaminated sites may represent interesting ecological alternatives for the decontamination of environments. The present work aimed to investigate the fungal diversity and its functionality contained in stream sediments with industrial waste contaminated with heavy metals by using metagenomic approach. A total of 12 fungal orders were retrieved from datasets and, at phylum level, Ascomycota was the most abundant, followed by Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota. Higher abundance of sequences was encountered within the less contaminated site, while the lower abundance was found in the sample with the higher contamination with lead. Gene sequences related to DNA repair and heavy metals biosorption processes were found in the four samples analyzed. The genera Aspergillus and Chaetomium, and Saccharomycetales order were highly present within all samples, showing their potential to be used for bioremediation studies. The present work demonstrated the importance of using the metagenomic approach to understand the dynamics and the possible metabolic pathways associated with fungal communities related to environmental samples containing heavy metals, as well as evidenced the importance of improving culturomics techniques for isolating strains with potential application in bioremediation processes of environments contaminated with heavy metals.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Campobasso CP, Mastroianni G, Feola A, et al (2022)

MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Analysis and Human Post-Mortem Microbial Community: A Pilot Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(7):.

INTRODUCTION: The human post-mortem microbiome (HPM) plays a major role in the decomposition process. Successional changes in post-mortem bacterial communities have been recently demonstrated using high throughput metagenomic sequencing techniques, showing great potential as a post-mortem interval (PMI) predictor. The aim of this study is to verify the application of the mass spectrometry technique, better known as MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry), as a cheap and quick method for microbe taxonomic identification and for studying the PM microbiome.

METHODS: The study was carried out on 18 human bodies, ranging from 4 months to 82 years old and with a PMI range from 24 h up to 15 days. The storage time interval in the coolers was included in the final PMI estimates. Using the PMI, the sample study was divided into three main groups: seven cases with a PMI < 72 h; six cases with a PMI of 72-168 h and five cases with a PMI > 168 h. For each body, microbiological swabs were sampled from five external anatomical sites (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and rectum) and four internal organs (brain, spleen, liver, and heart).

RESULTS: The HPM became increasingly different from the starting communities over time in the internal organs as well as at skin sites; the HPM microbiome was mostly dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla; and a PM microbial turnover existed during decomposition, evolving with the PMI.

CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF is a promising method for PMI estimation, given its sample handling, good reproducibility, and high speed and throughput. Although several intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the structure of the HPM, MALDI-TOF can detect the overall microbial community turnover of most prevalent phyla during decomposition. Limitations are mainly related to its sensitivity due to the culture-dependent method and bias in the identification of new isolates.

RevDate: 2022-04-15
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Li QC, Wang B, Zeng YH, et al (2022)

The Microbial Mechanisms of a Novel Photosensitive Material (Treated Rape Pollen) in Anti-Biofilm Process under Marine Environment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7):.

Marine biofouling is a worldwide problem in coastal areas and affects the maritime industry primarily by attachment of fouling organisms to solid immersed surfaces. Biofilm formation by microbes is the main cause of biofouling. Currently, application of antibacterial materials is an important strategy for preventing bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. A natural three-dimensional carbon skeleton material, TRP (treated rape pollen), attracted our attention owing to its visible-light-driven photocatalytic disinfection property. Based on this, we hypothesized that TRP, which is eco-friendly, would show antifouling performance and could be used for marine antifouling. We then assessed its physiochemical characteristics, oxidant potential, and antifouling ability. The results showed that TRP had excellent photosensitivity and oxidant ability, as well as strong anti-bacterial colonization capability under light-driven conditions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that TRP could disperse pre-established biofilms on stainless steel surfaces in natural seawater. The biodiversity and taxonomic composition of biofilms were significantly altered by TRP (p < 0.05). Moreover, metagenomics analysis showed that functional classes involved in the antioxidant system, environmental stress, glucose-lipid metabolism, and membrane-associated functions were changed after TRP exposure. Co-occurrence model analysis further revealed that TRP markedly increased the complexity of the biofilm microbial network under light irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TRP with light irradiation can inhibit bacterial colonization and prevent initial biofilm formation. Thus, TRP is a potential nature-based green material for marine antifouling.

RevDate: 2022-04-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Jones KA, Richard AJ, Salbaum JM, et al (2022)

Cross-Omics Analysis of Fenugreek Supplementation Reveals Beneficial Effects Are Caused by Gut Microbiome Changes Not Mammalian Host Physiology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7):.

Herbal remedies are increasing in popularity as treatments for metabolic conditions such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. One potential therapeutic option is fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum), which have been used for treating high cholesterol and Type 2 diabetes. A proposed mechanism for these benefits is through alterations in the microbiome, which impact mammalian host metabolic function. This study used untargeted metabolomics to investigate the fenugreek-induced alterations in the intestinal, liver, and serum profiles of mice fed either a 60% high-fat or low-fat control diet each with or without fenugreek supplementation (2% w/w) for 14 weeks. Metagenomic analyses of intestinal contents found significant alterations in the relative composition of the gut microbiome resulting from fenugreek supplementation. Specifically, Verrucomicrobia, a phylum containing beneficial bacteria which are correlated with health benefits, increased in relative abundance with fenugreek. Metabolomics partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed substantial fenugreek-induced changes in the large intestines. However, it was observed that while the magnitude of changes was less, significant modifications were present in the liver tissues resulting from fenugreek supplementation. Further analyses revealed metabolic processes affected by fenugreek and showed broad ranging impacts in multiple pathways, including carnitine biosynthesis, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis. These pathways may play important roles in the beneficial effects of fenugreek.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Leeuwendaal NK, Stanton C, O'Toole PW, et al (2022)

Fermented Foods, Health and the Gut Microbiome.

Nutrients, 14(7):.

Fermented foods have been a part of human diet for almost 10,000 years, and their level of diversity in the 21st century is substantial. The health benefits of fermented foods have been intensively investigated; identification of bioactive peptides and microbial metabolites in fermented foods that can positively affect human health has consolidated this interest. Each fermented food typically hosts a distinct population of microorganisms. Once ingested, nutrients and microorganisms from fermented foods may survive to interact with the gut microbiome, which can now be resolved at the species and strain level by metagenomics. Transient or long-term colonization of the gut by fermented food strains or impacts of fermented foods on indigenous gut microbes can therefore be determined. This review considers the primary food fermentation pathways and microorganisms involved, the potential health benefits, and the ability of these foodstuffs to impact the gut microbiome once ingested either through compounds produced during the fermentation process or through interactions with microorganisms from the fermented food that are capable of surviving in the gastro-intestinal transit. This review clearly shows that fermented foods can affect the gut microbiome in both the short and long term, and should be considered an important element of the human diet.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-04-25

Grazioli F, Siarheyeu R, Alqassem I, et al (2022)

Microbiome-based disease prediction with multimodal variational information bottlenecks.

PLoS computational biology, 18(4):e1010050.

Scientific research is shedding light on the interaction of the gut microbiome with the human host and on its role in human health. Existing machine learning methods have shown great potential in discriminating healthy from diseased microbiome states. Most of them leverage shotgun metagenomic sequencing to extract gut microbial species-relative abundances or strain-level markers. Each of these gut microbial profiling modalities showed diagnostic potential when tested separately; however, no existing approach combines them in a single predictive framework. Here, we propose the Multimodal Variational Information Bottleneck (MVIB), a novel deep learning model capable of learning a joint representation of multiple heterogeneous data modalities. MVIB achieves competitive classification performance while being faster than existing methods. Additionally, MVIB offers interpretable results. Our model adopts an information theoretic interpretation of deep neural networks and computes a joint stochastic encoding of different input data modalities. We use MVIB to predict whether human hosts are affected by a certain disease by jointly analysing gut microbial species-relative abundances and strain-level markers. MVIB is evaluated on human gut metagenomic samples from 11 publicly available disease cohorts covering 6 different diseases. We achieve high performance (0.80 < ROC AUC < 0.95) on 5 cohorts and at least medium performance on the remaining ones. We adopt a saliency technique to interpret the output of MVIB and identify the most relevant microbial species and strain-level markers to the model's predictions. We also perform cross-study generalisation experiments, where we train and test MVIB on different cohorts of the same disease, and overall we achieve comparable results to the baseline approach, i.e. the Random Forest. Further, we evaluate our model by adding metabolomic data derived from mass spectrometry as a third input modality. Our method is scalable with respect to input data modalities and has an average training time of < 1.4 seconds. The source code and the datasets used in this work are publicly available.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Hu Y, Irinyi L, Hoang MTV, et al (2022)

Inferring Species Compositions of Complex Fungal Communities from Long- and Short-Read Sequence Data.

mBio, 13(2):e0244421.

The kingdom Fungi is highly diverse in morphology and ecosystem function. Yet fungi are challenging to characterize as they can be difficult to culture and morphologically indistinct. Overall, their description and analysis lag far behind other microbes such as bacteria. Classification of species via high-throughput sequencing is increasingly becoming the norm for pathogen detection, microbiome studies, and environmental monitoring. With the rapid development of sequencing technologies, however, standardized procedures for taxonomic assignment of long sequence reads have not yet been well established. Focusing on nanopore sequencing technology, we compared classification and community composition analysis pipelines using shotgun and amplicon sequencing data generated from mock communities comprising 43 fungal species. We show that regardless of the sequencing methodology used, the highest accuracy of species identification was achieved by sequence alignment against a fungal-specific database. During the assessment of classification algorithms, we found that applying cutoffs to the query coverage of each read or contig significantly improved the classification accuracy and community composition analysis without major data loss. We also generated draft genome assemblies for three fungal species from nanopore data which were absent from genome databases. Our study improves sequence-based classification and estimation of relative sequence abundance using real fungal community data and provides a practical guide for the design of metagenomics analyses focusing on fungi. IMPORTANCE Our study is unique in that it provides an in-depth comparative study of a real-life complex fungal community analyzed with multiple long- and short-read sequencing approaches. These technologies and their application are currently of great interest to diverse biologists as they seek to characterize the community compositions of microbiomes. Although great progress has been made on bacterial community compositions, microbial eukaryotes such as fungi clearly lag behind. Our study provides a detailed breakdown of strategies to improve species identification with immediate relevance to real-world studies. We find that real-life data sets do not always behave as expected, distinct from reports based on simulated data sets.

RevDate: 2022-04-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Mudrik-Zohar H, Carasso S, Gefen T, et al (2022)

Microbiome Characterization of Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Association With Clinical Outcomes: Traditional Cultures Versus Molecular Sequencing Methods.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:836699.

Background: Infected diabetic foot ulcers (IDFU) are a major complication of diabetes mellitus. These potentially limb-threatening ulcers are challenging to treat due to impaired wound healing characterizing diabetic patients and the complex microbial environment of these ulcers.

Aim: To analyze the microbiome of IDFU in association with clinical outcomes.

Methods: Wound biopsies from IDFU were obtained from hospitalized patients and were analyzed using traditional microbiology cultures, 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. Patients' characteristics, culture-based results and sequencing data were analyzed in association with clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 31 patients were enrolled. Gram-negative bacteria dominated the IDFU samples (79%, 59% and 54% of metagenomics, 16S rRNA and cultures results, respectively, p<0.001). 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing detected significantly more anaerobic bacteria, as compared to conventional cultures (59% and 76%, respectively vs. 26% in cultures, p=0.001). Culture-based results showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more prevalent among patients who were treated conservatively (p=0.048). In metagenomic analysis, the Bacteroides genus was more prevalent among patients who underwent amputation (p<0.001). Analysis of metagenomic-based functional data showed that antibiotic resistance genes and genes related to biofilm production and to bacterial virulent factors were more prevalent in IDFU that resulted in amputation (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Sequencing tools uncover the complex biodiversity of IDFU and emphasize the high prevalence of anaerobes and Gram-negative bacteria in these ulcers. Furthermore, sequencing results highlight possible associations among certain genera, species, and bacterial functional genes to clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-04-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Li K, Zeng Z, Liu J, et al (2022)

Effects of Short-Chain Fatty Acid Modulation on Potentially Diarrhea-Causing Pathogens in Yaks Through Metagenomic Sequencing.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:805481.

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are principal nutrient substrates of intestinal epithelial cells that regulate the epithelial barrier in yaks. Until now, metagenomics sequencing has not been reported in diarrheal yaks. Scarce information is available regarding the levels of fecal SCFA and diarrhea in yaks. So, our study aims to identify the potential pathogens that cause the emerging diarrhea and explore the potential relationship of short-chain fatty acids in this issue. We estimated diarrhea rate in yaks after collecting an equal number of fecal samples from affected animals. Metagenomics sequencing and quantitative analysis of SCFA were performed, which revealed 15%-25% and 5%-10% prevalence of diarrhea in yak's calves and adults, respectively. Violin box plot also showed a higher degree of dispersion in gene abundance distribution of diarrheal yaks, as compared to normal yaks. We found 366,163 significant differential abundance genes in diarrheal yaks, with 141,305 upregulated and 224,858 downregulated genes compared with normal yaks via DESeq analysis. Metagenomics binning analysis indicated the higher significance of bin 33 (Bacteroidales) (p < 0.05) in diarrheal animals, while bin 10 (p < 0.0001), bin 30 (Clostridiales) (p < 0.05), bin 51 (Lactobacillales) (p < 0.05), bin 8 (Lachnospiraceae) (p < 0.05), and bin 47 (Bacteria) (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in normal yaks. At different levels, a significant difference in phylum (n = 4), class (n = 8), oder (n = 8), family (n = 16), genus (n = 17), and species (n = 30) was noticed, respectively. Compared with healthy yaks, acetic acid (p < 0.01), propionic acid (p < 0.01), butyric acid (p < 0.01), isobutyric acid (p < 0.01), isovaleric acid (p < 0.05), and caproic acid (p < 0.01) were all observed significantly at a lower rate in diarrheal yaks. In conclusion, besides the increased Staphylococcus aureus, Babesia ovata, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bacteroides fluxus, viruses, Klebsiella pneumonia, and inflammation-related bacteria, the decrease of SCFA caused by the imbalance of intestinal microbiota was potentially observed in diarrheal yaks.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Do TT, Nolan S, Hayes N, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and HT-qPCR analysis reveal the microbiome and resistome in pig slurry under storage, composting, and anaerobic digestion.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 305:119271.

Direct application of pig slurry to agricultural land, as a means of nutrient recycling, introduces pathogens, antibiotic resistant bacteria, or genes, to the environment. With global environmental sustainability policies mandating a reduction in synthetic fertilisation and a commitment to a circular economy it is imperative to find effective on-farm treatments of slurry that maximises its fertilisation value and minimises risk to health and the environment. We assessed and compared the effect of storage, composting, and anaerobic digestion (AD) on pig slurry microbiome, resistome and nutrient content. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing and HT-qPCR arrays were implemented to understand the dynamics across the treatments. Our results identified that each treatment methods have advantages and disadvantages in removal pollutants or increasing nutrients. The data suggests that storage and composting are optimal for the removal of human pathogens and anaerobic digestion for the reduction in antibiotic resistance (AMR) genes and mobile genetic elements. The nitrogen content is increased in storage and AD, while reduced in composting. Thus, depending on the requirement for increased or reduced nitrogen the optimum treatment varies. Combining the results indicates that composting provides the greatest gain by reducing risk to human health and the environment. Network analysis revealed reducing Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while increasing Firmicutes will reduce the AMR content. KEGG analysis identified no significant change in the pathways across all treatments. This novel study provides a data driven decision tree to determine the optimal treatment for best practice to minimise pathogen, AMR and excess or increasing nutrient transfer from slurry to environment.

RevDate: 2022-04-14
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Strehlow BW, Schuster A, Francis WR, et al (2022)

Metagenomic data for Halichondria panicea from Illumina and nanopore sequencing and preliminary genome assemblies for the sponge and two microbial symbionts.

BMC research notes, 15(1):135.

OBJECTIVES: These data were collected to generate a novel reference metagenome for the sponge Halichondria panicea and its microbiome for subsequent differential expression analyses.

DATA DESCRIPTION: These data include raw sequences from four separate sequencing runs of the metagenome of a single individual of Halichondria panicea-one Illumina MiSeq (2 × 300 bp, paired-end) run and three Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long-read sequencing runs, generating 53.8 and 7.42 Gbp respectively. Comparing assemblies of Illumina, ONT and an Illumina-ONT hybrid revealed the hybrid to be the 'best' assembly, comprising 163 Mbp in 63,555 scaffolds (N50: 3084). This assembly, however, was still highly fragmented and only contained 52% of core metazoan genes (with 77.9% partial genes), so it was also not complete. However, this sponge is an emerging model species for field and laboratory work, and there is considerable interest in genomic sequencing of this species. Although the resultant assemblies from the data presented here are suboptimal, this data note can inform future studies by providing an estimated genome size and coverage requirements for future sequencing, sharing additional data to potentially improve other suboptimal assemblies of this species, and outlining potential limitations and pitfalls of the combined Illumina and ONT approach to novel genome sequencing.

RevDate: 2022-05-07
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Ayiti OE, Ayangbenro AS, OO Babalola (2022)

Relationship between nitrifying microorganisms and other microorganisms residing in the maize rhizosphere.

Archives of microbiology, 204(5):246.

The microbial network of rhizosphere is unique as a result of root exudate. Insights into the relationship that exists with the energy metabolic functional groups will help in biofertilizer production. We hypothesize that there exists a relationship between nitrifying microorganisms and other energy metabolic functional microbial groups in the maize rhizosphere across different growth stages. Nucleospin soil DNA extraction kit was used to extract DNA from soil samples collected from maize rhizosphere. The 16S metagenomics sequencing was carried out on Illumina Miseq. The sequence obtained was analyzed on MG-RAST. Nitrospira genera were the most abundant in the nitrifying community. Nitrifying microorganisms were more than each of the studied functional groups except for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Also, majority of the microorganisms were noticed at the fruiting stage and there was variation in the microbial structure across different growth stages. The result showed that there exists a substantial amount of both negative and positive correlation within the nitrifying microorganisms, and between them and other energy metabolic functional groups. The knowledge obtained from this study will help improve the growth and development of maize through modification of the rhizosphere microbial community structure.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Raineri S, Sherriff JA, Thompson KSJ, et al (2022)

Pharmacologically induced weight loss is associated with distinct gut microbiome changes in obese rats.

BMC microbiology, 22(1):91.

BACKGROUND: Obesity, metabolic disease and some psychiatric conditions are associated with changes to relative abundance of bacterial species and specific genes in the faecal microbiome. Little is known about the impact of pharmacologically induced weight loss on distinct microbiome species and their respective gene programs in obese individuals.

METHODOLOGY: Using shotgun metagenomics, the composition of the microbiome was obtained for two cohorts of obese female Wistar rats (n = 10-12, total of 82) maintained on a high fat diet before and after a 42-day treatment with a panel of four investigatory or approved anti-obesity drugs (tacrolimus/FK506, bupropion, naltrexone and sibutramine), alone or in combination.

RESULTS: Only sibutramine treatment induced consistent weight loss and improved glycaemic control in the obese rats. Weight loss was associated with reduced food intake and changes to the faecal microbiome in multiple microbial taxa, genes, and pathways. These include increased β-diversity, increased relative abundance of multiple Bacteroides species, increased Bacteroides/Firmicutes ratio and changes to abundance of genes and species associated with obesity-induced inflammation, particularly those encoding components of the flagellum and its assembly.

CONCLUSIONS: Sibutramine-induced weight loss in obese rats is associated with improved metabolic health, and changes to the faecal microbiome consistent with a reduction in obesity-induced bacterially-driven inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-04-11
CmpDate: 2022-04-11

Behzad H, Ohyanagi H, Alharbi B, et al (2022)

A cautionary signal from the Red Sea on the impact of increased dust activity on marine microbiota.

BMC genomics, 23(1):277.

BACKGROUND: Global climate change together with growing desertification is leading to increased dust emissions to the atmosphere, drawing attention to possible impacts on marine ecosystems receiving dust deposition. Since microorganisms play important roles in maintaining marine homeostasis through nutrient cycling and carbon flow, detrimental changes in the composition of marine microbiota in response to increased dust input could negatively impact marine health, particularly so in seas located within the Global Dust Belt. Due to its strategic location between two deserts and unique characteristics, the Red Sea provides an attractive semi-enclosed "megacosm" to examine the impacts of large dust deposition on the vastly diverse microbiota in its exceptionally warm oligotrophic waters.

RESULTS: We used culture-independent metagenomic approaches to assess temporal changes in the Red Sea microbiota in response to two severe sandstorms, one originated in the Nubian Desert in the summer 2016 and a second one originated in the Libyan Desert in the spring 2017. Despite differences in sandstorm origin and meteorological conditions, both sandstorms shifted bacterial and Archaeal groups in a similar mode. In particular, the relative abundance of autotrophic bacteria declined while those of heterotrophic bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, and Archaea increased. The changes peaked within six days from the start of sandstorms, and the community recovered the original assemblage within one month.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that increased dust emission with expanding desertification could lead to undesirable impacts in ocean function, enhancing heterotrophic processes while reducing autotrophic ones, thereby affecting the marine food web in seas receiving dust deposition.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Dunn CM, MA Jeffries (2022)

The Microbiome in Osteoarthritis: a Narrative Review of Recent Human and Animal Model Literature.

Current rheumatology reports, 24(5):139-148.

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The microbiome has recently emerged as a powerful contributor to health and illness in chronic, systemic disorders. Furthermore, new microbiome niches beyond traditional gut locations are frequently being described. Over the past 5 years, numerous pivotal studies have demonstrated associations between changes in various microbiome niches and the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Herein, we review the most impactful recent literature, including microbiome associations with disease and the potential therapeutic value of microbiome manipulation.

RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiome of human OA patients is enriched in specific bacterial clades, most notably Streptococcus, which correlates with OA pain, Firmicutes, and others. Most studies have focused on knee OA, although one publication demonstrated positive associations with 3 gut microbiome clades in hand OA. OA can be easily distinguished from RA by evaluating differences in oral microbiome composition. Most studies have also demonstrated a reduction in richness of the gut microbiome (alpha diversity) associated with OA. Several studies have identified bacterial signatures within human knee and hip cartilage, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue and have described changes in these patterns occurring with the development of OA. In animal models of OA, high-fat diet-induced obesity has been the most well-studied OA risk factor associated with changes in the microbiome, with numerous bacterial clades changed within the gut microbiome and associated with OA. Also in animal models, various oral supplementations, including dietary fiber, probiotics including Lactobacillus species, and cecal microbiome transplantation have all shown improvements in OA histopathology or cartilage healing. Microbiome changes are strongly associated with the OA disease process and with individual OA risk factors related to both the gut microbiome and the microbial DNA patterns in the joint. Microbiome-directed interventions have the potential to prevent or reduce the progression of OA. Future studies should investigate the mechanistic underpinnings of these microbiome associations and further define the therapeutic potential of microbiome augmentation.

RevDate: 2022-04-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Davies M, Galazzo G, van Hattem JM, et al (2022)

Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae provide resistance to travel-associated intestinal colonization by multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2060676.

Previous studies have shown high acquisition risks of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) among international travelers visiting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) hotspots. Although antibiotic use and travelers' diarrhea have shown to influence the ESBL-E acquisition risk, it remains largely unknown whether successful colonization of ESBL-E during travel is associated with the composition, functional capacity and resilience of the traveler's microbiome. The microbiome of pre- and post-travel fecal samples from 190 international travelers visiting Africa or Asia was profiled using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. A metagenomics species concept approach was used to determine the microbial composition, population diversity and functional capacity before travel and how it is altered longitudinally. Eleven travelers were positive for ESBL-E before travel and removed from the analysis. Neither the microbial richness (Chao1), diversity (effective Shannon) and community structure (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) in pretravel samples nor the longitudinal change of these metrics during travel were predictive for ESBL-E acquisition. A zero-inflated two-step beta-regression model was used to determine how the longitudinal change in both prevalence and abundance of each taxon was related to ESBL acquisition. There were detected increases in both the prevalence and abundance of Citrobacter freundii and two members of the genus Bacteroides, in association with remaining uncolonized by ESBL-E. These results highlight the potential of these individual microbes as a microbial consortium to prevent the acquisition of ESBL-E. The ability to alter a person's colonization resistance to a bacterium could be key to intervention strategies that aim to minimize the spread of MDR bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-04-07
CmpDate: 2022-04-07

Bamola VD, Kapardar R, Lal B, et al (2022)

A metagenomic assessment of gut microbiota in Indian colon cancer patients.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 18(1):96-102.

Background: Gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of different diseases including colorectal cancer. The geography, lifestyle, and dietary habits of Indians are different from Western world, thus microbiome studies of Western population could not be extrapolated to their Indian counterparts.

Method: Therefore, we have conducted a study on gut microbiota in Indian healthy subjects and patients of colon cancer using 16S ribosomal RNA Amplicon sequencing. Operational taxonomic units were calculated for different bacterial taxon including phylum, class, order, family, and genus level.

Results: Observed results indicated a considerable difference in the bacterial diversity in both the groups. Phylum Firmicutes was significantly dominated in both the groups followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria which clearly indicates the dominance of phylum Firmicutes in Indian population. Phylum Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were significantly abundant in the healthy group while phylum Bacteroidetes in the colon cancer group. Bacterial genera Megamonas, Megasphaera, Mitsuokella, and Streptococcus were significantly abundant in the healthy group and Veillonella, Prevotella, and Eubacterium in the colon cancer group. Bacterial genus Bradyrhizobium was present in the healthy group and Alistipes, Coprococcus, Dorea, and Rhodococcus were present in the colon cancer group but absent in the healthy group.

Conclusion: There was a considerable difference in bacterial diversity in both the study groups indicating dysbiosis in the colon cancer group.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Tarracchini C, Fontana F, Lugli GA, et al (2022)

Investigation of the Ecological Link between Recurrent Microbial Human Gut Communities and Physical Activity.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(2):e0042022.

Emerging evidence has shown an association between the composition of intestinal microbial communities and host physical activity, suggesting that modifications of the gut microbiota composition may support training, performance, and post-exercise recovery of the host. Nevertheless, investigation of differences in the gut microbiota between athletes and individuals with reduced physical activity is still lacking. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of 207 publicly available shotgun metagenomics sequencing data of fecal samples from athletes and healthy non-athletes. Accordingly, analysis of species-level fecal microbial profiles revealed three recurring compositional patterns, named HPC1 to 3, that characterize the host based on their commitment to physical activity. Interestingly, the gut microbiome of athletes showed a higher abundance of anti-inflammatory, health-promoting bacteria than that of non-athletic individuals. Moreover, the bacterial species profiled in the gut of professional athletes are short-fatty acid producers, which potentially improve energy production, and therefore sports performances. Intriguingly, microbial interaction network analyses suggested that exercise-induced microbiota adaptation involves the whole microbial community structure, resulting in a complex microbe-microbe interplay driven by positive relationships among the predicted butyrate-producing community members. IMPORTANCE Through metagenomic analyses, this work revealed that athletes have a gut-associated microbial community enriched in butyrate-producing species compared with non-athletes. This evidence can support the existence of a two-way association between the host's lifestyle and the gut microbiota composition, with potential intriguing athletic performance outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Greenbaum J, Lin X, Su KJ, et al (2022)

Integration of the Human Gut Microbiome and Serum Metabolome Reveals Novel Biological Factors Involved in the Regulation of Bone Mineral Density.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:853499.

While the gut microbiome has been reported to play a role in bone metabolism, the individual species and underlying functional mechanisms have not yet been characterized. We conducted a systematic multi-omics analysis using paired metagenomic and untargeted serum metabolomic profiles from a large sample of 499 peri- and early post-menopausal women to identify the potential crosstalk between these biological factors which may be involved in the regulation of bone mineral density (BMD). Single omics association analyses identified 22 bacteria species and 17 serum metabolites for putative association with BMD. Among the identified bacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were negatively associated, while Firmicutes were positively associated. Several of the identified serum metabolites including 3-phenylpropanoic acid, mainly derived from dietary polyphenols, and glycolithocholic acid, a secondary bile acid, are metabolic byproducts of the microbiota. We further conducted a supervised integrative feature selection with respect to BMD and constructed the inter-omics partial correlation network. Although still requiring replication and validation in future studies, the findings from this exploratory analysis provide novel insights into the interrelationships between the gut microbiome and serum metabolome that may potentially play a role in skeletal remodeling processes.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Xiong Z, Peng K, Song S, et al (2022)

Cerebral Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage Changes Patients' Gut Bacteria Composition and Function.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:829491.

Gut bacteria consists of 150 times more genes than humans that are vital for health. Several studies revealed that gut bacteria are associated with disease status and influence human behavior and mentality. Whether human brain injury alters the gut bacteria is yet unclear, we tested 20 fecal samples from patients with cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage and corresponding healthy controls through metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The composition of patients' gut bacteria changed significantly at the phylum level; Verrucomicrobiota was the specific phylum colonized in the patients' gut. The functional alteration was observed in the patients' gut bacteria, including high metabolic activity for nutrients or neuroactive compounds, strong antibiotic resistance, and less virulence factor diversity. The changes in the transcription and metabolism of differential species were more evident than those of the non-differential species between groups, which is the primary factor contributing to the functional alteration of patients with cerebral intraparenchymal hemorrhage.

RevDate: 2022-04-08
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Li PD, Zhu ZR, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

The phyllosphere microbiome shifts toward combating melanose pathogen.

Microbiome, 10(1):56.

BACKGROUND: Plants can recruit beneficial microbes to enhance their ability to defend against pathogens. However, in contrast to the intensively studied roles of the rhizosphere microbiome in suppressing plant pathogens, the collective community-level change and effect of the phyllosphere microbiome in response to pathogen invasion remains largely elusive.

RESULTS: Here, we integrated 16S metabarcoding, shotgun metagenomics and culture-dependent methods to systematically investigate the changes in phyllosphere microbiome between infected and uninfected citrus leaves by Diaporthe citri, a fungal pathogen causing melanose disease worldwide. Multiple microbiome features suggested a shift in phyllosphere microbiome upon D. citri infection, highlighted by the marked reduction of community evenness, the emergence of large numbers of new microbes, and the intense microbial network. We also identified the microbiome features from functional perspectives in infected leaves, such as enriched microbial functions for iron competition and potential antifungal traits, and enriched microbes with beneficial genomic characteristics. Glasshouse experiments demonstrated that several bacteria associated with the microbiome shift could positively affect plant performance under D. citri challenge, with reductions in disease index ranging from 65.7 to 88.4%. Among them, Pantoea asv90 and Methylobacterium asv41 identified as "recruited new microbes" in the infected leaves, exhibited antagonistic activities to D. citri both in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition of spore germination and/or mycelium growth. Sphingomonas spp. presented beneficial genomic characteristics and were found to be the main contributor for the functional enrichment of iron complex outer membrane receptor protein in the infected leaves. Moreover, Sphingomonas asv20 showed a stronger suppression ability against D. citri in iron-deficient conditions than iron-sufficient conditions, suggesting a role of iron competition during their antagonistic action.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study revealed how phyllosphere microbiomes differed between infected and uninfected citrus leaves by melanose pathogen, and identified potential mechanisms for how the observed microbiome shift might have helped plants cope with pathogen pressure. Our findings provide novel insights into understanding the roles of phyllosphere microbiome responses during pathogen challenge. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Papaiakovou M, Littlewood DTJ, Doyle SR, et al (2022)

Worms and bugs of the gut: the search for diagnostic signatures using barcoding, and metagenomics-metabolomics.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):118.

Gastrointestinal (GI) helminth infections cause significant morbidity in both humans and animals worldwide. Specific and sensitive diagnosis is central to the surveillance of such infections and to determine the effectiveness of treatment strategies used to control them. In this article, we: (i) assess the strengths and limitations of existing methods applied to the diagnosis of GI helminth infections of humans and livestock; (ii) examine high-throughput sequencing approaches, such as targeted molecular barcoding and shotgun sequencing, as tools to define the taxonomic composition of helminth infections; and (iii) discuss the current understanding of the interactions between helminths and microbiota in the host gut. Stool-based diagnostics are likely to serve as an important tool well into the future; improved diagnostics of helminths and their environment in the gut may assist the identification of biomarkers with the potential to define the health/disease status of individuals and populations, and to identify existing or emerging anthelmintic resistance.

RevDate: 2022-04-11
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Sharma P, SP Singh (2022)

Identification and profiling of microbial community from industrial sludge.

Archives of microbiology, 204(4):234.

The purpose of this study is to identify microbial communities in pulp and paper industry sludge and their metagenomic profiling on the basis of; phylum, class, order, family, genus and species level. Results revealed that the dominant phyla in 16S rRNA Illumina Miseq analysis inside sludge were Anaerolinea, Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Bacteriodia, Gammaproteobacteria, Spirochetia, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetaceae, Prolixibacteraceae and some unknown microbial strains are also dominant. Metagenomics is a molecular biology-based technology that uses bioinformatics to evaluate huge gene sequences extracted from environmental samples to assess the composition and function of microbiota. The results of metabarcoding of the V3-V4 16S rRNA regions acquired from paired-end Illumina MiSeq sequencing were used to analyze bacterial communities and structure. The present work demonstrates the potential approach to sludge treatment in the open environment via the naturally adapted microorganism, which could be an essential addition to the disposal site. In summary, these investigations indicate that the indigenous microbial community is an acceptable bioresource for remediation or detoxification following secondary treatment. This research aims at understanding the structure of microbial communities and their diversity (%) in highly contaminated sludge to perform in situ bioremediation.

RevDate: 2022-04-08
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Wensel CR, Pluznick JL, Salzberg SL, et al (2022)

Next-generation sequencing: insights to advance clinical investigations of the microbiome.

The Journal of clinical investigation, 132(7):.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has advanced our understanding of the human microbiome by allowing for the discovery and characterization of unculturable microbes with prediction of their function. Key NGS methods include 16S rRNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and RNA sequencing. The choice of which NGS methodology to pursue for a given purpose is often unclear for clinicians and researchers. In this Review, we describe the fundamentals of NGS, with a focus on 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We also discuss pros and cons of each methodology as well as important concepts in data variability, study design, and clinical metadata collection. We further present examples of how NGS studies of the human microbiome have advanced our understanding of human disease pathophysiology across diverse clinical contexts, including the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Finally, we share insights as to how NGS might further be integrated into and advance microbiome research and clinical care in the coming years.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Rudar J, Porter TM, Wright M, et al (2022)

LANDMark: an ensemble approach to the supervised selection of biomarkers in high-throughput sequencing data.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):110.

BACKGROUND: Identification of biomarkers, which are measurable characteristics of biological datasets, can be challenging. Although amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) can be considered potential biomarkers, identifying important ASVs in high-throughput sequencing datasets is challenging. Noise, algorithmic failures to account for specific distributional properties, and feature interactions can complicate the discovery of ASV biomarkers. In addition, these issues can impact the replicability of various models and elevate false-discovery rates. Contemporary machine learning approaches can be leveraged to address these issues. Ensembles of decision trees are particularly effective at classifying the types of data commonly generated in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies due to their robustness when the number of features in the training data is orders of magnitude larger than the number of samples. In addition, when combined with appropriate model introspection algorithms, machine learning algorithms can also be used to discover and select potential biomarkers. However, the construction of these models could introduce various biases which potentially obfuscate feature discovery.

RESULTS: We developed a decision tree ensemble, LANDMark, which uses oblique and non-linear cuts at each node. In synthetic and toy tests LANDMark consistently ranked as the best classifier and often outperformed the Random Forest classifier. When trained on the full metabarcoding dataset obtained from Canada's Wood Buffalo National Park, LANDMark was able to create highly predictive models and achieved an overall balanced accuracy score of 0.96 ± 0.06. The use of recursive feature elimination did not impact LANDMark's generalization performance and, when trained on data from the BE amplicon, it was able to outperform the Linear Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression models, and Stochastic Gradient Descent models (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, LANDMark distinguishes itself due to its ability to learn smoother non-linear decision boundaries.

CONCLUSIONS: Our work introduces LANDMark, a meta-classifier which blends the characteristics of several machine learning models into a decision tree and ensemble learning framework. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this type of ensemble approach to amplicon sequencing data and we have shown that analyzing these datasets using LANDMark can produce highly predictive and consistent models.

RevDate: 2022-04-15
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Kaiser T, Jahansouz C, C Staley (2022)

Network-based approaches for the investigation of microbial community structure and function using metagenomics-based data.

Future microbiology, 17:621-631.

Network-based approaches offer a powerful framework to evaluate microbial community organization and function as it relates to a variety of environmental processes. Emerging studies are exploring network theory as a method for data integration that is likely to be critical for the integration of 'omics' data using systems biology approaches. Intricacies of network theory and methodological and computational complexities in network construction, however, impede the use of these tools for translational science. We provide a perspective on the methods of network construction, interpretation and emerging uses for these techniques in understanding host-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2022-04-08

Lugli GA, Longhi G, Mancabelli L, et al (2022)

Tap water as a natural vehicle for microorganisms shaping the human gut microbiome.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Fresh potable water is an indispensable drink which humans consume daily in substantial amounts. Nonetheless, very little is known about the composition of the microbial community inhabiting drinking water or its impact on our gut microbiota. In the current study, an exhaustive shotgun metagenomics analysis of the tap water microbiome highlighted the occurrence of a highly genetic biodiversity of the microbial communities residing in fresh water and the existence of a conserved core tap water microbiota largely represented by novel microbial species, representing microbial dark matter. Furthermore, genome reconstruction of this microbial dark matter from water samples unveiled homologous sequences present in the faecal microbiome of humans from various geographical locations. Accordingly, investigation of the faecal microbiota content of a subject that daily consumed tap water for 3 years provides proof for horizontal transmission and colonization of water bacteria in the human gut.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Liu Y, Méric G, Havulinna AS, et al (2022)

Early prediction of incident liver disease using conventional risk factors and gut-microbiome-augmented gradient boosting.

Cell metabolism, 34(5):719-730.e4.

The gut microbiome has shown promise as a predictive biomarker for various diseases. However, the potential of gut microbiota for prospective risk prediction of liver disease has not been assessed. Here, we utilized shallow shotgun metagenomic sequencing of a large population-based cohort (N > 7,000) with ∼15 years of follow-up in combination with machine learning to investigate the predictive capacity of gut microbial predictors individually and in conjunction with conventional risk factors for incident liver disease. Separately, conventional and microbial factors showed comparable predictive capacity. However, microbiome augmentation of conventional risk factors using machine learning significantly improved the performance. Similarly, disease-free survival analysis showed significantly improved stratification using microbiome-augmented models. Investigation of predictive microbial signatures revealed previously unknown taxa for liver disease, as well as those previously associated with hepatic function and disease. This study supports the potential clinical validity of gut metagenomic sequencing to complement conventional risk factors for prediction of liver diseases.

RevDate: 2022-04-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Li MX, Li MY, Lei JX, et al (2022)

Huangqin decoction ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis: Role of gut microbiota and amino acid metabolism, mTOR pathway and intestinal epithelial barrier.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 100:154052.

BACKGROUND: The clinical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) is limited. A traditional Chinese medicinal formula, Huangqin decoction (HQD), is chronicled in Shang Han Lun and is widely used to ameliorate gastrointestinal disorders, such as UC; however, its mechanism is yet to be clarified.

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HQD on 7-day colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and further explore the inhibitory effect of metabolites on DSS-damaged FHC cells.

METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy of HQD was evaluated in a well-established DSS-induced colitis mice model. The clinical symptoms were analyzed, and biological samples were collected for microscopic examination, metabolomics, metagenomics, and the evaluation of the epithelial barrier function. The mechanism of metabolites regulated by HQD was evaluated in the DSS-induced FHC cell damage model. The samples were collected to detect the physiological functions of the cells.

RESULTS: HQD suppressed the inflammation of DSS-induced colitis in vivo, attenuated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, reversed colon length reduction, and reduced histological injury. After HQD treatment, the DSS-induced gut dysbiosis was modulated, and the gut microbiota achieved a new equilibrium state. In addition, HQD activated the mTOR signaling pathway by upregulating amino acid metabolism. Significant phosphorylation of S6 and 4E-BP1 ameliorated intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Moreover, HQD-regulated metabolites protected the epithelial barrier integrity by inhibiting DSS-induced apoptosis of FHC cells and regulating the proteins affecting apoptosis and cell-cell junction.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that the mechanism of HQD was related to regulating the gut microbiota and amino acid metabolism, activating the mTOR signaling pathway, and protecting the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity.

RevDate: 2022-05-04
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Lotankar M, Mokkala K, Houttu N, et al (2022)

Distinct Diet-Microbiota-Metabolism Interactions in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: a Metagenomics Approach.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(2):e0089321.

Diet and gut microbiota are known to modulate metabolic health. Our aim was to apply a metagenomics approach to investigate whether the diet-gut microbiota-metabolism and inflammation relationships differ in pregnant overweight and obese women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in overweight (n = 234) and obese (n = 152) women during early pregnancy. Dietary quality was measured by a validated index of diet quality (IDQ). Gut microbiota taxonomic composition and species diversity were assessed by metagenomic profiling (Illumina HiSeq platform). Markers for glucose metabolism (glucose, insulin) and low-grade inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], glycoprotein acetylation [GlycA]) were analyzed from blood samples. Higher IDQ scores were positively associated with a higher gut microbiota species diversity (r = 0.273, P = 0.007) in obese women, but not in overweight women. Community composition (beta diversity) was associated with the GlycA level in the overweight women (P = 0.04) but not in the obese. Further analysis at the species level revealed a positive association between the abundance of species Alistipes finegoldii and the GlycA level in overweight women (logfold change = 4.74, P = 0.04). This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT01922791 ( IMPORTANCE We observed partially distinct diet-gut microbiota-metabolism and inflammation responses in overweight and obese pregnant women. In overweight women, gut microbiota community composition and the relative abundance of A. finegoldii were associated with an inflammatory status. In obese women, a higher dietary quality was related to a higher gut microbiota diversity and a healthy inflammatory status.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Podlesny D, Arze C, Dörner E, et al (2022)

Metagenomic strain detection with SameStr: identification of a persisting core gut microbiota transferable by fecal transplantation.

Microbiome, 10(1):53.

BACKGROUND: The understanding of how microbiomes assemble, function, and evolve requires metagenomic tools that can resolve microbiota compositions at the strain level. However, the identification and tracking of microbial strains in fecal metagenomes is challenging and available tools variably classify subspecies lineages, which affects their applicability to infer microbial persistence and transfer.

RESULTS: We introduce SameStr, a bioinformatic tool that identifies shared strains in metagenomes by determining single-nucleotide variants (SNV) in species-specific marker genes, which are compared based on a maximum variant profile similarity. We validated SameStr on mock strain populations, available human fecal metagenomes from healthy individuals and newly generated data from recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). SameStr demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to detect shared dominant and subdominant strains in related samples (where strain persistence or transfer would be expected) when compared to other tools, while being robust against false-positive shared strain calls between unrelated samples (where neither strain persistence nor transfer would be expected). We applied SameStr to identify strains that are stably maintained in fecal microbiomes of healthy adults over time (strain persistence) and that successfully engraft in rCDI patients after FMT (strain engraftment). Taxonomy-dependent strain persistence and engraftment frequencies were positively correlated, indicating that a specific core microbiota of intestinal species is adapted to be competitive both in healthy microbiomes and during post-FMT microbiome assembly. We explored other use cases for strain-level microbiota profiling, as a metagenomics quality control measure and to identify individuals based on the persisting core gut microbiota.

CONCLUSION: SameStr provides for a robust identification of shared strains in metagenomic sequence data with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to examine strain persistence, transfer, and engraftment in human fecal microbiomes. Our findings identify a persisting healthy adult core gut microbiota, which should be further studied to shed light on microbiota contributions to chronic diseases. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Crits-Christoph A, Hallowell HA, Koutouvalis K, et al (2022)

Good microbes, bad genes? The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the human microbiome.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2055944.

A global rise in antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria has proved to be a major public health threat, with the rate of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections increasing over time. The gut microbiome has been studied as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can be transferred to bacterial pathogens via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements (the gut resistome). Advances in metagenomic sequencing have facilitated the identification of resistome modulators, including live microbial therapeutics such as probiotics and fecal microbiome transplantation that can either expand or reduce the abundances of ARG-carrying bacteria in the gut. While many different gut microbes encode for ARGs, they are not uniformly distributed across, or transmitted by, various members of the microbiome, and not all are of equal clinical relevance. Both experimental and theoretical approaches in microbial ecology have been applied to understand differing frequencies of ARG horizontal transfer between commensal microbes as well as between commensals and pathogens. In this commentary, we assess the evidence for the role of commensal gut microbes in encoding antimicrobial resistance genes, the degree to which they are shared both with other commensals and with pathogens, and the host and environmental factors that can impact resistome dynamics. We further discuss novel sequencing-based approaches for identifying ARGs and predicting future transfer events of clinically relevant ARGs from commensals to pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-04-01
CmpDate: 2022-03-28

Wang Y, Zhang J, Ling ZX, et al (2022)

[Dynamic Microbial Shifts and Functional Analysis of Saliva Microbial Communities with Caries Children].

Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition, 53(2):242-249.

Objective: To observe the dynamic changes in the salivary microbiota of children with dental caries and those who were caries-free and to analyze the functional differences in the oral microecology of the two groups during the course of sugar metabolism and the synthesis and transport of multiple amino acids.

Methods: Ten children with dental caries and 10 caries-free children were enrolled. We employed Illumina metagenomics technology to analyze the composition and function of salivary microbiome in children with and without caries. Six months later, PacBio single-molecule long-read sequencing technology was used to analyze the changes over time in the oral microbial communities of the two groups. We studied the patterns of change in the oral microbial communities under diseased or healthy conditions and attempted to offer a comprehensive interpretation of children's oral microbiota in terms of its composition and functions.

Results: The composition of the oral microbiota of children with or without dental caries changed significantly over time. At the phylum level, changing trends in the salivary microbial communities of children with dental caries were in line with those in caries-free children. In these microbial communities, increased proportions of Firmicutes and decreased proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found in the two groups. At the genus level, however, the two groups showed significantly different changes of the salivary microbial communities. Upward trends in the abundance of Lactobacillus, Methylobacterium, and Megasphaera were found in the caries group, while the abundance of these genera in the caries-free group showed downward trends. At the species level, L. fermentum, L. gasseri, L. oris, S. downei, and some other species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus showed upward trends in the saliva of children with caries, while they consistently stayed at a relative low level of abundance in caries-free children. The abundance of S. gordonii and S. mutans decreased to a certain extent in children with dental caries, but the abundance of S. gordonii and S. mutans in caries-free children were always at a low level. Species such as S. mutans and C. gracilis were positively correlated to the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft), while N. flavescens was negatively correlated to dmft. gltA, icd, and mqo, the key genes related to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gudB, a glutamate synthesis-related gene, and argAB/C/J, arginine synthesis-related genes, were significantly increased in caries-free children. In addition, the abundance of the NADH dehydrogenase-related gene nuoB/C/D/E/H/I/J/K/L/M in the electron transport chain increased significantly in caries-free children.

Conclusion: Dynamic changes were found in the oral microbiota of children with or without caries. The trends of microbial shifts over time were associated with the oral health status. Oxidative phosphorylation and the synthesis and transport of amino acids such as glutamate and arginine in the oral microecology were more active in caries-free children.

RevDate: 2022-05-04
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Sanchez-Cid C, Tignat-Perrier R, Franqueville L, et al (2022)

Sequencing Depth Has a Stronger Effect than DNA Extraction on Soil Bacterial Richness Discovery.

Biomolecules, 12(3):.

Although Next-Generation Sequencing techniques have increased our access to the soil microbiome, each step of soil metagenomics presents inherent biases that prevent the accurate definition of the soil microbiome and its ecosystem function. In this study, we compared the effects of DNA extraction and sequencing depth on bacterial richness discovery from two soil samples. Four DNA extraction methods were used, and sequencing duplicates were generated for each DNA sample. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to determine the taxonomical richness measured by each method at the amplicon sequence variant (ASV) level. Both the overall functional richness and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) richness were evaluated by metagenomics sequencing. Despite variable DNA extraction methods, sequencing depth had a greater influence on bacterial richness discovery at both the taxonomical and functional levels. Sequencing duplicates from the same sample provided access to different portions of bacterial richness, and this was related to differences in the sequencing depth. Thus, the sequencing depth introduced biases in the comparison of DNA extraction methods. An optimisation of the soil metagenomics workflow is needed in order to sequence at a sufficient and equal depth. This would improve the accuracy of metagenomic comparisons and soil microbiome profiles.

RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-03-28

Borjigin Q, Zhang B, Yu X, et al (2022)

Metagenomics study to compare the taxonomic composition and metabolism of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium cultured in different carbon conditions.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 38(5):78.

A lignocellulolytic microbial consortium holds promise for the in situ biodegradation of crop straw and the comprehensive and effective utilization of agricultural waste. In this study, we applied metagenomics technology to comprehensively explore the metabolic functional potential and taxonomic diversity of the microbial consortia CS (cultured on corn stover) and FP (cultured on filter paper). Analyses of the data on metagenomics taxonomic affiliations revealed considerable differences in the taxonomic composition and carbohydrate-active enzymes profile of the microbial consortia CS and FP. Pseudomonas, Dysgonomonas and Sphingobacterium in CS and Cellvibrio and Pseudomonas in FP had a much wider distribution of lignocellulose degradative ability. The genes for more lignocellulose degradative enzymes were detected when the relatively simple substrate filter paper was used as the carbon source. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analyses revealed considerable levels of similarity, and carbohydrate metabolic and amino acid metabolic pathways were the most enriched in CS and FP, respectively. The mechanism used by the two microbial consortia to degrade lignocellulose was similar, but the annotation of quantity of genes indicated that they are diverse and vary greatly. These data underlie the interactions between microorganisms and the synergism of enzymes during the degradative process of lignocellulose under different substrates and suggest the development of potential microbial resources.

RevDate: 2022-03-27

Kim H, Park YH, Yang JE, et al (2022)

Analysis of Major Bacteria and Diversity of Surface Soil to Discover Biomarkers Related to Soil Health.

Toxics, 10(3):.

The discovery of biomarkers for assessing soil health requires the exploration of organisms that can explain the core functions of soil and identification of species with major roles in these functions. However, identifying specific keystone markers within the soil microbiota is challenging. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular-biological methods have revealed information on soil biodiversity; however, whether this biodiversity is related to soil health remains unclear. In this study, we performed NGS on grassland surface soil to compare the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetic diversity to determine the chemical soil quality and examined markers associated with soil health. Microorganisms associated with the nitrogen cycle, bioremediation, plant pathogenicity, antibiotic production, and material degradation showed potential for use as markers. To propose a framework for soil health assessment, we not only used traditional indicators, such as chemical and physical measures, but also assessed metagenomics data of soil by land use to identify the major factors influencing the microbial structure in soil. Moreover, major keystone species were identified. Furthermore, the microbial genetic diversity of generally healthy surface soil, such as forests, farmland, and parks, was determined. These findings provide basic data for exploring soil health-related biomarkers.

RevDate: 2022-05-05
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Boeckman JX, Sprayberry S, Korn AM, et al (2022)

Effect of chronic and acute enterotoxigenic E. coli challenge on growth performance, intestinal inflammation, microbiome, and metabolome of weaned piglets.

Scientific reports, 12(1):5024.

Post-weaning enteropathies in swine caused by pathogenic E. coli, such as post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) or edema disease (ED), remain a significant problem for the swine industry. Reduction in the use of antibiotics over concerns of antibiotic resistance and public health concerns, necessitate the evaluation of effective antibiotic alternatives to prevent significant loss of livestock and/or reductions in swine growth performance. For this purpose, an appropriate piglet model of pathogenic E. coli enteropathy is required. In this study, we attempted to induce clinical signs of post-weaning disease in a piglet model using a one-time acute or lower daily chronic dose of a pathogenic E. coli strain containing genes for both heat stable and labile toxins, as well as Shiga toxin. The induced disease state was monitored by determining fecal shedding and colonization of the challenge strain, animal growth performance, cytokine levels, fecal calprotectin, histology, fecal metabolomics, and fecal microbiome shifts. The most informative analyses were colonization and shedding of the pathogen, serum cytokines, metabolomics, and targeted metagenomics to determine dysbiosis. Histopathological changes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and tight junction leakage as measured by fecal calprotectin concentrations were not observed. Chronic dosing was similar to the acute regimen suggesting that a high dose of pathogen, as used in many studies, may not be necessary. The piglet disease model presented here can be used to evaluate alternative PWD treatment options.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Kohler TJ, Fodelianakis S, Michoud G, et al (2022)

Glacier shrinkage will accelerate downstream decomposition of organic matter and alters microbiome structure and function.

Global change biology, 28(12):3846-3859.

The shrinking of glaciers is among the most iconic consequences of climate change. Despite this, the downstream consequences for ecosystem processes and related microbiome structure and function remain poorly understood. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 101 glacier-fed streams (GFSs) from six major regions worldwide, we investigated how glacier shrinkage is likely to impact the organic matter (OM) decomposition rates of benthic biofilms. To do this, we measured the activities of five common extracellular enzymes and estimated decomposition rates by using enzyme allocation equations based on stoichiometry. We found decomposition rates to average 0.0129 (% d-1), and that decreases in glacier influence (estimated by percent glacier catchment coverage, turbidity, and a glacier index) accelerates decomposition rates. To explore mechanisms behind these relationships, we further compared decomposition rates with biofilm and stream water characteristics. We found that chlorophyll-a, temperature, and stream water N:P together explained 61% of the variability in decomposition. Algal biomass, which is also increasing with glacier shrinkage, showed a particularly strong relationship with decomposition, likely indicating their importance in contributing labile organic compounds to these carbon-poor habitats. We also found high relative abundances of chytrid fungi in GFS sediments, which putatively parasitize these algae, promoting decomposition through a fungal shunt. Exploring the biofilm microbiome, we then sought to identify bacterial phylogenetic clades significantly associated with decomposition, and found numerous positively (e.g., Saprospiraceae) and negatively (e.g., Nitrospira) related clades. Lastly, using metagenomics, we found evidence of different bacterial classes possessing different proportions of EEA-encoding genes, potentially informing some of the microbial associations with decomposition rates. Our results, therefore, present new mechanistic insights into OM decomposition in GFSs by demonstrating that an algal-based "green food web" is likely to increase in importance in the future and will promote important biogeochemical shifts in these streams as glaciers vanish.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Beller L, Deboutte W, Vieira-Silva S, et al (2022)

The virota and its transkingdom interactions in the healthy infant gut.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(13):e2114619119.

SignificanceMicrobes colonizing the infant gut during the first year(s) of life play an important role in immune system development. We show that after birth the (nearly) sterile gut is rapidly colonized by bacteria and their viruses (phages), which often show a strong cooccurrence. Most viruses infecting the infant do not cause clinical signs and their numbers strongly increase after day-care entrance. The infant diet is clearly reflected by identification of plant-infecting viruses, whereas fungi and parasites are not part of a stable gut microbiota. These temporal high-resolution baseline data about the gut colonization process will be valuable for further investigations of pathogenic viruses, dynamics between phages and their bacterial host, as well as studies investigating infants with a disturbed microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Gardner CM, Gerhard WA, Redfern LK, et al (2022)

Evaluation of developing maize microbiomes and associations among nitrogen cyclers and key fungal taxa.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 168(3):.

More sustainable approaches to agriculture are urgently needed to protect existing resources and optimize crop yields and to provide food for a growing global human population. More sustainable agricultural practices that utilize plant-microbe relationships across cultivation are urgently needed. The main objectives of this study were to track the prokaryotic and fungal microbiomes associated with key growth stages of developing maize to evaluate the relationships among nitrogen cycling bacteria and major fungal genera including those known to contain arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other important taxa. Prokaryotic and fungal microbiomes associated with bulk soils, rhizosphere soils and tissues of developing maize were characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Similarities in microbiome diversity and abundance were compared to sample metadata to explore the influence of external factors on microbiome development. Correlations among target fungal taxa, bulk bacteria and nitrogen cycling bacteria were determined using non-parametric Spearman correlations. Important maize-associated fungal taxa were detected in all samples across growth stages, with Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi comprising up to 4.21, 4.26 and 0.28% of all fungal genera, respectively. Thirteen statistically significant correlations between nitrogen cycling genera and targeted fungal genera were also identified (r S≥0.70 or r S≤-0.70; P<0.05). This study is the first to note a strong positive association among several nitrifying bacteria and Fusarium (R=0.71; P=0.0046), Aspergillus (R=0.71; P=0.0055) and Cladosporium spcies (R=0.74; P=0.0038), suggesting the levels of soil nitrate, nitrite or nitrification intermediates may have large roles in the proliferation of important maize-associated fungi.

RevDate: 2022-05-05
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Skipper PJA, Skipper LK, RA Dixon (2022)

A metagenomic analysis of the bacterial microbiome of limestone, and the role of associated biofilms in the biodeterioration of heritage stone surfaces.

Scientific reports, 12(1):4877.

There is growing concern surrounding the aesthetic and physical effects of microbial biofilms on heritage buildings and monuments. Carboniferous stones, such as limestone and marble, are soluble in weak acid solutions and therefore particularly vulnerable to biocorrosion. This paper aims to determine the differences and commonalities between the microbiome of physically damaged and undamaged Lincolnshire limestone, an area of research which has not been previously studied. A lack of information about the core microbiome has resulted in conflicting claims in the literature regarding the biodeteriorative potential of many microorganisms. To address this, we used metagenomics alongside traditional microbiological techniques to produce an in-depth analysis of differences between the bacterial microbiomes found on deteriorated and undamaged external limestone surfaces. We demonstrate there is a core microbiome on Lincolnshire limestone present on both damaged and undamaged surfaces. In addition to the core microbiome, significant differences were found between species isolated from undamaged compared to damaged surfaces. Isolated species were characterised for biofilm formation and biodeteriorative processes, resulting in the association of species with biodeterioration that had not been previously described. Additionally, we have identified a previously undescribed method of biofilm-associated biomechanical damage. This research adds significant new understanding to the field, aiding decision making in conservation of stone surfaces.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Murakami T, Takeuchi N, Mori H, et al (2022)

Metagenomics reveals global-scale contrasts in nitrogen cycling and cyanobacterial light-harvesting mechanisms in glacier cryoconite.

Microbiome, 10(1):50.

BACKGROUND: Cryoconite granules are mineral-microbial aggregates found on glacier surfaces worldwide and are hotspots of biogeochemical reactions in glacier ecosystems. However, despite their importance within glacier ecosystems, the geographical diversity of taxonomic assemblages and metabolic potential of cryoconite communities around the globe remain unclear. In particular, the genomic content of cryoconite communities on Asia's high mountain glaciers, which represent a substantial portion of Earth's ice masses, has rarely been reported. Therefore, in this study, to elucidate the taxonomic and ecological diversities of cryoconite bacterial consortia on a global scale, we conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing of cryoconite acquired from a range of geographical areas comprising Polar (Arctic and Antarctic) and Asian alpine regions.

RESULTS: Our metagenomic data indicate that compositions of both bacterial taxa and functional genes are particularly distinctive for Asian cryoconite. Read abundance of the genes responsible for denitrification was significantly more abundant in Asian cryoconite than the Polar cryoconite, implying that denitrification is more enhanced in Asian glaciers. The taxonomic composition of Cyanobacteria, the key primary producers in cryoconite communities, also differs between the Polar and Asian samples. Analyses on the metagenome-assembled genomes and fluorescence emission spectra reveal that Asian cryoconite is dominated by multiple cyanobacterial lineages possessing phycoerythrin, a green light-harvesting component for photosynthesis. In contrast, Polar cryoconite is dominated by a single cyanobacterial species Phormidesmis priestleyi that does not possess phycoerythrin. These findings suggest that the assemblage of cryoconite bacterial communities respond to regional- or glacier-specific physicochemical conditions, such as the availability of nutrients (e.g., nitrate and dissolved organic carbon) and light (i.e., incident shortwave radiation).

CONCLUSIONS: Our genome-resolved metagenomics provides the first characterization of the taxonomic and metabolic diversities of cryoconite from contrasting geographical areas, highlighted by the distinct light-harvesting approaches of Cyanobacteria and nitrogen utilization between Polar and Asian cryoconite, and implies the existence of environmental controls on the assemblage of cryoconite communities. These findings deepen our understanding of the biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles of glacier ecosystems, which are susceptible to ongoing climate change and glacier decline, on a global scale. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-04-20
CmpDate: 2022-04-20

He C, Liu J, Wang R, et al (2022)

Metagenomic evidence for the microbial transformation of carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules: A long-term macrocosm experiment.

Water research, 216:118281.

Carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs) widely exist in the ocean and constitute the central part of the refractory dissolved organic matter (RDOM) pool. Although a consensus has been reached that microbial activity forms CRAMs, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To better understand the underlying genetic mechanisms driving the microbial transformation of CRAM, a long-term macrocosm experiment spanning 220 days was conducted in the Aquatron Tower Tank at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, with the supply of diatom-derived DOM as a carbon source. The DOM composition, community structure, and metabolic pathways were characterised using multi-omics approaches. The addition of diatom lysate introduced a mass of labile DOM into the incubation seawater, which led to a low degradation index (IDEG) and refractory molecular lability boundary (RMLB) on days 1 and 18. The molecular compositions of the DOM molecules in the later incubation period (from day 120 to day 220) were more similar in composition to those on day 0, suggesting a rapid turnover of phytoplankton debris by microbial communities. Taxonomically, while Alpha proteobacteria dominated during the entire incubation period, Gamma proteobacteria became more sensitive and abundant than the other bacterial groups on days 1 and 18. Recalcitrant measurements such as IDEG and RMLB were closely related to the DOM molecules, bacterial community, and Kyoto encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) modules, suggesting close associations between RDOM accumulation and microbial metabolism. KEGG modules that showed strong positive correlation with CRAMs were identified using a microbial ecological network approach. The identified KEGG modules produced the substrates, such as the acetyl-CoA or 3‑hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, which could participate in the mevalonate pathway to generate the precursor of CRAM analogues, isopentenyl-PP, suggesting a potential generation pathway of CRAM analogues in bacteria and archaea. This study revealed the potential genetic and molecular processes involved in the microbial origin of CRAM analogues, and thus indicated a vital ecological role of bacteria and archaea in RDOM production. This study also offered new perspectives on the carbon sequestration in the ocean.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Adler A, Poirier S, Pagni M, et al (2022)

Disentangle genus microdiversity within a complex microbial community by using a multi-distance long-read binning method: example of Candidatus Accumulibacter.

Environmental microbiology, 24(4):2136-2156.

Complete genomes can be recovered from metagenomes by assembling and binning DNA sequences into metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs). Yet, the presence of microdiversity can hamper the assembly and binning processes, possibly yielding chimeric, highly fragmented and incomplete genomes. Here, the metagenomes of four samples of aerobic granular sludge bioreactors containing Candidatus (Ca.) Accumulibacter, a phosphate-accumulating organism of interest for wastewater treatment, were sequenced with both PacBio and Illumina. Different strategies of genome assembly and binning were investigated, including published protocols and a binning procedure adapted to the binning of long contigs (MuLoBiSC). Multiple criteria were considered to select the best strategy for Ca. Accumulibacter, whose multiple strains in every sample represent a challenging microdiversity. In this case, the best strategy relies on long-read only assembly and a custom binning procedure including MuLoBiSC in metaWRAP. Several high-quality Ca. Accumulibacter MAGs, including a novel species, were obtained independently from different samples. Comparative genomic analysis showed that MAGs retrieved in different samples harbour genomic rearrangements in addition to accumulation of point mutations. The microdiversity of Ca. Accumulibacter, likely driven by mobile genetic elements, causes major difficulties in recovering MAGs, but it is also a hallmark of the panmictic lifestyle of these bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Wang Y, LL Guan (2022)

Translational multi-omics microbiome research for strategies to improve cattle production and health.

Emerging topics in life sciences, 6(2):201-213.

Cattle microbiome plays a vital role in cattle growth and performance and affects many economically important traits such as feed efficiency, milk/meat yield and quality, methane emission, immunity and health. To date, most cattle microbiome research has focused on metataxonomic and metagenomic characterization to reveal who are there and what they may do, preventing the determination of the active functional dynamics in vivo and their causal relationships with the traits. Therefore, there is an urgent need to combine other advanced omics approaches to improve microbiome analysis to determine their mode of actions and host-microbiome interactions in vivo. This review will critically discuss the current multi-omics microbiome research in beef and dairy cattle, aiming to provide insights on how the information generated can be applied to future strategies to improve production efficiency, health and welfare, and environment-friendliness in cattle production through microbiome manipulations.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Ranaivo H, Thirion F, Béra-Maillet C, et al (2022)

Increasing the diversity of dietary fibers in a daily-consumed bread modifies gut microbiota and metabolic profile in subjects at cardiometabolic risk.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2044722.

Some cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance are known to be associated with low gut microbiota richness. A link between gut microbiota richness and the diversity of consumed dietary fibers (DF) has also been reported. We introduced a larger diversity of consumed DF by using a daily consumed bread in subjects at cardiometabolic risk and assessed the impacts on the composition and functions of gut microbiota as well as on cardiometabolic profile. Thirty-nine subjects at cardiometabolic risk were included in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, twice 8-week study, and consumed daily 150 g of standard bread or enriched with a 7-dietary fiber mixture (5.55 g and 16.05 g of fibers, respectively). Before and after intervention, stool samples were collected for gut microbiota analysis from species determination down to gene-level abundance using shotgun metagenomics, and cardiometabolic profile was assessed. Multi-fiber bread consumption significantly decreased Bacteroides vulgatus, whereas it increased Parabacteroides distasonis, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, an unclassified Acutalibacteraceae and an unclassified Eisenbergiella (q < 0.1). The fraction of gut microbiota carrying the gene coding for five families/subfamilies of glycoside hydrolases (CAZymes) were also increased and negatively correlated with peaks and total/incremental area under curve (tAUC/iAUC) of postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Compared to control bread, multi-fiber bread decreased total cholesterol (-0.42 mM; q < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (-0.36 mM; q < 0.01), insulin (-2.77 mIU/l; q < 0.05), and HOMA (-0.78; q < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing the diversity of DF in a daily consumed product modifies gut microbiota composition and function and could be a relevant nutritional tool to improve cardiometabolic profile.

RevDate: 2022-04-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-06

Di Guglielmo MD, Franke KR, Robbins A, et al (2022)

Impact of Early Feeding: Metagenomics Analysis of the Infant Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:816601.

Background: Different feeding regimens in infancy alter the gastrointestinal (gut) microbial environment. The fecal microbiota in turn influences gastrointestinal homeostasis including metabolism, immune function, and extra-/intra-intestinal signaling. Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) have enhanced our ability to study the gut microbiome of breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants with a data-driven hypothesis approach.

Methods: Next generation sequencing libraries were constructed from fecal samples of BF (n=24) and FF (n=10) infants and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Taxonomic classification of the NGS data was performed using the Sunbeam/Kraken pipeline and a functional analysis at the gene level was performed using publicly available algorithms, including BLAST, and custom scripts. Differentially represented genera, genes, and NCBI Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) were determined between cohorts using count data and R (statistical packages edgeR and DESeq2).

Results: Thirty-nine genera were found to be differentially represented between the BF and FF cohorts (FDR ≤ 0.01) including Parabacteroides, Enterococcus, Haemophilus, Gardnerella, and Staphylococcus. A Welch t-test of the Shannon diversity index for BF and FF samples approached significance (p=0.061). Bray-Curtis and Jaccard distance analyses demonstrated clustering and overlap in each analysis. Sixty COGs were significantly overrepresented and those most significantly represented in BF vs. FF samples showed dichotomy of categories representing gene functions. Over 1,700 genes were found to be differentially represented (abundance) between the BF and FF cohorts.

Conclusions: Fecal samples analyzed from BF and FF infants demonstrated differences in microbiota genera. The BF cohort includes greater presence of beneficial genus Bifidobacterium. Several genes were identified as present at different abundances between cohorts indicating differences in functional pathways such as cellular defense mechanisms and carbohydrate metabolism influenced by feeding. Confirmation of gene level NGS data via PCR and electrophoresis analysis revealed distinct differences in gene abundances associated with important biologic pathways.

RevDate: 2022-05-02
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Fan Y, Gao Y, Ma Q, et al (2022)

Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals Aberrant Gut-Metabolome-Immune Network in Schizophrenia.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:812293.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is associated with several immune dysfunctions, including elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microorganisms and their metabolites have been found to regulate the immune system, and that intestinal microbiota is significantly disturbed in schizophrenic patients. To systematically investigate aberrant gut-metabolome-immune network in schizophrenia, we performed an integrative analysis of intestinal microbiota, serum metabolome, and serum inflammatory cytokines in 63 SCZ patients and 57 healthy controls using a multi-omics strategy. Eighteen differentially abundant metabolite clusters were altered in patients displayed higher cytokine levels, with a significant increase in pro-inflammatory metabolites and a significant decrease in anti-inflammatory metabolites (such as oleic acid and linolenic acid). The bacterial co-abundance groups in the gut displayed more numerous and stronger correlations with circulating metabolites than with cytokines. By integrating these data, we identified that certain bacteria might affect inflammatory cytokines by modulating host metabolites, such as amino acids and fatty acids. A random forest model was constructed based on omics data, and seven serum metabolites significantly associated with cytokines and α-diversity of intestinal microbiota were able to accurately distinguish the cases from the controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.99. Our results indicated aberrant gut-metabolome-immune network in SCZ and gut microbiota may influence immune responses by regulating host metabolic processes. These findings suggest a mechanism by which microbial-derived metabolites regulated inflammatory cytokines and insights into the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders from the microbial-immune system in the future.

RevDate: 2022-05-02
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Gehrig JL, Portik DM, Driscoll MD, et al (2022)

Finding the right fit: evaluation of short-read and long-read sequencing approaches to maximize the utility of clinical microbiome data.

Microbial genomics, 8(3):.

A long-standing challenge in human microbiome research is achieving the taxonomic and functional resolution needed to generate testable hypotheses about the gut microbiota's impact on health and disease. With a growing number of live microbial interventions in clinical development, this challenge is renewed by a need to understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic candidates. While short-read sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene has been the standard for microbiota profiling, recent improvements in the fidelity of long-read sequencing underscores the need for a re-evaluation of the value of distinct microbiome-sequencing approaches. We leveraged samples from participants enrolled in a phase 1b clinical trial of a novel live biotherapeutic product to perform a comparative analysis of short-read and long-read amplicon and metagenomic sequencing approaches to assess their utility for generating clinical microbiome data. Across all methods, overall community taxonomic profiles were comparable and relationships between samples were conserved. Comparison of ubiquitous short-read 16S rRNA amplicon profiling to long-read profiling of the 16S-ITS-23S rRNA amplicon showed that only the latter provided strain-level community resolution and insight into novel taxa. All methods identified an active ingredient strain in treated study participants, though detection confidence was higher for long-read methods. Read coverage from both metagenomic methods provided evidence of active-ingredient strain replication in some treated participants. Compared to short-read metagenomics, approximately twice the proportion of long reads were assigned functional annotations. Finally, compositionally similar bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from short-read and long-read metagenomic methods, although a greater number and more complete MAGs were recovered from long reads. Despite higher costs, both amplicon and metagenomic long-read approaches yielded added microbiome data value in the form of higher confidence taxonomic and functional resolution and improved recovery of microbial genomes compared to traditional short-read methodologies.


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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

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Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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