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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 13 Jul 2019 at 01:31 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Pjevac P, Dyksma S, Goldhammer T, et al (2019)

In situ abundance and carbon fixation activity of distinct anoxygenic phototrophs in the stratified seawater lake Rogoznica.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis is an ancient microbial metabolism that contributes significantly to inorganic carbon fixation in stratified, sulfidic water bodies. Methods commonly applied to quantify inorganic carbon fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs, however, cannot resolve the contributions of distinct microbial populations to the overall process. We implemented a straightforward workflow, consisting of radioisotope labeling and flow cytometric cell sorting based on the distinct autofluorescence of bacterial photo pigments, to discriminate and quantify contributions of co-occurring anoxygenic phototrophic populations to in situ inorganic carbon fixation in environmental samples. This allowed us to assign 89.3 ±7.6% of daytime inorganic carbon fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs in Lake Rogoznica (Croatia) to an abundant chemocline-dwelling population of green sulfur bacteria (dominated by Chlorobium phaeobacteroides), whereas the co-occurring purple sulfur bacteria (Halochromatium sp.) contributed only 1.8 ±1.4%. Furthermore, we obtained two metagenome assembled genomes of green sulfur bacteria and one of a purple sulfur bacterium which provides the first genomic insights into the genus Halochromatium, confirming its high metabolic flexibility and physiological potential for mixo- and heterotrophic growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Bartoszewicz JM, Seidel A, Rentzsch R, et al (2019)

DeePaC: Predicting pathogenic potential of novel DNA with reverse-complement neural networks.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5531656 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: We expect novel pathogens to arise due to their fast-paced evolution, and new species to be discovered thanks to advances in DNA sequencing and metagenomics. Moreover, recent developments in synthetic biology raise concerns that some strains of bacteria could be modified for malicious purposes. Traditional approaches to open-view pathogen detection depend on databases of known organisms, which limits their performance on unknown, unrecognized, and unmapped sequences. In contrast, machine learning methods can infer pathogenic phenotypes from single NGS reads, even though the biological context is unavailable.

RESULTS: We present DeePaC, a Deep Learning Approach to Pathogenicity Classification. It includes a flexible framework allowing easy evaluation of neural architectures with reverse-complement parameter sharing. We show that convolutional neural networks and LSTMs outperform the state-of-the-art based on both sequence homology and machine learning. Combining a deep learning approach with integrating the predictions for both mates in a read pair results in cutting the error rate almost in half in comparison to the previous state-of-the-art.

AVAILABILITY: The code and the models are available at: https://gitlab.com/rki_bioinformatics/DeePaC.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Kandathil SM, Greener JG, DT Jones (2019)

Prediction of inter-residue contacts with DeepMetaPSICOV in CASP13.

Proteins [Epub ahead of print].

In this article, we describe our efforts in contact prediction in the CASP13 experiment. We employed a new deep learning-based contact prediction tool, DeepMetaPSICOV (or DMP for short), together with new methods and data sources for alignment generation. DMP evolved from MetaPSICOV and DeepCov and combines the input feature sets used by these methods as input to a deep, fully convolutional residual neural network. We also improved our method for multiple sequence alignment generation and included metagenomic sequences in the search. We discuss successes and failures of our approach and identify areas where further improvements may be possible. DMP is freely available at: https://github.com/psipred/DeepMetaPSICOV. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Michels N (2019)

Biological underpinnings from psychosocial stress towards appetite and obesity during youth: research implications towards metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics.

Nutrition research reviews pii:S0954422419000143 [Epub ahead of print].

Psychosocial stress, uncontrolled eating and obesity are three interrelated epidemiological phenomena already present during youth. This broad narrative conceptual review summarises main biological underpinnings of the stress-diet-obesity pathway and how new techniques can further knowledge. Cortisol seems the main biological factor from stress towards central adiposity; and diet, physical activity and sleep are the main behavioural pathways. Within stress-diet, the concepts of comfort food and emotional eating are highlighted, as cortisol affects reward pathways and appetite brain centres with a role for insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), endocannabinoids, orexin and gastrointestinal hormones. More recently researched biological underpinnings are microbiota, epigenetic modifications and metabolites. First, the gut microbiota reaches the stress-regulating and appetite-regulating brain centres via the gut-brain axis. Second, epigenetic analyses are recommended as diet, obesity, stress and gut microbiota can change gene expression which then affects appetite, energy homeostasis and stress reactivity. Finally, metabolomics would be a good technique to disentangle stress-diet-obesity interactions as multiple biological pathways are involved. Saliva might be an ideal biological matrix as it allows metagenomic (oral microbiota), epigenomic and metabolomic analyses. In conclusion, stress and diet/obesity research should be combined in interdisciplinary collaborations with implementation of several -omics analyses.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Kuang Z, et al (2019)

Comparison of microbiomes and resistomes in two Karst groundwater sites in Chongqing, China.

Karst groundwater is an important water resource as it accounts for about 15% of the total landscape of the earth and supplies 20% of potable water worldwide. The antibiotics resistance is an emerging global concern, and antibiotics residual and increase of antibiotic resistance genes represent serious global concerns and emerging pollutants. There is no report on the antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater. To survey resistome and microbiome in Karst groundwater, two Karst water samples were chosen for metagenome and metatranscriptome study, namely the 37th spring (C) and Dongcao spring (R) in Beibei, Chongqing, China. The two sites differ significantly in sulfur content, geochemical parameters, community structure, antibiotic resistance genes and mechanisms, and these results may be influenced by anthropogenic activities. Combining with the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB), three types of resistance genes baca, sul2, sul1 are present in R and C, and ant3ia, ermc, tetpa are also present in R. The number of all resistance genes in R was more than C, and Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Nitrospirae are the main sources of antibiotic resistance genes. In addition, a large number of genes related to antibiotic gene transmission and drug resistance were found in both samples. Karst groundwater is an important source of drinking water and a possible venue for the transmission of microbial antibiotic resistance genes. However, few studies addressed this issue in Karst groundwater, despite its widespread and great importance to global ecosystem. Karst groundwater is a reservoir for antibiotic resistant genes, and measures to control these resistant genes are urgently needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Dilthey AT, Jain C, Koren S, et al (2019)

Strain-level metagenomic assignment and compositional estimation for long reads with MetaMaps.

Nature communications, 10(1):3066 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10934-2.

Metagenomic sequence classification should be fast, accurate and information-rich. Emerging long-read sequencing technologies promise to improve the balance between these factors but most existing methods were designed for short reads. MetaMaps is a new method, specifically developed for long reads, capable of mapping a long-read metagenome to a comprehensive RefSeq database with >12,000 genomes in <16 GB or RAM on a laptop computer. Integrating approximate mapping with probabilistic scoring and EM-based estimation of sample composition, MetaMaps achieves >94% accuracy for species-level read assignment and r2 > 0.97 for the estimation of sample composition on both simulated and real data when the sample genomes or close relatives are present in the classification database. To address novel species and genera, which are comparatively harder to predict, MetaMaps outputs mapping locations and qualities for all classified reads, enabling functional studies (e.g. gene presence/absence) and detection of incongruities between sample and reference genomes.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Gehrig JL, Venkatesh S, Chang HW, et al (2019)

Effects of microbiota-directed foods in gnotobiotic animals and undernourished children.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 365(6449):.

To examine the contributions of impaired gut microbial community development to childhood undernutrition, we combined metabolomic and proteomic analyses of plasma samples with metagenomic analyses of fecal samples to characterize the biological state of Bangladeshi children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as they transitioned, after standard treatment, to moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) with persistent microbiota immaturity. Host and microbial effects of microbiota-directed complementary food (MDCF) prototypes targeting weaning-phase bacterial taxa underrepresented in SAM and MAM microbiota were characterized in gnotobiotic mice and gnotobiotic piglets colonized with age- and growth-discriminatory bacteria. A randomized, double-blind controlled feeding study identified a lead MDCF that changes the abundances of targeted bacteria and increases plasma biomarkers and mediators of growth, bone formation, neurodevelopment, and immune function in children with MAM.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Shen N, Caixàs A, Ahlers M, et al (2019)

Longitudinal changes of microbiome composition and microbial metabolomics after surgical weight loss in individuals with obesity.

Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery pii:S1550-7289(19)30264-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Some of the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery may be mediated by the gut microbiome.

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of bariatric surgery on changes to gut microbiota composition and bacterial pathways, and their relation to metabolic parameters after bariatric surgery.

SETTINGS: University hospitals in the United States and Spain.

METHODS: Microbial diversity and composition by 16 S rRNA sequencing, putative bacterial pathways, and targeted circulating metabolites were studied in 26 individuals with severe obesity, with and without type 2 diabetes, before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after either gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy.

RESULTS: Bariatric surgery tended to increase alpha diversity, and significantly altered beta diversity, microbiota composition, and function up to 6 months after surgery, but these changes tend to regress to presurgery levels by 12 months. Twelve of 15 bacterial pathways enriched after surgery also regressed to presurgery levels at 12 months. Network analysis identified groups of bacteria significantly correlated with levels of circulating metabolites over time. There were no differences between study sites, surgery type, or diabetes status in terms of microbial diversity and composition at baseline and after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: The association among changes in microbiome with decreased circulating biomarkers of inflammation, increased bile acids, and products of choline metabolism and other bacterial pathways suggest that the microbiome partially mediates improvement of metabolism during the first year after bariatric surgery.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Barros I, Froufe H, Marnellos G, et al (2018)

Metatranscriptomics profile of the gill microbial community during Bathymodiolus azoricus aquarium acclimatization at atmospheric pressure.

AIMS microbiology, 4(2):240-260 pii:microbiol-04-02-240.

Background: The deep-sea mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) are the dominant macrofauna subsisting at the hydrothermal vents site Menez Gwen in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Their adaptive success in such challenging environments is largely due to their gill symbiotic association with chemosynthetic bacteria. We examined the response of vent mussels as they adapt to sea-level environmental conditions, through an assessment of the relative abundance of host-symbiont related RNA transcripts to better understand how the gill microbiome may drive host-symbiont interactions in vent mussels during hypothetical venting inactivity.

Results: The metatranscriptome of B. azoricus was sequenced from gill tissues sampled at different time-points during a five-week acclimatization experiment, using Next-Generation-Sequencing. After Illumina sequencing, a total of 181,985,262 paired-end reads of 150 bp were generated with an average of 16,544,115 read per sample. Metatranscriptome analysis confirmed that experimental acclimatization in aquaria accounted for global gill transcript variation. Additionally, the analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA sequences data allowed for a comprehensive characterization of host-symbiont interactions, which included the gradual loss of gill endosymbionts and signaling pathways, associated with stress responses and energy metabolism, under experimental acclimatization. Dominant active transcripts were assigned to the following KEGG categories: "Ribosome", "Oxidative phosphorylation" and "Chaperones and folding catalysts" suggesting specific metabolic responses to physiological adaptations in aquarium environment.

Conclusions: Gill metagenomics analyses highlighted microbial diversity shifts and a clear pattern of varying mRNA transcript abundancies and expression during acclimatization to aquarium conditions which indicate change in bacterial community activity. This approach holds potential for the discovery of new host-symbiont associations, evidencing new functional transcripts and a clearer picture of methane metabolism during loss of endosymbionts. Towards the end of acclimatization, we observed trends in three major functional subsystems, as evidenced by an increment of transcripts related to genetic information processes; the decrease of chaperone and folding catalysts and oxidative phosphorylation transcripts; but no change in transcripts of gluconeogenesis and co-factors-vitamins.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Carro L, I Nouioui (2017)

Taxonomy and systematics of plant probiotic bacteria in the genomic era.

AIMS microbiology, 3(3):383-412 pii:microbiol-03-03-383.

Recent decades have predicted significant changes within our concept of plant endophytes, from only a small number specific microorganisms being able to colonize plant tissues, to whole communities that live and interact with their hosts and each other. Many of these microorganisms are responsible for health status of the plant, and have become known in recent years as plant probiotics. Contrary to human probiotics, they belong to many different phyla and have usually had each genus analysed independently, which has resulted in lack of a complete taxonomic analysis as a group. This review scrutinizes the plant probiotic concept, and the taxonomic status of plant probiotic bacteria, based on both traditional and more recent approaches. Phylogenomic studies and genes with implications in plant-beneficial effects are discussed. This report covers some representative probiotic bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also includes minor representatives and less studied groups within these phyla which have been identified as plant probiotics.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Bergsveinson J, Kajala I, B Ziola (2017)

Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages.

AIMS microbiology, 3(1):8-24 pii:microbiol-03-01-008.

Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Quintela-Baluja M, Abouelnaga M, Romalde J, et al (2019)

Spatial ecology of a wastewater network defines the antibiotic resistance genes in downstream receiving waters.

Water research, 162:347-357 pii:S0043-1354(19)30597-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an effective barrier in the protection of human and environment health around the world, although WWTPs also are suggested to be selectors and-or reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) before entering the environment. The dogma about WWTPs as "ARG selectors" presumes that biotreatment compartments (e.g., activated sludge; AS) are single densely populated ecosystems with elevated horizontal gene transfer. However, recent work has suggested WWTP biotreatment compartments may be different than previously believed relative to antibiotic resistance (AR) fate, and other process factors, such as bacterial separation and specific waste sources, may be key to ARGs released to the environment. Here we combined 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing and high-throughput qPCR to characterise microbial communities and ARGs across a wastewater network in Spain that includes both community (i.e., non-clinical urban) and hospital sources. Contrary to expectations, ARGs found in downstream receiving waters were not dominated by AS biosolids (RAS), but more resembled raw wastewater sources. In fact, ARGs and microbial communities in liquid-phase WWTP effluents and RAS were significantly different (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index = 0.66 ± 0.11), with a consequential fraction of influent ARGs and organisms passing directly through the WWTP with limited association with RAS. Instead, ARGs and organisms in the RAS may be more defined by biosolids separation and biophysical traits, such as flocculation, rather than ARG carriage. This explains why RAS has significantly lower ARG richness (47 ± 4 ARGs) than liquid-phase effluents (104 ± 5 ARGs), and downstream water column (135 ± 4 ARGs) and river sediments (120 ± 5 ARGs) (Tukey's test, p < 0.001). These data suggest RAS and liquid-phase WWTP effluents may reflect two parallel ecosystems with potentially limited ARG exchange. As such, ARG mitigation in WWTPs should more focus on removing bacterial hosts from the liquid phase, AR source reduction, and possibly disinfection to reduce ARG releases to the environment.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

PLOS ONE Staff (2019)

Correction: Scalable methods for analyzing and visualizing phylogenetic placement of metagenomic samples.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219925 pii:PONE-D-19-18998.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217050.].

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Erdogan IG, Mekuto L, Ntwampe SKO, et al (2019)

Metagenomic profiling dataset of bacterial communities of a drinking water supply system (DWSS) in the arid Namaqualand region, South Africa: Source (lower Orange River) to point-of-use (O'Kiep).

Data in brief, 25:104135 pii:104135.

The metagenomic data presented herein contains the bacterial community profile of a drinking water supply system (DWSS) supplying O'Kiep, Namaqualand, South Africa. Representative samples from the source (Orange River) to the point of use (O'Kiep), through a 150km DWSS used for drinking water distribution were analysed for bacterial content. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 regions was undertaken using oligonucleotide primers 27F and 518R subsequent to DNA extraction. The PCR amplicons were processed using the illumina® reaction kits as per manufactures guidelines and sequenced using the illumina® MiSeq-2000, by means of MiSeq V3 kit. The data obtained was processed using a bioinformatics QIIME software with a compatible fast nucleic acid (fna) file. The raw sequences were deposited at the National Centre of Biotechnology (NCBI) and the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database, obtaining accession numbers for each species identified.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Zhou P, Li Z, Xu D, et al (2019)

Cepharanthine Hydrochloride Improves Cisplatin Chemotherapy and Enhances Immunity by Regulating Intestinal Microbes in Mice.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:225.

Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Unfortunately, most chemotherapeutic drugs have significant impacts on the intestinal microbes, resulting in side effects and reduced efficiency. Therefore, new strategies capable of overcoming these disadvantages of current chemotherapies are in urgent need. The natural product, Cepharanthine hydrochloride (CEH), is known for its anticancer and immunoregulatory properties. By sequencing the V4 region of 16S rDNA, we characterized the microbes of tumor-bearing mice treated with different chemotherapy strategies, including with CEH. We found that CEH improved the therapeutic effect of CDDP by manipulating the gut microbiota. Through metagenomic analyses of the microbes community, we identified a severe compositional and functional imbalance in the gut microbes community after CDDP treatment. However, CEH improved the effect of chemotherapy and ameliorated CDDP treatment-induced imbalance in the intestinal microbes. Mechanically, CEH activated TLR4 and MYD88 innate immune signaling, which is advantageous for the activation of the host's innate immunity to exert a balanced intestinal environment as well as to trigger a better chemotherapeutic response to esophageal cancer. In addition, TNFR death receptors were activated to induce apoptosis. In summary, our findings suggest that chemotherapy of CDDP combined with CEH increased the effect of chemotherapy and reduced the side effects on the microbes and intestinal mucosal immunity. We believe that these findings provide a theoretical basis for new clinical treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Melkonian C, Gottstein W, Blasche S, et al (2019)

Finding Functional Differences Between Species in a Microbial Community: Case Studies in Wine Fermentation and Kefir Culture.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1347.

Microbial life usually takes place in a community where individuals interact, by competition for nutrients, cross-feeding, inhibition by end-products, but also by their spatial distribution. Lactic acid bacteria are prominent members of microbial communities responsible for food fermentations. Their niche in a community depends on their own properties as well as those of the other species. Here, we apply a computational approach, which uses only genomic and metagenomic information and functional annotation of genes, to find properties that distinguish a species from others in the community, as well as to follow individual species in a community. We analyzed isolated and sequenced strains from a kefir community, and metagenomes from wine fermentations. We demonstrate how the distinguishing properties of an organism lead to experimentally testable hypotheses concerning the niche and the interactions with other species. We observe, for example, that L. kefiranofaciens, a dominant organism in kefir, stands out among the Lactobacilli because it potentially has more amino acid auxotrophies. Using metagenomic analysis of industrial wine fermentations we investigate the role of an inoculated L. plantarum in malolactic fermentation. We observed that L. plantarum thrives better on white than on red wine fermentations and has the largest number of phosphotransferase system among the bacteria observed in the wine communities. Also, L. plantarum together with Pantoea, Erwinia, Asaia, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter genera had the highest number of genes involved in biosynthesis of amino acids.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Masoodi I, Alshanqeeti AS, Ahmad S, et al (2019)

Microbial dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases: results of a metagenomic study in Saudi Arabia.

Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica pii:S1121-421X.19.02576-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The intestinal Microbiota plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of Ulcerative colitis (UC)and Crohn's disease (CD).

METHODS: Metagenomic studies were used to study microbiota in the diagnosed cases of UC and CD at King Fahad Medical city Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Each segment of the colon was flushed with distilled water during colonoscopy, and the material was aspirated, immediately frozen for the study. The patients attending for screening colonoscopies were taken as age-matched healthy controls. The UC patients were followed clinically for any signs of exacerbation relapse, and CD patients were followed for any complications.

RESULTS: The metagenomic data on 46 (24 females) patients with Crohn's disease were analyzed along with a group of age and gender-matched controls. Their age ranged from 14 to 65 years, mean age 25.19±10.67 years. There were 50 UC patient (28 females) mean age of 34.42 ± 12.58, and their age ranged from 13-58 years. This study identified enrichment of 19 genera in the control group (Abiotrophia, Anaerofustis Butyrivibrio Campylobacter Catenibacterium Coprococcus Dorea Eubacterium Facklamia Klebsiella Lactococcus Oscillibacter Paenibacillus Parabacteroides Parasutterella Porphyromonas Prevotella Ruminococcus Treponema). There was a significant enrichment of 14 genera in our CD cohort (Beggiatoa Burkholderia Cyanothece Enterococcus Escherichia Fusobacterium Jonquetella Mitsuokella Parvimonas Peptostreptococcus Shigella Succinatimonas Thermoanaerobacter Verrucomicrobiales Vibrio) There was a significant enrichment of 7 genera in UC cohort (Beggiatoa Burkholderia Parascardovia Parvimonas Pseudoflavonifractor Thermoanaerobacter Verrucomicrobiales).

CONCLUSIONS: A significant dysbiosis was found in UC and CD patients compared to controls.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Ji Y, Huotari T, Roslin T, et al (2019)

SPIKEPIPE: A metagenomic pipeline for the accurate quantification of eukaryotic species occurrences and intraspecific abundance change using DNA barcodes or mitogenomes.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

The accurate quantification of eukaryotic species abundances from bulk samples remains a key challenge for community ecology and environmental biomonitoring. We resolve this challenge by combining shotgun sequencing, mapping to reference DNA barcodes or to mitogenomes, and three correction factors: (1) a percent-coverage threshold to filter out false positives, (2) an internal-standard DNA spike-in to correct for stochasticity during sequencing, and (3) technical replicates to correct for stochasticity across sequencing runs. The SPIKEPIPE pipeline achieves a strikingly high accuracy of intraspecific abundance estimates (in terms of DNA mass) from samples of known composition (mapping to barcodes R2 =0.93, mitogenomes R2 =0.95) and a high repeatability across environmental-sample replicates (barcodes R2 =0.94, mitogenomes R2 =0.93). As proof of concept, we sequence arthropod samples from the High Arctic, systematically collected over 17 years, detecting changes in species richness, species-specific abundances, and phenology. SPIKEPIPE provides cost-efficient and reliable quantification of eukaryotic communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Moeller AH, Gomes-Neto JC, Mantz S, et al (2019)

Experimental Evidence for Adaptation to Species-Specific Gut Microbiota in House Mice.

mSphere, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00387-19.

The gut microbial communities of mammals have codiversified with host species, and changes in the gut microbiota can have profound effects on host fitness. Therefore, the gut microbiota may drive adaptation in mammalian species, but this possibility is underexplored. Here, we show that the gut microbiota has codiversified with mice in the genus Mus over the past ∼6 million years, and we present experimental evidence that the gut microbiota has driven adaptive evolution of the house mouse, Mus musculusdomesticus Phylogenetic analyses of metagenome-assembled bacterial genomic sequences revealed that gut bacterial lineages have been retained within and diversified alongside Mus species over evolutionary time. Transplantation of gut microbiotas from various Mus species into germfree M. m. domesticus showed that foreign gut microbiotas slowed growth rate and upregulated macrophage inflammatory protein in hosts. These results suggest adaptation by M. m. domesticus to its gut microbiota since it diverged from other Mus species.IMPORTANCE The communities of bacteria that reside within mammalian guts are deeply integrated with their hosts, but the impact of this gut microbiota on mammalian evolution remains poorly understood. Experimental transplantation of the gut microbiota between mouse species revealed that foreign gut microbiotas lowered the host growth rate and upregulated the expression of an immunomodulating cytokine. In addition, foreign gut microbiotas increased host liver sizes and attenuated sex-specific differences in host muscle and fat content. These results suggest that the house mouse has adapted to its species-specific gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Tang L (2019)

Pole-to-pole ocean viromes.

Nature methods, 16(7):575.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

White LS, Van den Bogaerde J, M Kamm (2018)

The gut microbiota: cause and cure of gut diseases.

The Medical journal of Australia, 209(7):312-317.

The gastrointestinal microbiota is emerging as a central factor in the pathogenesis of a range of gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. Epidemiological studies, and experimental studies in animals and humans, have highlighted a likely causative role of this microbial community in the modern global epidemics of inflammatory bowel disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. New techniques for microbial culture and gene sequencing are enabling the identification of specific pathogens and protective organisms in these conditions. Factors that change the microbiota are being defined: dietary pattern, specific foods, food additives in processed food and drinks, such as emulsifiers and non-sugar sweeteners, and antibiotics. Microbiota changes in early life appear critical to the later development of a range of inflammatory disorders. For many of these conditions, the treatment paradigm will change, at least in part, from immune suppression and drug therapy to treatments that reshape the microbiota or restore its integrity. These treatments include dietary changes, specific microbial manipulation and faecal microbiota transplantation. A dialogue is needed regarding population strategies that target disease prevention. This will include how food is produced, what additives it contains, and how it is processed. Widespread use of antibiotics, from agricultural and veterinary to medicinal settings, needs more attention. At the individual level, microbial profiles may be able to predict who is at risk of disease when subjected to particular environmental influences, and what microbial restoration is needed to minimise risk.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Caussy C, R Loomba (2018)

Gut microbiome, microbial metabolites and the development of NAFLD.

Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 15(12):719-720.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Lee WH, Chen HM, Yang SF, et al (2017)

Bacterial alterations in salivary microbiota and their association in oral cancer.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16540.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and the fourth leading malignancy and cause of cancer-related death in the male population of Taiwan. Most cases are detected at advanced stages, resulting in poor prognosis. Therefore, improved detection of early oral health disorders is indispensable. The involvement of oral bacteria in inflammation and their association with OSCC progression provide a feasible target for diagnosis. Due to the nature of oral neoplasms, the diagnosis of epithelial precursor lesions is relatively easy compared with that of other types of cancer. However, the transition from an epithelial precursor lesion to cancer is slow and requires further and continuous follow-up. In this study, we investigated microbiota differences between normal individuals, epithelial precursor lesion patients, and cancer patients with different lifestyle habits, such as betel chewing and smoking, using next-generation sequencing. Overall, the oral microbiome compositions of five genera, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Slackia, revealed significant differences between epithelial precursor lesion and cancer patients and correlated with their classification into two clusters. These composition changes might have the potential to constitute a biomarker to help in monitoring the oral carcinogenesis transition from epithelial precursor lesion to cancer.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Stearns JC, Simioni J, Gunn E, et al (2017)

Intrapartum antibiotics for GBS prophylaxis alter colonization patterns in the early infant gut microbiome of low risk infants.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16527.

Early life microbial colonization and succession is critically important to healthy development with impacts on metabolic and immunologic processes throughout life. A longitudinal prospective cohort was recruited from midwifery practices to include infants born at full term gestation to women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Here we compare bacterial community succession in infants born vaginally, with no exposure to antibiotics (n = 53), with infants who were exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS; n = 14), and infants born by C-section (n = 7). Molecular profiles of the 16 S rRNA genes indicate that there is a delay in the expansion of Bifidobacterium, which was the dominate infant gut colonizer, over the first 12 weeks and a persistence of Escherichia when IAP for GBS exposure is present during vaginal labour. Longer duration of IAP exposure increased the magnitude of the effect on Bifidobacterium populations, suggesting a longer delay in microbial community maturation. As with prior studies, we found altered gut colonisation following C-section that included a notable lack of Bacteroidetes. This study found that exposure of infants to IAP for GBS during vaginal birth affected aspects of gut microbial ecology that, although dramatic at early time points, disappeared by 12 weeks of age in most infants.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Liu Y, Ajami NJ, El-Serag HB, et al (2019)

Dietary quality and the colonic mucosa-associated gut microbiome in humans.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:5530748 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite tremendous interest in modulating the microbiome to improve health, the association between diet and the colonic mucosa-associated gut microbiome in healthy individuals has not been examined.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 and the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, we analyzed bacterial community composition and structure using 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) sequencing of 97 colonic mucosal biopsies obtained endoscopically from different colon segments of 34 polyp-free participants. Dietary consumption was ascertained using an FFQ. Differences in α- and β-diversity and taxonomic relative abundances between the higher and lower score of total HEI and its components were compared, followed by multivariable analyses.

RESULTS: The structure of the microbiota significantly differed by the scores for total HEI, total and whole fruits (HEI 1 and HEI 2), whole grains (HEI 6), milk products and soy beverages (HEI 7), and solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar (HEI 12). A lower score for total HEI and HEIs 2, 7, and 12 was associated with significantly lower richness. A lower score for total HEI was associated with significantly reduced relative abundance of Parabacteroides, Roseburia, and Subdoligranulum but higher Fusobacterium. A lower score for HEI 2 was associated with lower Roseburia but higher Bacteroides. A lower score for HEI 7 was associated with lower Faecalibacterium and Fusobacterium but higher Bacteroides. A lower score for HEI 12 was associated with lower Subdoligranulum but higher Escherichia and Fusobacterium (false discovery rate-adjusted P values <0.05). The findings were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Less abundant bacteria such as Alistipes, Odoribacter, Bilophila, and Tyzzerella were also associated with dietary quality.

CONCLUSIONS: A lower score for total HEI-2005 was significantly associated with reduced relative abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria but increased potentially harmful bacteria in the colonic mucosa of endoscopically normal individuals.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Youens-Clark K, Bomhoff M, Ponsero AJ, et al (2019)

iMicrobe: Tools and data-dreaiven discovery platform for the microbiome sciences.

GigaScience, 8(7):.

BACKGROUND: Scientists have amassed a wealth of microbiome datasets, making it possible to study microbes in biotic and abiotic systems on a population or planetary scale; however, this potential has not been fully realized given that the tools, datasets, and computation are available in diverse repositories and locations. To address this challenge, we developed iMicrobe.us, a community-driven microbiome data marketplace and tool exchange for users to integrate their own data and tools with those from the broader community.

FINDINGS: The iMicrobe platform brings together analysis tools and microbiome datasets by leveraging National Science Foundation-supported cyberinfrastructure and computing resources from CyVerse, Agave, and XSEDE. The primary purpose of iMicrobe is to provide users with a freely available, web-based platform to (1) maintain and share project data, metadata, and analysis products, (2) search for related public datasets, and (3) use and publish bioinformatics tools that run on highly scalable computing resources. Analysis tools are implemented in containers that encapsulate complex software dependencies and run on freely available XSEDE resources via the Agave API, which can retrieve datasets from the CyVerse Data Store or any web-accessible location (e.g., FTP, HTTP).

CONCLUSIONS: iMicrobe promotes data integration, sharing, and community-driven tool development by making open source data and tools accessible to the research community in a web-based platform.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Maritz JM, Ten Eyck TA, Elizabeth Alter S, et al (2019)

Patterns of protist diversity associated with raw sewage in New York City.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0467-z [Epub ahead of print].

Protists are ubiquitous components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Despite this, little is known about protists in urban environments. The ~7400-mile sewer system of New York City (NYC) collects human waste from ~8 million human inhabitants as well as from animals, street runoff, and groundwater, providing an ideal system to study these microbes. We used 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile raw sewage microbial communities. Raw sewage samples were collected over a 12-month period from 14 treatment plants of the five NYC boroughs, and compared with samples from other environments including soil, stormwater, and sediment. Sewage contained a diverse protist community dominated by free-living clades, and communities were highly differentiated across environments. Seasonal differences in protist composition were observed; however, network analysis and functional profiling demonstrated that sewage communities were robust and functionally consistent. Protists typically associated with human and animal guts or feces were frequently detected. Abundance of these parasites varied significantly both spatially and temporally, suggesting that spikes could reflect trends in the source population. This underscores sewage as a valuable model system for monitoring patterns in urban microbes and provides a baseline protist metagenome of NYC.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

De Tender C, Mesuere B, Van der Jeugt F, et al (2019)

Peat substrate amended with chitin modulates the N-cycle, siderophore and chitinase responses in the lettuce rhizobiome.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9890 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46106-x.

Chitin is a valuable peat substrate amendment by increasing lettuce growth and reducing the survival of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica on lettuce leaves. The production of chitin-catabolic enzymes (chitinases) play a crucial role and are mediated through the microbial community. A higher abundance of plant-growth promoting microorganisms and genera involved in N and chitin metabolism are present in a chitin-enriched substrate. In this study, we hypothesize that chitin addition to peat substrate stimulates the microbial chitinase production. The degradation of chitin leads to nutrient release and the production of small chitin oligomers that are related to plant growth promotion and activation of the plant's defense response. First a shotgun metagenomics approach was used to decipher the potential rhizosphere microbial functions then the nutritional content of the peat substrate was measured. Our results show that chitin addition increases chitin-catabolic enzymes, bacterial ammonium oxidizing and siderophore genes. Lettuce growth promotion can be explained by a cascade degradation of chitin to N-acetylglucosamine and eventually ammonium. The occurrence of increased ammonium oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosospira, and amoA genes results in an elevated concentration of plant-available nitrate. In addition, the increase in chitinase and siderophore genes may have stimulated the plant's systemic resistance.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Wu L, Zeng T, Zinellu A, et al (2019)

A Cross-Sectional Study of Compositional and Functional Profiles of Gut Microbiota in Sardinian Centenarians.

mSystems, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00325-19.

Sardinia, Italy, has a high prevalence of residents who live more than 100 years. The reasons for longevity in this isolated region are currently unknown. Gut microbiota may hold a clue. To explore the role gut microbiota may play in healthy aging and longevity, we used metagenomic sequencing to determine the compositional and functional differences in gut microbiota associated with populations of different ages in Sardinia. Our data revealed that the gut microbiota of both young and elderly Sardinians shared similar taxonomic and functional profiles. A different pattern was found in centenarians. Within the centenarian group, the gut microbiota was correlated with the functional independence measurement of the host. Centenarians had a higher diversity of core microbiota species and microbial genes than those in the young and elderly. We found that the gut microbiota in Sardinian centenarians displayed a rearranged taxonomic pattern compared with those of the young and elderly, featured by depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and enriched for Methanobrevibacter smithii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis Moreover, functional analysis revealed that the microbiota in centenarians had high capacity for central metabolism, especially glycolysis and fermentation to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), although the gut microbiota in centenarians was low in genes encoding enzymes involved in degradation of carbohydrates, including fibers and galactose.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota has been proposed as a promising determinant for human health. Centenarians as a model for extreme aging may help us understand the correlation of gut microbiota with healthy aging and longevity. Here we confirmed that centenarians had microbiota elements usually associated with benefits to health. Our finding of a high capacity of glycolysis and related SCFA production represented a healthy microbiome and environment that is regarded as beneficial for host gut epithelium. The low abundance of genes encoding components of pathways involved in carbohydrate degradation was also found in the gut microbiota of Sardinian centenarians and is often associated with poor gut health. Overall, our study here represents an expansion of previous research investigating the age-related changes in gut microbiota. Furthermore, our study provides a new prospective for potential targets for gut microbiota intervention directed at limiting gut inflammation and pathology and enhancing a healthy gut barrier.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Wagatsuma K, Yamada S, Ao M, et al (2019)

Diversity of Gut Microbiota Affecting Serum Level of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

Nutrients, 11(7): pii:nu11071541.

Several reports have indicated a possible link between decreasing plasma levels of vitamin K and bone mineral density. It has been suggested that intestinal bacteria contribute to maintenance of vitamin K. Several factors are involved in the reduction of vitamin K in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess the relationship between gut microbiota and alternative indicators of vitamin K deficiency in patients with CD. We collected the feces of 26 patients with clinically inactive CD. We extracted 16S rRNA from the intestinal bacteria in the feces and amplified it by polymerase chain reaction. The generated polymerase chain reaction product was analyzed using a 16S metagenomic approach by Illumina Miseq platform. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration was used as an alternative indicator of vitamin K deficiency. There was a significant negative correlation between serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and mean Chao1 index in cases of low activity. The diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly lower, and Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased in the vitamin K-deficient group in comparison to the vitamin K-normal group. Taken together, these data suggested the significance of investigating the gut microbiota even in patients with clinically inactive CD for improving patients' vitamin K status.

RevDate: 2019-07-10
CmpDate: 2019-07-10

Thomas H (2017)

NAFLD: A gut microbiome signature for advanced fibrosis diagnosis in NAFLD.

Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 14(7):388.

RevDate: 2019-07-10
CmpDate: 2019-07-10

Hatzenbuhler C, Kelly JR, Martinson J, et al (2017)

Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species.

Scientific reports, 7:46393.

High-throughput DNA metabarcoding has gained recognition as a potentially powerful tool for biomonitoring, including early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). DNA based techniques are advancing, but our understanding of the limits to detection for metabarcoding complex samples is inadequate. For detecting AIS at an early stage of invasion when the species is rare, accuracy at low detection limits is key. To evaluate the utility of metabarcoding in future fish community monitoring programs, we conducted several experiments to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of routine metabarcoding methods. Experimental mixes used larval fish tissue from multiple "common" species spiked with varying proportions of tissue from an additional "rare" species. Pyrosequencing of genetic marker, COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and subsequent sequence data analysis provided experimental evidence of low-level detection of the target "rare" species at biomass percentages as low as 0.02% of total sample biomass. Limits to detection varied interspecifically and were susceptible to amplification bias. Moreover, results showed some data processing methods can skew sequence-based biodiversity measurements from corresponding relative biomass abundances and increase false absences. We suggest caution in interpreting presence/absence and relative abundance in larval fish assemblages until metabarcoding methods are optimized for accuracy and precision.

RevDate: 2019-06-27
CmpDate: 2019-06-27

Lowry DB, Hoban S, Kelley JL, et al (2017)

Responsible RAD: Striving for best practices in population genomic studies of adaptation.

Molecular ecology resources, 17(3):366-369.

Two recent articles were written in response to our paper "Breaking RAD: An evaluation of the utility of restriction site associated DNA sequencing scans of adaptation." While we agree with some of the comments made by the authors of these two response papers, we still believe caution should be employed in RADseq studies that aim to detect loci that contribute to adaptation. In this rebuttal, we evaluate the key points made in these papers, attempt to identify a middle ground and make suggestions for responsibly conducting future studies to understand the genomewide mechanisms of adaptation.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Matsumoto Y, Kinjo T, Motooka D, et al (2019)

Comprehensive subspecies identification of 175 nontuberculous mycobacteria species based on 7547 genomic profiles.

Emerging microbes & infections, 8(1):1043-1053.

The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary diseases has been increasing worldwide. NTM consist of approximately 200 species and distinguishing between them at the subspecies level is critical to treatment. In this study, we sequenced 63 NTM genomes, 27 of which were newly determined, by hybrid assembly using sequencers from Illumina and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). This analysis expanded the available genomic data to 175 NTM species and redefined their subgenus classification. We also developed a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) database based on 184 genes from 7547 assemblies and an identification software, mlstverse, which can also be used for detecting other bacteria given a suitable MLST database. This method showed the highest sensitivity and specificity amongst conventional methods and demonstrated the capacity for rapid detection of NTM, 10 min of sequencing of the ONT MinION being sufficient. Application of this methodology could improve disease epidemiology and increase the cure rates of NTM diseases.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Suzuki N (2019)

Glycan diversity in the course of vertebrate evolution.

Glycobiology pii:5506440 [Epub ahead of print].

Vertebrates are estimated to have arisen over 500 million years ago in the Cambrian Period. Species that survived the Big Five extinction events at a global scale underwent repeated adaptive radiations along with habitat expansions from the sea to the land and sky. The development of the endoskeleton and neural tube enabled more complex body shapes. At the same time, vertebrates became suitable for the invasion and proliferation of foreign organisms. Adaptive immune systems were acquired for responses to a wide variety of pathogens, and more sophisticated systems developed during the evolution of mammals and birds. Vertebrate glycans consist of common core structures and various elongated structures, such as Neu5Gc, Galα1-3Gal, Galα1-4Gal, and Galβ1-4Gal epitopes, depending on the species. During species diversification, complex glycan structures were generated, maintained, or lost. Whole genome sequencing has revealed that vertebrates harbor numerous and even redundant glycosyltransferase genes. The production of various glycan structures is controlled at the genetic level in a species-specific manner. Because cell surface glycans are often targets of bacterial and viral infections, glycan structural diversity is presumed to be protective against infections. However, the maintenance of apparently redundant glycosyltransferase genes and investment in species-specific glycan structures, even in higher vertebrates with highly developed immune systems, are not well-explained. This fact suggests that glycans play important roles in unknown biological processes.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Tschumi F, Schmutz S, Kufner V, et al (2019)

Meningitis and epididymitis caused by Toscana virus infection imported to Switzerland diagnosed by metagenomic sequencing: a case report.

BMC infectious diseases, 19(1):591 pii:10.1186/s12879-019-4231-9.

BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of Toscana virus infection imported into Switzerland in a 23-year old man who travelled to Imperia (Italy) 10 days before onset of symptoms. Symptoms included both meningitis and as well epididymitis. This is only the fourth case of Toscana virus reported in Switzerland.

CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with lymphocytic meningitis and scrotal pain due to epididymitis. Meningitis was initially treated with ceftriaxone. Herpes simplex, tick-borne encephalitis, enterovirus, measles, mumps, rubella and Treponema pallidum were excluded with specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology. In support of routine diagnostic PCR and serology assays, unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing was performed of cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Toscana virus infection was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and the full coding sequence could be obtained. Specific PCR in cerebrospinal fluid and blood and serology with Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG against Toscana virus confirmed our diagnosis. Neurological symptoms recovered spontaneously after 5 days.

CONCLUSIONS: This case of Toscana virus infection highlights the benefits of unbiased metagenomic sequencing to support routine diagnostics in rare or unexpected viral infections. With increasing travel histories of patients, physicians should be aware of imported Toscana virus as the agent for viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Hjorth MF, Christensen L, Kjølbæk L, et al (2019)

Pretreatment Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio and markers of glucose metabolism as prognostic markers for dietary weight loss maintenance.

European journal of clinical nutrition pii:10.1038/s41430-019-0466-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pre-treatment gut microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio and markers of glucose metabolism (i.e., fasting glucose and insulin) have been suggested as biomarkers for optimal weight management. However, both biomarkers need further validation, and the interactions between them for optimal weight management are largely unknown. To investigate differences in weight loss maintenance between subjects with low and high P/B ratio and the potential interactions with markers of glucose metabolism and dietary fiber intake.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Following an 8-week weight loss period using meal replacement products, subjects losing ≥ 8% of their initial body weight were randomized to one of three protein supplements or maltodextrin for a 24-week weight maintenance period. Habitual diet was consumed along with the supplements expected to constitute 10-15% of total energy. For this analysis we stratified the participants into low and high strata based on median values of pre-intervention P/B ratio, pre-weight loss Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (<2.33 or > 2.33), and dietary fiber intake during the intervention (< 28.5 or > 28.5 g/10 MJ).

RESULTS: Regardless of weight maintenance regimen, subjects with high P/B ratio (n = 63) regained 1.5 (95% CI 0.4, 2.7) kg body weight (P = 0.007) more than subjects with low P/B ratio (n = 63). The regain among subjects with high P/B ratio was particular evident if HOMA-IR was high and dietary fiber intake was low. Consequently, in the high P/B strata, subjects with high HOMA-IR and low fiber intake (n = 17) regained 5.3 (95% CI 3.3, 7.3) kg (P < 0.001) more body weight compared with participants with low HOMA-IR and high fiber intake (n = 16).

CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with high P/B ratio were more susceptible to regain body weight compared with subjects with low P/B ratio, especially when dietary fiber intake was low and glucose metabolism was impaired. These observations underline that both the P/B ratio and markers of glucose metabolism should be considered as important biomarkers within personalized nutrition for optimal weight management.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Johnston ER, Hatt JK, He Z, et al (2019)

Responses of tundra soil microbial communities to half a decade of experimental warming at two critical depths.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1901307116 [Epub ahead of print].

Northern-latitude tundra soils harbor substantial carbon (C) stocks that are highly susceptible to microbial degradation with rising global temperatures. Understanding the magnitude and direction (e.g., C release or sequestration) of the microbial responses to warming is necessary to accurately model climate change. In this study, Alaskan tundra soils were subjected to experimental in situ warming by ∼1.1 °C above ambient temperature, and the microbial communities were evaluated using metagenomics after 4.5 years, at 2 depths: 15 to 25 cm (active layer at outset of the experiment) and 45 to 55 cm (transition zone at the permafrost/active layer boundary at the outset of the experiment). In contrast to small or insignificant shifts after 1.5 years of warming, 4.5 years of warming resulted in significant changes to the abundances of functional traits and the corresponding taxa relative to control plots (no warming), and microbial shifts differed qualitatively between the two soil depths. At 15 to 25 cm, increased abundances of carbohydrate utilization genes were observed that correlated with (increased) measured ecosystem carbon respiration. At the 45- to 55-cm layer, increased methanogenesis potential was observed, which corresponded with a 3-fold increase in abundance of a single archaeal clade of the Methanosarcinales order, increased annual thaw duration (45.3 vs. 79.3 days), and increased CH4 emissions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the microbial responses to warming in tundra soil are rapid and markedly different between the 2 critical soil layers evaluated, and identify potential biomarkers for the corresponding microbial processes that could be important in modeling.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Lee YB, Byun EJ, AHS Kim (2019)

Potential Role of the Microbiome in Acne: A Comprehensive Review.

Journal of clinical medicine, 8(7): pii:jcm8070987.

Acne is a highly prevalent inflammatory skin condition involving sebaceous sties. Although it clearly develops from an interplay of multiple factors, the exact cause of acne remains elusive. It is increasingly believed that the interaction between skin microbes and host immunity plays an important role in this disease, with perturbed microbial composition and activity found in acne patients. Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes; formerly called Propionibacterium acnes) is commonly found in sebum-rich areas and its over-proliferation has long been thought to contribute to the disease. However, information provided by advanced metagenomic sequencing has indicated that the cutaneous microbiota in acne patients and acne-free individuals differ at the virulent-specific lineage level. Acne also has close connections with the gastrointestinal tract, and many argue that the gut microbiota could be involved in the pathogenic process of acne. The emotions of stress (e.g., depression and anxiety), for instance, have been hypothesized to aggravate acne by altering the gut microbiota and increasing intestinal permeability, potentially contributing to skin inflammation. Over the years, an expanding body of research has highlighted the presence of a gut-brain-skin axis that connects gut microbes, oral probiotics, and diet, currently an area of intense scrutiny, to acne severity. This review concentrates on the skin and gut microbes in acne, the role that the gut-brain-skin axis plays in the immunobiology of acne, and newly emerging microbiome-based therapies that can be applied to treat acne.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

Aw W, S Fukuda (2019)

Protective effects of bifidobacteria against enteropathogens.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent major advances in metagenomics and metabolomics technologies have enabled us to collect more data on the gut microbiome and metabolome to evaluate its influence on host health. In this short opinion article, we have chosen to focus on summarizing the protective mechanisms of bifidobacteria, a highly regarded probiotic, and it's metabolite: acetate; against enteropathogens, specifically in the E. coli O157:H7 mice model. We advocate for using a novel approach metabologenomics, which is an integration of metagenomic and metabolomic information on a systems biology-wide approach to better understand this interplay between gut microbiome and host metabolism.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Li Y, Gao Y, Zhang W, et al (2019)

Homogeneous selection dominates the microbial community assembly in the sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

The Science of the total environment, 690:50-60 pii:S0048-9697(19)33127-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Deep-water reservoir sediment is a unique habitat sheltering indispensable microorganisms and facilitating their biogeochemical functions; however, the assembly processes of the microbial community therein remain elusive. This study focuses on the assembly processes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). A total of 42 sediment samples were collected from the TGRA, both in the mainstream and the tributaries, and in different seasons. Metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA using Exact Sequence Variants revealed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the microbial communities. Linear regressions between dissimilarity of microbial communities, geographic and environmental distance showed that environmental, rather than geographic factors, impacted the microbial community. However, the environmental differences explained little variations (14.14%) in community structure, implying the homogeneity of environmental conditions across the TGRA. From the quantification of ecological processes, homogeneous selection was shown to be a dominating factor (51.34%) in the assembly of the microbial communities. The co-occurrence network showed that keystone species were more important than prevalent abundant species in interspecies interactions. Overall, the assembly of microbial community in the deep-water reservoir sediment is mediated by both deterministic and stochastic processes, and homogeneous selection plays a leading role.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

Liang R, Davidova I, Hirano SI, et al (2019)

Community succession in an anaerobic long-chain paraffin-degrading consortium and impact on chemical and electrical microbially influenced iron corrosion.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5529450 [Epub ahead of print].

Community compositional changes and the corrosion of carbon steel in the presence of different electron donor and acceptor combinations was examined with a methanogenic consortium enriched for its ability to mineralize paraffins. Despite cultivation in the absence of sulfate, metagenomic analysis revealed the persistence of several sulfate-reducing bacterial taxa. Upon sulfate amendment, the consortium was able to couple C28H58 biodegradation with sulfate reduction. Comparative analysis suggested that Desulforhabdus and/or Desulfovibrio likely supplanted methanogens as syntrophic partners needed for C28H58 mineralization. Further enrichment in the absence of a paraffin revealed that the consortium could also utilize carbon steel as a source of electrons. The severity of both general and localized corrosion increased in the presence of sulfate, regardless of the electron donor utilized. With carbon steel as an electron donor, Desulfobulbus dominated in the consortium and electrons from iron accounted for ∼92% of that required for sulfate reduction. An isolated Desulfovibrio spp. was able to extract electrons from iron and accelerate corrosion. Thus, hydrogenotrophic partner micoorganisms required for syntrophic paraffin metabolism can be readily substituted depending on the availability of an external electron acceptor and a single paraffin-degrading consortium harbored microbes capable of both chemical (CMIC) and electrical (EMIC) microbial influenced iron corrosion.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

Klasek SA, Torres ME, Loher M, et al (2019)

Deep-Sourced Fluids From a Convergent Margin Host Distinct Subseafloor Microbial Communities That Change Upon Mud Flow Expulsion.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1436.

Submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) along continental margins emit mud breccia and globally significant amounts of hydrocarbon-rich fluids from the subsurface, and host distinct chemosynthetic communities of microbes and macrofauna. Venere MV lies at 1,600 m water depth in the Ionian Sea offshore Italy and is located in a forearc basin of the Calabrian accretionary prism. Porewaters of recently extruded mud breccia flowing from its west summit are considerably fresher than seawater (10 PSU), high in Li+ and B (up to 300 and 8,000 μM, respectively), and strongly depleted in K+ (<1 mM) at depths as shallow as 20 cm below seafloor. These properties document upward transport of fluids sourced from >3 km below seafloor. 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize microbial community composition and gene content within deep-sourced mud breccia flow deposits as they become exposed to seawater along a downslope transect of Venere MV. Summit samples showed consistency in microbial community composition. However, beta-diversity increased markedly in communities from downslope cores, which were dominated by methyl- and methanotrophic genera of Gammaproteobacteria. Methane, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were minor but significant contributors to variation in community composition. Metagenomic analyses revealed differences in relative abundances of predicted protein categories between Venere MV and other subsurface microbial communities, characterizing MVs as windows into distinct deep biosphere habitats.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Morton JT, Marotz C, Washburne A, et al (2019)

Establishing microbial composition measurement standards with reference frames.

Nature communications, 10(1):2719 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10656-5.

Differential abundance analysis is controversial throughout microbiome research. Gold standard approaches require laborious measurements of total microbial load, or absolute number of microorganisms, to accurately determine taxonomic shifts. Therefore, most studies rely on relative abundance data. Here, we demonstrate common pitfalls in comparing relative abundance across samples and identify two solutions that reveal microbial changes without the need to estimate total microbial load. We define the notion of "reference frames", which provide deep intuition about the compositional nature of microbiome data. In an oral time series experiment, reference frames alleviate false positives and produce consistent results on both raw and cell-count normalized data. Furthermore, reference frames identify consistent, differentially abundant microbes previously undetected in two independent published datasets from subjects with atopic dermatitis. These methods allow reassessment of published relative abundance data to reveal reproducible microbial changes from standard sequencing output without the need for new assays.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Bordoni L, R Gabbianelli (2019)

Primers on nutrigenetics and nutri(epi)genomics: Origins and development of precision nutrition.

Biochimie, 160:156-171.

Understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype is a central goal not just for genetics but also for medicine and biological sciences. Despite outstanding technological progresses, genetics alone is not able to completely explain phenotypes, in particular for complex diseases. Given the existence of a "missing heritability", growing attention has been given to non-mendelian mechanisms of inheritance and to the role of the environment. The study of interaction between gene and environment represents a challenging but also a promising field with high potential for health prevention, and epigenetics has been suggested as one of the best candidate to mediate environmental effects on the genome. Among environmental factors able to interact with both genome and epigenome, nutrition is one of the most impacting. Not just our genome influences the responsiveness to food and nutrients, but vice versa, nutrition can also modify gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. In this complex picture, nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics represent appealing disciplines aimed to define new prospectives of personalized nutrition. This review introduces to the study of gene-environment interactions and describes how nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics modulate health, promoting or affecting healthiness through life-style, thus playing a pivotal role in modulating the effect of genetic predispositions.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Dayan DI, Du X, Baris TZ, et al (2019)

Population genomics of rapid evolution in natural populations: polygenic selection in response to power station thermal effluents.

BMC evolutionary biology, 19(1):61 pii:10.1186/s12862-019-1392-5.

BACKGROUND: Examples of rapid evolution are common in nature but difficult to account for with the standard population genetic model of adaptation. Instead, selection from the standing genetic variation permits rapid adaptation via soft sweeps or polygenic adaptation. Empirical evidence of this process in nature is currently limited but accumulating.

RESULTS: We provide genome-wide analyses of rapid evolution in Fundulus heteroclitus populations subjected to recently elevated temperatures due to coastal power station thermal effluents using 5449 SNPs across two effluent-affected and four reference populations. Bayesian and multivariate analyses of population genomic structure reveal a substantial portion of genetic variation that is most parsimoniously explained by selection at the site of thermal effluents. An FST outlier approach in conjunction with additional conservative requirements identify significant allele frequency differentiation that exceeds neutral expectations among exposed and closely related reference populations. Genomic variation patterns near these candidate loci reveal that individuals living near thermal effluents have rapidly evolved from the standing genetic variation through small allele frequency changes at many loci in a pattern consistent with polygenic selection on the standing genetic variation.

CONCLUSIONS: While the ultimate trajectory of selection in these populations is unknown and we survey only a minority of genomic loci, our findings suggest that polygenic models of adaptation may play important roles in large, natural populations experiencing recent selection due to environmental changes that cause broad physiological impacts.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Hemmink JD, Sitt T, Pelle R, et al (2018)

Ancient diversity and geographical sub-structuring in African buffalo Theileria parva populations revealed through metagenetic analysis of antigen-encoding loci.

International journal for parasitology, 48(3-4):287-296.

An infection and treatment protocol involving infection with a mixture of three parasite isolates and simultaneous treatment with oxytetracycline is currently used to vaccinate cattle against Theileria parva. While vaccination results in high levels of protection in some regions, little or no protection is observed in areas where animals are challenged predominantly by parasites of buffalo origin. A previous study involving sequencing of two antigen-encoding genes from a series of parasite isolates indicated that this is associated with greater antigenic diversity in buffalo-derived T. parva. The current study set out to extend these analyses by applying high-throughput sequencing to ex vivo samples from naturally infected buffalo to determine the extent of diversity in a set of antigen-encoding genes. Samples from two populations of buffalo, one in Kenya and the other in South Africa, were examined to investigate the effect of geographical distance on the nature of sequence diversity. The results revealed a number of significant findings. First, there was a variable degree of nucleotide sequence diversity in all gene segments examined, with the percentage of polymorphic nucleotides ranging from 10% to 69%. Second, large numbers of allelic variants of each gene were found in individual animals, indicating multiple infection events. Third, despite the observed diversity in nucleotide sequences, several of the gene products had highly conserved amino acid sequences, and thus represent potential candidates for vaccine development. Fourth, although compelling evidence for population differentiation between the Kenyan and South African T. parva parasites was identified, analysis of molecular variance for each gene revealed that the majority of the underlying nucleotide sequence polymorphism was common to both areas, indicating that much of this aspect of genetic variation in the parasite population arose prior to geographic separation.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Lin JJ, Wang FY, Li WH, et al (2017)

The rises and falls of opsin genes in 59 ray-finned fish genomes and their implications for environmental adaptation.

Scientific reports, 7(1):15568.

We studied the evolution of opsin genes in 59 ray-finned fish genomes. We identified the opsin genes and adjacent genes (syntenies) in each genome. Then we inferred the changes in gene copy number (N), syntenies, and tuning sites along each phylogenetic branch during evolution. The Exorh (rod opsin) gene has been retained in 56 genomes. Rh1, the intronless rod opsin gene, first emerged in ancestral Actinopterygii, and N increased to 2 by the teleost-specific whole genome duplication, but then decreased to 1 in the ancestor of Neoteleostei fishes. For cone opsin genes, the rhodopsin-like (Rh2) and long-wave-sensitive (LWS) genes showed great variation in N among species, ranging from 0 to 5 and from 0 to 4, respectively. The two short-wave-sensitive genes, SWS1 and SWS2, were lost in 23 and 6 species, respectively. The syntenies involving LWS, SWS2 and Rh2 underwent complex changes, while the evolution of the other opsin gene syntenies was much simpler. Evolutionary adaptation in tuning sites under different living environments was discussed. Our study provides a detailed view of opsin gene gains and losses, synteny changes and tuning site changes during ray-finned fish evolution.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Xu Z, He H, Zhang S, et al (2017)

Effects of inoculants Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus parafarraginis on the fermentation characteristics and microbial communities of corn stover silage.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13614.

To improve silage quality of crop forages, bacterial inoculants are often employed. In this study, Lactobacillus brevis SDMCC050297 and Lactobacillus parafarraginis SDMCC050300 were used as inoculants to corn stover in lab silos for ensiling. At the initial stage of ensiling, the pH value of the inoculated silages reduced more drastically, and the inoculated silages had higher lactic acid and acetic acid contents. After 20 days of ensiling, a reduction in lactic acid content coupled with an increase in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol contents was observed in inoculated silages. Furthermore, both the amount of lactic acid bacteria and the abundance of order Lactobacillales in inoculated silages were higher than those of controls in the whole process. Meanwhile, Lb. brevis predominated before day 20 and then the dominance was shifted to Lb. parafarraginis until the late stage of ensiling. In contrast, the epiphytic Lactococcus lactic and Lb. plantarum played major roles at the beginning of naturally fermented silages and then Lb. plantarum and Lb. brevis were the most abundant at the later stage. In conclusion, these two selected strains had capability of improving the silage quality and providing the reproducible ensiling process, thus having the potential as silage inoculants.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Xie K, Deng Y, Zhang S, et al (2017)

Prokaryotic Community Distribution along an Ecological Gradient of Salinity in Surface and Subsurface Saline Soils.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13332.

Salinity effects on microbial communities in saline soils is still unclear, and little is known about subsurface soil microbial communities especially in saline or hypersaline ecosystems. Here we presented the survey of the prokaryotic community in saline soils along a salinity gradient (17.3-148.3 dS/m) in surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) saline soils of Qarhan Salt Lake, China. Moreover, we compared them with three paired nonsaline normal soils. Using the high-throughput sequencing technology and several statistical methods, we observed no significant community difference between surface soils and subsurface soils. For environmental factors, we found that TOC was the primary driver of the prokaryotic community distribution in surface saline soils, so was pH in subsurface saline soils. Salinity had more effects on the prokaryotic community in subsurface saline soils than in surface saline soils and played a less important role in saline soils than in saline waters or saline sediments. Our research provided references for the prokaryotic community distribution along a salinity gradient in both surface and subsurface saline soils of arid playa areas.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Martinez KA, Devlin JC, Lacher CR, et al (2017)

Increased weight gain by C-section: Functional significance of the primordial microbiome.

Science advances, 3(10):eaao1874.

Epidemiological evidence supports a direct association between early microbiota impact-including C-section-and obesity. We performed antibiotic-free, fostered C-sections and determined the impact on the early microbiota and body weight during development. Mice in the C-section group gained more body mass after weaning, with a stronger phenotype in females. C-section-born mice lacked the dynamic developmental gut microbiota changes observed in control mice. The results demonstrate a causal relationship between C-section and increased body weight, supporting the involvement of maternal vaginal bacteria in normal metabolic development.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Chen H, Li C, Liu T, et al (2019)

A Metagenomic Study of Intestinal Microbial Diversity in Relation to Feeding Habits of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Sinocyclocheilus Species.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-019-01409-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Light is completely absent in cave habitats, causing a shortage or lack of autochthonous photosynthesis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of organisms to adapt to the unique cave habitat is of great interest. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of intestinal microorganisms from 11 Sinocyclocheilus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) species, to explore the characteristics of intestinal microorganisms and the adaptive mechanisms of Sinocyclocheilus cavefish and surface fish. We found that the α-diversity and richness of the intestinal microbiome were much higher in cavefish than in surface fish. Principal coordinate analysis showed that cavefish and surface fish formed three clusters because of different dominant gut microorganisms which are generated by different habitats. Based on PICRUSt-predicted functions, harmful substance degradation pathways were much more common in cavefish intestinal microorganisms than in those from surface fish. The intestinal microbiota of surface fish group 1 had a higher capacity for carbohydrate metabolism, whereas protein and amino acid metabolism and digestive pathways were more abundant in microorganisms from the cavefish group and surface fish group 2. Combined analysis of the intestinal microbial composition and functional predictions further revealed the structures and functions of intestinal microbial communities in Sinocyclocheilus cave and surface species. Moreover, based on their habits and intestinal microbial composition and intestinal microbial functional predictions, we inferred that the three fish groups were all omnivorous; however, surface fish group 1 preferred feeding on plants, while surface fish group 2 and cavefish preferred meat. This study improves our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in cave habitats and may contribute to the protection of these habitats from water pollution.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Degli Esposti M, Lozano L, E Martínez-Romero (2019)

Current phylogeny of Rhodospirillaceae: a multi-approach study.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(18)30634-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Rhodospirillaceae represents a major family of the class alphaproteobacteria that includes an increasing number of functionally diverse taxa. The aim of this work is to evaluate the present phylogenetic diversity of the Rhodospirillaceae, which includes several metagenome-assembled genomes of uncultivated bacteria, as well as cultivated bacteria that were previously classified in different families. Various methodological approaches have been followed to discern the phylogenetic diversity of the taxa associated with the Rhodospirillaceae, which are grouped in three major sub-divisions and several other taxonomic entities that are currently confined to the genus rank. These genera include Tistrella, Elstera, Dongia and Ferrovibrio among cultivated organisms and alphaproteobacteria bacterium 41-28 among uncultivated bacteria. Overall, this study adds at least 11 genera and over 40 species to the current set of taxa belonging to the Rhodospirillaceae, a taxonomic term that clearly requires amendment. We propose to re-classify all taxa associated with the Rhodospirillaceae family under the new order, Diaforabacterales ord. nov. (from the Greek word for diversity, διάφορα). This study also uncovers the likely root of Rhodospirillaceae among recently reported metagenome-assembled genomes of uncultivated marine and groundwater bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Velsko IM, Fellows Yates JA, Aron F, et al (2019)

Microbial differences between dental plaque and historic dental calculus are related to oral biofilm maturation stage.

Microbiome, 7(1):102 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0717-3.

BACKGROUND: Dental calculus, calcified oral plaque biofilm, contains microbial and host biomolecules that can be used to study historic microbiome communities and host responses. Dental calculus does not typically accumulate as much today as historically, and clinical oral microbiome research studies focus primarily on living dental plaque biofilm. However, plaque and calculus reflect different conditions of the oral biofilm, and the differences in microbial characteristics between the sample types have not yet been systematically explored. Here, we compare the microbial profiles of modern dental plaque, modern dental calculus, and historic dental calculus to establish expected differences between these substrates.

RESULTS: Metagenomic data was generated from modern and historic calculus samples, and dental plaque metagenomic data was downloaded from the Human Microbiome Project. Microbial composition and functional profile were assessed. Metaproteomic data was obtained from a subset of historic calculus samples. Comparisons between microbial, protein, and metabolomic profiles revealed distinct taxonomic and metabolic functional profiles between plaque, modern calculus, and historic calculus, but not between calculus collected from healthy teeth and periodontal disease-affected teeth. Species co-exclusion was related to biofilm environment. Proteomic profiling revealed that healthy tooth samples contain low levels of bacterial virulence proteins and a robust innate immune response. Correlations between proteomic and metabolomic profiles suggest co-preservation of bacterial lipid membranes and membrane-associated proteins.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we find that there are systematic microbial differences between plaque and calculus related to biofilm physiology, and recognizing these differences is important for accurate data interpretation in studies comparing dental plaque and calculus.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Jia S, Wu J, Ye L, et al (2019)

Metagenomic assembly provides a deep insight into the antibiotic resistome alteration induced by drinking water chlorination and its correlations with bacterial host changes.

Journal of hazardous materials, 379:120841 pii:S0304-3894(19)30794-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Chlorination can contribute to the enrichment of specific antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water, but the underlying molecular ecological mechanisms remain unknown, which may hinder the assessment and control of the resulting health risks. In this study, metagenomic assembly and Resfams annotation were used to profile the co-occurrence patterns of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and their bacterial hosts, as well as the correlations of potential pathogens with the antibiotic resistome, in a full-scale drinking water treatment and transportation system. Seven ARG types involved in different resistance mechanisms occurred in drinking water and chlorination enhanced the total abundance of the ARGs (p < 0.05). The ARGs encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division and ATP-binding cassette antibiotic efflux pumps predominated in all the samples and were primarily responsible for the ARG accumulation. After chlorination, the ARGs were primarily carried by predominant Sphingomonas, Polaromonas, Hyphomicrobium, Acidovorax, Pseudomonas and Fluviicola. Further, enrichment of the bacterial hosts and MGEs greatly contributed to alteration of the antibiotic resistome. Pseudomonas alcaligenes, carrying multiple ARGs, was identified as a potential pathogen in the chlorinated drinking water. These findings provide novel insights into the host-ARG relationship and the mechanism underlying the resistome alteration during drinking water chlorination.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Cait A, Cardenas E, Dimitriu P, et al (2019)

Reduced genetic potential for butyrate fermentation in the gut microbiome of infants who develop allergic sensitization.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(19)30891-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Allergic disease is the most frequent chronic health issue in children and has been linked to early-life gut microbiome dysbiosis. Many lines of evidence suggest that microbially derived short-chain fatty acids, and particularly butyrate, can promote immune tolerance.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if that bacterial butyrate production in the gut during early infancy is protective against the development of atopic disease in children.

METHODS: We used shotgun metagenomic analysis to determine whether dysbiosis in butyrate fermentation could be identified in human infants, prior to their developing allergic disease.

RESULTS: We found that the microbiome of infants that went on to develop allergic sensitization later in childhood lacked genes encoding key enzymes for carbohydrate breakdown and butyrate production.

CONCLUSION: Our findings support the importance of microbial carbohydrate metabolism during early infancy in protecting against development of allergies.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Mitra S (2019)

Multiple Data Analyses and Statistical Approaches for Analyzing Data from Metagenomic Studies and Clinical Trials.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1910:605-634.

Metagenomics, also known as environmental genomics, is the study of the genomic content of a sample of organisms (microbes) obtained from a common habitat. Metagenomics and other "omics" disciplines have captured the attention of researchers for several decades. The effect of microbes in our body is a relevant concern for health studies. There are plenty of studies using metagenomics which examine microorganisms that inhabit niches in the human body, sometimes causing disease, and are often correlated with multiple treatment conditions. No matter from which environment it comes, the analyses are often aimed at determining either the presence or absence of specific species of interest in a given metagenome or comparing the biological diversity and the functional activity of a wider range of microorganisms within their communities. The importance increases for comparison within different environments such as multiple patients with different conditions, multiple drugs, and multiple time points of same treatment or same patient. Thus, no matter how many hypotheses we have, we need a good understanding of genomics, bioinformatics, and statistics to work together to analyze and interpret these datasets in a meaningful way. This chapter provides an overview of different data analyses and statistical approaches (with example scenarios) to analyze metagenomics samples from different medical projects or clinical trials.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Bağcı C, Beier S, Górska A, et al (2019)

Introduction to the Analysis of Environmental Sequences: Metagenomics with MEGAN.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1910:591-604.

Metagenomics has become a part of the standard toolkit for scientists interested in studying microbes in the environment. Compared to 16S rDNA sequencing, which allows coarse taxonomic profiling of samples, shotgun metagenomic sequencing provides a more detailed analysis of the taxonomic and functional content of samples. Long read technologies, such as developed by Pacific Biosciences or Oxford Nanopore, produce much longer stretches of informative sequence, greatly simplifying the difficult and time-consuming process of metagenomic assembly. MEGAN6 provides a wide range of analysis and visualization methods for the analysis of short and long read metagenomic data. A simple and efficient analysis pipeline for metagenomic analysis consists of the DIAMOND alignment tool on short reads, or the LAST alignment tool on long reads, followed by MEGAN. This approach performs taxonomic and functional abundance analysis, supports comparative analysis of large-scale experiments, and allows one to involve experimental metadata in the analysis.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Watson AK, Lannes R, Pathmanathan JS, et al (2019)

The Methodology Behind Network Thinking: Graphs to Analyze Microbial Complexity and Evolution.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1910:271-308.

In the post genomic era, large and complex molecular datasets from genome and metagenome sequencing projects expand the limits of what is possible for bioinformatic analyses. Network-based methods are increasingly used to complement phylogenetic analysis in studies in molecular evolution, including comparative genomics, classification, and ecological studies. Using network methods, the vertical and horizontal relationships between all genes or genomes, whether they are from cellular chromosomes or mobile genetic elements, can be explored in a single expandable graph. In recent years, development of new methods for the construction and analysis of networks has helped to broaden the availability of these approaches from programmers to a diversity of users. This chapter introduces the different kinds of networks based on sequence similarity that are already available to tackle a wide range of biological questions, including sequence similarity networks, gene-sharing networks and bipartite graphs, and a guide for their construction and analyses.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Visnovska T, Biggs PJ, Schmeier S, et al (2019)

Metagenomics and transcriptomics data from human colorectal cancer.

Scientific data, 6(1):116 pii:10.1038/s41597-019-0117-3.

Colorectal cancer is a heterogenous and mostly sporadic disease, the development of which is associated with microbial dysbiosis. Recent advances in subtype classification have successfully stratified the disease using molecular profiling. To understand potential relationships between molecular mechanisms differentiating the subtypes of colorectal cancer and composition of gut microbial community, we classified a set of 34 tumour samples into molecular subtypes using RNA-sequencing gene expression profiles and determined relative abundances of bacterial taxonomic groups. To identify bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding was used as well as whole genome metagenomics of the non-human part of RNA-sequencing data. The generated data expands the collection of the data sources related to the disease and connects molecular aspects of the cancer with environmental impact of microbial community.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Shankar A, Sibley SD, Goldberg TL, et al (2019)

Molecular Analysis of the Complete Genome of a Simian Foamy Virus Infecting Hylobates pileatus (pileated gibbon) Reveals Ancient Co-Evolution with Lesser Apes.

Viruses, 11(7): pii:v11070605.

Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses present in many mammals, including nonhuman primates, where they are called simian foamy viruses (SFVs). SFVs can zoonotically infect humans, but very few complete SFV genomes are available, hampering the design of diagnostic assays. Gibbons are lesser apes widespread across Southeast Asia that can be infected with SFV, but only two partial SFV sequences are currently available. We used a metagenomics approach with next-generation sequencing of nucleic acid extracted from the cell culture of a blood specimen from a lesser ape, the pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus), to obtain the complete SFVhpi_SAM106 genome. We used Bayesian analysis to co-infer phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates. SFVhpi_SAM106 is ancestral to other ape SFVs with a divergence date of ~20.6 million years ago, reflecting ancient co-evolution of the host and SFVhpi_SAM106. Analysis of the complete SFVhpi_SAM106 genome shows that it has the same genetic architecture as other SFVs but has the longest recorded genome (13,885-nt) due to a longer long terminal repeat region (2,071 bp). The complete sequence of the SFVhpi_SAM106 genome fills an important knowledge gap in SFV genetics and will facilitate future studies of FV infection, transmission, and evolutionary history.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Lindsay MR, Colman DR, Amenabar MJ, et al (2019)

Probing the Geological Source and Biological Fate of Hydrogen in Yellowstone Hot Springs.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrogen (H2) is enriched in hot springs and can support microbial primary production. Using a series of geochemical proxies, a model to describe variable H2 concentrations in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hot springs is presented. Interaction between water and crustal iron minerals yields H2 that partitions into the vapor phase during decompressional boiling of ascending hydrothermal fluids. Variable vapor input leads to differences in H2 concentration among springs. Analysis of 50 metagenomes from a variety of YNP springs reveals that genes encoding oxidative hydrogenases are enriched in communities inhabiting springs sourced with vapor-phase gas. Three springs in the Smokejumper (SJ) area of YNP that are sourced with vapor-phase gas and with the most H2 in YNP were examined to determine the fate of H2 . SJ3 had the most H2 , the most 16S rRNA gene templates, and the greatest abundance of culturable hydrogenotrophic and autotrophic cells of the three springs. Metagenomics and transcriptomics of SJ3 reveal a diverse community comprised of abundant populations expressing genes involved in H2 oxidation and carbon dioxide fixation. These observations suggest a link between geologic processes that generate and source H2 to hot springs and the distribution of organisms that use H2 to generate energy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Borroni D, Romano V, Kaye SB, et al (2019)

Metagenomics in ophthalmology: current findings and future prospectives.

BMJ open ophthalmology, 4(1):e000248 pii:bmjophth-2018-000248.

Less than 1% of all microorganisms of the available environmental microbiota can be cultured with the currently available techniques. Metagenomics is a new methodology of high-throughput DNA sequencing, able to provide taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities without the necessity to culture microbes in the laboratory. Metagenomics opens to a 'hypothesis-free' approach, giving important details for future research and treatment of ocular diseases in ophthalmology, such as ocular infection and ocular surface diseases.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Berini F, Casartelli M, Montali A, et al (2019)

Metagenome-Sourced Microbial Chitinases as Potential Insecticide Proteins.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1358.

Microbial chitinases are gaining interest as promising candidates for controlling plant pests. These enzymes can be used directly as biocontrol agents as well as in combination with chemical pesticides or other biopesticides, reducing their environmental impact and/or enhancing their efficacy. Chitinolytic enzymes can target two different structures in insects: the cuticle and the peritrophic matrix (PM). PM, formed by chitin fibrils connected to glycoproteins and proteoglycans, represents a physical barrier that plays an essential role in midgut physiology and insect digestion, and protects the absorptive midgut epithelium from food abrasion or pathogen infections. In this paper, we investigate how two recently discovered metagenome-sourced chitinases (Chi18H8 and 53D1) affect, in vitro and in vivo, the PM integrity of Bombyx mori, a model system among Lepidoptera. The two chitinases were produced in Escherichia coli or, alternatively, in the unconventional - but more environmentally acceptable - Streptomyces coelicolor. Although both the proteins dramatically altered the structure of B. mori PM in vitro, when administered orally only 53D1 caused adverse and marked effects on larval growth and development, inducing mortality and reducing pupal weight. These in vivo results demonstrate that 53D1 is a promising candidate as insecticide protein.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Liu D, Sun H, H Ma (2019)

Deciphering Microbiome Related to Rusty Roots of Panax ginseng and Evaluation of Antagonists Against Pathogenic Ilyonectria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1350.

Plant roots host diverse microbes that are closely associated with root fitness. Currently, the relationship between microbes and rusty roots of Panax ginseng remains unclear. Here, we described the root-associated microbiome in rusty and healthy ginseng by metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS regions. Being enriched in Diseased-roots (Dr) of ginseng and their rhizosphere soil, the fungus of Ilyonectria, was identified as the most probable cause of the disease after ITS analysis. Meanwhile, an increase of Mortierella was observed in Healthy-roots (Hr). Surprisingly, an enriched Fusarium was found in both Hr and their rhizosphere soil. Besides, in comparison with Hr, decreased relative abundance of Actinomycetales and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonadales was observed in Dr after 16S rRNA analysis. What's more, we isolated several microorganisms as antagonists that showed strong inhibiting effects on Ilyonectria in plate assays. In field trials, inoculation of Bacillus sp. S-11 displayed apparent suppression effect against Ilyonectria and shifted microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. Our research identified key microbiota involved in rusty roots of P. ginseng and offered potential biocontrol solutions to rusty disease.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Rodionov DA, Arzamasov AA, Khoroshkin MS, et al (2019)

Micronutrient Requirements and Sharing Capabilities of the Human Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1316.

The human gut microbiome harbors a diverse array of metabolic pathways contributing to its development and homeostasis via a complex web of diet-dependent metabolic interactions within the microbial community and host. Genomics-based reconstruction and predictive modeling of these interactions would provide a framework for diagnostics and treatment of dysbiosis-related syndromes via rational selection of therapeutic prebiotics and dietary nutrients. Of particular interest are micronutrients, such as B-group vitamins, precursors of indispensable metabolic cofactors, that are produced de novo by some gut bacteria (prototrophs) but must be provided exogenously in the diet for many other bacterial species (auxotrophs) as well as for the mammalian host. Cross-feeding of B vitamins between prototrophic and auxotrophic species is expected to strongly contribute to the homeostasis of microbial communities in the distal gut given the efficient absorption of dietary vitamins in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To confidently estimate the balance of microbiome micronutrient biosynthetic capabilities and requirements using available genomic data, we have performed a subsystems-based reconstruction of biogenesis, salvage and uptake for eight B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) and queuosine (essential factor in tRNA modification) over a reference set of 2,228 bacterial genomes representing 690 cultured species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. This allowed us to classify the studied organisms with respect to their pathway variants and infer their prototrophic vs. auxotrophic phenotypes. In addition to canonical vitamin pathways, several conserved partial pathways were identified pointing to alternative routes of syntrophic metabolism and expanding a microbial vitamin "menu" by several pathway intermediates (vitamers) such as thiazole, quinolinate, dethiobiotin, pantoate. A cross-species comparison was applied to assess the extent of conservation of vitamin phenotypes at distinct taxonomic levels (from strains to families). The obtained reference collection combined with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic profiles was used to deduce phenotype profiles of the human gut microbiota across in two large cohorts. This analysis provided the first estimate of B-vitamin requirements, production and sharing capabilities in the human gut microbiome establishing predictive phenotype profiling as a new approach to classification of microbiome samples. Future expansion of our reference genomic collection of metabolic phenotypes will allow further improvement in coverage and accuracy of predictive phenotype profiling of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Laville E, Perrier J, Bejar N, et al (2019)

Investigating Host Microbiota Relationships Through Functional Metagenomics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1286.

The human Intestinal mucus is formed by glycoproteins, the O- and N-linked glycans which constitute a crucial source of carbon for commensal gut bacteria, especially when deprived of dietary glycans of plant origin. In recent years, a dozen carbohydrate-active enzymes from cultivated mucin degraders have been characterized. But yet, considering the fact that uncultured species predominate in the human gut microbiota, these biochemical data are far from exhaustive. In this study, we used functional metagenomics to identify new metabolic pathways in uncultured bacteria involved in harvesting mucin glycans. First, we performed a high-throughput screening of a fosmid metagenomic library constructed from the ileum mucosa microbiota using chromogenic substrates. The screening resulted in the isolation of 124 clones producing activities crucial in the degradation of human O- and N-glycans, namely sialidases, β-D-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, β-D-N-acetyl-galactosaminidase, and/or β-D-mannosidase. Thirteen of these clones were selected based on their diversified functional profiles and were further analyzed on a secondary screening. This step consisted of lectin binding assays to demonstrate the ability of the clones to degrade human intestinal mucus. In total, the structural modification of several mucin motifs, sialylated mucin ones in particular, was evidenced for nine clones. Sequencing their metagenomic loci highlighted complex catabolic pathways involving the complementary functions of glycan sensing, transport, hydrolysis, deacetylation, and deamination, which were sometimes associated with amino acid metabolism machinery. These loci are assigned to several Bacteroides and Feacalibacterium species highly prevalent and abundant in the gut microbiome and explain the metabolic flexibility of gut bacteria feeding both on dietary and human glycans.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Zhao H, Chen J, Wang Q, et al (2019)

Compositional and functional features of the female premenopausal and postmenopausal gut microbiota.

FEBS letters [Epub ahead of print].

Endogenous estrogen deficiency accelerates many diseases in postmenopausal women, and gut microbes contribute to estrogen level modulation. However, the compositional alterations and influences of the gut microbiota in postmenopausal women remain uncertain. A metagenome-wide association study was performed to compare the gut microbiota of 24 premenopausal and 24 postmenopausal women. Firmicutes and Roseburia spp. are depleted, while Bacteroidetes and the toluene-producing genus Tolumonas are overrepresented in fecal samples from postmenopausal women. The pentose phosphate pathway is enriched in premenopausal women. Homocysteine synthesis-related processes are enriched in postmenopausal women. The gut microbiomes of premenopausal and postmenopausal women differ and produce different metabolites. The gut microbiome may be a therapeutic target to reduce risks and improve quality of life in postmenopausal women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Kirby TO, Brown M, Ochoa-Repáraz J, et al (2019)

Microbiota Manipulation as a Metagenomic Therapeutic Approach for Rare Inherited Metabolic Disorders.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Kerfahi D, Ogwu MC, Ariunzaya D, et al (2019)

Metal-Tolerant Fungal Communities Are Delineated by High Zinc, Lead, and Copper Concentrations in Metalliferous Gobi Desert Soils.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-019-01405-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The soil fungal ecology of the southern Gobi region of Mongolia has been little studied. We utilized the ITS1 region from soil DNA to study possible influences soil metal concentrations on soil fungal community variation. In the sample network, a distinctive fungal community was closely associated with high zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations. The pattern of occurrence suggests that high metal concentrations are natural and not a product of mining activities. The metal-associated fungal community differs little from the "normal" community in its major OTUs, and in terms of major fungal guilds and taxa, and its distinctiveness depends on a combination of many less common OTUs. The fungal community in the sites with high metal concentrations is no less diverse than that in areas with normal background levels. Overall, these findings raise interesting questions of the evolutionary origin and functional characteristics of this apparently "metal-tolerant" community, and of the associated soil biota in general. It is possible that rehabilitation of metal-contaminated mined soils from spoil heaps could benefit from the incorporation of fungi derived from these areas.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Uritskiy G, Getsin S, Munn A, et al (2019)

Halophilic microbial community compositional shift after a rare rainfall in the Atacama Desert.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0468-y [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the mechanisms underlying microbial resistance and resilience to perturbations is essential to predict the impact of climate change on Earth's ecosystems. However, the resilience and adaptation mechanisms of microbial communities to natural perturbations remain relatively unexplored, particularly in extreme environments. The response of an extremophile community inhabiting halite (salt rocks) in the Atacama Desert to a catastrophic rainfall provided the opportunity to characterize and de-convolute the temporal response of a highly specialized community to a major disturbance. With shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we investigated the halite microbiome taxonomic composition and functional potential over a 4-year longitudinal study, uncovering the dynamics of the initial response and of the recovery of the community after a rainfall event. The observed changes can be recapitulated by two general modes of community shifts-a rapid Type 1 shift and a more gradual Type 2 adjustment. In the initial response, the community entered an unstable intermediate state after stochastic niche re-colonization, resulting in broad predicted protein adaptations to increased water availability. In contrast, during recovery, the community returned to its former functional potential by a gradual shift in abundances of the newly acquired taxa. The general characterization and proposed quantitation of these two modes of community response could potentially be applied to other ecosystems, providing a theoretical framework for prediction of taxonomic and functional flux following environmental changes.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Colombo RP, Benavidez ME, Fernandez Bidondo L, et al (2019)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in heavy metal highly polluted soil in the Riachuelo river basin.

Revista Argentina de microbiologia pii:S0325-7541(19)30053-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The Riachuelo river basin (RRB) is considered one of the most polluted environments in the world. Knowledge of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) adapted to this extremely polluted environment is important for the establishment of future soil restoration projects. This work aims to make a first list of AMF species present on the RRB. Soil and root samples were randomly taken in an area of approximately 1500m2, mycorrhization percentages were evaluated. AMF species were detected by molecular and morphological techniques. Sixteen AMF morphological species and 64 molecular species were reported in this work. Dominikia iranica, Funneliformis constrictum, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices, Rhizophagus irregularis and Septoglomus viscosum were detected by both techniques while Claroideoglomus sp. was only detected by pyrosequencing. The list of species reported in this work represents the first description of the RRB AMF community.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Molinero N, Ruiz L, Milani C, et al (2019)

The human gallbladder microbiome is related to the physiological state and the biliary metabolic profile.

Microbiome, 7(1):100 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0712-8.

BACKGROUND: The microbial populations of the human intestinal tract and their relationship to specific diseases have been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the characterization of the human bile microbiota as a whole has been hampered by difficulties in accessing biological samples and the lack of adequate methodologies to assess molecular studies. Although a few reports have described the biliary microbiota in some hepatobiliary diseases, the bile microbiota of healthy individuals has not been described. With this in mind, the goal of the present study was to generate fundamental knowledge on the composition and activity of the human bile microbiota, as well as establishing its potential relationship with human bile-related disorders.

RESULTS: Human bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals from a control group, without any record of hepatobiliary disorder, were obtained from liver donors during liver transplantation surgery. A bile DNA extraction method was optimized together with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for determining the bacterial load. This allows the selection of samples to perform functional metagenomic analysis. Bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals suffering from lithiasis were collected during gallbladder resection and the microbial profiles assessed, using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing analysis, and compared with those of the control group. Additionally, the metabolic profile of the samples was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We detected, for the first time, bacterial communities in gallbladder samples of individuals without any hepatobiliary pathology. In the biliary microecosystem, the main bacterial phyla were represented by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Significant differences in the relative abundance of different taxa of both groups were found. Sequences belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae were more abundant in bile samples from control subjects; meanwhile, in patients with cholelithiasis members of the families Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Veillonellaceae were more frequently detected. Furthermore, the metabolomics analysis showed that the two study groups have different metabolic profiles.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the gallbladder of human individuals, without diagnosed hepatobiliary pathology, harbors a microbial ecosystem that is described for the first time in this study. Its bacterial representatives and metabolites are different from those detected in people suffering from cholelithiasis. In this regard, since liver donors have been subjected to the specific conditions of the hospital's intensive care unit, including an antibiotic treatment, we must be cautious in stating that their bile samples contain a physiologically normal biliary microbiome. In any case, our results open up new possibilities to discover bacterial functions in a microbial ecosystem that has not previously been explored.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Wang J, Qian T, Jiang J, et al (2019)

Gut microbial profile is altered in biliary atresia.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy with an unclear etiology. Various liver disorders are associated with an altered microbiome. However, gut microbiome in BA remains unknown. Here we performed a controlled study to investigate the gut microbiota in BA.

METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was first conducted for 34 BA patients and 34 healthy controls. Then, we investigated the shift in gut microbiota 2 weeks post-Kasai procedure in 16 BA patients. Gut microbiome was initially analyzed using 16S ribosome RNA gene sequencing and further validated by metagenomic sequencing. Fecal bile acids were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, BA showed lower diversity and significant structural segregation in the microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria numbers increased, whereas those of Bacteroidetes decreased in BA. At genus level, several potential pathogens such as Streptococcus and Klebsiella thrived in BA; while numbers for Bifidobacterium and several butyrate-producing bacteria declined. The microbiome was also disturbed after Kasai procedure. Operational taxonomic units responding to BA showed significant correlation with liver function. Furthermore, the abundance ratio of Streptococcus/Bacteroides showed great promise in distinguishing BA from healthy controls. Intestinal bile acids were dramatically decreased in BA and Clostridium XIVa positively correlated with the ratio of primary/secondary bile acids.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbial dysbiosis, may be caused by decreased bile acids, was associated with liver function and had a good diagnostic potential for BA. Therefore, further exploration of gut microbiota may provide important insights into their potential diagnostic and therapeutic benefits.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Huang Q, Lopez D, JD Evans (2019)

Shared and unique microbes between Small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) and their honey bee hosts.

MicrobiologyOpen [Epub ahead of print].

The small hive beetle (SHB) is an opportunistic parasite that feeds on bee larvae, honey, and pollen. While SHBs can also feed on fruit and other plant products, like its plant-feeding relatives, SHBs prefer to feed on hive resources and only reproduce inside bee colonies. As parasites, SHBs are inevitably exposed to bee-associated microbes, either directly from the bees or from the hive environment. These microbes have unknown impacts on beetles, nor is it known how extensively beetles transfer microbes among their bee hosts. To identify sets of beetle microbes and the transmission of microbes from bees to beetles, a metagenomic analysis was performed. We identified sets of herbivore-associated bacteria, as well as typical bee symbiotic bacteria for pollen digestion, in SHB larvae and adults. Deformed wing virus was highly abundant in beetles, which colonize SHBs as suggested by a controlled feeding trial. Our data suggest SHBs are vectors for pathogen transmission among bees and between colonies. The dispersal of host pathogens by social parasites via floral resources and the hive environment increases the threats of these parasites to honey bees.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Chen H, Wang W, Wang S, et al (2019)

Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Hepatitis A Subgenotype IB Virus Isolated from Frozen Raspberries.

Microbiology resource announcements, 8(27): pii:8/27/e00522-19.

Hepatitis A virus is one of the most common causes of foodborne viral illness. Here, we report the nearly complete genome sequence of a hepatitis A virus (subgenotype IB) isolated from frozen raspberries using RNA sequencing-based metagenomics.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Xue Y, Jonassen I, Øvreås L, et al (2019)

Bacterial and Archaeal Metagenome-Assembled Genome Sequences from Svalbard Permafrost.

Microbiology resource announcements, 8(27): pii:8/27/e00516-19.

Permafrost contains one of the least known soil microbiomes, where microbial populations reside in an ice-locked environment. Here, 56 prokaryotic metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) sequences from 13 phyla are reported. These MAGs will provide information on metabolic pathways that could mediate biogeochemical cycles in Svalbard permafrost.

RevDate: 2019-07-04
CmpDate: 2019-07-04

Ke S, Fang S, He M, et al (2019)

Age-based dynamic changes of phylogenetic composition and interaction networks of health pig gut microbiome feeding in a uniformed condition.

BMC veterinary research, 15(1):172 pii:10.1186/s12917-019-1918-5.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota impacts on a range of host biological processes, and the imbalances in its composition are associated with pathology. Though the understanding of contribution of the many factors, e.g. gender, diet and age, in the development of gut microbiota has been well established, the dynamic changes of the phylogenetic composition and the interaction networks along with the age remain unclear in pigs.

RESULTS: Here we applied 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, enterotype-like clustering (Classification of the gut microbiome into distinct types) and phylogenetic co-occurrence network to explore the dynamic changes of pig gut microbiome following the ages with a successive investigation at four ages in a cohort of 953 pigs. We found that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are two predominant phyla throughout the experimental period. The richness of gut microbiota was significantly increased from 25 to 240 days of age. Principal coordinates analysis showed a clear difference in the gut microbial community compositions between pre-weaning piglets and the pigs at the other three age groups. The gut microbiota of pre-weaning piglets was clearly classified into two enterotypes, which were dominated by Fusobacterium and p-75-a5, respectively. However, Prevotella and Treponema were the main drivers of the enterotypes for pigs at the age of 80, 120 and 240 days. Besides the piglets, even some adult pigs switched putative enterotypes between ages. We confirmed that the topological features of phylogenetic co-occurrence networks, including scale, stability and complexity were increased along with the age. The biological significance for modules in the network of piglets were mainly associated with the utilization of simple carbohydrate and lactose, whereas the sub-networks identified at the ages of 80, 120 and 240 days may be involved in the digestion of complex dietary polysaccharide. The modules related to the metabolism of protein and amino acids could be identified in the networks at 120 and 240 days. This dynamic change of the functional capacities of gut microbiome was further supported by functional prediction analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided meaningful biological insights into the age-based dynamic shifts of ecological community of porcine gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-07-04
CmpDate: 2019-07-04

Adeolu M, Parkinson J, X Xiong (2018)

Analyzing Metabolic Pathways in Microbiomes.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1849:291-307.

Understanding the metabolic activity of a microbial community, at both the level of the individual microbe and the whole microbiome, provides fundamental biological, biochemical, and clinical insights into the nature of the microbial community and interactions with their hosts in health and disease. Here, we discuss a method to examine the expression of metabolic pathways in microbial communities using data from metatranscriptomic next-generation sequencing data. The methodology described here encompasses enzyme function annotation, differential enzyme expression and pathway enrichment analyses, and visualization of metabolic networks with differential enzyme expression levels.

RevDate: 2019-07-04
CmpDate: 2019-07-04

Macklaim JM, GB Gloor (2018)

From RNA-seq to Biological Inference: Using Compositional Data Analysis in Meta-Transcriptomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1849:193-213.

The proper analysis of high-throughput sequencing datasets of mixed microbial communities (meta-transcriptomics) is substantially more complex than for datasets composed of single organisms. Adapting commonly used RNA-seq methods to the analysis of meta-transcriptome datasets can be misleading and not use all the available information in a consistent manner. However, meta-transcriptomic experiments can be investigated in a principled manner using Bayesian probabilistic modeling of the data at a functional level coupled with analysis under a compositional data analysis paradigm. We present a worked example for the differential functional evaluation of mixed-species microbial communities obtained from human clinical samples that were sequenced on an Illumina platform. We demonstrate methods to functionally map reads directly, conduct a compositionally appropriate exploratory data analysis, evaluate differential relative abundance, and finally identify compositionally associated (constant ratio) functions. Using these approaches we have found that meta-transcriptomic functional analyses are highly reproducible and convey significant information regarding the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2019-07-04
CmpDate: 2019-07-04

Douglas GM, Comeau AM, MGI Langille (2018)

Processing a 16S rRNA Sequencing Dataset with the Microbiome Helper Workflow.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1849:131-141.

Sequencing microbiome samples has recently become a fast and cost-effective method to taxonomically profile communities. The growing interest in analyzing microbial sequencing data has attracted many new researchers to the field. Here, we present a straightforward bioinformatic pipeline that aims to streamline the processing of 16S rRNA sequencing data. This workflow is part of the larger project called Microbiome Helper (Comeau et al. mSyst 2:e00127-16, 2017), which includes other bioinformatic workflows, tutorials, and scripts available here: https://github.com/mlangill/microbiome_helper/wiki .

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Zhang F, R Yang (2019)

Life history and functional capacity of the microbiome are altered in beta-cypermethrin-resistant cockroaches.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(19)30167-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Cockroaches are widely perceived to evolve resistance to insecticides. Over-expression of a resistance-conferring gene can be costly and may require energy and resource reallocation for metabolic and developmental processes. To evaluate whether changes in the composition of gut microbiota in Blattella germanica affected its resistance evolution to beta-cypermethrin and to determine the role of gut microbiota in host growth and development, we studied the relationship between insecticide resistance and the diversity and genetic content of gut microbiota in cockroaches. Results suggest beta-cypermethrin-resistant cockroaches (R strain) exhibited a delayed development period and reduced adult longevity compared with susceptible cockroaches (S strain). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and community metagenomics, we found that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Acetobacteraceae were significantly lower in the R strain compared with the S strain in the foregut and midgut of both strains. Functional annotation of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) modules of midgut genes in the two strains revealed that 10.6% were involved in metabolism, while the relative abundance in the R strain was 7.4%. Unigenes were also translated into amino acid sequences and assigned to protein families based on hits to the Carbohydrate-Active enzymes (CAZy) database. This process identified the glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases and carbohydrate-binding modules of the S strain as all being significantly higher in diversity than those in the R strain. Overall, we conclude that fitness-related costs increased in the resistant strain of cockroaches compared with the susceptible strain, and the variation in insect gut microbiota, especially those related to growth and development, was an important influencing factor.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Bjerregaard LG, Pedersen DC, Mortensen EL, et al (2019)

Duration of breastfeeding in infancy and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood in a high-income country.

Maternal & child nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Observed associations between breastfeeding and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood may be confounded. We examined if the duration of breastfeeding in infancy was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood after adjustment for a range of pre- and post-natal risk factors. We prospectively followed 6,044 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort born 1959-1961. Duration of any breastfeeding (≤0.5, >0.5-1, >1-2, >2-4, >4 months) was assessed at the infant's 1-year health examination. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for type 2 diabetes (at age ≥30 years, 237 persons) by breastfeeding duration without and with adjustment for parental social status and education, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal diabetes and smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, sex, and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7 and 41-43 years. In the unadjusted analysis, compared with infants breastfed for ≤0.5 month, those breastfed for >4 months had a 51% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (HR=0.49; 95% CI: 0.32-0.75). After the stepwise adjustment for putative early life confounders, this was attenuated to a non-significant 31% reduced risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.44-1.07). Adjustment for childhood and adulthood BMI minimally changed the results. We found that the inverse association between the duration of breastfeeding and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood is considerably weakened and no longer significant after adjustment for prenatal and postnatal factors in the infant and mother.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Taubert M, Grob C, Crombie A, et al (2019)

Communal metabolism by Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae is driving rapid aerobic methane oxidation in sediments of a shallow seep near Elba, Italy.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Release of abiotic methane from marine seeps into the atmosphere is a major source of this potent greenhouse gas. Methanotrophic microorganisms in methane seeps use methane as carbon and energy source, thus significantly mitigating global methane emissions. Here we investigated microbial methane oxidation at the sediment-water interface of a shallow marine methane seep. Metagenomics and metaproteomics, combined with 13 C-methane stable isotope probing, demonstrated that various members of the gammaproteobacterial family Methylococcaceae were the key players for methane oxidation, catalyzing the first reaction step to methanol. We observed a transfer of carbon to methanol-oxidizing methylotrophs of the betaproteobacterial family Methylophilaceae, suggesting an interaction between methanotrophic and methylotrophic microorganisms that allowed for rapid methane oxidation. From our microcosms, we estimated methane oxidation rates of up to 871 nmol of methane per gram sediment and day. This implies that more than 50% of methane at the seep is removed by microbial oxidation at the sediment-water interface, based on previously reported in situ methane fluxes. The organic carbon produced was further assimilated by different heterotrophic microbes, demonstrating that the methane-oxidizing community supported a complex trophic network. Our results provide valuable eco-physiological insights into this specialized microbial community performing an ecosystem function of global relevance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Fernández-Correa I, Truchado DA, Gomez-Lucia E, et al (2019)

A novel group of avian astroviruses from Neotropical passerine birds broaden the diversity and host range of Astroviridae.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9513 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-45889-3.

Metagenomics is helping to expand the known diversity of viruses, especially of those with poorly studied hosts in remote areas. The Neotropical region harbors a considerable diversity of avian species that may play a role as both host and short-distance vectors of unknown viruses. Viral metagenomics of cloacal swabs from 50 Neotropical birds collected in French Guiana revealed the presence of four complete astrovirus genomes. They constitute an early diverging novel monophyletic clade within the Avastrovirus phylogeny, representing a putative new astrovirus species (provisionally designated as Avastrovirus 5) according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classification criteria. Their genomic organization shares some characteristics with Avastrovirus but also with Mamastrovirus. The pan-astrovirus RT-PCR analysis of the cloacal samples of 406 wild Neotropical birds showed a community-level prevalence of 4.9% (5.1% in passerines, the highest described so far in this order of birds). By screening birds of a remote region, we expanded the known host range of astroviruses to the avian families Cardinalidae, Conopophagidae, Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae, Turdidae and Tyrannidae. Our results provide important first insights into the unexplored viral communities, the ecology, epidemiology and features of host-pathogen interactions that shape the evolution of avastroviruses in a remote Neotropical rainforest.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Sze MA, Topçuoğlu BD, Lesniak NA, et al (2019)

Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids Are Not Predictive of Colonic Tumor Status and Cannot Be Predicted Based on Bacterial Community Structure.

mBio, 10(4): pii:mBio.01454-19.

Colonic bacterial populations are thought to have a role in the development of colorectal cancer with some protecting against inflammation and others exacerbating inflammation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and are produced in large quantities by colonic bacteria that produce SCFAs by fermenting fiber. We assessed whether there was an association between fecal SCFA concentrations and the presence of colonic adenomas or carcinomas in a cohort of individuals using 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic shotgun sequence data. We measured the fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate within the cohort and found that there were no significant associations between SCFA concentration and tumor status. When we incorporated these concentrations into random forest classification models trained to differentiate between people with healthy colons and those with adenomas or carcinomas, we found that they did not significantly improve the ability of 16S rRNA gene or metagenomic gene sequence-based models to classify individuals. Finally, we generated random forest regression models trained to predict the concentration of each SCFA based on 16S rRNA gene or metagenomic gene sequence data from the same samples. These models performed poorly and were able to explain at most 14% of the observed variation in the SCFA concentrations. These results support the broader epidemiological data that questions the value of fiber consumption for reducing the risks of colorectal cancer. Although other bacterial metabolites may serve as biomarkers to detect adenomas or carcinomas, fecal SCFA concentrations have limited predictive power.IMPORTANCE Considering that colorectal cancer is the third leading cancer-related cause of death within the United States, it is important to detect colorectal tumors early and to prevent the formation of tumors. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are often used as a surrogate for measuring gut health and for being anticarcinogenic because of their anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the fecal SCFA concentrations of a cohort of individuals with different colonic tumor burdens who were previously analyzed to identify microbiome-based biomarkers of tumors. We were unable to find an association between SCFA concentration and tumor burden or use SCFAs to improve our microbiome-based models of classifying people based on their tumor status. Furthermore, we were unable to find an association between the fecal community structure and SCFA concentrations. Our results indicate that the association between fecal SCFAs, the gut microbiome, and tumor burden is weak.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Pérez MV, Guerrero LD, Orellana E, et al (2019)

Time Series Genome-Centric Analysis Unveils Bacterial Response to Operational Disturbance in Activated Sludge.

mSystems, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00169-19.

Understanding ecosystem response to disturbances and identifying the most critical traits for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning are important goals for microbial community ecology. In this study, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and metagenomics to investigate the assembly of bacterial populations in a full-scale municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant over a period of 3 years, including a 9-month period of disturbance characterized by short-term plant shutdowns. Following the reconstruction of 173 metagenome-assembled genomes, we assessed the functional potential, the number of rRNA gene operons, and the in situ growth rate of microorganisms present throughout the time series. Operational disturbances caused a significant decrease in bacteria with a single copy of the rRNA (rrn) operon. Despite moderate differences in resource availability, replication rates were distributed uniformly throughout time, with no differences between disturbed and stable periods. We suggest that the length of the growth lag phase, rather than the growth rate, is the primary driver of selection under disturbed conditions. Thus, the system could maintain its function in the face of disturbance by recruiting bacteria with the capacity to rapidly resume growth under unsteady operating conditions.IMPORTANCE Disturbance is a key determinant of community assembly and dynamics in natural and engineered ecosystems. Microbiome response to disturbance is thought to be influenced by bacterial growth traits and life history strategies. In this time series observational study, the response to disturbance of microbial communities in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant was assessed by computing specific cellular traits of genomes retrieved from metagenomes. It was found that the genomes observed in disturbed periods have more copies of the rRNA operon than genomes observed in stable periods, whereas the in situ mean relative growth rates of bacteria present during stable and disturbed periods were indistinguishable. From these intriguing observations, we infer that the length of the lag phase might be a growth trait that affects the microbial response to disturbance. Further exploration of this hypothesis could contribute to better understanding of the adaptive response of microbiomes to unsteady environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Aoki H, Sunaga F, Ochiai H, et al (2019)

Phylogenetic analysis of novel posaviruses detected in feces of Japanese pigs with posaviruses and posa-like viruses of vertebrates and invertebrates.

Archives of virology, 164(8):2147-2151.

Posaviruses and posa-like viruses are unclassified viruses with sequence similarity to viruses of the order Picornavirales. They have been reported in various vertebrates and invertebrates. We identified 11 posavirus-like sequences in porcine feces and performed phylogenic analysis. Previously reported Japanese posaviruses and those identified in this study clustered with posavirus 1, 4, and 7 and husavirus 1, while five viruses branched into three independent lineages, tentatively named posavirus 10, 11, and 12. Interestingly, posaviruses, except for posavirus 8 and 9, husaviruses, and rasaviruses, formed a cluster consisting of viruses only from pigs, humans, and rats, while posavirus 8 and 9, fisavirus, and basaviruses clustered with posa-like viruses from invertebrates.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Mak HC (2017)

In Search of Metrics that Matter.

Cell systems, 4(6):575.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Dao MC, Belda E, Prifti E, et al (2019)

Akkermansia muciniphila abundance is lower in severe obesity but its increased level after bariatric surgery is not associated with metabolic health improvement.

American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

The gut bacterial species, Akkermansia muciniphila is associated with a healthier clinical profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between A. muciniphila and glucose homeostasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS): gastric banding (GB) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This non-randomized prospective study included 65 women with severe obesity. Longitudinal analysis included subjects for whom A. muciniphila data was available at follow up (1, 3, and 12 months; GB (N=10) or RYGB (N=11)). Glucose homeostasis markers were measured under fasting or during an oral glucose tolerance test. Fecal microbiota was analyzed using shotgun metagenomics, and A. muciniphila relative abundance was assessed with 16S rRNA qPCR. A. muciniphila relative abundance was significantly lower in severe obesity (BMI mean (SD) 45.7 (5.4) kg/m2) than moderate obesity (33.2 (3.8) kg/m2) but not associated with glucose homeostasis markers. A significant increase in A. muciniphila relative abundance after RYGB was not correlated with metabolic improvement. Baseline A. muciniphila was correlated with bacterial gene richness and was highest in the high-richness Ruminococcaceae enterotype. A. muciniphila increased in relative abundance after BS in patients with low baseline A. muciniphila, especially those with a Bacteroides 2 enterotype classification. Although decreased in severe obesity, relative abundance of A. muciniphila was not associated with glucose homeostasis before or after BS. A certain level of A. muciniphila abundance might be required to observe a beneficial link to health. The severity of obesity and gut dysbiosis may partly explain the discrepancy with previous findings in less obese populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Razi A, Davis JH, Hao Y, et al (2019)

Role of Era in assembly and homeostasis of the ribosomal small subunit.

Nucleic acids research pii:5527280 [Epub ahead of print].

Assembly factors provide speed and directionality to the maturation process of the 30S subunit in bacteria. To gain a more precise understanding of how these proteins mediate 30S maturation, it is important to expand on studies of 30S assembly intermediates purified from bacterial strains lacking particular maturation factors. To reveal the role of the essential protein Era in the assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit, we analyzed assembly intermediates that accumulated in Era-depleted Escherichia coli cells using quantitative mass spectrometry, high resolution cryo-electron microscopy and in-cell footprinting. Our combined approach allowed for visualization of the small subunit as it assembled and revealed that with the exception of key helices in the platform domain, all other 16S rRNA domains fold even in the absence of Era. Notably, the maturing particles did not stall while waiting for the platform domain to mature and instead re-routed their folding pathway to enable concerted maturation of other structural motifs spanning multiple rRNA domains. We also found that binding of Era to the mature 30S subunit destabilized helix 44 and the decoding center preventing binding of YjeQ, another assembly factor. This work establishes Era's role in ribosome assembly and suggests new roles in maintaining ribosome homeostasis.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Pereira O, Hochart C, Auguet JC, et al (2019)

Genomic ecology of Marine Group II, the most common marine planktonic Archaea across the surface ocean.

MicrobiologyOpen [Epub ahead of print].

Planktonic Archaea have been detected in all the world's oceans and are found from surface waters to the deep sea. The two most common Archaea phyla are Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Euryarchaeota are generally more common in surface waters, but very little is known about their ecology and their potential metabolisms. In this study, we explore the genomic ecology of the Marine Group II (MGII), the main marine planktonic Euryarchaeota, and test if it is composed of different ecologically relevant units. We re-analyzed Tara Oceans metagenomes from the photic layer and the deep ocean by annotating sequences against a custom MGII database and by mapping gene co-occurrences. Our data provide a global view of the distribution of Euryarchaeota, and more specifically of MGII subgroups, and reveal their association to a number of gene-coding sequences. In particular, we show that MGII proteorhodopsins were detected in both the surface and the deep chlorophyll maximum layer and that different clusters of these light harvesting proteins were present. Our approach helped describing the set of genes found together with specific MGII subgroups. We could thus define genomic environments that could theoretically describe ecologically meaningful units and the ecological niche that they occupy.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Tan SM, Yung PYM, Hutchinson PE, et al (2019)

Primer-free FISH probes from metagenomics/metatranscriptomics data permit the study of uncharacterised taxa in complex microbial communities.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 5:17 pii:90.

Methods for the study of member species in complex microbial communities remain a high priority, particularly for rare and/or novel member species that might play an important ecological role. Specifically, methods that link genomic information of member species with its spatial structure are lacking. This study adopts an integrative workflow that permits the characterisation of previously unclassified bacterial taxa from microbiomes through: (1) imaging of the spatial structure; (2) taxonomic classification and (3) genome recovery. Our study attempts to bridge the gaps between metagenomics/metatranscriptomics and high-resolution biomass imaging methods by developing new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes-termed as R-Probes-from shotgun reads that harbour hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The sample-centric design of R-Probes means that probes can directly hybridise to OTUs as detected in shotgun sequencing surveys. The primer-free probe design captures larger microbial diversity as compared to canonical probes. R-Probes were designed from deep-sequenced RNA-Seq datasets for both FISH imaging and FISH-Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FISH-FACS). FISH-FACS was used for target enrichment of previously unclassified bacterial taxa prior to downstream multiple displacement amplification (MDA), genomic sequencing and genome recovery. After validation of the workflow on an axenic isolate of Thauera species, the techniques were applied to investigate two previously uncharacterised taxa from a tropical full-scale activated sludge community. In some instances, probe design on the hypervariable region allowed differentiation to the species level. Collectively, the workflow can be readily applied to microbiomes for which shotgun nucleic acid survey data is available.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Ullah M, Raza A, Ye L, et al (2019)

Viability and Composition Validation of Commercial Probiotic Products by Selective Culturing Combined with Next-Generation Sequencing.

Microorganisms, 7(7): pii:microorganisms7070188.

The consumption of dietary supplements to treat health complications or to improve overall health conditions has become a globally increasing trend that leads to the development of a large number of health-related novel products and expands the associated manufacturing industries around the world. In the current study, we applied selective culturing combined with next-generation sequencing to examine the microbial viability in terms of its culturability on culture medium, composition, and possible contamination in the selected 17 commercial probiotic products sold in the mainland China market. Additionally, the relative abundance of each individual bacterial content was also evaluated by using the generated sequencing reads. The tested probiotic product samples were subjected to Illumina HiSeq-2000 sequencing platform and thoroughly analyzed by the in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline. The comprehensive culturing and sequencing analysis revealed both viability and composition inaccuracy among the several tested probiotic products, however, no contaminant was identified during the analysis. Among the total, five probiotic products (29.41%) were found with an inaccurate or lower colony-forming unit (CFU) counts on culture media while four probiotic products (23.52%) have inaccurately labeled classification. This study provides an ideal qualitative and quantitative assessment approach, which can be used as a diagnostic tool for the accurate assessment of commercial probiotic supplements.

RevDate: 2019-07-02
CmpDate: 2019-07-02

Drancourt M, Barbieri R, Cilli E, et al (2018)

Did Caravaggio die of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis?.

The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 18(11):1178.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Hagbø M, Ravi A, Leena Angell I, et al (2019)

Experimental support for multidrug resistance transfer potential in the preterm infant gut microbiota.

Pediatric research pii:10.1038/s41390-019-0491-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There is currently a lack of experimental evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms in the human gut microbiota. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally determine the HGT potential in the microbiota of a healthy preterm infant twin pair and to evaluate the global occurrence of the mobilized elements.

METHODS: Stool samples were collected. Both shotgun metagenome sequencing and bacterial culturing were done for the same samples. A range of experimental conditions were used to test DNA transfer for the cultured isolates. Searches for global distribution of transferable elements were done for the ~120,000 metagenomic samples in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database.

RESULTS: DNA transfer experiments demonstrated frequent transmission of an ESBL encoding IncI1 plasmid, a high copy number ColEI plasmid, and bacteriophage P1. Both IncI1 and ColE1 were abundant in the stool samples. In vitro competition experiments showed that transconjugants containing IncI1 plasmids outcompeted the recipient strain in the absence of antibiotic selection. The SRA searches indicated a global distribution of the mobilizable elements, with chicken identified as a possible reservoir for the IncI1 ESBL encoding plasmid.

CONCLUSION: Our results experimentally support a major horizontal transmission and persistence potential of the preterm infant gut microbiota mobilome involving genes encoding ESBL.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Valentine G, Prince A, KM Aagaard (2019)

The Neonatal Microbiome and Metagenomics: What Do We Know and What Is the Future?.

NeoReviews, 20(5):e258-e271.

The human microbiota includes the trillions of microorganisms living in the human body whereas the human microbiome includes the genes and gene products of this microbiota. Bacteria were historically largely considered to be pathogens that inevitably led to human disease. However, because of advances in both cultivation-based methods and the advent of metagenomics, bacteria are now recognized to be largely beneficial commensal organisms and thus, key to normal and healthy human development. This relatively new area of medical research has elucidated insights into diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity, as well as metabolic and atopic disorders. However, much remains unknown about the complexity of microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Future efforts aimed at answering key questions pertaining to the early establishment of the microbiome, alongside what defines its dysbiosis, will likely lead to long-term health and mitigation of disease. Here, we review the relevant literature pertaining to modulations in the perinatal and neonatal microbiome, the impact of environmental and maternal factors in shaping the neonatal microbiome, and future questions and directions in the exciting emerging arena of metagenomic medicine.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Liu X, Zhang X, Wang Z, et al (2019)

A Tentative Tamdy Orthonairovirus Related to Febrile Illness in Northwestern China.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5526730 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Lots of novel tick-borne viruses have been discovered by deep sequencing technology in recent years, however, their medical significance is unknown.

METHODS: We obtained the clinical data of a patient from Xinjiang, China. Possible pathogens were detected by metagenomic analysis and the causative pathogen Tacheng tick virus 1 (TcTV-1) was found and further confirmed by RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequence analyses. Epidemiological investigation was conducted in local human population, domestic animals, and ticks by serological and molecular methods.

FINDINGS: A 62-year-old woman with a history of tick bite in Qinghe, Xinjiang, presented with fever and rashes, was admitted to hospital on June 17, 2018. These symptoms were relieved after clinical treatment. TcTV-1 (strain QH1) was isolated from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, throat swabs, and urine on day 47 after illness onset. Although the blood and urine showed viral RNA positive on day 73 after illness onset, the virus was only isolated from urine. Serological detection revealed a virus neutralizing antibody titre of 1:40 and 1:80 on day 47 and 73 after illness onset, respectively. No co-infection with other pathogens was detected, suggesting TcTV-1 may be the potential causative pathogen. We detected anti-TcTV-1 antibodies (IgG: 10.1%; IgM: 4.8%) in the local human population. The viral RNA was also found in cattle (4.9%), sheep (9.2%), and ticks, including Dermacentor marginatus (14.3%), D. silvarum (11.8%), D. nuttalli (6.7%), and Hyalomma asiaticum (4.8%).

CONCLUSION: TcTV-1 may be associated with a febrile illness syndrome, and epidemiological data of the virus in humans and animals necessitates disease surveillance of TcTV-1 infection in China.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Christensen GA, Gionfriddo CM, King AJ, et al (2019)

Determining the Reliability of Measuring Mercury Cycling Gene Abundance with Correlations with Mercury and Methylmercury Concentrations.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative toxic contaminant in many ecosystems, but factors governing its production are poorly understood. Recent work has shown that the anaerobic microbial conversion of mercury (Hg) to MeHg requires the Hg-methylation genes hgcAB and that these genes can be used as biomarkers in PCR-based estimators of Hg-methylator abundance. In an effort to determine reliable methods for assessing hgcAB abundance and diversity and linking them to MeHg concentrations, multiple approaches were compared including metagenomic shotgun sequencing, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and cloning/sequencing hgcAB gene products. Hg-methylator abundance was also determined by quantitative hgcA qPCR amplification and metaproteomics for comparison to the above measurements. Samples from eight sites were examined covering a range of total Hg (HgT; 0.03-14 mg kg-1 dry wt. soil) and MeHg (0.05-27 µg kg-1 dry wt. soil) concentrations. In the metagenome and amplicon sequencing of hgcAB diversity, the Deltaproteobacteria were the dominant Hg-methylators while Firmicutes and methanogenic Archaea were typically ~50% less abundant. This was consistent with metaproteomics estimates where the Deltaproteobacteria were steadily higher. The 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing did not have sufficient resolution to identify hgcAB+ species. Metagenomic and hgcAB results were similar for Hg-methylator diversity and clade-specific qPCR-based approaches for hgcA are only appropriate when comparing the abundance of a particular clade across various samples. Weak correlations between Hg-methylating bacteria and soil Hg concentrations were observed for similar environmental samples, but overall total Hg and MeHg concentrations poorly correlated with Hg-cycling genes.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Wierzbicka-Woś A, Henneberger R, Batista-García RA, et al (2019)

Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Monospecific Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Belonging to GH Family 5 From a Rhizosphere Metagenomic Library.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1342.

Cellulases have a broad range of different industrial applications, ranging from food and beverages to pulp and paper and the biofuels area. Here a metagenomics based strategy was used to identify the cellulolytic enzyme CelRH5 from the rhizosphere. CelRH5 is a novel monospecific endo-β-1,4-glucanase belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Structural based modeling analysis indicated that CelRH5 is related to endo-β-1,4-glucanases derived from thermophilic microorganisms such as Thermotoga maritima, Fervidobacterium nodosum, and Ruminiclostridium thermocellum sharing 30-40% amino acid sequence identity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined as 40.5 kDa. Biochemical analyses revealed that the enzyme displayed good activity with soluble forms of cellulose as a substrate such as ostazin brilliant red hydroxyethyl cellulose (OBR-HEC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), and insoluble azurine cross-linked hydroxyethylcellulose (AZCL-HEC). The enzyme shows highest enzymatic activity at pH 6.5 with high pH tolerance, remaining stable in the pH range 4.5-8.5. Highest activity was observed at 40°C, but CelRH5 is psychrotolerant being active and stable at temperatures below 30°C. The presence of the final products of cellulose hydrolysis (glucose and cellobiose) or metal ions such as Na+, K+, Li+, and Mg2+, as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), urea, dithiothreitol (DTT), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) or glycerol, did not have a marked effect on CelRH5 activity. However, the enzyme is quite sensitive to the presence of 10 mM ions Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe3+ and reagents such as 1 M guanidine HCl, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 20% ethanol. Given that it is psychrotolerant and retains activity in the presence of final cellulose degradation products, metal ions and various reagents, which are common in many technological processes; CelRH5 may be potential suitability for a variety of different biotechnological applications.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )