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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Oct 2021 at 01:31 Created: 


While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-10-22

Szulc J, Okrasa M, Majchrzycka K, et al (2021)

Microbiological and Toxicological Hazards in Sewage Treatment Plant Bioaerosol and Dust.

Toxins, 13(10): pii:toxins13100691.

Despite the awareness that work in the sewage treatment plant is associated with biological hazards, they have not been fully recognised so far. The research aims to comprehensively evaluate microbiological and toxicological hazards in the air and settled dust in workstations in a sewage treatment plant. The number of microorganisms in the air and settled dust was determined using the culture method and the diversity was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. Endotoxin concentration was assessed with GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) while secondary metabolites with LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry). Moreover, cytotoxicity of settled dust against a human lung epithelial lung cell line was determined with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and UHPLC-Q-ToF-UHRMS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis was performed to determine the source of cytotoxicity. The total dust concentration in the sewage treatment plant was low and ranged from 0.030 mg m-3 to 0.044 mg m-3. The highest microbiological contamination was observed in sludge thickening building and screenings storage. Three secondary metabolites were detected in the air and sixteen in the settled dust. They were dominated by compounds typical of lichen and plants and Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera mould. The settled dust from the sludge thickening building revealed high cytotoxicity to human lung epithelial cells A-549 (IC50 = 6.98 after 72 h). This effect can be attributed to a biocidal compound-didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C10) and seven toxic compounds: 4-hydroxynonenal, carbofuran, cerulenin, diethylphosphate, fenpropimorph, naphthalene and onchidal. The presence of DDAC-C10 and other biocidal substances in the sewage treatment plant environment may bring negative results for biological sewage treatment and the natural environment in the future and contribute to microorganisms' increasing antibiotics resistance. Therefore, the concentration of antibiotics, pesticides and disinfectants in sewage treatment plant workstations should be monitored.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Normandin E, Holroyd KB, Collens SI, et al (2021)

Intrathecal inflammatory responses in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the CSF of COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Journal of the neurological sciences, 430:120023 pii:S0022-510X(21)02725-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about CSF profiles in patients with acute COVID-19 infection and neurological symptoms. Here, CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and compared to controls and patients with known neurotropic pathogens.

METHODS: CSF from twenty-seven consecutive patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms was assayed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and unbiased metagenomic sequencing. Assays for blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (CSF:serum albumin ratio (Q-Alb)), and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-16, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1) and monocyte inhibitory protein - 1β (MIP-1β)) were performed in 23 patients and compared to CSF from patients with HIV-1 (16 virally suppressed, 5 unsuppressed), West Nile virus (WNV) (n = 4) and 16 healthy controls (HC).

RESULTS: Median CSF cell count for COVID-19 patients was 1 white blood cell/μL; two patients were infected with a second pathogen (Neisseria, Cryptococcus neoformans). No CSF samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by either detection method. In patients with COVID-19 only, CSF IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, and MIP-1β levels were higher than HC and suppressed HIV (corrected-p < 0.05). MCP-1 and MIP-1β levels were higher, while IL-6, IL-8, IL-15 were similar in COVID-19 compared to WNV patients. Q-Alb correlated with all proinflammatory markers, with IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1β (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.01) demonstrating the strongest associations.

CONCLUSIONS: Lack of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in CSF is consistent with pre-existing literature. Evidence of intrathecal proinflammatory markers in a subset of COVID-19 patients with BBB breakdown despite minimal CSF pleocytosis is atypical for neurotropic pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Liu W, Fang X, Zhou Y, et al (2021)

Machine learning-based investigation of the relationship between gut microbiome and obesity status.

Microbes and infection pii:S1286-4579(21)00114-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota is believed to play a crucial role in obesity. However, the consistent findings among published studies regarding microbiome-obesity interaction are relatively rare, and one of the underlying causes could be the limited sample size of cohort studies. In order to identify gut microbiota changes between normal-weight individuals and obese individuals, fecal samples along with phenotype information from 2262 Chinese individuals were collected and analyzed. Compared with normal-weight individuals, the obese individuals exhibit lower diversity of species and higher diversity of metabolic pathways. In addition, various machine learning models were employed to quantify the relationship between obesity status and Body mass index (BMI) values, of which support vector machine model achieves best performance with 0.716 classification accuracy and 0.485 R2 score. In addition to two well-established obesity-associated species, three species that have potential to be obesity-related biomarkers, including Bacteroides caccae, Odoribacter splanchnicus and Roseburia hominis were identified. Further analyses of functional pathways also reveal some enriched pathways in obese individuals. Collectively, our data demonstrates tight relationship between obesity and gut microbiota in a large-scale Chinese population. These findings may provide potential targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Ma C, Wu H, Chen G, et al (2021)

The potential of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in diagnosis of spinal infection: a retrospective study.

European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a new approach to identify the infecting organism in infectious diseases. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of mNGS in determining the etiology of spinal infection.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients who had a suspected spinal infection and underwent mNGS for diagnosis in our hospital were eligible for inclusion. Samples for mNGS, culture, and histopathological tests were collected surgically or with a CT-guided needle biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for mNGS and culture test, using histopathological results as reference.

RESULTS: A total of 31 mNGS tests in 30 cases were included. Twenty-six cases were classified as infected, and four cases were considered aseptic. mNGS achieved a specificity of 75.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9% to 98.7%], sensitivity was 70.3% (95% CI, 49.7% to 85.5%). mNGS was more sensitive than culture at 14.8% (95% CI, 4.9% to 34.6%, P < 0.0001). However, the specificities of mNGS and culture were statistically similar.

CONCLUSION: We described here the power of mNGS in the etiological diagnosing of spinal infection. Our study opens the possibility for more extensive use of mNGS techniques in the identification of pathogens in patients with suspected spinal infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Biassoni R, Di Marco E, Squillario M, et al (2021)

Pathways and microbiome modifications related to surgery and enterocolitis in Hirschsprung disease.

Pediatric surgery international [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital anomaly of the enteric nervous system. Abnormal microbiome composition was reported in HSCR patients. In this study, we addressed and analyzed microbiome modifications with relation tosurgery and HSCR associated enterocolitis (HAEC).

METHODS: The faecal microbiome of 31 HSCR patients (overall 64 samples) was analyzed. HAEC was diagnosed and classified according to a combination of Pastor's and Elhalabi's criteria. Stool samples were analyzed by 16S sequencing (7 out of 9 polymorphic regions). Compositional and relative abundance profiles, as well as the functional potentials of the microbial community, were analyzed with the marker gene sequencing profiles using PICRUSt.

RESULTS: The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes showed a severe decrease with slow recovery after surgery. Conversely, Proteobacteria transiently increased their abundance. Noteworthy, a strong linkage has been found between Proteobacteria descendants and HAEC occurrences. The inferred functional analysis indicated that virulence factors and fimbriae or pili might be associated with HAEC.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study, addressing microbiome dynamics, demonstrated relevant changes after surgical manipulation. Alpha-diversity analyses indicated that surgery deeply affects microbiome composition. Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae seem to play a pivotal role in HAEC occurrences. Several virulence factors, such as fimbriae or pili, might explain the HAEC-predisposing potential of selected microbiomes. These results suggest some innovative therapeutic approaches that deserve to be tested in appropriate clinical trials.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Pärnänen KMM, Hultman J, Markkanen M, et al (2021)

Early-life formula feeding is associated with infant gut microbiota alterations and an increased antibiotic resistance load.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:6408461 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Infants are at a high risk of acquiring fatal infections, and their treatment relies on functioning antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in high numbers in antibiotic-naive infants' gut microbiomes, and infant mortality caused by resistant infections is high. The role of antibiotics in shaping the infant resistome has been studied, but there is limited knowledge on other factors which affect the antibiotic resistance burden of the infant gut.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the impact of early exposure to formula on the ARG load in neonates and infants born either pre- or full-term. Our hypotheses were that diet causes a selective pressure that influences the microbial community of the infant gut, and formula exposure would increase the abundance of taxa that carry ARGs.

DESIGN: Cross-sectionally sampled gut metagenomes of 46 neonates were used to build a generalized linear model to determine the impact of diet on ARG loads in neonates. The model was cross-validated using neonate metagenomes gathered from public databases using our custom statistical pipeline for cross-validation.

RESULTS: Formula-fed neonates had higher relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Clostridioides difficile. The relative abundance of ARGs carried by gut bacteria was 69% higher in the formula receiving group (fold change 1.69, (95% CI 1.12, 2.55), P = 0.013, n = 180) compared to exclusively human milk-fed infants. The formula-fed infants also had significantly less typical infant bacteria such as bifidobacteria that have potential health benefits.

CONCLUSIONS: The novel finding that formula exposure is correlated with a higher neonatal ARG burden lays the foundation that clinicians should consider feeding mode in addition to antibiotic use during the first months of life to minimize the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant gut bacteria in infants.Clinical trial registry number: The Institutional Review Board of Pennsylvania State University, USA (IRB #35925) approved the study.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Sanabria AM, Janice J, Hjerde E, et al (2021)

Shotgun-metagenomics based prediction of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus from periprosthetic tissue on blood culture bottles.

Scientific reports, 11(1):20848.

Shotgun-metagenomics may give valuable clinical information beyond the detection of potential pathogen(s). Identification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence genes and typing directly from clinical samples has been limited due to challenges arising from incomplete genome coverage. We assessed the performance of shotgun-metagenomics on positive blood culture bottles (n = 19) with periprosthetic tissue for typing and prediction of AMR and virulence profiles in Staphylococcus aureus. We used different approaches to determine if sequence data from reads provides more information than from assembled contigs. Only 0.18% of total reads was derived from human DNA. Shotgun-metagenomics results and conventional method results were consistent in detecting S. aureus in all samples. AMR and known periprosthetic joint infection virulence genes were predicted from S. aureus. Mean coverage depth, when predicting AMR genes was 209 ×. Resistance phenotypes could be explained by genes predicted in the sample in most of the cases. The choice of bioinformatic data analysis approach clearly influenced the results, i.e. read-based analysis was more accurate for pathogen identification, while contigs seemed better for AMR profiling. Our study demonstrates high genome coverage and potential for typing and prediction of AMR and virulence profiles in S. aureus from shotgun-metagenomics data.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Kim H, Cho JH, Song M, et al (2021)

Evaluating the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in livestock using metagenomics approach.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 31: pii:jmb.2109.09038 [Epub ahead of print].

Food safety is the most important global health issue due to foodborne pathogens after consumption of contaminated food. Foodborne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp., Bacillus cereus, Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium perfringens are leading causes of the majority of foodborne illnesses and deaths. These foodborne pathogens often come from the livestock feces, thus, we analyzed fecal microbial communities of three different livestock species to investigate the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in livestock feces using metagenomics analysis. Our data showed that alpha diversities of microbial communities were different according to livestock species. The microbial diversity of cattle feces was higher than that of chicken or pig feces. Moreover, microbial communities were significantly different among these three livestock species (cattle, chicken, and pig). At the genus level, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found in all livestock feces, with chicken feces having higher relative abundances of Staphylococcus and Clostridium than cattle and pig feces. Genera Bacillus, Campylobacter, and Vibrio were detected in cattle feces. Chicken samples contained Bacillus, Listeria, and Salmonella with low relative abundance. Other genera such as Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Helicobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas known to be opportunistic pathogens were also detected in cattle, chicken, and pig feces. Results of this study might be useful for controlling the spread of foodborne pathogens in farm environments known to provide natural sources of these microorganisms.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Wu J, M Huang (2021)

Application of mNGS to describe the clinical and microbial characteristics of severe burn a tanker explosion at a tertiary medical center: a retrospective study patients following.

BMC infectious diseases, 21(1):1086.

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to infection is the leading cause of death in burn patients. Bloodstream infection (BSI) and the prognosis of burn patients are negatively correlated. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can detect many potential pathogens and may be more valuable for patients with severe burns.

METHODS: We retrospectively explored the utility of mNGS in describing the clinical and microbial characteristics of severely burned patients with BSI. We compared mNGS with blood culture.

RESULTS: Fourteen patients (127 blood samples) developed 71 episodes of BSIs with 102 unique causative pathogens. The median total body surface area was 93%. The overall 90-day mortality was 43%. In total, 17 (23.9%) episodes were polymicrobial, and 61 (86.1%) episodes originated from the wound. In total, 62/71 cases (87%) showed positive findings by mNGS, while 42/71 cases (59%) showed positive findings using blood culture. We found that mNGS outperformed culture, especially in terms of fungi (27% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of BSI and polymicrobial in patients with large-area severe burns is high. mNGS has potential value in the diagnosis of fungal infections and coinfections in such patients. In addition, mNGS may provide unique guidance for antibiotic therapy in complicated BSI.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Wassenaar TM (2021)

Functional insights on probiotics activity in the gut from metagenomic data.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Zhu T, Cai QQ, Yu J, et al (2021)

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) confirmed a critical case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV).

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Cai X, Li J, Guan F, et al (2021)

Unveiling metabolic characteristics of an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium responsible for in situ PAH biodegradation in petroleum polluted soil.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Exploring the metabolic characteristics of indigenous PAH degraders is critical to understanding the PAH bioremediation mechanism in the natural environment. While stable-isotopic probing (SIP) is a viable method to identify functional microorganisms in complex environments, the metabolic characteristics of uncultured degraders are still elusive. Here, we investigated the naphthalene (NAP) biodegradation of petroleum polluted soils by combining SIP, amplicon sequencing and metagenome binning. Based on the SIP and amplicon sequencing results, an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium sp. was identified as the key NAP degrader. Additionally, the assembled genome of this uncultured degrader was successfully obtained from the 13 C-DNA metagenomes by matching its 16S rRNA gene with the SIP identified OTU sequence. Meanwhile, a number of NAP degrading genes encoding naphthalene/PAH dioxygenases were identified in this genome, further confirming the direct involvement of this indigenous degrader in the NAP degradation. The degrader contained genes related to the metabolisms of several carbon sources, energy substances and vitamins, illuminating potential reasons for why microorganisms cannot be cultivated and finally realize their cultivation. Our findings provide novel information on the mechanisms of in situ PAH biodegradation and add to our current knowledge on the cultivation of non-culturable microorganisms by combining both SIP and metagenome binning.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Sugimoto R, Nishimura L, Nguyen PT, et al (2021)

Comprehensive discovery of CRISPR-targeted terminally redundant sequences in the human gut metagenome: Viruses, plasmids, and more.

PLoS computational biology, 17(10):e1009428 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-20-01978.

Viruses are the most numerous biological entity, existing in all environments and infecting all cellular organisms. Compared with cellular life, the evolution and origin of viruses are poorly understood; viruses are enormously diverse, and most lack sequence similarity to cellular genes. To uncover viral sequences without relying on either reference viral sequences from databases or marker genes that characterize specific viral taxa, we developed an analysis pipeline for virus inference based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). CRISPR is a prokaryotic nucleic acid restriction system that stores the memory of previous exposure. Our protocol can infer CRISPR-targeted sequences, including viruses, plasmids, and previously uncharacterized elements, and predict their hosts using unassembled short-read metagenomic sequencing data. By analyzing human gut metagenomic data, we extracted 11,391 terminally redundant CRISPR-targeted sequences, which are likely complete circular genomes. The sequences included 2,154 tailed-phage genomes, together with 257 complete crAssphage genomes, 11 genomes larger than 200 kilobases, 766 genomes of Microviridae species, 56 genomes of Inoviridae species, and 95 previously uncharacterized circular small genomes that have no reliably predicted protein-coding gene. We predicted the host(s) of approximately 70% of the discovered genomes at the taxonomic level of phylum by linking protospacers to taxonomically assigned CRISPR direct repeats. These results demonstrate that our protocol is efficient for de novo inference of CRISPR-targeted sequences and their host prediction.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Quintela-Baluja M, Frigon D, Abouelnaga M, et al (2021)

Dynamics of integron structures across a wastewater network - Implications to resistance gene transfer.

Water research, 206:117720 pii:S0043-1354(21)00914-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Class 1 and other integrons are common in wastewater networks, often being associated with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, the importance of different integron structures in ARG transfer within wastewater systems has only been implied, especially between community and hospital sources, among wastewater treatment plant compartments, and in receiving waters. This uncertainty is partly because current clinical class 1 integron qPCR assays (i.e., that target human-impacted structures, i.e., clintI1) poorly delineate clintI1 from non-impacted class 1 integron structures. They also say nothing about their ARG content. To fill these technical gaps, new real-time qPCR assays were developed for "impacted" class 1 structures (called aint1; i.e., anthropogenic class 1 integrons) and empty aint1 structures (i.e., carry no ARGs; called eaint1). The new assays and other integron assays then were used to examine integron dynamics across a wastewater network. 16S metagenomic sequencing also was performed to characterise associated microbiomes. aint1 abundances per bacterial cell were about 10 times greater in hospital wastewaters compared with other compartments, suggesting aint1 enrichment with ARGs in hospital sources. Conversely, the relative abundance of eaint1 structures were over double in recycled activated sludge compared with other compartments, except receiving waters (RAS; ∼30% of RAS class 1 structures did not carry ARGs). Microbiome analysis showed that human-associated bacterial taxa with mobile integrons also differed in RAS and river sediments. Further, class 1 integrons in RAS bacteria appear to have released ARGs, whereas hospital bacteria have accumulated ARGs. Results show that quantifying integron dynamics can help explain where ARG transfer occurs in wastewater networks, and should be considered in future studies on antibiotic resistance in the environment.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Bi J, Li Z, Lin X, et al (2021)

Etiology of granulomatous lobular mastitis based on metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(21)00810-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the etiology of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) comprehensively, so as to optimize treatment programmes.

METHODS: 30 fresh mastitis samples were collected for metagenimic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS), morphological observation, and analysis of the clinical information.

RESULTS: 25 of 30 samples were GLM, and pathogens were detected in 17 of them included Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (10/25, 40%), Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii and Pseudomonas oleovorans (3/25, 12%), Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii and Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (1/25, 4%), Acinetobacter baumannii and Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (1/25, 4%), Pseudomonas oleovorans (1/25, 4%), Tepidiphilus thermophilus (1/25, 4%). 12 of 25 samples had abnormal sex hormones level (mainly prolactin) and/or autoimmune function. Besides, lipophilic antibiotics (rifampicin) work effectively in the patients with long-healing wound after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: The main pathogenic factors of GLM is Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii infection, but other unusual pathogens (such as Pseudomonas oleovorans, Human gammaherpesvirus 4, Acinetobacter baumannii, Tepidiphilus thermophilus) are likely to be closely related to GLM, especially " Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (EBV)-associated mastitis" may be a new entiy of mastitis. Abnormal levels of sex hormones and autoimmune are also common causes. Thus, lipophilic antibiotics (rifampicin) and prolactin inhibitor may be an effective medicine.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Leijonhufvud G, Bajalan A, Soratto TAT, et al (2021)

Better detection of Torque Teno Virus in children with leukemia by metagenomic sequencing than by quantitative PCR.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Torque Teno virus (TTV) is a group of chronically persisting viruses with a short circular DNA genome. TTV demonstrates a wide sequence diversity and a large majority of humans are chronically infected by one or more types of TTV. Since TTV is ubiquitous, and viral replication correlates with immune status, TTV has been studied as a marker to assess global functional immune competence in transplant recipients. Most studies of the prevalence, amounts, and variation in TTV have been performed using PCR assays. We here present a comparison of the most frequently used quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for TTV with shotgun metagenomic sequencing for detection and characterization of TTV in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. The results show that TTV is more common than the qPCR assays indicated, and analysis of the TTV genome sequences indicate that a qPCR with primers and probe designed on a conserved region of the TTV genome may fail to detect some of the TTV strains found in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Karthikeyan S, Hatt JK, Kim M, et al (2021)

A novel, divergent alkane monooxygenase (alkB) clade involved in crude oil biodegradation.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Alkanes are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems and originate from diverse sources ranging from natural oil seeps to anthropogenic inputs and biogenic production by cyanobacteria. Enzymes that degrade cyanobacterial alkanes (typically C15-C17 compounds) such as the alkane monooxygenase (AlkB) are widespread, but it remains unclear whether or not AlkB variants exist that specialize in degradation of crude oil from natural or accidental spills, a much more complex mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons. In the present study, large-scale analysis of available metagenomic and genomic data from the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) oil spill revealed a novel, divergent AlkB clade recovered from genomes with no cultured representatives that was dramatically increased in abundance in crude-oil impacted ecosystems. In contrast, the AlkB clades associated with biotransformation of cyanobacterial alkanes belonged to 'canonical' or hydrocarbonoclastic clades, and based on metatranscriptomics data and compared to the novel clade, were much more weakly expressed during crude oil biodegradation in laboratory mesocosms. The absence of this divergent AlkB clade in metagenomes of uncontaminated samples from the global ocean survey but not from the GoM as well as its frequent horizontal gene transfer indicated a priming effect of the Gulf for crude oil biodegradation likely driven by natural oil seeps.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Conta G, Del Chierico F, Reddel S, et al (2021)

Longitudinal Multi-Omics Study of a Mother-Infant Dyad from Breastfeeding to Weaning: An Individualized Approach to Understand the Interactions Among Diet, Fecal Metabolome and Microbiota Composition.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:688440.

The development of the human gut microbiota is characterized by a dynamic sequence of events from birth to adulthood, which make the gut microbiota unique for everyone. Its composition and metabolism may play a critical role in the intestinal homeostasis and health. We propose a study on a single mother-infant dyad to follow the dynamics of an infant fecal microbiota and metabolome changes in relation to breast milk composition during the lactation period and evaluate the changes induced by introduction of complementary food during the weaning period. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was performed on breast milk and, together with 16S RNA targeted-metagenomics analysis, also on infant stool samples of a mother-infant dyad collected over a period running from the exclusive breastfeeding diet to weaning. Breast milk samples and neonatal stool samples were collected from the 4th to the 10th month of life. Both specimens were collected from day 103 to day 175, while from day 219-268 only stool samples were examined. An exploratory and a predictive analysis were carried out by means of Common component and specific weight analysis and multi-block partial least squares discriminant analysis, respectively. Stools collected during breastfeeding and during a mixed fruit/breastfeeding diet were characterized by high levels of fucosyl-oligosaccharides and glycolysis intermediates, including succinate and formate. The transition to a semi-solid food diet was characterized by several changes in fecal parameters: increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels, including acetate, propionate and butyrate, dissapearance of HMOs and the shift in the community composition, mainly occurring within the Firmicutes phylum. The variations in the fecal metabolome reflected the infant's diet transition, while the composition of the microbiota followed a more complex and still unstable behavior.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Shi L, Xia H, Moore MD, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing in the Diagnosis of HHV-1 Reactivation in a Critically Ill COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:715519.

Background: Secondary infections pose tremendous challenges in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and are associated with higher mortality rates. Clinicians face of the challenge of diagnosing viral infections because of low sensitivity of available laboratory tests. Case Presentation: A 66-year-old woman initially manifested fever and shortness of breath. She was diagnosed as critically ill with COVID-19 using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and treated with antiviral therapy, ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, after the condition was relatively stabled for a few days, the patient deteriorated with fever, frequent cough, increased airway secretions, and increased exudative lesions in the lower right lung on chest X-rays, showing the possibility of a newly acquired infection, though sputum bacterial and fungal cultures and smears showed negative results. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), we identified a reactivation of latent human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1) in the respiratory tract, blood and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a worsened clinical course in a critically ill COVID-19 patient on ECMO. Anti-HHV-1 therapy guided by these sequencing results effectively decreased HHV-1 levels, and improved the patient's clinical condition. After 49 days on ECMO and 67 days on the ventilator, the 66-year-old patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates the potential value of mNGS for evidence-based treatment, and suggests that potential reactivation of latent viruses should be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Huang C, Chen H, Ding Y, et al (2021)

A Microbial World: Could Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Be Involved in Acute Respiratory Failure?.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:738074.

Background: The usefulness of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in identifying pathogens is being investigated. We aimed to compare the power of microbial identification between mNGS and various methods in patients with acute respiratory failure.

Methods: We reviewed 130 patients with respiratory failure, and 184 specimens including blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), sputum, pleural effusion, ascitic fluid, and urine were tested by mNGS and conventional methods (culture, PCR). We also enrolled 13 patients to evaluate the power of mNGS and pathogen targets NGS (ptNGS) in microbial identifications. Clinical features and microbes detected were analyzed.

Results: mNGS outperformed the conventional method in the positive detection rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (OR, ∞; 95% CI, 1-∞; P < 0.05), bacteria (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.4-5.8; P < 0.0001), fungi (OR, 4.37; 95% CI, 2.7-7.2; P < 0.0001), mycoplasma (OR, 10.5; 95% CI, 31.8-115; P = 0.005), and virus (OR, ∞; 95% CI, 180.7-∞; P < 0.0001). We showed that 20 patients (28 samples) were detected with Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) by mNGS, but not by the conventional method, and most of those patients were immunocompromised. Read numbers of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), P. jirovecii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) in BALF were higher than those in other sample types, and the read number of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in blood was higher than that in BALF. We found that orotracheal intubation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were associated with a higher detection rate of bacteria and virus by mNGS, immunosuppression was associated with a higher detection rate of fungi and virus by mNGS, and inflammatory markers were associated with mNGS-positive detection rate of bacteria. In addition, we observed preliminary results of ptNGS.

Conclusion: mNGS outperformed the conventional method in the detection of MTB, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and virus. Orotracheal intubation, T2DM, immunosuppression, and inflammatory markers were associated with a higher detection rate of bacteria, fungi, and virus by mNGS. In addition, ptNGS results were consistent with the detection of abundant bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasma in our specimens.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Wang Y, Pedersen MW, Alsos IG, et al (2021)

Late Quaternary dynamics of Arctic biota from ancient environmental genomics.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

During the last glacial-interglacial cycle, Arctic biotas experienced substantial climatic changes, yet the nature, extent and rate of their responses are not fully understood1-8. Here we report a large-scale environmental DNA metagenomic study of ancient plant and mammal communities, analysing 535 permafrost and lake sediment samples from across the Arctic spanning the past 50,000 years. Furthermore, we present 1,541 contemporary plant genome assemblies that were generated as reference sequences. Our study provides several insights into the long-term dynamics of the Arctic biota at the circumpolar and regional scales. Our key findings include: (1) a relatively homogeneous steppe-tundra flora dominated the Arctic during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by regional divergence of vegetation during the Holocene epoch; (2) certain grazing animals consistently co-occurred in space and time; (3) humans appear to have been a minor factor in driving animal distributions; (4) higher effective precipitation, as well as an increase in the proportion of wetland plants, show negative effects on animal diversity; (5) the persistence of the steppe-tundra vegetation in northern Siberia enabled the late survival of several now-extinct megafauna species, including the woolly mammoth until 3.9 ± 0.2 thousand years ago (ka) and the woolly rhinoceros until 9.8 ± 0.2 ka; and (6) phylogenetic analysis of mammoth environmental DNA reveals a previously unsampled mitochondrial lineage. Our findings highlight the power of ancient environmental metagenomics analyses to advance understanding of population histories and long-term ecological dynamics.

RevDate: 2021-10-21
CmpDate: 2021-10-21

Pistone D, Meroni G, Panelli S, et al (2021)

A Journey on the Skin Microbiome: Pitfalls and Opportunities.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(18):.

The human skin microbiota is essential for maintaining homeostasis and ensuring barrier functions. Over the years, the characterization of its composition and taxonomic diversity has reached outstanding goals, with more than 10 million bacterial genes collected and cataloged. Nevertheless, the study of the skin microbiota presents specific challenges that need to be addressed in study design. Benchmarking procedures and reproducible and robust analysis workflows for increasing comparability among studies are required. For various reasons and because of specific technical problems, these issues have been investigated in gut microbiota studies, but they have been largely overlooked for skin microbiota. After a short description of the skin microbiota, the review tackles methodological aspects and their pitfalls, covering NGS approaches and high throughput culture-based techniques. Recent insights into the "core" and "transient" types of skin microbiota and how the manipulation of these communities can prevent or combat skin diseases are also covered. Finally, this review includes an overview of the main dermatological diseases, the changes in the microbiota composition associated with them, and the recommended skin sampling procedures. The last section focuses on topical and oral probiotics to improve and maintain skin health, considering their possible applications for skin diseases.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Palkova L, Tomova A, Repiska G, et al (2021)

Evaluation of 16S rRNA primer sets for characterisation of microbiota in paediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder.

Scientific reports, 11(1):6781.

intestinal microbiota is becoming a significant marker that reflects differences between health and disease status also in terms of gut-brain axis communication. Studies show that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have a mix of gut microbes that is distinct from the neurotypical children. Various assays are being used for microbiota investigation and were considered to be universal. However, newer studies showed that protocol for preparing DNA sequencing libraries is a key factor influencing results of microbiota investigation. The choice of DNA amplification primers seems to be the crucial for the outcome of analysis. In our study, we have tested 3 primer sets to investigate differences in outcome of sequencing analysis of microbiota in children with ASD. We found out that primers detected different portion of bacteria in samples especially at phylum level; significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides and lower Firmicutes were detected using 515f/806r compared to 27f/1492r and 27f*/1495f primers. So, the question is whether a gold standard of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is a valuable and reliable universal marker, since two primer sets towards 16S rRNA can provide opposite information. Moreover, significantly higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria was detected using 27f/1492r. The beta diversity of sample groups differed remarkably and so the number of observed bacterial genera.

RevDate: 2021-10-21
CmpDate: 2021-10-21

Appiah SA, Foxx CL, Langgartner D, et al (2021)

Evaluation of the gut microbiome in association with biological signatures of inflammation in murine polytrauma and shock.

Scientific reports, 11(1):6665.

Severe injuries are frequently accompanied by hemorrhagic shock and harbor an increased risk for complications. Local or systemic inflammation after trauma/hemorrhage may lead to a leaky intestinal epithelial barrier and subsequent translocation of gut microbiota, potentially worsening outcomes. To evaluate the extent with which trauma affects the gut microbiota composition, we performed a post hoc analysis of a murine model of polytrauma and hemorrhage. Four hours after injury, organs and plasma samples were collected, and the diversity and composition of the cecal microbiome were evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although cecal microbial alpha diversity and microbial community composition were not found to be different between experimental groups, norepinephrine support in shock animals resulted in increased alpha diversity, as indicated by higher numbers of distinct microbial features. We observed that the concentrations of proinflammatory mediators in plasma and intestinal tissue were associated with measures of microbial alpha and beta diversity and the presence of specific microbial drivers of inflammation, suggesting that the composition of the gut microbiome at the time of trauma, or shortly after trauma exposure, may play an important role in determining physiological outcomes. In conclusion, we found associations between measures of gut microbial alpha and beta diversity and the severity of systemic and local gut inflammation. Furthermore, our data suggest that four hours following injury is too early for development of global changes in the alpha diversity or community composition of the intestinal microbiome. Future investigations with increased temporal-spatial resolution are needed in order to fully elucidate the effects of trauma and shock on the gut microbiome, biological signatures of inflammation, and proximal and distal outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Peri AM, Harris PNA, DL Paterson (2021)

Culture independent detection systems for bloodstream infection.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(21)00602-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Sepsis and bloodstream infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and early effective antimicrobial therapy has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes. Traditional culture-based methods, however, have several limitations which hamper a prompt diagnosis in bloodstream infection, including long turnaround times and limited sensitivity. In the last years, advances have been made in the development of several technologies which allow the identification of pathogens and their resistance markers directly from whole blood, possibly representing promising alternatives to conventional culture methods.

OBJECTIVES: To review the currently commercially available emerging assays for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections directly from whole blood, including their performance and the available data about their impact on patients' outcome.

SOURCES: Peer-reviewed publications relevant to the topic have been searched through PubMed; manufacturers' websites have also been consulted as a data source.

CONTENT: We have reviewed available data about the following technologies: multiplex real-time PCR working directly from whole blood (Magicplex Sepsis Real-Time test, Seegene), PCR combined with T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2Candida and T2Bacteria panel, T2Biosystem), and metagenomics-based assays (including SepsiTest, Molzym; iDTECT Dx Blood, PathoQuest; Karius NGS plasma Test, Karius). Performance characteristics, advantages and pitfalls of each method are described, and available data about their impact on patients' clinical outcomes are discussed.

IMPLICATIONS: The potential of rapid diagnostic tests applied on whole blood in improving the management of patients with bloodstream infection and sepsis is high, both in terms of reducing turnaround times and improving the sensitivity of pathogen and antimicrobial resistance detection. However, overall, there is still a scarcity of data about the real-life performance of such tests, and well-designed studies are awaited for assessing the impact of these emerging technologies on patients' outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zhang F, Wan Y, Zuo T, et al (2021)

Prolonged impairment of short-chain fatty acid and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(21)03650-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with altered gut microbiota composition. Phylogenetic groups of gut bacteria involved in the metabolism of short chain fatty acids were depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We aimed to characterize functional profile of gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution.

METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from 66 antibiotics-naïve patients with COVID-19 and 70 non-COVID-19 controls. Serial fecal samples were collected (up to 6 times points) during hospitalization and beyond one month after discharge. We assessed gut microbial pathways in association with disease severity and blood inflammatory markers. We also determined changes of microbial functions in fecal samples before and after disease resolution and validated these functions using targeted analysis of fecal metabolites.

RESULTS: Compared with non-COVID-19 controls, COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness showed significant alterations in gut microbiome functionality (P < .001), characterized by impaired capacity of gut microbiome for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and L-isoleucine biosynthesis and enhanced capacity for urea production. Impaired SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome persisted beyond 30 days after recovery in COVID-19 patients. Targeted analysis of fecal metabolites showed significantly lower fecal concentrations of SCFAs and L-isoleucine in COVID-19 patients before and after disease resolution. Lack of SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis significantly correlated with disease severity and increased plasma concentrations of CXCL-10, NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein (CRP) (all P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome of COVID-19 patients displayed impaired capacity for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis which persisted even after disease resolution. These two microbial functions correlated with host immune response underscoring the importance of gut microbial functions in SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and outcome.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Gamiz-Arco G, Risso VA, Gaucher EA, et al (2021)

Combining ancestral reconstruction with folding-landscape simulations to engineer heterologous protein expression.

Journal of molecular biology pii:S0022-2836(21)00558-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Obligate symbionts typically exhibit high evolutionary rates. Consequently, their proteins may differ considerably from their modern and ancestral homologs in terms of both sequence and properties, thus providing excellent models to study protein evolution. Also, obligate symbionts are challenging to culture in the lab and proteins from uncultured organisms must be produced in heterologous hosts using recombinant DNA technology. Obligate symbionts thus replicate a fundamental scenario of metagenomics studies aimed at the functional characterization and biotechnological exploitation of proteins from the bacteria in soil. Here, we use the thioredoxin from Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron, an uncultured symbiont of flashlight fish, to explore evolutionary and engineering aspects of protein folding in heterologous hosts. The symbiont protein is a standard thioredoxin in terms of 3D-structure, stability and redox activity. However, its folding outside the original host is severely impaired, as shown by a very slow refolding in vitro and an inefficient expression in E. coli that leads mostly to insoluble protein. By contrast, resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins express efficiently in E. coli, plausibly reflecting an ancient adaptation to unassisted folding. We have used a statistical-mechanical model of the folding landscape to guide back-to-ancestor engineering of the symbiont protein. Remarkably, we find that the efficiency of heterologous expression correlates with the in vitro (i.e., unassisted) folding rate and that the ancestral expression efficiency can be achieved with only 1-2 back-to-ancestor replacements. These results demonstrate a minimal-perturbation, sequence-engineering approach to rescue inefficient heterologous expression which may potentially be useful in metagenomics efforts targeting recent adaptations.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Li B, He Q, Rui Y, et al (2021)

Rapid Pathogen Detection for Infected Ascites in Cirrhosis using Metagenome Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Series.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver [Epub ahead of print].

Empirical antibiotic therapy in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is common as pathogen(s) are identified in only 5%-20% patients using conventional culture-based techniques. Metagenome next-generation sequencing (mNGS) test is a promising approach for diagnosis of infectious disease. The clinical application of mNGS for infected ascites in cirrhotic patients is rarely reported. Here, we describe three cases to preliminarily explore the potential role of mNGS for microbiological diagnosis of ascites infection in exploratory manner. The clinical performance of ascites mNGS in cirrhotic patients remains to be further evaluated.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zhao N, Cao J, Xu J, et al (2021)

Targeting RNA with Next- and Third-Generation Sequencing Improves Pathogen Identification in Clinical Samples.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Fast and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is critical for the proper treatment of infections. Traditional culture-based diagnosis in clinics is increasingly supplemented by metagenomic next-generation-sequencing (mNGS). Here, RNA/cDNA-targeted sequencing (meta-transcriptomics using NGS (mtNGS)) is established to reduce the host nucleotide percentage in clinic samples and by combining with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) platforms (meta-transcriptomics using third-generation sequencing, mtTGS) to improve the sequencing time. It shows that mtNGS improves the ratio of microbial reads, facilitates bacterial identification using multiple-strategies, and discovers fungi, viruses, and antibiotic resistance genes, and displaying agreement with clinical findings. Furthermore, longer reads in mtTGS lead to additional improvement in pathogen identification and also accelerate the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, primary tests utilizing direct-RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing of ONT show that ONT displays important potential but must be further developed. This study presents the potential of RNA-targeted pathogen identification in clinical samples, especially when combined with the newest developments in ONT.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Sabater C, Cobo-Díaz JF, Álvarez-Ordóñez A, et al (2021)

Novel methods of microbiome analysis in the food industry.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The study of the food microbiome has gained considerable interest in recent years, mainly due to the wide range of applications that can be derived from the analysis of metagenomes. Among these applications, it is worth mentioning the possibility of using metagenomic analyses to determine food authenticity, to assess the microbiological safety of foods thanks to the detection and tracking of pathogens, antibiotic resistance genes and other undesirable traits, as well to identify the microorganisms responsible for food processing defects. Metataxonomics and metagenomics are currently the gold standard methodologies to explore the full potential of metagenomes in the food industry. However, there are still a number of challenges that must be solved in order to implement these methods routinely in food chain monitoring, and for the regulatory agencies to take them into account in their opinions. These challenges include the difficulties of analysing foods and food-related environments with a low microbial load, the lack of validated bioinformatics pipelines adapted to food microbiomes and the difficulty of assessing the viability of the detected microorganisms. This review summarizes the methods of microbiome analysis that have been used, so far, in foods and food-related environments, with a specific focus on those involving Next-Generation Sequencing technologies.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Sarker S (2021)

Metagenomic detection and characterisation of multiple viruses in apparently healthy Australian Neophema birds.

Scientific reports, 11(1):20915.

Emerging viral pathogens are a significant concern, with potential consequences for human, animal and environmental health. Over the past several decades, many novel viruses have been found in animals, including birds, and often pose a significant threat to vulnerable species. However, despite enormous interest in virus research, little is known about virus communities (viromes) in Australian Neophema birds. Therefore, this study was designed to characterise the viromes of Neophema birds and track the evolutionary relationships of recently emerging psittacine siadenovirus F (PsSiAdV-F) circulating in the critically endangered, orange-bellied parrot (OBP, Neophema chrysogaster), using a viral metagenomic approach. This study identified 16 viruses belonging to the families Adenoviridae, Circoviridae, Endornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae. In addition, this study demonstrated a potential evolutionary relationship of a PsSiAdV-F sequenced previously from the critically endangered OBP. Strikingly, five adenoviral contigs identified in this study show the highest identities with human adenovirus 2 and human mastadenovirus C. This highlights an important and unexpected aspects of the avian virome and warrants further studies dedicated to this subject. Finally, the findings of this study emphasise the importance of testing birds used for trade or in experimental settings for potential pathogens to prevent the spread of infections.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Kameli N, Becker HEF, Welbers T, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Profiling of Fecal-Derived Bacterial Membrane Vesicles in Crohn's Disease Patients.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102795.

BACKGROUND: In the past, many studies suggested a crucial role for dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD). However, despite being important players in host-bacteria interaction, the role of bacterial membrane vesicles (MV) has been largely overlooked in the pathogenesis of CD. In this study, we addressed the composition of the bacterial and MV composition in fecal samples of CD patients and compared this to the composition in healthy individuals.

METHODS: Fecal samples from six healthy subjects (HC) in addition to twelve CD patients (six active, six remission) were analyzed in this study. Fecal bacterial membrane vesicles (fMVs) were isolated by a combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography. DNA was obtained from the fMV fraction, the pellet of dissolved feces as bacterial DNA (bDNA), or directly from feces as fecal DNA (fDNA). The fMVs were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and cryo-electron microscopy. Amplicon sequencing of 16s rRNA V4 hypervariable gene regions was conducted to assess microbial composition of all fractions.

RESULTS: Beta-diversity analysis showed that the microbial community structure of the fMVs was significantly different from the microbial profiles of the fDNA and bDNA. However, no differences were observed in microbial composition between fDNA and bDNA. The microbial richness of fMVs was significantly decreased in CD patients compared to HC, and even lower in active patients. Profiling of fDNA and bDNA demonstrated that Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum in these fractions, while in fMVs Bacteroidetes was dominant. In fMV, several families and genera belonging to Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were significantly altered in CD patients when compared to HC.

CONCLUSION: The microbial alterations of MVs in CD patients particularly in Firmicutes and Proteobacteria suggest a possible role of MVs in host-microbe symbiosis and induction or progression of inflammation in CD pathogenesis. Yet, the exact role for these fMV in the pathogenesis of the disease needs to be elucidated in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Hossain F, Majumder S, David J, et al (2021)

Obesity Modulates the Gut Microbiome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103656.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, molecularly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with increased incidence and worse prognosis in TNBC through various potential mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays a central role in the progression of cancer, and that imbalances or dysbiosis in the population of commensal microbiota can lead to inflammation and contribute to tumor progression. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, and gut dysbiosis is associated with obesity, chronic inflammation, and failure of cancer immunotherapy. However, the debate on what constitutes a "healthy" gut microbiome is ongoing, and the connection among the gut microbiome, obesity, and TNBC has not yet been addressed. This study aims to characterize the role of obesity in modulating the gut microbiome in a syngeneic mouse model of TNBC. 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses were performed to analyze and annotate genus and taxonomic profiles. Our results suggest that obesity decreases alpha diversity in the gut microbiome. Metagenomic analysis revealed that obesity was the only significant factor explaining the similarity of the bacterial communities according to their taxonomic profiles. In contrast to the analysis of taxonomic profiles, the analysis of variation of functional profiles suggested that obesity status, tumor presence, and the obesity-tumor interaction were significant in explaining the variation of profiles, with obesity having the strongest correlation. The presence of tumor modified the profiles to a greater extent in obese than in lean animals. Further research is warranted to understand the impact of the gut microbiome on TNBC progression and immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Rousta E, Oka A, Liu B, et al (2021)

The Emulsifier Carboxymethylcellulose Induces More Aggressive Colitis in Humanized Mice with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Microbiota Than Polysorbate-80.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103565.

Commonly used synthetic dietary emulsifiers, including carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate-80 (P80), promote intestinal inflammation. We compared abilities of CMC vs. P80 to potentiate colitis and impact human microbiota in an inflammatory environment using a novel colitis model of ex-germ-free (GF) IL10-/- mice colonized by pooled fecal transplant from three patients with active inflammatory bowel diseases. After three days, mice received 1% CMC or P80 in drinking water or water alone for four weeks. Inflammation was quantified by serial fecal lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2) and after four weeks by blinded colonic histologic scores and colonic inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Microbiota profiles in cecal contents were determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. CMC treatment significantly increased fecal Lcn-2 levels compared to P80 and water treatment by one week and throughout the experiment. Likewise, CMC treatment increased histologic inflammatory scores and colonic inflammatory cytokine gene expression compared with P80 and water controls. The two emulsifiers differentially affected specific intestinal microbiota. CMC did not impact bacterial composition but significantly decreased Caudoviricetes (bacteriophages), while P80 exposure non-significantly increased the abundance of both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Commonly used dietary emulsifiers have different abilities to induce colitis in humanized mice. CMC promotes more aggressive inflammation without changing bacterial composition.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Raimondi S, Candeliere F, Amaretti A, et al (2021)

Vaginal and Anal Microbiome during Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:pathogens10101347.

Background.Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the agent of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide, with a significant impact on women's health. Despite the increasing number of studies about the vaginal microbiome in women with CT infections, information about the composition of the anal microbiome is still lacking. Here, we assessed the bacterial community profiles of vaginal and anal ecosystems associated or not with CT infection in a cohort of Caucasian young women. Methods. A total of 26 women, including 10 with a contemporary vaginal and ano-rectal CT infection, were enrolled. Composition of vaginal and anal microbiome was studied by 16S rRNA gene profiling. Co-occurrence networks of bacterial communities and metagenome metabolic functions were determined. Results. In case of CT infection, both vaginal and anal environments were characterized by a degree of dysbiosis. Indeed, the vaginal microbiome of CT-positive women were depleted in lactobacilli, with a significant increase in dysbiosis-associated bacteria (e.g., Sneathia, Parvimonas, Megasphaera), whereas the anal microbiota of CT-infected women was characterized by higher levels of Parvimonas and Pseudomonas and lower levels of Escherichia. Interestingly, the microbiome of anus and vagina had numerous bacterial taxa in common, reflecting a significant microbial 'sharing' between the two sites. In the vaginal environment, CT positively correlated with Ezakiella spp. while Gardnerella vaginalis co-occurred with several dysbiosis-related microbes, regardless of CT vaginal infection. The vaginal microbiome of CT-positive females exhibited a higher involvement of chorismate and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, as well as an increase in mixed acid fermentation. Conclusions. These data could be useful to set up new diagnostic/prognostic tools, offering new perspectives for the control of chlamydial infections.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Stewart AG, AGA Stewart (2021)

An Update on the Laboratory Diagnosis of Rickettsia spp. Infection.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:pathogens10101319.

Rickettsia species causing human illness are present globally and can cause significant disease. Diagnosis and identification of this intracellular bacteria are challenging with many available diagnostic modalities suffering from several shortcomings. Detection of antibodies directed against Rickettsia spp. via serological methods remains widely used with a broad range of sensitivity and specificity values reported depending on the assay. Molecular methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, enables species-specific identification with a fast turnaround time; however, due to resource requirements, use in some endemic settings is limited. Reports on the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomics to diagnose Rickettsia spp. infection have been increasing. Despite offering several potential advantages in the diagnosis and surveillance of disease, genomic approaches are currently only limited to reference and research laboratories. Continued development of Rickettsia spp. diagnostics is required to improve disease detection and epidemiological surveillance, and to better understand transmission dynamics.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Beyi AF, Brito-Goulart D, Hawbecker T, et al (2021)

Enrofloxacin Alters Fecal Microbiota and Resistome Irrespective of Its Dose in Calves.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102162.

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used to prevent and control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in multiple or single doses, ranging from 7.5 to 12.5 mg/kg body weight. Here, we examined the effects of high and low doses of a single subcutaneously injected enrofloxacin on gut microbiota and resistome in calves. Thirty-five calves sourced for this study were divided into five groups: control (n = 7), two low dose groups (n = 14, 7.5 mg/kg), and two high dose groups (n = 14, 12.5 mg/kg). One group in the low and high dose groups was challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica to induce BRD. Both alpha and beta diversities were significantly different between pre- and post-treatment microbial communities (q < 0.05). The high dose caused a shift in a larger number of genera than the low dose. Using metagenomic ProxiMeta Hi-C, 32 unique antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to six antibiotic classes were detected with their reservoirs, and the high dose favored clonal expansion of ARG-carrying bacterial hosts. In conclusion, enrofloxacin treatment can alter fecal microbiota and resistome irrespective of its dose. Hi-C sequencing provides significant benefits for unlocking new insights into the ARG ecology of complex samples; however, limitations in sample size and sequencing depth suggest that further work is required to validate the findings.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Vu Thi Ngoc B, Ho Bich H, Galazzo G, et al (2021)

Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Microbiota of Human Gut and Its Direct Environment in a Household Cohort with High Background of Antibiotic Use.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102115.

Comprehensive insight into the microbiota of the gut of humans and animals, as well as their living environment, in communities with a high background of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance genes is scarce. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the (dis)similarities in the microbiota of feces from humans (n = 107), domestic animals (n = 36), water (n = 89), and processed food (n = 74) in a cohort with individual history of antibiotic use in northern Vietnam. A significantly lower microbial diversity was observed among individuals who used antibiotics in the past 4 months (n = 44) compared to those who did not (n = 63). Fecal microbiota of humans was more diverse than nonhuman samples and shared a small part of its amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) with feces from animals (7.4% (3.2-9.9)), water (2.2% (1.2-2.8)), and food (3.1% (1.5-3.1)). Sharing of ASVs between humans and companion animals was not associated with the household. However, we did observe a correlation between an Enterobacteriaceae ASV and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-group-2 encoding genes in feces from humans and animals (p = 1.6 × 10-3 and p = 2.6 × 10-2, respectively), hinting toward an exchange of antimicrobial-resistant strains between reservoirs.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zhang C, Burch M, Wylie K, et al (2021)

Characterization of the Eukaryotic Virome of Mice from Different Sources.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102064.

Accumulating studies show that the host microbiome influences the development or progression of many diseases. The eukaryotic virome, as a key component of the microbiome, plays an important role in host health and disease in humans and animals, including research animals designed to model human disease. To date, the majority of research on the microbiome has focused on bacterial populations, while less attention has been paid to the viral component. Members of the eukaryotic virome interact with the commensal bacterial microbiome through trans-kingdom interactions, and influence host immunity and disease phenotypes as a collective microbial ecosystem. As such, differences in the virome may affect the reproducibility of animal models, and supplementation of the virome may enhance the translatability of animal models of human disease. However, there are minimal empirical data regarding differences in the virome of mice from different commercial sources. Our hypotheses were that the mice obtained from pet store sources and lab mice differ in their eukaryotic virome, and that lab mice from different sources would also have different viromes. To test this hypothesis, the ViroCap platform was used to characterize the eukaryotic virome in multiple tissues of mice from different sources including three sources of laboratory mice and two pet stores. As expected, pet store mice harbored a much greater diversity within the virome compared to lab mice. This included an ostensibly novel norovirus strain identified in one source of these mice. Viruses found in both laboratory and pet store populations included four strains of endogenous retroviruses and murine astrovirus with the latter being restricted to one source of lab mice. Considering the relatively high richness virome within different samples from healthy humans, these data suggest that mouse models from alternative sources may be more translational to the human condition. Moreover, these data demonstrate that, by characterizing the eukaryotic murine virome from different sources, novel viruses may be identified for use as field strains in biomedical research.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

He YH, Adkar-Purushothama CR, Ito T, et al (2021)

Microbial Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere of an Apple Orchard Managed under Prolonged "Natural Farming" Practices.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102056.

Microbial diversity in an apple orchard cultivated with natural farming practices for over 30 years was compared with conventionally farmed orchards to analyze differences in disease suppression. In this long-term naturally farmed orchard, major apple diseases were more severe than in conventional orchards but milder than in a short-term natural farming orchard. Among major fungal species in the phyllosphere, we found that Aureobasidium pullulans and Cryptococcus victoriae were significantly less abundant in long-term natural farming, while Cladosporium tenuissimum predominated. However, diversity of fungal species in the phyllosphere was not necessarily the main determinant in the disease suppression observed in natural farming; instead, the maintenance of a balanced, constant selection of fungal species under a suitable predominant species such as C. tenuissimum seemed to be the important factors. Analysis of bacteria in the phyllosphere revealed Pseudomonas graminis, a potential inducer of plant defenses, predominated in long-term natural farming in August. Rhizosphere metagenome analysis showed that Cordyceps and Arthrobotrys, fungal genera are known to include insect- or nematode-infecting species, were found only in long-term natural farming. Among soil bacteria, the genus Nitrospira was most abundant, and its level in long-term natural farming was more than double that in the conventionally farmed orchard.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Olonade I, van Zyl LJ, M Trindade (2021)

Genomic Characterization of a Prophage, Smhb1, That Infects Salinivibrio kushneri BNH Isolated from a Namib Desert Saline Spring.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102043.

Recent years have seen the classification and reclassification of many viruses related to the model enterobacterial phage P2. Here, we report the identification of a prophage (Smhb1) that infects Salinivibrio kushneri BNH isolated from a Namib Desert salt pan (playa). Analysis of the genome revealed that it showed the greatest similarity to P2-like phages that infect Vibrio species and showed no relation to any of the previously described Salinivibrio-infecting phages. Despite being distantly related to these Vibrio infecting phages and sharing the same modular gene arrangement as seen in most P2-like viruses, the nucleotide identity to its closest relatives suggest that, for now, Smhb1 is the lone member of the Peduovirus genus Playavirus. Although host range testing was not extensive and no secondary host could be identified for Smhb1, genomic evidence suggests that the phage is capable of infecting other Salinivibrio species, including Salinivibrio proteolyticus DV isolated from the same playa. Taken together, the analysis presented here demonstrates how adaptable the P2 phage model can be.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Beyi AF, Brito-Goulart D, Hawbecker T, et al (2021)

Danofloxacin Treatment Alters the Diversity and Resistome Profile of Gut Microbiota in Calves.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102023.

Fluoroquinolones, such as danofloxacin, are used to control bovine respiratory disease complex in beef cattle; however, little is known about their effects on gut microbiota and resistome. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of subcutaneously administered danofloxacin on gut microbiota and resistome, and the composition of Campylobacter in calves. Twenty calves were injected with a single dose of danofloxacin, and ten calves were kept as a control. The effects of danofloxacin on microbiota and the resistome were assessed using 16S rRNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and metagenomic Hi-C ProxiMeta. Alpha and beta diversities were significantly different (p < 0.05) between pre-and post-treatment samples, and the compositions of several bacterial taxa shifted. The patterns of association between the compositions of Campylobacter and other genera were affected by danofloxacin. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to five antibiotics were identified with their respective reservoirs. Following the treatment, some ARGs (e.g., ant9, tet40, tetW) increased in frequencies and host ranges, suggesting initiation of horizontal gene transfer, and new ARGs (aac6, ermF, tetL, tetX) were detected in the post-treatment samples. In conclusion, danofloxacin induced alterations of gut microbiota and selection and enrichment of resistance genes even against antibiotics that are unrelated to danofloxacin.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Alzahrani KJ (2021)

Microbiome Studies from Saudi Arabia over the Last 10 Years: Achievements, Gaps, and Future Directions.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102021.

In the past ten years, microbiome studies have shown tremendous potentiality for implementation of understanding microbiome structures and functions of various biomes and application of this knowledge for human betterment. Saudi Arabia is full of geographical, ecological, ethnical, and industrial diversities and scientific capacities. Therefore, there is a great potential in Saudi Arabia to conduct and implement microbiome-based research and applications. However, there is no review available on where Saudi Arabia stands with respect to global microbiome research trends. This review highlights the metagenome-assisted microbiome research from Saudi Arabia compared to the global focuses on microbiome research. Further, it also highlights the gaps and areas that should be focused on by Saudi microbiome researchers and the possible initiatives to be taken by Saudi government and universities. This literature review shows that the global trends of microbiome research cover a broad spectrum of human and animal health conditions and diseases, environmental and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, surveillance of food and food processing, production of novel industrial enzymes and bioactive pharmaceutical products, and space applications. However, Saudi microbiome studies are mostly confined to very few aspects of health (human and animal) and environment/ecology in last ten years, without much application. Therefore, Saudi Arabia should focus more on applied microbiome research through government, academic, and industry initiatives and global cooperation to match the global trends.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Dimov SG, Zagorchev L, Iliev M, et al (2021)

A Snapshot Picture of the Fungal Composition of Bee Bread in Four Locations in Bulgaria, Differing in Anthropogenic Influence.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(10): pii:jof7100845.

Information about the fungal composition of bee bread, and the fermentation processes to which the fungi contribute significantly, is rather scarce or fragmentary. In this study, we performed an NGS-based metagenomics snapshot picture study of the fungal composition of bee bread in four locations in Bulgaria during the most active honeybee foraging period at the end of June 2020. The sampling locations were chosen to differ significantly in climatic conditions, landscape, and anthropogenic pressure, and the Illumina 2 × 250 paired-end reads platform was used for amplicon metagenomics study of the ITS2 region. We found that some of the already reported canonical beneficial core fungal species were present within the studied samples. However, some fungal genera such as Monilinia, Sclerotinia, Golovinomyces, Toxicocladosporium, Pseudopithomyces, Podosphaera and Septoriella were reported for the first time among the dominant genera for a honeybee related product. Anthropogenic pressure negatively influences the fungal composition of the bee bread in two different ways-urban/industrial pressure affects the presence of pathogenic species, while agricultural pressure is reflected in a decrease of the ratio of the beneficial fungi.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Peng X, Gat D, Paytan A, et al (2021)

The Response of Airborne Mycobiome to Dust Storms in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(10): pii:jof7100802.

Airborne microbial communities directly impact the health of humans, animals, plants, and receiving ecosystems. While airborne bacterial and fungal communities have been studied by both cultivation-based methods and metabarcoding surveys targeting specific molecular markers, fewer studies have used shotgun metagenomics to study the airborne mycobiome. We analyzed the diversity and relative abundance of fungi in nine airborne metagenomes collected on clear days ("background") and during dust storms in the Eastern Mediterranean. The negative correlation between the relative abundance of fungal reads and the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) indicate that dust storms lower the proportion of fungi in the airborne microbiome, possibly due to the lower relative abundance of fungi in the dust storm source regions and/or more effective transport of bacteria by the dust. Airborne fungal community composition was altered by the dust storms, particularly those originated from Syria, which was enriched with xerophilic fungi. We reconstructed a high-quality fungal metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) from the order Cladosporiales, which include fungi known to adapt to environmental extremes commonly faced by airborne microbes. The negative correlation between the relative abundance of Cladosporiales MAG and PM10 concentrations indicate that its origin is dominated by local sources and likely includes the indoor environments found in the city.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Lacroix V, Cassard A, Mas E, et al (2021)

Multi-Omics Analysis of Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: What Benefits for Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Tools?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(20): pii:ijms222011255.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are multifactorial diseases that involve in particular a modification of the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis. The initial sets of metataxonomic and metagenomic data first made it possible to approximate the microbiota profile in IBD. In addition, today the new 'omics' techniques have enabled us to draw up a functional and integrative map of the microbiota. The key concern in IBD is to develop biomarkers that allow us to assess the activity of the disease and predict the complications and progression, while also guiding the therapeutic care so as to develop personalized medicine. In this review, we present all of the latest discoveries on the microbiota provided by "omics" and we outline the benefits of these techniques in developing new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Bekkers M, Stojkovic B, GE Kaiko (2021)

Mining the Microbiome and Microbiota-Derived Molecules in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(20): pii:ijms222011243.

The intestinal microbiota is a complex community that consists of an ecosystem with a dynamic interplay between bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Recent advances in model systems have revealed that the gut microbiome is critical for maintaining homeostasis through metabolic digestive function, immune regulation, and intestinal barrier integrity. Taxonomic shifts in the intestinal microbiota are strongly correlated with a multitude of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, many of these studies have been descriptive, and thus the understanding of the cause and effect relationship often remains unclear. Using non-human experimental model systems such as gnotobiotic mice, probiotic mono-colonization, or prebiotic supplementation, researchers have defined numerous species-level functions of the intestinal microbiota that have produced therapeutic candidates for IBD. Despite these advances, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the function of much of the microbiota and the interplay with host cellular processes remain areas of tremendous research potential. In particular, future research will need to unlock the functional molecular units of the microbiota in order to utilize this untapped resource of bioactive molecules for therapy. This review will highlight the advances and remaining challenges of microbiota-based functional studies and therapeutic discovery, specifically in IBD. One of the limiting factors for reviewing this topic is the nascent development of this area with information on some drug candidates still under early commercial development. We will also highlight the current and evolving strategies, including in the biotech industry, used for the discovery of microbiota-derived bioactive molecules in health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zheng Y, Yu Z, Zhang W, et al (2021)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Probio-M9 Improves the Quality of Life in Stressed Adults by Gut Microbiota.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:foods10102384.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Probio-M9 (Probio-M9), on the quality of life in stressed adults.

METHODS: Twelve postgraduate student volunteers were recruited. Six volunteers received oral Probio-M9 for 21 days, while the remaining six received a placebo instead. Fecal samples were collected from the volunteers before and after the intervention. Metagenomic sequencing, nontargeted metabonomics, and quality-of-life follow-up questionnaires were used to evaluate the impact of Probio-M9 consumption on the gut microbiota and life quality of the volunteers.

RESULTS: Probio-M9 improved the psychological and physiological quality-of-life symptoms significantly in stressed adults (p < 0.05). The probiotic intervention was beneficial in increasing and maintaining the diversity of gut microbiota. The abundance of Barnesiella and Akkermansia increased in the probiotics group. The feature metabolites of pyridoxamine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were positively correlated with Barnesiella and Akkermansia levels, which might be why the mental state of the volunteers in the probiotic group improved after taking Probio-M9.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified that oral Probio-M9 can regulate the stability of gut microbiota and affect the related beneficial metabolites, thereby affecting the quality of life (QoL) of stressed adults. Probio-M9 might improve the psychological and physiological quality of life in stressed adults via the gut-brain axis pathway. The causal relationship should be further explored in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Kunasegaran T, Balasubramaniam VRMT, Arasoo VJT, et al (2021)

The Modulation of Gut Microbiota Composition in the Pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

Biology, 10(10): pii:biology10101027.

General gut microbial dysbiosis in diabetes mellitus, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has been reported in a large body of literature. However, evidence investigating the association between specific taxonomic classes and GDM is lacking. Thus, we performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed observational studies and trials conducted among women with GDM within the last ten years using standard methodology. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment tools were used to assess the quality of the included studies. Fourteen studies investigating microbial interactions with GDM were found to be relevant and included in this review. The synthesis of literature findings demonstrates that Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria phyla, such as Desulfovibrio, Ruminococcaceae, P. distasonis, Enterobacteriaceae, Collinsella, and Prevotella, were positively associated with GDM. In contrast, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium, which produce butyrate, are negatively associated with GDM. These bacteria were associated with inflammation, adiposity, and glucose intolerance in women with GDM. Lack of good diet management demonstrated the alteration of gut microbiota and its impact on GDM glucose homeostasis. The majority of the studies were of good quality. Therefore, there is great potential to incorporate personalized medicine targeting microbiome modulation through dietary intervention in the management of GDM.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Bueno de Mesquita CP, Zhou J, Theroux SM, et al (2021)

Methanogenesis and Salt Tolerance Genes of a Novel Halophilic Methanosarcinaceae Metagenome-Assembled Genome from a Former Solar Saltern.

Genes, 12(10): pii:genes12101609.

Anaerobic archaeal methanogens are key players in the global carbon cycle due to their role in the final stages of organic matter decomposition in anaerobic environments such as wetland sediments. Here we present the first draft metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) sequence of an unclassified Methanosarcinaceae methanogen phylogenetically placed adjacent to the Methanolobus and Methanomethylovorans genera that appears to be a distinct genus and species. The genome is derived from sediments of a hypersaline (97-148 ppt chloride) unrestored industrial saltern that has been observed to be a significant methane source. The source sediment is more saline than previous sources of Methanolobus and Methanomethylovorans. We propose a new genus name, Methanosalis, to house this genome, which we designate with the strain name SBSPR1A. The MAG was binned with CONCOCT and then improved via scaffold extension and reassembly. The genome contains pathways for methylotrophic methanogenesis from trimethylamine and dimethylamine, as well as genes for the synthesis and transport of compatible solutes. Some genes involved in acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis are present, but those pathways appear incomplete in the genome. The MAG was more abundant in two former industrial salterns than in a nearby reference wetland and a restored wetland, both of which have much lower salinity levels, as well as significantly lower methane emissions than the salterns.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Alili R, Belda E, Le P, et al (2021)

Exploring Semi-Quantitative Metagenomic Studies Using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing: A Computational and Experimental Protocol.

Genes, 12(10): pii:genes12101496.

The gut microbiome plays a major role in chronic diseases, of which several are characterized by an altered composition and diversity of bacterial communities. Large-scale sequencing projects allowed for characterizing the perturbations of these communities. However, translating these discoveries into clinical applications remains a challenge. To facilitate routine implementation of microbiome profiling in clinical settings, portable, real-time, and low-cost sequencing technologies are needed. Here, we propose a computational and experimental protocol for whole-genome semi-quantitative metagenomic studies of human gut microbiome with Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology (ONT) that could be applied to other microbial ecosystems. We developed a bioinformatics protocol to analyze ONT sequences taxonomically and functionally and optimized preanalytic protocols, including stool collection and DNA extraction methods to maximize read length. This is a critical parameter for the sequence alignment and classification. Our protocol was evaluated using simulations of metagenomic communities, which reflect naturally occurring compositional variations. Next, we validated both protocols using stool samples from a bariatric surgery cohort, sequenced with ONT, Illumina, and SOLiD technologies. Results revealed similar diversity and microbial composition profiles. This protocol can be implemented in a clinical or research setting, bringing rapid personalized whole-genome profiling of target microbiome species.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Gerhard N, Thurnheer T, Kreutzer S, et al (2021)

Necrotizing Gingivitis: Microbial Diversity and Quantification of Protein Secretion in Necrotizing Gingivitis.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:antibiotics10101197.

Necrotizing gingivitis (NG) is a necrotizing periodontal disease that differs from chronic gingivitis (CG). To date, both the microbiological causes and the involved host cytokine response of NG still remain unclear. Here, we investigated corresponding interdental plaque and serum samples from two groups of Chinese patients with CG (n = 21) or NG (n = 21). The microbiota were studied by 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the microbial metagenome and by assessing quantitatively the abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes, the genus Prevotella and the species T. forsythia, P. endodontalis, and P. gingivalis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). With respect to the associated host response, the levels of 30 inflammatory mediators were quantified by multiplex immunoassay analysis. Differential microbial abundance analysis of the two disease groups revealed at the phylum level that Proteobacteria accounted for 67% of the differentially abundant organisms, followed by organisms of Firmicutes (21%) and Actinobacteria (9%). At the species level, significant differences in abundance were seen for 75 species of which 58 species were significantly more abundant in CG patients. Notably, the FISH analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes was the most prevalent phylum in NG. The multiplex cytokine assay showed significant quantitative differences between the disease groups for eight analytes (GM-CSF, G-CSF, IFN-α, IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α, MIG, and HGF). The G-CSF was found to be the most significantly increased inflammatory protein marker in NG. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) data supported the understanding of NG as a multi-microbial infection with distinct differences to CG in regard to the microbial composition.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Chekabab SM, Lawrence JR, Alvarado AC, et al (2021)

Piglet Gut and in-Barn Manure from Farms on a Raised without Antibiotics Program Display Reduced Antimicrobial Resistance but an Increased Prevalence of Pathogens.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:antibiotics10101152.

In response to new stringent regulations in Canada regarding the use of antibiotics in animal production, many farms have implemented practices to produce animals that are raised without antibiotics (RWA) from birth to slaughter. This study aims to assess the impact of RWA production practices on reducing the actual total on-farm use of antibiotics, the occurrence of pathogens, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A 28-month longitudinal surveillance of farms that adopted the RWA program and conventional farms using antibiotics in accordance with the new regulations (non-RWA) was conducted by collecting fecal samples from 6-week-old pigs and composite manure from the barn over six time points and applying whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to assess the prevalence of AMR genes as well as the abundance of pathogens. Analysis of in-barn drug use records confirmed the decreased consumption of antibiotics in RWA barns compared to non-RWA barns. WGS analyses revealed that RWA barns had reduced the frequency of AMR genes in piglet feces and in-barn manure. However, metagenomic analyses showed that RWA barns had a significant increase in the frequency of pathogenic Firmicutes in fecal samples and pathogenic Proteobacteria in barn manure samples.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Gontijo MTP, Jorge GP, M Brocchi (2021)

Current Status of Endolysin-Based Treatments against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:antibiotics10101143.

The prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a public health concern. Bacteriophages and bacteriophage-derived lytic enzymes have been studied in response to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The availability of tRNAs and endolysin toxicity during recombinant protein expression is circumvented by codon optimization and lower expression levels using inducible pET-type plasmids and controlled cultivation conditions, respectively. The use of polyhistidine tags facilitates endolysin purification and alters antimicrobial activity. Outer membrane permeabilizers, such as organic acids, act synergistically with endolysins, but some endolysins permeate the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria per se. However, the outer membrane permeation mechanisms of endolysins remain unclear. Other strategies, such as the co-administration of endolysins with polymyxins, silver nanoparticles, and liposomes confer additional outer membrane permeation. Engineered endolysins comprising domains for outer membrane permeation is also a strategy used to overcome the current challenges on the control of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Metagenomics is a new strategy for screening endolysins with interesting antimicrobial properties from uncultured phage genomes. Here, we review the current state of the art on the heterologous expression of endolysin, showing the potential of bacteriophage endolysins in controlling bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Nones S, Simões F, Trindade CS, et al (2021)

Microbiome Associated with the Mycangia of Female and Male Adults of the Ambrosia Beetle Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

Insects, 12(10): pii:insects12100881.

The ambrosia beetle Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major cork oak pest in Portugal. Female and male beetles have different roles in host tree colonization and are both equipped with prothoracic mycangia for fungal transportation. Despite a known beneficial role of bacteria in ambrosia beetles, information on bacterial composition associated with prothoracic mycangia structures is scarce. Bacterial community from mycangia of P. cylindrus male and female beetles collected from cork oak galleries was investigated by means of 16S metagenomics. Mycangia anatomical structure was also explored with histological techniques and X-ray computed microtomography to highlight evidence supporting biological sexual dimorphism. A bacterial community with highly diverse bacterial taxa with low abundances at the genus level was revealed. Lactobacillales, Leptotrichia, Neisseria, Rothia, and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in males, while Acinetobacter, Chitinophagaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Erwiniaceae, Microbacteriaceae, and Pseudoclavibacter were more abundant in females. Additionally, a core bacteriome of five genera was shared by both sexes. Histological examination revealed visible connections linking external and internal tissues in females, but none in males. Overall, these results provide the first insights into sexual differentiation for bacteria in a Platypodinae beetle species, identifying key patterns of bacteria distribution in the context of beetle ecology and functional behavior.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Atanasova N, Paunova-Krasteva T, Stoitsova S, et al (2021)

Degradation of Poly(ε-caprolactone) by a Thermophilic Community and Brevibacillus thermoruber Strain 7 Isolated from Bulgarian Hot Spring.

Biomolecules, 11(10): pii:biom11101488.

The continual plastic accumulation in the environment and the hazardous consequences determine the interest in thermophiles as possible effective plastic degraders, due to their unique metabolic mechanisms and change of plastic properties at elevated temperatures. PCL is one of major biodegradable plastics with promising application to replace existing non-biodegradable polymers. Metagenomic analysis of the phylogenetic diversity in plastic contaminated area of Marikostinovo hot spring, Bulgaria revealed a higher number taxonomic groups (11) in the sample enriched without plastic (Marikostinovo community, control sample, MKC-C) than in that enriched in the presence of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) (MKC-P), (7). A strong domination of the phylum Proteobacteria was observed for MKC-C, while the dominant phyla in MKC-P were Deinococcus-Thermus and Firmicutes. Among the strains isolated from MKC-P, the highest esterase activity was registered for Brevibacillus thermoruber strain 7 at 55 °C. Its co-cultivation with another isolate resulted in ~10% increase in enzyme activity. During a 28-day biodegradation process, a decrease in PCL molecular weight and weight loss were established resulting in 100% degradation by MKC-P and 63.6% by strain 7. PCL degradation intermediate profiles for MKC-P and pure strain were similar. Broken plastic pieces from PCL surface and formation of a biofilm by MKC-P were observed by SEM, while the pure strain caused significant deformation of PCL probes without biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Iannetti L, Romagnoli S, Cotturone G, et al (2021)

Animal Welfare Assessment in Antibiotic-Free and Conventional Broiler Chicken.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(10): pii:ani11102822.

The poultry sector is moving towards antibiotic-free production, both to challenge the increasing spread of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon and to meet market demands. This could negatively impact the health and welfare of the animals. In this study, the welfare of 14 batches of 41-47-day-old broilers raised by the same integrated company with and without antibiotics was assessed using the Welfare Quality® protocol. The total welfare score did not significantly differ between the two systems: the good-feeding principle was, on average, higher in the conventional batches, with statistical significance (t = -2.45; p = 0.024), while the other welfare principles (good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour) were slightly better in the antibiotic-free batches. Despite stocking densities averagely higher in the antibiotic-free batches, the absence of antibiotics did not seem to impact the good-health principle; in particular, hock burns, foot pad dermatitis and lameness were significantly less severe in the antibiotic-free batches (p < 0.0001, p = 0.018, p < 0.0001, respectively), which showed also a lower death rate (2.34% vs. 2.50%). Better management of antibiotic-free batches was reported, particularly concerning litter conditions. Further studies would be required to identify and standardise a set of managerial methodologies in order to improve the health of broilers raised without antibiotics.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Krohn I, Bergmann L, Qi M, et al (2021)

Deep (Meta)genomics and (Meta)transcriptome Analyses of Fungal and Bacteria Consortia From Aircraft Tanks and Kerosene Identify Key Genes in Fuel and Tank Corrosion.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:722259.

Microbial contamination of fuels, associated with a wide variety of bacteria and fungi, leads to decreased product quality and can compromise equipment performance by biofouling or microbiologically influenced corrosion. Detection and quantification of microorganisms are critical in monitoring fuel systems for an early detection of microbial contaminations. To address these challenges, we have analyzed six metagenomes, one transcriptome, and more than 1,200 fluid and swab samples taken from fuel tanks or kerosene. Our deep metagenome sequencing and binning approaches in combination with RNA-seq data and qPCR methods implied a metabolic symbiosis between fungi and bacteria. The most abundant bacteria were affiliated with α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria and the filamentous fungi Amorphotheca. We identified a high number of genes, which are related to kerosene degradation and biofilm formation. Surprisingly, a large number of genes coded enzymes involved in polymer degradation and potential bio-corrosion processes. Thereby, the transcriptionally most active microorganisms were affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Pseudomonas, Kocuria, Amorpotheka, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. Many not yet cultured bacteria and fungi appeared to contribute to the biofilm transcriptional activities. The largest numbers of transcripts were observed for dehydrogenase, oxygenase, and exopolysaccharide production, attachment and pili/flagella-associated proteins, efflux pumps, and secretion systems as well as lipase and esterase activity.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zhou Z, Hu R, Ni Y, et al (2021)

Genetic Elucidation of Quorum Sensing and Cobamide Biosynthesis in Divergent Bacterial-Fungal Associations Across the Soil-Mangrove Root Interface.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:698385.

Plant roots in soil host a repertoire of bacteria and fungi, whose ecological interactions could improve their functions and plant performance. However, the potential microbial interactions and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown across the soil-mangrove root interface. We herein analyzed microbial intra- and inter-domain network topologies, keystone taxa, and interaction-related genes across four compartments (non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere, episphere, and endosphere) from a soil-mangrove root continuum, using amplicon and metagenome sequencing technologies. We found that both intra- and inter-domain networks displayed notable differences in the structure and topology across four compartments. Compared to three peripheral compartments, the endosphere was a distinctive compartment harboring more dense co-occurrences with a higher average connectivity in bacterial-fungal network (2.986) than in bacterial (2.628) or fungal network (2.419), which could be related to three bacterial keystone taxa (Vibrio, Anaerolineae, and Desulfarculaceae) detected in the endosphere as they are known to intensify inter-domain associations with fungi and stimulate biofilm formation. In support of this finding, we also found that the genes involved in cell-cell communications by quorum sensing (rhlI, lasI, pqsH, and lasR) and aerobic cobamide biosynthesis (cobG, cobF, and cobA) were highly enriched in the endosphere, whereas anaerobic cobamide biosynthesis (encoded by cbiT and cbiE) was dominant in three peripheral compartments. Our results provide genetic evidence for the intensified bacterial-fungal associations of root endophytes, highlighting the critical role of the soil-root interface in structuring the microbial inter-domain associations.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Essigmann HT, Hoffman KL, Petrosino JF, et al (2021)

The impact of the Th17:Treg axis on the IgA-Biome across the glycemic spectrum.

PloS one, 16(10):e0258812 pii:PONE-D-21-17583.

Secretory IgA (SIgA) is released into mucosal surfaces where its function extends beyond that of host defense to include the shaping of resident microbial communities by mediating exclusion/inclusion of respective microbes and regulating bacterial gene expression. In this capacity, SIgA acts as the fulcrum on which host immunity and the health of the microbiota are balanced. We recently completed an analysis of the gut and salivary IgA-Biomes (16S rDNA sequencing of SIgA-coated/uncoated bacteria) in Mexican-American adults that identified IgA-Biome differences across the glycemic spectrum. As Th17:Treg ratio imbalances are associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis and chronic inflammatory conditions such as type 2 diabetes, the present study extends our prior work by examining the impact of Th17:Treg ratios (pro-inflammatory:anti-inflammatory T-cell ratios) and the SIgA response (Th17:Treg-SIgA axis) in shaping microbial communities. Examining the impact of Th17:Treg ratios (determined by epigenetic qPCR lymphocyte subset quantification) on the IgA-Biome across diabetes phenotypes identified a proportional relationship between Th17:Treg ratios and alpha diversity in the stool IgA-Biome of those with dysglycemia, significant changes in community composition of the stool and salivary microbiomes across glycemic profiles, and genera preferentially abundant by T-cell inflammatory phenotype. This is the first study to associate epigenetically quantified Th17:Treg ratios with both the larger and SIgA-fractionated microbiome, assess these associations in the context of a chronic inflammatory disease, and offers a novel frame through which to evaluate mucosal microbiomes in the context of host responses and inflammation.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Gu X, Fu L, Pan A, et al (2021)

Multifunctional alkalophilic α-amylase with diverse raw seaweed degrading activities.

AMB Express, 11(1):139.

Uncultured microbes are an important resource for the discovery of novel enzymes. In this study, an amylase gene (amy2587) that codes a protein with 587 amino acids (Amy2587) was obtained from the metagenomic library of macroalgae-associated bacteria. Recombinant Amy2587 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and was found to simultaneously possess α-amylase, agarase, carrageenase, cellulase, and alginate lyase activities. Moreover, recombinant Amy2587 showed high thermostability and alkali resistance which are important characteristics for industrial application. To investigate the multifunctional mechanism of Amy2587, three motifs (functional domains) in the Amy2587 sequence were deleted to generate three truncated Amy2587 variants. The results showed that, even though these functional domains affected the multiple substrates degrading activity of Amy2587, they did not wholly explain its multifunctional characteristics. To apply the multifunctional activity of Amy2587, three seaweed substrates (Grateloupia filicina, Chondrus ocellatus, and Scagassum) were digested using Amy2587. After 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h of digestion, 121.2 ± 4 µg/ml, 134.8 ± 6 µg/ml, and 70.3 ± 3.5 µg/ml of reducing sugars were released, respectively. These results show that Amy2587 directly and effectively degraded three kinds of raw seaweeds. This finding provides a theoretical basis for one-step enzymatic digestion of raw seaweeds to obtain seaweed oligosaccharides.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Zhai Z, Zhang Z, Zhao G, et al (2021)

Genomic Characterization of Two Novel RCA Phages Reveals New Insights into the Diversity and Evolution of Marine Viruses.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Viruses are the most abundant living entities in marine ecosystems, playing critical roles in altering the structure and function of microbial communities and driving ocean biogeochemistry. Phages that infect Roseobacter clade-affiliated (RCA) cluster strains are an important component of marine viral communities. Here, we characterize the genome sequences of two new RCA phages, CRP-9 and CRP-13, which infect RCA strain FZCC0023. Genomic analysis reveals that CRP-9 and CRP-13 represent a novel evolutionary lineage of marine phages. They both have a DNA replication module most similar to those in Cobavirus group phages. In contrast, their morphogenesis and packaging modules are distinct from those in cobaviruses but homologous to those in HMO-2011-type phages. The genomic architecture of CRP-9 and CRP-13 suggests a genomic recombination event between distinct phage groups. Metagenomic data sets were examined for metagenome-assembled viral genomes (MAVGs) with similar recombinant genome architectures. Fifteen CRP-9-type MAVGs were identified from marine viromes. Additionally, 158 MAVGs were identified containing HMO-2011-type morphogenesis and packaging modules with other types of DNA replication genes, providing more evidence that recombination between different phage groups is a major driver of phage evolution. Altogether, this study significantly expands the understanding of diversity and evolution of marine roseophages. Meanwhile, the analysis of these novel RCA phages and MAVGs highlights the critical role of recombination in shaping phage diversity. These phage sequences are valuable resources for inferring the evolutionary connection of distinct phage groups. IMPORTANCE Diversity and evolution of phages that infect the relatively slow-growing but dominant Roseobacter lineages are largely unknown. In this study, RCA phages CRP-9 and CRP-13 have been isolated on a Roseobacter RCA strain and shown to have a unique genomic architecture, which appears to be the result of a recombination event. CRP-9 and CRP-13 have a DNA replication module most similar to those in Cobavirus group phages and morphogenesis and packaging modules most similar to those in HMO-2011-type phages. HMO-2011-type morphogenesis and packaging modules are found in combination with distinct types of DNA replication genes, suggesting compatibility with various DNA replication modules. Altogether, this study contributes toward a better understanding of marine viral diversity and evolution.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Hause BM, Nelson E, J Christopher-Hennings (2021)

Eptesicus fuscus Orthorubulavirus, a Close Relative of Human Parainfluenza Virus 4, Discovered in a Bat in South Dakota.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Bats are a reservoir for many zoonotic viruses and host large numbers of genetically diverse species in the families Rhabdoviridae, Coronaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae. Viruses from these families have repeatedly spilled over to humans in recent decades, causing significant clinical disease and deaths. Here, metagenomic sequencing of a big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) submitted for rabies testing due to human exposure identified a novel paramyxovirus, Eptesicus fuscus orthorubulavirus (EfORV), in South Dakota, United States. The nearly complete 15,814-nucleotide genome shared 72% identity with that of human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4), a virus that causes significant clinical disease, typically bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in children less than 2 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed a close evolutionary history between EfORV and HPIV4, reminiscent of other orthorubulaviruses with highly similar bat and mammalian species, including conspecific human and bat mumps virus, mammalian parainfluenza virus 5 and bat Alston virus, and porcine La Piedad Michoacán virus and bat Mapuera virus. These results support the idea that bats are a reservoir for diverse paramyxoviruses with closely shared evolutionary histories, compared with a number of significant human pathogens, and expand the range of bat paramyxoviruses to North America. Given the propensity of paramyxoviruses to overcome species barriers, additional surveillance and characterization of EfORV are warranted. IMPORTANCE Bats are a reservoir of large numbers of viruses. Among bat-borne zoonotic viruses, members of Coronaviridae and Paramyxoviridae have had the largest impact on human health. The repeated spillover of bat viruses to humans, often with devastating results, has led to increased surveillance and virus discovery efforts in hot spots for virus emergence, largely Asia and Africa. Apart from rabies virus, little surveillance of viruses in bats is performed in North America. Here, viral metagenomic sequencing identified a close relative to HPIV4 in a big brown bat found in a motel room in South Dakota. The virus, EfORV, was 72% identical to HPIV4, which causes clinically significant respiratory disease, mainly in children; it represents the first bat paramyxovirus identified in North America. Close genetic relationships between bat and mammalian orthorubulaviruses underscore the importance of bats as a reservoir for zoonotic viruses.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Youseif SH, Abd El-Megeed FH, Humm EA, et al (2021)

Comparative Analysis of the Cultured and Total Bacterial Community in the Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiome Using Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Approaches.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Rhizosphere and root-associated bacteria are key components of crop production and sustainable agriculture. However, utilization of these beneficial bacteria is often limited by conventional culture techniques because a majority of soil microorganisms cannot be cultured using standard laboratory media. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to improve culturability and investigate the diversity of the bacterial communities from the wheat rhizosphere microbiome collected from three locations in Egypt with contrasting soil characteristics by using metagenomic analysis and improved culture-based methods. The improved strategies of the culture-dependent approach included replacing the agar in the medium with gellan gums and modifying its preparation by autoclaving the phosphate and gelling agents separately. Compared to the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) observed from the metagenomic data sets derived from the three analyzed soils, 1.86 to 2.52% of the bacteria were recovered using the modified cultivation strategies, whereas less than 1% were obtained employing the standard cultivation protocols. Twenty-one percent of the cultivable isolates exhibited multiple plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties, including P solubilization activity and siderophore production. From the metagenomic analysis, the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Moreover, the relative abundance of the specific bacterial taxa was correlated with the soil characteristics, demonstrating the effect of the soil in modulating the plant rhizosphere microbiome. IMPORTANCE Bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere, a narrow zone of soil surrounding the root system, are known to have beneficial effects in improving the growth and stress tolerance of plants. However, most bacteria in natural environments, especially those in rhizosphere soils, are recalcitrant to cultivation using traditional techniques, and thus their roles in soil health and plant growth remain unexplored. Hence, investigating new culture media and culture conditions to bring "not-yet-cultured" species into cultivation and to identify new functions is still an important task for all microbiologists. To this end, we describe improved cultivation protocols that increase the number and diversity of cultured bacteria from the rhizosphere of wheat plants. Using such approaches will lead to new insights into culturing more beneficial bacteria that live in the plant rhizosphere, in so doing creating greater opportunities not only for field application but also for promoting sustainability.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Ruan X, Li M, X Qin (2021)

Diagnostic Value of Metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing for Ureaplasma urealyticum Infection: A Case Report.

Laboratory medicine pii:6404407 [Epub ahead of print].

Ureaplasma urealyticum has high nutritional requirements for culture, and it requires special tools for identification. Theoretically, metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) can be used to detect many pathogens in clinical specimens, especially for complex infectious diseases with rare and atypical causes. Here, our patient developed severe pneumonia caused by U. urealyticum infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the etiology is unclear. After continuous negative culture, U. urealyticum was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by mNGS, and azithromycin was used. Because of the difficulty in its diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of extragenital U. urealyticum infection is challenging. In addition, many broad-spectrum antibiotics are ineffective against this pathogen because it lacks a cell wall. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing further complications and deaths.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Cai M, Duan C, Zhang X, et al (2021)

Genomic and transcriptomic dissection of Theionarchaea in marine ecosystem.

Science China. Life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Theionarchaea is a recently described archaeal class within the Euryarchaeota. While it is widely distributed in sediment ecosystems, little is known about its metabolic potential and ecological features. Here, we used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to characterize 12 theionarchaeal metagenome-assembled genomes, which were further divided into two subgroups, from coastal mangrove sediments of China and seawater columns of the Yap Trench. Genomic analysis revealed that apart from the canonical sulfhydrogenase, Theionarchaea harbor genes encoding heliorhodopsin, group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and flagellin, in which genes for heliorhodopsin and group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase were transcribed in mangrove sediment. Further, the theionarchaeal substrate spectrum may be broader than previously reported as revealed by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, and the potential carbon substrates include detrital proteins, hemicellulose, ethanol, and CO2. The genes for organic substrate metabolism (mainly detrital protein and amino acid metabolism genes) have relatively higher transcripts in the top sediment layers in mangrove wetlands. In addition, co-occurrence analysis suggested that the degradation of these organic compounds by Theionarchaea might be processed in syntrophy with fermenters (e.g., Chloroflexi) and methanogens. Collectively, these observations expand the current knowledge of the metabolic potential of Theionarchaea, and shed light on the metabolic strategies and roles of these archaea in the marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

González-Castillo A, Carballo JL, E Bautista-Guerrero (2021)

Genomics and phylogeny of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' associated with the excavating sponge Thoosa mismalolli.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

Members of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' are among the most abundant microorganisms in the highly diverse microbiome of the sponge mesohyl. Genomic and phylogenetic characteristics of this proposed phylum are barely known. In this study, we analyzed metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from the coral reef excavating sponge Thoosa mismalolli from the Mexican Pacific Ocean. Two MAGs were extracted and analyzed together with 32 MAGs and single-amplified genomes (SAGs) obtained from NCBI. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 139 single-copy genes (SCG) showed two clades. Clade A (23 genomes) represented 67.7% of the total of the genomes, while clade B (11 genomes) comprised 32.3% of the genomes. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) showed values between 66 and 99% for the genomes of the proposed phylum, and the pangenome of genomes revealed a total of 37,234 genes that included 1722 core gene. The number of genes used in the phylogenetic analysis increased from 28 (previous studies) to 139 (this study), which allowed a better resolution of the phylogeny of the proposed phylum. The results supported the two previously described classes, 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria' and 'Candidatus Pelagiporibacteria', and the genomes SB0101 and SB0202 obtained in this study belong to two new species of the class 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria'. This is the first comparative study that includes MAGs from a non-sponge host (Porites lutea) to elucidate the taxonomy of the poorly known Candidatus phylum in a polyphasic approach. Finally, our study also contributes to the sponge microbiome project by reporting the first MAGs of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' isolated from the excavating sponge T. mismalolli.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Arango-Argoty GA, Heath LS, Pruden A, et al (2021)

MetaMLP: A Fast Word Embedding Based Classifier to Profile Target Gene Databases in Metagenomic Samples.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

The functional profile of metagenomic samples enables improved understanding of microbial populations in the environment. Such analysis consists of assigning short sequencing reads to a particular functional category. Normally, manually curated databases are used for functional assignment, and genes are arranged into different classes. Sequence alignment has been widely used to profile metagenomic samples against curated databases. However, this method is time consuming and requires high computational resources. While several alignment-free methods based on k-mer composition have been developed in recent years, they still require large amounts of computer main memory. In this article, MetaMLP (Metagenomics Machine Learning Profiler), a machine learning method that represents sequences as numerical vectors (embeddings) and uses a simple one hidden layer neural network to profile functional categories, is developed. Unlike other methods, MetaMLP enables partial matching by using a reduced alphabet to build sequence embeddings from full and partial k-mers. MetaMLP is able to identify a slightly larger number of reads compared with DIAMOND (one of the fastest sequence alignment methods), as well as to perform accurate predictions with 0.99 precision and 0.99 recall. MetaMLP can process 100M reads in ∼10 minutes on a laptop computer, which is 50 times faster than DIAMOND.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Mohamed SS, Abdelhamid SA, RH Ali (2021)

Isolation and identification of marine microbial products.

Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, 19(1):162.

BACKGROUND: The ocean is one of the world's most important sources of bioactive chemicals in the marine environment. Microbiologists, ecologists, agronomists, taxonomists, and evolutionary biologists have been increasingly interested in marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) in recent decades.

MAIN BODY: Diverse marine bacteria appear to get the ability to manufacture an astounding diversity of MMNPs with a wide range of biological actions, including anti-tumor, antimicrobial, and anti-cardiovascular agents according to numerous studies.

SHORT CONCLUSIONS: Innovative isolation and culture methodologies, tactics for identifying novel MMNPs via routine screens, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology are all discussed in this review. There is also a discussion of potential issues and future directions for studying MMNPs.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Cassir N, Belkacemi S, Ballouche M, et al (2021)

Evaluation of Culture Top transport systems for assessing the bacterial diversity of microbiota by culturomics as compared to a routine transport system.

Journal of medical microbiology, 70(10):.

In recent years, metagenomics and then culturomics, which consists of the multiplication of media and culture conditions and the rapid identification of all bacterial colonies, have generated renewed interest in the human microbiota, and diseases associated with modifications in its composition in particular. The sample transport media included in diverse swab transport systems and the storage conditions are among the factors that influence the results of the culturomics. In this study, we compared the results of culturomics from paired skin, oral and rectal swabs from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using Culture Top sample transport medium as compared to our routine one. From 152 clinical samples, we were able to isolate and identify 45 600 colonies, belonging to 338 different bacterial species. The transport system Culture Top identified 282 different bacterial species, while 244 were identified by our routine system. Of these, 188 different bacterial species were commonly identified using both transport systems, while 94 (27.8 %) and 56 (16.5 %) were only identified using Culture Top and our routine system, respectively (P<0.001), but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity at the genus or phylum level, or in terms of their type of respiration and cell wall. In conclusion, the Culture Top transport system appears to be complementary to our routine system, although it seems slightly superior in terms of isolated bacterial species.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Van Espen L, Bak EG, Beller L, et al (2021)

A Previously Undescribed Highly Prevalent Phage Identified in a Danish Enteric Virome Catalog.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Gut viruses are important, yet often neglected, players in the complex human gut microbial ecosystem. Recently, the number of human gut virome studies has been increasing; however, we are still only scratching the surface of the immense viral diversity. In this study, 254 virus-enriched fecal metagenomes from 204 Danish subjects were used to generate the Danish Enteric Virome Catalog (DEVoC) containing 12,986 nonredundant viral scaffolds, of which the majority was previously undescribed, encoding 190,029 viral genes. The DEVoC was used to compare 91 healthy DEVoC gut viromes from children, adolescents, and adults that were used to create the DEVoC. Gut viromes of healthy Danish subjects were dominated by phages. While most phage genomes (PGs) only occurred in a single subject, indicating large virome individuality, 39 PGs were present in more than 10 healthy subjects. Among these 39 PGs, the prevalences of three PGs were associated with age. To further study the prevalence of these 39 prevalent PGs, 1,880 gut virome data sets of 27 studies from across the world were screened, revealing several age-, geography-, and disease-related prevalence patterns. Two PGs also showed a remarkably high prevalence worldwide-a crAss-like phage (20.6% prevalence), belonging to the tentative AlphacrAssvirinae subfamily, and a previously undescribed circular temperate phage infecting Bacteroides dorei (14.4% prevalence), called LoVEphage because it encodes lots of viral elements. Due to the LoVEphage's high prevalence and novelty, public data sets in which the LoVEphage was detected were de novo assembled, resulting in an additional 18 circular LoVEphage-like genomes (67.9 to 72.4 kb). IMPORTANCE Through generation of the DEVoC, we added numerous previously uncharacterized viral genomes and genes to the ever-increasing worldwide pool of human gut viromes. The DEVoC, the largest human gut virome catalog generated from consistently processed fecal samples, facilitated the analysis of the 91 healthy Danish gut viromes. Characterizing the biggest cohort of healthy gut viromes from children, adolescents, and adults to date confirmed the previously established high interindividual variation in human gut viromes and demonstrated that the effect of age on the gut virome composition was limited to the prevalence of specific phage (groups). The identification of a previously undescribed prevalent phage illustrates the usefulness of developing virome catalogs, and we foresee that the DEVoC will benefit future analysis of the roles of gut viruses in human health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Wu F, Yang L, Hao Y, et al (2021)

Oral and gastric microbiome in relation to gastric intestinal metaplasia.

International journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric cancer initiation. However, epidemiologic studies on the specific role of other bacteria in the development of gastric cancer are lacking. We conducted a case-control study of 89 cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 89 matched controls who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at three sites affiliated with NYU Langone Health. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing using oral wash samples from 89 case-control pairs and antral mucosal brushing samples from 55 case-control pairs. We examined the associations of relative abundances of bacterial taxa and functional pathways with IM using conditional logistic regression with and without elastic-net penalty. Compared with controls, oral species Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Johnsonella ignava, Neisseria elongata, and Neisseria flavescens were enriched in cases (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.29-1.50, P = 0.004-0.01) while Lactobacillus gasseri, Streptococcus mutans, S. parasanguinis, and S. sanguinis were under-represented (ORs = 0.66-0.76, P = 0.006-0.042) in cases. Species J. ignava and Filifactor alocis in the gastric microbiota were enriched (ORs = 3.27 and 1.43, P = 0.005 and 0.035, respectively), while S. mutans, S. parasanguinis, and S. sanguinis were under-represented (ORs = 0.61-0.75, P = 0.024-0.046), in cases compared with controls. The lipopolysaccharide and ubiquinol biosynthesis pathways were more abundant in IM, while the sugar degradation pathways were under-represented in IM. The findings suggest potential roles of certain oral and gastric microbiota, which are correlated with regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, in the development of gastric precancerous lesions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Li Q, Wu T, Zhang M, et al (2021)

Induction of the glycolysis product methylglyoxal on trimethylamine lyase synthesis in the intestinal microbiota from mice fed with choline and dietary fiber.

Food & function, 12(20):9880-9893.

The present study investigated the induction of the glycolysis product methylglyoxal by trimethylamine (TMA) lyase synthesis in the intestinal microbiota and investigated the intervention mechanism of the effects of dietary fiber on methylglyoxal formation. Intestinal digesta samples, collected from the ceca of mice fed with choline-rich and fiber-supplemented diets, were incubated in an anaerobic environment at 37 °C and pH 7.0 with choline, glycine, and methylglyoxal as inductive factors. The differences between the gut microbiota and its metagenomic and metabonomics profiles were determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results elucidated that the different dietary interventions could induce differences in the composition of the microbiota, gene expression profiles associated with glycine metabolism, and glycolysis. As compared to the gut microbiota of choline-diet fed mice, fiber supplementation effectively altered the composition of the microbiota and inhibited the genes involved in choline metabolism, glycine and methylglyoxal accumulation, and TMA lyase expression, and improved the methylglyoxal utilization by regulating the pathway related to pyruvate production. However, the intervention of exogenous methylglyoxal significantly decreased these effects. These findings successfully revealed the correlations between the TMA lyase expression and glycine level, as well as the inhibitory effects of dietary fiber on the glycine level, thereby highlighting the role of common glycolytic metabolites as a potential target for TMA production.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Yang Y, Long J, Wang C, et al (2021)

Prospective Study of Oral Microbiome and Gastric Cancer Risk Among Asian, African American and European American Populations.

International journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Colonization of specific bacteria in the human mouth were reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk. However, previous studies were limited by retrospective study designs and low taxonomic resolutions. We performed a prospective case-control study nested within three cohorts to investigate the relationship between oral microbiome and gastric cancer risk. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was employed to characterize the microbiome in pre-diagnostic buccal samples from 165 cases and 323 matched controls. Associations of overall microbial richness and abundance of microbial taxa, gene families, and metabolic pathways with gastric cancer risk were evaluated via conditional logistic regression. Analyses were performed within each cohort and results were combined by meta-analyses. We found that overall microbial richness was associated with decreased gastric cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) increase in Simpson's reciprocal index of 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.61-0.99). Nine taxa, 38 gene families, and six pathways also showed associations with gastric cancer risk at P<0.05. Neisseria mucosa and Prevotella pleuritidis were enriched, while Mycoplasma orale and Eubacterium yurii were depleted among cases with ORs and 95% CIs per SD increase in centered log-ratio transformed taxa abundance of 1.31 (1.03-1.67), 1.26 (1.00-1.57), 0.74 (0.59-0.94) and 0.80 (0.65-0.98), respectively. The top two gene families (P = 3.75×10-4 and 3.91×10-4) and pathways (P = 1.75×10-3 and 1.53×10-3) associated with gastric cancer were related to the decreased risk and are involved in hexitol metabolism. Our study supports the hypothesis that oral microbiota may play a role in gastric cancer etiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Datta MS, Yelin I, Hochwald O, et al (2021)

Rapid methicillin resistance diversification in Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizing human neonates.

Nature communications, 12(1):6062.

Early in life, infants are colonized with multiple bacterial strains whose differences in gene content can have important health consequences. Metagenomics-based approaches have revealed gene content differences between different strains co-colonizing newborns, but less is known about the rate, mechanism, and phenotypic consequences of gene content diversification within strains. Here, focusing on Staphylococcus epidermidis, we whole-genome sequence and phenotype more than 600 isolates from newborns. Within days of birth, infants are co-colonized with a highly personalized repertoire of S. epidermidis strains, which are spread across the newborn body. Comparing the genomes of multiple isolates of each strain, we find very little evidence of adaptive evolution via single-nucleotide polymorphisms. By contrast, we observe gene content differences even between otherwise genetically identical cells, including variation of the clinically important methicillin resistance gene, mecA, suggesting rapid gene gain and loss events at rates higher than point mutations. Mapping the genomic architecture of structural variants by long-read Nanopore sequencing, we find that deleted regions were always flanked by direct repeats, consistent with site-specific recombination. However, we find that even within a single genetic background, recombination occurs at multiple, often non-canonical repeats, leading to the rapid evolution of patient-specific diverse structural variants in the SCCmec island and to differences in antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Trubl G, Kimbrel JA, Liquet-Gonzalez J, et al (2021)

Active virus-host interactions at sub-freezing temperatures in Arctic peat soil.

Microbiome, 9(1):208.

BACKGROUND: Winter carbon loss in northern ecosystems is estimated to be greater than the average growing season carbon uptake and is primarily driven by microbial decomposers. Viruses modulate microbial carbon cycling via induced mortality and metabolic controls, but it is unknown whether viruses are active under winter conditions (anoxic and sub-freezing temperatures).

RESULTS: We used stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted metagenomics to reveal the genomic potential of active soil microbial populations under simulated winter conditions, with an emphasis on viruses and virus-host dynamics. Arctic peat soils from the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site in Alaska were incubated under sub-freezing anoxic conditions with H218O or natural abundance water for 184 and 370 days. We sequenced 23 SIP-metagenomes and measured carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux throughout the experiment. We identified 46 bacterial populations (spanning 9 phyla) and 243 viral populations that actively took up 18O in soil and respired CO2 throughout the incubation. Active bacterial populations represented only a small portion of the detected microbial community and were capable of fermentation and organic matter degradation. In contrast, active viral populations represented a large portion of the detected viral community and one third were linked to active bacterial populations. We identified 86 auxiliary metabolic genes and other environmentally relevant genes. The majority of these genes were carried by active viral populations and had diverse functions such as carbon utilization and scavenging that could provide their host with a fitness advantage for utilizing much-needed carbon sources or acquiring essential nutrients.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there was a stark difference in the identity and function of the active bacterial and viral community compared to the unlabeled community that would have been overlooked with a non-targeted standard metagenomic analysis. Our results illustrate that substantial active virus-host interactions occur in sub-freezing anoxic conditions and highlight viruses as a major community-structuring agent that likely modulates carbon loss in peat soils during winter, which may be pivotal for understanding the future fate of arctic soils' vast carbon stocks. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-10-20
CmpDate: 2021-10-20

Takihara H, Miura N, Aoki-Kinoshita KF, et al (2021)

Functional glyco-metagenomics elucidates the role of glycan-related genes in environments.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):505.

BACKGROUND: Glycan-related genes play a fundamental role in various processes for energy acquisition and homeostasis maintenance while adapting to the environment in which the organism exists; however, their role in the microbiome in the environment is unclear.

METHODS: Sequence alignment was performed between known glycan-related genes and complete genomes of microorganisms, and optimal parameters for identifying glycan-related genes were determined based on the alignments. Using the constructed scheme (> 90% of identity and > 25 aa of alignment length), glycan-related genes in various environments were identified from 198 different metagenome data.

RESULTS: As a result, we identified 86.73 million glycan-related genes from the metagenome data. Among the 12 environments classified in this study, the percentage of glycan-related genes was high in the human-associated environment, suggesting that these environments utilize glycan metabolism better than other environments. On the other hand, the relative abundances of both glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases surprisingly had a coverage of over 80% in all the environments. These glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were classified into two groups of (1) general enzyme families identified in various environments and (2) specific enzymes found only in certain environments. The general enzyme families were mostly from genes involved in monosaccharide metabolism, and most of the specific enzymes were polysaccharide degrading enzymes.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that environmental microorganisms could change the composition of their glycan-related genes to adapt the processes involved in acquiring energy from glycans in their environments. Our functional glyco-metagenomics approach has made it possible to clarify the relationship between the environment and genes from the perspective of carbohydrates, and the existence of glycan-related genes that exist specifically in the environment.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Balinandi S, Whitmer S, Mulei S, et al (2021)

Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans in Uganda, 2013-2019.

The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene pii:tpmd210685 [Epub ahead of print].

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is endemic in Uganda, yet its epidemiology remains largely uncharacterized. To better understand its occurrence within Uganda, case reports of patients hospitalized with CCHF between 2013 and 2019 were reviewed. Further, genome sequences of CCHF-positive RNA obtained during this period were determined for phylogenetic comparisons. We found that a total of 32 cases (75% males; CFR, 31.2%), aged between 9 to 68 years, were reported during the study period. Most cases were detected during July to December of each outbreak year (81.2%; P < 0.01) and were located along the "cattle corridor" (68.7%, P = 0.03). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (93.8%), hemorrhage (81.3%), headache (78.1%), fatigue (68.8%), vomiting (68.8%), and myalgia (65.6%). In five patients for whom hematological data were available, varied abnormalities were observed including thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, lymphopenia, lymphocytosis, polycythemia, and microcytosis. About 56.3% (P = 0.47) of patients reported tick bites or exposure to livestock as their potential source of infection. Person-to-person transmission was suspected for two cases. Using unbiased metagenomics, we found that the viral S- and L- segments have remained conserved in Africa 2 clade since the 1950s. In contrast, the M segment split into two geographically interspersed clades; one that belongs to Africa 2 and another that is ancestral to Africa 1 and 2. Overall, this data summarizes information on the history and clinical presentation of human CCHF in Uganda. Importantly, it identifies vulnerable populations as well as temporal and geographic regions in Uganda where surveillance and control interventions could be focused.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Herzog EL, Wäfler M, Keller I, et al (2021)

The importance of age in compositional and functional profiling of the human intestinal microbiome.

PloS one, 16(10):e0258505 pii:PONE-D-21-13900.

The intestinal microbiome plays a central role in human health and disease. While its composition is relatively stable throughout adulthood, the microbial balance starts to decrease in later life stages. Thus, in order to maintain a good quality of life, including the prevention of age-associated diseases in the elderly, it is important to understand the dynamics of the intestinal microbiome. In this study, stool samples of 278 participants were sequenced by whole metagenome shotgun sequencing and their taxonomic and functional profiles characterized. The two age groups, below65 and above65, could be separated based on taxonomic and associated functional features using Multivariate Association of Linear Models. In a second approach, through machine learning, biomarkers connecting the intestinal microbiome with age were identified. These results reflect the importance to select age-matched study groups for unbiased metagenomic data analysis and the possibility to generate robust data by applying independent algorithms for data analysis. Furthermore, since the intestinal microbiome can be modulated by antibiotics and probiotics, the data of this study may have implications on preventive strategies of age-associated degradation processes and diseases by microbiome-altering interventions.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Barraza A, Montes-Sánchez JJ, Caamal-Chan MG, et al (2021)

Characterization of microbial communities from rumen and large intestine of lactating creole goats grazing in arid plant communities.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 167(10):.

Arid plant communities provide variable diets that can affect digestive microbial communities of free-foraging ruminants. Thus, we used next-generation sequencing of 16S and 18S rDNA to characterize microbial communities in the rumen (regurgitated digesta) and large intestine (faeces) and diet composition of lactating creole goats from five flocks grazing in native plant communities in the Sonoran Desert in the rainy season. The bacterial communities in the rumen and large intestine of the five flocks had similar alpha diversity (Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices). However, bacterial community compositions were different: a bacterial community dominated by Proteobacteria in the rumen transitioned to a community dominated by Firmicutes in the large intestine. Bacterial communities of rumen were similar across flocks; similarly occurred with large-intestine communities. Archaea had a minimum presence in the goat digestive tract. We detected phylum Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Apicomplexa as the main fungi and protozoa. Analyses suggested different diet compositions; forbs and grasses composed the bulk of plants in the rumen and forbs and shrubs in faeces. Therefore, lactating goats consuming different diets in the Sonoran Desert in the rainy season share a similar core bacterial community in the rumen and another in the large intestine and present low archaeal communities.

RevDate: 2021-10-19

Ma JE, Xiong XW, Xu JG, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Analysis Identifies Sex-Related Cecal Microbial Gene Functions and Bacterial Taxa in the Quail.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 8:693755.

Background: Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) are important and widely distributed poultry in China. Researchers continue to pursue genetic selection for heavier quail. The intestinal microbiota plays a substantial role in growth promotion; however, the mechanisms involved in growth promotion remain unclear. Results: We generated 107.3 Gb of cecal microbiome data from ten Japanese quail, providing a series of quail gut microbial gene catalogs (1.25 million genes). We identified a total of 606 main microbial species from 1,033,311 annotated genes distributed among the ten quail. Seventeen microbial species from the genera Anaerobiospirillum, Alistipes, Barnesiella, and Butyricimonas differed significantly in their abundances between the female and male gut microbiotas. Most of the functional gut microbial genes were involved in metabolism, primarily in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, as well as some active carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. We also identified 308 antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota. Studies of the differential gene functions between sexes indicated that abundances of the gut microbes that produce carbohydrate-active enzymes varied between female and male quail. Bacteroidetes was the predominant ARG-containing phylum in female quail; Euryarchaeota was the predominant ARG-containing phylum in male quail. Conclusion: This article provides the first description of the gene catalog of the cecal bacteria in Japanese quail as well as insights into the bacterial taxa and predictive metagenomic functions between male and female quail to provide a better understanding of the microbial genes in the quail ceca.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Yang Z, He B, Lu Z, et al (2021)

Mammalian birnaviruses identified in pigs infected by classical swine fever virus.

Virus evolution, 7(2):veab084 pii:veab084.

Currently, the Birnaviridae family contains four genera with all members identified from birds, fishes, and insects only. The present study reports a novel birnavirus unexpectedly identified from classical swine fever virus-infected pigs by viral metagenomic analysis, which is, therefore, named as porcine birnavirus (PBRV). Follow-up reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) screening of archived tissues of diseased pigs identified 16 PBRV strains from nine provinces/autonomous regions in China spanning 21 years (1998-2019), and the viral loads of PBRV in clinical samples were 105.08-107.95 genome copies per 0.1 g tissue, showing the replication of PBRVs in the pigs. Genome-based sequence comparison showed that PBRVs are genetically distant from existing members within the Birnaviridae family with 45.8-61.6 per cent and 46.2-63.2 per cent nucleotide sequence similarities in segments A and B, respectively, and the relatively closed viruses are avibirnavirus strains. In addition, indels of 57, 5, and 18 amino acid residues occurred in 16, 2, and 7 locations of the PBRV polyprotein and VP5 and VP1 proteins, respectively, as compared to the reference avibirnaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PBRVs formed an independent genotype separated from four other genera, which could be classified into two or three subgenotypes (PBRV-A1-2 and PBRV-B1-3) based on the nucleotide sequences of full preVP2 and VP1 genes, respectively. All results showed that PBRV represents a novel porcine virus species, which constitutes the first mammalian birnavirus taxon, thereby naming as Mambirnavirus genus is proposed.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Guo M, Gao M, Gao J, et al (2021)

Identifying Risk Factors for Secondary Infection Post-SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients With Severe and Critical COVID-19.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:715023.

Emerging evidence has unveiled the secondary infection as one of the mortal causes of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the factors related to secondary bacterial or fungi infection remains largely unexplored. We here systematically investigated the factors that might contribute to secondary infection. By clinical examination index analysis of patients, combined with the integrative analysis with RNA-seq analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolated shortly from initial infection, this study showed that the antibiotic catabolic process and myeloid cell homeostasis were activated while the T-cell response were relatively repressed in those with the risk of secondary infection. Further monitoring analysis of immune cell and liver injury analysis showed that the risk of secondary infection was accompanied by severe lymphocytopenia at the intermediate and late stages and liver injury at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the metagenomics analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the microbial culture analysis, to some extent, showed that the severe pneumonia-related bacteria have already existed in the initial infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Ghimire S, Wongkuna S, Sankaranarayanan R, et al (2021)

Positive Synergistic Effects of Quercetin and Rice Bran on Human Gut Microbiota Reduces Enterobacteriaceae Family Abundance and Elevates Propionate in a Bioreactor Model.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:751225.

Dietary fiber and flavonoids have substantial influence on the human gut microbiota composition that significantly impact health. Recent studies with dietary supplements such as quercetin and rice bran have shown beneficial impacts on the host alongside a positive influence of the gut microbiota. The specific bacterial species impacted by quercetin or rice bran in the diet is not well understood. In this study, we used a minibioreactor array system as a model to determine the effect of quercetin and rice bran individually, as well as in combination, on gut microbiota without the confounding host factors. We found that rice bran exerts higher shift in gut microbiome composition when compared to quercetin. At the species level, Acidaminococcus intestini was the only significantly enriched taxa when quercetin was supplemented, while 15 species were enriched in rice bran supplementation and 13 were enriched when quercetin and rice bran were supplemented in combination. When comparing the short chain fatty acid production, quercetin supplementation increased isobutyrate production while propionate dominated the quercetin and rice bran combined group. Higher levels of propionate were highly correlated to the lower abundance of the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae family. These findings suggest that the combination of quercetin and rice bran serve to enrich beneficial bacteria and reduce potential opportunistic pathogens. In vivo studies are necessary to determine how this synergy of quercetin and rice bran on microbiota impact host health.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Matturro B, Zepilli M, Lai A, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Microbial Interactions at the Biocathode of a Bioelectrochemical System Capable of Simultaneous Trichloroethylene and Cr(VI) Reduction.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:747670.

Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are attractive and versatile options for the bioremediation of organic or inorganic pollutants, including trichloroethylene (TCE) and Cr(VI), often found as co-contaminants in the environment. The elucidation of the microbial players' role in the bioelectroremediation processes for treating multicontaminated groundwater is still a research need that attracts scientific interest. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and whole shotgun metagenomics revealed the leading microbial players and the primary metabolic interactions occurring in the biofilm growing at the biocathode where TCE reductive dechlorination (RD), hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and Cr(VI) reduction occurred. The presence of Cr(VI) did not negatively affect the TCE degradation, as evidenced by the RD rates estimated during the reactor operation with TCE (111±2 μeq/Ld) and TCE/Cr(VI) (146±2 μeq/Ld). Accordingly, Dehalococcoides mccartyi, the primary biomarker of the RD process, was found on the biocathode treating both TCE (7.82E+04±2.9E+04 16S rRNA gene copies g-1 graphite) and TCE/Cr(VI) (3.2E+07±2.37E+0716S rRNA gene copies g-1 graphite) contamination. The metagenomic analysis revealed a selected microbial consortium on the TCE/Cr(VI) biocathode. D. mccartyi was the sole dechlorinating microbe with H2 uptake as the only electron supply mechanism, suggesting that electroactivity is not a property of this microorganism. Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus and Methanobacterium formicicum also colonized the biocathode as H2 consumers for the CH4 production and cofactor suppliers for D. mccartyi cobalamin biosynthesis. Interestingly, M. formicicum also harbors gene complexes involved in the Cr(VI) reduction through extracellular and intracellular mechanisms.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Song L, Zhang L, X Fang (2021)

Characterizing Enterotypes in Human Metagenomics: A Viral Perspective.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:740990.

The diversity and high genomic mutation rates of viral species hinder our understanding of viruses and their contributions to human health. Viral enterotypes as a description of the gut virome, its characteristics have not been thoroughly studied. Here we investigated the human gut virome composition using previously published sequencing data of 2,690 metagenomes from seven countries with various phenotypes. We found that the virome was dominated by double-stranded DNA viruses in our data, and young children and adults showed different stages in their fecal enterovirus composition. Beta diversity showed there were significantly less homogeneous in individuals with severe disorders of bile acid secretion, such as cirrhosis. In contrast, there were no significant differences in distances to centroids or viral components between patients with phenotypes unrelated to bile acid, such as hypertension. Enterotypes determined independently from various projects showed similar specific viruses and enrichment direction. Confounding factors, such as different sequencing platforms and library construction, did not confuse enterotyping. The gut virome composition pattern could be described by two viral enterotypes, which supported a discrete, rather than a gradient, distribution. Three main components, enterotype 1 and 2 specific viruses and the other, comprise the total viral variation in these sets. Compared with enterotype 2, enterotype 1 had a higher viral count, Shannon index, and similarity between samples. The relative abundance of enterotype-specific viruses is a crucial determinant of enterotype assignment. Samples not matching any of the defined enterotypes in the database did not necessarily correlate to sickness. Therefore, the background context must be carefully considered when using a viral enterotype as a feature for disease prediction. Our results highlight important insights into the human gut virome composition by exploring two-main viral enterotypes in population and providing an alternate covariate for early disease screening.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Kwak Y, Sun P, Meduri VR, et al (2021)

Uncovering Symbionts Across the Psyllid Tree of Life and the Discovery of a New Liberibacter Species, "Candidatus" Liberibacter capsica.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:739763.

Sap-feeding insects in the order Hemiptera associate with obligate endosymbionts that are required for survival and facultative endosymbionts that can potentially modify resistance to stress, enemies, development, and reproduction. In the superfamily Psylloidea, the jumping plant lice (psyllids), less is known about the diversity and prevalence of their endosymbionts compared to other sap-feeding pests such as aphids (Aphididae). To address this knowledge gap, using 16S rRNA sequencing we identify symbionts across divergent psyllid host lineages from around the world. Taking advantage of a new comprehensive phylogenomic analyses of Psylloidea, we included psyllid samples from 44 species of 35 genera of five families, collected from 11 international locations for this study. Across psyllid lineages, a total of 91 OTUs were recovered, predominantly of the Enterobacteriaceae (68%). The diversity of endosymbionts harbored by each psyllid species was low with an average of approximately 3 OTUs. Two clades of endosymbionts (clade 1 and 2), belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, were identified that appear to be long term endosymbionts of the psyllid families Triozidae and Psyllidae, respectively. We also conducted high throughput metagenomic sequencing on three Ca. Liberibacter infected psyllid species (Russelliana capsici, Trichochermes walkeri, and Macrohomotoma gladiata), initially identified from 16S rRNA sequencing, to obtain more genomic information on these putative Liberibacter plant pathogens. The phylogenomic analyses from these data identified a new Ca. Liberibacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter capsica, that is a potential pathogen of solanaceous crops. This new species shares a distant ancestor with Ca. L. americanus, which occurs in the same range as R. capsici in South America. We also detected the first association between a psyllid specializing on woody hosts and the Liberibacter species Ca. L. psyllaurous, which is a globally distributed pathogen of herbaceous crop hosts in the Solanaceae. Finally, we detected a potential association between a psyllid pest of figs (M. gladiata) and a Ca. Liberibacter related to Ca. L. asiaticus, which causes severe disease in citrus. Our findings reveal a wider diversity of associations between facultative symbionts and psyllids than previously reported and suggest numerous avenues for future work to clarify novel associations of ecological, evolutionary, and pathogenic interest.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Katada S, Fukuda A, Nakajima C, et al (2021)

Aerobic Composting and Anaerobic Digestion Decrease the Copy Numbers of Antibiotic-Resistant Genes and the Levels of Lactose-Degrading Enterobacteriaceae in Dairy Farms in Hokkaido, Japan.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:737420.

Efficient methods for decreasing the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and transfer of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) from livestock manure to humans are urgently needed. Aerobic composting (AC) or anaerobic digestion (AD) are widely used for manure treatment in Japanese dairy farms. To clarify the effects of AC and AD on antimicrobial resistance, the abundances of antimicrobial (tetracycline and cefazolin)-resistant lactose-degrading Enterobacteriaceae as indicator bacteria, copy numbers of ARGs (tetracycline resistance genes and β-lactamase coding genes), and concentrations of residual antimicrobials in dairy cow manure were determined before and after treatment. The concentration of tetracycline/cefazolin-resistant lactose-degrading Enterobacteriaceae was decreased over 1,000-fold by both AC and AD. ARGs such as tetA, tetB, and bla TEM were frequently detected and their copy numbers were significantly reduced by ∼1,000-fold by AD but not by AC. However, several ARG copies remained even after AD treatment. Although concentrations of the majority of residual antimicrobials were decreased by both AC and AD, oxytetracycline level was not decreased after treatment in most cases. In addition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based metagenomic analysis revealed that both treatments changed the bacterial community structure. These results suggest that both AC and AD could suppress the transmission of ARB, and AD could reduce ARG copy numbers in dairy cow manure.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Yu H, Wang F, Shao M, et al (2021)

Effects of Rotations With Legume on Soil Functional Microbial Communities Involved in Phosphorus Transformation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:661100.

Including legumes in the cereal cropping could improve the crop yield and the uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of subsequent cereals. The effects of legume-cereal crop rotations on the soil microbial community have been studied in recent years, the impact on soil functional genes especially involved in P cycling is raising great concerns. The metagenomic approach was used to investigate the impacts of crop rotation managements of soybean-wheat (SW) and maize-wheat (MW) lasting 2 and 7years on soil microbial communities and genes involved in P transformation in a field experiment. Results indicated that SW rotation increased the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, reduced Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi compared to MW rotation. gcd, phoR, phoD, and ppx predominated in genes involved in P transformation in both rotations. Genes of gcd, ppa, and ugpABCE showed higher abundances in SW rotation than in MW rotation, whereas gadAC and pstS showed less abundances. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes played predominant roles in microbial P cycling. Our study provides a novel insight into crop P, which requires strategy and help to understand the mechanism of improving crop nutrient uptake and productivity in different rotations.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Su J, Chen X, Xiao Y, et al (2021)

Bruceae Fructus Oil Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Restraining Autophagy: Dependence on the Gut Microbiota-Mediated Amino Acid Regulation.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:727082 pii:727082.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been acknowledged as an aggressive disease with worst prognosis, which requires endeavor to develop novel therapeutic agents. Bruceae fructus oil (BO), a vegetable oil derived from the fruit of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., is an approved marketable drug for the treatment of cancer in China for several decades. Despite that the anti-breast cancer activity of several quassinoids derived from B. javanica has been found, it was the first time that the potential of BO against TNBC was revealed. Although BO had no cytotoxicity on TNBC cell lines in vitro, the oral administration of BO exhibited a gut microbiota-dependent tumor suppression without toxicity on the non-targeted organs in vivo. By metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics, it was found that BO not only altered the composition and amino acid metabolism function of gut microbiota but also regulated the host's amino acid profile, which was in accordance with the metabolism alternation in gut microbiota. Moreover, the activity of mTOR in tumor was promoted by BO treatment as indicated by the phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6, and hyper-autophagy was consequently restrained. By contrast, the failure of tumor suppression by BO under pseudo germ-free (PGF) condition came with indistinctive changes in autophagy and mTOR activity, implying the critical role of the gut microbiota in BO's anticancer activity. The present study highlighted a promising application of BO against breast cancer with novel efficacy and safety.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Wajid B, Anwar F, Wajid I, et al (2021)

Music of metagenomics-a review of its applications, analysis pipeline, and associated tools.

Functional & integrative genomics [Epub ahead of print].

This humble effort highlights the intricate details of metagenomics in a simple, poetic, and rhythmic way. The paper enforces the significance of the research area, provides details about major analytical methods, examines the taxonomy and assembly of genomes, emphasizes some tools, and concludes by celebrating the richness of the ecosystem populated by the "metagenome."

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Liu C, Huang H, Duan X, et al (2021)

Integrated Metagenomic and Metaproteomic Analyses Unravel Ammonia Toxicity to Active Methanogens and Syntrophs, Enzyme Synthesis, and Key Enzymes in Anaerobic Digestion.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

During anaerobic digestion, the active microbiome synthesizes enzymes by transcription and translation, and then enzymes catalyze multistep bioconversions of substrates before methane being produced. However, little information is available on how ammonia affects truly active microbes containing the expressed enzymes, enzyme synthesis, and key enzymes. In this study, an integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic investigation showed that ammonia suppressed not only the obligate acetotrophic methanogens but also the syntrophic propionate and butyrate oxidation taxa and their assistant bacteria (genus Desulfovibrio), which declined the biotransformations of propionate and butyrate → acetate → methane. Although the total population of the hydrolyzing and acidifying bacteria was not affected by ammonia, the bacteria with ammonia resistance increased. Our study also revealed that ammonia restrained the enzyme synthesis process by inhibiting the RNA polymerase (subunits A' and D) during transcription and the ribosome (large (L3, L12, L13, L22, and L25) and small (S3, S3Ae, and S7) ribosomal subunits) and aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis (aspartate-tRNA synthetase) in translation. Further investigation suggested that methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, and CH3-CoM reductase, which regulate propionate and butyrate oxidation and acetoclastic methanation, were significantly downregulated by ammonia. This study provides intrinsic insights into the fundamental mechanisms of how ammonia inhibits anaerobic digestion.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Tan-Torres AL, Brooks JP, Singh B, et al (2021)

Machine learning clustering and classification of human microbiome source body sites.

Forensic science international, 328:111008 pii:S0379-0738(21)00328-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Distinct microbial signatures associated with specific human body sites can play a role in the identification of biological materials recovered from the crime scene, but at present, methods that have capability to predict origin of biological materials based on such signatures are limited. Metagenomic sequencing and machine learning (ML) offer a promising enhancement to current identification protocols. We use ML for forensic source body site identification using shotgun metagenomic sequenced data to verify the presence of microbiomic signatures capable of discriminating between source body sites and then show that accurate prediction is possible. The consistency between cluster membership and actual source body site (purity) exceeded 99% at the genus taxonomy using off-the-shelf ML clustering algorithms. Similar results were obtained at the family level. Accurate predictions were observed for genus, family, and order taxonomies, as well as with a core set of 51 genera. The accurate outcomes from our replicable process should encourage forensic scientists to seriously consider integrating ML predictors into their source body site identification protocols.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Ma Y, Sun Y, Sun L, et al (2021)

Effects of gut microbiota and fatty acid metabolism on dyslipidemia following weight-loss diets in women: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 40(11):5511-5520 pii:S0261-5614(21)00438-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In our early feeding trial among overweight and obese Chinese women, both low-carbohydrate (LC) and calorie-restricted (CR) diets reduced weight and fat mass, but only the LC diet significantly improved dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the impacts of altered gut microbiota, fatty acid (FAs), and acylcarnitines, markers of mitochondrial function on blood lipids.

METHODS: Fecal and blood samples from 48 participants at baseline and the end of a 12-week trial were used to perform metagenomics and targeted-metabolomics including erythrocyte FAs and plasma acylcarnitines, respectively.

RESULTS: The two diets altered microbial structure and co-abundance gene clusters (CAGs) at different magnitudes. After a 12-week intervention, the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio increased significantly in the LC diet (P = 0.015) but not in the CR diet, which only showed an increased trend (P = 0.28). At the microbial function level, the LC group showed lower branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and higher serine biosynthesis than the CR group. Moreover, the LC diet reduced levels of 14:0 and 16:1n-7 FAs in the de novo lipogenesis pathway, but increased 20:5n-3 compared with the CR diet. Both groups had increased plasma acylcarnitines except that the LC group had larger elevated short-chain acylcarnitines. After backward stepwise selection, a cluster of changed CAGs, FAs and acylcarnitines were found to be associated with improved lipid profile. However, changed CAGs showed higher contribution rates in elevating HDL-cholesterol (81.6%) and reducing triglycerides (89.3%) than changed FAs and acylcarnitines.

CONCLUSIONS: The two weight-loss diets induced different changes of gut microbiota, plasma acylcarnitines, and erythrocyte FAs. Changes in gut microbiota rather than FA or acylcarnitine profiles showed greater contribution to improved lipid profile in these overweight and obese Chinese women.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at

RevDate: 2021-10-16

Pruden A, Vikesland PJ, Davis BC, et al (2021)

Seizing the moment: now is the time for integrated global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in wastewater environments.

Current opinion in microbiology, 64:91-99 pii:S1369-5274(21)00132-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global health threat that requires coordinated action across One Health sectors (humans, animals, environment) to stem its spread. Environmental surveillance of AMR is largely behind the curve in current One Health surveillance programs, but recent momentum in the establishment of infrastructure for monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in sewage provides an impetus for analogous AMR monitoring. Simultaneous advances in research have identified striking trends in various AMR measures in wastewater and other impacted environments across global transects. Methodologies for tracking AMR, including metagenomics, are rapidly advancing, but need to be standardized and made modular for access by LMICs, while also developing systems for sample archiving and data sharing. Such efforts will help optimize effective global AMR policy.

RevDate: 2021-10-16

Li W, Li J, Liu Y, et al (2021)

Mainstream double-anammox driven by nitritation and denitratation using a one-stage step-feed bioreactor with real municipal wastewater.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(21)01474-7 [Epub ahead of print].

A novel double-anammox process for advanced mainstream nitrogen removal was established using step-feed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system with integration of suspend sludge and biofilms. Following optimization of influent distribution ratio, the effluent total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) was < 10.2 mg N/L, with influent TIN of 43.4 mg N/L, and anammox contributed 71.4% to TIN removal. Biological processes and batch tests revealed that gradient C/N reduction promoted denitratation/anammox in anoxic stage, and simultaneous nitritation and anammox were achieved in oxic stage. Specially, anammox maintained on biofilms with abundance over 109 copies/ (g dry sludge). High-throughput sequencing revealed that Thauera and Nitrosomonas were enriched in flocs. Furthermore, metagenomic sequencing confirmed that Thauera owns narG and napA (NO3-→NO2-) and Nitrosomonas owns amoA (NH4+→NO2-), support stable NO2- supply for double-anammox. This mainstream anammox-dominant process could potentially be used for stable nitrogen removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Sookaromdee P, V Wiwanitkit (2021)

Considerations on Laboratory Quality Management for Environmental Metagenomics Testing in Clinical Laboratory.

Clinical laboratory, 67(10):.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Kumar G, Suman A, Lal S, et al (2021)

Bacterial structure and dynamics in mango (Mangifera indica) orchards after long term organic and conventional treatments under subtropical ecosystem.

Scientific reports, 11(1):20554.

This study explores the comparative effect of conventional and organic treatments on the rhizosphere microbiome of Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari. The long-term exposures (about 20 years) were monitored under a subtropical ecosystem. Based on plant growth properties and acetylene reduction assay, 12 bacterial isolates (7 from G1-organic and 5 from G2-conventional systems) were identified as Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. In the conventional system, dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased (0.053 µg TPF formed g-1 of soil h-1) and adversely affected the bacterial diversity composition. In comparison, organic treatments had a good impact on dehydrogenase activity (0.784 µg TPF formed g-1 of soil h-1), alkaline phosphatase (139.25 µg PNP g-1 soil h-1), and bacterial community composition. The Metagenomics approach targeted the V3 and V4 regions to see the impact in the phylum, order, family, genus, and species for both the treatments. Results showed that phylum Acidobacteria (13.6%), Firmicutes (4.84%), and Chloroflexi (2.56%) were dominating in the G2 system whereas phylum Bacteroides (14.55%), Actinobacteria (7.45%), and Proteobacteria (10.82%) were abundantly dominated in the G1 system. Metagenome sequences are at the NCBI-GenBank sequence read archive with SRX8289747 (G1) and SRX8289748 (G2) in the study PRJNA631113. Results indicated that conventional and organic conditions affect rhizosphere microbiome and their environment.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Teng ZJ, Qin QL, Zhang W, et al (2021)

Biogeographic traits of dimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate cycling in polar oceans.

Microbiome, 9(1):207.

BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the dominant volatile organic sulfur in global oceans. The predominant source of oceanic DMS is the cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which can be produced by marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Polar oceans, which represent about one fifth of Earth's surface, contribute significantly to the global oceanic DMS sea-air flux. However, a global overview of DMS and DMSP cycling in polar oceans is still lacking and the key genes and the microbial assemblages involved in DMSP/DMS transformation remain to be fully unveiled.

RESULTS: Here, we systematically investigated the biogeographic traits of 16 key microbial enzymes involved in DMS/DMSP cycling in 60 metagenomic samples from polar waters, together with 174 metagenome and 151 metatranscriptomes from non-polar Tara Ocean dataset. Our analyses suggest that intense DMS/DMSP cycling occurs in the polar oceans. DMSP demethylase (DmdA), DMSP lyases (DddD, DddP, and DddK), and trimethylamine monooxygenase (Tmm, which oxidizes DMS to dimethylsulfoxide) were the most prevalent bacterial genes involved in global DMS/DMSP cycling. Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacterales) and Gammaproteobacteria appear to play prominent roles in DMS/DMSP cycling in polar oceans. The phenomenon that multiple DMS/DMSP cycling genes co-occurred in the same bacterial genome was also observed in metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) from polar oceans. The microbial assemblages from the polar oceans were significantly correlated with water depth rather than geographic distance, suggesting the differences of habitats between surface and deep waters rather than dispersal limitation are the key factors shaping microbial assemblages involved in DMS/DMSP cycling in polar oceans.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study provides a global overview of the biogeographic traits of known bacterial genes involved in DMS/DMSP cycling from the Arctic and Antarctic oceans, laying a solid foundation for further studies of DMS/DMSP cycling in polar ocean microbiome at the enzymatic, metabolic, and processual levels. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-10-19
CmpDate: 2021-10-19

Guzmán-Solís AA, Villa-Islas V, Bravo-López MJ, et al (2021)

Ancient viral genomes reveal introduction of human pathogenic viruses into Mexico during the transatlantic slave trade.

eLife, 10:.

After the European colonization of the Americas, there was a dramatic population collapse of the Indigenous inhabitants caused in part by the introduction of new pathogens. Although there is much speculation on the etiology of the Colonial epidemics, direct evidence for the presence of specific viruses during the Colonial era is lacking. To uncover the diversity of viral pathogens during this period, we designed an enrichment assay targeting ancient DNA (aDNA) from viruses of clinical importance and applied it to DNA extracts from individuals found in a Colonial hospital and a Colonial chapel (16th-18th century) where records suggest that victims of epidemics were buried during important outbreaks in Mexico City. This allowed us to reconstruct three ancient human parvovirus B19 genomes and one ancient human hepatitis B virus genome from distinct individuals. The viral genomes are similar to African strains, consistent with the inferred morphological and genetic African ancestry of the hosts as well as with the isotopic analysis of the human remains, suggesting an origin on the African continent. This study provides direct molecular evidence of ancient viruses being transported to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade and their subsequent introduction to New Spain. Altogether, our observations enrich the discussion about the etiology of infectious diseases during the Colonial period in Mexico.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )