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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Jun 2024 at 01:31 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-16

Yin Y, Shen J, Du Z, et al (2024)

Clinical and cost analysis of an ultra-rapid metagenomic sequencing test for pathogen detection in adult patients with sepsis.

Chinese medical journal [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Wang Q, Zhan PC, Han XL, et al (2024)

Metagenomic and culture-dependent analysis of Rhinopithecius bieti gut microbiota and characterization of a novel genus of Sphingobacteriaceae.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13819.

Culture-dependent and metagenomic binning techniques were employed to gain an insight into the diversification of gut bacteria in Rhinopithecius bieti, a highly endangered primate endemic to China. Our analyses revealed that Bacillota_A and Bacteroidota were the dominant phyla. These two phyla species are rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, which could provide nutrients and energy for their own or hosts' survival under different circumstances. Among the culturable bacteria, one novel bacterium, designated as WQ 2009[T], formed a distinct branch that had a low similarity to the known species in the family Sphingobacteriaceae, based on the phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence or phylogenomic analysis. The ANI, dDDH and AAI values between WQ 2009[T] and its most closely related strains S. kitahiroshimense 10C[T], S. pakistanense NCCP-246[T] and S. faecium DSM 11690[T] were significantly lower than the accepted cut-off values for microbial species delineation. All results demonstrated that WQ 2009[T] represent a novel genus, for which names Rhinopithecimicrobium gen. nov. and Rhinopithecimicrobium faecis sp. nov. (Type strain WQ 2009[T] = CCTCC AA 2021153[T] = KCTC 82941[T]) are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Lo WS, Sommer RJ, Z Han (2024)

Microbiota succession influences nematode physiology in a beetle microcosm ecosystem.

Nature communications, 15(1):5137.

Unravelling the multifaceted and bidirectional interactions between microbiota and host physiology represents a major scientific challenge. Here, we utilise the nematode model, Pristionchus pacificus, coupled to a laboratory-simulated decay process of its insect host, to mimic natural microbiota succession and investigate associated tripartite interactions. Metagenomics reveal that during initial decay stages, the population of vitamin B-producing bacteria diminishes, potentially due to a preferential selection by nematodes. As decay progresses to nutrient-depleted stages, bacteria with smaller genomes producing less nutrients become more prevalent. Lipid utilisation and dauer formation, representing key nematode survival strategies, are influenced by microbiota changes. Additionally, horizontally acquired cellulases extend the nematodes' reproductive phase due to more efficient foraging. Lastly, the expressions of Pristionchus species-specific genes are more responsive to natural microbiota compared to conserved genes, suggesting their importance in the organisms' adaptation to its ecological niche. In summary, we show the importance of microbial successions and their reciprocal interaction with nematodes for insect decay in semi-artificial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Wang H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, et al (2024)

Microbial metagenomic shifts in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during induction therapy and predictive biomarkers for infection.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 23(1):52.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has indicated a link between the gut microbiota and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the acute changes in gut microbiota during chemotherapy and the predictive value of baseline gut microbiota in infectious complication remain largely unknown.

METHODS: Faecal samples (n = 126) from children with ALL (n = 49) undergoing induction chemotherapy were collected at three timepoints, i.e., initiation of chemotherapy (baseline, T0), 7 days (T1) and 33 days (T2) after initiation of chemotherapy. Gut microbiome profile was performed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The bioBakery3 pipeline (Kneaddata, Metaphlan 3 and HUMAnN) was performed to assign taxonomy and functional annotations. Gut microbiome at T0 were used to predict infection during chemotherapy.

RESULTS: The microbial diversities and composition changed significantly during chemotherapy, with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bifidobacterium longum being the most prominent species. The microbial metabolic pathways were also significantly altered during chemotherapy, including the pathway of pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate, and assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models based on Bifidobacterium longum at T0 could predict infectious complications during the first month of chemotherapy with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.720.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the acute changes in microbial and functional characteristics in children with ALL during chemotherapy. The baseline gut microbiota could be potential biomarkers for infections during chemotherapy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University (2021-KY-171-01) and registered on http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2200065406, Registration Date: November 4, 2022).

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Jiang X, Wang X, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Associations between specific dietary patterns, gut microbiome composition, and incident subthreshold depression in Chinese young adults.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(24)00221-2 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The interplay between influential factors and the incidence of subthreshold depression (SD) in young adults remains poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand the dietary habits, gut microbiota composition, etc. among individuals with SD in young adults and to investigate their association with SD occurrence.

METHODS: Employing a cross-sectional approach, 178 individuals with SD, aged 18-32 years, were matched with 114 healthy counterparts. SD status was evaluated using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Beck Depression Inventory 2nd version (BDI-II), the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scales of Depression (HAMD-17), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Metagenomic sequencing was utilized to identify fecal microbial profiles. Dietary patterns were discerned via factor analysis of a 25-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were performed to explore the potential links between gut microbiota, dietary patterns, and incident SD.

RESULTS: Data on dietary habits were available for 292 participants (mean [SD] age, 22.1 [2.9] years; 216 [73.9 %] female). Logistic regression analysis revealed that dietary patterns Ⅰ (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95 % CI, 0.15-0.75) and IV (OR, 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.17-0.86 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.18-0.84) were associated with reduced risk of SD. Distinct microbial profiles were observed in young adults with SD, marked by increased microbial diversity and taxonomic alterations. Moreover, mediation analysis suggested Veillonella atypica as a potential mediator linking SDS or BDI-II scores with a healthy dietary pattern rich in bean products, coarse grains, nuts, fruits, mushrooms, and potatoes (β = 0.25, 95 % CI: 0.02-0.78 and β = 0.18, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.54).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the complex interplay between dietary patterns, gut microbiota, and the risk of developing SD in young adults, underscoring the potential for dietary interventions and microbiome modulation in mental health promotion.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhou Q, Jiang L, Zhu J, et al (2024)

The metabolic regulation mechanism of gallic acid on biogenic amines and nitrosamines in reduced-nitrite Chinese fermented sausages: A perspective of metabolomics and metagenomics.

Food chemistry, 456:139900 pii:S0308-8146(24)01550-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Reducing nitrites tends to increase the accumulation of hazardous biogenic amines (BAs) in Chinese fermented sausages (CFSs). Gallic acid (GA) has emerged as a potential alternative to reduce nitrite usage and control BAs. This study explored how GA inhibits BAs and nitrosamines accumulation in reduced-nitrite CFSs. Results demonstrated that combining 0.05% (w/w) GA with reduced nitrite effectively curbed BAs and N-nitrosodimethylamine, decreasing total BA from 271.48 to 125.46 mg/kg. Fifty-one metabolites associated with the metabolism of BAs and N-nitrosodimethylamine were identified. GA boosted Lactococcus while reducing spoilage bacteria and Macrococcus. This dual regulation suppressed BAs and dimethylamine accumulation by regulating amino acids and trimethylamine pathways. Consequently, GA achieved an 89.86% reduction in N-nitrosodimethylamine by decreasing the key precursors like putrescine, dimethylamine, and nitrite. These findings offer new insights into utilizing GA and similar plant polyphenols to manage BAs and nitrosamines in meat products with reduced nitrite usage.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhang X, Ma L, XX Zhang (2024)

Neglected risks of enhanced antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity in anaerobic digestion during transition from thermophilic to mesophilic.

Journal of hazardous materials, 475:134886 pii:S0304-3894(24)01465-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Minimization of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and potential pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria (PARB) during anaerobic digestion (AD) is significantly impacted by temperature. However, knowledge on how ARGs and PARB respond to temperature transition from thermophilic to mesophilic is limited. Here, we combined metagenomic-based with culture-based approaches and revealed the risks of antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity during transition from 55 °C to 35 °C for AD, with strategies of sharp (ST, one-step by 20 °C/d) and mild (MT, step-wise by 1 °C/d). Results indicated a lower decrease in methane production with MT (by 38.9%) than ST (by 88.8%). Phenotypic assays characterized a significant propagation of multi-resistant lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae and indicator pathogens after both transitions, especially via ST. Further genomic evidence indicated a significant increase of ARGs (29.4-fold), virulence factor genes (1.8-fold) and PARB (65.3-fold) after ST, while slight enrichment via MT. Bacterial succession and enhanced horizontal transfer mediated by mobile genetic elements promoted ARG propagation in AD during transition, which was synchronously exacerbated through horizontal transfer mechanisms mediated by cellular physiological responses (oxidative stress, membrane permeability, bacterial conjugation and transformation) and co-selection mechanisms of biomethanation metabolic functions (acidogenesis and acetogenesis). This study reveals temperature-dependent resistome and pathogenicity development in AD, facilitating microbial risk control.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Huang L, L Jia (2024)

Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum-A case report.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 110(1):116347 pii:S0732-8893(24)00176-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In this article we report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who complained of a cough, followed by skin and intracranial lesions. On metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology of respiratory samples (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) Nocardia otitidiscaviarum was identified. The patient was treated with therapy combined with a low dose of TMP-SMX and imipenem cilastatin sodium and had a favorable outcome. The timely diagnosis of Nocardia with the help of mNGS technology and early rational treatment of TMP-SMX can help improve the prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Qin W, Guo T, You T, et al (2024)

Metagenomic next generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for the identification of pathogens in patients with pulmonary infection: A retrospective study.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 110(1):116402 pii:S0732-8893(24)00228-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the limitations of traditional laboratory methods (TMs), identification of causative pathogens of numerous pulmonary infections (PIs) remains difficult. This study evaluated the value of metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) in the identification of various respiratory pathogens. A total of 207 patients with TMs and mNGS data were collected for this retrospective study. TMs included sputum culture, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, or polymerase chain reaction analysis of throat swabs. Otherwise, BALF was collected and analyzed using mNGS. For bacterial pathogens, sensitivities of mNGS as compared to TMs were 76.74 % and 58.14 % (P=0.012). For fungal pathogens, the detection rate of mNGS sensitivity was higher as compared to that of TMs (93.68 % vs 22.11 %; P<0.001). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were also greater for mNGS. Use of mNGS for BALF analysis offers good specificity and thus facilitates to the clinical diagnosis of PIs.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Wang H, Zhang L, Cui H, et al (2024)

Mechanisms linking triclocarban biotransformation to functional response and antimicrobial resistome evolution in wastewater treatment systems.

Water research, 260:121909 pii:S0043-1354(24)00810-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Evaluating the role of antimicrobials biotransformation in the regulation of metabolic functions and antimicrobial resistance evolution in wastewater biotreatment systems is crucial to ensuring water security. However, the associated mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate triclocarban (TCC, one of the typical antimicrobials) biotransformation mechanisms and the dynamic evolution of systemic function disturbance and antimicrobial resistance risk in a complex anaerobic hydrolytic acidification (HA)-anoxic (ANO)/oxic (O) process. We mined key functional genes involved in the TCC upstream (reductive dechlorination and amide bonds hydrolysis) and downstream (chloroanilines catabolism) biotransformation pathways by metagenomic sequencing. Acute and chronic stress of TCC inhibit the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), NH4[+] assimilation, and nitrification. The biotransformation of TCC via a single pathway cannot effectively relieve the inhibition of metabolic functions (e.g., carbon and nitrogen transformation and cycling) and enrichment of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Importantly, the coexistence of TCC reductive dechlorination and hydrolysis pathways and subsequent ring-opening catabolism play a critical role for stabilization of systemic metabolic functions and partial control of antimicrobial resistance risk. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms linking TCC biotransformation to the dynamic evolution of systemic functions and risks, and highlights critical regulatory information for enhanced control of TCC risks in complex biotreatment systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Tripathi P, Render R, Nidhi S, et al (2024)

Microbial genomics: a potential toolkit for forensic investigations.

Forensic science, medicine, and pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial forensics is a new discipline of science that analyzes evidence related to biological crime through the uniqueness and abundance of microorganisms and their toxins. Microorganisms remain alive longer than any other trace of biological evidence, such as DNA, fingerprints, and fibers, because of the protective cell membrane or capsules. Microbiological research has opened up various possibilities for forensic investigations of microbial flora. Current molecular technologies, including DNA sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, metagenomics, DNA fingerprinting, and molecular phylogeny, provide valid results for forensic investigations. Recent advancements in genome sequencing technologies, genetic data generation, and bioinformatic tools have significantly improved microbial sampling methods and forensic analyses. In this review, we discuss the applications of microbial genomic tools and technologies in forensic investigations, including human identification, geolocation, and causes of death.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Tian L, Fang G, Li G, et al (2024)

Metagenomic approach revealed the mobility and co-occurrence of antibiotic resistomes between non-intensive aquaculture environment and human.

Microbiome, 12(1):107.

BACKGROUND: Aquaculture is an important food source worldwide. The extensive use of antibiotics in intensive large-scale farms has resulted in resistance development. Non-intensive aquaculture is another aquatic feeding model that is conducive to ecological protection and closely related to the natural environment. However, the transmission of resistomes in non-intensive aquaculture has not been well characterized. Moreover, the influence of aquaculture resistomes on human health needs to be further understood. Here, metagenomic approach was employed to identify the mobility of aquaculture resistomes and estimate the potential risks to human health.

RESULTS: The results demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were widely present in non-intensive aquaculture systems and the multidrug type was most abundant accounting for 34%. ARGs of non-intensive aquaculture environments were mainly shaped by microbial communities accounting for 51%. Seventy-seven genera and 36 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were significantly associated with 23 ARG types (p < 0.05) according to network analysis. Six ARGs were defined as core ARGs (top 3% most abundant with occurrence frequency > 80%) which occupied 40% of ARG abundance in fish gut samples. Seventy-one ARG-carrying contigs were identified and 75% of them carried MGEs simultaneously. The qacEdelta1 and sul1 formed a stable combination and were detected simultaneously in aquaculture environments and humans. Additionally, 475 high-quality metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered and 81 MAGs carried ARGs. The multidrug and bacitracin resistance genes were the most abundant ARG types carried by MAGs. Strikingly, Fusobacterium_A (opportunistic human pathogen) carrying ARGs and MGEs were identified in both the aquaculture system and human guts, which indicated the potential risks of ARG transfer.

CONCLUSIONS: The mobility and pathogenicity of aquaculture resistomes were explored by a metagenomic approach. Given the observed co-occurrence of resistomes between the aquaculture environment and human, more stringent regulation of resistomes in non-intensive aquaculture systems may be required. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Pethő B, Váncsa S, Váradi A, et al (2024)

Very young and advanced maternal age strongly elevates the occurrence of nonchromosomal congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology pii:S0002-9378(24)00592-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nonchromosomal congenital anomalies (NCAs) are the most common cause of infant mortality and morbidity. The role of maternal age is well known, although the specifics are not thoroughly elucidated in the literature.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of maternal age in the incidence of NCAs and to pinpoint age groups at higher risk to refine screening protocols.

STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines and Cochrane Handbook. Searches were performed on October 19, 2021, across MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), and Embase. Population-based studies assessing the impact of maternal age on the incidence of NCAs in pregnant women were included, without restrictions on age range, country, or comorbidities. A random-effects model was used for pooling effect sizes, considering the heterogeneity across studies.

RESULTS: From 15,547 studies, 72 were synthesized. Maternal age >35 showed an increased NCA risk (risk ratio [RR]: 1.31, confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 -1.61), rising notably after>40 (RR: 1.44, CI: 1.25 -1.66). The latter changes to 1.25 (CI: 1.08 -1.46) if the co-occurrence of chromosomal aberrations is excluded. Specific anomalies like cleft lip/palate (>40, RR: 1.57, CI: 1.11 -2.20) and circulatory system defects (>40, RR: 1.94, CI: 1.28 -2.93) were significantly associated with advanced maternal age. Conversely, gastroschisis was linked to mothers <20 (RR: 3.08, CI: 2.74 -3.47).

CONCLUSION: The study confirms that both very young and advanced maternal ages significantly increase the risk of NCAs. There is a pressing need for age-specific prenatal screening protocols to better detect these anomalies, especially considering the current trend of delayed childbearing. Further research is required to fully understand the impact of maternal age on the prevalence of rarer NCAs.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Easter QT, Fernandes Matuck B, Beldorati Stark G, et al (2024)

Single-cell and spatially resolved interactomics of tooth-associated keratinocytes in periodontitis.

Nature communications, 15(1):5016.

Periodontitis affects billions of people worldwide. To address relationships of periodontal niche cell types and microbes in periodontitis, we generated an integrated single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) atlas of human periodontium (34-sample, 105918-cell), including sulcular and junctional keratinocytes (SK/JKs). SK/JKs displayed altered differentiation states and were enriched for effector cytokines in periodontitis. Single-cell metagenomics revealed 37 bacterial species with cell-specific tropism. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected intracellular 16 S and mRNA signals of multiple species and correlated with SK/JK proinflammatory phenotypes in situ. Cell-cell communication analysis predicted keratinocyte-specific innate and adaptive immune interactions. Highly multiplexed immunofluorescence (33-antibody) revealed peri-epithelial immune foci, with innate cells often spatially constrained around JKs. Spatial phenotyping revealed immunosuppressed JK-microniches and SK-localized tertiary lymphoid structures in periodontitis. Here, we demonstrate impacts on and predicted interactomics of SK and JK cells in health and periodontitis, which requires further investigation to support precision periodontal interventions in states of chronic inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Salamandane A, Leech J, Almeida R, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial microbiome, resistome and virulome distinguishes Portuguese Serra da Estrela PDO cheeses from similar non-PDO cheeses: An exploratory approach.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114556.

This study aimed to evaluate the microbiome, resistome and virulome of two types of Portuguese cheese using high throughput sequencing (HTS). Culture-dependent chromogenic methods were also used for certain groups/microorganisms. Eight samples of raw ewe's milk cheese were obtained from four producers: two producers with cheeses with a PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) label and the other two producers with cheeses without a PDO label. Agar-based culture methods were used to quantify total mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and lactic acid bacteria. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella was also investigated. The selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated to determine antibiotic resistance and the presence of virulence genes. The eight cheese samples analyzed broadly complied with EC regulations in terms of the microbiological safety criteria. The HTS results demonstrated that Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Enterococcus durans and Lactobacillus coryniformis were the most prevalent bacterial species in cheeses. The composition of the bacterial community varied, not only between PDO and non-PDO cheeses, but also between producers, particularly between the two non-PDO cheeses. Alpha-diversity analyses showed that PDO cheeses had greater bacterial diversity than non-PDO cheeses, demonstrating that the diversity of spontaneously fermented foods is significantly higher in cheeses produced without the addition of food preservatives and dairy ferments. Despite complying with microbiological regulations, both PDO and non-PDO cheeses harbored potential virulence genes as well as antibiotic resistance genes. However, PDO cheeses exhibited fewer of these virulence and antibiotic resistance genes compared to non-PDO cheeses. Therefore, the combination of conventional microbiological methods and the metagenomic approach could contribute to improving the attribution of the PDO label to this type of cheese.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Kothe CI, Carøe C, Mazel F, et al (2024)

Novel misos shape distinct microbial ecologies: opportunities for flavourful sustainable food innovation.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114490.

Fermentation is resurgent around the world as people seek healthier, more sustainable, and tasty food options. This study explores the microbial ecology of miso, a traditional Japanese fermented paste, made with novel regional substrates to develop new plant-based foods. Eight novel miso varieties were developed using different protein-rich substrates: yellow peas, Gotland lentils, and fava beans (each with two treatments: standard and nixtamalisation), as well as rye bread and soybeans. The misos were produced at Noma, a restaurant in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were analysed with biological and technical triplicates at the beginning and end of fermentation. We also incorporated in this study six samples of novel misos produced following the same recipe at Inua, a former affiliate restaurant of Noma in Tokyo, Japan. To analyse microbial community structure and diversity, metabarcoding (16S and ITS) and shotgun metagenomic analyses were performed. The misos contain a greater range of microbes than is currently described for miso in the literature. The composition of the novel yellow pea misos was notably similar to the traditional soybean ones, suggesting they are a good alternative, which supports our culinary collaborators' sensory conclusions. For bacteria, we found that overall substrate had the strongest effect, followed by time, treatment (nixtamalisation), and geography. For fungi, there was a slightly stronger effect of geography and a mild effect of substrate, and no significant effects for treatment or time. Based on an analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), strains of Staphylococccus epidermidis differentiated according to substrate. Carotenoid biosynthesis genes in these MAGs appeared in strains from Japan but not from Denmark, suggesting a possible gene-level geographical effect. The benign and possibly functional presence of S. epidermidis in these misos, a species typically associated with the human skin microbiome, suggests possible adaptation to the miso niche, and the flow of microbes between bodies and foods in certain fermentation as more common than is currently recognised. This study improves our understanding of miso ecology, highlights the potential for developing novel misos using diverse local ingredients, and suggests how fermentation innovation can contribute to studies of microbial ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yang G, Xu Y, J Wang (2024)

Antibiotic fermentation residue for biohydrogen production: Inhibitory mechanisms of the inherent antibiotic.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04134-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic fermentation residue, which is generated from the microbial antibiotic production process, has been a troublesome waste faced by the pharmaceutical industry. Dark fermentation is a potential technology to treat antibiotic fermentation residue in terms of renewable H2 generation and waste management. However, the inherent antibiotic in antibiotic fermentation residue may inhibit its dark fermentation performance, and current understanding on this topic is limited. This investigation examined the impact of the inherent antibiotic on the dark H2 fermentation of Cephalosporin C (CEPC) fermentation residue, and explored the mechanisms from the perspectives of bacterial communities and functional genes. It was found that CEP-C in the antibiotic fermentation residue significantly inhibited the H2 production, with the H2 yield decreasing from 17.2 mL/g-VSadded to 12.5 and 9.6 mL/g-VSadded at CEP-C concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively. CEP-C also prolonged the H2-producing lag period. Microbiological analysis indicated that CEP-C remarkably decreased the abundances of high-yielding H2-producing bacteria, as well as downregulated the genes involved in hydrogen generation from the"pyruvate pathway" and"NADH pathway", essentially leading to the decline of H2 productivity. The present work gains insights into how cephalosporin antibiotics influence the dark H2 fermentation, and provide guidance for mitigating the inhibitory effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Qian L, Yan B, Zhou J, et al (2024)

Comprehensive profiles of sulfur cycling microbial communities along a mangrove sediment depth.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04109-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The sulfur (S) cycle is an important biogeochemical cycle with profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes by diverse microorganisms. Mangrove sediments are a hotspot of biogeochemical cycling, especially for the S cycle with high concentrations of S compounds. Previous studies have mainly focused on some specific inorganic S cycling processes without paying specific attention to the overall S-cycling communities and processes as well as organic S metabolism. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the distribution, ecological network and assembly mechanisms of S cycling microbial communities and their changes with sediment depths using metagenome sequencing data. The results showed that the abundance of gene families involved in sulfur oxidation, assimilatory sulfate reduction, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage and demethylation decreased with sediment depths, while those involved in S reduction and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) transformation showed an opposite trend. Specifically, glpE, responsible for converting S2O3[2-] to SO3[2-], showed the highest abundance in the surface sediment and decreased with sediment depths; in contrast, high abundances of dmsA, responsible for converting dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to DMS, were identified and increased with sediment depths. We identified Pseudomonas and Streptomyces as the main S-cycling microorganisms, while Thermococcus could play an import role in microbial network connections in the S-cycling microbial community. Our statistical analysis showed that both taxonomical and functional compositions were generally shaped by stochastic processes, while the functional composition of organic S metabolism showed a transition from stochastic to deterministic processes. This study provides a novel perspective of diversity distribution of S-cycling functions and taxa as well as their potential assembly mechanisms, which has important implications for maintaining mangrove ecosystem functions.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wen M, Zhang Q, Li Y, et al (2024)

Influence of dissolved organic matter on the anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone accompanying microbial response.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01500-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Roxarsone (ROX), commonly employed as a livestock feed additive, largely remains unmetabolized and is subsequently excreted via feces. ROX could cause serious environmental risks due to its rapid transformation and high mobility in the anaerobic subsurface environment. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important constituent of fecal organics in livestock waste and could affect the ROX biotransformation. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms governing the interaction between DOM and ROX biotransformation have not yet been elucidated in the anaerobic environment. In this study, the changes of ROX, metabolites, and microbial biomass in the solutions with varying DOM concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/L) under anaerobic environments were investigated during the ROX (200 mg/L) degradation. EEM-PARAFAC and metagenomic sequencing were combined to identify the dynamic shifts of DOM components and the functional microbial populations responsible for ROX degradation. Results indicated that DOM facilitated the anaerobic biotransformation of ROX and 200 mg/L ROX could be degraded completely in 28 h. The tryptophan-like within DOM functioned as a carbon source to promote the growth of microorganisms, thus accelerating the degradation of ROX. The mixed microflora involved in ROX anaerobic degrading contained genes associated with arsenic metabolism (arsR, arsC, acr3, arsA, nfnB, and arsB), and arsR, arsC, acr3 exhibited high microbial diversity. Variations in DOM concentrations significantly impacted the population dynamics of microorganisms involved in arsenic metabolism (Proteiniclasticum, Exiguobacterium, Clostridium, Proteiniphilum, Alkaliphilus, and Corynebacterium spp.), which in turn affected the transformation of ROX and its derivatives. This study reveals the mechanism of ROX degradation influenced by the varying concentrations of DOM under anaerobic environments, which is important for the prevention of arsenic contamination with elevated levels of organic matter.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ren WT, Lv Y, He ZL, et al (2024)

Feedback of chain elongation microorganisms on iron-based conductive materials: Enhanced microbial functions and biotoxicity adaptation mechanisms.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00662-X [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the increased research efforts aimed at understanding iron-based conductive materials (CMs) for facilitating chain elongation (CE) to produce medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), the impact of these materials on microbial community functions and the adaptation mechanisms to their biotoxicity remain unclear. This study found that the supply of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and magnetite enhanced the MCFAs carbon-flow distribution by 26 % and 52 %, respectively. Metagenomic analysis revealed the upregulation of fatty acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and ABC transporters with ZVI and magnetite. The predominant functional microorganisms were Massilibacterium and Tidjanibacter with ZVI, and were Petrimonas and Candidatus_Microthrix with magnetite. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that CE microorganisms respond and adapt to the biotoxicity of iron-based CMs by adjusting Two-component system and Quorum sensing for the first time. In summary, this study provided a new deep-insight on the feedback mechanisms of CE microorganisms on iron-based CMs.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Lv Y, Ren WT, Huang Y, et al (2024)

Upgrading soybean dreg to caproate via intermediate of lactate and mediator of biochar.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00661-8 [Epub ahead of print].

To address the environmental hazards posed by high-yield soybean dreg (SD), a high-value strategy is firstly proposed by synthesizing caproate through chain elongation (CE). Optimized conditions for lactate-rich broth as intermediate, utilizing 50 % inoculum ratio, 40 g/L substrate concentration, and pH 5, resulting in 2.05 g/L caproate from direct fermentation. Leveraging lactate-rich broth supplemented with ethanol, caproate was optimized to 2.76 g/L under a refined electron donor to acceptor of 2:1. Furthermore, incorporating 20 g/L biochar elevated caproate production to 3.05 g/L and significantly shortened the lag phase. Mechanistic insights revealed that biochar's surface-existed quinone and hydroquinone groups exhibit potent redox characteristics, thereby facilitating electron transfer. Moreover, biochar up-regulated the abundance of key genes involved in CE process (especially fatty acids biosynthesis pathway), also enriching Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas as an unrecognized cooperation to CE. This study paves a way for sustainable development of SD by upgrading to caproate.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Sivalingam P, Sabatino R, Sbaffi T, et al (2024)

Anthropogenic pollution may enhance natural transformation in water, favouring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

Journal of hazardous materials, 475:134885 pii:S0304-3894(24)01464-X [Epub ahead of print].

Aquatic ecosystems are crucial in the antimicrobial resistance cycle. While intracellular DNA has been extensively studied to understand human activity's impact on antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) dissemination, extracellular DNA is frequently overlooked. This study examines the effect of anthropogenic water pollution on microbial community diversity, the resistome, and ARG dissemination. We analyzed intracellular and extracellular DNA from wastewater treatment plant effluents and lake surface water by shotgun sequencing. We also conducted experiments to evaluate anthropogenic pollution's effect on transforming extracellular DNA (using Gfp-plasmids carrying ARGs) within a natural microbial community. Chemical analysis showed treated wastewater had higher anthropogenic pollution-related parameters than lake water. The richness of microbial community, antimicrobial resistome, and high-risk ARGs was greater in treated wastewaters than in lake waters both for intracellular and extracellular DNA. Except for the high-risk ARGs, richness was significantly higher in intracellular than in extracellular DNA. Several ARGs were associated with mobile genetic elements and located on plasmids. Furthermore, Gfp-plasmid transformation within a natural microbial community was enhanced by anthropogenic pollution levels. Our findings underscore anthropogenic pollution's pivotal role in shaping microbial communities and their antimicrobial resistome. Additionally, it may facilitate ARG dissemination through extracellular DNA plasmid uptake.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Kumari S, Choudhary G, Anu K, et al (2024)

Metagenomics insight into Puga geothermal geyser located in Himalayan Geothermal Belt (Trans-Himalayan Plateau) Ladakh, India.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Puga geothermal geyser and surrounding area, located in the Himalayan Geothermal Belt of the Trans-Himalayan Plateau in Ladakh, India, are very geographically isolated and considered pristine and free of anthropogenic activities. In this study, we have conducted the first metagenomic investigation of the microbes in and around the geyser. The whole genome sequencing analysis showed the presence of a total of 44.8%, 39.7% and 41.4% bacterial phyla in the PugW, PugS, and PugSo samples respectively, 8.6% of archaeal phyla (in all the samples), unclassified (derived from other sequences, PugW: 27.6%, PugS: 27.6%, and PugSo: 15.5%) and unclassified (derived from bacteria, PugW: 12%, PugS: 13.8%, and PugSo: 13.8%). The majority of archaeal sequences were linked to Euryarchaeota (2.84%) while the majority of the bacterial communities that predominated in most geothermal locations were linked to Pseudomonadota (67.14%) and Bacteroidota (12.52%). The abundant bacterial strains at the species level included Dechloromonas aromatica, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Arcobacter butzleri, in all the samples while the most abundant archaeal species were Methanosaeta thermophile, Methanoregula boonei, and Methanosarcina berkeri. Further, this geothermal geyser metagenome has a large number of unique sequences linked to unidentified and unclassified lineages, suggesting a potential source for novel species of microbes and their products. The present study which only examined one of the many geothermal geysers and springs in the Puga geothermal area, should be regarded as a preliminary investigation of the microbiota that live in the geothermal springs on these remote areas. These findings suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to characterize the ecosystems of the Puga geothermal area, which serve as a repository for unidentified microbial lineages.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Pérez-Velasco R, Gómez-Gil B, Martínez-Montaño E, et al (2024)

Nutritional attributes and microbial metagenomic profile during solid-state fermentation of soybean meal inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus under non-sterile conditions.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Soybean meal (SBM) is used widely in animal feed but it contains anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) such as protease inhibitors - immunogenic proteins that limit its utilization. Fermentative processes could help to reduce these ANFs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional attributes, bacterial community dynamics, and microbial metagenomic profile during the solid-state fermentation of SBM using a strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus with or without pre-autoclaving treatment.

RESULTS: Following fermentation, there was a reduction in the pH and a concurrent increase in the population of lactic acid bacteria. Fermentation also resulted in an increase in both crude and soluble protein levels. Trypsin inhibitor levels decreased after fermentation, particularly in fermented SBM that had not been pre-autoclaved, with an inactivation rate higher than 90%. Moreover, high-molecular-weight peptides (44-158 kDa), specifically some polypeptides from the soybean immunogen glycinin and β-conglycinin, underwent degradation during the fermentation process. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of the Lactobacillus genus in all samples, regardless of the treatments applied. Metagenomic profiling identified L. acidophilus as the dominant species in inoculated SBM, irrespective of whether pre-autoclaving was conducted or not.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of solid-state fermentation with L. acidophilus under non-sterile conditions to inactivate trypsin inhibitor and increase protein concentration and hydrolysate immunogen proteins into low-molecular-weight peptides in SBM. Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum also inhibited the growth of undesirable bacteria. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the potential applications of solid-state fermentation with L. acidophilus in improving the nutritional quality of SBM. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Pulvirenti F, Giufrè M, Pentimalli TM, et al (2024)

Oropharyngeal microbial ecosystem perturbations influence the risk for acute respiratory infections in common variable immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1371118.

BACKGROUND: The respiratory tract microbiome is essential for human health and well-being and is determined by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from respiratory and intestinal tract infections, leading to chronic diseases and increased mortality rates. While CVID patients' gut microbiota have been analyzed, data on the respiratory microbiome ecosystem are limited.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the bacterial composition of the oropharynx of adults with CVID and its link with clinical and immunological features and risk for respiratory acute infections.

METHODS: Oropharyngeal samples from 72 CVID adults and 26 controls were collected in a 12-month prospective study. The samples were analyzed by metagenomic bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIME) pipeline. Differentially abundant species were identified and used to build a dysbiosis index. A machine learning model trained on microbial abundance data was used to test the power of microbiome alterations to distinguish between healthy individuals and CVID patients.

RESULTS: Compared to controls, the oropharyngeal microbiome of CVID patients showed lower alpha- and beta-diversity, with a relatively increased abundance of the order Lactobacillales, including the family Streptococcaceae. Intra-CVID analysis identified age >45 years, COPD, lack of IgA, and low residual IgM as associated with a reduced alpha diversity. Expansion of Haemophilus and Streptococcus genera was observed in patients with undetectable IgA and COPD, independent from recent antibiotic use. Patients receiving azithromycin as antibiotic prophylaxis had a higher dysbiosis score. Expansion of Haemophilus and Anoxybacillus was associated with acute respiratory infections within six months.

CONCLUSIONS: CVID patients showed a perturbed oropharynx microbiota enriched with potentially pathogenic bacteria and decreased protective species. Low residual levels of IgA/IgM, chronic lung damage, anti antibiotic prophylaxis contributed to respiratory dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Shimada Y, Zang L, Ishimaru T, et al (2024)

Lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of Rhamnan sulphate from Monostroma nitidum with altered gut microbiota in mice.

Food science & nutrition, 12(6):4342-4352 pii:FSN34100.

Rhamnan sulphate (RS) is a sulphated polysaccharide found in green algae such as Monostroma nitidum that exhibits various biological functions, including anticoagulant, antitumour, antiviral, and anti-obesity properties. In our previous clinical trial, we demonstrated that RS intake improves constipation. However, no specific bacteria showed a significant (p < .05) change. Notably, these results were obtained after a short RS inoculation period of only 2 weeks. In the present study, to evaluate the long-term effects of RS on the gut microbiota, we orally administered RS to BALB/c mice for 11 weeks, analyzed their blood biochemical data, and performed 16s rRNA-sequencing. Oral administration of RS increased body weight with increased food intake, whereas plasma total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose levels decreased. RS-fed mice showed lower fasting insulin levels (p < .1) and decreased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p < .0001), suggesting that RS improved insulin resistance. In the feces of mice, the amounts of acetic and propionic acids increased. In the gut microbiota, predictive metagenomic profiling using the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt2) revealed functional alterations in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in RS-fed mice. Corresponding to the blood glucose-lowering effect, the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pathways were activated. In addition, the Firmicutes/Bacteroides (F/B) ratio, which may be associated with various health outcomes, was also reduced. These results suggest that the blood glucose-lowering effect, improvement in insulin resistance, and lipid-lowering effect of RS may be due to changes in the intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Rodríguez-Cruz UE, Castelán-Sánchez HG, Madrigal-Trejo D, et al (2024)

Uncovering novel bacterial and archaeal diversity: genomic insights from metagenome-assembled genomes in Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1369263.

A comprehensive study was conducted in the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in Coahuila, Mexico, which is known for its diversity of microorganisms and unique physicochemical properties. The study focused on the "Archaean Domes" (AD) site in the CCB, which is characterized by an abundance of hypersaline, non-lithifying microbial mats. In AD, we analyzed the small domes and circular structures using metagenome assembly genomes (MAGs) with the aim of expanding our understanding of the prokaryotic tree of life by uncovering previously unreported lineages, as well as analyzing the diversity of bacteria and archaea in the CCB. A total of 325 MAGs were identified, including 48 Archaea and 277 Bacteria. Remarkably, 22 archaea and 104 bacteria could not be classified even at the genus level, highlighting the remarkable novel diversity of the CCB. Besides, AD site exhibited significant diversity at the phylum level, with Proteobacteria being the most abundant, followed by Desulfobacteria, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Nanoarchaeota, Halobacteriota, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetota, Verrucomicrobiota, Actinomycetes and Chloroflexi. In Archaea, the monophyletic groups of MAGs belonged to the Archaeoglobi, Aenigmarchaeota, Candidate Nanoarchaeota, and Halobacteriota. Among Bacteria, monophyletic groups were also identified, including Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Candidate Bipolaricaulota, Desulfobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. These monophyletic groups were possibly influenced by geographic isolation, as well as the extreme and fluctuating environmental conditions in the pond AD, such as stoichiometric imbalance of C:N:P of 122:42:1, fluctuating pH (5-9.8) and high salinity (5.28% to saturation).

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Selvaraj S, K Gurumurthy (2024)

Metagenomic, organoleptic profiling, and nutritional properties of fermented kombucha tea substituted with recycled substrates.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1367697.

Kombucha fermentation yields a diverse range of beneficial macro and micronutrients. In our study, we examined the metabolites, antioxidant activity, organoleptic characteristics, and nutritional attributes of traditionally prepared kombucha tea, using black tea and sugar (control) as substrates, and compared them with tea made from tea dust and blackstrap molasses (test). Kombucha tea crafted from functional raw materials exhibited enhanced sensory qualities and improved health-promoting properties. The levels of tannins, flavonoids, and phenols play a crucial role in determining the antioxidant activity of kombucha tea. Using the DPPH and FRAP methods, we investigated the antioxidant activity throughout the fermentation period, ranging from day 0 to day 12, under optimized conditions. The results consistently demonstrated an initial increase in antioxidant activity from day 0 to 6, followed by a decline from day 6 to 12. Notably, statistical analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity of the test sample was significantly better (p > 0.001) compared to the control sample. The nutritional content of the kombucha from day 6 of the test sample is higher than the control sample provided sugars (fructose 0.4 ± 0.1, glucose 0.7 ± 0.1, sucrose 1.4 ± 0.1) g/100 mL, minerals (calcium, 19.4 ± 0.15, iron 23.1 ± 0.25, and potassium 28.3 ± 0.25) mg/100 mL, vitamins (B1 0.58 ± 0.01, B2 0.30 ± 0.02, B3 0.33 ± 0.02, B6 0.75 ± 0.02, B9 0.19 ± 0.03, B12 0.9 ± 0.03, and C 1.38 ± 0.06) mg/100 mL, sodium 4.35 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, calories 14.85 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, carbohydrates 3.135 ± 0.12, and acids (acetic acid 4.20 ± 0.02, glucuronic acid 1.78 ± 0.02) mg/100 mL on day 12. The predominant microbial species identified in both control and test samples included Komagataeibacter rhaeticus, Gluconobacter oxydans, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Zygosaccharomyces bailli, each with varying dominance levels. These microorganisms play essential roles in metabolizing sugars, generating acids, and contributing to the distinctive flavor profile of kombucha. Sensory evaluations of the control and test samples were analyzed, and the overall preference was 88% for the test sample with tea dust and molasses. The sensory characteristics of the test sample included a fruity smell (41%), fizzy texture (66%), bright color (47%), and a fruity taste (67%), with overall acceptability (56%) rating it as excellent. Our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the interplay between raw materials, microbial composition, and the resulting composition of bioactive compounds.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Mondal S, Biswas B, Chowdhury R, et al (2024)

Estuarine mangrove niches select cultivable heterotrophic diazotrophs with diverse metabolic potentials-a prospective cross-dialog for functional diazotrophy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1324188.

INTRODUCTION: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), an unparalleled metabolic novelty among living microorganisms on earth, globally contributes ~88-101 Tg N year[-1] to natural ecosystems, ~56% sourced from symbiotic BNF while ~22-45% derived from free-living nitrogen fixers (FLNF). The success of symbiotic BNF is largely dependent on its interaction with host-plant, however ubiquitous environmental heterotrophic FLNFs face many limitations in their immediate ecological niches to sustain unhindered BNF. The autotrophic FLNFs like cyanobacteria and oceanic heterotrophic diazotrophs have been well studied about their contrivances acclimated/adapted by these organisms to outwit the environmental constraints for functional diazotrophy. However, FLNF heterotrophs face more adversity in executing BNF under stressful estuarine/marine/aquatic habitats.

METHODS: In this study a large-scale cultivation-dependent investigation was accomplished with 190 NCBI accessioned and 45 non-accessioned heterotrophic FLNF cultivable bacterial isolates (total 235) from halophilic estuarine intertidal mangrove niches of Indian Sundarbans, a Ramsar site and UNESCO proclaimed World Heritage Site. Assuming ~1% culturability of the microbial community, the respective niches were also studied for representing actual bacterial diversity via cultivation-independent next-generation sequencing of V3-V4 rRNA regions.

RESULTS: Both the studies revealed a higher abundance of culturable Gammaproteobacteria followed by Firmicutes, the majority of 235 FLNFs studied belonging to these two classes. The FLNFs displayed comparable selection potential in media for free nitrogen fixers and iron-oxidizing bacteria, linking diazotrophy with iron oxidation, siderophore production, phosphorus solubilization, phosphorus uptake and accumulation as well as denitrification.

DISCUSSION: This observation validated the hypothesis that under extreme estuarine mangrove niches, diazotrophs are naturally selected as a specialized multidimensional entity, to expedite BNF and survive. Earlier metagenome data from mangrove niches demonstrated a microbial metabolic coupling among C, N, P, S, and Fe cycling in mangrove sediments, as an adaptive trait, evident with the co-abundant respective functional genes, which corroborates our findings in cultivation mode for multiple interrelated metabolic potential facilitating BNF in a challenging intertidal mangrove environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yue C, Ma M, Guo J, et al (2024)

Altered gut microbe metabolites in patients with alcohol‑induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head: An integrated omics analysis.

Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 28(2):311 pii:ETM-28-2-12599.

Excessive alcohol consumption is considered to be a major risk factor of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (AONFH). The gut microbiota (GM) has been reported to aid in the regulation of human physiology and its composition can be altered by alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of the GM and its metabolites in patients with AONFH. Metabolomic sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis of fecal samples were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the GM of patients with AONFH and healthy normal controls (NCs). Metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples was performed to identify whether GM changes on the species level were associated with the expression of gut bacteria genes or their associated functions in patients with AONFH. The abundance of 58 genera was found to differ between the NC group and the AONFH group. Specifically, Klebsiella, Holdemanella, Citrobacter and Lentilactobacillus were significantly more abundant in the AONFH group compared with those in the NC group. Metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that the majority of the bacterial species that exhibited significantly different abundance in patients with AONFH belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. Fecal metabolomic analysis demonstrated that several metabolites were present at significantly different concentrations in the AONFH group compared with those in the NC group. These metabolites were products of vitamin B6 metabolism, retinol metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and glycerophospholipid metabolism. In addition, these changes in metabolite levels were observed to be associated with the altered abundance of specific bacterial species, such as Basidiobolus, Mortierella, Phanerochaete and Ceratobasidium. According to the results of the present study, a comprehensive landscape of the GM and metabolites in patients with AONFH was revealed, suggesting the existence of interplay between the gut microbiome and metabolome in AONFH pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Sun X, Xiao Y, Yong C, et al (2024)

Interactions between the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium and siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechococcus under iron limitation.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae072.

As diazotrophic cyanobacteria of tremendous biomass, Trichodesmium continuously provide a nitrogen source for carbon-fixing cyanobacteria and drive the generation of primary productivity in marine environments. However, ocean iron deficiencies limit growth and metabolism of Trichodesmium. Recent studies have shown the co-occurrence of Trichodesmium and siderophore-producing Synechococcus in iron-deficient oceans, but whether siderophores secreted by Synechococcus can be used by Trichodesmium to adapt to iron deficiency is not clear. We constructed a mutant Synechococcus strain unable to produce siderophores to explore this issue. Synechococcus filtrates with or without siderophores were added into a Trichodesmium microbial consortium consisting of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101 as the dominant microbe with chronic iron deficiency. By analyzing the physiological phenotype, metagenome, and metatranscriptome, we investigated the interactions between the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Tricodesmium and siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechococcus under conditions of iron deficiency. The results indicated that siderophores secreted by Synechococcus are likely to chelate with free iron in the culture medium of the Trichodesmium consortium, reducing the concentration of bioavailable iron and posing greater challenges to the absorption of iron by Trichodesmium. These findings revealed the characteristics of iron-competitive utilization between diazotrophic cyanobacteria and siderophore-producing cyanobacteria, as well as potential interactions, and provide a scientific basis for understanding the regulatory effects of nutrient limitation on marine primary productivity.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Hein ST, Prathan R, Srisanga S, et al (2024)

Metagenomic insights into isolable bacterial communities and antimicrobial resistance in airborne dust from pig farms.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1362011.

This study aims to investigate bacterial communities and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in airborne dust from pig farms. Airborne dust, pig feces and feed were collected from nine pig farms in Thailand. Airborne dust samples were collected from upwind and downwind (25 meters from pig house), and inside (in the middle of the pig house) of the selected pig house. Pig feces and feed samples were individually collected from the pen floor and feed trough from the same pig house where airborne dust was collected. A direct total bacteria count on each sampling plate was conducted and averaged. The ESKAPE pathogens together with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Streptococcus were examined. A total of 163 bacterial isolates were collected and tested for MICs. Pooled bacteria from the inside airborne dust samples were analyzed using Metagenomic Sequencing. The highest bacterial concentration (1.9-11.2 × 10[3] CFU/m[3]) was found inside pig houses. Staphylococcus (n = 37) and Enterococcus (n = 36) were most frequent bacterial species. Salmonella (n = 3) were exclusively isolated from feed and feces. Target bacteria showed a variety of resistance phenotypes, and the same bacterial species with the same resistance phenotype were found in airborne dust, feed and fecal from each farm. Metagenomic Sequencing analysis revealed 1,652 bacterial species across all pig farms, of which the predominant bacterial phylum was Bacillota. One hundred fifty-nine AMR genes of 12 different antibiotic classes were identified, with aminoglycoside resistance genes (24%) being the most prevalent. A total of 251 different plasmids were discovered, and the same plasmid was detected in multiple farms. In conclusion, the phenotypic and metagenomic results demonstrated that airborne dust from pig farms contained a diverse array of bacterial species and genes encoding resistance to a range of clinically important antimicrobial agents, indicating the significant role in the spread of AMR bacterial pathogens with potential hazards to human health. Policy measurements to address AMR in airborne dust from livestock farms are mandatory.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Chen K, Litfin T, Singh J, et al (2024)

MARS and RNAcmap3: The Master Database of All Possible RNA Sequences Integrated with RNAcmap for RNA Homology Search.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics, 22(1):.

Recent success of AlphaFold2 in protein structure prediction relied heavily on co-evolutionary information derived from homologous protein sequences found in the huge, integrated database of protein sequences (Big Fantastic Database). In contrast, the existing nucleotide databases were not consolidated to facilitate wider and deeper homology search. Here, we built a comprehensive database by incorporating the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences from RNAcentral, the transcriptome assembly and metagenome assembly from metagenomics RAST (MG-RAST), the genomic sequences from Genome Warehouse (GWH), and the genomic sequences from MGnify, in addition to the nucleotide (nt) database and its subsets in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The resulting Master database of All possible RNA sequences (MARS) is 20-fold larger than NCBI's nt database or 60-fold larger than RNAcentral. The new dataset along with a new split-search strategy allows a substantial improvement in homology search over existing state-of-the-art techniques. It also yields more accurate and more sensitive multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) than manually curated MSAs from Rfam for the majority of structured RNAs mapped to Rfam. The results indicate that MARS coupled with the fully automatic homology search tool RNAcmap will be useful for improved structural and functional inference of ncRNAs and RNA language models based on MSAs. MARS is accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn/omix/release/OMIX003037, and RNAcmap3 is accessible at http://zhouyq-lab.szbl.ac.cn/download/.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Chen CM, Yan QL, Guo RC, et al (2024)

Distinct characteristics of the gut virome in patients with osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):564.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): The gut microbiota and its metabolites play crucial roles in pathogenesis of arthritis, highlighting gut microbiota as a promising avenue for modulating autoimmunity. However, the characterization of the gut virome in arthritis patients, including osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis (GA), requires further investigation.

METHODS: We employed virus-like particle (VLP)-based metagenomic sequencing to analyze gut viral community in 20 OA patients, 26 GA patients, and 31 healthy controls, encompassing a total of 77 fecal samples.

RESULTS: Our analysis generated 6819 vOTUs, with a considerable proportion of viral genomes differing from existing catalogs. The gut virome in OA and GA patients differed significantly from healthy controls, showing variations in diversity and viral family abundances. We identified 157 OA-associated and 94 GA-associated vOTUs, achieving high accuracy in patient-control discrimination with random forest models. OA-associated viruses were predicted to infect pro-inflammatory bacteria or bacteria associated with immunoglobulin A production, while GA-associated viruses were linked to Bacteroidaceae or Lachnospiraceae phages. Furthermore, several viral functional orthologs displayed significant differences in frequency between OA-enriched and GA-enriched vOTUs, suggesting potential functional roles of these viruses. Additionally, we trained classification models based on gut viral signatures to effectively discriminate OA or GA patients from healthy controls, yielding AUC values up to 0.97, indicating the clinical utility of the gut virome in diagnosing OA or GA.

CONCLUSION: Our study highlights distinctive alterations in viral diversity and taxonomy within gut virome of OA and GA patients, offering insights into arthritis etiology and potential treatment and prevention strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Faial T (2024)

Metagenomics of the human gut mycobiome.

Nature genetics, 56(6):1038.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Suzuki S, Ishii S, Chadwick GL, et al (2024)

A non-methanogenic archaeon within the order Methanocellales.

Nature communications, 15(1):4858.

Serpentinization, a geochemical process found on modern and ancient Earth, provides an ultra-reducing environment that can support microbial methanogenesis and acetogenesis. Several groups of archaea, such as the order Methanocellales, are characterized by their ability to produce methane. Here, we generate metagenomic sequences from serpentinized springs in The Cedars, California, and construct a circularized metagenome-assembled genome of a Methanocellales archaeon, termed Met12, that lacks essential methanogenesis genes. The genome includes genes for an acetyl-CoA pathway, but lacks genes encoding methanogenesis enzymes such as methyl-coenzyme M reductase, heterodisulfide reductases and hydrogenases. In situ transcriptomic analyses reveal high expression of a multi-heme c-type cytochrome, and heterologous expression of this protein in a model bacterium demonstrates that it is capable of accepting electrons. Our results suggest that Met12, within the order Methanocellales, is not a methanogen but a CO2-reducing, electron-fueled acetogen without electron bifurcation.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Su W, Li P, Zhong L, et al (2024)

Occurrence and Distribution of Antibacterial Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Chinese Estuaries Revealed by Machine Learning-Assisted Mass Spectrometric Analysis.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) undermines the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals of good health and well-being. Antibiotics are known to exacerbate AMR, but nonantibiotic antimicrobials, such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), are now emerging as another significant driver of AMR. However, assessing the AMR risks of QACs in complex environmental matrices remains challenging due to the ambiguity in their chemical structures and antibacterial activity. By machine learning prediction and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis, a list of antibacterial QACs (n = 856) from industrial chemical inventories is compiled, and it leads to the identification of 50 structurally diverse antibacterial QACs in sediments, including traditional hydrocarbon-based compounds and new subclasses that bear additional functional groups, such as choline, ester, betaine, aryl ether, and pyridine. Urban wastewater, aquaculture, and hospital discharges are the main factors influencing QAC distribution patterns in estuarine sediments. Toxic unit calculations and metagenomic analysis revealed that these QACs can influence antibiotic resistance genes (particularly sulfonamide resistance genes) through cross- and coresistances. The potential to influence the AMR is related to their environmental persistence. These results suggest that controlling the source, preventing the co-use of QACs and sulfonamides, and prioritizing control of highly persistent molecules will lead to global stewardship and sustainable use of QACs.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Rosell-Díaz M, Petit-Gay A, Molas-Prat C, et al (2024)

Metformin-induced changes in the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome are associated with cognition in men.

Metabolism: clinical and experimental pii:S0026-0495(24)00168-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiome characterized by reduced abundance of butyrate producing bacteria and reduced gene richness is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An important complication of T2D is increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. The biguanide metformin is a commonly prescribed medication for the control of T2D and metformin treatment has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia and improved cognition, particularly in people with T2D.

AIM: To investigate the associations of metformin use with cognition exploring potential mechanisms by analyzing the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome using shotgun metagenomics and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively.

METHODS: We explored two independent cohorts: an observational study (Aging Imageomics) and a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized pilot study (MEIFLO). From the two studies, we analyzed four study groups: (1) individuals with no documented medical history or medical treatment (n = 172); (2) people with long-term T2D on metformin monotherapy (n = 134); (3) people with long-term T2D treated with oral hypoglycemic agents other than metformin (n = 45); (4) a newly diagnosed T2D subjects on metformin monotherapy (n = 22). Analyses were also performed stratifying by sex.

RESULTS: Several bacterial species belonging to the Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli) and Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia muciniphila) phyla were positively associated with metformin treatment, while bacterial species belonging to the Firmicutes phylum (Romboutsia timonensis, Romboutsia ilealis) were negatively associated. Due to the consistent increase in A. muciniphila and decrease in R.ilealis in people with T2D subjects treated with metformin, we investigated the association between this ratio and cognition. In the entire cohort of metformin-treated T2D subjects, the A.muciniphila/R.ilealis ratio was not significantly associated with cognitive test scores. However, after stratifying by sex, the A.muciniphila/R. ilealis ratio was significantly and positively associated with higher memory scores and improved memory in men. Metformin treatment was associated with an enrichment of microbial pathways involved in the TCA cycle, and butanoate, arginine, and proline metabolism in both cohorts. The bacterial genes involved inarginine metabolism, especially in production of glutamate (astA, astB, astC, astD, astE, putA), were enriched following metformin intake. In agreement, in the metabolomics analysis, metformin treatment was strongly associated with the amino acid proline, a metabolite involved in the metabolism of glutamate.

CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of metformin may be mediated by changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and microbial-host-derived co-metabolites.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Shama S, Asbury MR, DL O'Connor (2024)

From parent to progeny.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):947-949.

How infants acquire their gut microbial communities and the various factors influencing these dynamics remain unclear. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Selma-Royo et al. and Dubois et al. use shotgun metagenomic sequencing to understand the transmission of microbes from parents to infants and delve into factors modifying this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Dubois L, Valles-Colomer M, Ponsero A, et al (2024)

Paternal and induced gut microbiota seeding complement mother-to-infant transmission.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):1011-1024.e4.

Microbial colonization of the neonatal gut involves maternal seeding, which is partially disrupted in cesarean-born infants and after intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, other physically close individuals could complement such seeding. To assess the role of both parents and of induced seeding, we analyzed two longitudinal metagenomic datasets (health and early life microbiota [HELMi]: N = 74 infants, 398 samples, and SECFLOR: N = 7 infants, 35 samples) with cesarean-born infants who received maternal fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that the father constitutes a stable source of strains for the infant independently of the delivery mode, with the cumulative contribution becoming comparable to that of the mother after 1 year. Maternal FMT increased mother-infant strain sharing in cesarean-born infants, raising the average bacterial empirical growth rate while reducing pathogen colonization. Overall, our results indicate that maternal seeding is partly complemented by that of the father and support the potential of induced seeding to restore potential deviations in this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang P, Wang Y, Lin H, et al (2024)

Bacterial evolution in Biofiltration of drinking water treatment plant: Different response of phage and plasmid to varied water sources.

Water research, 259:121887 pii:S0043-1354(24)00788-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofiltration in drinking water treatment (BDWT) are popular as it holds promise as an alternative to chemical treatments, yet our understanding of the key drivers and trends underlying bacterial evolution within this process remains limited. While plasmids and phages are recognized as the main vectors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), their roles in shaping bacterial evolution in BDWT remain largely unknown. Here we leverage global metagenomic data to unravel the primary forces driving bacterial evolution in BDWT. Our results revealed that the primary vector of HGT varies depending on the type of source water (groundwater and surface water). Both plasmids and phages accelerated bacterial evolution in BDWT by enhancing genetic diversity within species, but they drove contrasting evolutionary trends in functional redundancy in different source water types. Specifically, trends towards and away from functional redundancy (indicated as gene-protein ratio) were observed in surface-water and groundwater biofilters, respectively. Virulent phages drove bacterial evolution through synergistic interactions with bacterial species capable of natural transformation and with certain natural compounds that disrupt bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Genes relating to water purification (such as Mn(II)-oxidizing genes), microbial risks (antibiotic resistance genes), and chemical risk (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were enriched via HGT in BDWT, highlighting the necessity for heighted focus on these useful and risky objects. Overall, these discoveries enhance our understanding of bacterial evolution in BDWT and have implications for the optimization of water treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Sinha P, S Mukherji (2024)

Efficient treatment of secondary treated refinery wastewater using sand biofiltration: Removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

Water research, 259:121874 pii:S0043-1354(24)00775-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explored the potential of sand biofiltration for tertiary treatment of real refinery wastewater. The biofilter (2 cm (I.D.) x 15 cm (L)) operated on secondary treated refinery wastewater at flow rate of 1 mL/min had empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 47.12 min for one circulation. Maximum reduction in COD after 4, 8 and 12 times recirculation was 25 %, 52 % and 56 %; while the TOC reduction was 33 %, 43 % and 51 %, respectively, after biofilm development over 30 days. Quantification using two dimensional gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF MS) revealed that several of the identified target compounds could not be detected in the wastewater after 12 recirculations. After 8 times recirculation, most of the compounds showed very high removal efficiency. For biofiltration over the flow rate range 2-10 mL/min, the reduction in COD and NH4[+]-N ranged from 62-73 % and 78-86 %, respectively, after 8 times recirculation. The nitrite concentration first increased and subsequently decreased, while the nitrate concentration continuously increased with increase in the number of recirculations. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) analysis of the aqueous phase using GCxGC-TOF MS and a semi-quantitative approach indicated that the removal of predominant classes of compounds was greater than 95 % after 8 times recirculation, with maximum reduction occurring in the first pass through the biofilter. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) reduction was 98 % after 8 times recirculation. Metagenomic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in the biofilter. Many known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders, such as Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales and Rhodospirillales, were found in the biofilter leading to high removal efficiency of hazardous organic pollutants.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xiong X, Lan Y, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Bacteroidales reduces growth rate through serum metabolites and cytokines in Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens.

Poultry science, 103(8):103905 pii:S0032-5791(24)00484-X [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing evidence has indicated that the gut microbiome plays an important role in chicken growth traits. However, the cecal microbial taxa associated with the growth rates of the Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens are unknown. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to identify cecal bacterial species associated with the growth rate of the Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens. We found that nine cecal bacterial species differed significantly between high and low growth rate chickens, including three species (Succinatimonas hippei, Phocaeicola massiliensis, and Parabacteroides sp. ZJ-118) that were significantly enriched in high growth rate chickens. We identified six Bacteroidales that were significantly enriched in low growth rate chickens, including Barnesiella sp. An22, Barnesiella sp. ET7, and Bacteroidales bacterium which were key biomarkers in differentiating high and low growth rate chickens and were associated with alterations in the functional taxa of the cecal microbiome. Untargeted serum metabolome analysis revealed that 8 metabolites showing distinct enrichment patterns between high and low growth rate chickens, including triacetate lactone and N-acetyl-a-neuraminic acid, which were at higher concentrations in low growth rate chickens and were positively and significantly correlated with Barnesiella sp. An22, Barnesiella sp. ET7, and Bacteroidales bacterium. Furthermore, the results suggest that serum cytokines, such as IL-5, may reduce growth rate and are related to changes in serum metabolites and gut microbes (e.g., Barnesiella sp. An22 and Barnesiella sp. ET7). These results provide important insights into the effects of the cecal microbiome, serum metabolism and cytokines in Ningdu yellow chickens.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Hong D, Wang P, Xu Y, et al (2024)

Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing based Fine Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Infected Pancreatic Necrosis.

Clinical and translational gastroenterology pii:01720094-990000000-00268 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is no longer recommended for diagnosing infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) due to high false negative rate. Metagenome next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a valuable tool for identifying potential pathogens. We hypothesized that adding mNGS to the standard FNA procedure may increase diagnostic accuracy.

METHODS: This is a prospective, single-arm feasibility study enrolling acute necrotizing pancreatitis patients complicated by suspected IPN. CT-guided FNA was performed immediately after enrollment, and the drainages were subjected to culture and mNGS assays simultaneously. Confirmatory IPN within the following week of the index FNA procedure was the reference standard. The diagnostic performance of FNA-mNGS and the impact of mNGS results on treatment were evaluated. Historical controls were used for comparison of clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between mNGS and culture in positive rate (75% vs. 70%, P = 0.723). The accuracy of FNA-mNGS was 80.0%, with a sensitivity of 82.35%, specificity of 66.67%, positive predictive value of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 40.0%. The results of the mNGS led to treatment change in 16/20 patients (80%), including implementing PCD (n = 7), expanding antibiotic coverage (n = 2), PCD and expanding coverage (n = 4), narrowing antibiotic coverage (n = 1), and discontinuation of antibiotics (n = 2). The FNA-mNGS approach was not associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with the historical control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mNGS to standard FNA has comparable diagnostic accuracy with culture-based FNA and may not be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Fei-Zhou Z, Mei-Xia H, Xiaofen T, et al (2024)

Plastic bronchitis associated with human bocavirus 1 infection in children.

Pediatric pulmonology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a clinical-pathological syndrome characterized by the abnormal accumulation of endogenous substances in the bronchial airways, causing partial or complete obstruction and resulting in impaired lung ventilation.

METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we aim to summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatment approaches to enhance clinicians' ability to detect children who are infected with human bocavirus 1 (hBoV 1) and develop PB.

RESULTS: In the period from January 2021 to January 2024, a total of six hBoV 1 infection children were diagnosed with PB through bronchoscopy. The onset of the condition was mainly concentrated between June and December. The detection methods used included metagenomic next-generation sequencing for pathogen identification (three cases) and respiratory pathogen nucleic acid 13-plex detection (oropharyngeal swab) (three cases), both of which confirmed the presence of hBoV 1. Out of the six children with PB, two were girls and four were boys. Their ages ranged from 10 months to 4 years old. Common symptoms reported by all patients included fever, cough, and wheezing. Chest high-resolution computed tomography scans revealed atelectasis in six cases, in addition to pneumonia. After the removal of the plastic bronchi via bronchoscopy, the airway obstruction symptoms in the children were relieved, and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up period. Pathological findings indicated cellulose exudation and inflammatory cell infiltration, consistent with nonlymphatic PB.

CONCLUSION: When children infected with hBoV 1 exhibit persistent or worsening symptoms such as cough, fever, and wheezing despite treatment, clinicians should remain highly vigilant for the potential occurrence of PB. Bronchoscopy plays a crucial role not only in diagnosing the presence of a plastic bronchus but also in effectively treating PB.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Yang C, Zhang Z, Huang Y, et al (2024)

LRTK: a platform agnostic toolkit for linked-read analysis of both human genome and metagenome.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: Linked-read sequencing technologies generate high-base quality short reads that contain extrapolative information on long-range DNA connectedness. These advantages of linked-read technologies are well known and have been demonstrated in many human genomic and metagenomic studies. However, existing linked-read analysis pipelines (e.g., Long Ranger) were primarily developed to process sequencing data from the human genome and are not suited for analyzing metagenomic sequencing data. Moreover, linked-read analysis pipelines are typically limited to 1 specific sequencing platform.

FINDINGS: To address these limitations, we present the Linked-Read ToolKit (LRTK), a unified and versatile toolkit for platform agnostic processing of linked-read sequencing data from both human genome and metagenome. LRTK provides functions to perform linked-read simulation, barcode sequencing error correction, barcode-aware read alignment and metagenome assembly, reconstruction of long DNA fragments, taxonomic classification and quantification, and barcode-assisted genomic variant calling and phasing. LRTK has the ability to process multiple samples automatically and provides users with the option to generate reproducible reports during processing of raw sequencing data and at multiple checkpoints throughout downstream analysis. We applied LRTK on linked reads from simulation, mock community, and real datasets for both human genome and metagenome. We showcased LRTK's ability to generate comparative performance results from preceding benchmark studies and to report these results in publication-ready HTML document plots.

CONCLUSIONS: LRTK provides comprehensive and flexible modules along with an easy-to-use Python-based workflow for processing linked-read sequencing datasets, thereby filling the current gap in the field caused by platform-centric genome-specific linked-read data analysis tools.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Elbere I, Orlovskis Z, Ansone L, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome encoded purine and amino acid pathways present prospective biomarkers for predicting metformin therapy efficacy in newly diagnosed T2D patients.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2361491.

Metformin is widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the efficacy of metformin monotherapy is highly variable within the human population. Understanding the potential indirect or synergistic effects of metformin on gut microbiota composition and encoded functions could potentially offer new insights into predicting treatment efficacy and designing more personalized treatments in the future. We combined targeted metabolomics and metagenomic profiling of gut microbiomes in newly diagnosed T2D patients before and after metformin therapy to identify potential pre-treatment biomarkers and functional signatures for metformin efficacy and induced changes in metformin therapy responders. Our sequencing data were largely corroborated by our metabolic profiling and identified that pre-treatment enrichment of gut microbial functions encoding purine degradation and glutamate biosynthesis was associated with good therapy response. Furthermore, we identified changes in glutamine-associated amino acid (arginine, ornithine, putrescine) metabolism that characterize differences in metformin efficacy before and after the therapy. Moreover, metformin Responders' microbiota displayed a shifted balance between bacterial lipidA synthesis and degradation as well as alterations in glutamate-dependent metabolism of N-acetyl-galactosamine and its derivatives (e.g. CMP-pseudaminate) which suggest potential modulation of bacterial cell walls and human gut barrier, thus mediating changes in microbiome composition. Together, our data suggest that glutamine and associated amino acid metabolism as well as purine degradation products may potentially condition metformin activity via its multiple effects on microbiome functional composition and therefore serve as important biomarkers for predicting metformin efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Xing Y, Zhong Q, Li M, et al (2024)

Lumbar Spine Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans: a Rare Case Report.

Clinical laboratory, 70(6):.

BACKGROUND: In July 2023, our hospital confirmed one case of lumbar spine infected complicated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was admitted due to lower back pain for 1 year and a hard lump for 3 months. Symptoms and signs: Dressing can be seen fixed on the lower back, with severe bleeding. When the dressing is removed, a hard and protruding lump with a size of 6 cm x 8 cm, a sinus tract can be seen near the mass, with a slightly red wound and a sinus depth of about 3 cm. Light red fluid can be seen flowing out. There are no symptoms such as redness, swelling, or heat in the rest of the lower back, and the patient has no other underlying diseases or surgical history.

METHODS: Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar CT examination; Percutaneous puncture lumbar vertebral biopsy was performed, and the biopsy tissue was subjected to pathological examination, mNGS (metagenomic next-generation sequencing), and acid-fast staining; Extract pus from the lump for fungal culture and ink staining, and identify the fungi through MALDI-TOF MS.

RESULTS: Bone destruction and bone marrow edema in the L5 vertebral body, compression of the spinal canal at the L5 vertebral body level; The pathological results of the biopsy tissue indicate granulomatous lesions. The acid-fast staining of the tissue is positive, and the mNGS of the tissue indicates infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A single fungus was cultured from pus and identified by MALDI-TOF MS as Cryptococcus neoformans. Clinically, isoniazid 0.3 g ivgtt + rifampicin 0.45 g qd po + ethambutol 0.25 g qd po + pyrazinamide 0.75 g qd po + fluconazole 0.3 g qd po was administered for treatment. After 11 days, there was slight pain at the incision site, and the original symptoms were significantly relieved. The wound dressing was fixed in place, dry and without obvious exudation. Improved and discharged, followed up for 3 months with no recurrence of the lesion.

CONCLUSIONS: mNGS is an effective identification technique that can be used to accurately diagnose suspected infection cases. MALDI-TOF MS has significant advantages over traditional detection methods in shortening detection time. This case achieved satisfactory treatment results for patients through a reasonable treatment plan, which is of great significance for exploring the diagnosis and treatment of similar disease infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang JB, Fu AS, Liu TJ, et al (2024)

Complication of Intrapulmonary Cavitary Lesions after COVID-19 Finally Proved as Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Clinical laboratory, 70(6):.

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2, which is characterized by high infectiousness and diverse clinical manifestations. They are more likely to become critical in people who have underlying diseases or are immunocompromised. In the daunting task of treating patients with COVID-19, those with comorbid fungal infections are susceptible to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis, which can ultimately lead to increased morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. We report a case of intrapulmonary cavitary lesions after COVID-19, which was eventually diagnosed as pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) by metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing (mNGS) to improve our understanding of the disease.

METHODS: Appropriate laboratory tests, chest computed tomography (CT), mNGS, and serologic tests were performed for diagnosis.

RESULTS: Laboratory tests showed Glactomannan (GM) of 1.41, multiple cavitary lesions in both lungs on chest CT and the presence of aspergillus infection was confirmed by sputum sent for mNGS.

CONCLUSIONS: In the case of cavitary lesions after COVID-19, we should be alert to the possibility of combined fungi and should promptly perform mNGS to clarify whether there is a combination of specific pathogenic fungal infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Chen DR, Cheng K, Wan L, et al (2024)

Daily occupational exposure in swine farm alters human skin microbiota and antibiotic resistome.

iMeta, 3(1):e158 pii:IMT2158.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widely distributed across humans, animals, and environment. Farming environments are emerging as a key research area for ARGs and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). While the skin is an important reservoir of ARGs and ARB, transmission mechanisms between farming environments and human skin remain unclear. Previous studies confirmed that swine farm environmental exposures alter skin microbiome, but the timeline of these changes is ill defined. To improve understanding of these changes and to determine the specific time, we designed a cohort study of swine farm workers and students through collected skin and environmental samples to explore the impact of daily occupational exposure in swine farm on human skin microbiome. Results indicated that exposure to livestock-associated environments where microorganisms are richer than school environment can reshape the human skin microbiome and antibiotic resistome. Exposure of 5 h was sufficient to modify the microbiome and ARG structure in workers' skin by enriching microorganisms and ARGs. These changes were preserved once formed. Further analysis indicated that ARGs carried by host microorganisms may transfer between the environment with workers' skin and have the potential to expand to the general population using farm workers as an ARG vector. These results raised concerns about potential transmission of ARGs to the broader community. Therefore, it is necessary to take corresponding intervention measures in the production process to reduce the possibility of ARGs and ARB transmission.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ma L, Tao S, Song T, et al (2024)

Clostridium butyricum and carbohydrate active enzymes contribute to the reduced fat deposition in pigs.

iMeta, 3(1):e160 pii:IMT2160.

Pig gastrointestinal tracts harbor a heterogeneous and dynamic ecosystem populated with trillions of microbes, enhancing the ability of the host to harvest energy from dietary carbohydrates and contributing to host adipogenesis and fatness. However, the microbial community structure and related mechanisms responsible for the differences between the fatty phenotypes and the lean phenotypes of the pigs remained to be comprehensively elucidated. Herein, we first found significant differences in microbial composition and potential functional capacity among different gut locations in Jinhua pigs with distinct fatness phenotypes. Second, we identified that Jinhua pigs with lower fatness exhibited higher levels of short-chain fatty acids in the colon, highlighting their enhanced carbohydrate fermentation capacity. Third, we explored the differences in expressed carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) in pigs, indicating their involvement in modulating fat storage. Notably, Clostridium butyricum might be a representative bacterial species from Jinhua pigs with lower fatness, and a significantly higher percentage of its genome was dedicated to CAZyme glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Finally, a subsequent mouse intervention study substantiated the beneficial effects of C. butyricum isolated from experimental pigs, suggesting that it may possess characteristics that promote the utilization of carbohydrates and hinder fat accumulation. Remarkably, when Jinhua pigs were administered C. butyricum, similar alterations in the gut microbiome and host fatness traits were observed, further supporting the potential role of C. butyricum in modulating fatness. Taken together, our findings reveal previously overlooked links between C. butyricum and CAZyme function, providing insight into the basic mechanisms that connect gut microbiome functions to host fatness.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Deng F, Han Y, Huang Y, et al (2024)

A comprehensive analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in the giant panda gut.

iMeta, 3(1):e171 pii:IMT2171.

In this study, we have successfully constructed a comprehensive database of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) pertaining to the gut microbiota of the giant panda. Through our analysis, we have identified significant reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), namely Escherichia coli, Citrobacter portucalensis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have elucidated the primary contributors to ARGs, including Streptococcus alactolyticus and Clostridium SGBP116, in both captive and wild pandas. Additionally, our findings have demonstrated a higher prevalence of ARGs in the metagenome, with notable expression of the RPOB2 gene in S. alactolyticus. Crucially, 1217 ARGs shared homology with human gut ARGs, underscoring the interaction relationship between pandas and human microbiomes. These findings are instrumental in understanding the antibiotic resistance landscape in the giant panda's gut, providing a framework for developing strategies to combat antibiotic resistance and safeguard the health of this endangered species.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Aoki S, Yahara H, Nakao R, et al (2024)

Development of selective isolation media for detecting the genera Actinomyces and Schaalia from oral specimens containing indigenous bacteria.

Access microbiology, 6(5):.

To isolate specific bacteria from samples constituting the microbiota, it is essential to employ selective media that suppress the growth of resident bacteria other than specific target bacteria. Selective media for clinically important Actinomyces (including Schaalia, which was previously taxonomically classified as part of the genus Actinomyces) have been limited because they have been designed for a limited range of species within the genus and require ingredients which are difficult to prepare and handle. This study aimed to develop a selective medium [referred to as Actinomyces and Schaalia Selective Medium (ASSM)] for the isolation of a broad range of Actinomyces and Schaalia species from samples mixed with resident bacteria. The composition of ASSM includes yeast extract, agar, brain heart infusion (BHI), levofloxacin (LVFX), fosfomycin (FOM), colistin (CL) and metronidazole (MNZ). Evaluation of the medium using 24 swab samples serially collected from the roots of the teeth of a healthy individual for whom metagenome sequencing data of a saliva sample are publicly available revealed that ASSM adjusted to concentrations of LVFX 0.5 mg l[-1], FOM 5 mg l[-1], CL 1 mg l[-1] and MNZ 2 mg l[-1] and cultured anaerobically at 35 °C for 7 days enabled the isolation of Actinomyces species from 37.5 % of the samples. The inclusion of CL and MNZ in ASSM can also be useful for samples harbouring other bacterial species. The selective isolation medium is expected to contribute to studies investigating the relationship between these bacteria and their pathogenesis or disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Anonymous (2023)

Correction to "MetaTrass: A high-quality metagenome assembler of the human gut microbiome by cobarcoding sequencing reads".

iMeta, 2(4):e150 pii:IMT2150.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/imt2.46.].

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang P, Yang J, Long H, et al (2023)

MicroEXPERT: Microbiome profiling platform with cross-study metagenome-wide association analysis functionality.

iMeta, 2(4):e131 pii:IMT2131.

The framework of the MicroEXPERT platform. Our Platform was composed of five modules. Data management module: Users upload raw data and metadata to the system using a guided workflow. Data processing module: Uploaded data is processed to generate taxonomical distribution and functional composition results. Metagenome-wide association studies module (MWAS): Various methods, including biomarker analysis, PCA, co-occurrence networks, and sample classification, are employed using metadata. Data search module: Users can query nucleotide sequences to retrieve information in the MicroEXPERT database. Data visualization module: Visualization tools are used to illustrate the metagenome analysis results.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Cao B, Gao JW, Zhang QP, et al (2023)

Melatonin supplementation protects against traumatic colon injury by regulating SERPINA3N protein expression.

iMeta, 2(4):e141 pii:IMT2141.

Traumatic colon injury (TCI) is a typical injury with high mortality. Prolongation of the intervention time window is a potentially useful approach to improving the outcomes of TCI casualties. This study aimed to identify the pathological mechanisms of TCI and to develop effective strategies to extend the survival time. A semicircular incision was made to prepare a TCI model using C57BL/6 mice. An overview of microbiota dysregulation was achieved by metagenome sequencing. Protein expression reprogramming in the intestinal epithelium was investigated using proteomics profiling. The mice that were subjected to TCI died within a short period of time when not treated. Gut symbiosis showed abrupt turbulence, and specific pathogenic bacteria rapidly proliferated. The protein expression in the intestinal epithelium was also reprogrammed. Among the differentially expressed proteins, SERPINA3N was overexpressed after TCI modeling. Deletion of Serpina3n prolonged the posttraumatic survival time of mice with TCI by improving gut homeostasis in vivo. To promote the translational application of this research, the effects of melatonin (MLT), an oral inhibitor of the SERPINA3N protein, were further investigated. MLT effectively downregulated SERPINA3N expression and mitigated TCI-induced death by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings prove that preventive administration of MLT serves as an effective regimen to prolong the posttraumatic survival time by restoring gut homeostasis perturbed by TCI. It may become a novel strategy for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from TCI.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Li Y, Cao J, J Wang (2023)

MetaSVs: A pipeline combining long and short reads for analysis and visualization of structural variants in metagenomes.

iMeta, 2(4):e139 pii:IMT2139.

Structural variants (SVs, including large-scale insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations) significantly impact the functions of genes in the microbial genome, and SVs in the microbiome are associated with diverse biological processes and human diseases. With the advancements in sequencing and bioinformatics technologies, increasingly, sequencing data and analysis tools are already being extensively utilized for microbiome SV analyses, leading to a higher demand for more dedicated SV analysis workflows. Moreover, due to the unique detection biases of various sequencing technologies, including short-read sequencing (such as Illumina platforms) and long-read sequencing (e.g., Oxford Nanopore and PacBio), SV discovery based on multiple platforms is necessary to comprehensively identify the wide variety of SVs. Here, we establish an integrated pipeline MetaSVs combining Nanopore long reads and Illumina short reads to analyze SVs in the microbial genomes from gut microbiome and further identify differential SVs that can be reflective of metabolic differences. Our pipeline provides researchers easy access to SVs and relevant metabolites in the microbial genomes without the requirement of specific technical expertise, which is particularly useful to researchers interested in metagenomic SVs but lacking sophisticated bioinformatic knowledge.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Song Z, Feng S, Zhou X, et al (2023)

Taxonomic identification of bile salt hydrolase-encoding lactobacilli: Modulation of the enterohepatic bile acid profile.

iMeta, 2(3):e128 pii:IMT2128.

Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) are enzymes that are essential for the enterohepatic metabolism of bile acids (BAs). BSHs catalyze the production of unconjugated BAs and regulate the homeostasis of BA pool. This study identified Lactobacillus as a crucial BSH-encoding genus, and 16 main species were obtained using metagenomic data from publicly available human gut microbiome databases. Then, the 16 species of lactobacilli were classified into four typical categories by BSH phylotypes, including five species encoding BSH-T0, six species encoding BSH-T2, four species encoding BSH-T3, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius encoding both BSH-T0 and BSH-T3. The lactobacilli with the highest in vitro deconjugation activities against seven conjugated BAs were the BSH-T3-encoding strains. Furthermore, in vivo studies in mice administered four representative lactobacilli strains encoding different BSH phylotypes showed that treatment with BSH-T3-encoding Limosilactobacillus reuteri altered the structure of the gut microbiome and metabolome and significantly increased the levels of unconjugated BAs and total BA excretion. Our findings facilitated the taxonomic identification of crucial BSH-encoding lactobacilli in human gut microbiota and shed light on their contributions toward modulation of the enterohepatic circulation of BAs, which will contribute to future therapeutic applications of BSH-encoding probiotics to improve human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang ZW, Lian ZH, Liu L, et al (2023)

Cultivation strategies for prokaryotes from extreme environments.

iMeta, 2(3):e123 pii:IMT2123.

The great majority of microorganisms are as-yet-uncultivated, mostly found in extreme environments. High-throughput sequencing provides data-rich genomes from single-cell and metagenomic techniques, which has enabled researchers to obtain a glimpse of the unexpected genetic diversity of "microbial dark matter." However, cultivating microorganisms from extreme environments remains essential for dissecting and utilizing the functions of extremophiles. Here, we provide a straightforward protocol for efficiently isolating prokaryotic microorganisms from different extreme habitats (thermal, xeric, saline, alkaline, acidic, and cryogenic environments), which was established through previous successful work and our long-term experience in extremophile resource mining. We propose common processes for extremophile isolation at first and then summarize multiple cultivation strategies for recovering prokaryotic microorganisms from extreme environments and meanwhile provide specific isolation tips that are always overlooked but important. Furthermore, we propose the use of multi-omics-guided microbial cultivation approaches for culturing these as-yet-uncultivated microorganisms and two examples are provided to introduce how these approaches work. In summary, the protocol allows researchers to significantly improve the isolation efficiency of pure cultures and novel taxa, which therefore paves the way for the protection and utilization of microbial resources from extreme environments.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Li W, X Li (2024)

Retraction Note: Metagenome-assembled genomes infer potential microbial metabolism in alkaline sulphidic tailings.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):39 pii:10.1186/s40793-024-00582-5.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Wang B, Tan M, Li W, et al (2024)

Exploring the microbiota difference of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between community-acquired pneumonia with or without COPD based on metagenomic sequencing: a retrospective study.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 24(1):278.

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have higher disease severity and mortality compared to those without COPD. However, deep investigation into microbiome distribution of lower respiratory tract of CAP with or without COPD was unknown.

METHODS: So we used metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) to explore the microbiome differences between the two groups.

RESULTS: Thirty-six CAP without COPD and 11 CAP with COPD cases were retrieved. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed using untargeted mNGS and bioinformatic analysis. mNGS revealed that CAP with COPD group was abundant with Streptococcus, Prevotella, Bordetella at genus level and Cutibacterium acnes, Rothia mucilaginosa, Bordetella genomosp. 6 at species level. While CAP without COPD group was abundant with Ralstonia, Prevotella, Streptococcus at genus level and Ralstonia pickettii, Rothia mucilaginosa, Prevotella melaninogenica at species level. Meanwhile, both alpha and beta microbiome diversity was similar between groups. Linear discriminant analysis found that pa-raburkholderia, corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and staphylococcus hominis were more enriched in CAP without COPD group while the abundance of streptococcus intermedius, streptococcus constellatus, streptococcus milleri, fusarium was higher in CAP with COPD group.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that concomitant COPD have an mild impact on lower airway microbiome of CAP patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liu YX, Shi CL, Ma T, et al (2023)

iMeta progress and acknowledgment of reviewers in 2022.

iMeta, 2(1):e89 pii:IMT289.

Milestones of the first year of iMeta. iMeta is an open-access Wiley partner journal launched by iMeta Science Society consisting of worldwide scientists in bioinformatics and metagenomics. In 2022, iMeta released four issues, including 60 publications with a total of 340 citations. iMeta has been indexed in several databases, including Google Scholar, Crossref, CNKI, Dimensions, PubMed (partial), DOAJ, and Scopus. Thanks to the editorial board members and reviewers for their contributions to the iMeta in 2022.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liu YX, Chen L, Ma T, et al (2023)

EasyAmplicon: An easy-to-use, open-source, reproducible, and community-based pipeline for amplicon data analysis in microbiome research.

iMeta, 2(1):e83 pii:IMT283.

It is difficult for beginners to learn and use amplicon analysis software because there are so many software tools to choose from, and all of them need multiple steps of operation. Herein, we provide a cross-platform, open-source, and community-supported analysis pipeline EasyAmplicon. EasyAmplicon has most of the modules needed for an amplicon analysis, including data quality control, merging of paired-end reads, dereplication, clustering or denoising, chimera detection, generation of feature tables, taxonomic diversity analysis, compositional analysis, biomarker discovery, and publication-quality visualization. EasyAmplicon includes more than 30 cross-platform modules and R packages commonly used in the field. All steps of the pipeline are integrated into RStudio, which reduces learning costs, keeps the flexibility of the analysis process, and facilitates personalized analysis. The pipeline is maintained and updated by the authors and editors of WeChat official account "Meta-genome." Our team will regularly release the latest tutorials both in Chinese and English, read the feedback from users, and provide help to them in the WeChat account and GitHub. The pipeline can be deployed on various platforms, and the installation time is less than half an hour. On an ordinary laptop, the whole analysis process for dozens of samples can be completed within 3 h. The pipeline is available at GitHub (https://github.com/YongxinLiu/EasyAmplicon) and Gitee (https://gitee.com/YongxinLiu/EasyAmplicon).

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xia Y, Li X, Wu Z, et al (2023)

Strategies and tools in illumina and nanopore-integrated metagenomic analysis of microbiome data.

iMeta, 2(1):e72 pii:IMT272.

Metagenomic strategy serves as the foundation for the ecological exploration of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. Recent advancements in sequencing technology have fostered rapid development in the field of microbiome research where an increasing number of studies have applied both illumina short reads (SRs) and nanopore long reads (LRs) sequencing in their metagenomic workflow. However, given the high complexity of an environmental microbiome data set and the bioinformatic challenges caused by the unique features of these sequencing technologies, integrating SRs and LRs is not as straightforward as one might assume. The fast renewal of existing tools and growing diversity of new algorithms make access to this field even more difficult. Therefore, here we systematically summarized the complete workflow from DNA extraction to data processing strategies for applying illumina and nanopore-integrated metagenomics in the investigation in environmental microbiomes. Overall, this review aims to provide a timely knowledge framework for researchers that are interested in or are struggling with the SRs and LRs integration in their metagenomic analysis. The discussions presented will facilitate improved ecological understanding of community functionalities and assembly of natural, engineered, and human microbiomes, benefiting researchers from multiple disciplines.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Fu S, Wang R, Xu Z, et al (2023)

Metagenomic sequencing combined with flow cytometry facilitated a novel microbial risk assessment framework for bacterial pathogens in municipal wastewater without cultivation.

iMeta, 2(1):e77 pii:IMT277.

A workflow that combined metagenomic sequencing with flow cytometry was developed. The absolute abundance of pathogens was accurately estimated in mock communities and real samples. Metagenome-assembled genomes binned from metagenomic data set is robust in phylogenetic analysis and virulence profiling.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang Y, Dou Y, Wang B, et al (2023)

Deciphering factors driving soil microbial life-history strategies in restored grasslands.

iMeta, 2(1):e66 pii:IMT266.

In macroecology, the concept of r- and K-strategy has been widely applied, yet, there have been limited studies on microbial life-history strategies in temperate grasslands using multiple sequencing approaches. Total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, high-throughput meta-genomic sequencing, and GeoChip technologies were used to examine the changes in microbial life-history traits in a chronosequence of restored grasslands (1, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 30 years since restoration). Grassland restoration increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. PLFA analysis revealed that grassland restoration reduced the fungi:bacteria and Gram-positive:Gram-negative bacteria ratios. Combined with the meta-genomic data, we found that grassland restoration shifted microorganisms from oligotrophic (K-) to copiotrophic (r-) groups, consistent with the increased rRNA operon copy number of the microbial community. Structural equation modeling showed that soil properties positively (p < 0.05) while plant properties negatively (p < 0.05) affected microbial life-history traits. We built a framework to highlight the importance of plant and soil properties in driving microbial life-history traits during grassland restoration. Finally, by incorporating meta-genomic and other microbiological data, this study showed that microbial life-history traits support the idea that rRNA operon copy number is a trait that reflects resource availability to soil microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Muthukapalli Krishnareddy P, Hirehally Basavarajegowda M, Perumal Buela P, et al (2022)

Decoding the microbiome and metabolome of the Panchagavya-An indigenous fermented bio-formulation.

iMeta, 1(4):e63 pii:IMT263.

For the first time, updated molecular techniques were used to validate and elucidate the effect of the Panchagavya. Metagenomics was used to decipher the bacterial microbiome structure, which showed promising results for their existence and abundance in the Panchagavya.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liao ME, Xie Y, Shi M, et al (2022)

Over two decades of research on the marine RNA virosphere.

iMeta, 1(4):e59 pii:IMT259.

RNA viruses (realm: Riboviria), including RNA phages and eukaryote-infecting RNA viruses, are essential components of marine ecosystems. A large number of marine RNA viruses have been discovered in the last two decades because of the rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Indeed, the combination of NGS and state-of-the-art meta-omics methods (viromics, the study of all viruses in a specific environment) has led to a fundamental understanding of the taxonomy and genetic diversity of RNA viruses in the sea, suggesting the complex ecological roles played by RNA viruses in this complex ecosystem. Furthermore, comparisons of viromes in the context of highly variable marine niches reveal the biogeographic patterns and ecological impact of marine RNA viruses, whose role in global ecology is becoming increasingly clearer. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the global marine RNA virosphere and outline the taxonomic hierarchy of RNA viruses with a specific focus on their ancient evolutionary history. We also review the development of methodology and the major progress resulting from its applications in RNA viromics. The aim of this review is not only to provide an in-depth understanding of multifaceted aspects of marine RNA viruses, but to offer future perspectives on developing a better methodology for discovery, and exploring the evolutionary origin and major ecological significance of marine RNA virosphere.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Qi Y, Gu S, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

MetaTrass: A high-quality metagenome assembler of the human gut microbiome by cobarcoding sequencing reads.

iMeta, 1(4):e46 pii:IMT246.

Metagenomic evidence of great genetic diversity within the nonconserved regions of the human gut microbial genomes appeals for new methods to elucidate the species-level variability at high resolution. However, current approaches cannot satisfy this methodologically challenge. In this study, we proposed an efficient binning-first-and-assembly-later strategy, named MetaTrass, to recover high-quality species-resolved genomes based on public reference genomes and the single-tube long fragment read (stLFR) technology, which enables cobarcoding. MetaTrass can generate genomes with longer contiguity, higher completeness, and lower contamination than those produced by conventional assembly-first-and-binning-later strategies. From a simulation study on a mock microbial community, MetaTrass showed the potential to improve the contiguity of assembly from kb to Mb without accuracy loss, as compared to other methods based on the next-generation sequencing technology. From four human fecal samples, MetaTrass successfully retrieved 178 high-quality genomes, whereas only 58 ones were provided by the optimal performance of other conventional strategies. Most importantly, these high-quality genomes confirmed the high level of genetic diversity among different samples and unveiled much more. MetaTrass was designed to work with metagenomic reads sequenced by stLFR technology, but is also applicable to other types of cobarcoding libraries. With the high capability of assembling high-quality genomes of metagenomic data sets, MetaTrass seeks to facilitate the study of spatial characters and dynamics of complex microbial communities at enhanced resolution. The open-source code of MetaTrass is available at https://github.com/BGI-Qingdao/MetaTrass.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Hu H, Tan Y, Li C, et al (2022)

StrainPanDA: Linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles via pangenome-based decomposition of metagenomic data.

iMeta, 1(3):e41 pii:IMT241.

Microbial strains of variable functional capacities coexist in microbiomes. Current bioinformatics methods of strain analysis cannot provide the direct linkage between strain composition and their gene contents from metagenomic data. Here we present Strain-level Pangenome Decomposition Analysis (StrainPanDA), a novel method that uses the pangenome coverage profile of multiple metagenomic samples to simultaneously reconstruct the composition and gene content variation of coexisting strains in microbial communities. We systematically validate the accuracy and robustness of StrainPanDA using synthetic data sets. To demonstrate the power of gene-centric strain profiling, we then apply StrainPanDA to analyze the gut microbiome samples of infants, as well as patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation. We show that the linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles is critical for understanding the relationship between microbial adaptation and strain-specific functions (e.g., nutrient utilization and pathogenicity). Finally, StrainPanDA has minimal requirements for computing resources and can be scaled to process multiple species in a community in parallel. In short, StrainPanDA can be applied to metagenomic data sets to detect the association between molecular functions and microbial/host phenotypes to formulate testable hypotheses and gain novel biological insights at the strain or subspecies level.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Gu X, Yang Y, Mao F, et al (2022)

A comparative study of flow cytometry-sorted communities and shotgun viral metagenomics in a Singapore municipal wastewater treatment plant.

iMeta, 1(3):e39 pii:IMT239.

Traditional or "bulk" viral enrichment and amplification methods used in viral metagenomics introduce unavoidable bias in viral diversity. This bias is due to shortcomings in existing viral enrichment methods and overshadowing by the more abundant viral populations. To reduce the complexity and improve the resolution of viral diversity, we developed a strategy coupling fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with random amplification and compared this to bulk metagenomics. This strategy was validated on both influent and effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant using the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process as the treatment method. We found that DNA and RNA communities generated using bulk samples were mostly different from those derived following FACS for both treatments before and after MLE. Before MLE treatment, FACS identified five viral families and 512 viral annotated contigs. Up to 43% of mapped reads were not detected in bulk samples. Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viral families were enriched to a greater extent in the FACS-coupled subpopulations compared with bulk samples. FACS-coupled viromes captured a single-contig viral genome associated with Anabaena phage, which was not observed in bulk samples or in FACS-sorted samples after MLE. These short metagenomic reads, which were assembled into a high-quality draft genome of 46 kbp, were found to be highly dominant in one of the pre-MLE FACS annotated virome fractions (57.4%). Using bulk metagenomics, we identified that between Primary Settling Tank and Secondary Settling Tank viromes, Virgaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Nodaviridae, and Iridoviridae were susceptible to MLE treatment. In all, bulk and FACS-coupled metagenomics are complementary approaches that enable a more thorough understanding of the community structure of DNA and RNA viruses in complex environmental samples, of which the latter is critical for increasing the sensitivity of detection of viral signatures that would otherwise be lost through bulk viral metagenomics.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Jiang S, Chen D, Ma C, et al (2022)

Establishing a novel inflammatory bowel disease prediction model based on gene markers identified from single nucleotide variants of the intestinal microbiota.

iMeta, 1(3):e40 pii:IMT240.

The intestinal microbiota is a crucial environmental factor in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is significantly decreased in IBD patients, which is used as a biomarker for IBD diagnosis. However, this can be observed in both IBD and colorectal cancer, which would confound the diagnostic results. Thus, we first established a new model for predicting Crohn's disease (CD) with high precision according to gene characteristics based on single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Next, five gene markers belonging to two species, F. prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale, that were enriched in the CD group were obtained to build a CD prediction model, and high accuracy in distinguishing the CD and control groups was observed in the discovery (area under curve [AUC] = 91.13%) and validation cohorts (AUC = 79.55%). The model still maintained high accuracy after expanding the healthy cohort (AUC = 89.75%). High disease specificity in distinguishing CD and CRC groups (AUC = 95.74%) was also proven. This study establishes a novel diagnostic method for predicting IBD that also provides unprecedented insight for the early, painless diagnosis of other non-communicable diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ye M, Zhang Z, Sun M, et al (2022)

Dynamics, gene transfer, and ecological function of intracellular and extracellular DNA in environmental microbiome.

iMeta, 1(3):e34 pii:IMT234.

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and intracellular DNA (iDNA) extensively exist in both terrestrial and aquatic environment systems and have been found to play a significant role in the nutrient cycling and genetic information transmission between the environment and microorganisms. As inert DNA sequences, eDNA is able to present stability in the environment from the ribosome enzyme lysis, therein acting as the historical genetic information archive of the microbiome. As a consequence, both eDNA and iDNA can shed light on the functional gene variety and the corresponding microbial activity. In addition, eDNA is a ubiquitous composition of the cell membrane, which exerts a great impact on the resistance of outer stress from environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, and so on. This study focuses on the environmental dynamics and the ecological functions of the eDNA and iDNA from the perspectives of environmental behavior, genetic information transmission, resistance to the environmental contaminants, and so on. By reviewing the status quo and the future vista of the e/iDNAs research, this article sheds light on exploring the ecological functioning of the e/iDNAs in the environmental microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xi J, Lei B, Liu YX, et al (2022)

Microbial community roles and chemical mechanisms in the parasitic development of Orobanche cumana.

iMeta, 1(3):e31 pii:IMT231.

Orobanche cumana Wallr. is a holoparasite weed that extracts water and nutrients from its host the sunflower, thereby causing yield reductions and quality losses. However, the number of O. cumana parasites in the same farmland is distinctly different. The roots of some hosts have been heavily parasitized, while others have not been parasitized. What are the factors contributing to this phenomenon? Is it possible that sunflower interroot microorganisms are playing a regulatory role in this phenomenon? The role of the microbial community in this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the rhizosphere soil microbiome for sunflowers with different degrees of O. cumana parasitism, that is, healthy, light infection, moderate infection, and severe infection on the sunflower roots. The microbial structures differed significantly according to the degree of parasitism, where Xanthomonadaceae was enriched in severe infections. Metagenomic analyses revealed that amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, and lipid metabolism were increased in the rhizosphere soils of severely infected sunflowers, which were attributed to the proliferation of Lysobacter. Lysobacter antibioticus (HX79) was isolated and its capacity to promote O. cumana seed germination and increase the germ tube length was confirmed by germination and pot experiments. Cyclo(Pro-Val), an active metabolite of strain HX79, was identified and metabolomic and molecular docking approaches confirmed it was responsible for promoting O. cumana seed germination and growth. And we found that Pseudomonas mandelii HX1 inhibited the growth of O. cumana in the host rhizosphere soil. Our findings clarify the role of rhizosphere microbiota in regulating the parasite O. cumana to possibly facilitate the development of a new weed suppression strategy.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Dang C, Wu Z, Zhang M, et al (2022)

Microorganisms as bio-filters to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from high-altitude permafrost revealed by nanopore-based metagenomics.

iMeta, 1(2):e24 pii:IMT224.

The distinct climatic and geographical conditions make high-altitude permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau suffer more severe degradation than polar permafrost. However, the microbial responses associated with greenhouse gas production in thawing permafrost remain obscured. Here we applied nanopore-based long-read metagenomics and high-throughput RNA-seq to explore microbial functional activities within the freeze-thaw cycle in the active layers of permafrost at the Qilian Mountain. A bioinformatic framework was established to facilitate phylogenetic and functional annotation of the unassembled nanopore metagenome. By deploying this strategy, 42% more genera could be detected and 58% more genes were annotated to nitrogen and methane cycle. With the aid of such enlarged resolution, we observed vigorous aerobic methane oxidation by Methylomonas, which could serve as a bio-filter to mitigate CH4 emissions from permafrost. Such filtering effect could be further consolidated by both on-site gas phase measurement and incubation experiment that CO2 was the major form of carbon released from permafrost. Despite the increased transcriptional activities of aceticlastic methanogenesis pathways in the thawed permafrost active layer, CH4 generated during the thawing process could be effectively consumed by the microbiome. Additionally, the nitrogen metabolism in permafrost tends to be a closed cycle and active N2O consumption by the topsoil community was detected in the near-surface gas phase. Our findings reveal that although the increased thawed state facilitated the heterotrophic nitrogen and methane metabolism, effective microbial methane oxidation in the active layer could serve as a bio-filter to relieve the overall warming potentials of greenhouse gas emitted from thawed permafrost.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Guo S, Zhang H, Chu Y, et al (2022)

A neural network-based framework to understand the type 2 diabetes-related alteration of the human gut microbiome.

iMeta, 1(2):e20 pii:IMT220.

The identification of microbial markers adequate to delineate the disease-related microbiome alterations from the complex human gut microbiota is of great interest. Here, we develop a framework combining neural network (NN) and random forest, resulting in 40 marker species and 90 marker genes identified from the metagenomic data set (185 healthy and 183 type 2 diabetes [T2D] samples), respectively. In terms of these markers, the NN model obtained higher accuracy in classifying the T2D-related samples than other methods; the interaction network analyses identified the key species and functional modules; the regression analysis determined that fasting blood glucose is the most significant factor (p < 0.05) in the T2D-related alteration of the human gut microbiome. We also observed that those marker species varied little across the case and control samples greatly shift in the different stages of the T2D development, suggestive of their important roles in the T2D-related microbiome alteration. Our study provides a new way of identifying the disease-related biomarkers and analyzing the role they may play in the development of the disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Zhao R, Hao J, Yang J, et al (2022)

The co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes between dogs and their owners in families.

iMeta, 1(2):e21 pii:IMT221.

The intimate relationship between humans and companion animals causes a unique and critical aspect of antimicrobial resistance in humans. However, a comprehensive analysis of antimicrobial resistance between companion animals and their owners is lacking. Here, we chose 13 owned dogs and 16 owners as well as 22 kennel dogs to analyze the effect of an intimate relationship between owned dogs and owners on their gut microbiome, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and study the correlation of antimicrobial resistance between dogs and their owners in families by metagenomics. Dog gut microbiota had a higher abundance and diversity of ARGs while owners had a higher diversity of taxonomy. In the owned dog gut microbial community, ARG and MGE compositions were significantly more similar to the owner's gut microbiota than those of others. From the perspective of families, there was a strong correlation between macrolide resistance genes between dogs and their owners. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the correlation of ARGs between dogs and their owners at a community-wide level. These findings can alarm the use of antibiotics in companion animals, which implies the potential to harbor antimicrobial resistance and threaten public health.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Gao C, Li X, Zhao X, et al (2022)

Standardized studies of the oral microbiome: From technology-driven to hypothesis-driven.

iMeta, 1(2):e19 pii:IMT219.

The microbiome is in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Among the microbial consortia in the human body, that in the oral cavity is complex. Instead of repeatedly confirming biomarkers of oral and systemic diseases, recent studies have focused on a unified clinical diagnostic standard in microbiology that reduces the heterogeneity caused by individual discrepancies. Research has also been conducted on other topics of greater clinical importance, including bacterial pathogenesis, and the effects of drugs and treatments. In this review, we divide existing research into technology-driven and hypothesis-driven, according to whether there is a clear research hypothesis. This classification allows the demonstration of shifts in the direction of oral microbiology research. Based on the shifts, we suggested that establishing clear hypotheses may be the solution to major research challenges.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liu YX, Chen T, Li D, et al (2022)

iMeta: Integrated meta-omics for biology and environments.

iMeta, 1(1):e15 pii:IMT215.

The cover of iMeta's inaugural issue. The galaxy represents the complexity and value of bioinformatics and metagenomics. DNA, which represents genetic components that guide biological diversity, is at the center of the galaxy. The spiral arms are the microbiome welcoming scientists from all over the world to make novel discoveries. Let us usher in the metaverse era of the microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ren Y, Yu G, Shi C, et al (2022)

Majorbio Cloud: A one-stop, comprehensive bioinformatic platform for multiomics analyses.

iMeta, 1(2):e12 pii:IMT212.

The platform consists of three modules, which are pre-configured bioinformatic pipelines, cloud toolsets, and online omics' courses. The pre-configured bioinformatic pipelines not only combine analytic tools for metagenomics, genomes, transcriptome, proteomics and metabolomics, but also provide users with powerful and convenient interactive analysis reports, which allow them to analyze and mine data independently. As a useful supplement to the bioinformatics pipelines, a wide range of cloud toolsets can further meet the needs of users for daily biological data processing, statistics, and visualization. The rich online courses of multi-omics also provide a state-of-art platform to researchers in interactive communication and knowledge sharing.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang P, K Ning (2022)

How much metagenome data is needed for protein structure prediction: The advantages of targeted approach from the ecological and evolutionary perspectives.

iMeta, 1(1):e9 pii:IMT29.

It has been proven that three-dimensional protein structures could be modeled by supplementing homologous sequences with metagenome sequences. Even though a large volume of metagenome data is utilized for such purposes, a significant proportion of proteins remain unsolved. In this review, we focus on identifying ecological and evolutionary patterns in metagenome data, decoding the complicated relationships of these patterns with protein structures, and investigating how these patterns can be effectively used to improve protein structure prediction. First, we proposed the metagenome utilization efficiency and marginal effect model to quantify the divergent distribution of homologous sequences for the protein family. Second, we proposed that the targeted approach effectively identifies homologous sequences from specified biomes compared with the untargeted approach's blind search. Finally, we determined the lower bound for metagenome data required for predicting all the protein structures in the Pfam database and showed that the present metagenome data is insufficient for this purpose. In summary, we discovered ecological and evolutionary patterns in the metagenome data that may be used to predict protein structures effectively. The targeted approach is promising in terms of effectively extracting homologous sequences and predicting protein structures using these patterns.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Dufault-Thompson K, X Jiang (2022)

Applications of de Bruijn graphs in microbiome research.

iMeta, 1(1):e4 pii:IMT24.

High-throughput sequencing has become an increasingly central component of microbiome research. The development of de Bruijn graph-based methods for assembling high-throughput sequencing data has been an important part of the broader adoption of sequencing as part of biological studies. Recent advances in the construction and representation of de Bruijn graphs have led to new approaches that utilize the de Bruijn graph data structure to aid in different biological analyses. One type of application of these methods has been in alternative approaches to the assembly of sequencing data like gene-targeted assembly, where only gene sequences are assembled out of larger metagenomes, and differential assembly, where sequences that are differentially present between two samples are assembled. de Bruijn graphs have also been applied for comparative genomics where they can be used to represent large sets of multiple genomes or metagenomes where structural features in the graphs can be used to identify variants, indels, and homologous regions in sequences. These de Bruijn graph-based representations of sequencing data have even begun to be applied to whole sequencing databases for large-scale searches and experiment discovery. de Bruijn graphs have played a central role in how high-throughput sequencing data is worked with, and the rapid development of new tools that rely on these data structures suggests that they will continue to play an important role in biology in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Chen T, Liu YX, L Huang (2022)

ImageGP: An easy-to-use data visualization web server for scientific researchers.

iMeta, 1(1):e5 pii:IMT25.

Data visualization plays a crucial role in illustrating results and sharing knowledge among researchers. Though many types of visualization tools are widely used, most of them require enough coding experience or are designed for specialized usages, or are not free. Here, we present ImageGP, a specialized visualization platform designed for biology and chemistry data illustration. ImageGP could generate generalized plots like lines, bars, scatters, boxes, sets, heatmaps, and histograms with the most common input content in a user-friendly interface. Normally plotting using ImageGP only needs a few mouse clicks. For some plots, one only needs to just paste data and click submit to get the visualization results. Additionally, ImageGP supplies up to 26 parameters to meet customizable requirements. ImageGP also contains specialized plots like volcano plot, functional enrichment plot for most omics-data analysis, and other four specialized functions for microbiome analysis. Since 2017, ImageGP has been running for nearly 5 years and serving 336,951 visits from all over the world. Together, ImageGP (http://www.ehbio.com/ImageGP/) is an effective and efficient tool for experimental researchers to comprehensively visualize and interpret data generated from wet-lab and dry-lab.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Pan Y, Xing Y, Lai Y, et al (2024)

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing reveals co-infection with Legionella pneumophila and Fusobacterium necrophorum in a patient with severe pneumonia: a case report.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 24(1):279.

BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumonia is one of the most severe types of atypical pneumonia, impairing multiple organ systems, posing a threat to life. Diagnosing Legionella pneumonia is challenging due to difficulties in culturing the bacteria and limitations in immunoassay sensitivity and specificity.

CASE PRESENTATION: This paper reports a rare case of sepsis caused by combined infection with Legionella pneumophila and Fusobacterium necrophorum, leading to respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, myocardial damage, and electrolyte disorders. In addition, we systematically reviewed literature on patients with combined Legionella infections, analyzing their clinical features, laboratory results and diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: For pathogens that require prolonged incubation periods and are less sensitive to conventional culturing methods, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can be a powerful supplement to pathogen screening and plays a significant role in the auxiliary diagnosis of complex infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Rubio-Noguez D, Breton-Deval L, Salinas-Peralta I, et al (2024)

Pollution pressure drives microbial assemblages that improve the phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by Ricinus communis.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(8):241.

Due to the rapid expansion of industrial activity, soil pollution has intensified. Plants growing in these polluted areas have developed a rhizobiome uniquely and specially adapted to thrive in such environments. However, it remains uncertain whether pollution acts as a sufficiently selective force to shape the rhizobiome, and whether these adaptations endure over time, potentially aiding in long-term phytoremediation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to compare whether the microbiome associated with roots from plants germinated in polluted riverbanks will improve the phytoremediation of Cd and Pb under mesocosm experiments compared with plants germinating in a greenhouse. The experimental design was a factorial 2 × 2, i.e., the origin of the plant and the presence or absence of 100 mg/L of Cd and 1000 mg/L of Pb. Our results showed that plants germinated in polluted riverbanks have the capacity to accumulate twice the amount of Pb and Cd during mesocosm experiments. The metagenomic analysis showed that plants from the river exposed to heavy metals at the end of mesocosm experiments were rich in Rhizobium sp. AC44/96 and Enterobacter sp. EA-1, Enterobacter soli, Pantoea rwandensis, Pantoea endophytica. In addition, those plants were uniquely associated with Rhizobium grahamii, which likely contributed to the differences in the levels of phytoremediation achieved. Furthermore, the functional analysis revealed an augmented functional potential related to hormones, metallothioneins, dismutases, and reductases; meanwhile, the plants germinated in the greenhouse showed an unspecific strategy to exceed heavy metal stress. In conclusion, pollution pressure drives stable microbial assemblages, which could be used in future phytostabilization and phytoremediation experiments.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Kim M, Cha IT, Li M, et al (2024)

Unraveling interspecies cross-feeding during anaerobic lignin degradation for bioenergy applications.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01482-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Lignin, a major component of plant biomass, remains underutilized for renewable biofuels due to its complex and heterogeneous structure. Although investigations into depolymerizing lignin using fungi are well-established, studies of microbial pathways that enable anaerobic lignin breakdown linked with methanogenesis are limited. Through an enrichment cultivation approach with inoculation of freshwater sediment, we enriched a microbial community capable of producing methane during anaerobic lignin degradation. We reconstructed the near-complete population genomes of key lignin degraders and methanogens using metagenome-assembled genomes finally selected in this study (MAGs; 92 bacterial and 4 archaeal MAGs affiliated into 45 and 2 taxonomic groups, respectively). This study provides genetic evidence of microbial interdependence in conversion of lignin to methane in a syntrophic community. Metagenomic analysis revealed metabolic linkages, with lignin-hydrolyzing and/or fermentative bacteria such as the genera Alkalibaculum and Propionispora transforming lignin breakdown products into compounds such as acetate to feed methanogens (two archaeal MAGs classified into the genus Methanosarcina or UBA6 of the family Methanomassiliicoccaceae). Understanding the synergistic relationships between microbes that convert lignin could inform strategies for producing renewable bioenergy and treating aromatic-contaminated environments through anaerobic biodegradation processes. Overall, this study offers fundamental insights into complex community-level anaerobic lignin metabolism, highlighting hitherto unknown players, interactions, and pathways in this biotechnologically valuable process.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Beraud-Martínez LK, Betancourt-Lozano M, Gómez-Gil B, et al (2024)

Methylotrophic methanogenesis induced by ammonia nitrogen in an anaerobic digestion system.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(24)00060-X [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This lab-scale study aimed to investigate the effect of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) stress on the methanogenic activity and the taxonomic and functional profiles of the microbial community of anaerobic sludge (AS) from a full-scale bioreactor.

METHODS: The AS was subjected to a stepwise increase in TAN every 14 days at concentrations of 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 g-TAN/L (Acclimated-AS or AAS). This acclimation stage was followed by an ammonia stress stage (4 g/L). A blank-AS (BAS) was maintained without TAN during the acclimation stage. In the second stress stage (ST), the BAS was divided into two new treatments: a control (BAS') and one that received a shock load of TAN of 4 g/L (SBAS'). Methane production was measured, and a metagenomic analysis was conducted to describe the microbial community.

RESULTS: A decrease in the relative abundance of Methanothrix soehngenii of 16% was related to a decrease of 23% in the methanogenic capacity of AAS when comparing with the final stage of BAS. However, recovery was observed at 3.5 g TAN/L, and a shift to methylotrophic metabolism occurred, indicated by a 4-fold increase in abundance of Methanosarcina mazei. The functional analysis of sludge metagenomes indicated that no statistical differences (p > 0.05, RM ANOVA) were found in the relative abundance of methanogenic genes that initiate acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways (acetyl-CoA synthetase, ACSS; acetate kinase, ackA; phosphate acetyltransferase, pta; and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit A, fwdA) into the BAS and AAS during the acclimation phase. The same was observed between groups of genes associated with methanogenesis from methylated compounds. In contrast, statistical differences (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA) in the relative abundance of these genes were recorded during ST. The functional profiles of the genes involved in acetoclastic, hydrogenotrophic, and methylotrophic methanogenic pathways were brought to light for acclimatation and stress experimental stages.

CONCLUSIONS: TAN inhibited methanogenic activity and acetoclastic metabolism. The gradual acclimatization to TAN leads to metabolic and taxonomic changes that allow for the subsequent recovery of methanogenic functionality. The study highlights the importance of adequate management of anaerobic bioprocesses with high nitrogen loads to maintain the methanogenic functionality of the microbial community.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Wu Z, Ji Y, Liu G, et al (2024)

Electro-stimulation modulates syntrophic interactions in methanogenic toluene-degrading microbiota for enhanced functionality.

Water research, 260:121898 pii:S0043-1354(24)00799-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Syntrophy achieved via microbial cooperation is vital for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis. However, limited understanding of the metabolic division of labor and electronic interactions in electro-stimulated microbiota has impeded the development of enhanced biotechnologies for degrading hydrocarbons to methane. Here, compared to the non-electro-stimulated methanogenic toluene-degrading microbiota, electro-stimulation at 800 mV promoted toluene degradation and methane production efficiencies by 11.49 %-14.76 % and 75.58 %-290.11 %, respectively. Hydrocarbon-degrading gene bamA amplification and metagenomic sequencing analyses revealed that f_Syntrophobacteraceae MAG116 may act as a toluene degrader in the non-electro-stimulated microbiota, which was proposed to establish electron syntrophy with the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina spp. (or Methanothrix sp.) through e-pili or shared acetate. In the electro-stimulated microbiota, 37.22 ± 4.33 % of Desulfoprunum sp. (affiliated f_Desulfurivibrionaceae MAG10) and 58.82 ± 3.74 % of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium sp. MAG74 were specifically recruited to the anode and cathode, respectively. The potential electrogen f_Desulfurivibrionaceae MAG10 engaged in interspecies electron transfer with both syntroph f_Syntrophobacteraceae MAG116 and the anode, which might be facilitated by c-type cytochromes (e.g., ImcH, OmcT, and PilZ). Moreover, upon capturing electrons from the external circuit, the hydrogen-producing electrotroph Aminidesulfovibrio sp. MAG60 could share electrons and hydrogen with the methanogen Methanobacterium sp. MAG74, which uniquely harbored hydrogenase genes ehaA-R and ehbA-P. This study elucidates the microbial interaction mechanisms underlying the enhanced metabolic efficiency of the electro-stimulated methanogenic toluene-degrading microbiota, and emphasizes the significance of metabolic and electron syntrophic interactions in maintaining the stability of microbial community functionality.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Tedersoo L, Hosseyni Moghaddam MS, Mikryukov V, et al (2024)

EUKARYOME: the rRNA gene reference database for identification of all eukaryotes.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2024:.

Molecular identification of micro- and macroorganisms based on nuclear markers has revolutionized our understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology. Today, research on the diversity of eukaryotes in global ecosystems heavily relies on nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) markers. Here, we present the research community-curated reference database EUKARYOME for nuclear ribosomal 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rRNA markers for all eukaryotes, including metazoans (animals), protists, fungi and plants. It is particularly useful for the identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as it bridges the four commonly used molecular markers-ITS1, ITS2, 18S V4-V5 and 28S D1-D2 subregions. The key benefits of this database over other annotated reference sequence databases are that it is not restricted to certain taxonomic groups and it includes all rRNA markers. EUKARYOME also offers a number of reference long-read sequences that are derived from (meta)genomic and (meta)barcoding-a unique feature that can be used for taxonomic identification and chimera control of third-generation, long-read, high-throughput sequencing data. Taxonomic assignments of rRNA genes in the database are verified based on phylogenetic approaches. The reference datasets are available in multiple formats from the project homepage, http://www.eukaryome.org.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Liu B, Huang P, Liang Y, et al (2024)

Acute Q fever pneumonia diagnosed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

Journal of infection in developing countries, 18(5):834-838.

INTRODUCTION: Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), presents diagnostic challenges due to its clinical and radiological nonspecificity, which often mimics community-acquired pneumonia, coupled with the limitations of traditional diagnostic methods. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has become an indispensable tool in clinical diagnostics for its high-throughput pathogen identification capabilities. Herein, we detail a case of acute Q fever pneumonia diagnosed with mNGS.

CASE PRESENTATION: The patient exhibited symptoms of fever, cough, expectoration, and diarrhea for three days, with the pathogen undetected in initial laboratory assessments. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were conducted, leading to the identification of C. burnetii in the lavage fluid via mNGS. Consequently, the patient was promptly initiated on a treatment regimen of 100 mg doxycycline, administered orally every 12 hours.

RESULTS: Post-treatment, the patient's temperature normalized, and a full recovery was observed. The follow-up chest CT scan revealed complete resolution of the right lower lobe consolidation.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of Q fever pneumonia lacks specificity, making diagnosis based solely on symptoms and imaging challenging. mNGS offers a superior alternative for identifying elusive or rarely cultured pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Liu J, Wu M, Zhang J, et al (2024)

First report of solitary cavitation nodules in the lungs with Mycobacterium canariasense.

Journal of infection in developing countries, 18(5):826-828.

INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium canariasense is a relatively rare and rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infection.

CASE REPORT: This case report describes a 36-year-old man with a Canariasense infection in the lung with solitary cavitation nodules located subpleural on CT scan, for which the final diagnosis was made by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF-mNGS). It was successfully treated with levofloxacin and amikacin.

CONCLUSIONS: This experience is instructive because clinical diagnostic and CT imaging characteristics and treatment strategy guidelines for pulmonary infections caused by M. canariasense have not yet been established.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Medina JE, Castañeda S, Camargo M, et al (2024)

Exploring viral diversity and metagenomics in livestock: insights into disease emergence and spillover risks in cattle.

Veterinary research communications [Epub ahead of print].

Cattle have a significant impact on human societies in terms of both economics and health. Viral infections pose a relevant problem as they directly or indirectly disrupt the balance within cattle populations. This has negative consequences at the economic level for producers and territories, and also jeopardizes human health through the transmission of zoonotic diseases that can escalate into outbreaks or pandemics. To establish prevention strategies and control measures at various levels (animal, farm, region, or global), it is crucial to identify the viral agents present in animals. Various techniques, including virus isolation, serological tests, and molecular techniques like PCR, are typically employed for this purpose. However, these techniques have two major drawbacks: they are ineffective for non-culturable viruses, and they only detect a small fraction of the viruses present. In contrast, metagenomics offers a promising approach by providing a comprehensive and unbiased analysis for detecting all viruses in a given sample. It has the potential to identify rare or novel infectious agents promptly and establish a baseline of healthy animals. Nevertheless, the routine application of viral metagenomics for epidemiological surveillance and diagnostics faces challenges related to socioeconomic variables, such as resource availability and space dedicated to metagenomics, as well as the lack of standardized protocols and resulting heterogeneity in presenting results. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge and prospects for using viral metagenomics to detect and identify viruses in cattle raised for livestock, while discussing the epidemiological and clinical implications.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Barac A, Vujovic A, Peric J, et al (2024)

Rethinking Aspergillosis in the Era of Microbiota and Mycobiota.

Mycopathologia, 189(4):49.

Aspergillosis encompasses a wide range of clinical conditions based on the interaction between Aspergillus and the host. It ranges from colonization to invasive aspergillosis. The human lung provides an entry door for Aspergillus. Aspergillus has virulence characteristics such as conidia, rapid growth at body temperature, and the production of specific proteins, carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites that allow A. fumigatus to infiltrate the lung's alveoli and cause invasive aspergillosis. Alveolar epithelial cells play an important role in both fungus clearance and immune cell recruitment via cytokine release. Although the innate immune system quickly clears conidia in immunocompetent hosts, A. fumigatus has evolved multiple virulence factors in order to escape immune response such as ROS detoxifying enzymes, the rodlet layer, DHN-melanin and toxins. Bacterial co-infections or interactions can alter the immune response, impact Aspergillus growth and virulence, enhance biofilm formation, confound diagnosis, and reduce treatment efficacy. The gut microbiome's makeup influences pulmonary immune responses generated by A. fumigatus infection and vice versa. The real-time PCR for Aspergillus DNA detection might be a particularly useful tool to diagnose pulmonary aspergillosis. Metagenomics analyses allow quick and easy detection and identification of a great variety of fungi in different clinical samples, although optimization is still required particularly for the use of NGS techniques. This review will analyze the current state of aspergillosis in light of recent discoveries in the microbiota and mycobiota.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Ortega-Kindica RCMH, Padasas-Adalla CS, Tabugo SRM, et al (2024)

Shotgun Metagenomics Reveals Taxonomic and Functional Patterns of the Microbiome Associated with Barbour's Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri).

Marine biotechnology (New York, N.Y.) [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional patterns of the microbiome associated with Barbour's seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) using a combination of shotgun metagenomics and bioinformatics. The analyses revealed that Pseudomonadota and Bacillota were the dominant phyla in the seahorse skin microbiome, whereas Pseudomonadota and, to a lesser extent, Bacillota and Bacteroidota were the dominant phyla in the seahorse gut microbiome. Several metabolic pathway categories were found to be enriched in the skin microbiome, including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism, energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, as well as membrane transport, signal transduction, and cellular community-prokaryotes. In contrast, the gut microbiome exhibited enrichment in metabolic pathways associated with the metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, and quorum sensing. Additionally, although the relative abundance of bacteriocins in the skin and gut was slightly similar, notable differences were observed at the class level. Specifically, class I bacteriocins were found to be more abundant in the skin microbiome, whereas class III bacteriocins were more abundant in the gut microbiome. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive examination of the taxonomic and functional patterns of the skin and gut microbiome in Barbour's seahorse. These findings can greatly contribute to a deeper understanding of the seahorse-associated microbiome, which can play a pivotal role in predicting and controlling bacterial infections, thereby contributing to the success of aquaculture and health-promoting initiatives.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Manning VA, Moore PA, KM Trippe (2024)

Metagenome-assembled genomes of an acid-tolerant nitrifying bacterial community isolated from a bioreactor used in ammonium scrubbers at animal-rearing facilities.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We report 12 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGS) of a bioreactor community of acid-tolerant nitrifying bacteria. The MAGS include autotrophs in the Nitrospira genus and heterotrophs in the Xanthomonadales, Ktedonobacterales, Cytophagales, Burkholderiales, and Hyphomicrobiales. These taxonomic and genomic data provide insights into the core community members required for nitrification at low pH.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Deschner D, Voordouw MJ, Fernando C, et al (2024)

Identification of genetic markers of resistance to macrolide class antibiotics in Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from a Saskatchewan feedlot.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Mannheimia haemolytica is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which causes substantial economic losses to the beef industry, and there is an urgent need for rapid and accurate diagnostic tests to provide evidence for treatment decisions and support antimicrobial stewardship. Diagnostic sequencing can provide information about antimicrobial resistance genes in M. haemolytica more rapidly than conventional diagnostics. Realizing the full potential of diagnostic sequencing requires a comprehensive understanding of the genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance. We identified genetic markers of resistance in M. haemolytica to macrolide class antibiotics commonly used for control of BRD. Genome sequences were determined for 99 M. haemolytica isolates with six different susceptibility phenotypes collected over 2 years from a feedlot in Saskatchewan, Canada. Known macrolide resistance genes estT, msr(E), and mph(E) were identified in most resistant isolates within predicted integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). ICE sequences lacking antibiotic resistance genes were detected in 10 of 47 susceptible isolates. No resistance-associated polymorphisms were detected in ribosomal RNA genes, although previously unreported mutations in the L22 and L23 ribosomal proteins were identified in 12 and 27 resistant isolates, respectively. Pangenome analysis led to the identification of 79 genes associated with resistance to gamithromycin, of which 95% (75 of 79) had no functional annotation. Most of the observed phenotypic resistance was explained by previously identified antibiotic resistance genes, although resistance to the macrolides gamithromycin and tulathromycin was not explained in 39 of 47 isolates, demonstrating the need for continued surveillance for novel determinants of macrolide resistance.IMPORTANCEBovine respiratory disease is the costliest disease of beef cattle in North America and the most common reason for injectable antibiotic use in beef cattle. Metagenomic sequencing offers the potential to make economically significant reductions in turnaround time for diagnostic information for evidence-based selection of antibiotics for use in the feedlot. The success of diagnostic sequencing depends on a comprehensive catalog of antimicrobial resistance genes and other genome features associated with reduced susceptibility. We analyzed the genome sequences of isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, a major bovine respiratory disease pathogen, and identified both previously known and novel genes associated with reduced susceptibility to macrolide class antimicrobials. These findings reinforce the need for ongoing surveillance for markers of antimicrobial resistance to support improved diagnostics and antimicrobial stewardship.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Stilwell JM, Griffin MJ, Leary JH, et al (2024)

Massive branchial henneguyosis of catfish: A distinct, myxozoan-induced gill disease caused by severe interlamellar Henneguya exilis infection in catfish aquaculture.

Veterinary pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Proliferative gill disease (PGD), caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri, has been the most notorious parasitic gill disease in the US catfish aquaculture industry. In 2019, an unusual gill disease caused by massive burdens of another myxozoan, Henneguya exilis, was described in channel (Ictalurus punctatus) × blue (Ictalurus furcatus) hybrid catfish. Targeted metagenomic sequencing and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to differentiate these conditions by comparing myxozoan communities involved in lesion development and disease pathogenesis between massive H. exilis infections and PGD cases. Thirty ethanol-fixed gill holobranchs from 7 cases of massive H. exilis infection in hybrid catfish were subjected to targeted amplicon sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and compared to a targeted metagenomic data set previously generated from clinical PGD case submissions. Furthermore, serial sections of 14 formalin-fixed gill holobranchs (2 per case) were analyzed by RNAscope duplex chromogenic ISH assays targeting 8 different myxozoan species. Targeted metagenomic and ISH data were concordant, indicating myxozoan community compositions significantly differ between PGD and massive branchial henneguyosis. Although PGD cases often consist of mixed species infections, massive branchial henneguyosis consisted of nearly pure H. exilis infections. Still, H. ictaluri was identified by ISH in association with infrequent PGD lesions, suggesting coinfections occur, and some cases of massive branchial henneguyosis may contain concurrent PGD lesions contributing to morbidity. These findings establish a case definition for a putative emerging, myxozoan-induced gill disease of farm-raised catfish with a proposed condition name of massive branchial henneguyosis of catfish (MBHC).

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Ivanova VS, Menter T, Zaino J, et al (2024)

The Genetic Landscape of Primary Breast Marginal Zone Lymphoma Identifies a Mutational-driven Disease With Similarities to Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma.

The American journal of surgical pathology pii:00000478-990000000-00366 [Epub ahead of print].

Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (eMZL) can occur in any organ and site of the body. Recent research has shown that they differ from organ to organ in terms of their mutational profile. In this study, we investigated a cohort of primary breast marginal zone lymphomas (PBMZL) to get a better insight into their morphologic and molecular profile. A cohort of 15 cases (14 female and 1 male) was characterized by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 19 markers, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and high throughput sequencing (HTS) using a lymphoma panel comprising 172 genes. In addition, PCR for the specific detection of Borrelia spp. and metagenomics whole genome sequencing were performed for infectious agent profiling. Follicular colonization was observed in most cases, while lymphoepithelial lesions, though seen in many cases, were not striking. All 15 cases were negative for CD5, CD11c, and CD21 and positive for BCL2 and pan B-cell markers. There were no cases with BCL2, BCL10, IRF4, MALT1, or MYC translocation; only 1 had a BCL6 rearrangement. HTS highlighted TNFAIP3 (n=4), KMT2D (n=2), and SPEN (n=2) as the most frequently mutated genes. There were no Borrelia spp., and no other pathogens detected in our cohort. One patient had a clinical history of erythema chronicum migrans affecting the same breast. PBMZL is a mutation-driven disease rather than fusion-driven. It exhibits mutations in genes encoding components affecting the NF-κB pathway, chromatin modifier-encoding genes, and NOTCH pathway-related genes. Its mutational profile shares similarities with ocular adnexal and nodal MZL.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Tadesse M, Ajibade FO, Minale M, et al (2024)

Physicochemical and microbial community dynamics of Kocho fermented from different enset varieties in South West Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 10(3):e25621.

Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is an indigenous multipurpose plant in Ethiopia. More than 20 % of people in Ethiopia rely on enset for their subsistence livelihood. Its fermentation produces a starchy food named Kocho, which is yet poorly studied. In this study, physicochemical and microbial community dynamics of Kocho fermented from different enset varieties (Maziya, Genna, and Arkiya) were collected at Dawro Zone (Southern Ethiopia). Samples were collected at various fermentation times (days 1-60) for physicochemical and microbial (culture-dependent and culture-independent) characterization. Results showed that increasing fermentation time has a significantly strong positive (R[2] = 0.768, p = 0.004) correlation between titrable acidity, and a significantly strong negative association with pH (R[2] = -0.715, p = 0.009), moisture (R[2] = -0.982, p < 0.05), ash (R[2] = -0.932, p < 0.05), fat (R[2] = -0.861, p < 0.05), fiber (R[2] = -0.981, p < 0.05) and carbohydrate (R[2] = -0.994, p < 0.001) contents. An increasing or decreasing trend of physicochemical parameters observed during enset fermentation is significantly associated with microbial community dynamics. Shifts of microbial community observed during culture-dependent analysis were also confirmed by metagenomic results. During fermentation, Firmicutes (39-68 %) > Proteobacteria (7-53 %) > Cyanobacteria (7-24 %) were dominant phyla in the three enset varieties. Gamma (traditional starter culture) is dominated by Lactobacillus plantrum and Lactobacillus manihotivorans most probably the two species that play a significant role in initiating enset fermentation.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Fan W, Li P, Wei Q, et al (2024)

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing-assisted diagnosis of a rare case of primary cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in an HIV patient: a case report.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1356095.

Pathogenic and free-living Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and have been reported to cause keratitis and universally fatal encephalitis. Primary cutaneous acanthamoebiasis caused by Acanthamoeba is exceedingly rare and presents as isolated necrotic cutaneous lesions without involvement of the cornea or central nervous system. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis often occurs in immunocompromised patients and is likely overlooked or even misdiagnosed only by cutaneous biopsy tissue histopathological analysis. Here, we report a HIV-infected 63-year-old female with oral leukoplakia for 4 months and scattered large skin ulcers all over the body for 2 months. The cause of the cutaneous lesions was unclear through cutaneous specimens histopathological analysis, and subsequently Acanthamoeba were detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), which may be the cause of cutaneous lesions. Based on the mNGS results, a pathologist subsequently reviewed the previous pathological slides and found trophozoites of Acanthamoeba so that the cause was identified, and the skin ulcers improved significantly after treatment with multi-drug combination therapy. Acanthamoeba is also a host of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence of endosymbionts enhances the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba, and no other pathogens were reported in this case. mNGS is helpful for rapidly diagnosing the etiology of rare skin diseases and can indicate the presence or absence of commensal microorganisms.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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