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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:31 Created: 


While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dittmer J, Corretto E, Štarhová Serbina L, et al (2023)

Division of labor within psyllids: metagenomics reveals an ancient dual endosymbiosis with metabolic complementarity in the genus Cacopsylla.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Hemipteran insects are well-known for their ancient associations with beneficial bacterial endosymbionts, particularly nutritional symbionts that provide the host with essential nutrients such as amino acids or vitamins lacking in the host's diet. Therefore, these primary endosymbionts enable the exploitation of nutrient-poor food sources such as plant sap or vertebrate blood. In turn, the strictly host-associated lifestyle strongly impacts the genome evolution of the endosymbionts, resulting in small and degraded genomes. Over time, even the essential nutritional functions can be compromised, leading to the complementation or replacement of an ancient endosymbiont by another, more functionally versatile bacterium. Herein, we provide evidence for a dual primary endosymbiosis in several psyllid species. Using metagenome sequencing, we produced the complete genome sequences of both the primary endosymbiont "Candidatus Carsonella ruddii" and an as yet uncharacterized Enterobacteriaceae bacterium from four species of the genus Cacopsylla. The latter represents a new psyllid-associated endosymbiont clade for which we propose the name "Candidatus Psyllophila symbiotica." Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed the co-localization of both endosymbionts in the bacteriome. The metabolic repertoire of Psyllophila is highly conserved across host species and complements the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway that is incomplete in the co-occurring Carsonella. Unlike co-primary endosymbionts in other insects, the genome of Psyllophila is almost as small as the one of Carsonella, indicating an ancient co-obligate endosymbiosis rather than a recent association to rescue a degrading primary endosymbiont. IMPORTANCE Heritable beneficial bacterial endosymbionts have been crucial for the evolutionary success of numerous insects by enabling the exploitation of nutritionally limited food sources. Herein, we describe a previously unknown dual endosymbiosis in the psyllid genus Cacopsylla, consisting of the primary endosymbiont "Candidatus Carsonella ruddii" and a co-occurring Enterobacteriaceae bacterium for which we propose the name "Candidatus Psyllophila symbiotica." Its localization within the bacteriome and its small genome size confirm that Psyllophila is a co-primary endosymbiont widespread within the genus Cacopsylla. Despite its highly eroded genome, Psyllophila perfectly complements the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway that is incomplete in the co-occurring Carsonella. Moreover, the genome of Psyllophila is almost as small as Carsonella's, suggesting an ancient dual endosymbiosis that has now reached a precarious stage where any additional gene loss would make the system collapse. Hence, our results shed light on the dynamic interactions of psyllids and their endosymbionts over evolutionary time.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dayer R, De Marco G, Vazquez O, et al (2023)

Laboratory diagnostics for primary spinal infections in pediatric and adult populations: a narrative review.

North American Spine Society journal, 16:100270.

Primary spinal infection (PSI) is a generic term covering a heterogeneous group of infections that can affect the vertebral body, intervertebral disks, the content of the medullary cavity, and adjacent paraspinal tissues. Patients' characteristics can vary significantly, notably according to their age, and some of these characteristics undoubtedly play a primordial role in the occurrence of a PSI and in the type of offending pathogen. Before approaching the subject of laboratory diagnostics, it is essential to define the characteristics of the patient and their infection, which can then guide the physician toward specific diagnostic approaches. This review critically examined the roles and usefulness of traditional and modern laboratory diagnostics in supporting clinicians' decision-making in cases of pediatric and adult primary spinal infection (PSI). It appears impossible to compare PSIs in children and adults, whether from an epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological, or biological perspective. The recipients are really too different, and the responsible germs are closely correlated to their age. Secondly, the interpretation of traditional laboratory blood tests appears to contribute little guidance for clinicians attempting to diagnose a PSI. Biopsy or needle aspiration for bacterial identification remains a controversial subject, as the success rates of these procedures for identifying causative organisms are relatively uncertain in pediatric populations.Using nucleic acid amplification assays (NAAAs) on biopsy samples has been demonstrated to be more sensitive than conventional cultures for diagnosing PSI. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) are particularly interesting for establishing a microbiological diagnosis of a PSI when standard cultures and NAAAs have failed to detect the culprit. We can even imagine that plasma metagenomic NGS using plasma (known as "liquid biopsy") is a diagnostic approach that can detect not only pathogens circulating in the bloodstream but also those causing focal infections, and thus eliminate the need for source sample collection using costly invasive surgical procedures.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Cao L, Sun Y, F Chen (2023)

Pulmonary nocardiosis following COVID-19 in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung transplantation: a case report.

Frontiers in medicine, 10:1266857.

BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary nocardiosis is the most prevalent form, but can also spread to other organs. Potential causes contributing to opportunistic infection may include immunosuppression and disruption of tight junctions, both of which can result from COVID-19.

CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a case of a 68-year-old male patient who presented with a 10-day history of fever, cough, and productive sputum. Upon physical examination, velcro rales were detected in the right lung, while breath sounds in the left lung were clear. The patient had previously undergone left lung transplantation due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis four years ago. He was initially hospitalized and treated for COVID-19 but was readmitted due to worsening symptoms. Subsequently, pulmonary nocardiosis was diagnosed utilizing metagenomic next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The above-mentioned condition was improved following treatment with cancidas and linezolid. Now, he is under regular follow-up.

CONCLUSION: This case highlights the complexity of COVID-19 and the occurrence of secondary opportunistic infections, which require further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lee CK, Ng SY, Chai CN, et al (2023)

Successful Confirmation of Dual Genital Herpes Co-Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Using Unbiased Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091957.

Dual co-infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 is rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this case report, we describe the successful use of unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) as a rapid and alternative method for confirming dual genital herpes co-infection. Our case involves a 74-year-old woman who presented with genital lesions and initially tested positive for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via the Luminex ARIES HSV 1&2 assay. The entire mNGS process, from nucleic acid extraction to result analysis, was completed in less than 48 h. Using mNGS, we identified mapped reads specific to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 and screened the sequences to rule out mis-genotyping by the Luminex ARIES assay. Notably, the generated sequences can reveal sequence variations within multiple gene regions, demonstrating the potential of mNGS for identifying novel HSV-1 and HSV-2 variants. Our findings suggest that mNGS can serve as a rapid and reliable alternative confirmatory method for dual genital herpes infections, providing valuable information to guide appropriate treatment options for patients. By eliminating the need for prior knowledge of causative agents, mNGS offers an unbiased approach for detecting and characterizing viral co-infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Xiao H, B Meng (2023)

Molecular and Metagenomic Analyses Reveal High Prevalence and Complexity of Viral Infections in French-American Hybrids and North American Grapes.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091949.

French-American hybrids and North American grape species play a significant role in Canada's grape and wine industry. Unfortunately, the occurrence of viruses and viral diseases among these locally important non-vinifera grapes remains understudied. We report here the results from a large-scale survey to assess the prevalence of 14 viruses among 533 composite samples representing 2665 vines from seven French-American hybrid wine grape cultivars, two North American juice grape cultivars (Concord and Niagara), and the table grape cultivar Sovereign coronation. Based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, ten viruses were detected. Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, grapevine Pinot gris virus and grapevine red blotch virus were detected with the highest frequency. As expected, mixed infections were common; 62% of the samples contained two or more viruses. Overall, hybrid wine grapes were infected with more viruses and a higher prevalence of individual viruses than juice and table grapes. To validate these findings and to refine the virome of these non-European grapes, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analyses of five composite samples representing each category of grapevine cultivars was performed. Results from HTS agreed with those from RT-PCR. Importantly, Vidal, a widely grown white-wine grape with international recognition due to its use in the award-winning icewine, is host to 14 viruses, four of which comprise multiple and distinct genetic variants. This comprehensive survey represents the most extensive examination of viruses among French-American hybrids and North American grapes to date.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ternovoi VA, Shvalov AN, Kartashov MY, et al (2023)

The Viromes of Mosquitoes from the Natural Landscapes of Western Siberia.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091896.

The metagenomic analysis of mosquitoes allows for the genetic characterization of mosquito-associated viruses in different regions of the world. This study applied a metagenomic approach to identify novel viral sequences in seven species of mosquitoes collected from the Novosibirsk region of western Siberia. Using NGS sequencing, we identified 15 coding-complete viral polyproteins (genomes) and 15 viral-like partial sequences in mosquitoes. The complete sequences for novel viruses or the partial sequences of capsid proteins, hypothetical viral proteins, and RdRps were used to identify their taxonomy. The novel viral sequences were classified within the orders Tymovirales and Picornavirales and the families Partitiviridae, Totiviridae, Tombusviridae, Iflaviridae, Nodaviridae, Permutotetraviridae, and Solemoviridae, with several attributed to four unclassified RNA viruses. Interestingly, the novel putative viruses and viral sequences were mainly associated with the mosquito Coquillettidia richardii. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the viral diversity in mosquitoes found in the natural habitats of Siberia, which is characterized by very long, snowy, and cold winters.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

de Santana SF, Santos VC, Lopes ÍS, et al (2023)

Mining Public Data to Investigate the Virome of Neglected Pollinators and Other Floral Visitors.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091850.

This study reports the virome investigation of pollinator species and other floral visitors associated with plants from the south of Bahia: Aphis aurantii, Atrichopogon sp., Dasyhelea sp., Forcipomyia taiwana, and Trigona ventralis hoozana. Studying viruses in insects associated with economically important crops is vital to understand transmission dynamics and manage viral diseases that pose as threats for global food security. Using literature mining and public RNA next-generation sequencing data deposited in the NCBI SRA database, we identified potential vectors associated with Malvaceae plant species and characterized the microbial communities resident in these insects. Bacteria and Eukarya dominated the metagenomic analyses of all taxon groups. We also found sequences showing similarity to elements from several viral families, including Bunyavirales, Chuviridae, Iflaviridae, Narnaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Totiviridae, and Xinmoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of at least 16 new viruses distributed among A. aurantii (3), Atrichopogon sp. (4), Dasyhelea sp. (3), and F. taiwana (6). No novel viruses were found for T. ventralis hoozana. For F. taiwana, the available libraries also allowed us to suggest possible vertical transmission, while for A. aurantii we followed the infection profile along the insect development. Our results highlight the importance of studying the virome of insect species associated with crop pollination, as they may play a crucial role in the transmission of viruses to economically important plants, such as those of the genus Theobroma, or they will reduce the pollination process. This information may be valuable in developing strategies to mitigate the spread of viruses and protect the global industry.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mohamed Ali S, Rakotonirina A, Heng K, et al (2023)

Longitudinal Study of Viral Diversity Associated with Mosquito Species Circulating in Cambodia.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091831.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant global health threat and are primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. In Cambodia, there are currently 290 recorded mosquito species, with at least 17 of them considered potential vectors of arboviruses to humans. Effective surveillance of virome profiles in mosquitoes from Cambodia is vital, as it could help prevent and control arbovirus diseases in a country where epidemics occur frequently. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the viral diversity in mosquitoes collected during a one-year longitudinal study conducted in various habitats across Cambodia. For this purpose, we used a metatranscriptomics approach and detected the presence of chikungunya virus in the collected mosquitoes. Additionally, we identified viruses categorized into 26 taxa, including those known to harbor arboviruses such as Flaviviridae and Orthomyxoviridae, along with a group of viruses not yet taxonomically identified and provisionally named "unclassified viruses". Interestingly, the taxa detected varied in abundance and composition depending on the mosquito genus, with no significant influence of the collection season. Furthermore, most of the identified viruses were either closely related to viruses found exclusively in insects or represented new viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae and Birnaviridae families. The transmission capabilities of these novel viruses to vertebrates remain unknown.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Paietta EN, Kraberger S, Custer JM, et al (2023)

Characterization of Diverse Anelloviruses, Cressdnaviruses, and Bacteriophages in the Human Oral DNA Virome from North Carolina (USA).

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091821.

The diversity of viruses identified from the various niches of the human oral cavity-from saliva to dental plaques to the surface of the tongue-has accelerated in the age of metagenomics. This rapid expansion demonstrates that our understanding of oral viral diversity is incomplete, with only a few studies utilizing passive drool collection in conjunction with metagenomic sequencing methods. For this pilot study, we obtained 14 samples from healthy staff members working at the Duke Lemur Center (Durham, NC, USA) to determine the viral diversity that can be identified in passive drool samples from humans. The complete genomes of 3 anelloviruses, 9 cressdnaviruses, 4 Caudoviricetes large bacteriophages, 29 microviruses, and 19 inoviruses were identified in this study using high-throughput sequencing and viral metagenomic workflows. The results presented here expand our understanding of the vertebrate-infecting and microbe-infecting viral diversity of the human oral virome in North Carolina (USA).

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hille F, Gieschler S, Brinks E, et al (2023)

Characterisation of the Novel Filamentous Phage PMBT54 Infecting the Milk Spoilage Bacteria Pseudomonas carnis and Pseudomonas lactis.

Viruses, 15(9): pii:v15091781.

Filamentous bacteriophages are lysogenic and pseudo-lysogenic viruses that do not lyse their host but are often continuously secreted from the infected cell. They belong to the order Tubulavirales, which encompasses three families, with the Inoviridae being the largest. While the number of identified inoviral sequences has greatly increased in recent years due to metagenomic studies, morphological and physiological characterisation is still restricted to only a few members of the filamentous phages. Here, we describe the novel filamentous phage PMBT54, which infects the spoilage-relevant Pseudomonas species P. carnis and P. lactis. Its genome is 7320 bp in size, has a mol% GC content of 48.37, and codes for 13 open-reading frames, two of which are located on the (-) strand. The virion exhibits a typical filamentous morphology and is secreted from the host cell at various lengths. The phage was shown to promote biofilm formation in both host strains and, therefore, has potential implications for milk spoilage, as biofilms are a major concern in the dairy industry.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Vinogradova S, Porotikova E, Navrotskaya E, et al (2023)

The First Virome of a Russian Vineyard.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:plants12183292.

Among other pathogens, more than 80 viruses infect grapevine. The aim of this work was to study the virome diversity of grapevine viruses and mycoviruses of a vineyard using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The grapevine virome was studied in symptomatic vines of the Rkatsiteli cultivar (V. vinifera) collected at the vineyards of the Krasnodar Krai in Russia. Ribosomal-depleted total RNA and isolated small RNAs were used for library preparation and high-throughput sequencing. Six grapevine-infecting viruses and two viroids were validated by RT-PCR and analyzed phylogenetically. We identified the presence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, grapevine Pinot gris virus, grapevine virus T, grapevine rupestris stem-pitting-associated virus, grapevine fleck virus, and grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus, as well as two viroids, grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 and hop stunt viroid. We also studied the mycovirome of the vineyard and identified nine viruses with single-stranded positive-sense RNA genomes: alternaria arborescens mitovirus 1, botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1, botrytis cinerea mitovirus 2, botrytis cinerea mitovirus 3, botrytis cinerea mitovirus 4, sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitovirus 3, botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1, grapevine-associated narnavirus 1, and botrytis virus F. In addition, we identified botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 satellite-like RNA and two single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. This is the first study of grapevine mycoviruses in Russia. The obtained result will contribute to the development of biocontrol strategies in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

da Silva AS, de Campos GM, Villanova MG, et al (2023)

Human Pegivirus-1 Detection and Genotyping in Brazilian Patients with Fulminant Hepatitis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091122.

Fulminant hepatitis is a severe clinical disease characterized by a marked decline in liver function and encephalopathy. In a previous survey, using metagenomics in a group of 27 patients with this clinical condition, we observed an expressive quantity of reads of the Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency, molecular features, and HPgV-1 circulating genotypes in patients with fulminant hepatitis. After testing the collected plasma samples, we discovered twelve samples (44.4%) that were positive for HPgV-1 RNA (using both real-time and nested PCR). The positive samples presented a mean cycle threshold (Ct) of 28.5 (±7.3). Genotyping assignments revealed that all HPgV-1 positive samples belonged to the HPgV-1 genotype 2 (both subgenotypes 2A and 2B were identified). Although HPgV-1 is considered a commensal virus, little is known regarding its prevalence and genotypes in cases of fulminant hepatitis. More research is needed to understand whether HPgV-1 can be implicated in clinical disorders and infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Bastos-Moreira Y, Ouédraogo L, De Boevre M, et al (2023)

A Multi-Omics and Human Biomonitoring Approach to Assessing the Effectiveness of Fortified Balanced Energy-Protein Supplementation on Maternal and Newborn Health in Burkina Faso: A Study Protocol.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15184056.

Fortified balanced energy-protein (BEP) supplementation is a promising intervention for improving maternal health, birth outcomes and infant growth in low- and middle-income countries. This nested biospecimen sub-study aimed to evaluate the physiological effect of multi-micronutrient-fortified BEP supplementation on pregnant and lactating women and their infants. Pregnant women (15-40 years) received either fortified BEP and iron-folic acid (IFA) (intervention) or IFA only (control) throughout pregnancy. The same women were concurrently randomized to receive either a fortified BEP supplement during the first 6 months postpartum in combination with IFA for the first 6 weeks (i.e., intervention) or the postnatal standard of care, which comprised IFA alone for 6 weeks postpartum (i.e., control). Biological specimens were collected at different timepoints. Multi-omics profiles will be characterized to assess the mediating effect of BEP supplementation on the different trial arms and its effect on maternal health, as well as birth and infant growth outcomes. The mediating effect of the exposome in the relationship between BEP supplementation and maternal health, birth outcomes and infant growth were characterized via biomonitoring markers of air pollution, mycotoxins and environmental contaminants. The results will provide holistic insight into the granular physiological effects of prenatal and postnatal BEP supplementation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Williams RAJ, Sánchez-Llatas CJ, Doménech A, et al (2023)

Emerging and Novel Viruses in Passerine Birds.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092355.

There is growing interest in emerging viruses that can cause serious or lethal disease in humans and animals. The proliferation of cloacal virome studies, mainly focused on poultry and other domestic birds, reveals a wide variety of viruses, although their pathogenic significance is currently uncertain. Analysis of viruses detected in wild birds is complex and often biased towards waterfowl because of the obvious interest in avian influenza or other zoonotic viruses. Less is known about the viruses present in the order Passeriformes, which comprises approximately 60% of extant bird species. This review aims to compile the most significant contributions on the DNA/RNA viruses affecting passerines, from traditional and metagenomic studies. It highlights that most passerine species have never been sampled. Especially the RNA viruses from Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Togaviridae are considered emerging because of increased incidence or avian mortality/morbidity, spread to new geographical areas or hosts and their zoonotic risk. Arguably poxvirus, and perhaps other virus groups, could also be considered "emerging viruses". However, many of these viruses have only recently been described in passerines using metagenomics and their role in the ecosystem is unknown. Finally, it is noteworthy that only one third of the viruses affecting passerines have been officially recognized.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Loughrin JH, Parekh RR, Agga GE, et al (2023)

Microbiome Diversity of Anaerobic Digesters Is Enhanced by Microaeration and Low Frequency Sound.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092349.

Biogas is produced by a consortium of bacteria and archaea. We studied how the microbiome of poultry litter digestate was affected by time and treatments that enhanced biogas production. The microbiome was analyzed at six, 23, and 42 weeks of incubation. Starting at week seven, the digesters underwent four treatments: control, microaeration with 6 mL air L[-1] digestate per day, treatment with a 1000 Hz sine wave, or treatment with the sound wave and microaeration. Both microaeration and sound enhanced biogas production relative to the control, while their combination was not as effective as microaeration alone. At week six, over 80% of the microbiome of the four digesters was composed of the three phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, with less than 10% Euryarchaeota and Bacteroidetes. At week 23, the digester microbiomes were more diverse with the phyla Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Verrucomicrobia increasing in proportion and the abundance of Actinobacteria decreasing. At week 42, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla, comprising 27.8%, 21.4%, 17.6%, and 12.3% of the microbiome. Other than the relative proportions of Firmicutes being increased and proportions of Bacteroidetes being decreased by the treatments, no systematic shifts in the microbiomes were observed due to treatment. Rather, microbial diversity was enhanced relative to the control. Given that both air and sound treatment increased biogas production, it is likely that they improved poultry litter breakdown to promote microbial growth.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gomeiz AT, Sun Y, Newborn A, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Analysis of a Continuous-Flow Aerobic Granulation System for Wastewater Treatment.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092328.

Aerobic granulation is an emerging process in wastewater treatment that has the potential to accelerate sedimentation of the microbial biomass during secondary treatment. Aerobic granulation has been difficult to achieve in the continuous flow reactors (CFRs) used in modern wastewater treatment plants. Recent research has demonstrated that the alternation of nutrient-abundant (feast) and nutrient-limiting (famine) conditions is able to promote aerobic granulation in a CFR. In this study, we conducted a metagenomic analysis with the objective of characterizing the bacterial composition of the granular biomass developed in three simulated plug flow reactors (PFRs) with different feast-to-famine ratios. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a clear distinction between the bacterial composition of aerobic granules in the pilot simulated PFRs as compared with conventional activated sludge. Larger and denser granules, showing improved sedimentation properties, were observed in the PFR with the longest famine time and were characterized by a greater proportion of bacteria producing abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Functional metagenomic analysis based on KEGG pathways indicated that the large and dense aerobic granules in the PFR with the longest famine time showed increased functionalities related to secretion systems and quorum sensing, which are characteristics of bacteria in biofilms and aerobic granules. This study contributes to a further understanding of the relationship between aerobic granule morphology and the bacterial composition of the granular biomass.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nagakubo D, Y Kaibori (2023)

Oral Microbiota: The Influences and Interactions of Saliva, IgA, and Dietary Factors in Health and Disease.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092307.

Recent advances in metagenomic analyses have made it easier to analyze microbiota. The microbiota, a symbiotic community of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses within a specific environment in tissues such as the digestive tract and skin, has a complex relationship with the host. Recent studies have revealed that microbiota composition and balance particularly affect the health of the host and the onset of disease. Influences such as diet, food preferences, and sanitation play crucial roles in microbiota composition. The oral cavity is where the digestive tract directly communicates with the outside. Stable temperature and humidity provide optimal growth environments for many bacteria. However, the oral cavity is a unique environment that is susceptible to pH changes, salinity, food nutrients, and external pathogens. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the oral microbiota, as changes in bacterial composition and balance could contribute to the development of systemic diseases. This review focuses on saliva, IgA, and fermented foods because they play critical roles in maintaining the oral bacterial environment by regulating its composition and balance. More attention should be paid to the oral microbiota and its regulatory factors in oral and systemic health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qu H, Long Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Diversity and Abundance of Bacterial and Fungal Communities Inhabiting Camellia sinensis Leaf, Rhizospheric Soil, and Gut of Agriophara rhombata.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092188.

Agriophara rhombata is a tea leaf moth that is considered one of the most destructive pests of Camellia sinensis (tea plant). Several recent studies have shown that many insects acquire part of the microbiome from their host and soil, but the pattern and diversity of their microbiome have not been clearly demonstrated. The present study aimed to investigate the bacterial and fungal communities present in the rhizospheric soil and leaf of tea plant compared to the gut of tea moth at different developmental stages (larvae, pupae, adult female and male) using Illumina MiSeq technology. Alpha diversity (Shannon index) showed higher (p < 0.05) bacterial and fungal diversity in soil samples than in leaf and tea moth larvae, pupae, and adult gut samples. However, during different developmental stages of tea moth, bacterial and fungal diversity did not differ (p > 0.05) between larvae, pupae, female, and male guts. Beta diversity also revealed more distinct bacterial and fungal communities in soil and leaf samples compared with tea moth gut samples, which had a more similar microbiome. Furthermore, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Tenericutes were detected as the dominant bacterial phyla, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota were the most abundant fungal phyla among all groups, but their relative abundance was comparatively higher (p < 0.05) in soil and leaf samples compared to tea moth gut samples. Similarly, Klebsiella, Streptophyta, and Enterococcus were the top three bacterial genera, while Candida, Aureobasidium, and Strelitziana were the top three fungal genera, and their relative abundance varied significantly (p < 0.05) among all groups. The KEGG analysis also revealed significantly higher (p < 0.5) enrichment of the functional pathways of bacterial communities in soil and leaf samples than in tea moth gut samples. Our study concluded that the bacterial and fungal communities of soil and tea leaves were more diverse and were significantly different from the tea moth gut microbiome at different developmental stages. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the gut microbiota of the tea moth and its potential application in the development of pest management techniques.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kimura H, Hayashi Y, Kitagawa M, et al (2023)

Pathogen Profiles in Outpatients with Non-COVID-19 during the 7th Prevalent Period of COVID-19 in Gunma, Japan.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092142.

The identification of pathogens associated with respiratory symptoms other than the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be challenging. However, the diagnosis of pathogens is crucial for assessing the clinical outcome of patients. We comprehensively profiled pathogens causing non-COVID-19 respiratory symptoms during the 7th prevalent period in Gunma, Japan, using deep sequencing combined with a next-generation sequencer (NGS) and advanced bioinformatics technologies. The study included nasopharyngeal swabs from 40 patients who tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using immuno-chromatography and/or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methods. Comprehensive pathogen sequencing was conducted through deep sequencing using NGS. Additionally, short reads obtained from NGS were analyzed for comprehensive pathogen estimation using MePIC (Metagenomic Pathogen Identification Pipeline for Clinical Specimens) and/or VirusTap. The results revealed the presence of various pathogens, including respiratory viruses and bacteria, in the present subjects. Notably, human adenovirus (HAdV) was the most frequently detected virus in 16 of the 40 cases (40.0%), followed by coryneforms, which were the most frequently detected bacteria in 21 of the 40 cases (52.5%). Seasonal human coronaviruses (NL63 type, 229E type, HKU1 type, and OC43 type), human bocaviruses, and human herpesviruses (human herpesvirus types 1-7) were not detected. Moreover, multiple pathogens were detected in 50% of the subjects. These results suggest that various respiratory pathogens may be associated with non-COVID-19 patients during the 7th prevalent period in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Consequently, for an accurate diagnosis of pathogens causing respiratory infections, detailed pathogen analyses may be necessary. Furthermore, it is possible that various pathogens, excluding SARS-CoV-2, may be linked to fever and/or respiratory infections even during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gong X, Li S, Wu Z, et al (2023)

Biochar Enhances Soil Resource Availability and Suppresses Microbial Metabolism Genes in the Rhizosphere of Wheat.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091843.

Despite the well-documented role of biochar in promoting soil quality and crop productivity, the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the effects of straw biochar on soil microbiome in the rhizosphere from wheat using metagenomic sequencing. Our results showed that straw return decreased the yields of wheat, while the straw biochar return increased the wheat yields. Further, both the richness and community composition confirmed different effects of the straw return and straw biochar return. The straw biochar return also resulted in greater rhizosphere effects from wheat, represented by resource availability, including soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The rhizosphere effects from wheat, represented by microbial metabolism genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium cycling, however, were decreased by straw biochar returning. In addition, the rhizosphere effects from nitrogen content and the nitrogen cycling genes showed negative relationships with wheat yields. Together, these results revealed that straw biochar enhanced soil resource availability but suppressed microbial metabolism genes in the rhizosphere from wheat, supporting the idea that straw biochar serves as a nutrient pool for crops.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Baek YJ, Lee YJ, Lee JA, et al (2023)

Role of α-Defensin and the Microbiome in Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(18): pii:jcm12185964.

The utility of α-defensin (AD), leukocyte esterase (LE) levels, and metagenomics sequencing as diagnostic tools for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been suggested, but there are few studies among the Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of various biomarkers for PJI and the role of the microbiome in the synovial fluid of patients with prostheses. Patients with suspected knee PJI were enrolled, and their blood and synovial fluid were collected. The cases were classified into the PJI and non-PJI groups. Significant differences between the two groups were observed in the levels of AD (4698 µg/L vs. 296 µg/L, p < 0.001) and positivity for LE (62.5% vs. 21.1%, p = 0.01). AD had 94.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity for diagnosing PJI, whereas LE had 37.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Microbiome taxonomic profiling showed high sensitivity. The number of operational taxonomic units and the richness of the microbiome in the synovial fluid were higher in the non-PJI than in the PJI group. AD has shown encouraging results in the Asian population as a diagnostic biomarker for PJI, and LE can be used as a diagnostic adjunct. The bacterial richness of the synovial fluid is likely associated with infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kamal S, Parkash N, Beattie W, et al (2023)

Are We Ready to Reclassify Crohn's Disease Using Molecular Classification?.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(18): pii:jcm12185786.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. The number of IBD cases worldwide was estimated to be 4.9 million in 2019. CD exhibits heterogeneity in clinical presentation, anatomical involvement, disease behaviour, clinical course and response to treatment. The classical description of CD involves transmural inflammation with skip lesions anywhere along the entire gastrointestinal tract. The complexity and heterogeneity of Crohn's disease is not currently reflected in the conventional classification system. Though the knowledge of Crohn's pathophysiology remains far from understood, the established complex interplay of the omics-genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metagenomics, metabolomics, lipidomics and immunophenomics-provides numerous targets for potential molecular markers of disease. Advancing technology has enabled identification of small molecules within these omics, which can be extrapolated to differentiate types of Crohn's disease. The multi-omic future of Crohn's disease is promising, with potential for advancements in understanding of its pathogenesis and implementation of personalised medicine.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zabolotneva AA, Gaponov AM, Roumiantsev SA, et al (2023)

Alkylresorcinols as New Modulators of the Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814206.

Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are polyphenolic compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities and are potentially involved in the regulation of host metabolism. The present study aims to establish whether ARs can be produced by the human gut microbiota and to evaluate alterations in content in stool samples as well as metabolic activity of the gut microbiota of C57BL, db/db, and LDLR (-/-) mice according to diet specifications and olivetol (5-n-pentylresorcinol) supplementation to estimate the regulatory potential of ARs. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was used to quantitatively analyse AR levels in mouse stool samples; faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from human donors to germ-free mice was performed to determine whether the intestinal microbiota could produce AR molecules; metagenome sequencing analysis of the mouse gut microbiota followed by reconstruction of its metabolic activity was performed to investigate olivetol's regulatory potential. A significant increase in the amounts of individual members of AR homologues in stool samples was revealed 14 days after FMT. Supplementation of 5-n-Pentylresorcinol to a regular diet influences the amounts of several ARs in the stool of C57BL/6 and LDLR (-/-) but not db/db mice, and caused a significant change in the predicted metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota of C57BL/6 and LDLR (-/-) but not db/db mice. For the first time, we have shown that several ARs can be produced by the intestinal microbiota. Taking into account the dependence of AR levels in the gut on olivetol supplementation and microbiota metabolic activity, AR can be assumed to be potential quorum-sensing molecules, which also influence gut microbiota composition and host metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ravin NV, Muntyan MS, Smolyakov DD, et al (2023)

Metagenomics Revealed a New Genus 'Candidatus Thiocaldithrix dubininis' gen. nov., sp. nov. and a New Species 'Candidatus Thiothrix putei' sp. nov. in the Family Thiotrichaceae, Some Members of Which Have Traits of Both Na[+]- and H[+]-Motive Energetics.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814199.

Two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), GKL-01 and GKL-02, related to the family Thiotrichaceae have been assembled from the metagenome of bacterial mat obtained from a sulfide-rich thermal spring in the North Caucasus. Based on average amino acid identity (AAI) values and genome-based phylogeny, MAG GKL-01 represented a new genus within the Thiotrichaceae family. The GC content of the GKL-01 DNA (44%) differed significantly from that of other known members of the genus Thiothrix (50.1-55.6%). We proposed to assign GKL-01 to a new species and genus 'Candidatus Thiocaldithrix dubininis' gen. nov., sp. nov. GKL-01. The phylogenetic analysis and estimated distances between MAG GKL-02 and the genomes of the previously described species of the genus Thiothrix allowed assigning GKL-02 to a new species with the proposed name 'Candidatus Thiothrix putei' sp. nov. GKL-02 within the genus Thiothrix. Genome data first revealed the presence of both Na[+]-ATPases and H[+]-ATPases in several Thiothrix species. According to genomic analysis, bacteria GKL-01 and GKL-02 are metabolically versatile facultative aerobes capable of growing either chemolithoautotrophically or chemolithoheterotrophically in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and/or thiosulfate or chemoorganoheterotrophically.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Schlegel I, De Goüyon Matignon de Pontourade CMF, Lincke JB, et al (2023)

The Human Ocular Surface Microbiome and Its Associations with the Tear Proteome in Dry Eye Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814091.

Although dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ocular surface diseases worldwide, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood, and treatment options are limited. There is growing evidence that complex interactions between the ocular surface microbiome (OSM) and tear fluid constituents, potentially leading to inflammatory processes, are associated with ocular surface diseases such as DED. In this study, we aimed to find unique compositional and functional features of the OSM associated with human and microbial tear proteins in patients with DED. Applying whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of forty lid and conjunctival swabs, we identified 229 taxa, with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria being the most abundant phyla and Propionibacterium acnes the dominating species in the cohort. When DED patients were compared to controls, the species Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum was more abundant in conjunctival samples, whereas the family Propionibacteriaceae was more abundant in lid samples. Functional analysis showed that genes of L-lysine biosynthesis, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis, and the super pathway of L-threonine biosynthesis were enriched in conjunctival samples of controls. The relative abundances of Acinetobacter johnsonii correlated with seven human tear proteins, including mucin-16. The three most abundant microbial tear proteins were the chaperone protein DnaK, the arsenical resistance protein ArsH, and helicase. Compositional and functional features of the OSM and the tear proteome are altered in patients with DED. Ultimately, this may help to design novel interventional therapeutics to target DED.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gryaznova M, Kozarenko O, Smirnova Y, et al (2023)

Cervical and Vaginal Microbiomes in Early Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancy with and without Dydrogesterone Usage.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813836.

Emerging evidence suggests that the reproductive tract microbiota is a key modulator of local inflammatory and immune pathways throughout pregnancy and may subsequently impact pregnancy outcomes. In this study, our objective was to analyze the cervical and vaginal microbiomes during early pregnancy among three groups: women with healthy ongoing pregnancies, women undergoing dydrogesterone treatment, and those who experienced miscarriages. The experiment involved 51 women at 8-11 weeks of gestation. The microbiome was examined using 16S rRNA sequencing on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. Across all groups, Lactobacillus iners was predominant, suggesting that the vaginal community type CST III is common among the majority of participants. Notably, our data highlighted the significant roles of Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma girerdii in the pathogenesis of early miscarriage. Conversely, L. iners and Bifidobacterium longum have a protective effect in early pregnancy. Moreover, dydrogesterone intake appeared to influence notable differences between the cervical and vaginal microbiomes. Overall, our study enhanced our understanding of the cervical and vaginal microbiome composition in the eastern European population during early pregnancy.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Aida N, Saito A, T Azuma (2023)

Current Status of Next-Generation Sequencing in Bone Genetic Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813802.

The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has dramatically increased the speed and volume of genetic analysis. Furthermore, the range of applications of NGS is rapidly expanding to include genome, epigenome (such as DNA methylation), metagenome, and transcriptome analyses (such as RNA sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing). NGS enables genetic research by offering various sequencing methods as well as combinations of methods. Bone tissue is the most important unit supporting the body and is a reservoir of calcium and phosphate ions, which are important for physical activity. Many genetic diseases affect bone tissues, possibly because metabolic mechanisms in bone tissue are complex. For instance, the presence of specialized immune cells called osteoclasts in the bone tissue, which absorb bone tissue and interact with osteoblasts in complex ways to support normal vital functions. Moreover, the many cell types in bones exhibit cell-specific proteins for their respective activities. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause a variety of genetic disorders. The relationship between age-related bone tissue fragility (also called frailty) and genetic factors has recently attracted attention. Herein, we discuss the use of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and metagenomic analyses in bone genetic disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Aitmanaitė L, Širmonaitis K, G Russo (2023)

Microbiomes, Their Function, and Cancer: How Metatranscriptomics Can Close the Knowledge Gap.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813786.

The interaction between the microbial communities in the human body and the onset and progression of cancer has not been investigated until recently. The vast majority of the metagenomics research in this area has concentrated on the composition of microbiomes, attempting to link the overabundance or depletion of certain microorganisms to cancer proliferation, metastatic behaviour, and its resistance to therapies. However, studies elucidating the functional implications of the microbiome activity in cancer patients are still scarce; in particular, there is an overwhelming lack of studies assessing such implications directly, through analysis of the transcriptome of the bacterial community. This review summarises the contributions of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to the knowledge of the microbial environment associated with several cancers; most importantly, it highlights all the advantages that metatranscriptomics has over metagenomics and suggests how such an approach can be leveraged to advance the knowledge of the cancer bacterial environment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fernandez-Lopez L, Roda S, Robles-Martín A, et al (2023)

Enhancing the Hydrolytic Activity of a Lipase towards Larger Triglycerides through Lid Domain Engineering.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813768.

Lipases have valuable potential for industrial use, particularly those mostly active against water-insoluble substrates, such as triglycerides composed of long-carbon chain fatty acids. However, in most cases, engineered variants often need to be constructed to achieve optimal performance for such substrates. Protein engineering techniques have been reported as strategies for improving lipase characteristics by introducing specific mutations in the cap domain of esterases or in the lid domain of lipases or through lid domain swapping. Here, we improved the lipase activity of a lipase (WP_075743487.1, or LipMRD) retrieved from the Marine Metagenomics MarRef Database and assigned to the Actinoalloteichus genus. The improvement was achieved through site-directed mutagenesis and by substituting its lid domain (FRGTEITQIKDWLTDA) with that of Rhizopus delemar lipase (previously R. oryzae; UniProt accession number, I1BGQ3) (FRGTNSFRSAITDIVF). The results demonstrated that the redesigned mutants gain activity against bulkier triglycerides, such as glyceryl tridecanoate and tridodecanoate, olive oil, coconut oil, and palm oil. Residue W89 (LipMRD numbering) appears to be key to the increase in lipase activity, an increase that was also achieved with lid swapping. This study reinforces the importance of the lid domains and their amino acid compositions in determining the substrate specificity of lipases, but the generalization of the lid domain swapping between lipases or the introduction of specific mutations in the lid domain to improve lipase activity may require further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yasir M, Alkhaldy AA, Soliman SA, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Insights into the Microbiome and Resistance Genes of Traditional Fermented Foods in Arabia.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183342.

This study uncovered microbial communities and evaluated the microbiological safety of traditional fermented foods consumed in the Arab region. Samples of dairy and non-dairy fermented foods-mish, jibneh, zabadi, and pickles-were collected from local markets in Saudi Arabia. Using the MiSeq system, samples were sequenced using 16S amplicons and shotgun metagenomics. Alpha and beta diversity indicated inter- and intra-variation in the studied fermented foods' bacterial communities. In the case of mish, the replicates were clustered. Twenty-one genera were found to be significantly different (FDR < 0.05) in abundance in pairwise comparison of fermented foods. Five high-quality, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Streptococcus thermophiles, and Lactobacillus acetotolerans were retrieved from the shotgun sequencing representing the dominant taxa in the studied fermented foods. Additionally, 33 genes that cause antimicrobial resistance (ARGs) against ten different antibiotic classes were detected. Metabolic pathways were abundant in the studied metagenomes, such as amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cofactors, and vitamin biosynthesis. Metagenomic evaluation of Arabian fermented foods, including the identification of probiotics, pathogenic bacteria, and ARGs, illustrates the importance of microbiological analysis in evaluating their health effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Park SY, Lee SP, Kim D, et al (2023)

Gut Dysbiosis: A New Avenue for Stroke Prevention and Therapeutics.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092352.

A stroke is a serious life-threatening condition and a leading cause of death and disability that happens when the blood vessels to part of the brain are blocked or burst. While major advances in the understanding of the ischemic cascade in stroke was made over several decades, limited therapeutic options and high mortality and disability have caused researchers to extend the focus toward peripheral changes beyond brain. The largest proportion of microbes in human body reside in the gut and the interaction between host and microbiota in health and disease is well known. Our study aimed to explore the gut microbiota in patients with stroke with comparison to control group. Fecal samples were obtained from 51 subjects: 25 stroke patients (18 hemorrhagic, 7 ischemic) and 26 healthy control subjects. The variable region V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. PICRUSt2 was used for prediction of metagenomics functions. Our results show taxonomic dysbiosis in stroke patients in parallel with functional dysbiosis. Here, we show that stroke patients have (1) increased Parabacteroides and Escherichia_Shigella, but decreased Prevotella and Fecalibacterium; (2) higher transposase and peptide/nickel transport system substrate-binding protein, but lower RNA polymerase sigma-70 factor and methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, which are suggestive of malnutrition. Nutrients are essential regulators of both host and microbial physiology and function as key coordinators of host-microbe interactions. Manipulation of nutrition is expected to alleviate gut dysbiosis and prognosis and improve disability and mortality in the management of stroke.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Witkowska AM, JE Salem (2023)

Pharmacological and Nutritional Modulation of Metabolome and Metagenome in Cardiometabolic Disorders.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091340.

Cardiometabolic disorders are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A growing body of research indicates that the gut microbiota, whether it interacts favorably or not, plays an important role in host metabolism. Elucidating metabolic pathways may be crucial in preventing and treating cardiometabolic diseases, and omics methods are key to studying the interaction between the fecal microbiota and host metabolism. This review summarizes available studies that combine metabolomic and metagenomic approaches to describe the effects of drugs, diet, nutrients, and specific foods on cardiometabolic health and to identify potential targets for future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ford T, McAdams ZL, Townsend KS, et al (2023)

Effect of Sugar Beet Pulp on the Composition and Predicted Function of Equine Fecal Microbiota.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091254.

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the partial replacement of dietary hay with sugar beet pulp (SBP) on the composition and predicted function of the fecal microbiota of healthy adult horses. Fecal samples were collected daily for 12 days from six adult horses after removal from pasture, including a five-day acclimation period, and a seven-day period following the introduction of SBP into their diet, and compared to six untreated horses over a comparable period. Fecal DNA was subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and a longitudinal analysis was performed comparing the composition and predicted function. While no significant treatment-associated changes in the richness, alpha diversity, or beta diversity were detected, random forest regression identified several high-importance taxonomic features associated with change over time in horses receiving SBP. A similar analysis of the predicted functional pathways identified several high-importance pathways, including those involved in the production of L-methionine and butyrate. These data suggest that feeding SBP to healthy adult horses acutely increases the relative abundance of several Gram-positive taxa, including Cellulosilyticum sp., Moryella sp., and Weissella sp., and mitigates the predicted functional changes associated with removal from pasture. Large-scale studies are needed to assess the protective effect of SBP on the incidence of the gastrointestinal conditions of horses.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lin WH, TS Tsai (2023)

Comparisons of the Oral Microbiota from Seven Species of Wild Venomous Snakes in Taiwan Using the High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing of the Full-Length 16S rRNA Gene.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091206.

A venomous snake's oral cavity may harbor pathogenic microorganisms that cause secondary infection at the wound site after being bitten. We collected oral samples from 37 individuals belonging to seven species of wild venomous snakes in Taiwan, including Naja atra (Na), Bungarus multicinctus (Bm), Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Pm), Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Ts), Daboia siamensis (Ds), Deinagkistrodon acutus (Da), and alpine Trimeresurus gracilis (Tg). Bacterial species were identified using full-length 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis, and this is the first study using this technique to investigate the oral microbiota of multiple Taiwanese snake species. Up to 1064 bacterial species were identified from the snake's oral cavities, with 24 pathogenic and 24 non-pathogenic species among the most abundant ones. The most abundant oral bacterial species detected in our study were different from those found in previous studies, which varied by snake species, collection sites, sampling tissues, culture dependence, and analysis methods. Multivariate analysis revealed that the oral bacterial species compositions in Na, Bm, and Pm each were significantly different from the other species, whereas those among Ts, Ds, Da, and Tg showed fewer differences. Herein, we reveal the microbial diversity in multiple species of wild snakes and provide potential therapeutic implications regarding empiric antibiotic selection for wildlife medicine and snakebite management.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Li C, Lv C, Yu M, et al (2023)

A case report of a brain abscess due to prevotella oris and a review of the literature.

BMC infectious diseases, 23(1):633.

BACKGROUND: Brain abscesses caused by Prevotella oris are rarely reported. Here, we described a case of a brain infection caused by Prevotella oris that was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).

CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old man with no medical history reported headache in the right frontotemporal region, fever, and intermittent diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal signals and enhancement changes in the superior sellar region. mNGS testing showed that cerebrospinal fluid collected from the spine was positive for Prevotella oris. After receiving a combined treatment of antibiotic therapy, the patient recovered well.

CONCLUSION: We reviewed the relevant literature and summarized the characteristics and prognosis of this type of bacterial infection to provide ideas for clinicians to diagnose and treat this disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Blaustein RA, Shen Z, Kashaf SS, et al (2023)

Expanded microbiome niches of RAG-deficient patients.

Cell reports. Medicine pii:S2666-3791(23)00372-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The complex interplay between microbiota and immunity is important to human health. To explore how altered adaptive immunity influences the microbiome, we characterize skin, nares, and gut microbiota of patients with recombination-activating gene (RAG) deficiency-a rare genetically defined inborn error of immunity (IEI) that results in a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Integrating de novo assembly of metagenomes from RAG-deficient patients with reference genome catalogs provides an expansive multi-kingdom view of microbial diversity. RAG-deficient patient microbiomes exhibit inter-individual variation, including expansion of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Corynebacterium bovis, Haemophilus influenzae), and a relative loss of body site specificity. We identify 35 and 27 bacterial species derived from skin/nares and gut microbiomes, respectively, which are distinct to RAG-deficient patients compared to healthy individuals. Underscoring IEI patients as potential reservoirs for viral persistence and evolution, we further characterize the colonization of eukaryotic RNA viruses (e.g., Coronavirus 229E, Norovirus GII) in this patient population.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wang Z, Tang K, Struik PC, et al (2023)

Alteration of microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism within the soil metagenome with grazing intensity at semiarid steppe.

Journal of environmental management, 347:119078 pii:S0301-4797(23)01866-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Grazing causes changes in microbiome metabolic pathways affecting plant growth and soil physicochemical properties. However, how grazing intensity affects microbial processes is poorly understood. In semiarid steppe grassland in northern China, shotgun metagenome sequencing was used to investigate variations in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling-related genes after six years of the following grazing intensities: G0, control, no grazing; G1, 170 sheep days ha[-1] year[-1]; G2, 340 sheep days ha[-1] year[-1]; and G3, 510 sheep days ha[-1] year[-1]. Taxa and functions of the soil microbiome associated with the C cycle decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Abundances of genes involved in C fixation and organic matter decomposition were altered in grazed sites, which could effects on vegetation decomposition and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. Compared with the control, the abundances of nitrification genes were higher in G1, but the abundances of N reduction and denitrification genes were lower, suggesting that light grazing promoted nitrification, inhibited denitrification, and increased soil NO3[-] content. Q-PCR further revealed that the copies of genes responsible for carbon fixation (cbbL) and denitrification (norB) decreased with increasing grazing intensity. The highest copy numbers of the nitrification genes AOA and AOB were in G1, whereas copy numbers of the denitrification gene nirK were the lowest. A multivariate regression tree indicated that changes in C fixation genes were linked to changes in soil DOC content, whereas soil NO3[-] content was linked with nitrification and denitrification under grazing. Thus, genes associated with C fixation and the N cycle affected how C fixation and N storage influenced soil physicochemical properties under grazing. The findings indicate that grazing intensity affected C and N metabolism. Proper grassland management regimes (e.g., G1) are beneficial to the balances between ecological protection of grasslands and plant production in the semiarid steppe.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Tse LV, Hou YJ, McFadden E, et al (2023)

A MERS-CoV antibody neutralizes a pre-emerging group 2c bat coronavirus.

Science translational medicine, 15(715):eadg5567.

The repeated emergence of zoonotic human betacoronaviruses (β-CoVs) dictates the need for broad therapeutics and conserved epitope targets for countermeasure design. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) remain a pressing concern for global health preparedness. Using metagenomic sequence data and CoV reverse genetics, we recovered a full-length wild-type MERS-like BtCoV/li/GD/2014-422 (BtCoV-422) recombinant virus, as well as two reporter viruses, and evaluated their human emergence potential and susceptibility to currently available countermeasures. Similar to MERS-CoV, BtCoV-422 efficiently used human and other mammalian dipeptidyl peptidase protein 4 (DPP4) proteins as entry receptors and an alternative DPP4-independent infection route in the presence of exogenous proteases. BtCoV-422 also replicated efficiently in primary human airway, lung endothelial, and fibroblast cells, although less efficiently than MERS-CoV. However, BtCoV-422 shows minor signs of infection in 288/330 human DPP4 transgenic mice. Several broad CoV antivirals, including nucleoside analogs and 3C-like/M[pro] protease inhibitors, demonstrated potent inhibition against BtCoV-422 in vitro. Serum from mice that received a MERS-CoV mRNA vaccine showed reduced neutralizing activity against BtCoV-422. Although most MERS-CoV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) had limited activity, one anti-MERS receptor binding domain mAb, JC57-11, neutralized BtCoV-422 potently. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of JC57-11 in complex with BtCoV-422 spike protein revealed the mechanism of cross-neutralization involving occlusion of the DPP4 binding site, highlighting its potential as a broadly neutralizing mAb for group 2c CoVs that use DPP4 as a receptor. These studies provide critical insights into MERS-like CoVs and provide candidates for countermeasure development.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Kilburn-Kappeler LR, Doerksen T, Lu A, et al (2023)

Comparison of the Effect of Corn-fermented Protein and Traditional Ingredients on the Fecal Microbiota of Dogs.

Veterinary sciences, 10(9): pii:vetsci10090553.

Corn-fermented protein (CFP), a co-product from the ethanol industry, is produced using post-fermentation technology to split the protein and yeast from fiber prior to drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CFP compared to traditional ingredients on the fecal microbiota of dogs. The four experimental diets included a control with no yeast and diets containing either 3.5% brewer's dried yeast, 2.5% brewer's dried yeast plus 17.5% distiller's dried grains with solubles, or 17.5% CFP. The experimental diets were fed to adult dogs (n = 12) in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Fresh fecal samples (n = 48) were analyzed by 16S metagenomic sequencing. Raw sequences were processed through mothur. Community diversity was evaluated in R. Relative abundance data were analyzed within the 50 most abundant operational taxonomic units using a mixed model of SAS. Alpha and beta diversity were similar for all treatments. Predominant phyla among all samples were Firmicutes (73%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Fusobacteria (8%), and Actinobacteria (4%). There were no quantifiable (p > 0.05) shifts in the predominant phyla among the treatments. However, nine genera resulted in differences in relative abundance among the treatments. These data indicate that compared to traditional ingredients, CFP did not alter the overall diversity of the fecal microbiota of healthy adult dogs over 14 days.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Peters MK, Astafyeva Y, Han Y, et al (2023)

Novel marine metalloprotease-new approaches for inhibition of biofilm formation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Many marine organisms produce bioactive molecules with unique characteristics to survive in their ecological niches. These enzymes can be applied in biotechnological processes and in the medical sector to replace aggressive chemicals that are harmful to the environment. Especially in the human health sector, there is a need for new approaches to fight against pathogens like Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which forms thick biofilms on artificial joints or catheters and causes serious diseases. Our approach was to use enrichment cultures of five marine resources that underwent sequence-based screenings in combination with deep omics analyses in order to identify enzymes with antibiofilm characteristics. Especially the supernatant of the enrichment culture of a stony coral caused a 40% reduction of S. maltophilia biofilm formation. In the presence of the supernatant, our transcriptome dataset showed a clear stress response (upregulation of transcripts for metal resistance, antitoxins, transporter, and iron acquisition) to the treatment. Further investigation of the enrichment culture metagenome and proteome indicated a series of potential antimicrobial enzymes. We found an impressive group of metalloproteases in the proteome of the supernatant that is responsible for the detected anti-biofilm effect against S. maltophilia. KEY POINTS: • Omics-based discovery of novel marine-derived antimicrobials for human health management by inhibition of S. maltophilia • Up to 40% reduction of S. maltophilia biofilm formation by the use of marine-derived samples • Metalloprotease candidates prevent biofilm formation of S. maltophilia K279a by up to 20.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-24

Zürcher K, Abela IA, Stange M, et al (2023)

Alpha Variant Coronavirus Outbreak in a Nursing Home Despite High Vaccination Coverage: Molecular, Epidemiological, and Immunological Studies.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(4):537-546.

BACKGROUND: Vaccination may control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including in nursing homes where many high-risk people live. We conducted extensive outbreak investigations.

METHODS: We studied an outbreak at a nursing home in Switzerland, where the uptake of messenger RNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was 82% among residents as of 21 January 2021. After diagnosis of COVID-19 in a vaccinated symptomatic healthcare worker (HCW) on 22 February, we performed outbreak investigations in house A (47 residents; 37 HCWs), using SARS-CoV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction testing of nasopharyngeal swab samples. We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 and serological analyses.

RESULTS: We identified 17 individuals with positive polymerase chain reaction results, 10 residents (5 vaccinated) and 7 HCWs (3 vaccinated). The median age (interquartile range) was 86 (70-90) years among residents and 49 (29-59) years among HCWs. Of the 5 vaccinated residents, 3 had mild disease and 2 had no symptoms, whereas all 5 unvaccinated residents had mild to severe disease, and 2 died. Vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of infection among residents was 73.0% (95% confidence interval, 24.7%-90.1%). The 12 available genomes were all alpha variants. Neutralizing titers were significantly higher in vaccinated individuals on reexposure (>1 week after diagnosis) than in vaccinated, unexposed HCWs (P = .01). Transmission networks indicated 4 likely or possible transmissions from vaccinated to other individuals and 12 transmission events from unvaccinated individuals.

CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 outbreaks can occur in nursing homes, including transmission from vaccinated persons to others. Outbreaks might occur silently, underlining the need for continued testing and basic infection control measures in these high-risk settings.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wu CY, Huang CK, Hong WS, et al (2023)

Influence of Symbiotic Fermentation Broth on Regulating Metabolism with Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles Is Estimated Using a Third-Generation Sequencing Platform.

Metabolites, 13(9): pii:metabo13090999.

Overnutrition with a high-fat or high-sugar diet is widely considered to be the risk factor for various metabolic, chronic, or malignant diseases that are accompanied by alterations in gut microbiota, metabolites, and downstream pathways. In this study, we investigated supplementation with soybean fermentation broth containing saponin (SFBS, also called SAPOZYME) in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-fructose diet or normal chaw. In addition to the lessening of weight gain, the influence of SFBS on reducing hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with a high-fat-fructose diet was estimated using the results of related biological tests. The results of gut microbial profiling indicated that the high-fat-fructose diet mediated increases in opportunistic pathogens. In contrast, SFBS supplementation reprogrammed the high-fat-fructose diet-related microbial community with a relatively high abundance of potential probiotics, including Akkermansia and Lactobacillus genera. The metagenomic functions of differential microbial composition in a mouse model and enrolled participants were assessed using the PICRUSt2 algorithm coupled with the MetaCyc and the KEGG Orthology databases. SFBS supplementation exerted a similar influence on an increase in the level of 4-aminobutanoate (also called GABA) through the L-glutamate degradation pathway in the mouse model and the enrolled healthy population. These results suggest the beneficial influence of SFBS supplementation on metabolic disorders associated with a high-fat-fructose diet, and SFBS may function as a nutritional supplement for people with diverse requirements.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Mihai RA, Melo Heras EJ, Landazuri Abarca PA, et al (2023)

The Fungal, Nutritional, and Metabolomic Diagnostics of the Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Affected by Bud Rot Disease in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:jof9090952.

The oil palm Elaeis guineensis represents one of the most important crops in Ecuador. Considering that bud rot disease is deadly in Ecuador, more attention has been given to identifying possible causes for palm debility from this disease. We studied the involvement of fungi and nutrients in triggering bud rot disease in E. guineensis. Special emphasis was given to the molecules synthesized by the plant to protect against this devastating disease. Techniques like Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) and metagenomic analysis were used to understand the possible implications of biotic and abiotic factors in the development of bud rot disease in oil palm in Ecuador. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was used to identify the phenolic protection barrier of the palm facing the disease. Our results indicate that fungi from Ascomyceta phylum were found in the tested samples. The species directly involved are different in soil compared with plants. The results indicate a deficiency of chemical elements, such as Ca, Mn, Mg, and Fe, which are responsible for palm debility from bud rot disease. More than 30 compounds with protective roles were identified in the leaves of symptomatic plants from the first stage of the infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Pagani DM, Ventura SPR, Vu D, et al (2023)

Unveiling Fungal Community Structure along Different Levels of Anthropic Disturbance in a South American Subtropical Lagoon.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:jof9090890.

Studies of fungal communities through amplicon metagenomics in aquatic environments, particularly in freshwater ecosystems, are still relatively recent. Unfortunately, many of these water bodies are facing growing threats from human expansion, such as effluent discharge from various human activities. As a result, these effluents have the potential to significantly alter the characteristics of water bodies and, subsequently, impact the diversity of their resident microorganisms. In this context, our objective was to investigate whether the fungal community structure varies according to the presence of different anthropic disturbances. We expect (i) the diversity of fungi will be greater and (ii) more specific unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to each ecotonal system will be found compared to other sites of a lagoon. The study was conducted in the Tramandaí Lagoon (subtropical southern Brazil) at four distinct sampling points (estuary, middle of the lagoon, crop field area, and near a residential area where the Tramandaí River flows into the lagoon). As expected, the estuary and residential zones, which are ecotones, exhibited greater fungal diversity and more specific OTUs compared to the middle of the lagoon and crop field area. Moreover, a substantial proportion of fungal taxa could not be identified at the genus level, with many only classified at the phylum level, indicating potential new lineages. These findings underscore our limited understanding of the subtropical freshwater mycobiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Chen S, Zhou A, Y Xu (2023)

Symbiotic Bacteria Regulating Insect-Insect/Fungus/Virus Mutualism.

Insects, 14(9): pii:insects14090741.

Bacteria associated with insects potentially provide many beneficial services and have been well documented. Mutualism that relates to insects is widespread in ecosystems. However, the interrelation between "symbiotic bacteria" and "mutualism" has rarely been studied. We introduce three systems of mutualism that relate to insects (ants and honeydew-producing Hemiptera, fungus-growing insects and fungi, and plant persistent viruses and vector insects) and review the species of symbiotic bacteria in host insects, as well as their functions in host insects and the mechanisms underlying mutualism regulation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and role of symbiotic bacteria, based on metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiology, will be required for describing the entire interaction network.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhang Y, Kitazumi A, Liao YT, et al (2023)

Metagenomic investigation reveals bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities of an organic agricultural ecosystem.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Agricultural microbiomes are major reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), posing continuous risks to human health. To understand the role of bacteriophages as vehicles for the horizontal transfer of ARGs in the agricultural microbiome, we investigated the diversity of bacterial and viral microbiota from fecal and environmental samples on an organic farm. The profiles of the microbiome indicated the highest abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla in animal feces, with varying Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes abundance across farm animals. The most predominant composition in environmental samples was the phylum Proteobacteria. Compared to the microbiome profiles, the trends in virome indicated much broader diversity with more specific signatures between the fecal and environmental samples. Overall, viruses belonging to the order Caudovirales were the most prevalent across the agricultural samples. Additionally, the similarities within and between fecal and environmental components of the agricultural environment based on ARG-associated bacteria alone were much lower than those of total microbiome composition. However, there were significant similarities in the profiles of ARG-associated viruses across the fecal and environmental components. Moreover, the predictive models of phage-bacterial interactions on bipartite ARG transfer networks indicated that phages belonging to the order Caudovirales, particularly in the Siphoviridae family, contained diverse ARG types in different samples. Their interaction with various bacterial hosts further implied the important role of bacteriophages in ARG transmission across bacterial populations. Our findings provided a novel insight into the potential mechanisms of phage-mediated ARG transmission and their correlation with resistome evolution in natural agricultural environments. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance has become a serious health concern worldwide. The potential impact of viruses, bacteriophages in particular, on spreading antibiotic resistance genes is still controversial due to the complexity of bacteriophage-bacterial interactions within diverse environments. In this study, we determined the microbiome profiles and the potential antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) transfer between bacterial and viral populations in different agricultural samples using a high-resolution analysis of the metagenomes. The results of this study provide compelling genetic evidence for ARG transfer through bacteriophage-bacteria interactions, revealing the inherent risks associated with bacteriophage-mediated ARG transfer across the agricultural microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhang A, de Ángel Solá D, Acevedo Flores M, et al (2023)

Infants exposed in utero to Hurricane Maria have gut microbiomes with reduced diversity and altered metabolic capacity.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is a potentially important mechanism that links prenatal disaster exposures with increased disease risks. However, whether prenatal disaster exposures are associated with alterations in the infant's gut microbiome remains unknown. We established a birth cohort study named Hurricane as the Origin of Later Alterations in Microbiome (HOLA) after Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico in 2017. We enrolled vaginally born Latino term infants aged 2 to 6 months, including n = 29 infants who were exposed in utero to Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico and n = 34 infants who were conceived at least 5 months after the hurricane as controls. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on infant stool swabs. Infants exposed in utero to Hurricane Maria had a reduced diversity in their gut microbiome compared to the control infants, which was mainly seen in the exclusively formula-fed group (P = 0.02). Four bacterial species, including Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium innocuum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, and Clostridium neonatale, were depleted in the exposure group compared to the control group. Compositional differences in the microbial community and metabolic genes between the exposure and control groups were significant, which were driven by the formula feeding group (P = 0.02 for the microbial community and P = 0.008 for the metabolic genes). Metabolic modules involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced in the exposure group. Prenatal maternal exposure to Hurricane Maria was associated with a reduced gut commensal and an altered microbial composition and metabolic potential in the offspring's gut. Breastfeeding can adjust the composition of the gut microbiomes of exposed infants. IMPORTANCE Climate change is a serious issue that is affecting human health. With more frequent and intense weather disasters due to climate change, there is an urgent need to evaluate and understand the impacts of prenatal disaster exposures on the offspring. The prenatal stage is a particularly vulnerable stage for disease origination. However, the impact of prenatal weather disaster exposures on the offspring's gut microbiome has not been evaluated. Our HOLA study starts to fill this knowledge gap and provides novel insights into the microbiome as a mechanism that links prenatal disaster exposures with elevated disease risks. Our major finding that reduced microbial diversity and altered metabolic capacity are associated with prenatal hurricane exposures warrants further studies to evaluate the impact of weather disasters on the unborn.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Liu WW, Pan P, NY Zhou (2023)

The presence of benzene ring activating CoA ligases for aromatics degradation in the ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Petroleum-source and black carbon-source aromatic compounds are present in the cold seep environments, where ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea as the dominant microbial community mediates the anaerobic oxidation of methane to produce inorganic and organic carbon. Here, by predicting the aromatics catabolic pathways in ANME metagenome-assembled genomes, we provide genomic and biochemical evidences that ANME have the potential of metabolizing aromatics via the strategy of CoA activation of the benzene ring using phenylacetic acid and benzoate as the substrates. Two ring-activating enzymes phenylacetate-CoA ligase (PaaKANME) and benzoate-CoA ligase (BadAANME) are able to convert phenylacetate to phenylacetyl-CoA and benzoate to benzoyl-CoA in vitro, respectively. They are mesophilic, alkali resistance, and with broad substrate spectra showing different affinity with various substrates. An exploration of the relative gene abundance in ANME genomes and cold seep environments indicates that about 50% of ANME genomes contain PCL genes, and various bacteria and archaea contain PCL and BCL genes. The results provide evidences for the capability of heterotrophic metabolism of aromatic compounds by ANME. This has not only enhanced our understanding of the nutrient range of ANME but also helped to explore the additional ecological and biogeochemical significance of this ubiquitous sedimentary archaea in the carbon flow in the cold seep environments. IMPORTANCE ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea is the dominant microbial community mediating the anaerobic oxidation of methane in the cold seep environments, where aromatic compounds are present. Then it is hypothesized that ANME may be involved in the metabolism of aromatics. Here, we provide genomic and biochemical evidences for the heterotrophic metabolism of aromatic compounds by ANME, enhancing our understanding of their nutrient range and also shedding light on the ecological and biogeochemical significance of these ubiquitous sedimentary archaea in carbon flow within cold seep environments. Overall, this study offers valuable insights into the metabolic capabilities of ANME and their potential contributions to the global carbon cycle.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Mathlouthi NEH, Oumarou Hama H, Belguith I, et al (2023)

Colorectal Cancer Archaeome: A Metagenomic Exploration, Tunisia.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(9):7572-7581 pii:cimb45090477.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem known to have a multifactorial etiology. The association between gut microbiota and CRC has been widely studied; however, the link between archaea and CRC has not been sufficiently studied. To investigate the involvement of archaea in colorectal carcinogenesis, we performed a metagenomic analysis of 68 formalin-embedded paraffin fixed tissues from tumoral (n = 33) and healthy mucosa (n = 35) collected from 35 CRC Tunisian patients. We used two DNA extraction methods: Generead DNA FFPE kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD, USA) and Chelex. We then sequenced the samples using Illumina Miseq. Interestingly, DNA extraction exclusively using Chelex generated enough DNA for sequencing of all samples. After data filtering and processing, we reported the presence of archaeal sequences, which represented 0.33% of all the reads generated. In terms of abundance, we highlighted a depletion in methanogens and an enrichment in Halobacteria in the tumor tissues, while the correlation analysis revealed a significant association between the Halobacteria and the tumor mucosa (p < 0.05). We reported a strong correlation between Natrialba magadii, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, and tumor tissues, and a weak correlation between Methanococcus voltae and healthy adjacent mucosa. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of archaeome analysis from formol fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using simple protocols ranging from sampling to data analysis, and reported a significant association between Halobacteria and tumor tissues in Tunisian patients with CRC. The importance of our study is that it represents the first metagenomic analysis of Tunisian CRC patients' gut microbiome, which consists of sequencing DNA extracted from paired tumor-adjacent FFPE tissues collected from CRC patients. The detection of archaeal sequences in our samples confirms the feasibility of carrying out an archaeome analysis from FFPE tissues using a simple DNA extraction protocol. Our analysis revealed the enrichment of Halobacteria, especially Natrialba magadii, in tumor mucosa compared to the normal mucosa in CRC Tunisian patients. Other species were also associated with CRC, including Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Methanococcus voltae, which is a methanogenic archaea; both species were found to be correlated with adjacent healthy tissues.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Shibata M, Ozato N, Tsuda H, et al (2023)

Mouse Model of Anti-Obesity Effects of Blautia hansenii on Diet-Induced Obesity.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(9):7147-7160 pii:cimb45090452.

Reportedly, a relationship exists between intestinal microflora and obesity-related lifestyle diseases. Blautia spp. a major intestinal microbiota, accounts for 3-11% of human intestinal microflora. Epidemiological reports have described that people with more visceral fat have less Blautia hansenii in their intestinal tract irrespective of age or gender. However, the effect of oral administration of heat-sterilized Blautia hansenii on obesity has not been clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Blautia hansenii administration on obesity in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in a mouse model. Heat-sterilized cells of Blautia hansenii were used. C57BL/6J mice (normal mice, n = 7) were fed with each experimental diet for nine weeks. Diets for experimentation were: normal-fat (NF) diets, high-fat (HF) diets, and high-fat + Blautia hansenii (HF + Blautia) diets. The HF + Blautia group was administered about 1 × 10[9] (CFU/mouse/day) of Blautia hansenii. During the periods of experimentation, body weight, food intake, water consumption, and fecal weight were recorded, and glucose tolerance tests were performed. Subsequently, the white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and serum components were measured. Short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces and cecum were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in the intestinal microflora were analyzed using meta-genomics analysis. Results showed that the total weight of WAT in the HF + Blautia group was significantly lower (13.2%) than that of the HF group. Moreover, the HF + Blautia group exhibited better glucose tolerance than the HF group. Productivity of short-chain fatty acids in the intestinal tract was at a significantly (p < 0.05) low level in the HF group; on the other hand, it recovered in the HF + Blautia group. Furthermore, there was a higher ratio of Blautia (p < 0.05) in the intestinal tracts of the HF + Blautia group than in the HF group. These results suggest that Blautia hansenii administration suppresses obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Ferreira NE, da Costa AC, Kallas EG, et al (2023)

Encephalopathy Caused by Human Parvovirus B19 Genotype 1 Associated with Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis in a Newborn.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(9):6958-6966 pii:cimb45090439.

Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe neurological disorders. Its major clinical symptoms, fever and rash, are common to multiple viruses, and laboratory tests to detect B19 are frequently not available. Thus, the impact of B19 on public health remains unclear. We report the case of a 38-day old girl admitted to São Paulo Clinical Hospital, Brazil, with an initial diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, seizures, and acute hydrocephalus. Antibiotic therapy was maintained for one week after admission and discontinued after negative laboratory results were obtained. Nine days after symptoms onset, a cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample revealed persistent pleocytosis. The complete B19 complete genome was subsequently identified in her CSF by a metagenomic next-generation sequencing approach. This report highlights the possible involvement of B19 in the occurrence of acute neurological manifestations and emphasizes that its possible involvement might be better revealed by the use of metagenomic technology to detect viral agents in clinical situations of unknown or uncertain etiology.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Ho H, Chovatia M, Egan R, et al (2023)

Integrating chromatin conformation information in a self-supervised learning model improves metagenome binning.

PeerJ, 11:e16129.

Metagenome binning is a key step, downstream of metagenome assembly, to group scaffolds by their genome of origin. Although accurate binning has been achieved on datasets containing multiple samples from the same community, the completeness of binning is often low in datasets with a small number of samples due to a lack of robust species co-abundance information. In this study, we exploited the chromatin conformation information obtained from Hi-C sequencing and developed a new reference-independent algorithm, Metagenome Binning with Abundance and Tetra-nucleotide frequencies-Long Range (metaBAT-LR), to improve the binning completeness of these datasets. This self-supervised algorithm builds a model from a set of high-quality genome bins to predict scaffold pairs that are likely to be derived from the same genome. Then, it applies these predictions to merge incomplete genome bins, as well as recruit unbinned scaffolds. We validated metaBAT-LR's ability to bin-merge and recruit scaffolds on both synthetic and real-world metagenome datasets of varying complexity. Benchmarking against similar software tools suggests that metaBAT-LR uncovers unique bins that were missed by all other methods. MetaBAT-LR is open-source and is available at

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Quinn G, Ali RO, Zhang GY, et al (2023)

Non-selective dampening of the host immune response after hepatitis C clearance and its association with circulating chemokine and endotoxin levels.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has revolutionized treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). While DAA therapy is common, little is known about the intrahepatic immunological changes after sustained virologic response (SVR). We aim to describe transcriptional alterations of the gut microbiome and the liver after SVR.

METHODS: Twenty-two HCV patients were evaluated before and 9 months after 12 weeks of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir treatment. All achieved SVR. A liver biopsy, portal blood (direct portal vein cannulation), peripheral blood and stool samples were obtained. RNA-seq and immunofluorescent staining were performed on liver biopsies. RNA-seq and 16S rRNA metagenomics were performed on stool.

RESULTS: Differential expression within liver transcription showed 514 downregulated genes (FDR q < .05; foldchange > 2) enriched in inflammatory pathways; of note, GO:0060337, type 1 IFN signalling (p = 8e-23) and GO:0042742, defence response to bacterium (p = 8e-3). Interestingly, microbial products increased in the portal blood and liver after SVR. Due to the increase in microbial products, the gut microbiome was investigated. There was no dysbiosis by Shannon diversity index or Bacteroides/Firmicutes ratio. There was a differential increase in genes responsible for bacterial lipopolysaccharide production after SVR.

CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the antiviral interferon pathway expression was expected after SVR; however, there was an unanticipated decrease in the transcription of genes involved in recognition and response to bacteria, which was associated with increased levels of microbial products. Finally, the alterations in the function of the gut microbiome are a promising avenue for further investigation of the gut-liver axis, especially in the context of the significant immunological changes noted after SVR.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Jin Z, Yang Y, Cao Y, et al (2023)

The gut metabolite 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid rejuvenates spermatogenic dysfunction in aged mice through GPX4-mediated ferroptosis.

Microbiome, 11(1):212.

BACKGROUND: Aging-related fertility decline is a prevalent concern globally. Male reproductive system aging is mainly characterized by a decrease in sperm quality and fertility. While it is known that intestinal physiology changes with age and that microbiota is shaped by physiology, the underlying mechanism of how the microbiota affects male reproductive aging is still largely unexplored.

RESULTS: Here, we utilized fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to exchange the fecal microbiota between young and old mice. Cecal shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics were used to identify differences in gut microbiota composition and metabolic regulation during aging. Our results demonstrated that FMT from young to old mice alleviated aging-associated spermatogenic dysfunction through an unexpected mechanism mediated by a gut bacteria-derived metabolite, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA). 3-HPAA treatment resulted in an improvement of spermatogenesis in old mice. RNA sequencing analysis, qRT-PCR and Western blot revealed that 3-HPAA induced an upregulation of GPX4, thereby restraining ferroptosis and restoring spermatogenesis. These findings were further confirmed by in vitro induction of ferroptosis and inhibition of GPX4 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the microbiome-derived metabolite, 3-HPAA, facilitates spermatogenesis of old mice through a ferroptosis-mediated mechanism. Overall, these findings provide a novel mechanism of dysregulated spermatogenesis of old mice, and suggest that 3-HPAA could be a potential therapy for fertility decline of aging males in clinical practice. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Fan Z, Zhang L, Wei L, et al (2023)

Tracheal microbiome and metabolome profiling in iatrogenic subglottic tracheal stenosis.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 23(1):361.

BACKGROUND: To study the role of microecology and metabolism in iatrogenic tracheal injury and cicatricial stenosis, we investigated the tracheal microbiome and metabolome in patients with tracheal stenosis after endotracheal intubation.

METHODS: We collected 16 protected specimen brush (PSB) and 8 broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 8 iatrogenic subglottic tracheal stenosis patients, including 8 PSB samples from tracheal scar sites, 8 PSB samples from scar-free sites and 8 BAL samples, by lavaging the subsegmental bronchi of the right-middle lobe. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to characterize the microbiome profiling of 16 PSB and 8 BAL samples. Untargeted metabolomics was performed in 6 PSB samples (3 from tracheal scar PSB and 3 from tracheal scar-free PSB) using high-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry (LC‒MS).

RESULTS: At the species level, the top four bacterial species were Neisseria subflava, Streptococcus oralis, Capnocytophaga gingivals, and Haemophilus aegyptius. The alpha and beta diversity among tracheal scar PSB, scar-free PSB and BAL samples were compared, and no significant differences were found. Untargeted metabolomics was performed in 6 PSB samples using LC‒MS, and only one statistically significant metabolite, carnitine, was identified. Pathway enrichment analysis of carnitine revealed significant enrichment in fatty acid oxidation.

CONCLUSION: Our study found that carnitine levels in tracheal scar tissue were significantly lower than those in scar-free tissue, which might be a new target for the prevention and treatment of iatrogenic tracheal stenosis in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Luo Y, Liu C, Luo Y, et al (2023)

Thiostrepton alleviates experimental colitis by promoting RORγt ubiquitination and modulating dysbiosis.

Cellular & molecular immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Thiostrepton (TST) is a natural antibiotic with pleiotropic properties. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effect of TST on experimental colitis and identify its targets. The effect of TST on colon inflammation was evaluated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model and a T-cell transfer colitis model. The therapeutic targets of TST were investigated by cytokine profiling, immunophenotyping and biochemical approaches. The effect of TST on the gut microbiota and its contribution to colitis were evaluated in mice with DSS-induced colitis that were subjected to gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Alterations in the gut microbiota caused by TST were determined by 16S rDNA and metagenomic sequencing. Here, we showed that TST treatment significantly ameliorated colitis in the DSS-induced and T-cell transfer models. Specifically, TST targeted the retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor RORγt to reduce the production of IL-17A by γδ T cells, type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and Th17 cells in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Similarly, TST selectively prevented the development of Th17 cells in the T-cell transfer colitis model and the differentiation of naïve CD4[+] T cells into Th17 cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TST induced the ubiquitination and degradation of RORγt by promoting the binding of Itch to RORγt. Moreover, TST also reversed dysbiosis to control colonic inflammation. Taken together, these results from our study describe the previously unexplored role of TST in alleviating colonic inflammation by reducing IL-17A production and modulating dysbiosis, suggesting that TST is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of IBD.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Moeller AH, Sanders JG, Sprockett DD, et al (2023)

Assessing co-diversification in host-associated microbiomes.

Journal of evolutionary biology [Epub ahead of print].

When lineages of hosts and microbial symbionts engage in intimate interactions over evolutionary timescales, they can diversify in parallel (i.e., co-diversify), producing associations between the lineages' phylogenetic histories. Tests for co-diversification of individual microbial lineages and their hosts have been developed previously, and these have been applied to discover ancient symbioses in diverse branches of the tree of life. However, most host-microbe relationships are not binary but multipartite, in that a single host-associated microbiota can contain many microbial lineages, generating challenges for assessing co-diversification. Here, we review recent evidence for co-diversification in complex microbiota, highlight the limitations of prior studies, and outline a hypothesis testing approach designed to overcome some of these limitations. We advocate for the use of microbiota-wide scans for co-diversifying symbiont lineages and discuss tools developed for this purpose. Tests for co-diversification for simple host symbiont systems can be extended to entire phylogenies of microbial lineages (e.g., metagenome-assembled or isolate genomes, amplicon sequence variants) sampled from host clades, thereby providing a means for identifying co-diversifying symbionts present within complex microbiota. The relative ages of symbiont clades can corroborate co-diversification, and multi-level permutation tests can account for multiple comparisons and phylogenetic non-independence introduced by repeated sampling of host species. Discovering co-diversifying lineages will generate powerful opportunities for interrogating the molecular evolution and lineage turnover of ancestral, host-species specific symbionts within host-associated microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Shen S, Wang J, Ma C, et al (2023)

Understanding the "individual drug reaction" from the perspective of the interaction between probiotics and lovastatin in vitro and in vivo.

Microbiome, 11(1):209.

BACKGROUND: The existence of the gut microbiota produces an "individual drug reaction." As members of the intestinal microbiota, probiotics, although they have prebiotic functions, may accelerate the degradation of drugs, thereby affecting drug efficacy. Lovastatin is one of the well-recognized lipid-lowering drugs. Its main action site is the liver. Therefore, if it is degraded in advance by gastrointestinal probiotics, its efficacy may be reduced.

RESULTS: Here, we designed a two-stage experiment in vitro and in vivo to explore the degradation of lovastatin by probiotics. In vitro, the degradation of lovastatin by 83 strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and the "star strain" Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Shirota was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that probiotics could degrade lovastatin to varying degrees. Subsequently, we selected Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A5 (16.87%) with the strongest ability to degrade lovastatin, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum C3 (4.61%) with the weakest ability to degrade lovastatin and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain Shirota (17.6%) as representative probiotics for in vivo experiments. In vivo, the therapeutic effect of lovastatin combined with probiotics on golden hamsters with mixed hyperlipidemia was evaluated by measuring blood indicators, intestinal microbiota metagenomic sequencing, and the liver transcriptome. The results showed that the intake of probiotics did not affect the efficacy of lovastatin and could slow the inflammatory reaction of the liver.

CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of probiotics produced beneficial metabolites in the intestine by promoting beneficial microbes. Intestinal metabolites affected the expression of the liver genes through the gut-liver axis, increased the relative content of the essential amino acids, and finally improved the liver inflammatory response of the host. This study aims to reveal the impact of probiotics on the human body from a unique perspective, suggesting the impact of taking probiotics while taking drugs. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Wegner CE, Stahl R, Velsko I, et al (2023)

A glimpse of the paleome in endolithic microbial communities.

Microbiome, 11(1):210.

BACKGROUND: The terrestrial subsurface is home to a significant proportion of the Earth's microbial biomass. Our understanding about terrestrial subsurface microbiomes is almost exclusively derived from groundwater and porous sediments mainly by using 16S rRNA gene surveys. To obtain more insights about biomass of consolidated rocks and the metabolic status of endolithic microbiomes, we investigated interbedded limestone and mudstone from the vadose zone, fractured aquifers, and deep aquitards.

RESULTS: By adapting methods from microbial archaeology and paleogenomics, we could recover sufficient DNA for downstream metagenomic analysis from seven rock specimens independent of porosity, lithology, and depth. Based on the extracted DNA, we estimated between 2.81 and 4.25 × 10[5] cells × g[-1] rock. Analyzing DNA damage patterns revealed paleome signatures (genetic records of past microbial communities) for three rock specimens, all obtained from the vadose zone. DNA obtained from deep aquitards isolated from surface input was not affected by DNA decay indicating that water saturation and not flow is controlling subsurface microbial survival. Decoding the taxonomy and functional potential of paleome communities revealed increased abundances for sequences affiliated with chemolithoautotrophs and taxa such as Cand. Rokubacteria. We also found a broader metabolic potential in terms of aromatic hydrocarbon breakdown, suggesting a preferred utilization of sedimentary organic matter in the past.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that limestones function as archives for genetic records of past microbial communities including those sensitive to environmental stress at modern times, due to their specific conditions facilitating long-term DNA preservation. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Pan J, Ji L, Wu H, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis of herbivorous mammalian viral communities in the Northwest Plateau.

BMC genomics, 24(1):568.

BACKGROUND: Mammals are potential hosts for many infectious diseases. However, studies on the viral communities of herbivorous mammals in the Northwest Plateau are limited. Here, we studied the viral communities of herbivorous mammals in the Northwest Plateau using virus metagenomic analysis to analyze and compare the viral community composition of seven animal species.

RESULTS: By library construction and next-generation sequencing, contigs and singlets reads with similar viral sequences were classified into 24 viral families. Analyzed from the perspective of sampling areas, the virus community composition was relatively similar in two areas of Wuwei and Jinchang, Gansu Province. Analyzed from the perspective of seven animal species, the viral reads of seven animal species were mostly ssDNA and dominated by CRESS-DNA viruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on viral marker genes indicated that CRESS-DNA viruses and microviruses have high genetic diversity. In addition to DNA viruses, nodaviruses, pepper mild mottle viruses and picornaviruses were RNA viruses that we performed by phylogenetic analysis. The CRESS-DNA viruses and nodaviruses are believed to infect plants and insects, and microviruses can infect bacteria, identifying that they were likely from the diet of herbivorous mammals. Notably, two picornaviruses were identified from red deer and wild horse, showing that the picornavirus found in red deer had the relatively high similarity with human hepatitis A virus, and the picornavirus carried by wild horse could potentially form a new species within the Picornaviridae family.

CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the herbivorous mammalian virus community in the Northwest Plateau and the genetic characteristics of viruses that potentially threaten human health. It reveals the diversity and stability of herbivorous mammalian virus communities in the Northwest Plateau and helps to expand our knowledge of various herbivorous mammalian potentially pathogenic viruses.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Lu Y, Pang L, Chatzisymeon E, et al (2023)

Copper in different forms and tetracycline affect behavior and risk of antibiotic resistome in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The metagenomics-based behavior and risk of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during cattle manure thermophilic anaerobic digestion with tetracycline and copper, namely, bulk-copper oxide, nano-copper oxide, and copper sulfate, which are common feed additives. Although bulk-copper oxide reduced ARGs' diversity, it enriched high-risk ARGs the most than the other two copper species, while copper sulfate could strongly mitigate the ARG risk by decreasing their abundances. Compared to corresponding individual effects, copper and tetracycline combinations may decrease ARGs' co-occurrence potential by 22.0%, and particularly, tetracycline combined separately with copper sulfate and nano-copper oxide reduces the ARGs' risk in abundance (by 7.2%) and human health (by 4.0%). These were mainly driven by bioavailable copper, volatile fatty acids, and pH, as well as the main potential hosts in phyla Firmicutes, Coprothermobacterota, and Euryarchaeota. Notably, the twin risks of pathogenicity and ARGs should be emphasized due to the ARGs' positive correlation with human pathogens of Clostridioides difficile and Arcobacter peruensis. These findings are important for understanding the potential ARGs' risk in treatments of livestock wastes containing feed additives of different sizes and speciation.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Arumugam U, Sudarsanan GB, Karuppannan AK, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Studies Reveal the Evidence of Akkermansia muciniphila and Other Probiotic Bacteria in the Gut of Healthy and Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP)-Infected Farmed Penaeus vannamei.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Penaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp) is the most widely cultured shrimp globally. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), a microsporidian parasite, infects P. vannamei and causes severe growth retardation, subsequent production, and economic losses in the shrimp culture. The influence of EHP infection in the shrimp gut microbiota is poorly studied, and this would be an interesting area to investigate since the gut microbiome of shrimp influences a number of key host processes such as digestion and immunity. In this study, a metagenomic approach was followed to compare the overall species richness of the gut microbiota of EHP-infected and healthy P. vannamei. Bacterial genomic DNA from the healthy and EHP-infected gut sample were profiled for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, targeting the V3-V4 conserved region. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs), an approximation of definitive taxonomic identity, were identified based on the sequence similarity within the sample reads and clustered together using a cut-off of 97% identity using UCLUST. The OTUs were then used for the computation of alpha diversity and beta diversity for each sample. EHP-infected gut sample showed lower bacterial abundance throughout the family, class, order, genus, and species levels when compared to healthy gut sample. This study shows that the shrimp gut microbiota is sensitive and exhibits a high level of plasticity during a microsporidian infection like EHP. Furthermore, Akkermansia muciniphila, a novel probiotic bacterium, has been reported in the shrimp gut for the first time.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Jahanshahi DA, Ariaeenejad S, K Kavousi (2023)

A metagenomic catalog for exploring the plastizymes landscape covering taxa, genes, and proteins.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16029.

There are significant environmental and health concerns associated with the current inefficient plastic recycling process. This study presents the first integrated reference catalog of plastic-contaminated environments obtained using an insilico workflow that could play a significant role in discovering new plastizymes. Here, we combined 66 whole metagenomic data from plastic-contaminated environment samples from four previously collected metagenome data with our new sample. In this study, an integrated plastic-contaminated environment gene, protein, taxa, and plastic degrading enzyme catalog (PDEC) was constructed. These catalogs contain 53,300,583 non-redundant genes and proteins, 691 metagenome-assembled genomes, and 136,654 plastizymes. Based on KEGG and eggNOG annotations, 42% of recognized genes lack annotations, indicating their functions remain elusive and warrant further investigation. Additionally, the PDEC catalog highlights hydrolases, peroxidases, and cutinases as the prevailing plastizymes. Ultimately, following multiple validation procedures, our effort focused on pinpointing enzymes that exhibited the highest similarity to the introduced plastizymes in terms of both sequence and three-dimensional structural aspects. This encompassed evaluating the linear composition of constituent units as well as the complex spatial conformation of the molecule. The resulting catalog is expected to improve the resolution of future multi-omics studies, providing new insights into plastic-pollution related research.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Teng M, Zhao X, Zhou L, et al (2023)

An integrated analysis of the fecal metabolome and metagenome reveals the distinct effects of differentially charged nanoplastics on the gut microbiota-associated metabolites in mice.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05914-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Whether nanoplastics with differential charges cause intestinal impairment via distinct mechanisms remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between fecal metabolites and the gut microbiome, and potential biomarkers thereof, in mice following exposure to differentially charged polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs). Metagenomic analysis revealed that exposure to differentially charged PS-NPs resulted in alterations in the abundances of Bilophila_wadsworthia, Helicobacter apodemus, and Helicobacter typhlonius. A total of 237 fecal metabolites were significantly altered in mice that exhibited intestinal impairment, and these included 10 gut microbiota-related fecal metabolites that accurately discriminated impaired intestinal samples from the control. Additionally, the specific gut microbiome-related fecal metabolite-based model approach for the prediction of intestinal impairment in mice had an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.0 in the PS (without charge) group, an AUC of 0.94 in the PS-NH2 (positive charge) group, and an AUC of 0.86 in the PS-COOH (negative charge) group. Thus, the model showed promising evaluable accuracy for the prediction of intestinal impairment induced by nanoplastics in a charge-specific manner. Our study demonstrates that the fecal metabolome of mice with intestinal impairment following exposure to differentially charged nanoplastics is associated with changes in the gut microbiome. The identified biomarkers have potential application for the detection of intestinal impairment after exposure to negative, positive, or noncharged nanomaterials.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Palomo A, Dechesne A, Smets BF, et al (2023)

Narrow host range phages infect essential bacteria for water purification reactions in groundwater-fed rapid sand filters.

Water research, 245:120655 pii:S0043-1354(23)01095-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofiltration is used worldwide to provide safe potable water due to its low energy demand and excellent treatment performance. For instance, in Denmark, over 95% of drinking water is supplied through groundwater-fed rapid sand filters (RSF). Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have been shown to shape the taxonomic and functional composition of microbial communities across a range of natural and engineering systems. However, phages in the biofiltration systems are rarely studied, despite the central role microbes play in water purification. To probe this, metagenomic data from surface water, groundwater and mixed source water biofiltration units (n = 26 from China, Europe and USA) for drinking water production were analysed to characterize prokaryotic viruses and to identify their potential microbial hosts. The source water type and geographical location are found to exert influence on the composition of the phageome in biofilters. Although the viral abundance (71,676 ± 17,841 RPKM) in biofilters is only 14.4% and 17.0% lower than those of the nutrient-rich wastewater treatment plants and fresh surface waters, the richness (1,441 ± 1,046) and diversity (Inverse Simpson: 91 ± 61) in biofiltration units are significantly less by a factor of 2-5 and 3-4, respectively. In depth analysis of data from 24 groundwater-fed RSFs in Denmark revealed a core phageome shared by most RSFs, which was consistently linked to dominant microbial hosts involved in key biological reactions for water purification. Finally, the high number of specific links detected between phages and bacterial species and the large proportion of lytic phages (77%) led to the conjecture that phages regulate bacterial populations through predation, preventing the proliferation of dominant species and contributing to the established functional redundancy among the dominant microbial groups. In conclusion, bacteriophages are likely to play a significant role in water treatment within biofilters, particularly through interactions with key bacterial species.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Yang Y, Deng Y, Liu L, et al (2023)

Establishing reference material for the quest towards standardization in environmental microbial metagenomic studies.

Water research, 245:120641 pii:S0043-1354(23)01081-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Breakthroughs in DNA-based technologies, especially in metagenomic sequencing, have drastically enhanced researchers' ability to explore environmental microbiome and the associated interplays within. However, as new methodologies are being actively developed for improvements in different aspects, metagenomic workflows become diversified and heterogeneous. Through a single-variable control approach, we quantified the microbial profiling variations arising from 6 common technical variables associated with metagenomic workflows for both simple and complex samples. The incurred variations were constantly the lowest in replicates of DNA isolation and DNA sequencing library construction. Different DNA extraction kits often caused the highest variation among all the tested variables. Additionally, sequencing run batch was an important source of variability for targeted platforms. As such, the development of an environmental reference material for complex environmental samples could be beneficial in benchmarking accrued non-biological variability within and between protocols and insuring reliable and reproducible sequencing outputs immediately upstream of bioinformatic analysis. To develop an environment reference material, sequencing of a well-homogenized environmental sample composed of activated sludge was performed using different pre-analytical assays in replications. In parallel, a certified mock community was processed and sequenced. Assays were ranked based on the reconstruction of the theoretical mock community profile. The reproducibility of the best-performing assay and the microbial profile of the reference material were further ascertained. We propose the adoption of our complex environmental reference material, which could reflect the degree of diversity in environmental microbiome studies, to facilitate accurate, reproducible, and comparable environmental metagenomics-based studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Gao J, Xing X, Cai W, et al (2023)

Effect of micropollutants on disinfection byproducts and antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water in the process of biological activated carbon treatment.

Journal of hazardous materials, 461:132304 pii:S0304-3894(23)01587-X [Epub ahead of print].

The biofilm stress response of biological activated carbon (BAC) was investigated under prolonged exposure to sulfadiazine and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, simulating complex emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) that are mainly involved in the formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Under trace complex EOCs condition (2 µg/L), N-DBP precursors and abundance of ARGs increased significantly in BAC effluent. The total formation potential of haloacetonitriles (HANs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) was 751.47 ± 2.98 ng/L, which was much higher than the control group (440.67 ± 13.38 ng/L without EOCs). Similarly, the relative abundance of ARGs was more than twice that in the control group. The complex EOCs induce excessive extracellular polymeric substance secretion (EPS), thereby causing more N-DBP precursors and stronger horizontal gene transfer. Metagenome analysis revealed that functional amino acid and protein biosynthesis genes were overexpressed compared to the control group, causing more EPS to be secreted into the external environment. Complex EOCs promote Cobetia, Clostridium, and Streptomyces dominance, contributing to the production of N-DBP precursors and ARGs. For the first time, in addition to the direct hazards of the EOCs, this study successfully revealed the indirect water quality risks of complex EOCs from the microbial stress response during BAC treatment. Synergistic regulation of EOCs and microorganisms is important for tap water security.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Lu J, Dong L, Guo Z, et al (2023)

Highly efficient phosphorous removal in constructed wetland with iron scrap: Insights into the microbial removal mechanism.

Journal of environmental management, 347:119076 pii:S0301-4797(23)01864-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Excessive phosphorus (P) in surface water can lead to serious eutrophication and economic losses. Iron-based constructed wetland (CW) is considered as a promising solution to eliminate P effectively due to the advantage of low-cost. However, there is limited available information on the microbial removal mechanism of P in iron-based CW up to now. Therefore, CW with iron scrap was constructed to investigate the treatment performance and microbial removal mechanism in this study. Results showed that efficient and stable P removal (97.09 ± 1.90%) was achieved in iron scrap-based CW during the experiment period, which was attributed to the precipitation of iron and P and improved microbially mediated P removal. Metagenomic analysis showed that microbial diversity was enhanced and phosphate accumulating organisms (e.g., Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera) were enriched in CW with iron scrap, which explained higher P removal reasonably. In addition, the abundance of genes involved in the P starvation (e.g., phoB), uptake and transport (e.g., pstB) were enhanced in iron scrap-based CW. Enrichment analysis demonstrated that phosphotransferase pathway was also significantly up-regulated in CW with iron scraps, indicating that the energy supply of microbial P removal was enhanced. These findings provide a better understanding of the microbial removal mechanism of P in iron-based CW.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Akter S, Rahman MS, Ali H, et al (2023)

Phylogenetic diversity and functional potential of the microbial communities along the Bay of Bengal coast.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15976.

The Bay of Bengal, the world's largest bay, is bordered by populous countries and rich in resources like fisheries, oil, gas, and minerals, while also hosting diverse marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds; regrettably, its microbial diversity and ecological significance have received limited research attention. Here, we present amplicon (16S and 18S) profiling and shotgun metagenomics data regarding microbial communities from BoB's eastern coast, viz., Saint Martin and Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. From the 16S barcoding data, Proteobacteria appeared to be the dominant phylum in both locations, with Alteromonas, Methylophaga, Anaerospora, Marivita, and Vibrio dominating in Cox's Bazar and Pseudoalteromonas, Nautella, Marinomonas, Vibrio, and Alteromonas dominating the Saint Martin site. From the 18S barcoding data, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, and Protalveolata appeared among the most abundant eukaryotic divisions in both locations, with significantly higher abundance of Choanoflagellida, Florideophycidae, and Dinoflagellata in Cox's Bazar. The shotgun sequencing data reveals that in both locations, Alteromonas is the most prevalent bacterial genus, closely paralleling the dominance observed in the metabarcoding data, with Methylophaga in Cox's Bazar and Vibrio in Saint Martin. Functional annotations revealed that the microbial communities in these samples harbor genes for biofilm formation, quorum sensing, xenobiotics degradation, antimicrobial resistance, and a variety of other processes. Together, these results provide the first molecular insight into the functional and phylogenetic diversity of microbes along the BoB coast of Bangladesh. This baseline understanding of microbial community structure and functional potential will be critical for assessing impacts of climate change, pollution, and other anthropogenic disturbances on this ecologically and economically vital bay.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Yin YR, Li XW, Long CH, et al (2023)

Characterization of a GH10 extremely thermophilic xylanase from the metagenome of hot spring for prebiotic production.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16053.

A xylanase gene (named xyngmqa) was identified from the metagenomic data of the Gumingquan hot spring (92.5 °C, pH 9.2) in Tengchong City, Yunnan Province, southwest China. It showed the highest amino acid sequence identity (82.70%) to endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from Thermotoga caldifontis. A constitutive expression plasmid (denominated pSHY211) and double-layer plate (DLP) method were constructed for cloning, expression, and identification of the XynGMQA gene. The XynGMQA gene was synthesized and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. XynGMQA exhibited optimal activity at 90 °C and pH 4.6, being thermostable by maintaining 100% of its activity after 2 h incubated at 80 °C. Interestingly, its enzyme activity was enhanced by high temperatures (70 and 80 °C) and low pH (3.0-6.0). About 150% enzyme activity was detected after incubation at 70 °C for 20 to 60 min or 80 °C for 10 to 40 min, and more than 140% enzyme activity after incubation at pH 3.0 to 6.0 for 12 h. Hydrolytic products of beechwood xylan with XynGMQA were xylooligosaccharides, including xylobiose (X2), xylotriose (X3), and xylotetraose (X4). These properties suggest that XynGMQA as an extremely thermophilic xylanase, may be exploited for biofuel and prebiotic production from lignocellulosic biomass.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Murali R, Yu H, Speth DR, et al (2023)

Physiological potential and evolutionary trajectories of syntrophic sulfate-reducing bacterial partners of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea.

PLoS biology, 21(9):e3002292 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-02613 [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfate-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is performed by multicellular consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea in obligate syntrophic partnership with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Diverse ANME and SRB clades co-associate but the physiological basis for their adaptation and diversification is not well understood. In this work, we used comparative metagenomics and phylogenetics to investigate the metabolic adaptation among the 4 main syntrophic SRB clades (HotSeep-1, Seep-SRB2, Seep-SRB1a, and Seep-SRB1g) and identified features associated with their syntrophic lifestyle that distinguish them from their non-syntrophic evolutionary neighbors in the phylum Desulfobacterota. We show that the protein complexes involved in direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) from ANME to the SRB outer membrane are conserved between the syntrophic lineages. In contrast, the proteins involved in electron transfer within the SRB inner membrane differ between clades, indicative of convergent evolution in the adaptation to a syntrophic lifestyle. Our analysis suggests that in most cases, this adaptation likely occurred after the acquisition of the DIET complexes in an ancestral clade and involve horizontal gene transfers within pathways for electron transfer (CbcBA) and biofilm formation (Pel). We also provide evidence for unique adaptations within syntrophic SRB clades, which vary depending on the archaeal partner. Among the most widespread syntrophic SRB, Seep-SRB1a, subclades that specifically partner ANME-2a are missing the cobalamin synthesis pathway, suggestive of nutritional dependency on its partner, while closely related Seep-SRB1a partners of ANME-2c lack nutritional auxotrophies. Our work provides insight into the features associated with DIET-based syntrophy and the adaptation of SRB towards it.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

das Neves Costa LCP, Siqueira JAM, Teixeira DM, et al (2023)

Circulation of adenovirus and other viruses in urban drainage channels: an environmental surveillance in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Urban channels in amazon cities are very polluted, with garbage and sewage disposal in these aquatic environments, favoring the high dissemination of waterborne viruses such as human adenovirus (HAdV). The aim of this study was to perform the detection and molecular characterization of adenovirus in urban channels and in a wastewater treatment plant located in a metropolitan city in the Amazon. Additionally, metagenomic analyses were performed to assess viral diversity. Samples were concentrated by organic flocculation, analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and sequenced (Sanger e next generation sequencing). Cell culture was performed to verify the viability of HAdV particles. A total of 104 samples were collected, being the HAdV positivity of 76% (79/104). Among the positive samples, 29.1% (23/79) were characterized as HAdV-F40 (87%, 20/23), HAdV-F41 (8.7%, 2/23), and HAdV-B (4.3%, 1/23). Average precipitation rates ranged from 163 to 614 mm, while the pH ranged from 6.9 to 7.6. Eight positive samples were inoculated into A549 cells and in 4 of these, was observed changes in the structure of the cell monolayer, alteration in the structure of the cell monolayer was observed, but without amplification when analyzed by PCR. The metagenomic data demonstrated the presence of 14 viral families, being the most abundant: Myoviridae (41% of available reads), Siphoviridae (24.5%), Podoviridae (14.1%), and Autographiviridae (6.9%) with more than 85% of the total number of identified reads. This study reinforcing that continuous surveillance may contribute to monitoring viral diversity in aquatic environments and provide early warning of potential outbreaks.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Islam T, MN Hoque (2023)

Gut and flesh microbiome sequencing of the Bangladesh national fish hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha).

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

The gut and flesh microbiome of the national fish of Bangladesh, Tenualosa ilisha, were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Our findings revealed a significant microbial disparity between sample categories and the habitat of hilsa fish, which will serve as a valuable foundation for further comprehensive studies on the hilsa microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Luo S, Ru J, Mirzaei MK, et al (2023)

Gut virome profiling identifies an association between temperate phages and colorectal cancer promoted by Helicobacter pylori infection.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2257291.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. While a close correlation between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and CRC has been reported, the role of the virome has been overlooked. Here, we infected Apc-mutant mouse models and C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori and conducted a comprehensive metagenomics analysis of H. pylori-induced changes in lower gastrointestinal tract bacterial and viral communities. We observed an expansion of temperate phages in H. pylori infected Apc[+/1638N] mice at the early stage of carcinogenesis. Some of the temperate phages were predicted to infect bacteria associated with CRC, including Enterococcus faecalis. We also observed a high prevalence of virulent genes, such as flgJ, cwlJ, and sleB, encoded by temperate phages. In addition, we identified phages associated with pre-onset and onset of H. pylori-promoted carcinogenesis. Through co-occurrence network analysis, we found strong associations between the viral and bacterial communities in infected mice before the onset of carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that the expansion of temperate phages, possibly caused by prophage induction triggered by H. pylori infection, may have contributed to the development of CRC in mice by interacting with the bacterial community.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Simpkin AJ, Mesdaghi S, Sánchez Rodríguez F, et al (2023)

Tertiary structure assessment at CASP15.

Proteins [Epub ahead of print].

The results of tertiary structure assessment at CASP15 are reported. For the first time, recognizing the outstanding performance of AlphaFold 2 (AF2) at CASP14, all single-chain predictions were assessed together, irrespective of whether a template was available. At CASP15, there was no single stand-out group, with most of the best-scoring groups-led by PEZYFoldings, UM-TBM, and Yang Server-employing AF2 in one way or another. Many top groups paid special attention to generating deep Multiple Sequence Alignments (MSAs) and testing variant MSAs, thereby allowing them to successfully address some of the hardest targets. Such difficult targets, as well as lacking templates, were typically proteins with few homologues. Local divergence between prediction and target correlated with localization at crystal lattice or chain interfaces, and with regions exhibiting high B-factor factors in crystal structure targets, and should not necessarily be considered as representing error in the prediction. However, analysis of exposed and buried side chain accuracy showed room for improvement even in the latter. Nevertheless, a majority of groups produced high-quality predictions for most targets, which are valuable for experimental structure determination, functional analysis, and many other tasks across biology. These include those applying methods similar to those used to generate major resources such as the AlphaFold Protein Structure Database and the ESM Metagenomic atlas: the confidence estimates of the former were also notably accurate.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Peng X, Wei Z, Wang L, et al (2023)

Invasive splenic mucormycosis due to Rhizopus microsporus during chemotherapy for acute monocytic leukemia: a case report and literature review.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1237807.

Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection associated with high mortality that typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. It is difficult to diagnose owing to non-specific clinical manifestations, the serologic index, imaging features, and the limitations of diagnostic methods. The incidence of invasive splenic mucormycosis is extremely rare, with only a few cases documented in the literature. We report a survival case of invasive splenic mucormycosis involving the liver caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a patient during consolidation therapy for acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5). The patient initially presented with recurrent fever and splenomegaly accompanied by multiple focal hypodensities unresponsive to empiric anti-infective treatment. Splenic mucormycosis was diagnosed by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). However, surgical intervention carries a high risk due to the progressive involvement of the liver in invasive splenic mucormycosis. Fortunately, monotherapy with amphotericin B was effective, and the patient underwent allo-HSCT. This case aims to emphasize the importance of utilizing mNGS and CEUS for the timely diagnosis of mucormycosis to help clinicians identify splenic mucormycosis and initiate appropriate therapy as soon as possible to improve therapeutic efficacy and prognosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Khan AL (2023)

The phytomicrobiome: solving plant stress tolerance under climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1219366.

With extraordinary global climate changes, increased episodes of extreme conditions result in continuous but complex interaction of environmental variables with plant life. Exploring natural phytomicrobiome species can provide a crucial resource of beneficial microbes that can improve plant growth and productivity through nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production, and resistance against pathogenicity and abiotic stresses. The phytomicrobiome composition, diversity, and function strongly depend on the plant's genotype and climatic conditions. Currently, most studies have focused on elucidating microbial community abundance and diversity in the phytomicrobiome, covering bacterial communities. However, least is known about understanding the holistic phytomicrobiome composition and how they interact and function in stress conditions. This review identifies several gaps and essential questions that could enhance understanding of the complex interaction of microbiome, plant, and climate change. Utilizing eco-friendly approaches of naturally occurring synthetic microbial communities that enhance plant stress tolerance and leave fewer carbon-foot prints has been emphasized. However, understanding the mechanisms involved in stress signaling and responses by phytomicrobiome species under spatial and temporal climate changes is extremely important. Furthermore, the bacterial and fungal biome have been studied extensively, but the holistic interactome with archaea, viruses, oomycetes, protozoa, algae, and nematodes has seldom been studied. The inter-kingdom diversity, function, and potential role in improving environmental stress responses of plants are considerably important. In addition, much remains to be understood across organismal and ecosystem-level responses under dynamic and complex climate change conditions.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Crits-Christoph A, Levy JI, Pekar JE, et al (2023)

Genetic tracing of market wildlife and viruses at the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.13.557637.

Zoonotic spillovers of viruses have occurred through the animal trade worldwide. The start of the COVID-19 pandemic was traced epidemiologically to the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market, the site with the most reported wildlife vendors in the city of Wuhan, China. Here, we analyze publicly available qPCR and sequencing data from environmental samples collected in the Huanan market in early 2020. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity linked to this market is consistent with market emergence, and find increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity near and within a particular wildlife stall. We identify wildlife DNA in all SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from this stall. This includes species such as civets, bamboo rats, porcupines, hedgehogs, and one species, raccoon dogs, known to be capable of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We also detect other animal viruses that infect raccoon dogs, civets, and bamboo rats. Combining metagenomic and phylogenetic approaches, we recover genotypes of market animals and compare them to those from other markets. This analysis provides the genetic basis for a short list of potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 to prioritize for retrospective serological testing and viral sampling.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Wang J, Chen Y, Li M, et al (2023)

The effects of differential feeding on ileum development, digestive ability and health status of newborn calves.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1255122.

Pre-weaning is the most important period for the growth and development of calves. Intestinal morphology, microbial community and immunity are initially constructed at this stage, and even have a lifelong impact on calves. Early feeding patterns have a significant impact on gastrointestinal development and microbial communities. This study mainly analyzed the effects of three feeding methods on the gastrointestinal development of calves, and provided a theoretical basis for further improving the feeding mode of calves. it is very important to develop a suitable feeding mode. In this study, we selected nine newborn healthy Holstein bull calves were randomly selected and divided into three groups (n = 3), which were fed with starter + hay + milk (SH group), starter + milk (SF group), total mixed ration + milk (TMR group). After 80 days of feeding Feeding to 80 days of age after, the ileum contents and blood samples were collected, and the differences were compared and analyzed by metagenomic analysis and serum metabolomics analysis. Results show that compared with the other two groups, the intestinal epithelium of the SH group was more complete and the goblet cells developed better. The feeding method of SH group was more conducive to the development of calves, with higher daily gain and no pathological inflammatory reaction. The intestinal microbial community was more conducive to digestion and absorption, and the immunity was stronger. These findings are helpful for us to explore better calf feeding patterns. In the next step, we will set up more biological replicates to study the deep-seated reasons for the differences in the development of pre-weaning calves. At the same time, the new discoveries of neuro microbiology broaden our horizons and are the focus of our future attention.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Qian X, Wu Y, Zuo X, et al (2023)

mStrain: strain-level identification of Yersinia pestis using metagenomic data.

Bioinformatics advances, 3(1):vbad115.

MOTIVATION: High-resolution target pathogen detection using metagenomic sequencing data represents a major challenge due to the low concentration of target pathogens in samples. We introduced mStrain, a novel Yesinia pestis strain/lineage-level identification tool that utilizes metagenomic data. mStrain successfully identified Y. pestis at the strain/lineage level by extracting sufficient information regarding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can therefore be an effective tool for identification and source tracking of Y. pestis based on metagenomic data during a plague outbreak.


STRAIN-LEVEL IDENTIFICATION: Assigning the reads in the metagenomic sequencing data to an exactly known or most closely representative Y. pestis strain.

LINEAGE-LEVEL IDENTIFICATION: Assigning the reads in the metagenomic sequencing data to a specific lineage on the phylogenetic tree.

CANOSNPS: The unique and typical SNPs present in all representative strains.

ANCESTOR/DERIVED STATE: An SNP is defined as the ancestor state when consistent with the allele of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953; otherwise, the SNP is defined as the derived state.

The code for running mStrain, the test dataset, and instructions for running the code can be found at the following GitHub repository:

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Chhimwal J, Anand P, Mehta P, et al (2023)

Metagenomic signatures reveal the key role of phloretin in amelioration of gut dysbiosis attributed to metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease by time-dependent modulation of gut microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1210517.

The importance of gut-liver axis in the pathophysiology of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is being investigated more closely in recent times. However, the inevitable changes in gut microbiota during progression of the disease merits closer look. The present work intends to assess the time-dependent gut dysbiosis in MAFLD, its implications in disease progression and role of plant-derived prebiotics in its attenuation. Male C57BL/6J mice were given western diet (WD) for up to 16 weeks and phloretin was administered orally. The fecal samples of mice were collected every fourth week for 16 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and biochemical and histological analyses were performed. Further, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis was performed to investigate longitudinal modification of gut microbiome at different time points. Findings of our study corroborate that phloretin alleviated the metabolic changes and mitigated circulating inflammatory cytokines levels. Phloretin treatment resists WD induced changes in microbial diversity of mice and decreased endotoxin content. Prolonged exposure of WD changed dynamics of gut microbiota abundance and distribution. Increased abundance of pathogenic taxa like Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, and Terrisporobacter was noted. Phloretin treatment not only reversed this dysbiosis but also modulated taxonomic signatures of beneficial microbes like Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Alloprevotella. Therefore, the potential of phloretin to restore gut eubiosis could be utilized as an intervention strategy for the prevention of MAFLD and related metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Peng K, Deng J, Zou N, et al (2023)

Emergence of the fourth mobile sulfonamide resistance gene sul4 in clinical Salmonella enterica.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1242369.

The fourth mobile sulfonamide resistance gene sul4 has been discovered in many metagenomic datasets. However, there is no reports of it in cultured bacteria. In this study, a sul4 positive clinical Salmonella enterica SC2020597 was obtained by conventional Salmonella isolation methods and characterized by species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Meanwhile, the genomic DNA was sequenced using both long-read and short-read methods. Following that, the complete genome was analyzed by bioinformatic methods. The sul4 gene in S. enterica SC2020597 differed from the sul4 identified in metagenomic data by one amino acid and could confer full resistance to sulfamethoxazole. Genetic location analysis showed that the sul4 in SC2020597 was carried by a complex chromosomally integrated hybrid plasmid. ISCR20-like was strongly associated with the mobilization of sul4 by core genetic context analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the emergence of sul4 in clinically cultured S. enterica. More important, the sul4 has the potential to spread to other bacteria with the help of mobile elements.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Angamarca E, Castillejo P, GN Tenea (2023)

Microbiota and its antibiotic resistance profile in avocado Guatemalan fruits (Persea nubigena var. guatemalensis) sold at retail markets of Ibarra city, northern Ecuador.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1228079.

INTRODUCTION: Avocados are typically sold in unsanitary conditions at the retail markets in Ecuador, which can raise the risk of microbial contamination. These microorganisms could exhibit multi-antibiotic resistance (MAR), being a serious threat concern to human health. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbiota and its antibiotic resistance profile in avocado Guatemalan fruits (Persea nubigena var. guatemalensis), at ripe stage: immature, firm light green (ready to eat in 4 days), peel (AFPE) and pulp (AFPU), and mature intense green (ready to eat) peel (AMPE) and pulp (AMPU), to gain baseline information on the prevalence of MAR bacteria.

METHODS: Culture-independent (16S rRNA metagenomics) and culture-dependent approach (to detect specific indicator microorganisms) were used. Moreover, antibiotic susceptibility of selected target indicator bacteria was assessed providing information about the antibiotic resistance (AR) among the groups.

RESULTS: Based on 16S rRNA gene metagenomic analysis, over 99.78% of reads were classified as bacteria in all samples. Shannon diversity index varies from 1.22 to 2.22, with the highest bacterial population assigned to AFPE samples (1327 species). The highest microbial counts of indicator Staphylococcus spp. (STAPHY), Enterobacter spp. (ENT), and Listeria spp. (LIST), were detected in AMPE samples. Thirty percent of the selected STAPHYs, and 20.91% of Enterobacter (ENT) clones were resistant to various classes of antibiotics. The MAR index varies between 0.25 to 0.88 and was clone-, and fruit ripe stage-dependent.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that ready to eat avocados contained detectable levels of MAR bacteria, including methicillin resistant (MR)-STAPHY, which may act as a potential vector for the spread of antibiotic resistance. To achieve the increase of the production and marketing of Fuerte cultivar in Ecuador, it is vitally important to consider valuable strategies to protect the fruits at the early ripe stage in future. Thus, it is crucial to set up efficient control measures and develop coordinated strategies to guarantee the microbiological quality of the food.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhao ZS, Yang LY, Li FX, et al (2023)

Gut flora alterations among aquatic firefly Aquatica leii inhabiting various dissolved oxygen in fresh water.

iScience, 26(10):107809.

Knowledge about the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on the composition and function of gut bacteria of aquatic insects is largely unknown. Herein, we constructed freshwater environments with different DOs (hypoxia: 2.50 ± 0.50, normoxia: 7.00 ± 0.50, and hyperoxia: 13.00 ± 0.50 mg/L) where aquatic firefly Aquatica leii larvae lived for three months. Their gut flora was analyzed using the combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and metagenomics. The results showed no difference in alpha diversity of the gut flora between A. leii inhabiting various DOs. However, the relative abundance of several bacterial lineages presented significant changes, such as Pseudomonas. In addition, bacterial genes with an altered relative abundance in response to various DOs were primarily related to metabolism. The alteration of these functions correlated with the DO change. This is the first to uncover structure of gut flora under various DOs in aquatic insect larvae.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Tran DM, TH Nguyen (2023)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the Central Highlands of Vietnam: Dataset on the endophytic microbiome.

Data in brief, 50:109551.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main annual crop cultivated in the Central Highlands region of Vietnam. Understanding the endophytic bacterial community of this plant, a new technique for sustainable production can be developed. In this work, a representative sample was obtained by combining rice (RVT variety) root samples collected from five different fields in Dray Sap Commune, Krong Ana District, Dak Lak Province, the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Using the Illumina MiSeq technology, the 16S rRNA metagenomics was applied to the sequencing amplicons library. The QIIME2 matched with the SILVA SSURef reference database was employed to analyze the taxonomic profile, and the PICRUSt2 and MetaCyc databases were used to predict the functional profile of rice endophytic prokaryotes. Results revealed that Enterobacterales was the most predominant class (57.7%) in the bacterial community, and biosynthesis was the primary function of the rice endophytic microbiome (75.95%). Raw sequences obtained in this work are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject ID: PRJNA994482) and Mendeley Data [1]. Data in this work provide insight into the endophytic microbiome of rice (RVT variety) cultivated in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. These data are valuable for developing a new method for producing locally sustainable rice employing endophytic bacteria. This is the first report on the endophytic microbiome of rice cultivated in this region.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Liu Y, Chan MTV, Chan FKL, et al (2023)

Lower gut abundance of Eubacterium rectale is linked to COVID-19 mortality.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1249069.

INTRODUCTION: Emerging preclinical and clinical studies suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID- 19) severity and its long-term complications. We hypothesize that COVID-19 outcome is associated with gut microbiome status in population-based settings.

METHODS: Gut metagenomic data of the adult population consisting of 2871 subjects from 16 countries were obtained from ExperimentHub through R, while the dynamic death data of COVID-19 patients between January 22, 2020 and December 8, 2020 in each country was acquired from Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. An adjusted stable mortality rate (SMR) was used to represent these countries' mortality and correlated with the mean relative abundance (mRA) of healthy adult gut microbiome species.

RESULTS: After excluding bacterial species with low prevalence (prevalence <0.2 in the included countries), the β-diversity was significantly higher in the countries with high SMR when compared with those with median or low SMR (p <0.001). We then identified the mRA of two butyrate producers, Eubacterium rectale and Roseburia intestinalis, that were negatively correlated with SMR during the study period. And the reduction of these species was associated with severer COVID-19 manifestation.

CONCLUSION: Population-based microbiome signatures with the stable mortality rate of COVID-19 in different countries suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with mortality of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Palanisamy V, Bosilevac JM, Barkhouse DA, et al (2023)

Shotgun-metagenomics reveals a highly diverse and communal microbial network present in the drains of three beef-processing plants.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1240138.

BACKGROUND: Multi-species biofilms pose a problem in various environments, especially food-processing environments. The diversity of microorganisms in these biofilms plays a critical role in their integrity and protection against external biotic and abiotic factors. Compared to single-species biofilms, mixed-species biofilms are more resistant to various stresses, including antimicrobials like sanitizers. Therefore, understanding the microbiome composition and diversity in biofilms and their metabolic potential is a priority when developing intervention techniques to combat foodborne pathogens in food processing environments.

METHODS: This study aimed to describe and compare the microbiome profile of 75 drain biofilm samples obtained from five different locations (Hotscale, Hotbox, Cooler, Processing, & Grind room) of three beef-processing plants (Plant A, B & C) taken over two timepoints 2017-18 (T1) and 2021 (T2) by shotgun sequencing.

RESULTS: Core microbiome analysis found Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, and Acinetobacter to be the top three prevalent genera among the plants and locations. Alpha diversity analysis demonstrated a high diversity of microbiome present in all the plants and locations across the time points. Functional analysis showed the high metabolic potential of the microbial community with abundance of genes in metabolism, cell-adhesion, motility, and quorum sensing. Moreover, Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) resistance genes were also observed, this is significant as QAC sanitizers are commonly used in many food processing facilities. Multi-functional genes such as transposases, polymerases, permeases, flagellar proteins, and Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) were found suggesting these are dynamic microbial communities that work together to protect themselves against environmental stresses through multiple defense mechanisms.

CONCLUSION: This study provides a framework for understanding the collective microbial network spanning a beef processing system. The results can be used to develop intervention strategies to best control these highly communicative microbial networks.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Li Y, Lei J, Ren Z, et al (2023)

Case Report: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing assists in dynamic pathogen monitoring: powerful tool for progressing severe pneumonia.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1230813.

BACKGROUND: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) is life-threatening and characterized by intensive care unit (ICU) admission and high mortality. And they are vulnerable to hospital-acquired infection. In such a severe condition, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) outperforms for short turnaround time and broad detection spectrum.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old male with severe influenza and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia progressed rapidly, initially misdiagnosed as influenza co-infected with Aspergillus for misleading bronchoscopy manifestations. The turnaround time of mNGS is 13 h, which has the potential to expedite the clinical medication process. With the powerful support of mNGS and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), anti-infective therapy was adjusted accordingly, and vital signs gradually stabilized. After tortuous treatment and unremitting efforts, the patient recovered well.

CONCLUSIONS: Rapid mNGS applications, timely medication adjustments, strong ECMO support and active family compliance contribute to this miracle of life. False-negative or false-positive results are alarming, anti-infective medications should be adjusted after a comprehensive review of physical status and other indicators.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Ramachandran PS, DA Williamson (2023)

The transformative potential of metagenomics in microbiology: advancements and implications.

Internal medicine journal, 53(9):1520-1523.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Xu K, Liu X, Pang L, et al (2023)

Response behavior of antibiotic resistance genes and human pathogens to slope gradient and position: An environmental risk analysis in sloping cultivated land.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05619-X [Epub ahead of print].

Soils, especially in farmlands, are key media for the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their hosts from the environment to humans. Sloping farmland is an important agricultural resource, but there lack of studies on the fate and risk of ARGs in sloping land. Also, the behavior and drivers of ARGs in response to slope gradient and position are unclear. Here, metagenomics was used to investigate the profiles of ARGs, mobile genetic elements, and microbial communities in soils from lands of five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) with two slope positions (uphill and downhill). Results showed that while the abundance (except 15°) and diversity (except 20°) of ARGs increased as the slope gradient increased, the diversity of ARGs with health risk, especially the high-risk ones, decreased. For slope positions, abundant and diverse ARGs were more likely to accumulate at downhill. Furthermore, 52 bacterial genera and 12 human pathogenic bacteria (HPB) species were identified as the potential hosts for ARGs with high risk, and abundant HPB species were also detected in the soils with low gradients at downhill. Moreover, the structural equation model analysis revealed that the slope gradient and the slope position have both direct and indirect effects on the abundance of ARGs. Further correlation analysis revealed that the slope gradient has a positive effect (p < 0.05) on nitrite nitrogen in the soils. Also, the slope position has a negative effect (p < 0.05) on total phosphorus and microbial nitrogen, while positively affected (p < 0.05) on particulate nitrogen and microbial carbon, which were the key factors driving the behavior of ARGs. Overall, this study provided comprehensive information on ARGs with health risks and their potential pathogenic hosts in sloping farmland. It can be important for controlling antibiotic resistance transmission and be consistent with the One Health framework.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Shan X, Liu C, Song L, et al (2023)

Risk characteristics of resistome coalescence in irrigated soils and effect of natural storage of irrigation materials on risk mitigation.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)01577-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Irrigation and fertilization are the routinely agricultural practices but also cause resistome coalescence, by which the entire microbiomes from irrigation materials invade soil microbial community, to transfer antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the coalesced soils. Although studies have reported the effect of irrigation or fertilization on the prevalence and spread of ARGs in soils, risk characteristics of resistome coalescence in irrigation system remain to be demonstrated and few has shown whether natural storage of irrigation materials will reduce resistance risks. To fill the gaps, two microscopic experiments were conducted for deeply exploring resistance risks in the soils irrigated with wastewater and manure fertilizer from a perspective of community coalescence by metagenomic analysis, and to reveal the effect of natural storage of irrigation materials on the reduction of resistance risks in the coalesced soils. Results showed irrigation and coalescence significantly increased the abundance and diversity of ARGs in the soils, and introduced some emerging resistance genes into the coalesced community, including mcr-type, tetX, qacB, and an array of genes conferring resistance to carbapenem. Procrustes analysis demonstrated microbial community was significantly correlated with the ARGs in coalesced soils, and variance partitioning analysis quantified its dominant role on shaping resistome profile in the environment. Besides ARGs, abundant and diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were also identified in the coalesced soils and co-existed on the ARG-carrying contigs, implying potential transfer risk of ARGs in the irrigation system. Further, the analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) confirmed the risk by recovering 358 ARGs-carrying MAGs and identifying the resistant bacteria that co-carried multiple ARGs and MGEs. As expected, the natural storage of irrigation water and manure fertilizer reduced about 27%-54% of ARGs, MGEs and virulence factors in the coalesced soils, thus caused the soils to move towards lower resistance risks to a certain extent.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Li H, Tan L, Xu Y, et al (2023)

Metagenomics insights into the performance and mechanism of soil infiltration systems on removing antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage.

Journal of environmental management, 346:118981 pii:S0301-4797(23)01769-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sewage is of great concern, but advanced sewage treatment technologies are not suitable for rural areas, so the multi-layer soil infiltration system (MSL) has been developed for rural sewage treatment. However, little is known about the performance and function of MSL in the treatment of ARGs in rural sewage. Here, we optimized the matrix composition and structure of MSL and explored the efficacy and mechanism of MSL systems for ARG removal under different hydraulic conditions. The ARGs removal rate of MSL ranged from 41.51% to 99.67%, in which MSL with the middle hydraulic load, high pollution load, and continuous inflowing conditions showed the best removal performance. In addition, this system can operate stably and resist the temperature fluctuation, which showed an equivalent removal rate of ARGs in warm and cold seasons, amounting to 69.0%. The structural equation model revealed that microorganisms in sewage could significantly affect ARG removal (path coefficient = 0.91), probably owing to their interspecies competition. As for the internal system, the reduction of ARGs was mainly driven by microorganisms in the system matrix (path coefficient = 0.685), especially soil-mixture-block (SMB) microorganisms. The physicochemical factors of the matrix indirectly reduce ARGs by affecting the microorganisms that adhere to the matrices. Note that the pairwise alignment of nucleotide analysis demonstrated that the system matrix, especially biochar in the SMB, adsorbed ARGs and their hosts from the sewage, and in turn eliminated them by inhibiting the spread and colonization of hosts, thereby reducing the abundance of ARGs. Collectively, this study provides a deeper insight into the removal of ARGs from rural sewage by MSL, which can help improve sewage treatment technologies.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Wicaksono WA, Cernava T, Wassermann B, et al (2023)

The edible plant microbiome: evidence for the occurrence of fruit and vegetable bacteria in the human gut.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2258565.

Diversity of the gut microbiota is crucial for human health. However, whether fruit and vegetable associated bacteria contribute to overall gut bacterial diversity is still unknown. We reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes from 156 fruit and vegetable metagenomes to investigate the prevalence of associated bacteria in 2,426 publicly available gut metagenomes. The microbiomes of fresh fruits and vegetables and the human gut are represented by members in common such as Enterobacterales, Burkholderiales, and Lactobacillales. Exposure to bacteria via fruit and vegetable consumption potentially has a beneficial impact on the functional diversity of gut microbiota particularly due to the presence of putative health-promoting genes for the production of vitamin and short-chain fatty acids. In the human gut, they were consistently present, although at a low abundance, approx. 2.2%. Host age, vegetable consumption frequency, and the diversity of plants consumed were drivers favoring a higher proportion. Overall, these results provide one of the primary links between the human microbiome and the environmental microbiome. This study revealed evidence that fruit and vegetable-derived microbes could be found in the human gut and contribute to gut microbiome diversity.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Shahila Ismail KI, Sreeranjit Kumar CV, Aneesha U, et al (2023)

Comparative analysis of gut bacteria of silkworm Bombyx mori L. on exposure to temperature through 16S rRNA high throughput metagenomic sequencing.

Journal of invertebrate pathology pii:S0022-2011(23)00109-X [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming is one of the serious threats that adversely affects the development and reproduction of silkworms. The ideal temperature for silkworms to carryout normal life activities is 20 °C to 30° C. Certain bivoltine silkworms that are raised in tropical regions are thermotolerant. But, prolonged exposure to high temperatures may be fatal. In the present study, the fifth instar larvae of bivoltine silkworm were exposed to heat shock at 40 ± 2°C for a short period of one hour per day to examine the changes in the gut microflora. The study used high throughput sequencing to evaluate the impact of intestinal microbes of silkworms in response to high temperature. The findings demonstrated that elevated temperature has a negative impact on the intestinal microbes of silkworm compared to the control which were reared under optimum temperature (25 ± 3° C). 458 species of microbes were reported in the control group whereas only 434 species were reported in the temperature exposed group. The digestive process of silkworms may also be impaired by heat shock due to their effect on digestive enzymes. So, the results indicated that heat shock has an impact on the intestinal microflora of silkworms that control the activity of associated digestive enzymes which affects the digestion and nutritional intake, eventually impacting the growth and development of silkworm larvae and cocoons produced. The morphometric parameters of silkworm larvae and cocoons also showed a considerable drop when exposed to heat shock.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Flores GAM, Lopez RP, Cerrudo CS, et al (2022)

Culex quinquefasciatus Holobiont: A Fungal Metagenomic Approach.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:918052.

Microorganisms associated with mosquitoes have fundamental roles, not only in their nutrition, but also in physiological and immunological processes, and in their adaptation to the environment as well. Studies on mosquito hologenomes have increased significantly during the last years, achieving important advances in the characterization of the "core bacteriome" of some species of health importance. However, the fungal mycobiome has not been exhaustively researched, especially throughout the life cycle of some hematophagous mosquito species. In this work, the diversity and composition of fungal communities in different developmental stages, sexes, and adult nutrition of Culex quinquefasciatus reared on laboratory conditions were characterized, using internal transcribed spacer high throughput amplicon sequencing. Larvae presented a higher fungal richness, while sucrose-fed males and females showed a similar diversity between them. Blood-fed females presented few operational taxonomic units with an even distribution. Results are consistent with the reduction of larval microbiota after molting, observed for the bacterial microbiome in other mosquito species. The filamentous Ascomycota Penicillium polonicum and Cladosporium sp. were present in all stages of the mosquitoes; in addition, the presence of yeasts in the insects or their subsequent colonization associated with their diet is also discussed. These results suggest that some species of fungi could be essential for the nutrition and development of mosquitoes throughout their life cycle.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Ament-Velásquez SL, Tuovinen V, Bergström L, et al (2021)

The Plot Thickens: Haploid and Triploid-Like Thalli, Hybridization, and Biased Mating Type Ratios in Letharia.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:656386.

The study of the reproductive biology of lichen fungal symbionts has been traditionally challenging due to their complex lifestyles. Against the common belief of haploidy, a recent genomic study found a triploid-like signal in Letharia. Here, we infer the genome organization and reproduction in Letharia by analyzing genomic data from a pure culture and from thalli, and performing a PCR survey of the MAT locus in natural populations. We found that the read count variation in the four Letharia specimens, including the pure culture derived from a single sexual spore of L. lupina, is consistent with haploidy. By contrast, the L. lupina read counts from a thallus' metagenome are triploid-like. Characterization of the mating-type locus revealed a conserved heterothallic configuration across the genus, along with auxiliary genes that we identified. We found that the mating-type distributions are balanced in North America for L. vulpina and L. lupina, suggesting widespread sexual reproduction, but highly skewed in Europe for L. vulpina, consistent with predominant asexuality. Taken together, we propose that Letharia fungi are heterothallic and typically haploid, and provide evidence that triploid-like individuals are hybrids between L. lupina and an unknown Letharia lineage, reconciling classic systematic and genetic studies with recent genomic observations.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Welman-Purchase MD, Castillo J, Gomez-Arias A, et al (2023)

First insight into the natural biodegradation of cyanide in a gold tailings environment enriched in cyanide compounds.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05801-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The disposal of cyanide along mining wastes dumped in tailings from gold extraction is a public concern in mining countries such as South Africa. Many studies have shown the potential of microorganisms to degrade cyanide. However, no in-situ exploration, in tailings contaminated with cyanide, of the capability of indigenous microorganisms to act as a natural barrier for cyanide attenuation has been performed. Here we aim to combine geochemical and metagenomics techniques to reveal the genomic machinery of indigenous bacteria to degrade cyanide in gold tailings. Indigenous bacteria (i.e., Alicyclobacillus, Sulfobacillus, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, and among others) pose the genomic machinery to trigger hydrolytic cyanide degradation using enzymes such as nitrilase, nitrile hydratase (Nhase) and thiocyanate. It seems that the lack of nitrogen sources induces the use of cyanide, which would contribute to its natural attenuation in the gold tailings. Therefore, the bacteria identified could represent the first barrier for the detoxification and degradation of cyanide in the outermost layer of the tailings.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Zhou T, Xiang Y, Liu S, et al (2023)

Microbial community dynamics and metagenomics reveal the potential role of unconventional functional microorganisms in nitrogen and phosphorus removal biofilm system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05821-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The conventional functional microorganisms for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Nitrospira and Candidatus Accumulibacter, were hotspots in past research. However, the role of diverse unconventional functional microorganisms was neglected. In this study, a biofilm system was developed to explore the potential role of unconventional functional microorganisms in nutrients removal. According to the results of microbial community dynamics and metagenomics, complete ammonia oxidizing (comammox) bacteria was 20 times more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) at day 121 and its abundance of amoA gene was almost the same as AOB. Although Nitrospira dominated the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), diverse unconventional nxrB-containing microorganisms, particularly Chloroflexi, also significantly contributed to the nitrite oxidation. Binning analysis showed that Myxococcota-affiliated Haliangium had the necessary genes owns by phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) and was likely to be the primary PAO since its abundance (6.38 %) was much higher than other conventional PAO (0.70 %). Comparing metagenome-assembled genomes of comammox bacteria with AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), it possessed potential metabolic versatility in hydrogen and phosphorus, which may be the primary reason for the positive effect of the alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions on the enrichment of comammox bacteria. Collectively, our findings broaden the understanding on the microbial mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in biofilm system.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Robinson SL (2023)

Structure-guided metagenome mining to tap microbial functional diversity.

Current opinion in microbiology, 76:102382 pii:S1369-5274(23)00119-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Scientists now have access to millions of accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of protein structures. How do we leverage 3D structural models to learn about microbial functions encoded in metagenomes? Here, we review recent developments using protein structural features to mine metagenomes from diverse environments ranging from the human gut to soil and ocean viromes. We compare 3D protein structural methods to characterize antibiotic resistance phenotypes, nutrient cycling, and host-drug-microbe interactions. Broadly, we encourage the scientific community to look beyond global sequence and structure alignments by considering fine-grained descriptors such as distance to ligand, active site, and tertiary interactions between amino acid residues scaling to microbiomes. Finally, we highlight structure-inspired approaches to chart new areas of microbial protein-coding sequence space.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Son H, Moon J, Ha EJ, et al (2023)

Identification of bacterial pathogens in brain abscesses by metagenomic approach using nanopore 16S amplicon sequencing.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 107(4):116041 pii:S0732-8893(23)00151-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Brain abscess is medically challenging. In this study, we applied nanopore sequencing for 16S rRNA analysis and investigated its efficacy and diagnostic value for patients with brain abscesses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the pus samples (n = 27) of brain abscess, and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR. Sequencing libraries were generated using a rapid barcoding kit, and the generated reads were analyzed using the EPI2ME16S workflow. A conventional culture study was performed. More sensitive identification of pathogens was made by 16S sequencing, faster than the culture study. The proportion of anaerobic bacteria identified by 16S sequencing was higher (75%) than that obtained by culturing (32%). Polymicrobial infections were identified in 10 cases (40%) by 16S sequencing, while the culture study identified multiple bacteria in only 2 cases (8%). 16S sequencing was useful for identifying the composition of polymicrobial infections, including rare pathogens, and for the initial diagnosis of space-occupying lesions.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )