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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2024 at 01:32 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-17

Wang S, Xu K, G Wang (2024)

Delayed diagnosis of persistent Q fever: a case series from China.

BMC infectious diseases, 24(1):591.

BACKGROUND: Q fever, caused by the zoonotic pathogen Coxiella burnetii, exhibits a worldwide prevalence. In China, Q fever is not recognized as a notifiable disease, and the disease is overlooked and underestimated in clinical practice, leading to diagnostic challenges.

CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case series of three patients diagnosed with persistent Q fever between 2022 and 2023. The average age of our three cases was 63.33 years old, consisting of two males and one female. The medical history of the individuals included previous valve replacement, aneurysm followed by aortic stent-graft placement and prosthetic hip joint replacement. At the onset of the disease, only one case exhibited acute fever, while the remaining two cases were devoid of any acute symptoms. The etiology was initially overlooked until metagenomic next-generation sequencing test identified Coxiella burnetii from the blood or biopsy samples. Delayed diagnosis was noted, with a duration ranging from three months to one year between the onset of the disease and its confirmation. The epidemiological history uncovered that none of the three cases had direct exposure to domestic animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Case 1 and 2 resided in urban areas, while Case 3 was a rural resident engaged in farming. All patients received combination therapy of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine, and no recurrence of the disease was observed during the follow-up period.

CONCLUSION: Q fever is rarely diagnosed and reported in clinical practice in our country. We should be aware of persistent Q fever in high-risk population, even with unremarkable exposure history. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing holds great potential as a diagnostic tool for identifying rare and fastidious pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Liu ZT, Ma RA, Zhu D, et al (2024)

Organic fertilization co-selects genetically linked antibiotic and metal(loid) resistance genes in global soil microbiome.

Nature communications, 15(1):5168.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and metal(loid) resistance genes (MRGs) coexist in organic fertilized agroecosystems based on their correlations in abundance, yet evidence for the genetic linkage of ARG-MRGs co-selected by organic fertilization remains elusive. Here, an analysis of 511 global agricultural soil metagenomes reveals that organic fertilization correlates with a threefold increase in the number of diverse types of ARG-MRG-carrying contigs (AMCCs) in the microbiome (63 types) compared to non-organic fertilized soils (22 types). Metatranscriptomic data indicates increased expression of AMCCs under higher arsenic stress, with co-regulation of the ARG-MRG pairs. Organic fertilization heightens the coexistence of ARG-MRG in genomic elements through impacting soil properties and ARG and MRG abundances. Accordingly, a comprehensive global map was constructed to delineate the distribution of coexistent ARG-MRGs with virulence factors and mobile genes in metagenome-assembled genomes from agricultural lands. The map unveils a heightened relative abundance and potential pathogenicity risks (range of 4-6) for the spread of coexistent ARG-MRGs in Central North America, Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northeast China compared to other regions, which acquire a risk range of 1-3. Our findings highlight that organic fertilization co-selects genetically linked ARGs and MRGs in the global soil microbiome, and underscore the need to mitigate the spread of these co-resistant genes to safeguard public health.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Ulrich JU, BY Renard (2024)

Fast and space-efficient taxonomic classification of long reads with hierarchical interleaved XOR filters.

Genome research pii:gr.278623.123 [Epub ahead of print].

Metagenomic long-read sequencing is gaining popularity for various applications, including pathogen detection and microbiome studies. To analyze the large data created in those studies, software tools need to taxonomically classify the sequenced molecules and estimate the relative abundances of organisms in the sequenced sample. Due to the exponential growth of reference genome databases, the current taxonomic classification methods have large computational requirements. This issue motivated us to develop a new data structure for fast and memory-efficient querying of long reads. Here, we present Taxor as a new tool for long-read metagenomic classification using a hierarchical interleaved XOR filter data structure for indexing and querying large reference genome sets. Taxor implements several k-mer-based approaches, such as syncmers, for pseudo-alignment to classify reads and an Expectation-Maximization algorithm for metagenomic profiling. Our results show that Taxor outperforms state-of-the-art tools regarding precision while having a similar recall for long-read taxonomic classification. Most notably, Taxor reduces the memory requirements and index size by more than 50% and is among the fastest tools regarding query times. This enables real-time metagenomics analysis with large reference databases on a small laptop in the field.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Di Gregorio S, Niccolini L, Seggiani M, et al (2024)

Marine copepod culture as a potential source of bioplastic-degrading microbiome: the case of poly(butylene succinate-co- adipate).

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01497-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The poly(butylene succinate-co- adipate) (PBSA) is emerging as environmentally sustainable polyester for applications in marine environment. In this work the capacity of microbiome associated with marine plankton culture to degrade PBSA, was tested. A taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome associated with the copepod Acartia tonsa, reared in controlled conditions, was analysed by 16S rDNA metabarcoding, in newly formed adult stages and after 7 d of incubation. A predictive functional metagenomic profile was inferred for hydrolytic activities involved in bioplastic degradation with a particular focus on PBSA. The copepod-microbiome was also characterized in newly formed carcasses of A. tonsa, and after 7 and 33 d of incubation in the plankton culture medium. Copepod-microbiome showed hydrolytic activities at all developmental stages of the alive copepods and their carcasses, however, the evenness of the hydrolytic bacterial community significantly increased with the time of incubation in carcasses. Microbial genera, never described in association with copepods: Devosia, Kordia, Lentibacter, Methylotenera, Rheinheimera, Marinagarivorans, Paraglaciecola, Pseudophaeobacter, Gaiella, Streptomyces and Kribbella sps., were retrieved. Kribbella sp. showed carboxylesterase activity and Streptomyces sp. showed carboxylesterase, triacylglycerol lipase and cutinase activities, that might be involved in PBSA degradation. A culturomic approach, adopted to isolate bacterial specimen from carcasses, led to the isolation of the bacterial strain, Vibrio sp. 01 tested for the capacity to promote the hydrolysis of the ester bonds. Granules of PBSA, incubated 82 d at 20 °C with Vibrio sp. 01, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry, showing fractures compared to the control sample, and hydrolysis of ester bonds. These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigation on the ability of the microbiome associated with plankton to biodegrade polyesters, such as PBSA, and increasing knowledge on microorganisms involved in bioplastic degradation in marine environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Guo H, Li Z, Sun X, et al (2024)

Impact of earthworms on suppressing dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes during vermicomposting treatment of excess sludge.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00695-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Earthworms play a crucial role in suppressing the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during vermicomposting. However, there is still a lack of how earthworms influence the spread of ARGs. To address this gap, a microcosm experiment was conducted, incorporating earthworms and utilizing metagenomics and quantitative PCR to assess the impact of earthworms on microbial interactions and the removal of plasmid-induced ARGs. The findings revealed that vermicomposting led to a reduction in the relative abundance of ARGs by altering microbial communities and interactions. Significantly, vermicomposting demonstrated an impressive capability, reducing 92% of ARGs donor bacteria and impeding the transmission of 94% of the RP4 plasmid. Furthermore, through structural equation model analysis, it was determined that mobile genetic elements and environmental variables were the primary influencers of ARG reduction. Overall, this study offers a fresh perspective on the effects of vermicomposting and its potential to mitigate the spread of ARGs.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Balasundaram D, Veerasamy V, Sylvia Singarayar M, et al (2024)

Therapeutic potential of probiotics in gut microbial homeostasis and Rheumatoid arthritis.

International immunopharmacology, 137:112501 pii:S1567-5769(24)01022-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and joint damage. Existing treatment options primarily focus on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression, often with side effects and limitations. The gut microbiome, a vast community of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a crucial role in health and disease. Recent research suggests a bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and RA, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic option. This review focuses on the interaction between the gut microbiome and RA development, by discussing how dysbiosis, an imbalance in gut bacteria, can contribute to RA through multiple mechanisms such as molecular mimicry, leaky gut, and metabolic dysregulation. Probiotics, live microorganisms with health benefits, are emerging as promising tools for managing RA. They can prevent the negative effects of dysbiosis by displacing harmful bacteria, producing anti-inflammatory metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), Directly influencing immune cells, and modifying host metabolism. animal and clinical studies demonstrate the potential of probiotics in improving RA symptoms and disease outcomes. However, further research is needed to optimize probiotic strains, dosages, and treatment protocols for personalized and effective management of RA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the gut microbiome and its role in RA and discusses future research directions. In addition to the established role of gut dysbiosis in RA, emerging strategies like fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, and postbiotics offer exciting possibilities. However, individual variations in gut composition necessitate personalized treatment plans. Long-term effects and clear regulations need to be established. Future research focusing on metagenomic analysis, combination therapies, and mechanistic understanding will unlock the full potential of gut microbiome modulation for effective RA management.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Qin X, Q Li (2024)

Heavy metal tolerance and detoxification mechanism mediated by heavy metal resistance genes in compost habitat.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Heavy metal pollution from compost is one of the most concerned environmental problems, which poses a threat to the ecosystem and human health. This study aims to reveal the heavy metal tolerance and detoxification mechanism mediated by heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) in compost habitat through metagenomics combined with chemical speciation analysis of heavy metals. The results showed that there were 37 HMRGs corresponding to 7 common heavy metal(loid)s in composting, and they had the ability to transform heavy metals into stable or low-toxic speciation by regulating enzyme transport, redox, methylation, etc. This study summarized the heavy metal metabolism pathway mediated by HMRGs, providing a new perspective for understanding the transformation of heavy metals in the composting process.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Takeuchi M, Fujiwara-Nagata E, Kuroda K, et al (2024)

Fecal metagenomic and metabolomic analyses reveal non-invasive biomarkers of Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: With the rapid growth of inland aquaculture worldwide, side effects such as the discharge of nutrients and antibiotics pose a threat to the global environments. A sustainable future for aquaculture requires an effective management system, including the early detection of disease through the monitoring of specific biomarkers in aquaculture tanks. To this end, we investigated whether fish feces in aquaculture tanks could be used for non-invasive health monitoring using ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which causes bacterial cold-water disease worldwide. Feces that were subsequently produced in the tanks were used for metagenomic and metabolomic analyses. The relative abundances of the genera Cypionkella (0.6% ± 1.0%, 0.1% ± 0.2%), Klebsiella (11.2% ± 10.0%, 6.2% ± 5.9%), and F. psychrophilum (0.5% ± 1.0%, 0.0% ± 0.0%) were significantly higher in the feces of the infection challenge test tanks than in those of the control tanks. The abundances of cortisol, glucose, and acetate in the feces of the infection challenge test tanks were 2.4, 2.4, and 1.3 times higher, respectively, than those of the control tanks. Metagenome analysis suggested that acetate was produced by microbes such as Cypionkella. The abundances of indicated microbes or metabolites increased after day 4 of infection at the earliest, and were thus considered possible biomarkers. Our results suggest that feces produced in aquaculture tanks can potentially be used for non-invasive and holistic monitoring of fish diseases in aquaculture systems.

IMPORTANCE: The aquaculture industry is rapidly growing, yet sustainability remains a challenge. One crucial task is to reduce losses due to diseases. Monitoring fish health and detecting diseases early are key to establishing sustainable aquaculture. Using metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, we found that feces of ayu infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum contain various specific biomarkers that increased 4 days post-challenge, at the earliest. Our findings are the first step in establishing a novel, non-invasive, and holistic monitoring method for fish diseases in aquaculture systems, especially in ayu, which is an important freshwater fish species in Asia, promoting a sustainable future.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Wang S, Jiang Y, Che L, et al (2024)

Enhancing insights into diseases through horizontal gene transfer event detection from gut microbiome.

Nucleic acids research pii:7694277 [Epub ahead of print].

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) phenomena pervade the gut microbiome and significantly impact human health. Yet, no current method can accurately identify complete HGT events, including the transferred sequence and the associated deletion and insertion breakpoints from shotgun metagenomic data. Here, we develop LocalHGT, which facilitates the reliable and swift detection of complete HGT events from shotgun metagenomic data, delivering an accuracy of 99.4%-verified by Nanopore data-across 200 gut microbiome samples, and achieving an average F1 score of 0.99 on 100 simulated data. LocalHGT enables a systematic characterization of HGT events within the human gut microbiome across 2098 samples, revealing that multiple recipient genome sites can become targets of a transferred sequence, microhomology is enriched in HGT breakpoint junctions (P-value = 3.3e-58), and HGTs can function as host-specific fingerprints indicated by the significantly higher HGT similarity of intra-personal temporal samples than inter-personal samples (P-value = 4.3e-303). Crucially, HGTs showed potential contributions to colorectal cancer (CRC) and acute diarrhoea, as evidenced by the enrichment of the butyrate metabolism pathway (P-value = 3.8e-17) and the shigellosis pathway (P-value = 5.9e-13) in the respective associated HGTs. Furthermore, differential HGTs demonstrated promise as biomarkers for predicting various diseases. Integrating HGTs into a CRC prediction model achieved an AUC of 0.87.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Louisson Z, Gutiérrez-Ginés MJ, Taylor M, et al (2024)

Soil conditions are a more important determinant of microbial community composition and functional potential than neighboring plant diversity.

iScience, 27(6):110056.

Replanting is an important tool for ecological recovery. Management strategies, such as planting areas with monocultures or species mixtures, have implications for restoration success. We used 16S and ITS rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to assess how the diversity of neighboring tree species impacted soil bacterial and fungal communities, and their functional potential, within the root zone of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) trees. We compared data from monoculture and mixed tree species plots and confirmed that soil microbial taxonomic and functional community profiles significantly differed (p < 0.001). Compared to the diversity of neighboring tree species within the plot, soil environmental conditions and geographic distance was more important for structuring the microbial communities. The bacterial communities appeared more impacted by soil conditions, while the fungal communities displayed stronger spatial structuring, possibly due to wider bacterial dispersal. The different mechanisms structuring bacterial and fungal communities could have implications for ecological restoration outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Abaeva IS, Pestova TV, CUT Hellen (2024)

Genetic mechanisms underlying the structural elaboration and dissemination of viral internal ribosomal entry sites.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.17.590008.

Viral internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) form several classes that use distinct mechanisms to mediate end-independent initiation of translation. The origin of viral IRESs is a longstanding question. The simplest IRESs comprise tandem pseudoknots and occur in the intergenic region (IGR) of Dicistroviridae genomes (order Picornavirales). Larger IGR IRESs contain additional elements that determine specific properties such as binding to the head of the ribosoma l 40S subunit. Metagenomic analyses reported here identified novel groups of structurally distinct IGR-like IRESs. The smallest of these (∼120nt long) comprise three pseudoknots and bind directly to the ribosomal P site. Others are up to 260nt long: insertions occurred at specific loci, possibly reflecting non-templated nucleotide insertion during replication. Various groups can be arranged in order, differing by the cumulative addition of single structural elements, suggesting an accretion mechanism for the structural elaboration of IRESs. Identification of chimeric IRESs implicates recombinational exchange of domains as a second mechanism for the diversification of IRES structure. Recombination likely also accounts for the presence of IGR-like IRESs at the 5'-end of some dicistrovirus-like genomes (e.g. Hangzhou dicistrovirus 3) and in the RNA genomes of Tombusviridae (order Tolivirales), Marnaviridae (order Picornavirale s), and the 'Ripiresk' picorna-like clade (order Picornavirale s).

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Yang Z, Liu T, Fan J, et al (2024)

Biocontrol agents modulate phyllosphere microbiota interactions against pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

Environmental science and ecotechnology, 21:100431.

The pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, responsible for a variety of diseases, poses a considerable threat to global crop yields. Emerging biocontrol strategies employ antagonistic microorganisms, utilizing phyllosphere microecology and systemic resistance to combat this disease. However, the interactions between phyllosphere microbial dynamics and the activation of the plant defense system remain poorly understood. Here we show significant alterations in phyllosphere microbiota structure and plant gene expression following the application of biocontrol agents. We reveal enhanced collaboration and integration of Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium within the microbial co-occurrence network. Notably, Sphingomonas inhibits P. syringae by disrupting pathogen chemotaxis and virulence. Additionally, both Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium activate plant defenses by upregulating pathogenesis-related gene expression through abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonate acid, and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Our results highlighted that biocontrol agents promote plant health, from reconstructing beneficial microbial consortia to enhancing plant immunity. The findings enrich our comprehension of the synergistic interplays between phyllosphere microbiota and plant immunity, offering potential enhancements in biocontrol efficacy for crop protection.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Xu X, Feng Q, Zhang T, et al (2024)

Infant age inversely correlates with gut carriage of resistance genes, reflecting modifications in microbial carbohydrate metabolism during early life.

iMeta, 3(2):e169.

The infant gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, yet the assembly of gut resistome in infants and its influencing factors remain largely unknown. We characterized resistome in 4132 metagenomes from 963 infants in six countries and 4285 resistance genes were observed. The inherent resistome pattern of healthy infants (N = 272) could be distinguished by two stages: a multicompound resistance phase (Months 0-7) and a tetracycline-mupirocin-β-lactam-dominant phase (Months 8-14). Microbial taxonomy explained 40.7% of the gut resistome of healthy infants, with Escherichia (25.5%) harboring the most resistance genes. In a further analysis with all available infants (N = 963), we found age was the strongest influencer on the resistome and was negatively correlated with the overall resistance during the first 3 years (p < 0.001). Using a random-forest approach, a set of 34 resistance genes could be used to predict age (R [2] = 68.0%). Leveraging microbial host inference analyses, we inferred the age-dependent assembly of infant resistome was a result of shifts in the gut microbiome, primarily driven by changes in taxa that disproportionately harbor resistance genes across taxa (e.g., Escherichia coli more frequently harbored resistance genes than other taxa). We performed metagenomic functional profiling and metagenomic assembled genome analyses whose results indicate that the development of gut resistome was driven by changes in microbial carbohydrate metabolism, with an increasing need for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Bacteroidota and a decreasing need for Pseudomonadota during infancy. Importantly, we observed increased acquired resistance genes over time, which was related to increased horizontal gene transfer in the developing infant gut microbiome. In summary, infant age was negatively correlated with antimicrobial resistance gene levels, reflecting a composition shift in the gut microbiome, likely driven by the changing need for microbial carbohydrate metabolism during early life.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Xu H, Zhang R, Zhang X, et al (2024)

Pulmonary granulomas and Mendelson syndrome in an immunocompromised patient.

Heliyon, 10(11):e32256.

Granuloma formation is generally correlated with infection. Pulmonary granulomas caused by foreign bodies aspiration are uncommon. The clinical and radiologic features of such cases often lack specificity, which makes it difficult to distinguish from malignancy. Aspiration is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with mass-like abnormalities on chest imaging. Occult aspiration history, diverse clinical manifestations, atypical imaging findings, and limited availability of pathogen detection techniques make the precise diagnosis a substantial challenge. Herein, we describe an older patient presenting with chest pain and worrisome lung masses/nodules that proved to be pulmonary granulomas caused by foreign matters aspiration. In addition, the patient developed Mendelson syndrome due to acute macroaspiration. Lung tissue metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) revealed Streptococcus intermedius, a normal flora of the oropharynx. The aim of this case was to underscore the importance of considering aspiration as a potential differential diagnosis of patients presenting with pulmonary granulomas, especially in patients with recurrent pneumonia or predisposing factors. In addition, mNGS act as a potential, rapid, and effective technique for diagnosing aspiration-related syndrome, showing satisfactory performance in identifying pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Saleem F, Ameer A, Star-Shirko B, et al (2024)

Dataset of 569 metagenome-assembled genomes from the caeca of multiple chicken breeds from commercial and backyard farming setups of Pakistan.

Data in brief, 54:110552.

This article focuses the recovery of prokaryotic organisms including bacteria and archaea from 9 different groups of chicken raised in different farm setups in Pakistan. The groups comprise of three different breeds (Broilers, White Layers, and Black Australorp) of chicken raised in different farming setups that include antibiotic-free control, commercial (open and controlled shed), and backyard farms. We have recovered 569 Metagenomics-Assembled Genomes (MAGs) with a completeness of ≥50 % and contamination of ≤10 %. For each MAG, functional annotations were obtained that include KEGG modules, carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), peptidases, geochemical cycles, antibiotic resistance genes, stress genes, and virulence genes. Furthermore, two different sets of Single Copy Genes (SCGs) were used to construct the phylogenetic trees. Based on the reconstructed phylogeny, phylogenetic gain of each MAG is calculated to give an account of novelty.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Zhang LY, Wang L, Umar Z, et al (2024)

Weathering the storm: diagnosis and treatment of a life-threatening disseminated Nocardia otitidiscaviarum infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1397847.

Nocardiosis demonstrates a temporal categorization that includes acute, subacute, and chronic stages alongside distinct typical localizations such as pulmonary, cutaneous, and disseminated forms. Disseminated nocardiosis, commonly caused by Nocardia asteroides, N. brasiliensis, and N. farcinica, continues to result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Herein, we report a life-threatening disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in a patient with minimal change disease. This study emphasizes the difficulty in the diagnosis and treatment of unknown infections in clinical settings and highlights the important role played by laboratories in solving infectious diseases caused by rare pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Dantas CWD, Martins DT, Nogueira WG, et al (2024)

Tools and methodology to in silico phage discovery in freshwater environments.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1390726.

Freshwater availability is essential, and its maintenance has become an enormous challenge. Due to population growth and climate changes, freshwater sources are becoming scarce, imposing the need for strategies for its reuse. Currently, the constant discharge of waste into water bodies from human activities leads to the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria, negatively impacting water quality from the source to the infrastructure required for treatment, such as the accumulation of biofilms. Current water treatment methods cannot keep pace with bacterial evolution, which increasingly exhibits a profile of multidrug resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, using more powerful disinfectants may affect the balance of aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, there is a need to explore sustainable ways to control the spreading of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteriophages can infect bacteria and archaea, hijacking their host machinery to favor their replication. They are widely abundant globally and provide a biological alternative to bacterial treatment with antibiotics. In contrast to common disinfectants and antibiotics, bacteriophages are highly specific, minimizing adverse effects on aquatic microbial communities and offering a lower cost-benefit ratio in production compared to antibiotics. However, due to the difficulty involving cultivating and identifying environmental bacteriophages, alternative approaches using NGS metagenomics in combination with some bioinformatic tools can help identify new bacteriophages that can be useful as an alternative treatment against resistant bacteria. In this review, we discuss advances in exploring the virome of freshwater, as well as current applications of bacteriophages in freshwater treatment, along with current challenges and future perspectives.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Xu Y, Feng T, Ding Z, et al (2024)

Age-related compositional and functional changes in the adult and breastfed buffalo rumen microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1342804.

INTRODUCTION: The buffalo is an important domestic animal globally, providing milk, meat, and labor to more than 2 billion people in 67 countries. The rumen microorganisms of buffaloes play an indispensable role in enabling the healthy functionality and digestive function of buffalo organisms. Currently, there is a lack of clarity regarding the differences in the composition and function of rumen microorganisms among buffaloes at different growth stages.

METHODS: In this study, metagenomics sequencing technology was applied to examine the compositional and functional differences of rumen microorganisms in adult and breastfed buffaloes.

RESULTS: The results revealed that the rumen of adult buffaloes had significantly higher levels of the following dominant genera: Prevotella, UBA1711, RF16, Saccharofermentans, F23-D06, UBA1777, RUG472, and Methanobrevibacter_A. Interestingly, the dominant genera specific to the rumen of adult buffaloes showed a significant positive correlation (correlation>0.5, p-value<0.05) with both lignocellulose degradation-related carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and immune signaling pathways activated by antigenic stimulation. The rumen of breastfed buffaloes had significantly higher levels of the following dominant genera: UBA629, CAG- 791, Selenomonas_C, Treponema_D, Succinivibrio, and RC9. Simultaneously, the rumen-dominant genera specific to breastfed buffaloes were significantly positively correlated (correlation>0.5, p-value<0.05) with CAZymes associated with lactose degradation, amino acid synthesis pathways, and antibiotic-producing pathways.

DISCUSSION: This indicates that rumen microorganisms in adult buffaloes are more engaged in lignocellulose degradation, whereas rumen microorganisms in breastfed buffaloes are more involved in lactose and amino acid degradation, as well as antibiotic production. In conclusion, these findings suggest a close relationship between differences in rumen microbes and the survival needs of buffaloes at different growth stages.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Yu L, An Z, Xie D, et al (2024)

From waste to protein: a new strategy of converting composted distilled grain wastes into animal feed.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1405564.

Distilled grain waste (DGW) is rich in nutrients and can be a potential resource as animal feed. However, DGW contains as much as 14% lignin, dramatically reducing the feeding value. White-rot fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus could preferentially degrade lignin with high efficiency. However, lignin derivatives generated during alcohol distillation inhibit P. ostreatus growth. Thus, finding a new strategy to adjust the DGW properties to facilitate P. ostreatus growth is critical for animal feed preparation and DGW recycling. In this study, three dominant indigenous bacteria, including Sphingobacterium thermophilum X1, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax X3, and Bacillus velezensis 15F were chosen to generate single and compound microbial inoculums for DGW composting to prepare substrates for P. ostreatus growth. Compared with non-inoculated control or single microbial inoculation, all composite inoculations, especially the three-microbial compound, led to faster organic metabolism, shorter composting process, and improved physicochemical properties of DGW. P. ostreatus growth assays showed the fastest mycelial colonization (20.43 μg·g[-1] ergosterol) and extension (9 mm/d), the highest ligninolytic enzyme activities (Lac, 152.68 U·g[-1]; Lip, 15.56 U·g[-1]; MnP, 0.34 U·g[-1]; Xylanase, 10.98 U·g[-1]; FPase, 0.71 U·g[-1]), and the highest lignin degradation ratio (30.77%) in the DGW sample after 12 h of composting with the three-microbial compound inoculation when compared to other groups. This sample was relatively abundant in bacteria playing critical roles in amino acid, carbohydrate, energy metabolism, and xenobiotic biodegradation, as suggested by metagenomic analysis. The feed value analysis revealed that P. ostreatus mycelia full colonization in composted DGW led to high fiber content retention and decreased lignin content (final ratio of 5% lignin) but elevated protein concentrations (about 130 g·kg[-1] DM). An additional daily weight gain of 0.4 kg/d was shown in cattle feeding experiments by replacing 60% of regular feed with it. These findings demonstrate that compound inoculant consisting of three indigenous microorganisms is efficient to compost DGW and facilitate P. ostreatus growth. P. ostreatus decreased the lignin content of composted DGW during its mycelial growth, improving the quality of DGW for feeding cattle.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Shah M, Bornemann TLV, Nuy JK, et al (2024)

Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals the effect of nutrient availability on bacterial genomic properties across 44 European freshwater lakes.

Environmental microbiology, 26(6):e16634.

Understanding intricate microbial interactions in the environment is crucial. This is especially true for the relationships between nutrients and bacteria, as phosphorus, nitrogen and organic carbon availability are known to influence bacterial population dynamics. It has been suggested that low nutrient conditions prompt the evolutionary process of genome streamlining. This process helps conserve scarce nutrients and allows for proliferation. Genome streamlining is associated with genomic properties such as %GC content, genes encoding sigma factors, percent coding regions, gene redundancy, and functional shifts in processes like cell motility and ATP binding cassette transporters, among others. The current study aims to unveil the impact of nutrition on the genome size, %GC content, and functional properties of pelagic freshwater bacteria. We do this at finer taxonomic resolutions for many metagenomically characterized communities. Our study confirms the interplay of trophic level and genomic properties. It also highlights that different nutrient types, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, impact these properties differently. We observed a covariation of functional traits with genome size. Larger genomes exhibit enriched pathways for motility, environmental interaction, and regulatory genes. ABC transporter genes reflect the availability of nutrients in the environment, with small genomes presumably relying more on metabolites from other organisms. We also discuss the distinct strategies different phyla adopt to adapt to oligotrophic environments. The findings contribute to our understanding of genomic adaptations within complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Blair EM, Brown JL, Li D, et al (2024)

Metagenomics analysis yields assembled genomes from prokaryotic anaerobes with polymer-degrading potential.

Biotechnology progress [Epub ahead of print].

Anaerobic microbial communities are often highly degradative, such as those found in the herbivore rumen and large-scale anaerobic digesters. Since the microbial communities in these systems degrade recalcitrant organic polymers, we hypothesize that some microbes in anaerobic environments may be involved in man-made plastic association, deformation, or even breakdown. While efforts have been put toward characterizing microbial communities, many microbes remain unidentified until they can be sufficiently cultivated to generate enough genetic material to assemble high-quality metagenome assemblies and reference genomes. In this study, microbial consortia from goat fecal pellets and anaerobic digester sludge were cultivated for over 6 weeks to assemble metagenomes from novel anaerobic taxa with potential degradative activity. To select for microbes with potential plastic-degrading abilities, plastic strips were included in culture, though the presence of plastic did not appear to enrich for particularly degradative consortia, yet it did select for novel species that otherwise may not have been characterized. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing enabled assembly of 72 prokaryotic metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with >90% completion, <5% contamination, and an N50 >10,000 bp; 17 of these MAGs are classified as novel species given their lack of similarity to publicly available genomes and MAGs. These 72 MAGs vary in predicted carbohydrate-degrading abilities, with genes predicted to encode fewer than 10 or up to nearly 400 carbohydrate-active enzymes. Overall, this enrichment strategy enables characterization of less abundant MAGs in a community, and the MAGs identified here can be further mined to advance understanding of degradative anaerobic microbial consortia.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Greco C, Andersen DT, Yallop ML, et al (2024)

Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals diverse taxa and metabolic complexity in Antarctic lake microbial structures.

Environmental microbiology, 26(6):e16663.

Lake Untersee, a lake in Antarctica that is perennially covered with ice, is home to unique microbial structures that are not lithified. We have evaluated the structure of the community and its metabolic potential across the pigmented upper layers and the sediment-enriched deeper layers in these pinnacle and cone-shaped microbial structures using metagenomics. These microbial structures are inhabited by distinct communities. The upper layers of the cone-shaped structures have a higher abundance of the cyanobacterial MAG Microcoleus, while the pinnacle-shaped structures have a higher abundance of Elainellacea MAG. This suggests that cyanobacteria influence the morphologies of the mats. We identified stark contrasts in the composition of the community and its metabolic potential between the upper and lower layers of the mat. The upper layers of the mat, which receive light, have an increased abundance of photosynthetic pathways. In contrast, the lower layer has an increased abundance of heterotrophic pathways. Our results also showed that Lake Untersee is the first Antarctic lake with a substantial presence of ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospiracea and amoA genes. The genomic capacity for recycling biological molecules was prevalent across metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that cover 19 phyla. This highlights the importance of nutrient scavenging in ultra-oligotrophic environments. Overall, our study provides new insights into the formation of microbial structures and the potential metabolic complexity of Antarctic laminated microbial mats. These mats are important environments for biodiversity that drives biogeochemical cycling in polar deserts.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Nakamura T, Singh M, Sugiura M, et al (2024)

SNap bond, a crucial hydrogen bond between Ser in helix 3 and Asn in helix 4, regulates the structural dynamics of heliorhodopsin.

Journal of molecular biology pii:S0022-2836(24)00261-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Heliorhodopsin (HeR) is a new rhodopsin family discovered in 2018 through functional metagenomic analysis. Similar to microbial rhodopsins, HeR has an all-trans retinal chromophore, and its photoisomerization to the 13-cis form triggers a relatively slow photocycle with sequential intermediate states (K, M, and O intermediates). The O intermediate has a relatively long lifetime and is a putative active state for transferring signals or regulating enzymatic reactions. Although the first discovered HeR, 48C12, was found in bacteria and the second HeR (TaHeR) was found in archaea, their key amino acid residues and molecular architectures have been recognized to be well conserved. Nevertheless, the rise and decay kinetics of the O intermediate are faster in 48C12 than in TaHeR. Here, using a new infrared spectroscopic technique with quantum cascade lasers, we clarified that the hydrogen bond between transmembrane helices (TM) 3 and 4 is essential for the altered O kinetics (Ser112 and Asn138 in 48C12). Interconverting mutants of 48C12 and TaHeR clearly revealed that the hydrogen bond is important for regulating the dynamics of the O intermediate. Overall, our study sheds light on the importance of the hydrogen bond between TM3 and TM4 in heliorhodopsins, similar to the DC gate in channelrhodopsins.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Sabater C, Calvete I, Vázquez X, et al (2024)

Tracing the origin and authenticity of Spanish PDO honey using metagenomics and machine learning.

International journal of food microbiology, 421:110789 pii:S0168-1605(24)00233-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) indication for foods intends to guarantee the conditions of production and the geographical origin of regional products within the European Union. Honey products are widely consumed due to their health-promoting properties and there is a general interest in tracing their authenticity. In this regard, metagenomics sequencing and machine learning (ML) have been proposed as complementary technologies to improve the traceability methods of foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the metagenomic profiles of Spanish honeys from three different PDOs (Granada, Tenerife and Villuercas-Ibores), and compare them with non-PDO honeys using ML models (PLS, RF, LOGITBOOST, and NNET). According to the results obtained, non-PDO honeys and Granada PDO showed higher beta diversity values than Tenerife and Villuercas-Ibores PDOs. ML classification of honey products allowed the identification of different microbial biomarkers of the geographical origin of honeys: Lactobacillus kunkeei, Parasaccharibacter apium and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis for PDO honeys and Paenibacillus larvae, Lactobacillus apinorum and Klebsiella pneumoniae for non-PDO honeys. In addition, potential microbial biomarkers of some honey varieties including L. kunkeei for Albaida and Retama del Teide varieties, and P. apium for Tajinaste variety, were identified. ML models were validated on an independent set of samples leading to high accuracy rates (above 90 %). This work demonstrates the potential of ML to differentiate different types of honey using metagenome-based methods, leading to high performance metrics. In addition, ML models discriminate both the geographical origin and variety of products corresponding to different PDOs and non-PDO products. Results here presented may contribute to develop enhanced traceability and authenticity methods that could be applied to a wide range of foods.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Yin Y, Shen J, Du Z, et al (2024)

Clinical and cost analysis of an ultra-rapid metagenomic sequencing test for pathogen detection in adult patients with sepsis.

Chinese medical journal [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Wang Q, Zhan PC, Han XL, et al (2024)

Metagenomic and culture-dependent analysis of Rhinopithecius bieti gut microbiota and characterization of a novel genus of Sphingobacteriaceae.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13819.

Culture-dependent and metagenomic binning techniques were employed to gain an insight into the diversification of gut bacteria in Rhinopithecius bieti, a highly endangered primate endemic to China. Our analyses revealed that Bacillota_A and Bacteroidota were the dominant phyla. These two phyla species are rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, which could provide nutrients and energy for their own or hosts' survival under different circumstances. Among the culturable bacteria, one novel bacterium, designated as WQ 2009[T], formed a distinct branch that had a low similarity to the known species in the family Sphingobacteriaceae, based on the phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence or phylogenomic analysis. The ANI, dDDH and AAI values between WQ 2009[T] and its most closely related strains S. kitahiroshimense 10C[T], S. pakistanense NCCP-246[T] and S. faecium DSM 11690[T] were significantly lower than the accepted cut-off values for microbial species delineation. All results demonstrated that WQ 2009[T] represent a novel genus, for which names Rhinopithecimicrobium gen. nov. and Rhinopithecimicrobium faecis sp. nov. (Type strain WQ 2009[T] = CCTCC AA 2021153[T] = KCTC 82941[T]) are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Lo WS, Sommer RJ, Z Han (2024)

Microbiota succession influences nematode physiology in a beetle microcosm ecosystem.

Nature communications, 15(1):5137.

Unravelling the multifaceted and bidirectional interactions between microbiota and host physiology represents a major scientific challenge. Here, we utilise the nematode model, Pristionchus pacificus, coupled to a laboratory-simulated decay process of its insect host, to mimic natural microbiota succession and investigate associated tripartite interactions. Metagenomics reveal that during initial decay stages, the population of vitamin B-producing bacteria diminishes, potentially due to a preferential selection by nematodes. As decay progresses to nutrient-depleted stages, bacteria with smaller genomes producing less nutrients become more prevalent. Lipid utilisation and dauer formation, representing key nematode survival strategies, are influenced by microbiota changes. Additionally, horizontally acquired cellulases extend the nematodes' reproductive phase due to more efficient foraging. Lastly, the expressions of Pristionchus species-specific genes are more responsive to natural microbiota compared to conserved genes, suggesting their importance in the organisms' adaptation to its ecological niche. In summary, we show the importance of microbial successions and their reciprocal interaction with nematodes for insect decay in semi-artificial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Wang H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, et al (2024)

Microbial metagenomic shifts in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during induction therapy and predictive biomarkers for infection.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 23(1):52.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has indicated a link between the gut microbiota and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the acute changes in gut microbiota during chemotherapy and the predictive value of baseline gut microbiota in infectious complication remain largely unknown.

METHODS: Faecal samples (n = 126) from children with ALL (n = 49) undergoing induction chemotherapy were collected at three timepoints, i.e., initiation of chemotherapy (baseline, T0), 7 days (T1) and 33 days (T2) after initiation of chemotherapy. Gut microbiome profile was performed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The bioBakery3 pipeline (Kneaddata, Metaphlan 3 and HUMAnN) was performed to assign taxonomy and functional annotations. Gut microbiome at T0 were used to predict infection during chemotherapy.

RESULTS: The microbial diversities and composition changed significantly during chemotherapy, with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bifidobacterium longum being the most prominent species. The microbial metabolic pathways were also significantly altered during chemotherapy, including the pathway of pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate, and assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models based on Bifidobacterium longum at T0 could predict infectious complications during the first month of chemotherapy with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.720.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the acute changes in microbial and functional characteristics in children with ALL during chemotherapy. The baseline gut microbiota could be potential biomarkers for infections during chemotherapy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University (2021-KY-171-01) and registered on http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2200065406, Registration Date: November 4, 2022).

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Jiang X, Wang X, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Associations between specific dietary patterns, gut microbiome composition, and incident subthreshold depression in Chinese young adults.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(24)00221-2 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The interplay between influential factors and the incidence of subthreshold depression (SD) in young adults remains poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand the dietary habits, gut microbiota composition, etc. among individuals with SD in young adults and to investigate their association with SD occurrence.

METHODS: Employing a cross-sectional approach, 178 individuals with SD, aged 18-32 years, were matched with 114 healthy counterparts. SD status was evaluated using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Beck Depression Inventory 2nd version (BDI-II), the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scales of Depression (HAMD-17), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Metagenomic sequencing was utilized to identify fecal microbial profiles. Dietary patterns were discerned via factor analysis of a 25-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were performed to explore the potential links between gut microbiota, dietary patterns, and incident SD.

RESULTS: Data on dietary habits were available for 292 participants (mean [SD] age, 22.1 [2.9] years; 216 [73.9 %] female). Logistic regression analysis revealed that dietary patterns Ⅰ (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95 % CI, 0.15-0.75) and IV (OR, 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.17-0.86 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.18-0.84) were associated with reduced risk of SD. Distinct microbial profiles were observed in young adults with SD, marked by increased microbial diversity and taxonomic alterations. Moreover, mediation analysis suggested Veillonella atypica as a potential mediator linking SDS or BDI-II scores with a healthy dietary pattern rich in bean products, coarse grains, nuts, fruits, mushrooms, and potatoes (β = 0.25, 95 % CI: 0.02-0.78 and β = 0.18, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.54).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the complex interplay between dietary patterns, gut microbiota, and the risk of developing SD in young adults, underscoring the potential for dietary interventions and microbiome modulation in mental health promotion.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhou Q, Jiang L, Zhu J, et al (2024)

The metabolic regulation mechanism of gallic acid on biogenic amines and nitrosamines in reduced-nitrite Chinese fermented sausages: A perspective of metabolomics and metagenomics.

Food chemistry, 456:139900 pii:S0308-8146(24)01550-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Reducing nitrites tends to increase the accumulation of hazardous biogenic amines (BAs) in Chinese fermented sausages (CFSs). Gallic acid (GA) has emerged as a potential alternative to reduce nitrite usage and control BAs. This study explored how GA inhibits BAs and nitrosamines accumulation in reduced-nitrite CFSs. Results demonstrated that combining 0.05% (w/w) GA with reduced nitrite effectively curbed BAs and N-nitrosodimethylamine, decreasing total BA from 271.48 to 125.46 mg/kg. Fifty-one metabolites associated with the metabolism of BAs and N-nitrosodimethylamine were identified. GA boosted Lactococcus while reducing spoilage bacteria and Macrococcus. This dual regulation suppressed BAs and dimethylamine accumulation by regulating amino acids and trimethylamine pathways. Consequently, GA achieved an 89.86% reduction in N-nitrosodimethylamine by decreasing the key precursors like putrescine, dimethylamine, and nitrite. These findings offer new insights into utilizing GA and similar plant polyphenols to manage BAs and nitrosamines in meat products with reduced nitrite usage.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhang X, Ma L, XX Zhang (2024)

Neglected risks of enhanced antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity in anaerobic digestion during transition from thermophilic to mesophilic.

Journal of hazardous materials, 475:134886 pii:S0304-3894(24)01465-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Minimization of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and potential pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria (PARB) during anaerobic digestion (AD) is significantly impacted by temperature. However, knowledge on how ARGs and PARB respond to temperature transition from thermophilic to mesophilic is limited. Here, we combined metagenomic-based with culture-based approaches and revealed the risks of antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity during transition from 55 °C to 35 °C for AD, with strategies of sharp (ST, one-step by 20 °C/d) and mild (MT, step-wise by 1 °C/d). Results indicated a lower decrease in methane production with MT (by 38.9%) than ST (by 88.8%). Phenotypic assays characterized a significant propagation of multi-resistant lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae and indicator pathogens after both transitions, especially via ST. Further genomic evidence indicated a significant increase of ARGs (29.4-fold), virulence factor genes (1.8-fold) and PARB (65.3-fold) after ST, while slight enrichment via MT. Bacterial succession and enhanced horizontal transfer mediated by mobile genetic elements promoted ARG propagation in AD during transition, which was synchronously exacerbated through horizontal transfer mechanisms mediated by cellular physiological responses (oxidative stress, membrane permeability, bacterial conjugation and transformation) and co-selection mechanisms of biomethanation metabolic functions (acidogenesis and acetogenesis). This study reveals temperature-dependent resistome and pathogenicity development in AD, facilitating microbial risk control.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Huang L, L Jia (2024)

Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum-A case report.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 110(1):116347 pii:S0732-8893(24)00176-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In this article we report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who complained of a cough, followed by skin and intracranial lesions. On metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology of respiratory samples (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF) Nocardia otitidiscaviarum was identified. The patient was treated with therapy combined with a low dose of TMP-SMX and imipenem cilastatin sodium and had a favorable outcome. The timely diagnosis of Nocardia with the help of mNGS technology and early rational treatment of TMP-SMX can help improve the prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Qin W, Guo T, You T, et al (2024)

Metagenomic next generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for the identification of pathogens in patients with pulmonary infection: A retrospective study.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 110(1):116402 pii:S0732-8893(24)00228-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the limitations of traditional laboratory methods (TMs), identification of causative pathogens of numerous pulmonary infections (PIs) remains difficult. This study evaluated the value of metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) in the identification of various respiratory pathogens. A total of 207 patients with TMs and mNGS data were collected for this retrospective study. TMs included sputum culture, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, or polymerase chain reaction analysis of throat swabs. Otherwise, BALF was collected and analyzed using mNGS. For bacterial pathogens, sensitivities of mNGS as compared to TMs were 76.74 % and 58.14 % (P=0.012). For fungal pathogens, the detection rate of mNGS sensitivity was higher as compared to that of TMs (93.68 % vs 22.11 %; P<0.001). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were also greater for mNGS. Use of mNGS for BALF analysis offers good specificity and thus facilitates to the clinical diagnosis of PIs.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Wang H, Zhang L, Cui H, et al (2024)

Mechanisms linking triclocarban biotransformation to functional response and antimicrobial resistome evolution in wastewater treatment systems.

Water research, 260:121909 pii:S0043-1354(24)00810-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Evaluating the role of antimicrobials biotransformation in the regulation of metabolic functions and antimicrobial resistance evolution in wastewater biotreatment systems is crucial to ensuring water security. However, the associated mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate triclocarban (TCC, one of the typical antimicrobials) biotransformation mechanisms and the dynamic evolution of systemic function disturbance and antimicrobial resistance risk in a complex anaerobic hydrolytic acidification (HA)-anoxic (ANO)/oxic (O) process. We mined key functional genes involved in the TCC upstream (reductive dechlorination and amide bonds hydrolysis) and downstream (chloroanilines catabolism) biotransformation pathways by metagenomic sequencing. Acute and chronic stress of TCC inhibit the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), NH4[+] assimilation, and nitrification. The biotransformation of TCC via a single pathway cannot effectively relieve the inhibition of metabolic functions (e.g., carbon and nitrogen transformation and cycling) and enrichment of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Importantly, the coexistence of TCC reductive dechlorination and hydrolysis pathways and subsequent ring-opening catabolism play a critical role for stabilization of systemic metabolic functions and partial control of antimicrobial resistance risk. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms linking TCC biotransformation to the dynamic evolution of systemic functions and risks, and highlights critical regulatory information for enhanced control of TCC risks in complex biotreatment systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Tripathi P, Render R, Nidhi S, et al (2024)

Microbial genomics: a potential toolkit for forensic investigations.

Forensic science, medicine, and pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial forensics is a new discipline of science that analyzes evidence related to biological crime through the uniqueness and abundance of microorganisms and their toxins. Microorganisms remain alive longer than any other trace of biological evidence, such as DNA, fingerprints, and fibers, because of the protective cell membrane or capsules. Microbiological research has opened up various possibilities for forensic investigations of microbial flora. Current molecular technologies, including DNA sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, metagenomics, DNA fingerprinting, and molecular phylogeny, provide valid results for forensic investigations. Recent advancements in genome sequencing technologies, genetic data generation, and bioinformatic tools have significantly improved microbial sampling methods and forensic analyses. In this review, we discuss the applications of microbial genomic tools and technologies in forensic investigations, including human identification, geolocation, and causes of death.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Tian L, Fang G, Li G, et al (2024)

Metagenomic approach revealed the mobility and co-occurrence of antibiotic resistomes between non-intensive aquaculture environment and human.

Microbiome, 12(1):107.

BACKGROUND: Aquaculture is an important food source worldwide. The extensive use of antibiotics in intensive large-scale farms has resulted in resistance development. Non-intensive aquaculture is another aquatic feeding model that is conducive to ecological protection and closely related to the natural environment. However, the transmission of resistomes in non-intensive aquaculture has not been well characterized. Moreover, the influence of aquaculture resistomes on human health needs to be further understood. Here, metagenomic approach was employed to identify the mobility of aquaculture resistomes and estimate the potential risks to human health.

RESULTS: The results demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were widely present in non-intensive aquaculture systems and the multidrug type was most abundant accounting for 34%. ARGs of non-intensive aquaculture environments were mainly shaped by microbial communities accounting for 51%. Seventy-seven genera and 36 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were significantly associated with 23 ARG types (p < 0.05) according to network analysis. Six ARGs were defined as core ARGs (top 3% most abundant with occurrence frequency > 80%) which occupied 40% of ARG abundance in fish gut samples. Seventy-one ARG-carrying contigs were identified and 75% of them carried MGEs simultaneously. The qacEdelta1 and sul1 formed a stable combination and were detected simultaneously in aquaculture environments and humans. Additionally, 475 high-quality metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered and 81 MAGs carried ARGs. The multidrug and bacitracin resistance genes were the most abundant ARG types carried by MAGs. Strikingly, Fusobacterium_A (opportunistic human pathogen) carrying ARGs and MGEs were identified in both the aquaculture system and human guts, which indicated the potential risks of ARG transfer.

CONCLUSIONS: The mobility and pathogenicity of aquaculture resistomes were explored by a metagenomic approach. Given the observed co-occurrence of resistomes between the aquaculture environment and human, more stringent regulation of resistomes in non-intensive aquaculture systems may be required. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Pethő B, Váncsa S, Váradi A, et al (2024)

Very young and advanced maternal age strongly elevates the occurrence of nonchromosomal congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology pii:S0002-9378(24)00592-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nonchromosomal congenital anomalies (NCAs) are the most common cause of infant mortality and morbidity. The role of maternal age is well known, although the specifics are not thoroughly elucidated in the literature.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of maternal age in the incidence of NCAs and to pinpoint age groups at higher risk to refine screening protocols.

STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines and Cochrane Handbook. Searches were performed on October 19, 2021, across MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), and Embase. Population-based studies assessing the impact of maternal age on the incidence of NCAs in pregnant women were included, without restrictions on age range, country, or comorbidities. A random-effects model was used for pooling effect sizes, considering the heterogeneity across studies.

RESULTS: From 15,547 studies, 72 were synthesized. Maternal age >35 showed an increased NCA risk (risk ratio [RR]: 1.31, confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 -1.61), rising notably after>40 (RR: 1.44, CI: 1.25 -1.66). The latter changes to 1.25 (CI: 1.08 -1.46) if the co-occurrence of chromosomal aberrations is excluded. Specific anomalies like cleft lip/palate (>40, RR: 1.57, CI: 1.11 -2.20) and circulatory system defects (>40, RR: 1.94, CI: 1.28 -2.93) were significantly associated with advanced maternal age. Conversely, gastroschisis was linked to mothers <20 (RR: 3.08, CI: 2.74 -3.47).

CONCLUSION: The study confirms that both very young and advanced maternal ages significantly increase the risk of NCAs. There is a pressing need for age-specific prenatal screening protocols to better detect these anomalies, especially considering the current trend of delayed childbearing. Further research is required to fully understand the impact of maternal age on the prevalence of rarer NCAs.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Easter QT, Fernandes Matuck B, Beldorati Stark G, et al (2024)

Single-cell and spatially resolved interactomics of tooth-associated keratinocytes in periodontitis.

Nature communications, 15(1):5016.

Periodontitis affects billions of people worldwide. To address relationships of periodontal niche cell types and microbes in periodontitis, we generated an integrated single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) atlas of human periodontium (34-sample, 105918-cell), including sulcular and junctional keratinocytes (SK/JKs). SK/JKs displayed altered differentiation states and were enriched for effector cytokines in periodontitis. Single-cell metagenomics revealed 37 bacterial species with cell-specific tropism. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected intracellular 16 S and mRNA signals of multiple species and correlated with SK/JK proinflammatory phenotypes in situ. Cell-cell communication analysis predicted keratinocyte-specific innate and adaptive immune interactions. Highly multiplexed immunofluorescence (33-antibody) revealed peri-epithelial immune foci, with innate cells often spatially constrained around JKs. Spatial phenotyping revealed immunosuppressed JK-microniches and SK-localized tertiary lymphoid structures in periodontitis. Here, we demonstrate impacts on and predicted interactomics of SK and JK cells in health and periodontitis, which requires further investigation to support precision periodontal interventions in states of chronic inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Salamandane A, Leech J, Almeida R, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial microbiome, resistome and virulome distinguishes Portuguese Serra da Estrela PDO cheeses from similar non-PDO cheeses: An exploratory approach.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114556.

This study aimed to evaluate the microbiome, resistome and virulome of two types of Portuguese cheese using high throughput sequencing (HTS). Culture-dependent chromogenic methods were also used for certain groups/microorganisms. Eight samples of raw ewe's milk cheese were obtained from four producers: two producers with cheeses with a PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) label and the other two producers with cheeses without a PDO label. Agar-based culture methods were used to quantify total mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and lactic acid bacteria. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella was also investigated. The selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated to determine antibiotic resistance and the presence of virulence genes. The eight cheese samples analyzed broadly complied with EC regulations in terms of the microbiological safety criteria. The HTS results demonstrated that Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Enterococcus durans and Lactobacillus coryniformis were the most prevalent bacterial species in cheeses. The composition of the bacterial community varied, not only between PDO and non-PDO cheeses, but also between producers, particularly between the two non-PDO cheeses. Alpha-diversity analyses showed that PDO cheeses had greater bacterial diversity than non-PDO cheeses, demonstrating that the diversity of spontaneously fermented foods is significantly higher in cheeses produced without the addition of food preservatives and dairy ferments. Despite complying with microbiological regulations, both PDO and non-PDO cheeses harbored potential virulence genes as well as antibiotic resistance genes. However, PDO cheeses exhibited fewer of these virulence and antibiotic resistance genes compared to non-PDO cheeses. Therefore, the combination of conventional microbiological methods and the metagenomic approach could contribute to improving the attribution of the PDO label to this type of cheese.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Kothe CI, Carøe C, Mazel F, et al (2024)

Novel misos shape distinct microbial ecologies: opportunities for flavourful sustainable food innovation.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 189:114490.

Fermentation is resurgent around the world as people seek healthier, more sustainable, and tasty food options. This study explores the microbial ecology of miso, a traditional Japanese fermented paste, made with novel regional substrates to develop new plant-based foods. Eight novel miso varieties were developed using different protein-rich substrates: yellow peas, Gotland lentils, and fava beans (each with two treatments: standard and nixtamalisation), as well as rye bread and soybeans. The misos were produced at Noma, a restaurant in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were analysed with biological and technical triplicates at the beginning and end of fermentation. We also incorporated in this study six samples of novel misos produced following the same recipe at Inua, a former affiliate restaurant of Noma in Tokyo, Japan. To analyse microbial community structure and diversity, metabarcoding (16S and ITS) and shotgun metagenomic analyses were performed. The misos contain a greater range of microbes than is currently described for miso in the literature. The composition of the novel yellow pea misos was notably similar to the traditional soybean ones, suggesting they are a good alternative, which supports our culinary collaborators' sensory conclusions. For bacteria, we found that overall substrate had the strongest effect, followed by time, treatment (nixtamalisation), and geography. For fungi, there was a slightly stronger effect of geography and a mild effect of substrate, and no significant effects for treatment or time. Based on an analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), strains of Staphylococccus epidermidis differentiated according to substrate. Carotenoid biosynthesis genes in these MAGs appeared in strains from Japan but not from Denmark, suggesting a possible gene-level geographical effect. The benign and possibly functional presence of S. epidermidis in these misos, a species typically associated with the human skin microbiome, suggests possible adaptation to the miso niche, and the flow of microbes between bodies and foods in certain fermentation as more common than is currently recognised. This study improves our understanding of miso ecology, highlights the potential for developing novel misos using diverse local ingredients, and suggests how fermentation innovation can contribute to studies of microbial ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yang G, Xu Y, J Wang (2024)

Antibiotic fermentation residue for biohydrogen production: Inhibitory mechanisms of the inherent antibiotic.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04134-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic fermentation residue, which is generated from the microbial antibiotic production process, has been a troublesome waste faced by the pharmaceutical industry. Dark fermentation is a potential technology to treat antibiotic fermentation residue in terms of renewable H2 generation and waste management. However, the inherent antibiotic in antibiotic fermentation residue may inhibit its dark fermentation performance, and current understanding on this topic is limited. This investigation examined the impact of the inherent antibiotic on the dark H2 fermentation of Cephalosporin C (CEPC) fermentation residue, and explored the mechanisms from the perspectives of bacterial communities and functional genes. It was found that CEP-C in the antibiotic fermentation residue significantly inhibited the H2 production, with the H2 yield decreasing from 17.2 mL/g-VSadded to 12.5 and 9.6 mL/g-VSadded at CEP-C concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively. CEP-C also prolonged the H2-producing lag period. Microbiological analysis indicated that CEP-C remarkably decreased the abundances of high-yielding H2-producing bacteria, as well as downregulated the genes involved in hydrogen generation from the"pyruvate pathway" and"NADH pathway", essentially leading to the decline of H2 productivity. The present work gains insights into how cephalosporin antibiotics influence the dark H2 fermentation, and provide guidance for mitigating the inhibitory effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Qian L, Yan B, Zhou J, et al (2024)

Comprehensive profiles of sulfur cycling microbial communities along a mangrove sediment depth.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04109-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The sulfur (S) cycle is an important biogeochemical cycle with profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes by diverse microorganisms. Mangrove sediments are a hotspot of biogeochemical cycling, especially for the S cycle with high concentrations of S compounds. Previous studies have mainly focused on some specific inorganic S cycling processes without paying specific attention to the overall S-cycling communities and processes as well as organic S metabolism. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the distribution, ecological network and assembly mechanisms of S cycling microbial communities and their changes with sediment depths using metagenome sequencing data. The results showed that the abundance of gene families involved in sulfur oxidation, assimilatory sulfate reduction, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage and demethylation decreased with sediment depths, while those involved in S reduction and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) transformation showed an opposite trend. Specifically, glpE, responsible for converting S2O3[2-] to SO3[2-], showed the highest abundance in the surface sediment and decreased with sediment depths; in contrast, high abundances of dmsA, responsible for converting dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to DMS, were identified and increased with sediment depths. We identified Pseudomonas and Streptomyces as the main S-cycling microorganisms, while Thermococcus could play an import role in microbial network connections in the S-cycling microbial community. Our statistical analysis showed that both taxonomical and functional compositions were generally shaped by stochastic processes, while the functional composition of organic S metabolism showed a transition from stochastic to deterministic processes. This study provides a novel perspective of diversity distribution of S-cycling functions and taxa as well as their potential assembly mechanisms, which has important implications for maintaining mangrove ecosystem functions.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wen M, Zhang Q, Li Y, et al (2024)

Influence of dissolved organic matter on the anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone accompanying microbial response.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01500-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Roxarsone (ROX), commonly employed as a livestock feed additive, largely remains unmetabolized and is subsequently excreted via feces. ROX could cause serious environmental risks due to its rapid transformation and high mobility in the anaerobic subsurface environment. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important constituent of fecal organics in livestock waste and could affect the ROX biotransformation. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms governing the interaction between DOM and ROX biotransformation have not yet been elucidated in the anaerobic environment. In this study, the changes of ROX, metabolites, and microbial biomass in the solutions with varying DOM concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/L) under anaerobic environments were investigated during the ROX (200 mg/L) degradation. EEM-PARAFAC and metagenomic sequencing were combined to identify the dynamic shifts of DOM components and the functional microbial populations responsible for ROX degradation. Results indicated that DOM facilitated the anaerobic biotransformation of ROX and 200 mg/L ROX could be degraded completely in 28 h. The tryptophan-like within DOM functioned as a carbon source to promote the growth of microorganisms, thus accelerating the degradation of ROX. The mixed microflora involved in ROX anaerobic degrading contained genes associated with arsenic metabolism (arsR, arsC, acr3, arsA, nfnB, and arsB), and arsR, arsC, acr3 exhibited high microbial diversity. Variations in DOM concentrations significantly impacted the population dynamics of microorganisms involved in arsenic metabolism (Proteiniclasticum, Exiguobacterium, Clostridium, Proteiniphilum, Alkaliphilus, and Corynebacterium spp.), which in turn affected the transformation of ROX and its derivatives. This study reveals the mechanism of ROX degradation influenced by the varying concentrations of DOM under anaerobic environments, which is important for the prevention of arsenic contamination with elevated levels of organic matter.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ren WT, Lv Y, He ZL, et al (2024)

Feedback of chain elongation microorganisms on iron-based conductive materials: Enhanced microbial functions and biotoxicity adaptation mechanisms.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00662-X [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the increased research efforts aimed at understanding iron-based conductive materials (CMs) for facilitating chain elongation (CE) to produce medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), the impact of these materials on microbial community functions and the adaptation mechanisms to their biotoxicity remain unclear. This study found that the supply of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and magnetite enhanced the MCFAs carbon-flow distribution by 26 % and 52 %, respectively. Metagenomic analysis revealed the upregulation of fatty acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and ABC transporters with ZVI and magnetite. The predominant functional microorganisms were Massilibacterium and Tidjanibacter with ZVI, and were Petrimonas and Candidatus_Microthrix with magnetite. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that CE microorganisms respond and adapt to the biotoxicity of iron-based CMs by adjusting Two-component system and Quorum sensing for the first time. In summary, this study provided a new deep-insight on the feedback mechanisms of CE microorganisms on iron-based CMs.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Lv Y, Ren WT, Huang Y, et al (2024)

Upgrading soybean dreg to caproate via intermediate of lactate and mediator of biochar.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00661-8 [Epub ahead of print].

To address the environmental hazards posed by high-yield soybean dreg (SD), a high-value strategy is firstly proposed by synthesizing caproate through chain elongation (CE). Optimized conditions for lactate-rich broth as intermediate, utilizing 50 % inoculum ratio, 40 g/L substrate concentration, and pH 5, resulting in 2.05 g/L caproate from direct fermentation. Leveraging lactate-rich broth supplemented with ethanol, caproate was optimized to 2.76 g/L under a refined electron donor to acceptor of 2:1. Furthermore, incorporating 20 g/L biochar elevated caproate production to 3.05 g/L and significantly shortened the lag phase. Mechanistic insights revealed that biochar's surface-existed quinone and hydroquinone groups exhibit potent redox characteristics, thereby facilitating electron transfer. Moreover, biochar up-regulated the abundance of key genes involved in CE process (especially fatty acids biosynthesis pathway), also enriching Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas as an unrecognized cooperation to CE. This study paves a way for sustainable development of SD by upgrading to caproate.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Sivalingam P, Sabatino R, Sbaffi T, et al (2024)

Anthropogenic pollution may enhance natural transformation in water, favouring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

Journal of hazardous materials, 475:134885 pii:S0304-3894(24)01464-X [Epub ahead of print].

Aquatic ecosystems are crucial in the antimicrobial resistance cycle. While intracellular DNA has been extensively studied to understand human activity's impact on antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) dissemination, extracellular DNA is frequently overlooked. This study examines the effect of anthropogenic water pollution on microbial community diversity, the resistome, and ARG dissemination. We analyzed intracellular and extracellular DNA from wastewater treatment plant effluents and lake surface water by shotgun sequencing. We also conducted experiments to evaluate anthropogenic pollution's effect on transforming extracellular DNA (using Gfp-plasmids carrying ARGs) within a natural microbial community. Chemical analysis showed treated wastewater had higher anthropogenic pollution-related parameters than lake water. The richness of microbial community, antimicrobial resistome, and high-risk ARGs was greater in treated wastewaters than in lake waters both for intracellular and extracellular DNA. Except for the high-risk ARGs, richness was significantly higher in intracellular than in extracellular DNA. Several ARGs were associated with mobile genetic elements and located on plasmids. Furthermore, Gfp-plasmid transformation within a natural microbial community was enhanced by anthropogenic pollution levels. Our findings underscore anthropogenic pollution's pivotal role in shaping microbial communities and their antimicrobial resistome. Additionally, it may facilitate ARG dissemination through extracellular DNA plasmid uptake.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Kumari S, Choudhary G, Anu K, et al (2024)

Metagenomics insight into Puga geothermal geyser located in Himalayan Geothermal Belt (Trans-Himalayan Plateau) Ladakh, India.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Puga geothermal geyser and surrounding area, located in the Himalayan Geothermal Belt of the Trans-Himalayan Plateau in Ladakh, India, are very geographically isolated and considered pristine and free of anthropogenic activities. In this study, we have conducted the first metagenomic investigation of the microbes in and around the geyser. The whole genome sequencing analysis showed the presence of a total of 44.8%, 39.7% and 41.4% bacterial phyla in the PugW, PugS, and PugSo samples respectively, 8.6% of archaeal phyla (in all the samples), unclassified (derived from other sequences, PugW: 27.6%, PugS: 27.6%, and PugSo: 15.5%) and unclassified (derived from bacteria, PugW: 12%, PugS: 13.8%, and PugSo: 13.8%). The majority of archaeal sequences were linked to Euryarchaeota (2.84%) while the majority of the bacterial communities that predominated in most geothermal locations were linked to Pseudomonadota (67.14%) and Bacteroidota (12.52%). The abundant bacterial strains at the species level included Dechloromonas aromatica, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Arcobacter butzleri, in all the samples while the most abundant archaeal species were Methanosaeta thermophile, Methanoregula boonei, and Methanosarcina berkeri. Further, this geothermal geyser metagenome has a large number of unique sequences linked to unidentified and unclassified lineages, suggesting a potential source for novel species of microbes and their products. The present study which only examined one of the many geothermal geysers and springs in the Puga geothermal area, should be regarded as a preliminary investigation of the microbiota that live in the geothermal springs on these remote areas. These findings suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to characterize the ecosystems of the Puga geothermal area, which serve as a repository for unidentified microbial lineages.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Pérez-Velasco R, Gómez-Gil B, Martínez-Montaño E, et al (2024)

Nutritional attributes and microbial metagenomic profile during solid-state fermentation of soybean meal inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus under non-sterile conditions.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Soybean meal (SBM) is used widely in animal feed but it contains anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) such as protease inhibitors - immunogenic proteins that limit its utilization. Fermentative processes could help to reduce these ANFs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional attributes, bacterial community dynamics, and microbial metagenomic profile during the solid-state fermentation of SBM using a strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus with or without pre-autoclaving treatment.

RESULTS: Following fermentation, there was a reduction in the pH and a concurrent increase in the population of lactic acid bacteria. Fermentation also resulted in an increase in both crude and soluble protein levels. Trypsin inhibitor levels decreased after fermentation, particularly in fermented SBM that had not been pre-autoclaved, with an inactivation rate higher than 90%. Moreover, high-molecular-weight peptides (44-158 kDa), specifically some polypeptides from the soybean immunogen glycinin and β-conglycinin, underwent degradation during the fermentation process. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of the Lactobacillus genus in all samples, regardless of the treatments applied. Metagenomic profiling identified L. acidophilus as the dominant species in inoculated SBM, irrespective of whether pre-autoclaving was conducted or not.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of solid-state fermentation with L. acidophilus under non-sterile conditions to inactivate trypsin inhibitor and increase protein concentration and hydrolysate immunogen proteins into low-molecular-weight peptides in SBM. Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum also inhibited the growth of undesirable bacteria. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the potential applications of solid-state fermentation with L. acidophilus in improving the nutritional quality of SBM. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Pulvirenti F, Giufrè M, Pentimalli TM, et al (2024)

Oropharyngeal microbial ecosystem perturbations influence the risk for acute respiratory infections in common variable immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1371118.

BACKGROUND: The respiratory tract microbiome is essential for human health and well-being and is determined by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer from respiratory and intestinal tract infections, leading to chronic diseases and increased mortality rates. While CVID patients' gut microbiota have been analyzed, data on the respiratory microbiome ecosystem are limited.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the bacterial composition of the oropharynx of adults with CVID and its link with clinical and immunological features and risk for respiratory acute infections.

METHODS: Oropharyngeal samples from 72 CVID adults and 26 controls were collected in a 12-month prospective study. The samples were analyzed by metagenomic bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIME) pipeline. Differentially abundant species were identified and used to build a dysbiosis index. A machine learning model trained on microbial abundance data was used to test the power of microbiome alterations to distinguish between healthy individuals and CVID patients.

RESULTS: Compared to controls, the oropharyngeal microbiome of CVID patients showed lower alpha- and beta-diversity, with a relatively increased abundance of the order Lactobacillales, including the family Streptococcaceae. Intra-CVID analysis identified age >45 years, COPD, lack of IgA, and low residual IgM as associated with a reduced alpha diversity. Expansion of Haemophilus and Streptococcus genera was observed in patients with undetectable IgA and COPD, independent from recent antibiotic use. Patients receiving azithromycin as antibiotic prophylaxis had a higher dysbiosis score. Expansion of Haemophilus and Anoxybacillus was associated with acute respiratory infections within six months.

CONCLUSIONS: CVID patients showed a perturbed oropharynx microbiota enriched with potentially pathogenic bacteria and decreased protective species. Low residual levels of IgA/IgM, chronic lung damage, anti antibiotic prophylaxis contributed to respiratory dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Shimada Y, Zang L, Ishimaru T, et al (2024)

Lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of Rhamnan sulphate from Monostroma nitidum with altered gut microbiota in mice.

Food science & nutrition, 12(6):4342-4352 pii:FSN34100.

Rhamnan sulphate (RS) is a sulphated polysaccharide found in green algae such as Monostroma nitidum that exhibits various biological functions, including anticoagulant, antitumour, antiviral, and anti-obesity properties. In our previous clinical trial, we demonstrated that RS intake improves constipation. However, no specific bacteria showed a significant (p < .05) change. Notably, these results were obtained after a short RS inoculation period of only 2 weeks. In the present study, to evaluate the long-term effects of RS on the gut microbiota, we orally administered RS to BALB/c mice for 11 weeks, analyzed their blood biochemical data, and performed 16s rRNA-sequencing. Oral administration of RS increased body weight with increased food intake, whereas plasma total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose levels decreased. RS-fed mice showed lower fasting insulin levels (p < .1) and decreased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p < .0001), suggesting that RS improved insulin resistance. In the feces of mice, the amounts of acetic and propionic acids increased. In the gut microbiota, predictive metagenomic profiling using the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt2) revealed functional alterations in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in RS-fed mice. Corresponding to the blood glucose-lowering effect, the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pathways were activated. In addition, the Firmicutes/Bacteroides (F/B) ratio, which may be associated with various health outcomes, was also reduced. These results suggest that the blood glucose-lowering effect, improvement in insulin resistance, and lipid-lowering effect of RS may be due to changes in the intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Rodríguez-Cruz UE, Castelán-Sánchez HG, Madrigal-Trejo D, et al (2024)

Uncovering novel bacterial and archaeal diversity: genomic insights from metagenome-assembled genomes in Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1369263.

A comprehensive study was conducted in the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in Coahuila, Mexico, which is known for its diversity of microorganisms and unique physicochemical properties. The study focused on the "Archaean Domes" (AD) site in the CCB, which is characterized by an abundance of hypersaline, non-lithifying microbial mats. In AD, we analyzed the small domes and circular structures using metagenome assembly genomes (MAGs) with the aim of expanding our understanding of the prokaryotic tree of life by uncovering previously unreported lineages, as well as analyzing the diversity of bacteria and archaea in the CCB. A total of 325 MAGs were identified, including 48 Archaea and 277 Bacteria. Remarkably, 22 archaea and 104 bacteria could not be classified even at the genus level, highlighting the remarkable novel diversity of the CCB. Besides, AD site exhibited significant diversity at the phylum level, with Proteobacteria being the most abundant, followed by Desulfobacteria, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Nanoarchaeota, Halobacteriota, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetota, Verrucomicrobiota, Actinomycetes and Chloroflexi. In Archaea, the monophyletic groups of MAGs belonged to the Archaeoglobi, Aenigmarchaeota, Candidate Nanoarchaeota, and Halobacteriota. Among Bacteria, monophyletic groups were also identified, including Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Candidate Bipolaricaulota, Desulfobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. These monophyletic groups were possibly influenced by geographic isolation, as well as the extreme and fluctuating environmental conditions in the pond AD, such as stoichiometric imbalance of C:N:P of 122:42:1, fluctuating pH (5-9.8) and high salinity (5.28% to saturation).

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Selvaraj S, K Gurumurthy (2024)

Metagenomic, organoleptic profiling, and nutritional properties of fermented kombucha tea substituted with recycled substrates.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1367697.

Kombucha fermentation yields a diverse range of beneficial macro and micronutrients. In our study, we examined the metabolites, antioxidant activity, organoleptic characteristics, and nutritional attributes of traditionally prepared kombucha tea, using black tea and sugar (control) as substrates, and compared them with tea made from tea dust and blackstrap molasses (test). Kombucha tea crafted from functional raw materials exhibited enhanced sensory qualities and improved health-promoting properties. The levels of tannins, flavonoids, and phenols play a crucial role in determining the antioxidant activity of kombucha tea. Using the DPPH and FRAP methods, we investigated the antioxidant activity throughout the fermentation period, ranging from day 0 to day 12, under optimized conditions. The results consistently demonstrated an initial increase in antioxidant activity from day 0 to 6, followed by a decline from day 6 to 12. Notably, statistical analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity of the test sample was significantly better (p > 0.001) compared to the control sample. The nutritional content of the kombucha from day 6 of the test sample is higher than the control sample provided sugars (fructose 0.4 ± 0.1, glucose 0.7 ± 0.1, sucrose 1.4 ± 0.1) g/100 mL, minerals (calcium, 19.4 ± 0.15, iron 23.1 ± 0.25, and potassium 28.3 ± 0.25) mg/100 mL, vitamins (B1 0.58 ± 0.01, B2 0.30 ± 0.02, B3 0.33 ± 0.02, B6 0.75 ± 0.02, B9 0.19 ± 0.03, B12 0.9 ± 0.03, and C 1.38 ± 0.06) mg/100 mL, sodium 4.35 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, calories 14.85 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, carbohydrates 3.135 ± 0.12, and acids (acetic acid 4.20 ± 0.02, glucuronic acid 1.78 ± 0.02) mg/100 mL on day 12. The predominant microbial species identified in both control and test samples included Komagataeibacter rhaeticus, Gluconobacter oxydans, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Zygosaccharomyces bailli, each with varying dominance levels. These microorganisms play essential roles in metabolizing sugars, generating acids, and contributing to the distinctive flavor profile of kombucha. Sensory evaluations of the control and test samples were analyzed, and the overall preference was 88% for the test sample with tea dust and molasses. The sensory characteristics of the test sample included a fruity smell (41%), fizzy texture (66%), bright color (47%), and a fruity taste (67%), with overall acceptability (56%) rating it as excellent. Our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the interplay between raw materials, microbial composition, and the resulting composition of bioactive compounds.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Mondal S, Biswas B, Chowdhury R, et al (2024)

Estuarine mangrove niches select cultivable heterotrophic diazotrophs with diverse metabolic potentials-a prospective cross-dialog for functional diazotrophy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1324188.

INTRODUCTION: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), an unparalleled metabolic novelty among living microorganisms on earth, globally contributes ~88-101 Tg N year[-1] to natural ecosystems, ~56% sourced from symbiotic BNF while ~22-45% derived from free-living nitrogen fixers (FLNF). The success of symbiotic BNF is largely dependent on its interaction with host-plant, however ubiquitous environmental heterotrophic FLNFs face many limitations in their immediate ecological niches to sustain unhindered BNF. The autotrophic FLNFs like cyanobacteria and oceanic heterotrophic diazotrophs have been well studied about their contrivances acclimated/adapted by these organisms to outwit the environmental constraints for functional diazotrophy. However, FLNF heterotrophs face more adversity in executing BNF under stressful estuarine/marine/aquatic habitats.

METHODS: In this study a large-scale cultivation-dependent investigation was accomplished with 190 NCBI accessioned and 45 non-accessioned heterotrophic FLNF cultivable bacterial isolates (total 235) from halophilic estuarine intertidal mangrove niches of Indian Sundarbans, a Ramsar site and UNESCO proclaimed World Heritage Site. Assuming ~1% culturability of the microbial community, the respective niches were also studied for representing actual bacterial diversity via cultivation-independent next-generation sequencing of V3-V4 rRNA regions.

RESULTS: Both the studies revealed a higher abundance of culturable Gammaproteobacteria followed by Firmicutes, the majority of 235 FLNFs studied belonging to these two classes. The FLNFs displayed comparable selection potential in media for free nitrogen fixers and iron-oxidizing bacteria, linking diazotrophy with iron oxidation, siderophore production, phosphorus solubilization, phosphorus uptake and accumulation as well as denitrification.

DISCUSSION: This observation validated the hypothesis that under extreme estuarine mangrove niches, diazotrophs are naturally selected as a specialized multidimensional entity, to expedite BNF and survive. Earlier metagenome data from mangrove niches demonstrated a microbial metabolic coupling among C, N, P, S, and Fe cycling in mangrove sediments, as an adaptive trait, evident with the co-abundant respective functional genes, which corroborates our findings in cultivation mode for multiple interrelated metabolic potential facilitating BNF in a challenging intertidal mangrove environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yue C, Ma M, Guo J, et al (2024)

Altered gut microbe metabolites in patients with alcohol‑induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head: An integrated omics analysis.

Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 28(2):311 pii:ETM-28-2-12599.

Excessive alcohol consumption is considered to be a major risk factor of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (AONFH). The gut microbiota (GM) has been reported to aid in the regulation of human physiology and its composition can be altered by alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of the GM and its metabolites in patients with AONFH. Metabolomic sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis of fecal samples were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the GM of patients with AONFH and healthy normal controls (NCs). Metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples was performed to identify whether GM changes on the species level were associated with the expression of gut bacteria genes or their associated functions in patients with AONFH. The abundance of 58 genera was found to differ between the NC group and the AONFH group. Specifically, Klebsiella, Holdemanella, Citrobacter and Lentilactobacillus were significantly more abundant in the AONFH group compared with those in the NC group. Metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that the majority of the bacterial species that exhibited significantly different abundance in patients with AONFH belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. Fecal metabolomic analysis demonstrated that several metabolites were present at significantly different concentrations in the AONFH group compared with those in the NC group. These metabolites were products of vitamin B6 metabolism, retinol metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and glycerophospholipid metabolism. In addition, these changes in metabolite levels were observed to be associated with the altered abundance of specific bacterial species, such as Basidiobolus, Mortierella, Phanerochaete and Ceratobasidium. According to the results of the present study, a comprehensive landscape of the GM and metabolites in patients with AONFH was revealed, suggesting the existence of interplay between the gut microbiome and metabolome in AONFH pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Sun X, Xiao Y, Yong C, et al (2024)

Interactions between the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium and siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechococcus under iron limitation.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae072.

As diazotrophic cyanobacteria of tremendous biomass, Trichodesmium continuously provide a nitrogen source for carbon-fixing cyanobacteria and drive the generation of primary productivity in marine environments. However, ocean iron deficiencies limit growth and metabolism of Trichodesmium. Recent studies have shown the co-occurrence of Trichodesmium and siderophore-producing Synechococcus in iron-deficient oceans, but whether siderophores secreted by Synechococcus can be used by Trichodesmium to adapt to iron deficiency is not clear. We constructed a mutant Synechococcus strain unable to produce siderophores to explore this issue. Synechococcus filtrates with or without siderophores were added into a Trichodesmium microbial consortium consisting of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101 as the dominant microbe with chronic iron deficiency. By analyzing the physiological phenotype, metagenome, and metatranscriptome, we investigated the interactions between the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Tricodesmium and siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechococcus under conditions of iron deficiency. The results indicated that siderophores secreted by Synechococcus are likely to chelate with free iron in the culture medium of the Trichodesmium consortium, reducing the concentration of bioavailable iron and posing greater challenges to the absorption of iron by Trichodesmium. These findings revealed the characteristics of iron-competitive utilization between diazotrophic cyanobacteria and siderophore-producing cyanobacteria, as well as potential interactions, and provide a scientific basis for understanding the regulatory effects of nutrient limitation on marine primary productivity.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Hein ST, Prathan R, Srisanga S, et al (2024)

Metagenomic insights into isolable bacterial communities and antimicrobial resistance in airborne dust from pig farms.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1362011.

This study aims to investigate bacterial communities and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in airborne dust from pig farms. Airborne dust, pig feces and feed were collected from nine pig farms in Thailand. Airborne dust samples were collected from upwind and downwind (25 meters from pig house), and inside (in the middle of the pig house) of the selected pig house. Pig feces and feed samples were individually collected from the pen floor and feed trough from the same pig house where airborne dust was collected. A direct total bacteria count on each sampling plate was conducted and averaged. The ESKAPE pathogens together with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Streptococcus were examined. A total of 163 bacterial isolates were collected and tested for MICs. Pooled bacteria from the inside airborne dust samples were analyzed using Metagenomic Sequencing. The highest bacterial concentration (1.9-11.2 × 10[3] CFU/m[3]) was found inside pig houses. Staphylococcus (n = 37) and Enterococcus (n = 36) were most frequent bacterial species. Salmonella (n = 3) were exclusively isolated from feed and feces. Target bacteria showed a variety of resistance phenotypes, and the same bacterial species with the same resistance phenotype were found in airborne dust, feed and fecal from each farm. Metagenomic Sequencing analysis revealed 1,652 bacterial species across all pig farms, of which the predominant bacterial phylum was Bacillota. One hundred fifty-nine AMR genes of 12 different antibiotic classes were identified, with aminoglycoside resistance genes (24%) being the most prevalent. A total of 251 different plasmids were discovered, and the same plasmid was detected in multiple farms. In conclusion, the phenotypic and metagenomic results demonstrated that airborne dust from pig farms contained a diverse array of bacterial species and genes encoding resistance to a range of clinically important antimicrobial agents, indicating the significant role in the spread of AMR bacterial pathogens with potential hazards to human health. Policy measurements to address AMR in airborne dust from livestock farms are mandatory.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Chen K, Litfin T, Singh J, et al (2024)

MARS and RNAcmap3: The Master Database of All Possible RNA Sequences Integrated with RNAcmap for RNA Homology Search.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics, 22(1):.

Recent success of AlphaFold2 in protein structure prediction relied heavily on co-evolutionary information derived from homologous protein sequences found in the huge, integrated database of protein sequences (Big Fantastic Database). In contrast, the existing nucleotide databases were not consolidated to facilitate wider and deeper homology search. Here, we built a comprehensive database by incorporating the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences from RNAcentral, the transcriptome assembly and metagenome assembly from metagenomics RAST (MG-RAST), the genomic sequences from Genome Warehouse (GWH), and the genomic sequences from MGnify, in addition to the nucleotide (nt) database and its subsets in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The resulting Master database of All possible RNA sequences (MARS) is 20-fold larger than NCBI's nt database or 60-fold larger than RNAcentral. The new dataset along with a new split-search strategy allows a substantial improvement in homology search over existing state-of-the-art techniques. It also yields more accurate and more sensitive multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) than manually curated MSAs from Rfam for the majority of structured RNAs mapped to Rfam. The results indicate that MARS coupled with the fully automatic homology search tool RNAcmap will be useful for improved structural and functional inference of ncRNAs and RNA language models based on MSAs. MARS is accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn/omix/release/OMIX003037, and RNAcmap3 is accessible at http://zhouyq-lab.szbl.ac.cn/download/.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Chen CM, Yan QL, Guo RC, et al (2024)

Distinct characteristics of the gut virome in patients with osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):564.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): The gut microbiota and its metabolites play crucial roles in pathogenesis of arthritis, highlighting gut microbiota as a promising avenue for modulating autoimmunity. However, the characterization of the gut virome in arthritis patients, including osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis (GA), requires further investigation.

METHODS: We employed virus-like particle (VLP)-based metagenomic sequencing to analyze gut viral community in 20 OA patients, 26 GA patients, and 31 healthy controls, encompassing a total of 77 fecal samples.

RESULTS: Our analysis generated 6819 vOTUs, with a considerable proportion of viral genomes differing from existing catalogs. The gut virome in OA and GA patients differed significantly from healthy controls, showing variations in diversity and viral family abundances. We identified 157 OA-associated and 94 GA-associated vOTUs, achieving high accuracy in patient-control discrimination with random forest models. OA-associated viruses were predicted to infect pro-inflammatory bacteria or bacteria associated with immunoglobulin A production, while GA-associated viruses were linked to Bacteroidaceae or Lachnospiraceae phages. Furthermore, several viral functional orthologs displayed significant differences in frequency between OA-enriched and GA-enriched vOTUs, suggesting potential functional roles of these viruses. Additionally, we trained classification models based on gut viral signatures to effectively discriminate OA or GA patients from healthy controls, yielding AUC values up to 0.97, indicating the clinical utility of the gut virome in diagnosing OA or GA.

CONCLUSION: Our study highlights distinctive alterations in viral diversity and taxonomy within gut virome of OA and GA patients, offering insights into arthritis etiology and potential treatment and prevention strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Faial T (2024)

Metagenomics of the human gut mycobiome.

Nature genetics, 56(6):1038.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Suzuki S, Ishii S, Chadwick GL, et al (2024)

A non-methanogenic archaeon within the order Methanocellales.

Nature communications, 15(1):4858.

Serpentinization, a geochemical process found on modern and ancient Earth, provides an ultra-reducing environment that can support microbial methanogenesis and acetogenesis. Several groups of archaea, such as the order Methanocellales, are characterized by their ability to produce methane. Here, we generate metagenomic sequences from serpentinized springs in The Cedars, California, and construct a circularized metagenome-assembled genome of a Methanocellales archaeon, termed Met12, that lacks essential methanogenesis genes. The genome includes genes for an acetyl-CoA pathway, but lacks genes encoding methanogenesis enzymes such as methyl-coenzyme M reductase, heterodisulfide reductases and hydrogenases. In situ transcriptomic analyses reveal high expression of a multi-heme c-type cytochrome, and heterologous expression of this protein in a model bacterium demonstrates that it is capable of accepting electrons. Our results suggest that Met12, within the order Methanocellales, is not a methanogen but a CO2-reducing, electron-fueled acetogen without electron bifurcation.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Su W, Li P, Zhong L, et al (2024)

Occurrence and Distribution of Antibacterial Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Chinese Estuaries Revealed by Machine Learning-Assisted Mass Spectrometric Analysis.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) undermines the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals of good health and well-being. Antibiotics are known to exacerbate AMR, but nonantibiotic antimicrobials, such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), are now emerging as another significant driver of AMR. However, assessing the AMR risks of QACs in complex environmental matrices remains challenging due to the ambiguity in their chemical structures and antibacterial activity. By machine learning prediction and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis, a list of antibacterial QACs (n = 856) from industrial chemical inventories is compiled, and it leads to the identification of 50 structurally diverse antibacterial QACs in sediments, including traditional hydrocarbon-based compounds and new subclasses that bear additional functional groups, such as choline, ester, betaine, aryl ether, and pyridine. Urban wastewater, aquaculture, and hospital discharges are the main factors influencing QAC distribution patterns in estuarine sediments. Toxic unit calculations and metagenomic analysis revealed that these QACs can influence antibiotic resistance genes (particularly sulfonamide resistance genes) through cross- and coresistances. The potential to influence the AMR is related to their environmental persistence. These results suggest that controlling the source, preventing the co-use of QACs and sulfonamides, and prioritizing control of highly persistent molecules will lead to global stewardship and sustainable use of QACs.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Rosell-Díaz M, Petit-Gay A, Molas-Prat C, et al (2024)

Metformin-induced changes in the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome are associated with cognition in men.

Metabolism: clinical and experimental pii:S0026-0495(24)00168-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiome characterized by reduced abundance of butyrate producing bacteria and reduced gene richness is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An important complication of T2D is increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. The biguanide metformin is a commonly prescribed medication for the control of T2D and metformin treatment has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia and improved cognition, particularly in people with T2D.

AIM: To investigate the associations of metformin use with cognition exploring potential mechanisms by analyzing the gut microbiome and plasma metabolome using shotgun metagenomics and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively.

METHODS: We explored two independent cohorts: an observational study (Aging Imageomics) and a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized pilot study (MEIFLO). From the two studies, we analyzed four study groups: (1) individuals with no documented medical history or medical treatment (n = 172); (2) people with long-term T2D on metformin monotherapy (n = 134); (3) people with long-term T2D treated with oral hypoglycemic agents other than metformin (n = 45); (4) a newly diagnosed T2D subjects on metformin monotherapy (n = 22). Analyses were also performed stratifying by sex.

RESULTS: Several bacterial species belonging to the Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli) and Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia muciniphila) phyla were positively associated with metformin treatment, while bacterial species belonging to the Firmicutes phylum (Romboutsia timonensis, Romboutsia ilealis) were negatively associated. Due to the consistent increase in A. muciniphila and decrease in R.ilealis in people with T2D subjects treated with metformin, we investigated the association between this ratio and cognition. In the entire cohort of metformin-treated T2D subjects, the A.muciniphila/R.ilealis ratio was not significantly associated with cognitive test scores. However, after stratifying by sex, the A.muciniphila/R. ilealis ratio was significantly and positively associated with higher memory scores and improved memory in men. Metformin treatment was associated with an enrichment of microbial pathways involved in the TCA cycle, and butanoate, arginine, and proline metabolism in both cohorts. The bacterial genes involved inarginine metabolism, especially in production of glutamate (astA, astB, astC, astD, astE, putA), were enriched following metformin intake. In agreement, in the metabolomics analysis, metformin treatment was strongly associated with the amino acid proline, a metabolite involved in the metabolism of glutamate.

CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of metformin may be mediated by changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and microbial-host-derived co-metabolites.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Shama S, Asbury MR, DL O'Connor (2024)

From parent to progeny.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):947-949.

How infants acquire their gut microbial communities and the various factors influencing these dynamics remain unclear. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Selma-Royo et al. and Dubois et al. use shotgun metagenomic sequencing to understand the transmission of microbes from parents to infants and delve into factors modifying this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Dubois L, Valles-Colomer M, Ponsero A, et al (2024)

Paternal and induced gut microbiota seeding complement mother-to-infant transmission.

Cell host & microbe, 32(6):1011-1024.e4.

Microbial colonization of the neonatal gut involves maternal seeding, which is partially disrupted in cesarean-born infants and after intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, other physically close individuals could complement such seeding. To assess the role of both parents and of induced seeding, we analyzed two longitudinal metagenomic datasets (health and early life microbiota [HELMi]: N = 74 infants, 398 samples, and SECFLOR: N = 7 infants, 35 samples) with cesarean-born infants who received maternal fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that the father constitutes a stable source of strains for the infant independently of the delivery mode, with the cumulative contribution becoming comparable to that of the mother after 1 year. Maternal FMT increased mother-infant strain sharing in cesarean-born infants, raising the average bacterial empirical growth rate while reducing pathogen colonization. Overall, our results indicate that maternal seeding is partly complemented by that of the father and support the potential of induced seeding to restore potential deviations in this process.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang P, Wang Y, Lin H, et al (2024)

Bacterial evolution in Biofiltration of drinking water treatment plant: Different response of phage and plasmid to varied water sources.

Water research, 259:121887 pii:S0043-1354(24)00788-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofiltration in drinking water treatment (BDWT) are popular as it holds promise as an alternative to chemical treatments, yet our understanding of the key drivers and trends underlying bacterial evolution within this process remains limited. While plasmids and phages are recognized as the main vectors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), their roles in shaping bacterial evolution in BDWT remain largely unknown. Here we leverage global metagenomic data to unravel the primary forces driving bacterial evolution in BDWT. Our results revealed that the primary vector of HGT varies depending on the type of source water (groundwater and surface water). Both plasmids and phages accelerated bacterial evolution in BDWT by enhancing genetic diversity within species, but they drove contrasting evolutionary trends in functional redundancy in different source water types. Specifically, trends towards and away from functional redundancy (indicated as gene-protein ratio) were observed in surface-water and groundwater biofilters, respectively. Virulent phages drove bacterial evolution through synergistic interactions with bacterial species capable of natural transformation and with certain natural compounds that disrupt bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Genes relating to water purification (such as Mn(II)-oxidizing genes), microbial risks (antibiotic resistance genes), and chemical risk (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were enriched via HGT in BDWT, highlighting the necessity for heighted focus on these useful and risky objects. Overall, these discoveries enhance our understanding of bacterial evolution in BDWT and have implications for the optimization of water treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Sinha P, S Mukherji (2024)

Efficient treatment of secondary treated refinery wastewater using sand biofiltration: Removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

Water research, 259:121874 pii:S0043-1354(24)00775-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explored the potential of sand biofiltration for tertiary treatment of real refinery wastewater. The biofilter (2 cm (I.D.) x 15 cm (L)) operated on secondary treated refinery wastewater at flow rate of 1 mL/min had empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 47.12 min for one circulation. Maximum reduction in COD after 4, 8 and 12 times recirculation was 25 %, 52 % and 56 %; while the TOC reduction was 33 %, 43 % and 51 %, respectively, after biofilm development over 30 days. Quantification using two dimensional gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF MS) revealed that several of the identified target compounds could not be detected in the wastewater after 12 recirculations. After 8 times recirculation, most of the compounds showed very high removal efficiency. For biofiltration over the flow rate range 2-10 mL/min, the reduction in COD and NH4[+]-N ranged from 62-73 % and 78-86 %, respectively, after 8 times recirculation. The nitrite concentration first increased and subsequently decreased, while the nitrate concentration continuously increased with increase in the number of recirculations. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) analysis of the aqueous phase using GCxGC-TOF MS and a semi-quantitative approach indicated that the removal of predominant classes of compounds was greater than 95 % after 8 times recirculation, with maximum reduction occurring in the first pass through the biofilter. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) reduction was 98 % after 8 times recirculation. Metagenomic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in the biofilter. Many known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders, such as Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales and Rhodospirillales, were found in the biofilter leading to high removal efficiency of hazardous organic pollutants.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xiong X, Lan Y, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Bacteroidales reduces growth rate through serum metabolites and cytokines in Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens.

Poultry science, 103(8):103905 pii:S0032-5791(24)00484-X [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing evidence has indicated that the gut microbiome plays an important role in chicken growth traits. However, the cecal microbial taxa associated with the growth rates of the Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens are unknown. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to identify cecal bacterial species associated with the growth rate of the Chinese Ningdu yellow chickens. We found that nine cecal bacterial species differed significantly between high and low growth rate chickens, including three species (Succinatimonas hippei, Phocaeicola massiliensis, and Parabacteroides sp. ZJ-118) that were significantly enriched in high growth rate chickens. We identified six Bacteroidales that were significantly enriched in low growth rate chickens, including Barnesiella sp. An22, Barnesiella sp. ET7, and Bacteroidales bacterium which were key biomarkers in differentiating high and low growth rate chickens and were associated with alterations in the functional taxa of the cecal microbiome. Untargeted serum metabolome analysis revealed that 8 metabolites showing distinct enrichment patterns between high and low growth rate chickens, including triacetate lactone and N-acetyl-a-neuraminic acid, which were at higher concentrations in low growth rate chickens and were positively and significantly correlated with Barnesiella sp. An22, Barnesiella sp. ET7, and Bacteroidales bacterium. Furthermore, the results suggest that serum cytokines, such as IL-5, may reduce growth rate and are related to changes in serum metabolites and gut microbes (e.g., Barnesiella sp. An22 and Barnesiella sp. ET7). These results provide important insights into the effects of the cecal microbiome, serum metabolism and cytokines in Ningdu yellow chickens.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Hong D, Wang P, Xu Y, et al (2024)

Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing based Fine Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Infected Pancreatic Necrosis.

Clinical and translational gastroenterology pii:01720094-990000000-00268 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is no longer recommended for diagnosing infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) due to high false negative rate. Metagenome next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a valuable tool for identifying potential pathogens. We hypothesized that adding mNGS to the standard FNA procedure may increase diagnostic accuracy.

METHODS: This is a prospective, single-arm feasibility study enrolling acute necrotizing pancreatitis patients complicated by suspected IPN. CT-guided FNA was performed immediately after enrollment, and the drainages were subjected to culture and mNGS assays simultaneously. Confirmatory IPN within the following week of the index FNA procedure was the reference standard. The diagnostic performance of FNA-mNGS and the impact of mNGS results on treatment were evaluated. Historical controls were used for comparison of clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between mNGS and culture in positive rate (75% vs. 70%, P = 0.723). The accuracy of FNA-mNGS was 80.0%, with a sensitivity of 82.35%, specificity of 66.67%, positive predictive value of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 40.0%. The results of the mNGS led to treatment change in 16/20 patients (80%), including implementing PCD (n = 7), expanding antibiotic coverage (n = 2), PCD and expanding coverage (n = 4), narrowing antibiotic coverage (n = 1), and discontinuation of antibiotics (n = 2). The FNA-mNGS approach was not associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with the historical control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mNGS to standard FNA has comparable diagnostic accuracy with culture-based FNA and may not be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Fei-Zhou Z, Mei-Xia H, Xiaofen T, et al (2024)

Plastic bronchitis associated with human bocavirus 1 infection in children.

Pediatric pulmonology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a clinical-pathological syndrome characterized by the abnormal accumulation of endogenous substances in the bronchial airways, causing partial or complete obstruction and resulting in impaired lung ventilation.

METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we aim to summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatment approaches to enhance clinicians' ability to detect children who are infected with human bocavirus 1 (hBoV 1) and develop PB.

RESULTS: In the period from January 2021 to January 2024, a total of six hBoV 1 infection children were diagnosed with PB through bronchoscopy. The onset of the condition was mainly concentrated between June and December. The detection methods used included metagenomic next-generation sequencing for pathogen identification (three cases) and respiratory pathogen nucleic acid 13-plex detection (oropharyngeal swab) (three cases), both of which confirmed the presence of hBoV 1. Out of the six children with PB, two were girls and four were boys. Their ages ranged from 10 months to 4 years old. Common symptoms reported by all patients included fever, cough, and wheezing. Chest high-resolution computed tomography scans revealed atelectasis in six cases, in addition to pneumonia. After the removal of the plastic bronchi via bronchoscopy, the airway obstruction symptoms in the children were relieved, and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up period. Pathological findings indicated cellulose exudation and inflammatory cell infiltration, consistent with nonlymphatic PB.

CONCLUSION: When children infected with hBoV 1 exhibit persistent or worsening symptoms such as cough, fever, and wheezing despite treatment, clinicians should remain highly vigilant for the potential occurrence of PB. Bronchoscopy plays a crucial role not only in diagnosing the presence of a plastic bronchus but also in effectively treating PB.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Yang C, Zhang Z, Huang Y, et al (2024)

LRTK: a platform agnostic toolkit for linked-read analysis of both human genome and metagenome.

GigaScience, 13:.

BACKGROUND: Linked-read sequencing technologies generate high-base quality short reads that contain extrapolative information on long-range DNA connectedness. These advantages of linked-read technologies are well known and have been demonstrated in many human genomic and metagenomic studies. However, existing linked-read analysis pipelines (e.g., Long Ranger) were primarily developed to process sequencing data from the human genome and are not suited for analyzing metagenomic sequencing data. Moreover, linked-read analysis pipelines are typically limited to 1 specific sequencing platform.

FINDINGS: To address these limitations, we present the Linked-Read ToolKit (LRTK), a unified and versatile toolkit for platform agnostic processing of linked-read sequencing data from both human genome and metagenome. LRTK provides functions to perform linked-read simulation, barcode sequencing error correction, barcode-aware read alignment and metagenome assembly, reconstruction of long DNA fragments, taxonomic classification and quantification, and barcode-assisted genomic variant calling and phasing. LRTK has the ability to process multiple samples automatically and provides users with the option to generate reproducible reports during processing of raw sequencing data and at multiple checkpoints throughout downstream analysis. We applied LRTK on linked reads from simulation, mock community, and real datasets for both human genome and metagenome. We showcased LRTK's ability to generate comparative performance results from preceding benchmark studies and to report these results in publication-ready HTML document plots.

CONCLUSIONS: LRTK provides comprehensive and flexible modules along with an easy-to-use Python-based workflow for processing linked-read sequencing datasets, thereby filling the current gap in the field caused by platform-centric genome-specific linked-read data analysis tools.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Elbere I, Orlovskis Z, Ansone L, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome encoded purine and amino acid pathways present prospective biomarkers for predicting metformin therapy efficacy in newly diagnosed T2D patients.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2361491.

Metformin is widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the efficacy of metformin monotherapy is highly variable within the human population. Understanding the potential indirect or synergistic effects of metformin on gut microbiota composition and encoded functions could potentially offer new insights into predicting treatment efficacy and designing more personalized treatments in the future. We combined targeted metabolomics and metagenomic profiling of gut microbiomes in newly diagnosed T2D patients before and after metformin therapy to identify potential pre-treatment biomarkers and functional signatures for metformin efficacy and induced changes in metformin therapy responders. Our sequencing data were largely corroborated by our metabolic profiling and identified that pre-treatment enrichment of gut microbial functions encoding purine degradation and glutamate biosynthesis was associated with good therapy response. Furthermore, we identified changes in glutamine-associated amino acid (arginine, ornithine, putrescine) metabolism that characterize differences in metformin efficacy before and after the therapy. Moreover, metformin Responders' microbiota displayed a shifted balance between bacterial lipidA synthesis and degradation as well as alterations in glutamate-dependent metabolism of N-acetyl-galactosamine and its derivatives (e.g. CMP-pseudaminate) which suggest potential modulation of bacterial cell walls and human gut barrier, thus mediating changes in microbiome composition. Together, our data suggest that glutamine and associated amino acid metabolism as well as purine degradation products may potentially condition metformin activity via its multiple effects on microbiome functional composition and therefore serve as important biomarkers for predicting metformin efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Xing Y, Zhong Q, Li M, et al (2024)

Lumbar Spine Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans: a Rare Case Report.

Clinical laboratory, 70(6):.

BACKGROUND: In July 2023, our hospital confirmed one case of lumbar spine infected complicated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was admitted due to lower back pain for 1 year and a hard lump for 3 months. Symptoms and signs: Dressing can be seen fixed on the lower back, with severe bleeding. When the dressing is removed, a hard and protruding lump with a size of 6 cm x 8 cm, a sinus tract can be seen near the mass, with a slightly red wound and a sinus depth of about 3 cm. Light red fluid can be seen flowing out. There are no symptoms such as redness, swelling, or heat in the rest of the lower back, and the patient has no other underlying diseases or surgical history.

METHODS: Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar CT examination; Percutaneous puncture lumbar vertebral biopsy was performed, and the biopsy tissue was subjected to pathological examination, mNGS (metagenomic next-generation sequencing), and acid-fast staining; Extract pus from the lump for fungal culture and ink staining, and identify the fungi through MALDI-TOF MS.

RESULTS: Bone destruction and bone marrow edema in the L5 vertebral body, compression of the spinal canal at the L5 vertebral body level; The pathological results of the biopsy tissue indicate granulomatous lesions. The acid-fast staining of the tissue is positive, and the mNGS of the tissue indicates infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A single fungus was cultured from pus and identified by MALDI-TOF MS as Cryptococcus neoformans. Clinically, isoniazid 0.3 g ivgtt + rifampicin 0.45 g qd po + ethambutol 0.25 g qd po + pyrazinamide 0.75 g qd po + fluconazole 0.3 g qd po was administered for treatment. After 11 days, there was slight pain at the incision site, and the original symptoms were significantly relieved. The wound dressing was fixed in place, dry and without obvious exudation. Improved and discharged, followed up for 3 months with no recurrence of the lesion.

CONCLUSIONS: mNGS is an effective identification technique that can be used to accurately diagnose suspected infection cases. MALDI-TOF MS has significant advantages over traditional detection methods in shortening detection time. This case achieved satisfactory treatment results for patients through a reasonable treatment plan, which is of great significance for exploring the diagnosis and treatment of similar disease infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang JB, Fu AS, Liu TJ, et al (2024)

Complication of Intrapulmonary Cavitary Lesions after COVID-19 Finally Proved as Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Clinical laboratory, 70(6):.

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2, which is characterized by high infectiousness and diverse clinical manifestations. They are more likely to become critical in people who have underlying diseases or are immunocompromised. In the daunting task of treating patients with COVID-19, those with comorbid fungal infections are susceptible to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis, which can ultimately lead to increased morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. We report a case of intrapulmonary cavitary lesions after COVID-19, which was eventually diagnosed as pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) by metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing (mNGS) to improve our understanding of the disease.

METHODS: Appropriate laboratory tests, chest computed tomography (CT), mNGS, and serologic tests were performed for diagnosis.

RESULTS: Laboratory tests showed Glactomannan (GM) of 1.41, multiple cavitary lesions in both lungs on chest CT and the presence of aspergillus infection was confirmed by sputum sent for mNGS.

CONCLUSIONS: In the case of cavitary lesions after COVID-19, we should be alert to the possibility of combined fungi and should promptly perform mNGS to clarify whether there is a combination of specific pathogenic fungal infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Chen DR, Cheng K, Wan L, et al (2024)

Daily occupational exposure in swine farm alters human skin microbiota and antibiotic resistome.

iMeta, 3(1):e158 pii:IMT2158.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widely distributed across humans, animals, and environment. Farming environments are emerging as a key research area for ARGs and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). While the skin is an important reservoir of ARGs and ARB, transmission mechanisms between farming environments and human skin remain unclear. Previous studies confirmed that swine farm environmental exposures alter skin microbiome, but the timeline of these changes is ill defined. To improve understanding of these changes and to determine the specific time, we designed a cohort study of swine farm workers and students through collected skin and environmental samples to explore the impact of daily occupational exposure in swine farm on human skin microbiome. Results indicated that exposure to livestock-associated environments where microorganisms are richer than school environment can reshape the human skin microbiome and antibiotic resistome. Exposure of 5 h was sufficient to modify the microbiome and ARG structure in workers' skin by enriching microorganisms and ARGs. These changes were preserved once formed. Further analysis indicated that ARGs carried by host microorganisms may transfer between the environment with workers' skin and have the potential to expand to the general population using farm workers as an ARG vector. These results raised concerns about potential transmission of ARGs to the broader community. Therefore, it is necessary to take corresponding intervention measures in the production process to reduce the possibility of ARGs and ARB transmission.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ma L, Tao S, Song T, et al (2024)

Clostridium butyricum and carbohydrate active enzymes contribute to the reduced fat deposition in pigs.

iMeta, 3(1):e160 pii:IMT2160.

Pig gastrointestinal tracts harbor a heterogeneous and dynamic ecosystem populated with trillions of microbes, enhancing the ability of the host to harvest energy from dietary carbohydrates and contributing to host adipogenesis and fatness. However, the microbial community structure and related mechanisms responsible for the differences between the fatty phenotypes and the lean phenotypes of the pigs remained to be comprehensively elucidated. Herein, we first found significant differences in microbial composition and potential functional capacity among different gut locations in Jinhua pigs with distinct fatness phenotypes. Second, we identified that Jinhua pigs with lower fatness exhibited higher levels of short-chain fatty acids in the colon, highlighting their enhanced carbohydrate fermentation capacity. Third, we explored the differences in expressed carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) in pigs, indicating their involvement in modulating fat storage. Notably, Clostridium butyricum might be a representative bacterial species from Jinhua pigs with lower fatness, and a significantly higher percentage of its genome was dedicated to CAZyme glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Finally, a subsequent mouse intervention study substantiated the beneficial effects of C. butyricum isolated from experimental pigs, suggesting that it may possess characteristics that promote the utilization of carbohydrates and hinder fat accumulation. Remarkably, when Jinhua pigs were administered C. butyricum, similar alterations in the gut microbiome and host fatness traits were observed, further supporting the potential role of C. butyricum in modulating fatness. Taken together, our findings reveal previously overlooked links between C. butyricum and CAZyme function, providing insight into the basic mechanisms that connect gut microbiome functions to host fatness.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Deng F, Han Y, Huang Y, et al (2024)

A comprehensive analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in the giant panda gut.

iMeta, 3(1):e171 pii:IMT2171.

In this study, we have successfully constructed a comprehensive database of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) pertaining to the gut microbiota of the giant panda. Through our analysis, we have identified significant reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), namely Escherichia coli, Citrobacter portucalensis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have elucidated the primary contributors to ARGs, including Streptococcus alactolyticus and Clostridium SGBP116, in both captive and wild pandas. Additionally, our findings have demonstrated a higher prevalence of ARGs in the metagenome, with notable expression of the RPOB2 gene in S. alactolyticus. Crucially, 1217 ARGs shared homology with human gut ARGs, underscoring the interaction relationship between pandas and human microbiomes. These findings are instrumental in understanding the antibiotic resistance landscape in the giant panda's gut, providing a framework for developing strategies to combat antibiotic resistance and safeguard the health of this endangered species.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Aoki S, Yahara H, Nakao R, et al (2024)

Development of selective isolation media for detecting the genera Actinomyces and Schaalia from oral specimens containing indigenous bacteria.

Access microbiology, 6(5):.

To isolate specific bacteria from samples constituting the microbiota, it is essential to employ selective media that suppress the growth of resident bacteria other than specific target bacteria. Selective media for clinically important Actinomyces (including Schaalia, which was previously taxonomically classified as part of the genus Actinomyces) have been limited because they have been designed for a limited range of species within the genus and require ingredients which are difficult to prepare and handle. This study aimed to develop a selective medium [referred to as Actinomyces and Schaalia Selective Medium (ASSM)] for the isolation of a broad range of Actinomyces and Schaalia species from samples mixed with resident bacteria. The composition of ASSM includes yeast extract, agar, brain heart infusion (BHI), levofloxacin (LVFX), fosfomycin (FOM), colistin (CL) and metronidazole (MNZ). Evaluation of the medium using 24 swab samples serially collected from the roots of the teeth of a healthy individual for whom metagenome sequencing data of a saliva sample are publicly available revealed that ASSM adjusted to concentrations of LVFX 0.5 mg l[-1], FOM 5 mg l[-1], CL 1 mg l[-1] and MNZ 2 mg l[-1] and cultured anaerobically at 35 °C for 7 days enabled the isolation of Actinomyces species from 37.5 % of the samples. The inclusion of CL and MNZ in ASSM can also be useful for samples harbouring other bacterial species. The selective isolation medium is expected to contribute to studies investigating the relationship between these bacteria and their pathogenesis or disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Anonymous (2023)

Correction to "MetaTrass: A high-quality metagenome assembler of the human gut microbiome by cobarcoding sequencing reads".

iMeta, 2(4):e150 pii:IMT2150.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/imt2.46.].

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang P, Yang J, Long H, et al (2023)

MicroEXPERT: Microbiome profiling platform with cross-study metagenome-wide association analysis functionality.

iMeta, 2(4):e131 pii:IMT2131.

The framework of the MicroEXPERT platform. Our Platform was composed of five modules. Data management module: Users upload raw data and metadata to the system using a guided workflow. Data processing module: Uploaded data is processed to generate taxonomical distribution and functional composition results. Metagenome-wide association studies module (MWAS): Various methods, including biomarker analysis, PCA, co-occurrence networks, and sample classification, are employed using metadata. Data search module: Users can query nucleotide sequences to retrieve information in the MicroEXPERT database. Data visualization module: Visualization tools are used to illustrate the metagenome analysis results.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Cao B, Gao JW, Zhang QP, et al (2023)

Melatonin supplementation protects against traumatic colon injury by regulating SERPINA3N protein expression.

iMeta, 2(4):e141 pii:IMT2141.

Traumatic colon injury (TCI) is a typical injury with high mortality. Prolongation of the intervention time window is a potentially useful approach to improving the outcomes of TCI casualties. This study aimed to identify the pathological mechanisms of TCI and to develop effective strategies to extend the survival time. A semicircular incision was made to prepare a TCI model using C57BL/6 mice. An overview of microbiota dysregulation was achieved by metagenome sequencing. Protein expression reprogramming in the intestinal epithelium was investigated using proteomics profiling. The mice that were subjected to TCI died within a short period of time when not treated. Gut symbiosis showed abrupt turbulence, and specific pathogenic bacteria rapidly proliferated. The protein expression in the intestinal epithelium was also reprogrammed. Among the differentially expressed proteins, SERPINA3N was overexpressed after TCI modeling. Deletion of Serpina3n prolonged the posttraumatic survival time of mice with TCI by improving gut homeostasis in vivo. To promote the translational application of this research, the effects of melatonin (MLT), an oral inhibitor of the SERPINA3N protein, were further investigated. MLT effectively downregulated SERPINA3N expression and mitigated TCI-induced death by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings prove that preventive administration of MLT serves as an effective regimen to prolong the posttraumatic survival time by restoring gut homeostasis perturbed by TCI. It may become a novel strategy for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from TCI.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Li Y, Cao J, J Wang (2023)

MetaSVs: A pipeline combining long and short reads for analysis and visualization of structural variants in metagenomes.

iMeta, 2(4):e139 pii:IMT2139.

Structural variants (SVs, including large-scale insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations) significantly impact the functions of genes in the microbial genome, and SVs in the microbiome are associated with diverse biological processes and human diseases. With the advancements in sequencing and bioinformatics technologies, increasingly, sequencing data and analysis tools are already being extensively utilized for microbiome SV analyses, leading to a higher demand for more dedicated SV analysis workflows. Moreover, due to the unique detection biases of various sequencing technologies, including short-read sequencing (such as Illumina platforms) and long-read sequencing (e.g., Oxford Nanopore and PacBio), SV discovery based on multiple platforms is necessary to comprehensively identify the wide variety of SVs. Here, we establish an integrated pipeline MetaSVs combining Nanopore long reads and Illumina short reads to analyze SVs in the microbial genomes from gut microbiome and further identify differential SVs that can be reflective of metabolic differences. Our pipeline provides researchers easy access to SVs and relevant metabolites in the microbial genomes without the requirement of specific technical expertise, which is particularly useful to researchers interested in metagenomic SVs but lacking sophisticated bioinformatic knowledge.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Song Z, Feng S, Zhou X, et al (2023)

Taxonomic identification of bile salt hydrolase-encoding lactobacilli: Modulation of the enterohepatic bile acid profile.

iMeta, 2(3):e128 pii:IMT2128.

Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) are enzymes that are essential for the enterohepatic metabolism of bile acids (BAs). BSHs catalyze the production of unconjugated BAs and regulate the homeostasis of BA pool. This study identified Lactobacillus as a crucial BSH-encoding genus, and 16 main species were obtained using metagenomic data from publicly available human gut microbiome databases. Then, the 16 species of lactobacilli were classified into four typical categories by BSH phylotypes, including five species encoding BSH-T0, six species encoding BSH-T2, four species encoding BSH-T3, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius encoding both BSH-T0 and BSH-T3. The lactobacilli with the highest in vitro deconjugation activities against seven conjugated BAs were the BSH-T3-encoding strains. Furthermore, in vivo studies in mice administered four representative lactobacilli strains encoding different BSH phylotypes showed that treatment with BSH-T3-encoding Limosilactobacillus reuteri altered the structure of the gut microbiome and metabolome and significantly increased the levels of unconjugated BAs and total BA excretion. Our findings facilitated the taxonomic identification of crucial BSH-encoding lactobacilli in human gut microbiota and shed light on their contributions toward modulation of the enterohepatic circulation of BAs, which will contribute to future therapeutic applications of BSH-encoding probiotics to improve human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang ZW, Lian ZH, Liu L, et al (2023)

Cultivation strategies for prokaryotes from extreme environments.

iMeta, 2(3):e123 pii:IMT2123.

The great majority of microorganisms are as-yet-uncultivated, mostly found in extreme environments. High-throughput sequencing provides data-rich genomes from single-cell and metagenomic techniques, which has enabled researchers to obtain a glimpse of the unexpected genetic diversity of "microbial dark matter." However, cultivating microorganisms from extreme environments remains essential for dissecting and utilizing the functions of extremophiles. Here, we provide a straightforward protocol for efficiently isolating prokaryotic microorganisms from different extreme habitats (thermal, xeric, saline, alkaline, acidic, and cryogenic environments), which was established through previous successful work and our long-term experience in extremophile resource mining. We propose common processes for extremophile isolation at first and then summarize multiple cultivation strategies for recovering prokaryotic microorganisms from extreme environments and meanwhile provide specific isolation tips that are always overlooked but important. Furthermore, we propose the use of multi-omics-guided microbial cultivation approaches for culturing these as-yet-uncultivated microorganisms and two examples are provided to introduce how these approaches work. In summary, the protocol allows researchers to significantly improve the isolation efficiency of pure cultures and novel taxa, which therefore paves the way for the protection and utilization of microbial resources from extreme environments.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Li W, X Li (2024)

Retraction Note: Metagenome-assembled genomes infer potential microbial metabolism in alkaline sulphidic tailings.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):39 pii:10.1186/s40793-024-00582-5.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Wang B, Tan M, Li W, et al (2024)

Exploring the microbiota difference of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between community-acquired pneumonia with or without COPD based on metagenomic sequencing: a retrospective study.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 24(1):278.

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have higher disease severity and mortality compared to those without COPD. However, deep investigation into microbiome distribution of lower respiratory tract of CAP with or without COPD was unknown.

METHODS: So we used metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) to explore the microbiome differences between the two groups.

RESULTS: Thirty-six CAP without COPD and 11 CAP with COPD cases were retrieved. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed using untargeted mNGS and bioinformatic analysis. mNGS revealed that CAP with COPD group was abundant with Streptococcus, Prevotella, Bordetella at genus level and Cutibacterium acnes, Rothia mucilaginosa, Bordetella genomosp. 6 at species level. While CAP without COPD group was abundant with Ralstonia, Prevotella, Streptococcus at genus level and Ralstonia pickettii, Rothia mucilaginosa, Prevotella melaninogenica at species level. Meanwhile, both alpha and beta microbiome diversity was similar between groups. Linear discriminant analysis found that pa-raburkholderia, corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and staphylococcus hominis were more enriched in CAP without COPD group while the abundance of streptococcus intermedius, streptococcus constellatus, streptococcus milleri, fusarium was higher in CAP with COPD group.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that concomitant COPD have an mild impact on lower airway microbiome of CAP patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liu YX, Shi CL, Ma T, et al (2023)

iMeta progress and acknowledgment of reviewers in 2022.

iMeta, 2(1):e89 pii:IMT289.

Milestones of the first year of iMeta. iMeta is an open-access Wiley partner journal launched by iMeta Science Society consisting of worldwide scientists in bioinformatics and metagenomics. In 2022, iMeta released four issues, including 60 publications with a total of 340 citations. iMeta has been indexed in several databases, including Google Scholar, Crossref, CNKI, Dimensions, PubMed (partial), DOAJ, and Scopus. Thanks to the editorial board members and reviewers for their contributions to the iMeta in 2022.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liu YX, Chen L, Ma T, et al (2023)

EasyAmplicon: An easy-to-use, open-source, reproducible, and community-based pipeline for amplicon data analysis in microbiome research.

iMeta, 2(1):e83 pii:IMT283.

It is difficult for beginners to learn and use amplicon analysis software because there are so many software tools to choose from, and all of them need multiple steps of operation. Herein, we provide a cross-platform, open-source, and community-supported analysis pipeline EasyAmplicon. EasyAmplicon has most of the modules needed for an amplicon analysis, including data quality control, merging of paired-end reads, dereplication, clustering or denoising, chimera detection, generation of feature tables, taxonomic diversity analysis, compositional analysis, biomarker discovery, and publication-quality visualization. EasyAmplicon includes more than 30 cross-platform modules and R packages commonly used in the field. All steps of the pipeline are integrated into RStudio, which reduces learning costs, keeps the flexibility of the analysis process, and facilitates personalized analysis. The pipeline is maintained and updated by the authors and editors of WeChat official account "Meta-genome." Our team will regularly release the latest tutorials both in Chinese and English, read the feedback from users, and provide help to them in the WeChat account and GitHub. The pipeline can be deployed on various platforms, and the installation time is less than half an hour. On an ordinary laptop, the whole analysis process for dozens of samples can be completed within 3 h. The pipeline is available at GitHub (https://github.com/YongxinLiu/EasyAmplicon) and Gitee (https://gitee.com/YongxinLiu/EasyAmplicon).

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xia Y, Li X, Wu Z, et al (2023)

Strategies and tools in illumina and nanopore-integrated metagenomic analysis of microbiome data.

iMeta, 2(1):e72 pii:IMT272.

Metagenomic strategy serves as the foundation for the ecological exploration of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. Recent advancements in sequencing technology have fostered rapid development in the field of microbiome research where an increasing number of studies have applied both illumina short reads (SRs) and nanopore long reads (LRs) sequencing in their metagenomic workflow. However, given the high complexity of an environmental microbiome data set and the bioinformatic challenges caused by the unique features of these sequencing technologies, integrating SRs and LRs is not as straightforward as one might assume. The fast renewal of existing tools and growing diversity of new algorithms make access to this field even more difficult. Therefore, here we systematically summarized the complete workflow from DNA extraction to data processing strategies for applying illumina and nanopore-integrated metagenomics in the investigation in environmental microbiomes. Overall, this review aims to provide a timely knowledge framework for researchers that are interested in or are struggling with the SRs and LRs integration in their metagenomic analysis. The discussions presented will facilitate improved ecological understanding of community functionalities and assembly of natural, engineered, and human microbiomes, benefiting researchers from multiple disciplines.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Fu S, Wang R, Xu Z, et al (2023)

Metagenomic sequencing combined with flow cytometry facilitated a novel microbial risk assessment framework for bacterial pathogens in municipal wastewater without cultivation.

iMeta, 2(1):e77 pii:IMT277.

A workflow that combined metagenomic sequencing with flow cytometry was developed. The absolute abundance of pathogens was accurately estimated in mock communities and real samples. Metagenome-assembled genomes binned from metagenomic data set is robust in phylogenetic analysis and virulence profiling.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Yang Y, Dou Y, Wang B, et al (2023)

Deciphering factors driving soil microbial life-history strategies in restored grasslands.

iMeta, 2(1):e66 pii:IMT266.

In macroecology, the concept of r- and K-strategy has been widely applied, yet, there have been limited studies on microbial life-history strategies in temperate grasslands using multiple sequencing approaches. Total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, high-throughput meta-genomic sequencing, and GeoChip technologies were used to examine the changes in microbial life-history traits in a chronosequence of restored grasslands (1, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 30 years since restoration). Grassland restoration increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. PLFA analysis revealed that grassland restoration reduced the fungi:bacteria and Gram-positive:Gram-negative bacteria ratios. Combined with the meta-genomic data, we found that grassland restoration shifted microorganisms from oligotrophic (K-) to copiotrophic (r-) groups, consistent with the increased rRNA operon copy number of the microbial community. Structural equation modeling showed that soil properties positively (p < 0.05) while plant properties negatively (p < 0.05) affected microbial life-history traits. We built a framework to highlight the importance of plant and soil properties in driving microbial life-history traits during grassland restoration. Finally, by incorporating meta-genomic and other microbiological data, this study showed that microbial life-history traits support the idea that rRNA operon copy number is a trait that reflects resource availability to soil microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Muthukapalli Krishnareddy P, Hirehally Basavarajegowda M, Perumal Buela P, et al (2022)

Decoding the microbiome and metabolome of the Panchagavya-An indigenous fermented bio-formulation.

iMeta, 1(4):e63 pii:IMT263.

For the first time, updated molecular techniques were used to validate and elucidate the effect of the Panchagavya. Metagenomics was used to decipher the bacterial microbiome structure, which showed promising results for their existence and abundance in the Panchagavya.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Liao ME, Xie Y, Shi M, et al (2022)

Over two decades of research on the marine RNA virosphere.

iMeta, 1(4):e59 pii:IMT259.

RNA viruses (realm: Riboviria), including RNA phages and eukaryote-infecting RNA viruses, are essential components of marine ecosystems. A large number of marine RNA viruses have been discovered in the last two decades because of the rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Indeed, the combination of NGS and state-of-the-art meta-omics methods (viromics, the study of all viruses in a specific environment) has led to a fundamental understanding of the taxonomy and genetic diversity of RNA viruses in the sea, suggesting the complex ecological roles played by RNA viruses in this complex ecosystem. Furthermore, comparisons of viromes in the context of highly variable marine niches reveal the biogeographic patterns and ecological impact of marine RNA viruses, whose role in global ecology is becoming increasingly clearer. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the global marine RNA virosphere and outline the taxonomic hierarchy of RNA viruses with a specific focus on their ancient evolutionary history. We also review the development of methodology and the major progress resulting from its applications in RNA viromics. The aim of this review is not only to provide an in-depth understanding of multifaceted aspects of marine RNA viruses, but to offer future perspectives on developing a better methodology for discovery, and exploring the evolutionary origin and major ecological significance of marine RNA virosphere.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Qi Y, Gu S, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

MetaTrass: A high-quality metagenome assembler of the human gut microbiome by cobarcoding sequencing reads.

iMeta, 1(4):e46 pii:IMT246.

Metagenomic evidence of great genetic diversity within the nonconserved regions of the human gut microbial genomes appeals for new methods to elucidate the species-level variability at high resolution. However, current approaches cannot satisfy this methodologically challenge. In this study, we proposed an efficient binning-first-and-assembly-later strategy, named MetaTrass, to recover high-quality species-resolved genomes based on public reference genomes and the single-tube long fragment read (stLFR) technology, which enables cobarcoding. MetaTrass can generate genomes with longer contiguity, higher completeness, and lower contamination than those produced by conventional assembly-first-and-binning-later strategies. From a simulation study on a mock microbial community, MetaTrass showed the potential to improve the contiguity of assembly from kb to Mb without accuracy loss, as compared to other methods based on the next-generation sequencing technology. From four human fecal samples, MetaTrass successfully retrieved 178 high-quality genomes, whereas only 58 ones were provided by the optimal performance of other conventional strategies. Most importantly, these high-quality genomes confirmed the high level of genetic diversity among different samples and unveiled much more. MetaTrass was designed to work with metagenomic reads sequenced by stLFR technology, but is also applicable to other types of cobarcoding libraries. With the high capability of assembling high-quality genomes of metagenomic data sets, MetaTrass seeks to facilitate the study of spatial characters and dynamics of complex microbial communities at enhanced resolution. The open-source code of MetaTrass is available at https://github.com/BGI-Qingdao/MetaTrass.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Hu H, Tan Y, Li C, et al (2022)

StrainPanDA: Linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles via pangenome-based decomposition of metagenomic data.

iMeta, 1(3):e41 pii:IMT241.

Microbial strains of variable functional capacities coexist in microbiomes. Current bioinformatics methods of strain analysis cannot provide the direct linkage between strain composition and their gene contents from metagenomic data. Here we present Strain-level Pangenome Decomposition Analysis (StrainPanDA), a novel method that uses the pangenome coverage profile of multiple metagenomic samples to simultaneously reconstruct the composition and gene content variation of coexisting strains in microbial communities. We systematically validate the accuracy and robustness of StrainPanDA using synthetic data sets. To demonstrate the power of gene-centric strain profiling, we then apply StrainPanDA to analyze the gut microbiome samples of infants, as well as patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation. We show that the linked reconstruction of strain composition and gene content profiles is critical for understanding the relationship between microbial adaptation and strain-specific functions (e.g., nutrient utilization and pathogenicity). Finally, StrainPanDA has minimal requirements for computing resources and can be scaled to process multiple species in a community in parallel. In short, StrainPanDA can be applied to metagenomic data sets to detect the association between molecular functions and microbial/host phenotypes to formulate testable hypotheses and gain novel biological insights at the strain or subspecies level.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Gu X, Yang Y, Mao F, et al (2022)

A comparative study of flow cytometry-sorted communities and shotgun viral metagenomics in a Singapore municipal wastewater treatment plant.

iMeta, 1(3):e39 pii:IMT239.

Traditional or "bulk" viral enrichment and amplification methods used in viral metagenomics introduce unavoidable bias in viral diversity. This bias is due to shortcomings in existing viral enrichment methods and overshadowing by the more abundant viral populations. To reduce the complexity and improve the resolution of viral diversity, we developed a strategy coupling fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with random amplification and compared this to bulk metagenomics. This strategy was validated on both influent and effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant using the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process as the treatment method. We found that DNA and RNA communities generated using bulk samples were mostly different from those derived following FACS for both treatments before and after MLE. Before MLE treatment, FACS identified five viral families and 512 viral annotated contigs. Up to 43% of mapped reads were not detected in bulk samples. Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viral families were enriched to a greater extent in the FACS-coupled subpopulations compared with bulk samples. FACS-coupled viromes captured a single-contig viral genome associated with Anabaena phage, which was not observed in bulk samples or in FACS-sorted samples after MLE. These short metagenomic reads, which were assembled into a high-quality draft genome of 46 kbp, were found to be highly dominant in one of the pre-MLE FACS annotated virome fractions (57.4%). Using bulk metagenomics, we identified that between Primary Settling Tank and Secondary Settling Tank viromes, Virgaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Nodaviridae, and Iridoviridae were susceptible to MLE treatment. In all, bulk and FACS-coupled metagenomics are complementary approaches that enable a more thorough understanding of the community structure of DNA and RNA viruses in complex environmental samples, of which the latter is critical for increasing the sensitivity of detection of viral signatures that would otherwise be lost through bulk viral metagenomics.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Jiang S, Chen D, Ma C, et al (2022)

Establishing a novel inflammatory bowel disease prediction model based on gene markers identified from single nucleotide variants of the intestinal microbiota.

iMeta, 1(3):e40 pii:IMT240.

The intestinal microbiota is a crucial environmental factor in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is significantly decreased in IBD patients, which is used as a biomarker for IBD diagnosis. However, this can be observed in both IBD and colorectal cancer, which would confound the diagnostic results. Thus, we first established a new model for predicting Crohn's disease (CD) with high precision according to gene characteristics based on single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Next, five gene markers belonging to two species, F. prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale, that were enriched in the CD group were obtained to build a CD prediction model, and high accuracy in distinguishing the CD and control groups was observed in the discovery (area under curve [AUC] = 91.13%) and validation cohorts (AUC = 79.55%). The model still maintained high accuracy after expanding the healthy cohort (AUC = 89.75%). High disease specificity in distinguishing CD and CRC groups (AUC = 95.74%) was also proven. This study establishes a novel diagnostic method for predicting IBD that also provides unprecedented insight for the early, painless diagnosis of other non-communicable diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ye M, Zhang Z, Sun M, et al (2022)

Dynamics, gene transfer, and ecological function of intracellular and extracellular DNA in environmental microbiome.

iMeta, 1(3):e34 pii:IMT234.

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and intracellular DNA (iDNA) extensively exist in both terrestrial and aquatic environment systems and have been found to play a significant role in the nutrient cycling and genetic information transmission between the environment and microorganisms. As inert DNA sequences, eDNA is able to present stability in the environment from the ribosome enzyme lysis, therein acting as the historical genetic information archive of the microbiome. As a consequence, both eDNA and iDNA can shed light on the functional gene variety and the corresponding microbial activity. In addition, eDNA is a ubiquitous composition of the cell membrane, which exerts a great impact on the resistance of outer stress from environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, and so on. This study focuses on the environmental dynamics and the ecological functions of the eDNA and iDNA from the perspectives of environmental behavior, genetic information transmission, resistance to the environmental contaminants, and so on. By reviewing the status quo and the future vista of the e/iDNAs research, this article sheds light on exploring the ecological functioning of the e/iDNAs in the environmental microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Xi J, Lei B, Liu YX, et al (2022)

Microbial community roles and chemical mechanisms in the parasitic development of Orobanche cumana.

iMeta, 1(3):e31 pii:IMT231.

Orobanche cumana Wallr. is a holoparasite weed that extracts water and nutrients from its host the sunflower, thereby causing yield reductions and quality losses. However, the number of O. cumana parasites in the same farmland is distinctly different. The roots of some hosts have been heavily parasitized, while others have not been parasitized. What are the factors contributing to this phenomenon? Is it possible that sunflower interroot microorganisms are playing a regulatory role in this phenomenon? The role of the microbial community in this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the rhizosphere soil microbiome for sunflowers with different degrees of O. cumana parasitism, that is, healthy, light infection, moderate infection, and severe infection on the sunflower roots. The microbial structures differed significantly according to the degree of parasitism, where Xanthomonadaceae was enriched in severe infections. Metagenomic analyses revealed that amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, and lipid metabolism were increased in the rhizosphere soils of severely infected sunflowers, which were attributed to the proliferation of Lysobacter. Lysobacter antibioticus (HX79) was isolated and its capacity to promote O. cumana seed germination and increase the germ tube length was confirmed by germination and pot experiments. Cyclo(Pro-Val), an active metabolite of strain HX79, was identified and metabolomic and molecular docking approaches confirmed it was responsible for promoting O. cumana seed germination and growth. And we found that Pseudomonas mandelii HX1 inhibited the growth of O. cumana in the host rhizosphere soil. Our findings clarify the role of rhizosphere microbiota in regulating the parasite O. cumana to possibly facilitate the development of a new weed suppression strategy.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Dang C, Wu Z, Zhang M, et al (2022)

Microorganisms as bio-filters to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from high-altitude permafrost revealed by nanopore-based metagenomics.

iMeta, 1(2):e24 pii:IMT224.

The distinct climatic and geographical conditions make high-altitude permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau suffer more severe degradation than polar permafrost. However, the microbial responses associated with greenhouse gas production in thawing permafrost remain obscured. Here we applied nanopore-based long-read metagenomics and high-throughput RNA-seq to explore microbial functional activities within the freeze-thaw cycle in the active layers of permafrost at the Qilian Mountain. A bioinformatic framework was established to facilitate phylogenetic and functional annotation of the unassembled nanopore metagenome. By deploying this strategy, 42% more genera could be detected and 58% more genes were annotated to nitrogen and methane cycle. With the aid of such enlarged resolution, we observed vigorous aerobic methane oxidation by Methylomonas, which could serve as a bio-filter to mitigate CH4 emissions from permafrost. Such filtering effect could be further consolidated by both on-site gas phase measurement and incubation experiment that CO2 was the major form of carbon released from permafrost. Despite the increased transcriptional activities of aceticlastic methanogenesis pathways in the thawed permafrost active layer, CH4 generated during the thawing process could be effectively consumed by the microbiome. Additionally, the nitrogen metabolism in permafrost tends to be a closed cycle and active N2O consumption by the topsoil community was detected in the near-surface gas phase. Our findings reveal that although the increased thawed state facilitated the heterotrophic nitrogen and methane metabolism, effective microbial methane oxidation in the active layer could serve as a bio-filter to relieve the overall warming potentials of greenhouse gas emitted from thawed permafrost.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Guo S, Zhang H, Chu Y, et al (2022)

A neural network-based framework to understand the type 2 diabetes-related alteration of the human gut microbiome.

iMeta, 1(2):e20 pii:IMT220.

The identification of microbial markers adequate to delineate the disease-related microbiome alterations from the complex human gut microbiota is of great interest. Here, we develop a framework combining neural network (NN) and random forest, resulting in 40 marker species and 90 marker genes identified from the metagenomic data set (185 healthy and 183 type 2 diabetes [T2D] samples), respectively. In terms of these markers, the NN model obtained higher accuracy in classifying the T2D-related samples than other methods; the interaction network analyses identified the key species and functional modules; the regression analysis determined that fasting blood glucose is the most significant factor (p < 0.05) in the T2D-related alteration of the human gut microbiome. We also observed that those marker species varied little across the case and control samples greatly shift in the different stages of the T2D development, suggestive of their important roles in the T2D-related microbiome alteration. Our study provides a new way of identifying the disease-related biomarkers and analyzing the role they may play in the development of the disease.

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