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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:31 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-02-07

Ghosh A, S Saha (2022)

Meta-analysis of sputum microbiome studies identifies airway disease-specific taxonomic and functional signatures.

Journal of medical microbiology, 72(12):.

Introduction. Studying taxonomic and functional signatures of respiratory microbiomes provide a better understanding of airway diseases.Gap Statement. Several human airway metagenomics studies have identified taxonomic and functional features restricted to a single disease condition and the findings are not comparable across airway diseases due to use of different samples, NGS platforms, and bioinformatics databases and tools.Aim. To study the microbial taxonomic and functional components of sputum microbiome across airway diseases and healthy smokers.Methodology. Here, 57 whole metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMSS) runs coming from the sputum of five airway diseases: asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), tuberculosis (TB), and healthy smokers as the control were reanalysed using a common WMSS analysis pipeline.Results. Shannon's index (alpha diversity) of the healthy smoker group was the highest among all. The beta diversity showed that the sputum microbiome is distinct in major airway diseases such as asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. The microbial composition based on differential analysis showed that there are specific markers for each airway disease like Acinetobacter bereziniae as a marker for COPD and Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a marker of cystic fibrosis. Pathways and metabolites identified from the sputum microbiome of these five diseases and healthy smokers also show specific markers. 'ppGpp biosynthesis' and 'purine ribonucleosides degradation' pathways were identified as differential markers for bronchiectasis and COPD. In this meta-analysis, besides bacteria kingdom, Aspergillus fumigatus was detected in asthma and COPD, and Roseolovirus human betaherpesvirus 7 was detected in COPD. Our analysis showed that the majority of the gene families specific to the drug-resistant associated genes were detected from opportunistic pathogens across all the groups.Conclusion. In summary, the specific species in the sputum of airway diseases along with the microbial features like specific gene families, pathways, and metabolites were identified which can be explored for better diagnosis and therapy.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Soares A, Edwards A, An D, et al (2023)

A global perspective on bacterial diversity in the terrestrial deep subsurface.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 169(1):.

While recent efforts to catalogue Earth's microbial diversity have focused upon surface and marine habitats, 12-20 % of Earth's biomass is suggested to exist in the terrestrial deep subsurface, compared to ~1.8 % in the deep subseafloor. Metagenomic studies of the terrestrial deep subsurface have yielded a trove of divergent and functionally important microbiomes from a range of localities. However, a wider perspective of microbial diversity and its relationship to environmental conditions within the terrestrial deep subsurface is still required. Our meta-analysis reveals that terrestrial deep subsurface microbiota are dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes, probably as a function of the diverse metabolic strategies of these taxa. Evidence was also found for a common small consortium of prevalent Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria operational taxonomic units across the localities. This implies a core terrestrial deep subsurface community, irrespective of aquifer lithology, depth and other variables, that may play an important role in colonizing and sustaining microbial habitats in the deep terrestrial subsurface. An in silico contamination-aware approach to analysing this dataset underscores the importance of downstream methods for assuring that robust conclusions can be reached from deep subsurface-derived sequencing data. Understanding the global panorama of microbial diversity and ecological dynamics in the deep terrestrial subsurface provides a first step towards understanding the role of microbes in global subsurface element and nutrient cycling.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Stebliankin V, Sazal M, Valdes C, et al (2022)

A novel approach for combining the metagenome, metaresistome, metareplicome and causal inference to determine the microbes and their antibiotic resistance gene repertoire that contribute to dysbiosis.

Microbial genomics, 8(12):.

The use of whole metagenomic data to infer the relative abundance of all its microbes is well established. The same data can be used to determine the replication rate of all eubacterial taxa with circular chromosomes. Despite their availability, the replication rate profiles (metareplicome) have not been fully exploited in microbiome analyses. Another relatively new approach is the application of causal inferencing to analyse microbiome data that goes beyond correlational studies. A novel scalable pipeline called MeRRCI (Metagenome, metaResistome, and metaReplicome for Causal Inferencing) was developed. MeRRCI combines efficient computation of the metagenome (bacterial relative abundance), metaresistome (antimicrobial gene abundance) and metareplicome (replication rates), and integrates environmental variables (metadata) for causality analysis using Bayesian networks. MeRRCI was applied to an infant gut microbiome data set to investigate the microbial community's response to antibiotics. Our analysis suggests that the current treatment stratagem contributes to preterm infant gut dysbiosis, allowing a proliferation of pathobionts. The study highlights the specific antibacterial resistance genes that may contribute to exponential cell division in the presence of antibiotics for various pathogens, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Veilonella parvula and Clostridium perfringens. These organisms often contribute to the harmful long-term sequelae seen in these young infants.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Cunningham-Oakes E, Pointon T, Murphy B, et al (2022)

Novel application of metagenomics for the strain-level detection of bacterial contaminants within non-sterile industrial products - a retrospective, real-time analysis.

Microbial genomics, 8(11):.

The home and personal care (HPC) industry generally relies on initial cultivation and subsequent biochemical testing for the identification of microorganisms in contaminated products. This process is slow (several days for growth), labour intensive, and misses organisms which fail to revive from the harsh environment of preserved consumer products. Since manufacturing within the HPC industry is high-throughput, the process of identification of microbial contamination could benefit from the multiple cultivation-independent methodologies that have developed for the detection and analysis of microbes. We describe a novel workflow starting with automated DNA extraction directly from a HPC product, and subsequently applying metagenomic methodologies for species and strain-level identification of bacteria. The workflow was validated by application to a historic microbial contamination of a general-purpose cleaner (GPC). A single strain of Pseudomonas oleovorans was detected metagenomically within the product. The metagenome mirrored that of a contaminant isolated in parallel by a traditional cultivation-based approach. Using a dilution series of the incident sample, we also provide evidence to show that the workflow enables detection of contaminant organisms down to 100 CFU/ml of product. To our knowledge, this is the first validated example of metagenomics analysis providing confirmatory evidence of a traditionally isolated contaminant organism, in a HPC product.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Harris KA, JR Brown (2022)

Diagnostic yield of broad-range 16s rRNA gene PCR varies by sample type and is improved by the addition of qPCR panels targeting the most common causative organisms.

Journal of medical microbiology, 71(12):.

Introduction. Molecular techniques are used in the clinical microbiology laboratory to support culture-based diagnosis of infection and are particularly useful for detecting difficult to culture bacteria or following empirical antimicrobial treatment.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Broad-range 16S rRNA PCR is a valuable tool that detects a wide range of bacterial species. Diagnostic yield is low for some sample types but can be improved with the addition of qPCR panels targeting common bacterial pathogens.Aim. To evaluate the performance of a broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and the additional diagnostic yield of targeted qPCR applied to specimens according to a local testing algorithm.Methodology. In total, 6130 primary clinical samples were collected as part of standard clinical practice from patients with suspected infection during a 17 month period. Overall, 5497 samples were tested by broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and a panel of targeted real-time qPCR assays were performed on selected samples according to a local testing algorithm. An additional 633 samples were tested by real-time qPCR only. The 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed using two assays targeting different regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Laboratory developed qPCR assays for seven common bacterial pathogens were also performed. Data was extracted retrospectively from Epic Beaker Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS).Results. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR improves diagnostic yield in culture-negative samples and detects a large range of bacterial species. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and the Enterobacteriaceae family are detected the most frequently in samples with a single causative organism, but mixed samples frequently contained anaerobic species. The highest diagnostic yield was obtained from abscess, pus and empyema samples; 44.9 % were positive by 16S and 61 % were positive by the combined 16S and targeted qPCR testing algorithm. Samples with a particularly low diagnostic yield were blood, with 3.3 % of samples positive by 16S and CSF with 4.8 % of samples positive by 16S. The increased diagnostic yield of adding targeted qPCR is largest (~threefold) in these two sample types.Conclusion. Broad-range PCR is a powerful technique that can detect a very large range of bacterial pathogens but has limited diagnostic sensitivity. The data in this report supports a testing strategy that combines broad-range and targeted bacterial PCR assays for maximizing diagnosis of infection in culture-negative specimens. This is particularly justified for blood and CSF samples. Alternative approaches, such as metagenomic sequencing, are needed to provide the breadth of broad-range PCR and the sensitivity of targeted qPCR panels.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Jaudou S, Deneke C, Tran ML, et al (2022)

A step forward for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli identification and characterization in raw milk using long-read metagenomics.

Microbial genomics, 8(11):.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a cause of severe human illness and are frequently associated with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in children. It remains difficult to identify virulence factors for STEC that absolutely predict the potential to cause human disease. In addition to the Shiga-toxin (stx genes), many additional factors have been reported, such as intimin (eae gene), which is clearly an aggravating factor for developing HUS. Current STEC detection methods classically rely on real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect the presence of the key virulence markers (stx and eae). Although qPCR gives an insight into the presence of these virulence markers, it is not appropriate for confirming their presence in the same strain. Therefore, isolation steps are necessary to confirm STEC viability and characterize STEC genomes. While STEC isolation is laborious and time-consuming, metagenomics has the potential to accelerate the STEC characterization process in an isolation-free manner. Recently, short-read sequencing metagenomics have been applied for this purpose, but assembly quality and contiguity suffer from the high proportion of mobile genetic elements occurring in STEC strains. To circumvent this problem, we used long-read sequencing metagenomics for identifying eae-positive STEC strains using raw cow's milk as a causative matrix for STEC food-borne outbreaks. By comparing enrichment conditions, optimizing library preparation for MinION sequencing and generating an easy-to-use STEC characterization pipeline, the direct identification of an eae-positive STEC strain was successful after enrichment of artificially contaminated raw cow's milk samples at a contamination level as low as 5 c.f.u. ml[-1]. Our newly developed method combines optimized enrichment conditions of STEC in raw milk in combination with a complete STEC analysis pipeline from long-read sequencing metagenomics data. This study shows the potential of the innovative methodology for characterizing STEC strains from complex matrices. Further developments will nonetheless be necessary for this method to be applied in STEC surveillance.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Green GBH, DePaola A, Linville JG, et al (2023)

High-throughput amplicon sequencing datasets of coastal sediments from three locations of the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

Data in brief, 47:108895.

We present high-throughput amplicon sequence (HTS) datasets of the purified microbial metacommunity DNA of coastal surface sediments from Portersville Bay (PVB) (n = 3), Bayou La Batre (BLB) (n = 3), and Mobile Bay (MOB) (n = 3) of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (U.S. Gulf Coast). The PVB samples were collected from the oyster aquaculture Shellevator™ system; the BLB samples were from locations on the shoreline adjacent to wild oysters attached to rocks and likely polluted from sewage and possibly chemical contamination from boats, shipyards, and seafood processing facilities; and MOB samples were adjacent to aquaculture oysters in bottom cages. The amplicons of the V4 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA gene from each sample were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq to generate these HTS datasets. The raw sequences were quality-checked, demultiplexed into FASTQ files, denoised using DADA2, and subsampled. Then, the FASTA formatted sequences were assigned the taxonomic ids to amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) against the silva-138-99-nb-classifier using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2 v2022.2). The applicability of the HTS datasets was confirmed by microbial taxa analysis at the phylum level using the "qiime taxa collapse" command. All HTS datasets are available through the BioSample Submission Portal under the BioProject ID PRJNA876773 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/?term=PRJNA876773).

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Ustick LJ, Larkin AA, AC Martiny (2023)

Global scale phylogeography of functional traits and microdiversity in Prochlorococcus.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.24.525399.

Prochlorococcus is the most numerically abundant photosynthetic organism in the surface ocean. The Prochlorococcus high-light and warm-water adapted ecotype (HLII) is comprised of extensive microdiversity, but specific functional differences between microdiverse sub-clades remain elusive. Here we characterized both functional and phylogenetic diversity within the HLII ecotype using Bio-GO-SHIP metagenomes. We found widespread variation in gene frequency connected to local environmental conditions. Metagenomically assembled marker genes and genomes revealed a globally distributed novel HLII haplotype defined by adaptation to chronically low P conditions (HLII-P). Environmental correlation analysis revealed different factors were driving gene abundances verses phylogenetic differences. An analysis of cultured HLII genomes and metagenomically assembled genomes revealed a subclade within HLII, which corresponded to the novel HLII-P haplotype. This work represents the first global assessment of the HLII ecotype’s phylogeography and corresponding functional differences. These findings together expand our understanding of how microdiversity structures functional differences and reveals the importance of nutrients as drivers of microdiversity in Prochlorococcus .

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Sarhan MS, Wurst C, Tzankov A, et al (2023)

A nontuberculous mycobacterium could solve the mystery of the lady from the Franciscan church in Basel, Switzerland.

BMC biology, 21(1):9.

BACKGROUND: In 1975, the mummified body of a female has been found in the Franciscan church in Basel, Switzerland. Molecular and genealogic analyses unveiled her identity as Anna Catharina Bischoff (ACB), a member of the upper class of post-reformed Basel, who died at the age of 68 years, in 1787. The reason behind her death is still a mystery, especially that toxicological analyses revealed high levels of mercury, a common treatment against infections at that time, in different body organs. The computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis showed bone lesions in the femurs, the rib cage, and the skull, which refers to a potential syphilis case.

RESULTS: Although we could not detect any molecular signs of the syphilis-causing pathogen Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, we realized high prevalence of a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species in brain tissue sample. The genome analysis of this NTM displayed richness of virulence genes and toxins, and similarity to other infectious NTM, known to infect immunocompromised patients. In addition, it displayed potential resistance to mercury compounds, which might indicate a selective advantage against the applied treatment. This suggests that ACB might have suffered from an atypical mycobacteriosis during her life, which could explain the mummy's bone lesion and high mercury concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: The study of this mummy exemplifies the importance of employing differential diagnostic approaches in paleopathological analysis, by combining classical anthropological, radiological, histological, and toxicological observations with molecular analysis. It represents a proof-of-concept for the discovery of not-yet-described ancient pathogens in well-preserved specimens, using de novo metagenomic assembly.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Lappan R, Shelley G, Islam ZF, et al (2023)

Molecular hydrogen in seawater supports growth of diverse marine bacteria.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an abundant and readily accessible energy source in marine systems, but it remains unknown whether marine microbial communities consume this gas. Here we use a suite of approaches to show that marine bacteria consume H2 to support growth. Genes for H2-uptake hydrogenases are prevalent in global ocean metagenomes, highly expressed in metatranscriptomes and found across eight bacterial phyla. Capacity for H2 oxidation increases with depth and decreases with oxygen concentration, suggesting that H2 is important in environments with low primary production. Biogeochemical measurements of tropical, temperate and subantarctic waters, and axenic cultures show that marine microbes consume H2 supplied at environmentally relevant concentrations, yielding enough cell-specific power to support growth in bacteria with low energy requirements. Conversely, our results indicate that oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) primarily supports survival. Altogether, H2 is a notable energy source for marine bacteria and may influence oceanic ecology and biogeochemistry.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Meng Q, Chandak S, Zhu Y, et al (2023)

Reference-free lossless compression of nanopore sequencing reads using an approximate assembly approach.

Scientific reports, 13(1):2082.

The amount of data produced by genome sequencing experiments has been growing rapidly over the past several years, making compression important for efficient storage, transfer and analysis of the data. In recent years, nanopore sequencing technologies have seen increasing adoption since they are portable, real-time and provide long reads. However, there has been limited progress on compression of nanopore sequencing reads obtained in FASTQ files since most existing tools are either general-purpose or specialized for short read data. We present NanoSpring, a reference-free compressor for nanopore sequencing reads, relying on an approximate assembly approach. We evaluate NanoSpring on a variety of datasets including bacterial, metagenomic, plant, animal, and human whole genome data. For recently basecalled high quality nanopore datasets, NanoSpring, which focuses only on the base sequences in the FASTQ file, uses just 0.35-0.65 bits per base which is 3-6[Formula: see text] lower than general purpose compressors like gzip. NanoSpring is competitive in compression ratio and compression resource usage with the state-of-the-art tool CoLoRd while being significantly faster at decompression when using multiple threads (> 4[Formula: see text] faster decompression with 20 threads). NanoSpring is available on GitHub at https://github.com/qm2/NanoSpring .

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Alejandre-Colomo C, Francis B, Viver T, et al (2021)

Cultivable Winogradskyella species are genomically distinct from the sympatric abundant candidate species.

ISME communications, 1(1):51.

Winogradskyella is a genus within the phylum Bacteroidetes with a clear marine origin. Most members of this genus have been found associated with marine animals and algae, but also with inorganic surfaces such as sand. In this study, we analyzed genomes of eleven species recently isolated from surface seawater samples from the North Sea during a single spring algae bloom. Corresponding metagenomes yielded a single Candidatus species for this genus. All species in culture, with the exception of W. ursingii, affiliated with a Winogradskyella lineage characterized by large genomes (~4.3 ± 0.4 Mb), with high complexity in their carbohydrate and protein degradation genes. Specifically, the polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) were diverse within each individual strain, indicating large substrate versatility. Although present in the North Sea, the abundances of these strains were at, or below, the detection limit of the metagenomes. In contrast, the single species, classified as Candidatus W. atlantica, to which all North Sea MAGs belonged, affiliated with a lineage in which the cultivated representatives showed small genomes of ~3.0-3.5 Mb, with the MAGs having ~2.3 Mb. In Ca. W. atlantica, genome streamlining has apparently resulted in the loss of biosynthesis pathways for several amino acids including arginine, methionine, leucine and valine, and the PUL loci were reduced to a single one for utilizing laminarin. This as-yet uncultivated species seems to capitalize on sporadically abundant substrates that are released by algae blooms, mainly laminarin. We also suggest that this streamlined genome might be responsible for the lack of growth on plates for this Candidatus species, in contrast to growth of the less abundant but coexisting members of the genus.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Bowerman KL, Knowles SCL, Bradley JE, et al (2021)

Effects of laboratory domestication on the rodent gut microbiome.

ISME communications, 1(1):49.

The domestication of the laboratory mouse has influenced the composition of its native gut microbiome, which is now known to differ from that of its wild ancestor. However, limited exploration of the rodent gut microbiome beyond the model species Mus musculus has made it difficult to interpret microbiome variation in a broader phylogenetic context. Here, we analyse 120 de novo and 469 public metagenomically-sequenced faecal and caecal samples from 16 rodent hosts representing wild, laboratory and captive lifestyles. Distinct gut bacterial communities were observed between rodent host genera, with broadly distributed species originating from the as-yet-uncultured bacterial genera UBA9475 and UBA2821 in the families Oscillospiraceae and Lachnospiraceae, respectively. In laboratory mice, Helicobacteraceae were generally depleted relative to wild mice and specific Muribaculaceae populations were enriched in different laboratory facilities, suggesting facility-specific outgrowths of this historically dominant rodent gut family. Several bacterial families of clinical interest, including Akkermansiaceae, Streptococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, were inferred to have gained over half of their representative species in mice within the laboratory environment, being undetected in most wild rodents and suggesting an association between laboratory domestication and pathobiont emergence.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Geller-McGrath D, Mara P, Taylor GT, et al (2023)

Diverse secondary metabolites are expressed in particle-associated and free-living microorganisms of the permanently anoxic Cariaco Basin.

Nature communications, 14(1):656 pii:10.1038/s41467-023-36026-w.

Secondary metabolites play essential roles in ecological interactions and nutrient acquisition, and are of interest for their potential uses in medicine and biotechnology. Genome mining for biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) can be used for the discovery of new compounds. Here, we use metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to analyze BGCs in free-living and particle-associated microbial communities through the stratified water column of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. We recovered 565 bacterial and archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and identified 1154 diverse BGCs. We show that differences in water redox potential and microbial lifestyle (particle-associated vs. free-living) are associated with variations in the predicted composition and production of secondary metabolites. Our results indicate that microbes, including understudied clades such as Planctomycetota, potentially produce a wide range of secondary metabolites in these anoxic/euxinic waters.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Zheng M, Ou H, Dong F, et al (2023)

Mechanism insights into enhanced treatment of wasted activated sludge by hydrogen-mediated anaerobic digestion.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In the current study, different forms of added gas including H2, CO2, and mixed gas (VH2:VCO2 = 4:1), as well as different hydrogen partial pressures (0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 atm) were investigated for the influence on anaerobic performance in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. The mixed gas significantly improved methane production by over 20%, which positively correlated with the hydrogen partial pressure. However, pure H2 (0.5 atm) heavily inhibited methane production by 76.5%. Combined with the microbial metabolic activity study, H2 accelerated the hydrolysis process. Afterward, mixing with CO2 accelerated H2 and organic consumption, thus promoting WAS degradation and methane production. Based on the most extra release of organics, the mixed group exerted the superior performance with hydrogen partial pressure at 0.3 atm. The microbial community analysis evidenced that mixed gas enriched proteolytic and homoacetogenic bacteria and hybrid-trophic methanogens. By metagenomics study, hydrolysis, acetogenic, and methanogenesis pathways were all enhanced via the exogenous addition of H2 and CO2, sustainably transforming WAS towards CH4. This study discovered the mechanism of the enhanced conversion from WAS to CH4 by exogenous H2 and provided a promising approach for WAS reduction and energy recovery.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Wu HZ, Zhang X, Cheng XG, et al (2023)

[Saliva microbiota and metabolite in individuals with caries or periodontitis].

Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology, 58(2):131-142 [Epub ahead of print].

Objective: To detect and analyze the characteristics of oral microbiota in species composition, function and metabolism among caries, periodontitis and oral healthy individuals, hunting for the microbiome-derived biomarkers with specificity and sensitivity to estimate the occurrence of these two diseases. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with high caries risk [decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT)≥6, HC group] in Department of Endodontics, 10 patients with periodontitis of grade Ⅱ A-Ⅲ C (PG group) in Department of Periodontology and 10 oral healthy individuals (HH group) from School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University during from March 2022 to June 2022. A baseline examination was conducted on all participants, including their oral conditions of caries and periodontal health. Metagenomic sequencing (Illumina PE150 platform) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and their metabolites in the samples respectively. The sequencing data were analyzed to obtain the information of microbial taxonomic composition, functional genes and metabolites in each group of samples. The basic oral conditions and saliva samples of subjects in each group were evaluated and collected by the same professional endodontist. Results: There were no significant difference in baseline characteristics such as age and sex among the subjects in each group (P>0.05). DMFT in HC group (9.0±1.7) was significantly higher than that in HH group (0) and PG group (0) (F=243.00, P<0.001). All participants in PG group belong to grade Ⅱ A-Ⅲ C in periodontitis stage. Sequencing data analysis showed that the taxonomic compositions of salivary microbiota in each group were mainly Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria at the phylum level, and Streptococcus, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella at the genus level. Differential analysis showed that, compared with the HH group, HC group and PG group had significant differences in taxonomic composition (P<0.05), and the most significant among them was Prevotella. At the species level, Prevotella pallens was the most significant change in HC group, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in PG group. Metabolite analysis showed that there were significant differences in metabolites between HC group and PG group. The results showed that, compared with the HH group, the most significant metabolite change was 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one in HC group (P=0.001) and N1 acetylspermine in PG group (P=0.002) respectively. Compared with the PG group, the metabolite of HC group with the most significant difference is D-glucosamine 6-phosphate (P=0.006). The metabolism gene function analysis showed that, the enrichment of carbohydrate metabolism related genes was highest in HC group, followed with HH group, and it was lowest in PG group. In addition, compared with the HH group, the abundance of functional genes related to glucose metabolism, such as ABC transporter and phosphotransferase system, were significantly decreased in PG group (P<0.05), but significantly increased in HC group (P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between the alternation of carbohydrate metabolism of salivary microbiota with the occurrence of caries and periodontitis. In the future, Prevotella pallens and 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one may be the potential biomarkers of caries; while Porphyromonas gingivalis and N1 acetylspermine work in the predictions of periodontitis.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Cui W, Li R, Fan Z, et al (2023)

Weak environmental adaptation of rare phylotypes sustaining soil multi-element cycles in response to decades-long fertilization.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)00679-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Deciphering the ecological role of soil communities in the maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions is pivotal for the conservation and sustainability of soil biodiversity. However, few studies have investigated niche differentiation of abundant and rare microbiota, as well as their contributions to multiple soil elemental cycles, particularly in agroecosystems that have received decades of intense fertilization. Here, we characterized the environmental thresholds and phylogenetic signals for the environmental adaptation of both abundant and rare microbial subcommunities via amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing and explored their importance in sustaining soil multiple nutrient cycling in agricultural fields that were fertilized for two decades. The results showed that rare taxa exhibited narrower niche breadths and weaker phylogenetic signals than abundant species. The assembly of abundant subcommunity was shaped predominantly by dispersal limitation (explained 71.1 % of the variation in bacteria) and undominated processes (explained 75 % of the variation in fungi), whereas the assembly of rare subcommunity was dominated by homogeneous selection process (explained 100 % of the variation in bacteria and 60 % of the variation in fungi). Soil ammonia nitrogen was the leading factor mediating the balance between stochastic and deterministic processes in both abundant (R[2] = 0.15, P < 0.001) and rare (R[2] = 0.08, P < 0.001) bacterial communities. Notably, the rare biosphere largely contributed to key soil processes such as carbon (R[2]bacteria = 0.03, P < 0.05; R[2]fungi = 0.05, P < 0.05) and nitrogen (R[2]bacteria = 0.03, P < 0.05; R[2]fungi = 0.17, P < 0.001) cycling. Collectively, these findings facilitate our understanding of the maintenance of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal diversity in response to agricultural fertilization and highlight the key role of rare taxa in sustaining agricultural ecosystem functions.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Liao Y, Bian J, Miao S, et al (2022)

Regulation of denitrification performance and microbial topology by lights: Insight into wavelength effects towards microbiota.

Water research, 232:119434 pii:S0043-1354(22)01379-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The low efficiency of conventional complete denitrification, as well as the unstable nitrite supply for partial-denitrification coupled anammox (PD/A) restrict the efficient removal of nitrogen from industrial wastewaters. Herein, we proposed an optical strategy to bidirectionally regulate denitrification by introducing lights at different wavelengths, and the underlying mechanisms were elucidated accordingly. It turned out that yellow light at wavelength of 590 nm accelerated denitrification by 35.4%, while blue light delayed denitrification with stable nitrite accumulation above 86.9% and high nitrate removal (99.8%). Microbial physiology and viability further supported the positive effects of yellow light on microbial activity. Additionally, despite the sluggish denitrification aroused by blue light, negligible cellular damage was observed. Antioxidant capability divergence, microbial community shifting and metabolic flux redirection contributed to the wavelength-dependent effects. Halomonas and Pseudomonas were identified as high-credit taxonomic biomarkers of yellow and blue light. As revealed by metabolomics, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutamate metabolism and alkaloid biosynthesis presented high impact values. Co-analysis of metabolomics and metagenomics based on microbial topology further distinguished pivotal metabolic pathways and genes. Oxidative phosphorylation contributed to the divergent denitrification performance through electron transfer chains, whereas glutamate and glutathione metabolism contributed to oxidative stress alleviation and mediated the metabolic flux between peroxisome and nitrogen metabolism. This study shed a light on the application of optical strategy to regulate denitrification performance and achieve either complete denitrification or PD/A.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Banerjee P, Sarkar A, Ghosh K, et al (2023)

A Metagenomic Based Approach on Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Communities Across the Life Stages of Culicoides peregrinus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) a Vector of Bluetongue Virus.

Journal of medical entomology pii:7028525 [Epub ahead of print].

During larval rearing of Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) it was obligatory to add a small quantity of mud from larval habitat to nutrient broth in culture plates. This initiated microbial growth in rearing plates which facilitated growth and development of immature. The primary aim was to enumerate gut microbial communities across the different life stages of C. peregrinus. Amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region (16S rDNA) was done on Illumina Miseq platform to detect gut bacterial communities at different life stages, while ITS regions (18S rRNA) were targeted for fungal communities of the 4th instar larvae. The major findings were: 1) Phylum Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant throughout the life stages, along with the highest bacterial alpha diversity in the egg, 2) bacterial compositions were similar to laboratory reared and field collected adults, and 3) abundant fungal phyla associated with the larval gut were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Furthermore, analyses of the gut microbiome with METAGENassist might be indicative of their likely function in the natural habitat. Abundant gut-associated bacteria and/or fungal genera detected in the present study could be used as dietary supplements to establish laboratory colonies for further vectorial research. While, individual roles of the bacteria or fungi in paratransgenesis are warned for their possible utilization to frame the management strategy in upcoming works.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Mafumo N, Bezuidt OKI, le Roux W, et al (2023)

CrAssphage May Be Viable Markers of Contamination in Pristine and Contaminated River Water.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Viruses are the most biologically abundant entities and may be ideal indicators of fecal pollutants in water. Anthropogenic activities have triggered drastic ecosystem changes in rivers, leading to substantial shifts in chemical and biological attributes. Here, we evaluate the viability of using the presence of crAssphage as indicators of fecal contamination in South African rivers. Shotgun analysis revealed diverse crAssphage viruses in these rivers, which are impacted by chemical and biological pollution. Overall, the diversity and relative abundances of these viruses was higher in contaminated sites compared to pristine locations. In contrast to fecal coliform counts, crAssphage sequences were detected in pristine rivers, supporting the assertion that the afore mentioned marker may be a more accurate indicator of fecal contamination. Our data demonstrate the presence of diverse putative hosts which includes members of the phyla Bacteroidota, Pseudomonadota, Verrucomicrobiota, and Bacillota. Phylogenetic analysis revealed novel subfamilies, suggesting that rivers potentially harbor distinct and uncharacterized clades of crAssphage. These data provide the first insights regarding the diversity, distribution, and functional roles of crAssphage in rivers. Taken together, the results support the potential application of crAssphage as viable markers for water quality monitoring. IMPORTANCE Rivers support substantial populations and provide important ecosystem services. Despite the application of fecal coliform tests and other markers, we lack rapid and reproducible approaches for determining fecal contamination in rivers. Waterborne viral outbreaks have been reported even after fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were suggested to be absent or below regulated levels of coliforms. This indicates a need to develop and apply improved indicators of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the viability of crAssphage as indicators of fecal contamination in two South African rivers. We assess the abundance, distribution, and diversity of these viruses in sites that had been predicted pristine or contaminated by FIB analysis. We show that crAssphage are ideal and sensitive markers for fecal contamination and describe novel clades of crAss-like phages. Known crAss-like subfamilies were unrepresented in our data, suggesting that the diversity of these viruses may reflect geographic locality and dependence.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Guo M, Wu G, Tan Y, et al (2023)

Guild-Level Microbiome Signature Associated with COVID-19 Severity and Prognosis.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has been associated with alterations of the gut microbiota. However, the relationship between gut microbiome alterations and COVID-19 prognosis remains elusive. Here, we performed a genome-resolved metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from 300 in-hospital COVID-19 patients, collected at the time of admission. Among the 2,568 high quality metagenome-assembled genomes (HQMAGs), redundancy analysis identified 33 HQMAGs which showed differential distribution among mild, moderate, and severe/critical severity groups. Co-abundance network analysis determined that the 33 HQMAGs were organized as two competing guilds. Guild 1 harbored more genes for short-chain fatty acid biosynthesis, and fewer genes for virulence and antibiotic resistance, compared with Guild 2. Based on average abundance difference between the two guilds, the guild-level microbiome index (GMI) classified patients from different severity groups (average AUROC [area under the receiver operating curve] = 0.83). Moreover, age-adjusted partial Spearman's correlation showed that GMIs at admission were correlated with 8 clinical parameters, which are predictors for COVID-19 prognosis, on day 7 in hospital. In addition, GMI at admission was associated with death/discharge outcome of the critical patients. We further validated that GMI was able to consistently classify patients with different COVID-19 symptom severities in different countries and differentiated COVID-19 patients from healthy subjects and pneumonia controls in four independent data sets. Thus, this genome-based guild-level signature may facilitate early identification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with high risk of more severe outcomes at time of admission. IMPORTANCE Previous reports on the associations between COVID-19 and gut microbiome have been constrained by taxonomic-level analysis and overlook the interaction between microbes. By applying a genome-resolved, reference-free, guild-based metagenomic analysis, we demonstrated that the relationship between gut microbiota and COVID-19 is genome-specific instead of taxon-specific or even species-specific. Moreover, the COVID-19-associated genomes were not independent but formed two competing guilds, with Guild 1 potentially beneficial and Guild 2 potentially more detrimental to the host based on comparative genomic analysis. The dominance of Guild 2 over Guild 1 at time of admission was associated with hospitalized COVID-19 patients at high risk for more severe outcomes. Moreover, the guild-level microbiome signature is not only correlated with the symptom severity of COVID-19 patients, but also differentiates COVID-19 patients from pneumonia controls and healthy subjects across different studies. Here, we showed the possibility of using genome-resolved and guild-level microbiome signatures to identify hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a high risk of more severe outcomes at the time of admission.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Zhang Z, Zhang L, Zhang G, et al (2023)

Deduplication Improves Cost-Efficiency and Yields of De Novo Assembly and Binning of Shotgun Metagenomes in Microbiome Research.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

In the last decade, metagenomics has greatly revolutionized the study of microbial communities. However, the presence of artificial duplicate reads raised mainly from the preparation of metagenomic DNA sequencing libraries and their impacts on metagenomic assembly and binning have never been brought to attention. Here, we explicitly investigated the effects of duplicate reads on metagenomic assemblies and binning based on analyses of five groups of representative metagenomes with distinct microbiome complexities. Our results showed that deduplication considerably increased the binning yields (by 3.5% to 80%) for most of the metagenomic data sets examined thanks to the improved contig length and coverage profiling of metagenome-assembled contigs, whereas it slightly decreased the binning yields of metagenomes with low complexity (e.g., human gut metagenomes). Specifically, 411 versus 397, 331 versus 317, 104 versus 88, and 9 versus 5 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from MEGAHIT assemblies of bioreactor sludge, surface water, lake sediment, and forest soil metagenomes, respectively. Noticeably, deduplication significantly reduced the computational costs of the metagenomic assembly, including the elapsed time (9.0% to 29.9%) and the maximum memory requirement (4.3% to 37.1%). Collectively, we recommend the removal of duplicate reads in metagenomes with high complexity before assembly and binning analyses, for example, the forest soil metagenomes examined in this study. IMPORTANCE Duplicated reads in shotgun metagenomes are usually considered technical artifacts. Their presence in metagenomes would theoretically not only introduce bias into the quantitative analysis but also result in mistakes in the coverage profile, leading to adverse effects on or even failures in metagenomic assembly and binning, as the widely used metagenome assemblers and binners all need coverage information for graph partitioning and assembly binning, respectively. However, this issue was seldom noticed, and its impacts on downstream essential bioinformatic procedures (e.g., assembly and binning) remained unclear. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated for the first time the implications of duplicate reads for the de novo assembly and binning of real metagenomic data sets by comparing the assembly qualities, binning yields, and requirements for computational resources with and without the removal of duplicate reads. It was revealed that deduplication considerably increased the binning yields of metagenomes with high complexity and significantly reduced the computational costs, including the elapsed time and the maximum memory requirement, for most of the metagenomes studied. These results provide empirical references for more cost-efficient metagenomic analyses in microbiome research.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

García-Roldán A, Durán-Viseras A, de la Haba RR, et al (2023)

Genomic-based phylogenetic and metabolic analyses of the genus Natronomonas, and description of Natronomonas aquatica sp. nov.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1109549.

The genus Natronomonas is classified on the family Haloarculaceae, within the class Halobacteria and currently includes six species isolated from salterns, saline or soda lakes, and salt mines. All are extremely halophilic (optimal growth at 20-25% [w/v] NaCl) and neutrophilic, except Natronomonas pharaonis, the type species of the genus, that is haloalkaliphilic (showing optimal growth at pH 9.0) and possesses distinct phenotypic features, such as a different polar lipid profile than the rest of species of the genus. We have carried out a genome-based study in order to determine the phylogenetic structure of the genus Natronomonas and elucidate its current taxonomic status. Overall genomic relatedness indexes, i.e., OrthoANI (Average Nucleotide Identity), dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization), and AAI (Average Amino acid Identity), were determined with respect to the species of Natronomonas and other representative taxa of the class Halobacteria. Our data show that the six species of Natronomonas constitute a coherent cluster at the genus level. Besides, we have characterized a new haloarchaeon, strain F2-12[T], isolated from the brine of a pond of a saltern in Isla Cristina, Huelva, Spain, and we determined that it constitutes a new species of Natronomonas, for which we propose the name Natronomonas aquatica sp. nov. Besides, the metabolic analysis revealed a heterotrophic lifestyle and a versatile nitrogen metabolism for members of this genus. Finally, metagenomic fragment recruitments from a subset of hypersaline habitats, indicated that the species of Natronomonas are widely distributed in saline lakes and salterns as well as on saline soils. Species of this haloarchaeal genus can be considered as ubiquitous in intermediate to high salinity habitats.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Li Y, Jones FG, Zhang B, et al (2023)

The effect of short-term fallowing on the microbial communities in forest soil cultivated with ginseng: Preliminary research.

PeerJ, 11:e14758.

BACKGROUND: Continuous cultivation of ginseng crops in fixed plots can lead to disease outbreaks, yield losses and replanting failures. Fallow periods can help restore soil health and increase the sustainability of agricultural systems; however, taking land out of production for extended periods is often not feasible. Short-term fallow periods could restore soil health, but few studies have examined the effects of short-term fallow treatment on the health of soil in ginseng fields.

METHODS: In this preliminary study, we used metagenomic analysis to assess changes in the abundance of major ginseng pathogens and soil health overall following a short-term fallow period in a region in the Changbai Mountains. A sample from a forest plot (Hx0ks), was compared to a sample from a field where ginseng was previously cultivated and then had been left fallow for two years (Hx2), and a sample from a field that had been fallow for two years and was subsequently replanted with ginseng (Clsd).

RESULTS: Soil that was fallow for two years, and then replanted with ginseng, showed reduced nutrient content and lower diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities than soil that remained fallow. Candidatus Solibacter (5%) and Rhizomicrobium (3%) were the most abudant bacterial genera in Hx2. Rhizomicrobium (4%) and Gemmatimonas (3%) were the most abundant bacterial genera in Clsd. Mortierella (22%) and Peziza (12%) dominated the fungal community in Hx2. Lecanicillium (38%) and Mortierella (13%) dominated the fungal community in Clsd. Fallow periods also increased the functional diversity of soil as predicted by PICRUSt and decreased the relative abundance of the pathogenic fungi.

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings were consistent with the hypothesis that fallow management in ginseng cultivation can improve soil microbial community structure and function and reduces the number of plant pathogens; however, testing this hypothesis will require replicated plots.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Samal I, Bhoi TK, Majhi PK, et al (2022)

Combatting insects mediated biotic stress through plant associated endophytic entomopathogenic fungi in horticultural crops.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1098673.

Horticultural production is a vital catalyst for economic growth, yet insect infestations reduce horticultural crop yield and quality. Pesticides and other pest control methods are used during planting to eliminate pests that cause direct and indirect losses. In such situations, endophytic entomo-pathogenic fungi (EEPF) can act as a potential tools for biological control. They protect plants by boosting growth, nutrition, morpho-physiology and salt or iron tolerance. Antixenosis, antibiosis and plant tolerance change insect performance and preferences. EEPF- plant colonisation slows herbivore development, food consumption, oviposition and larval survival. EEPF changes plant physio-chemical properties like volatile emission profile and secondary metabolite production to regulate insect pest defences. EEPF produces chitinases, laccases, amylases, and cellulases for plant defence. Recent studies focused on EEPF species' significance, isolation, identification and field application. Realizing their full potential is difficult due to insufficient mass production, storage stability and formulation. Genetic-molecular and bioinformatics can help to build EEPF-based biological control systems. Metagenomics helps study microbial EEPF taxonomy and function. Multi-omics and system biology can decode EEPF interactions with host plants and microorganisms. NGS (Next Generation Sequencing), comparative genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, metatranscriptomics and microarrays are used to evaluate plant-EEPF relationships. IPM requires understanding the abiotic and biotic elements that influence plant-EEPF interaction and the physiological mechanisms of EEPF colonisation. Due to restricted research, there are hundreds of unexplored EEPFs, providing an urgent need to uncover and analyse them.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Dong Y, Chen Q, Tian B, et al (2023)

Advancing Microbe Detection for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Diagnosis and Management with Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:677-694.

BACKGROUND: Due to limitations of traditional microbiological methods and the presence of the oropharyngeal normal flora, there are still many pathogens that cause lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cannot be detected. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has the potential capacity to solve this problem.

METHODS: This retrospective study successively reviewed 77 patients with LRTI and 29 patients without LRTI admitted to Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, China from August 2020 to June 2021. Pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were detected adopting mNGS and traditional microbiological assays. The diagnostic performance of pathogens was compared between mNGS and BALF culture. The value of mNGS for aetiological and clinical impact investigation in LRTI was also evaluated.

RESULTS: Among 77 patients with LRTI, 22.1%, 40.3%, and 65.0% of cases were detected as definite or probable pathogens by culture, all conventional microbiological tests, and mNGS, respectively. Using the final diagnosis as a gold standard, mNGS exhibited a sensitivity of 76.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.6-85.5%), which was considerably superior to that of BALF culture (76.6% vs 18.2%; P < 0.01); specificity of 79.3% (95% CI, 60.3-92.0%), which was similar (79.3% vs 89.7%; P = 0.38); positive-predictive value of 90.8% (95% CI, 81.0-96.5%), and negative-predictive value of 56.1% (95% CI, 39.7-71.5%). According to our data, mNGS identified potential microorganisms in 66.7% (42/63) of culture-negative samples. Among 59 patients with pathogens identified by mNGS, conventional microbiological methods confirmed pathogenic infections in less than half (28/59) cases. Within the 77 patients, 34 (44.2%) patients received pathogen-directed therapy, 7 (9.1%) patients underwent antibiotic adjustment, and 3 (3.9%) patients stopped using antibiotics due to mNGS results.

CONCLUSION: mNGS exhibits high accuracy in diagnosing LRTI, and combine with traditional microbiological tests, causative pathogens can be detected in approximately 70.0% of cases, thus yields a positive effect on antibiotic application.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Huang W, Cai Q, Huo Y, et al (2023)

A case of pulmonary embolism with bad warfarin anticoagulant effects caused by E. coli infection.

Open life sciences, 18(1):20220539.

Warfarin is an anticoagulant commonly used as an oral drug in preventing and treating thromboembolic diseases. The international normalized ratio (INR) is a clinical monitoring anticoagulation intensity index that adjusts the dose based on important references. In particular, INR value must be strictly monitored when warfarin is used for anticoagulation therapy in infected patients. Herein, we report a 54-year-old female patient diagnosed with pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. After the warfarin administration, the INR was always substandard. The patient did not take other warfarin-interacting drugs or foods during the hospital stay. Metagenome next-generation sequencing suggested a bloodstream infection caused by Escherichia coli, which was further confirmed by blood culture. After meropenem administration for anti-infective treatment, the INR value rose rapidly to a standard level. Considering the lack of relevant reports, this case is the first report of potential interaction between E. coli and warfarin. Further, in patients with thromboembolic diseases complicated by infection, antibiotics should be chosen reasonably with close monitoring of the INR to avoid the interaction of warfarin and antibiotics and to ensure the effectiveness and safety of warfarin treatment.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Fang YF, Cao XH, Yao LY, et al (2023)

Pulmonary cryptococcosis after immunomodulator treatment in patients with Crohn's disease: Three case reports.

World journal of gastroenterology, 29(4):758-765.

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor α mAbs are widely used to treat Crohn's disease (CD). However, one disadvantage of this treatment is impairment of normal immune function, leading to an increased risk of infection. Cryptococcus infection is an opportunistic infection that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients and poses a significant diagnostic challenge in patients with CD.

CASE SUMMARY: Here, we report three cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with CD after receiving immunomodulatory treatment. The patients presented with no or mild respiratory symptoms. Chest computed tomography scans revealed pulmonary nodules in the unilateral or bilateral lobes. Diagnoses were made using pathological examination and metagenomic sequencing. The patients were treated with fluconazole 400 mg once daily for 1 to 6 mo, and symptoms were resolved. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase to retrieve previously reported cases and summarize patient characteristics.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of cryptococcus infection has increased along with immunomodulator use. Clinical vigilance is required for early identification and standardized treatment.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Bai H, Shi L, Guo Q, et al (2022)

Metagenomic insights into the relationship between gut microbiota and residual feed intake of small-sized meat ducks.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1075610.

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the regulatory effects of gut microbiota on the feed efficiency (FE) of small-sized meat ducks by evaluating correlations between gut microbiota and residual feed intake (RFI).

METHODS: A total of 500 21-day-old healthy male ducks with similar initial body weights (645 ± 15.0 g) were raised contemporaneously in the same experimental facility until slaughter at 56 days of age. In total, nine low-RFI (LR) and nine high-RFI (HR) birds were selected for further gut microbiota composition and functional analyses based on the production performance, and the RFI was calculated from 22 to 56 days of age.

RESULTS: Growth performance results indicated a significantly lower RFI, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, and average daily feed intake in the LR ducks (P < 0.05). Taxonomy results of gut microbiota showed the identification of 19 kinds of phyla and more than 250 kinds of genera in all samples. No significant discrepancies in cecal bacterial α-diversity were discovered between the LR and HR groups, which indicated that the microbial modulatory effects on RFI may be attributed to the bacterial composition, rather than the species diversity. Differential analysis of bacterial communities between the LR and HR groups showed a significant increment of Firmicutes and a significant decline of Bacteroidetes in the LR group (P < 0.05). Specifically, genera of Erysipelatoclostridium, Parasutterella, Fournierella, and Lactococcus significantly proliferated, while Bacteroides significantly decreased in the LR group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that the RFI was significantly correlated with carbohydrate metabolism-related bacteria including Bacteroides, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Ruminiclostridium_9, Sellimonas, Oscillibacter, Escherichia-Shigella, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the communities related to carbohydrate metabolism had positive regulatory effects on the FE of small-sized meat ducks, promoting it by improving the relative abundance and utilization of these communities. The present study provides valuable insight into the dynamics of gut microbiota underlying the variations in the FE of small-sized meat ducks.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Cobo-López S, Gupta VK, Sung J, et al (2022)

Stochastic block models reveal a robust nested pattern in healthy human gut microbiomes.

PNAS nexus, 1(3):pgac055.

A key question in human gut microbiome research is what are the robust structural patterns underlying its taxonomic composition. Herein, we use whole metagenomic datasets from healthy human guts to show that such robust patterns do exist, albeit not in the conventional enterotype sense. We first introduce the concept of mixed-membership enterotypes using a network inference approach based on stochastic block models. We find that gut microbiomes across a group of people (hosts) display a nested structure, which has been observed in a number of ecological systems. This finding led us to designate distinct ecological roles to both microbes and hosts: generalists and specialists. Specifically, generalist hosts have microbiomes with most microbial species, while specialist hosts only have generalist microbes. Moreover, specialist microbes are only present in generalist hosts. From the nested structure of microbial taxonomies, we show that these ecological roles of microbes are generally conserved across datasets. Our results show that the taxonomic composition of healthy human gut microbiomes is associated with robustly structured combinations of generalist and specialist species.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Chen Z, Yang H, Fu H, et al (2022)

Gut bacterial species in late trimester of pregnant sows influence the occurrence of stillborn piglet through pro-inflammation response.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1101130.

Maternal gut microbiota is an important regulator for the metabolism and immunity of the fetus during pregnancy. Recent studies have indicated that maternal intestinal microbiota is closely linked to the development of fetus and infant health. Some bacterial metabolites are considered to be directly involved in immunoregulation of fetus during pregnancy. However, the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we exploited the potential correlation between the gut microbiota of pregnant sows and the occurrence of stillborn piglets by combining the 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing data, and fecal metabolome in different cohorts. The results showed that several bacterial species from Bacteroides, potential pathogens, and LPS-producing bacteria exhibited significantly higher abundances in the gut of sows giving birth to stillborn piglets. Especially, Bacteroides fragilis stood out as the key driver in both tested cohorts and showed the most significant association with the occurrence of stillborn piglets in the DN1 cohort. However, several species producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as Prevotella copri, Clostridium butyricum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were enriched in the gut of normal sows. Functional capacity analysis of gut microbiome revealed that the pathways associated with infectious diseases and immune diseases were enriched in sows giving birth to stillborn piglets. However, energy metabolism had higher abundance in normal sows. Fecal metabolome profiling analysis found that Lysophosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine which are the main components of cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria showed significantly higher concentration in stillbirth sows, while SCFAs had higher concentration in normal sows. These metabolites were significantly associated with the stillborn-associated bacterial species including Bacteroides fragilis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-1β, IL-6, FABP2, and zonulin had higher concentration in the serum of stillbirth sows, indicating increased intestinal permeability and pro-inflammatory response. The results from this study suggested that certain sow gut bacterial species in late trimester of pregnancy, e.g., an excess abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, produced high concentration of LPS which induced sow pro-inflammatory response and might cause the death of the relatively weak piglets in a farrow. This study provided novel evidences about the effect of maternal gut microbiota on the fetus development and health.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Ferreira Voidaleski M, de Fátima Costa F, de Hoog GS, et al (2023)

Metagenomics reveals an abundance of black yeast-like fungi in the skin microbiome.

Mycoses [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The skin is the first line of defense against communities of resident viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The composition of the microbiome might change with factors related to the environment and host. The microbiome is dominated by bacteria. Dermatophytes and yeasts are the predominant fungi that are also involved in opportunistic infections of skin, hair, and nails. Among environmental fungi, Chaetothyriales (black yeasts and relatives) are enriched by hydrocarbon pollution in domesticated habitats and comprise numerous species that cause mild-to-severe disease.

METHODS: We investigated the presence of black fungi in the skin microbiome by conducting an analysis in the publicly available metagenomic SRA database (NCBI). We focused on the causative agents of chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis and used barcodes and padlock probe sequences as diagnostic tools.

RESULTS: A total of 132,159,577 MB was analyzed and yielded 18,360 reads that matched with 24 species of black fungi. Exophiala was the most prevalent genus, and Cyphellophora europaea was the most abundant species.

CONCLUSION: This study reveals the abundant presence of Chaetothyriales on the skin without necessarily being associated with infection. Most of the detected causal agents are known from mild skin diseases, while also species were revealed that had been reported from CARD9-deficient patients.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Meng Z, Yang C, Leng J, et al (2023)

Production, purification, characterization and application of two novel endoglucanases from buffalo rumen metagenome.

Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 14(1):16.

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose biomass is the most abundant and renewable material in nature. The objectives of this study were to characterize two endoglucanases TrepCel3 and TrepCel4, and determine the effect of the combination of them (1.2 mg TrepCel3, 0.8 mg TrepCel4) on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. In this study, three nature lignocellulosic substrates (rice straw, RS; wheat straw, WS; leymus chinensis, LC) were evaluated for their in vitro digestibility, gas, NH3-N and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and microbial protein (MCP) synthesis by adding enzymatic combination.

METHODS: Two endoglucanases' genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3), and enzymatic characteristics were further characterized. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 was incubated with lignocellulosic substrates to evaluate its hydrolysis ability.

RESULTS: The maximum enzymatic activity of TrepCel3 was determined at pH 5.0 and 40 °C, while TrepCel4 was at pH 6.0 and 50 °C. They were stable over the temperature range of 30 to 60 °C, and active within the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 had the highest activity in lichenan 436.9 ± 8.30 and 377.6 ± 6.80 U/mg, respectively. The combination of TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the highest efficiency at the ratio of 60:40. Compared to maximum hydrolysis of TrepCel3 or TrepCel4 separately, this combination was shown to have a superior ability to maximize the saccharification yield from lignocellulosic substrates up to 188.4% for RS, 236.7% for wheat straw WS, 222.4% for LC and 131.1% for sugar beet pulp (SBP). Supplemental this combination enhanced the dry matter digestion (DMD), gas, NH3-N and VFA production, and MCP synthesis during in vitro rumen fermentation.

CONCLUSIONS: The TrepCel3 and TrepCel4 exhibited the synergistic relationship (60:40) and significantly increased the saccharification yield of lignocellulosic substrates. The combination of them stimulated in vitro rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates. This combination has the potential to be a feed additive to improve agricultural residues utilization in ruminants. If possible, in the future, experiments in vivo should be carried out to fully evaluate its effect.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Shi B, Zhao R, Su G, et al (2023)

Metagenomic surveillance of antibiotic resistome in influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)00646-0 [Epub ahead of print].

As hotspots for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have attracted global attention. However, there lacks a sufficient metagenomic surveillance of antibiotic resistome in the WWTPs located on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Here, metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate the occurrence, mobility potential, and bacterial hosts of ARGs in influent and effluent of 18 WWTPs located on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The total ARG relative abundances and diversity were significantly decreased from influent to effluent across the WWTPs. Multidrug, bacitracin, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam ARGs generally consisted of the main ARG types in effluent samples, which were distinct from influent samples. A group of 72 core ARGs accounting for 61.8-95.8 % of the total ARG abundances were shared by all samples. Clinically relevant ARGs mainly conferring resistance to beta-lactams were detected in influent (277 ARGs) and effluent (178 ARGs). Metagenomic assembly revealed that the genetic location of an ARG on a plasmid or a chromosome was related to its corresponding ARG type, demonstrating the distinction in the mobility potential of different ARG types. The abundance of plasmid-mediated ARGs accounted for a much higher proportion than that of chromosome-mediated ARGs in both influent and effluent. Moreover, the ARGs co-occurring with diverse mobile genetic elements in the effluent exhibited a comparable mobility potential with the influent. Furthermore, 137 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) assigned to 13 bacterial phyla were identified as the ARG hosts, which could be effectively treated in most WWTPs. Notably, 46 MAGs were found to carry multiple ARG types and the potential pathogens frequently exhibited multi-antibiotic resistance. Some ARG types tended to be carried by certain bacteria, showing a specific host-resistance association pattern. This study highlights the necessity for metagenomic surveillance and will facilitate risk assessment and control of antibiotic resistome in WWTPs located on the vulnerable area.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Yu Y, Huang J, Jin L, et al (2023)

Translocation and metabolism of tricresyl phosphate in rice and microbiome system: Isomer-specific processes and overlooked metabolites.

Environment international, 172:107793 pii:S0160-4120(23)00066-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is extensively used organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers that posed risks to organisms and human beings. In this study, the translocation and biotransformation behavior of isomers tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP), tri-m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP), and tri-o-cresyl phosphate (ToCP) in rice and rhizosphere microbiome was explored by hydroponic exposure. TpCP and TmCP were found more liable to be translocated acropetally, compared with ToCP, although they have same molecular weight and similar Kow. Rhizosphere microbiome named microbial consortium GY could reduce the uptake of TpCP, TmCP, and ToCP in rice tissues, and promote rice growth. New metabolites were successfully identified in rice and microbiome, including hydrolysis, hydroxylated, methylated, demethylated, methoxylated, and glucuronide- products. The methylation, demethylation, methoxylation, and glycosylation pathways of TCP isomers were observed for the first time in organisms. What is more important is that the demethylation of TCPs could be an important and overlooked source of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which broke the traditional understanding of the only manmade source of toxic TPHP in the environment. Active members of the microbial consortium GY during degradation were revealed and metagenomic analysis indicated that most of active populations contained TCP-degrading genes. It is noteworthy that the strains and function genes in microbial consortium GY that responsible for TCP isomers' transformation were different. These results can improve our understanding of the translocation and transformation of organic pollutant isomers in plants and rhizosphere microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Secomandi S, Gallo GR, Sozzoni M, et al (2023)

A chromosome-level reference genome and pangenome for barn swallow population genomics.

Cell reports, 42(1):111992.

Insights into the evolution of non-model organisms are limited by the lack of reference genomes of high accuracy, completeness, and contiguity. Here, we present a chromosome-level, karyotype-validated reference genome and pangenome for the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). We complement these resources with a reference-free multialignment of the reference genome with other bird genomes and with the most comprehensive catalog of genetic markers for the barn swallow. We identify potentially conserved and accelerated genes using the multialignment and estimate genome-wide linkage disequilibrium using the catalog. We use the pangenome to infer core and accessory genes and to detect variants using it as a reference. Overall, these resources will foster population genomics studies in the barn swallow, enable detection of candidate genes in comparative genomics studies, and help reduce bias toward a single reference genome.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Doni L, Oliveri C, Lasa A, et al (2023)

Large-scale impact of the 2016 Marine Heatwave on the plankton-associated microbial communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

Marine pollution bulletin, 188:114685 pii:S0025-326X(23)00116-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world's largest coral ecosystem and is threatened by climate change. This study investigated the impact of the 2016 Marine Heatwave (MHW) on plankton associated microbial communities along a ∼800 km transect in the GBR. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding of archived plankton samples collected from November 2014 to August 2016 in this region showed a significant increase in Planctomycetes and bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio and Synechococcus during and after the heatwave. Notably, Droplet Digital PCR and targeted metagenomic analysis applied on samples collected four months after the MHW event revealed the presence of several potential pathogenic Vibrio species previously associated with diseases in aquatic animals. Overall, the 2016 MHW significantly impacted the surface picoplankton community and fostered the spread of potentially pathogenic bacteria across the GBR providing an additional threat for marine biodiversity in this area.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Li H, Yu H, Liang Y, et al (2023)

Extended chloramination significantly enriched intracellular antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants.

Water research, 232:119689 pii:S0043-1354(23)00124-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Chloramination and chlorination are both strong barriers that prevent the transmission of potential pathogens to humans through drinking water. However, the comparative effects of chloramination and chlorination on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) remain unknown. Herein, the antibiotic resistome in water before and after chloramination or chlorination was analyzed through metagenomic sequencing and then verified through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). After the treatment of 90 min, chloramination led to higher enrichment of the total relative abundance of intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in water than chlorination, whereas chlorination facilitated the release of more extracellular ARGs (eARGs) than chloramination. According to redundancy and Pearson's analyses, the total concentration of the observed iARGs in the finished water exhibited a strong positive correlation with ammonium nitrogen (NH4[+]-N) concentration, presenting a linear upward trend with an increase in the NH4[+]-N concentration. This indicated that NH4[+]-N is a crucial driving factor for iARG accumulation during chloramination. iARG enrichment ceases if the duration of chloramination is shortened to 40 min, suggesting that shortening the duration would be a better strategy for controlling iARG enrichment in drinking water. These findings emphasized the potential risk of antibiotic resistance after extended chloramination, shedding light on the control of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria through water by optimizing disinfection procedures in DWTPs.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Matiasek K, Pfaff F, Weissenböck H, et al (2023)

Mystery of fatal 'staggering disease' unravelled: novel rustrela virus causes severe meningoencephalomyelitis in domestic cats.

Nature communications, 14(1):624.

'Staggering disease' is a neurological disease entity considered a threat to European domestic cats (Felis catus) for almost five decades. However, its aetiology has remained obscure. Rustrela virus (RusV), a relative of rubella virus, has recently been shown to be associated with encephalitis in a broad range of mammalian hosts. Here, we report the detection of RusV RNA and antigen by metagenomic sequencing, RT-qPCR, in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in brain tissues of 27 out of 29 cats with non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis and clinical signs compatible with'staggering disease' from Sweden, Austria, and Germany, but not in non-affected control cats. Screening of possible reservoir hosts in Sweden revealed RusV infection in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Our work indicates that RusV is the long-sought cause of feline 'staggering disease'. Given its reported broad host spectrum and considerable geographic range, RusV may be the aetiological agent of neuropathologies in further mammals, possibly even including humans.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Carbia C, Bastiaanssen TFS, Iannone LF, et al (2023)

The Microbiome-Gut-Brain axis regulates social cognition & craving in young binge drinkers.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(23)00007-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is the consumption of an excessive amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This pattern of consumption is highly prevalent during the crucial developmental period of adolescence. Recently, the severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been linked with microbiome alterations suggesting a role for the gut microbiome in its development. Furthermore, a strong link has emerged too between microbiome composition and socio-emotional functioning across different disorders including AUD. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential link (and its predictive value) between alcohol-related altered microbial profile, social cognition, impulsivity and craving.

METHODS: Young people (N = 71) aged 18-25 reported their alcohol use and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. Craving was measured at baseline and three months later. Diet was controlled for. Blood, saliva and hair samples were taken for inflammatory, kynurenine and cortisol analysis. Stool samples were provided for shotgun metagenomic sequencing and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured.

FINDINGS: Binge drinking was associated with distinct microbiome alterations and emotional recognition difficulties. Associations were found for several microbiome species with emotional processing and impulsivity. Craving showed a strong link with alterations in microbiome composition and neuroactive potential over time.

INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, this research demonstrates alterations in the gut microbiome of young binge drinkers (BDs) and identifies early biomarkers of craving. Associations between emotional processing and microbiome composition further support the growing literature on the gut microbiome as a regulator of social cognition. These findings are of relevance for new gut-derived interventions directed at improving early alcohol-related alterations during the vulnerability period of adolescence.

FUNDING: C.C. and R.G-C. received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 754535. APC Microbiome Ireland is a research centre funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), through the Irish Government's National Development Plan [grant no. SFI/12/RC/2273_P2]. J.F.C has research support from Cremo, Pharmavite, DuPont and Nutricia. He has spoken at meetings sponsored by food and pharmaceutical companies. G.C. has received honoraria from Janssen, Probi, and Apsen as an invited speaker; is in receipt of research funding from Pharmavite, Fonterra, Nestle and Reckitt; and is a paid consultant for Yakult, Zentiva and Heel pharmaceuticals. All the authors declare no competing interests.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Kumar V, Vangnai AS, Sharma N, et al (2023)

Bioengineering of biowaste to recover bioproducts and bioenergy: A circular economy approach towards sustainable zero-waste environment.

Chemosphere, 319:138005 pii:S0045-6535(23)00272-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The inevitable need for waste valorisation and management has revolutionized the way in which the waste is visualised as a potential biorefinery for various product development rather than offensive trash. Biowaste has emerged as a potential feedstock to produce several value-added products. Bioenergy generation is one of the potential applications originating from the valorisation of biowaste. Bioenergy production requires analysis and optimization of various parameters such as biowaste composition and conversion potential to develop innovative and sustainable technologies for most effective utilization of biowaste with enhanced bioenergy production. In this context, feedstocks, such as food, agriculture, beverage, and municipal solid waste act as promising resources to produce renewable energy. Similarly, the concept of microbial fuel cells employing biowaste has clearly gained research focus in the past few decades. Despite of these potential benefits, the area of bioenergy generation still is in infancy and requires more interdisciplinary research to be sustainable alternatives. This review is aimed at analysing the bioconversion potential of biowaste to renewable energy. The possibility of valorising underutilized biowaste substrates is elaborately presented. In addition, the application and efficiency of microbial fuel cells in utilizing biowaste are described in detail taking into consideration of its great scope. Furthermore, the review addresses the significance bioreactor development for energy production along with major challenges and future prospects in bioenergy production. Based on this review it can be concluded that bioenergy production utilizing biowaste can clearly open new avenues in the field of waste valorisation and energy research. Systematic and strategic developments considering the techno economic feasibilities of this excellent energy generation process will make them a true sustainable alternative for conventional energy sources.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Sun J, Evans PN, Gagen EJ, et al (2021)

Recoding of stop codons expands the metabolic potential of two novel Asgardarchaeota lineages.

ISME communications, 1(1):30.

Asgardarchaeota have been proposed as the closest living relatives to eukaryotes, and a total of 72 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing six primary lineages in this archaeal phylum have thus far been described. These organisms are predicted to be fermentative heterotrophs contributing to carbon cycling in sediment ecosystems. Here, we double the genomic catalogue of Asgardarchaeota by obtaining 71 MAGs from a range of habitats around the globe, including the deep subsurface, brackish shallow lakes, and geothermal spring sediments. Phylogenomic inferences followed by taxonomic rank normalisation confirmed previously established Asgardarchaeota classes and revealed four additional lineages, two of which were consistently recovered as monophyletic classes. We therefore propose the names Candidatus Sifarchaeia class nov. and Ca. Jordarchaeia class nov., derived from the gods Sif and Jord in Norse mythology. Metabolic inference suggests that both classes represent hetero-organotrophic acetogens, which also have the ability to utilise methyl groups such as methylated amines, with acetate as the probable end product in remnants of a methanogen-derived core metabolism. This inferred mode of energy conservation is predicted to be enhanced by genetic code expansions, i.e., stop codon recoding, allowing the incorporation of the rare 21st and 22nd amino acids selenocysteine (Sec) and pyrrolysine (Pyl). We found Sec recoding in Jordarchaeia and all other Asgardarchaeota classes, which likely benefit from increased catalytic activities of Sec-containing enzymes. Pyl recoding, on the other hand, is restricted to Sifarchaeia in the Asgardarchaeota, making it the first reported non-methanogenic archaeal lineage with an inferred complete Pyl machinery, likely providing members of this class with an efficient mechanism for methylamine utilisation. Furthermore, we identified enzymes for the biosynthesis of ester-type lipids, characteristic of bacteria and eukaryotes, in both newly described classes, supporting the hypothesis that mixed ether-ester lipids are a shared feature among Asgardarchaeota.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Yagin FH, Cicek İB, Alkhateeb A, et al (2023)

Explainable artificial intelligence model for identifying COVID-19 gene biomarkers.

Computers in biology and medicine, 154:106619 pii:S0010-4825(23)00084-7 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: COVID-19 has revealed the need for fast and reliable methods to assist clinicians in diagnosing the disease. This article presents a model that applies explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods based on machine learning techniques on COVID-19 metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) samples.

METHODS: In the data set used in the study, there are 15,979 gene expressions of 234 patients with COVID-19 negative 141 (60.3%) and COVID-19 positive 93 (39.7%). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was applied to select genes associated with COVID-19. Support Vector Machine - Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SVM-SMOTE) method was used to handle the class imbalance problem. Logistics regression (LR), SVM, random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) methods were constructed to predict COVID-19. An explainable approach based on local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) and SHAPley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) methods was applied to determine COVID-19- associated biomarker candidate genes and improve the final model's interpretability.

RESULTS: For the diagnosis of COVID-19, the XGBoost (accuracy: 0.930) model outperformed the RF (accuracy: 0.912), SVM (accuracy: 0.877), and LR (accuracy: 0.912) models. As a result of the SHAP, the three most important genes associated with COVID-19 were IFI27, LGR6, and FAM83A. The results of LIME showed that especially the high level of IFI27 gene expression contributed to increasing the probability of positive class.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model (XGBoost) was able to predict COVID-19 successfully. The results show that machine learning combined with LIME and SHAP can explain the biomarker prediction for COVID-19 and provide clinicians with an intuitive understanding and interpretability of the impact of risk factors in the model.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Kuerman M, Wang R, Zhou Y, et al (2023)

Metagenomic insights into bacterial communities and functional genes associated with texture characteristics of Kazakh artisanal fermented milk Ayran in Xinjiang, China.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 164:112414.

The complex microflora of traditional fermented milk is crucial to milk coagulation mainly through acid and protease production; however, it is still unclear which microbes and proteases significantly influence the texture of Ayran, a Kazakh artisanal fermented milk in Xinjiang, China. In this study, fifty-nine samples of Ayran were collected and investigated on texture properties. Finally, six Ayran samples with different texture features were screened out, and the taxonomic and functional attributes of their microbiota were characterized by metagenomics. The results showed that the hardness of the fermented milk in Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture was significantly higher than that in other pasture areas. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were the core genera that affected the coagulation quality of milk. Furthermore, we found that the proline iminopeptidase pip (EC 3.4.11.5) gene of Lactobacillus helveticus and Limosilactobacillus fermentum and the dipeptidase E pepE (EC 3.4.13.21) gene of Lactococcus lactis were most associated with the coagulation quality of fermented milk. Furthermore, positive correlations were observed among the hardness of fermented milk, the activity of the proteases, and the corresponding functional gene expressions.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Zhao G, Qi M, Wang Q, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome variations in Rhinopithecus roxellanae caused by changes in the environment.

BMC genomics, 24(1):62 pii:10.1186/s12864-023-09142-6.

BACKGROUND: The snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellanae) is an endangered animal species mainly distributed in China and needs to be protected. Gut microbiome is an important determinant of animal health and population survival as it affects the adaptation of the animals to different foods and environments under kinetic changes of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate gut fecal microbiome profiles of snub-nosed monkeys affected by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including raising patterns (captive vs. wild), age, sex, and diarrheal status to provide a reference for making protection strategies.

RESULTS: The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was firstly used to pre-check clustering of 38 fecal samples from the monkeys including 30 wild and 8 captive (5 healthy and 3 diarrheal) from three Regions of Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. Then the 24 samples with high-quality DNA from 18 wild and 6 captive (4 healthy and 2 diarrheal) monkeys were subjected to shotgun metagenomic sequencing to characterize bacterial gut microbial communities. We discovered that the raising pattern (captive and wild) rather than age and sex was the predominant factor attributed to gut microbiome structure and proportionality. Wild monkeys had significantly higher bacterial diversity and lower Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratios than captive animals. Moreover, the gut microbiomes in wild healthy monkeys were enriched for the genes involved in fatty acid production, while in captive animals, genes were enriched for vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis from carbohydrate intermediates. Additionally, a total of 37 antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) types were detected. Unlike the microbiome diversity, the captive monkeys have a higher diversity of ARG than the wild animals.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, we highlight the importance of self-reprogramed metabolism in the snub-nosed monkey gut microbiome to help captive and wild monkeys adapt to different intrinsic and extrinsic environmental change.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Wang J, Lou Y, Ma D, et al (2023)

Co-treatment with free nitrous acid and calcium peroxide regulates microbiome and metabolic functions of acidogenesis and methanogenesis in sludge anaerobic digestion.

The Science of the total environment, 870:161924 pii:S0048-9697(23)00539-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Wasted activated sludge (WAS) is a promising feedstock for carbon management because of its abundance and carbon-neutral features. Currently, the goal is to maximize the energy in WAS and avoid secondary toxic effects or accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. Chemical pretreatment is an effective strategy for enhancing WAS disintegration and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the role of pretreatment in shaping the core microbiome and functional metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms remains obscure. Here, the mechanisms of SCFA synthesis and microbiome response to free nitrous acid (FNA) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) co-treatment during sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. The combination of FNA and CaO2 enriched acidogenic Macellibacteroides, Petrimonas, and Sedimentibacter to a relative abundance of 15.0%, 10.3%, and 7.3%, respectively, resulting in an apparent increase in SCFA production. Metagenome analysis indicated that FNA + CaO2 co-treatment facilitated glycolysis, phosphate acetyltransferase-acetate kinase pathway, amino acid metabolism, and acetate transport, but inhibited CO2 reduction and common pathway of methanogenesis compared with the untreated control. This work provides theoretical insights into the functional activity and interaction of microorganisms with ecological factors.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Du S, Feng J, Bi L, et al (2023)

Tracking soil resistance and virulence genes in rice-crayfish co-culture systems across China.

Environment international, 172:107789 pii:S0160-4120(23)00062-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Rice-crayfish co-culture (RC) has been widely and rapidly promoted as a sustainable agricultural system in many countries. The accumulation of crayfish residues could enhance soil organic matters; however, impacts of this integrated farming model on the dissemination and pathogenicity of resistance and virulence genes remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), biocide resistance genes (BRGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs) and virulence factor genes (VFGs) using metagenomic methods in paired RC and rice monoculture (RM) systems across China. The RC model did not increase the abundance of soil ARGs, BRGs, MRGs, or VFGs in comparison to the RM model, but selectively enriched 35 subtypes of these potential resistance and virulence genes. Network analysis revealed that resistance and virulence genes had a higher number of connections with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the RC system than that in the RM system, suggesting a higher horizontal transfer potential of these genes. Moreover, the RC model had a higher abundance of human opportunistic pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, and Shigella dysenteriae which were potential hosts of VFGs such as phoP, fleS, and gspE, suggesting a potential threat to human health. We further unraveled that stochastic process was the main driver of the assembly of resistance and virulence genes in the RC system. The abundance of ARGs and VFGs were primarily associated with microbial community compositions, while the abundance of BRGs and MRGs were mainly associated with that of MGEs. Taken together, our results suggest that the RC model has potential to cause the dissemination and pathogenicity of resistance and virulence genes, which has important implications for the control of soil-borne biological risks and the strategic management of sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Urbelienė N, Tiškus M, Tamulaitienė G, et al (2023)

Cytidine deaminases catalyze the conversion of N(S,O)[4]-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides.

Science advances, 9(5):eade4361.

Cytidine deaminases (CDAs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine to uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine. Here, we report that prokaryotic homo-tetrameric CDAs catalyze the nucleophilic substitution at the fourth position of N[4]-acyl-cytidines, N[4]-alkyl-cytidines, and N[4]-alkyloxycarbonyl-cytidines, and S[4]-alkylthio-uridines and O[4]-alkyl-uridines, converting them to uridine and corresponding amide, amine, carbamate, thiol, or alcohol as leaving groups. The x-ray structure of a metagenomic CDA_F14 and the molecular modeling of the CDAs used in this study show a relationship between the bulkiness of a leaving group and the volume of the binding pocket, which is partly determined by the flexible β3α3 loop of CDAs. We propose that CDAs that are active toward a wide range of substrates participate in salvage and/or catabolism of variously modified pyrimidine nucleosides. This identified promiscuity of CDAs expands the knowledge about the cellular turnover of cytidine derivatives, including the pharmacokinetics of pyrimidine-based prodrugs.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Tessler M, Cunningham SW, Ingala MR, et al (2023)

An Environmental DNA Primer for Microbial and Restoration Ecology.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental DNA (eDNA) sequencing-DNA collected from the environment from living cells or shed DNA-was first developed for working with microbes and has greatly benefitted microbial ecologists for decades since. These tools have only become increasingly powerful with the advent of metabarcoding and metagenomics. Most new studies that examine diverse assemblages of bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, and viruses lean heavily into eDNA using these newer technologies, as the necessary sequencing technology and bioinformatic tools have become increasingly affordable and user friendly. However, eDNA methods are rapidly evolving, and sometimes it can feel overwhelming to simply keep up with the basics. In this review, we provide a starting point for microbial ecologists who are new to DNA-based methods by detailing the eDNA methods that are most pertinent, including study design, sample collection and storage, selecting the right sequencing technology, lab protocols, equipment, and a few bioinformatic tools. Furthermore, we focus on how eDNA work can benefit restoration and what modifications are needed when working in this subfield.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Chen X, Shu X, He L, et al (2023)

High prevalence and mortality of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in anti-MDA5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis.

Rheumatology (Oxford, England) pii:7025491 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To identify potential risk factors and prognostic factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) infection in anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis (anti-MDA5+ DM) patients, and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).

METHODS: Anti-MDA5+ DM patients who underwent mNGS or real-time PCR for PJP detection were recruited. The potential risk factors for PJP occurrence and death were analyzed via Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of mNGS was compared with the conventional methods.

RESULTS: 91 patients were enrolled and 44 were assigned to PJP+ group. The PJP detection rate was 48.4%. PJP often occurred in the first 3 months (68.2%) of the disease; this period also showed the highest mortality rate (20.5%). Fever and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were independent risk factors for PJP occurrence, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) prophylaxis was an independent protective factor (all p< 0.05). Older age and increased LDH were predictors for mortality in patients with anti-MDA5+ DM and PJP (all p< 0.05). In addition, we found that mNGS had a sensitivity of 100.0% and specificity of 90.0% in diagnosing PJP, with the highest area under the curve of 0.95 (p< 0.001).

CONCLUSION: PJP has high prevalence and mortality in anti-MDA5+ DM. It is crucial for clinicians to identify high-risk patients and promptly institute TMP/SMZ to prevent PJP. mNGS is the preferred approach for pathogen detection in anti-MDA5+ DM when PJP is suspected.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Zhao R, JF Biddle (2021)

Helarchaeota and co-occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in subseafloor sediments from the Costa Rica Margin.

ISME communications, 1(1):25.

Deep sediments host many archaeal lineages, including the Asgard superphylum which contains lineages predicted to require syntrophic partnerships. Our knowledge about sedimentary archaeal diversity and their metabolic pathways and syntrophic partners is still very limited. We present here new genomes of Helarchaeota and the co-occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) recovered from organic-rich sediments off Costa Rica Margin. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three new metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) affiliating with Helarchaeota, each of which has three variants of the methyl-CoM reductase-like (MCR-like) complex that may enable them to oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically. These Helarchaeota have no multi-heme cytochromes but have Group 3b and Group 3c [NiFe] hydrogenases, and formate dehydrogenase, and therefore have the capacity to transfer the reducing equivalents (in the forms of hydrogen and formate) generated from alkane oxidation to external partners. We also recovered five MAGs of SRB affiliated with the class of Desulfobacteria, two of which showed relative abundances (represented by genome coverages) positively correlated with those of the three Helarchaeota. Genome analysis suggested that these SRB bacteria have the capacity of H2 and formate utilization and could facilitate electron transfers from other organisms by means of these reduced substances. Their co-occurrence and metabolic features suggest that Helarchaeota may metabolize synergistically with some SRB, and together exert an important influence on the carbon cycle by mitigating the hydrocarbon emission from sediments to the overlying ocean.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Dai Z, Wang H, Wu H, et al (2022)

Parvovirus dark matter in the cloaca of wild birds.

GigaScience, 12:.

With the development of viral metagenomics and next-generation sequencing technology, more and more novel parvoviruses have been identified in recent years, including even entirely new lineages. The Parvoviridae family includes a different group of viruses that can infect a wide variety of animals. In this study, systematic analysis was performed to identify the "dark matter" (datasets that cannot be easily attributed to known viruses) of parvoviruses and to explore their genetic diversity from wild birds' cloacal swab samples. We have tentatively defined this parvovirus "dark matter" as a highly divergent lineage in the Parvoviridae family. All parvoviruses showed several characteristics, including 2 major protein-coding genes and similar genome lengths. Moreover, we observed that the novel parvo-like viruses share similar genome organizations to most viruses in Parvoviridae but could not clustered with the established subfamilies in phylogenetic analysis. We also found some new members associated with the Bidnaviridae family, which may be derived from parvovirus. This suggests that systematic analysis of domestic and wild animal samples is necessary to explore the genetic diversity of parvoviruses and to mine for more of this potential dark matter.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Xie Y, Dai B, Zhou X, et al (2023)

Diagnostic Value of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Multi-Pathogenic Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:607-618.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the value and challenges of real-world clinical application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in HIV-infected patients with suspected multi-pathogenic pneumonia.

METHODS: Fifty-seven HIV-infected patients with suspected mixed pneumonia who were agreed to undergo the bronchoscopy were recruited and retrospectively reviewed the results of mNGS and conventional microbiological tests (CMTs) of BALF from July 2020 to June 2022.

RESULTS: 54 patients were diagnosed with pneumonia including 49 patients with definite pathogens and five patients with probable pathogens. mNGS exhibited a higher diagnostic accuracy for fungal detection than CMTs in HIV-infected patients with suspected pulmonary infection. The sensitivity of mNGS in diagnosis of pneumonia in HIV-infected patients was much higher than that of CMTs (79.6% vs 61.1%; P < 0.05). Patients with mixed infection had lower CD4 T-cell count and higher symptom duration before admitting to the hospital than those with single infection. The detection rate of mNGS for mixed infection was significantly higher than that of CMTs and more co-pathogens could be identified by mNGS. The most common pattern of mixed infection observed was fungi-virus (11/29, 37.9%), followed by fungi-virus-bacteria (6/29, 20.7%) coinfection in HIV-infected patients with multi-pathogenic pneumonia.

CONCLUSION: mNGS improved the pathogens detection rate and exhibited advantages in identifying multi-pathogenic pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Early performance of bronchoscopy and mNGS are recommended in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 T cell counts and long duration of symptoms. The most common pattern of mixed infection observed was fungi-virus, followed by fungi-virus-bacteria coinfection in HIV infected patients with multi-pathogenic pneumonia.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Barbieri E, Santoro N, GR Umano (2023)

Clinical features and metabolic complications for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in youth with obesity.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1062341.

Pediatric obesity has become in the last forty years the most common metabolic disease in children and adolescents affecting about 25% of the pediatric population in the western world. As obesity worsens, a whole-body insulin resistance (IR) occurs. This phenomenon is more pronounced during adolescence, when youth experience a high degree of insulin resistance due the production of growth hormone. As IR progresses, the blunted control of insulin on adipose tissue lipolysis causes an increased flux of fatty acids with FFA deposition in ectopic tissues and organs such as the liver, leading to the development of NAFLD. In this brief review, we will discuss the clinical implications of IR and NAFLD in the context of pediatric obesity. We will review the pathogenesis and the link between these two entities, the major pathophysiologic underpinnings, including the role of genetics and metagenomics, how these two entities lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, and which are the therapeutic options for NAFLD in youth.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Ge T, Yang C, Li B, et al (2023)

High-energy diet modify rumen microbial composition and microbial energy metabolism pattern in fattening sheep.

BMC veterinary research, 19(1):32 pii:10.1186/s12917-023-03592-6.

Higher dietary energy is often used to achieve better animal performance in mutton sheep production. Notably, changing the diet formula affects rumen fermentation and the microbiota of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary energy on rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiota in fattening sheep. Fifteen 2-month-old white-headed Suffolk sheep (♂) × Hu sheep (♀) crossbred lambs were randomly divided into three treatments based on the dietary energy of the feeds fed: 8.67 MJ/kg (Low energy (LE); n = 5), 10.38 MJ/kg (standard energy (CON); n = 5), and 12.31 MJ/kg (high energy (HE); n = 5) groups. After 70 days of feeding, sheep were slaughtered and the ruminal fluids were collected and analyzed to determine fermentation parameters. Microbiota was determined using metagenomics sequencing. Notably, the microbial cell protein (MCP) and butyric acid concentrations were significantly high in the HE group. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that ACE and Chao indexes of the HE group were significantly decreased. Four genera among the major classified taxa across all the kingdoms differed in relative abundance in the three dietary energy levels. The relative abundances of Prevotella_brevis, Succiniclasticum_ruminis, Prevotellace-ae_bacterium, and Lachnospiraceae_bacterium were significantly correlated with rumen fermentation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis further revealed that a high-energy diet increased lipid metabolism of microbiota. The Carbohydrate Active enzymes (CAZy) gene, which participates in energy metabolism, was upregulated, while genes regulating plant cell wall degradation were downregulated in the HE group. These results suggest that a high-energy diet had minimal influence on the rumen fermentation pattern but altered the composition of the rumen microbiota, enhancing microbial lipid metabolism and limiting crude fiber metabolism. The findings of this study provide scientific evidence of the effect of dietary energy on ruminant fermentation and fattening sheep production.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Deng K, Xu JJ, Shen L, et al (2023)

Comparison of fecal and blood metabolome reveals inconsistent associations of the gut microbiota with cardiometabolic diseases.

Nature communications, 14(1):571 pii:10.1038/s41467-023-36256-y.

Blood metabolome is commonly used in human studies to explore the associations of gut microbiota-derived metabolites with cardiometabolic diseases. Here, in a cohort of 1007 middle-aged and elderly adults with matched fecal metagenomic (149 species and 214 pathways) and paired fecal and blood targeted metabolomics data (132 metabolites), we find disparate associations with taxonomic composition and microbial pathways when using fecal or blood metabolites. For example, we observe that fecal, but not blood butyric acid significantly associates with both gut microbiota and prevalent type 2 diabetes. These findings are replicated in an independent validation cohort involving 103 adults. Our results suggest that caution should be taken when inferring microbiome-cardiometabolic disease associations from either blood or fecal metabolome data.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Evans T, Ali U, Anderton R, et al (2023)

Lower gut dysbiosis and mortality in acute critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Intensive care medicine experimental, 11(1):6.

BACKGROUND: The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex multi-kingdom community known as the microbiome. Dysbiosis refers to its disruption and is reportedly extreme in acute critical illness yet its clinical implications are unresolved. The review systematically evaluates the association between gut dysbiosis and clinical outcomes of patients early in critical illness.

METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, a prospectively registered search was undertaken of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for observational studies undertaking metagenomic sequencing of the lower gastrointestinal tract of critically ill adults and children within 72 h of admission. Eligible studies reported an alpha diversity metric and one or more of the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, or secondary clinical outcomes. After aggregate data were requested, meta-analysis was performed for four studies with in-hospital mortality stratified to high or low Shannon index.

RESULTS: The search identified 26 studies for systematic review and 4 had suitable data for meta-analysis. No effect of alpha diversity was seen on in-hospital mortality after binary transformation of Shannon index (odds ratio 0.52, CI 0.12-4.98, I[2] = 0.64) however certainty of evidence is low. Pathogen dominance and commensal depletion were each more frequently associated with in-hospital mortality, adverse clinical and ecological sequelae, particularly overabundance of Enterococcus.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of large, rigorous observational studies in this population. Globally, alpha diversity was dynamically reduced in early ICU admission in adults and children and was not associated with in-hospital mortality. The abundance of taxa such as Enterococcus spp. appears to offer greater predictive capacity for important clinical and ecological outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Wang L (2023)

Diagnostics for Viral Pathogens in Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice, 39(1):129-140.

Laboratory testing is one part of clinical diagnosis, and quick and reliable testing results provide important data to support treatment decision and develop control strategies. Clinical viral testing has been shifting from traditional virus isolation and electron microscopy to molecular polymerase chain reaction and point-of-care antigen tests. This shift in diagnostic methodology also means change from looking for infectious virions or viral particles to hunting viral antigens and genomes. With technological development, it is predicted that metagenomic sequencing will be commonly used in veterinary clinical diagnosis for unveiling the whole picture of microbes involved in diseases in the future.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Li X, Li K, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Diversity of lignocellulolytic functional genes and heterogeneity of thermophilic microbes during different wastes composting.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00123-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The goal of this study was to investigate the heterogeneity of thermophilic microorganisms and their lignocellulose-degrading gene diversity during composting. In this study, bagasse pith/dairy manure (BAG) and sawdust/dairy manure (SAW) were used as experimental subjects. The pour plate method indicated that thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinobacteria were more culturable than thermophilic fungi. Metagenomics analysis showed that the Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla during composting. In addition, auxiliary activity and glycoside hydrolase families were critical for lignocellulosic degradation, which were found to be more abundant in BAG. As a result, the degradation rates of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in BAG (7.36%, 13.99% and 5.68%) were observably higher than those in SAW (6.13%, 12.09% and 2.62%). These findings contribute to understanding how thermophilic microbial communities play a role in the deconstruction of different lignocelluloses and provide a potential strategy to comprehensively utilize the resources of lignocellulosic biomass.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Huang Q, Huang Y, Li B, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis characterizes resistomes of an acidic, multimetal(loid)-enriched coal source mine drainage treatment system.

Journal of hazardous materials, 448:130898 pii:S0304-3894(23)00180-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Heavy metal(loid) contaminations caused by mine activities are potential hot spots of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) because of heavy metal(loid)-induced co-selection of ARGs and heavy metal(loid) resistance genes (MRGs). This study used high-throughput metagenomic sequencing to analyze the resistome characteristics of a coal source acid mine drainage passive treatment system. The multidrug efflux mechanism dominated the antibiotic resistome, and a highly diverse heavy metal(loid) resistome was dominated by mercury-, iron-, and arsenic--associated resistance. Correlation analysis indicated that mobile gene elements had a greater influence on the dynamic of MRGs than ARGs. Among the metagenome-assembled genomes, six potential pathogens carrying multiple resistance genes resistant to several antibiotics and heavy metal(loid)s were recovered. Pseudomonas spp. contained the highest numbers of resistance genes, with resistance to two types of antibiotics and 12 types of heavy metal(loid)s. Thus, high contents of heavy metal(loid)s drove the co-selection of ARGs and MRGs. The occurrence of potential pathogens containing multiple resistance genes might increase the risk of ARG dissemination in the environment.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Bai H, He LY, Gao FZ, et al (2023)

Airborne antibiotic resistome and human health risk in railway stations during COVID-19 pandemic.

Environment international, 172:107784 pii:S0160-4120(23)00057-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the greatest public health concerns. It is becoming an increasingly threat during the COVID-19 pandemic due to increasing usage of antimicrobials, such as antibiotics and disinfectants, in healthcare facilities or public spaces. To explore the characteristics of airborne antibiotic resistome in public transport systems, we assessed distribution and health risks of airborne antibiotic resistome and microbiome in railway stations before and after the pandemic outbreak by culture-independent and culture-dependent metagenomic analysis. Results showed that the diversity of airborne antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) decreased following the pandemic, while the relative abundance of core ARGs increased. A total of 159 horizontally acquired ARGs, predominantly confering resistance to macrolides and aminoglycosides, were identified in the airborne bacteria and dust samples. Meanwhile, the abundance of horizontally acquired ARGs hosted by pathogens increased during the pandemic. A bloom of clinically important antibiotic (tigecycline and meropenem) resistant bacteria was found following the pandemic outbreak. 251 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from 27 metagenomes, and 86 genera and 125 species were classified. Relative abundance of ARG-carrying MAGs, taxonomically assigned to genus of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Staphylococcus, was found increased during the pandemic. Bayesian source tracking estimated that human skin and anthropogenic activities were presumptive resistome sources for the public transit air. Moreover, risk assessment based on resistome and microbiome data revealed elevated airborne health risks during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Yu N, Ye S, Yang Z, et al (2022)

Disseminated Cunninghamella Elegans Infection Diagnosed by mNGS During Induction Therapy in a Child With Intermediate-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology pii:00043426-990000000-00129 [Epub ahead of print].

We described a 14-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed disseminated mucormycosis during induction therapy. Disseminated Cunninghamella elegans infection was confirmed by histopathology, microbiological culture, and metagenomic next-generation sequencing analysis of skin tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Subsequently, the patient received a combination of liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole, and caspofungin for antifungal treatment, but eventually died because of severe fungal pneumonia, respiratory failure, and septic shock. Moreover, case reports of pulmonary mucormycosis in children published since 1959 were reviewed. In summary, metagenomic next-generation sequencing is an effective diagnostic method for Cunninghamella with high speed and sensitivity.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Satoh S, Tanaka R, Yokono M, et al (2023)

Phylogeny analysis of whole protein-coding genes in metagenomic data detected an environmental gradient for the microbiota.

PloS one, 18(2):e0281288 pii:PONE-D-22-20665.

Environmental factors affect the growth of microorganisms and therefore alter the composition of microbiota. Correlative analysis of the relationship between metagenomic composition and the environmental gradient can help elucidate key environmental factors and establishment principles for microbial communities. However, a reasonable method to quantitatively compare whole metagenomic data and identify the primary environmental factors for the establishment of microbiota has not been reported so far. In this study, we developed a method to compare whole proteomes deduced from metagenomic shotgun sequencing data, and quantitatively display their phylogenetic relationships as metagenomic trees. We called this method Metagenomic Phylogeny by Average Sequence Similarity (MPASS). We also compared one of the metagenomic trees with dendrograms of environmental factors using a comparison tool for phylogenetic trees. The MPASS method correctly constructed metagenomic trees of simulated metagenomes and soil and water samples. The topology of the metagenomic tree of samples from the Kirishima hot springs area in Japan was highly similarity to that of the dendrograms based on previously reported environmental factors for this area. The topology of the metagenomic tree also reflected the dynamics of microbiota at the taxonomic and functional levels. Our results strongly suggest that MPASS can successfully classify metagenomic shotgun sequencing data based on the similarity of whole protein-coding sequences, and will be useful for the identification of principal environmental factors for the establishment of microbial communities. Custom Perl script for the MPASS pipeline is available at https://github.com/s0sat/MPASS.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Valles SM, Zhao C, Rivers AR, et al (2023)

RNA virus discoveries in the electric ant, Wasmannia auropunctata.

Virus genes pii:10.1007/s11262-023-01969-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite being one of the most destructive invasive species of ants, only two natural enemies are known currently for Wasmannia auropunctata, commonly known as the electric ant or little fire ant. Because viruses can be effective biological control agents against many insect pests, including ants, a metagenomics/next-generation sequencing approach was used to facilitate discovery of virus sequences from the transcriptomes of W. auropunctata. Five new and complete positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus genomes, and one new negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus genome were identified, sequenced, and characterized from W. auropunctata collected in Argentina by this approach, including a dicistrovirus (Electric ant dicistrovirus), two polycipiviruses (Electric ant polycipivirus 1; Electric ant polycipivirus 2), a solinvivirus (Electric ant solinvivirus), a divergent genome with similarity to an unclassified group in the Picornavirales (Electric ant virus 1), and a rhabdovirus (Electric ant rhabdovirus). An additional virus genome was detected that is likely Solenopsis invicta virus 10 (MH727527). The virus genome sequences were absent from the transcriptomes of W. auropunctata collected in the USA (Hawaii and Florida). Additional limited field surveys corroborated the absence of these viruses in regions where the electric ant is invasive (the USA and Australia). The replicative genome strand of four of the viruses (Electric ant polycipivirus 2, Electric ant solinvivirus, Electric ant virus 1, and Solenopsis invicta virus 10 (in the electric ant) was detected in Argentinean-collected W. auropunctata indicating that the ant is a host for these viruses. These are the first virus discoveries to be made from W. auropunctata.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Markkanen MA, Haukka K, Pärnänen KMM, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Analysis of the Abundance and Composition of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Hospital Wastewater in Benin, Burkina Faso, and Finland.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to human health, with the most severe effect in low- and middle-income countries. We explored the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the hospital wastewater (HWW) of nine hospitals in Benin and Burkina Faso, two low-income countries in West Africa, with shotgun metagenomic sequencing. For comparison, we also studied six hospitals in Finland. The highest sum of the relative abundance of ARGs in the 68 HWW samples was detected in Benin and the lowest in Finland. HWW resistomes and mobilomes in Benin and Burkina Faso resembled each other more than those in Finland. Many carbapenemase genes were detected at various abundances, especially in HWW from Burkina Faso and Finland. The blaGES genes, the most widespread carbapenemase gene in the Beninese HWW, were also found in water intended for hand washing and in a puddle at a hospital yard in Benin. mcr genes were detected in the HWW of all three countries, with mcr-5 being the most common mcr gene. These and other mcr genes were observed in very high relative abundances, even in treated wastewater in Burkina Faso and a street gutter in Benin. The results highlight the importance of wastewater treatment, with particular attention to HWW. IMPORTANCE The global emergence and increased spread of antibiotic resistance threaten the effectiveness of antibiotics and, thus, the health of the entire population. Therefore, understanding the resistomes in different geographical locations is crucial in the global fight against the antibiotic resistance crisis. However, this information is scarce in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as those in West Africa. In this study, we describe the resistomes of hospital wastewater in Benin and Burkina Faso and, as a comparison, Finland. Our results help to understand the hitherto unrevealed resistance in Beninese and Burkinabe hospitals. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of wastewater management infrastructure design to minimize exposure events between humans, HWW, and the environment, preventing the circulation of resistant bacteria and ARGs between humans (hospitals and community) and the environment.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Graffius S, Garzón JFG, Zehl M, et al (2023)

Secondary Metabolite Production Potential in a Microbiome of the Freshwater Sponge Spongilla lacustris.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Marine and freshwater sponges harbor diverse communities of bacteria with vast potential to produce secondary metabolites that may play an important role in protecting the host from predators and infections. In this work, we initially used cultivation and metagenomics to investigate the microbial community of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris collected in an Austrian lake. Representatives of 41 bacterial genera were isolated from the sponge sample and classified according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomes of 33 representative isolates and the 20 recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) contained in total 306 secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs). Comparative 16S rRNA gene and genome analyses showed very little taxon overlap between the recovered isolates and the sponge community as revealed by cultivation-independent methods. Both culture-independent and -dependent analyses suggested high biosynthetic potential of the S. lacustris microbiome, which was confirmed experimentally even at the subspecies level for two Streptomyces isolates. To our knowledge, this is the most thorough description of the secondary metabolite production potential of a freshwater sponge microbiome to date. IMPORTANCE A large body of research is dedicated to marine sponges, filter-feeding animals harboring rich bacterial microbiomes believed to play an important role in protecting the host from predators and infections. Freshwater sponges have received so far much less attention with respect to their microbiomes, members of which may produce bioactive secondary metabolites with potential to be developed into drugs to treat a variety of diseases. In this work, we investigated the potential of bacteria associated with the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris to biosynthesize diverse secondary metabolites. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we discovered over 300 biosynthetic gene clusters in sponge-associated bacteria and proved production of several compounds by selected isolates using genome mining. Our results illustrate the importance of a complex approach when dealing with microbiomes of multicellular organisms that may contain producers of medically important secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Gaston DC (2023)

Clinical Metagenomics for Infectious Diseases: Progress toward Operational Value.

Journal of clinical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The field of clinical metagenomics for infectious disease diagnostics has advanced to combining questions of technical methodologies with best-use practices due to lowering barriers of implementation. This commentary identifies challenges facing further development of the field and proposes methods for advancement by highlighting a recent prospective pilot study evaluating a targeted metagenomic approach for infectious endocarditis. This commentary introduces the concept of operational value as a method for standardizing results generated by differing clinical metagenomic approaches. Operational value includes assessments of result quality, utility, and cost through incorporating methodological aspects of metagenomics as applied to various infectious syndromes, patient populations, and specimen types. Focus is placed on standardizing outcome-based metrics using an operational value matrix. As ambitions of clinical metagenomics are increasingly realized, new models of study design and collaboration could promote progress toward routine use and positive benefits for patients with infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Osborne MG, Molano G, Simons AL, et al (2023)

Natural variation of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophyte germplasm culture microbiomes and applications for improving yield in offshore farms.

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

With national interest in seaweed-based biofuels as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, there is a need for tools that produce high-yield seaweed cultivars and increase the efficiency of offshore farms. Several agricultural studies have demonstrated that the application of microbial inoculants at an early life stage can improve crop yield and there is an opportunity to use similar techniques in seaweed aquaculture. However, there is a critical knowledge gap regarding host-microbiome associations of macroalgae gametophytes in germplasm cultures. Here, we investigate the microbial community of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophyte germplasm cultures that were used to cultivate an offshore farm in Santa Barbara, California and identify key taxa correlated with increased biomass of mature sporophytes. This work provides a valuable knowledge base for the development of microbial inoculants that produce high-biomass M. pyrifera cultivars to ultimately be used as biofuel feedstocks.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Gendron EM, Sevigny JL, Byiringiro I, et al (2023)

Nematode Mitochondrial Metagenomics - a New Tool for Biodiversity Analysis.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

DNA barcoding approaches have greatly increased our understanding of biodiversity on the planet, and metabarcoding is widely used for classifying members of the phylum Nematoda. However, loci typically utilized in metabarcoding studies are often unable to resolve closely related species or are unable to recover all taxa present in a sample due to inadequate PCR primer binding. Mitochondrial metagenomics (mtMG) is an alternative approach utilizing shotgun sequencing of total DNA to recover the mitochondrial genomes of all species present in samples. However, this approach requires a comprehensive reference database for identification and currently available mitochondrial sequences for nematodes is highly dominated by sequences from the order Rhabditida and excludes many clades entirely. Here we analyzed the efficacy of mtMG for the recovery of nematode taxa and the generation of mitochondrial genomes. We first developed a curated reference database of nematode mitochondrial sequences and expanded it with 40 newly sequenced taxa. We then tested the mito-metagenomics approach using a series of nematode mock communities consisting of morphologically identified nematode species representing various feeding traits, life stages, and phylogenetic relationships. We were able to identify all but two species through the de novo assembly of COX1 genes. We were also able to recover additional mitochondrial protein coding genes (PCGs) for 23 of the 24 detected species including a full array of 12 PCGs from 5 of the species. We conclude that mtMG offers a potential for the effective recovery of nematode biodiversity but remains limited by the breadth of the reference database.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Kulecka M, Fraczek B, Balabas A, et al (2022)

Characteristics of the gut microbiome in esports players compared with those in physical education students and professional athletes.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:1092846.

INTRODUCTION: Esports is a category of competitive video games that, in many aspects, may be similar to traditional sports; however, the gut microbiota composition of players has not been yet studied.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigated the composition and function of the gut microbiota, as well as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and amino acids, in a group of 109 well-characterized Polish male esports players. The results were compared with two reference groups: 25 endurance athletes and 36 healthy students of physical education. DNA and metabolites isolated from fecal samples were analyzed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and mass spectrometry, respectively. Physical activity and nutritional measures were evaluated by questionnaire.

RESULTS: Although anthropometric, physical activity and nutritional measures differentiated esports players from students, there were no differences in bacterial diversity, the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, the composition of enterotype clusters, metagenome functional content, or SCFA concentrations. However, there were significant differences between esports players and students with respect to nine bacterial species and nine amino acids. By contrast, all of the above-mentioned measures differentiated professional athletes from esports players and students, with 45 bacteria differentiating professional athletes from the former and 31 from the latter. The only species differentiating all three experimental groups was Parabacteroides distasonis, showing the lowest and highest abundance in esports players and athletes, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the marked impact of intense exercise training on gut microbial structure and function. Differences in lifestyle and dietary habits between esports players and physical education students appear to not have a major effect on the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Liu Y, Cao Y, Yohannes Woldemariam K, et al (2022)

Antioxidant effect of yeast on lipid oxidation in salami sausage.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1113848.

Salami is a kind of fermented meat product with rich nutrition and unique flavor. Because it is rich in fat, it is easy to oxidize to produce bad flavor. Compared with the way of adding artificial or natural antioxidants to reduce the degree of sausage oxidation, the antioxidant characteristics of developing the starter itself deserve more attention. In this study, firstly the antioxidant activities of 5 strains of yeast were measured in vitro, and then the mixture of yeast and Lactobacillus rhamnosus YL-1 was applied to fermented sausage model. The effect of the starter in the sausage model was investigated through physicochemical parameters, degree of fat oxidation, free fatty acid content, and though volatile flavor compound analysis, sensory evaluation and various indexes after storage were observed. Metagenomics was used to explore metabolic pathways, functional genes and key enzymes related to lipid oxidizing substances in sausage in yeast. The results showed that Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y12-3 and Y12-4 had strong tolerance to H2O2, and had higher SOD and CAT enzyme activities. The addition of yeast effectively reduced the material value of peroxidation value and active thiobarbiturate in salami. In flavor analysis, the content of flavor compounds associated with lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, heptanal, nonanal and (E)-2-decenal were significantly lower with the use of Debaryomyces hansenii Y4-1 and Y12-3. Meanwhile, the possible pathways of yeast metabolism of flavor substances related to lipid oxidation (mainly aldehydes) were discussed with the help of metagenomic techniques. According to the results of metagenomics, fatty acid degradation (ko00071) metabolic pathway was related to the degradation of aldehydes through aldehyde dehydrogenase, which was the potential key enzyme.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Shinde PB, Mohite SV, Yadav A, et al (2023)

Functional analysis of metalloenzymes from human gut microbiota and their role in ulcerative colitis.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7022324 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Metalloenzymes produced by gut microbiota play an essential role in various physiological processes, and maintains homeostasis of gastrointestinal tract. Our study includes functional analysis of microbial metalloenzymes using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics data from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multiomics Database.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The distance matrix calculated by using metalloenzymes data produced significant results for bacterial taxonomy, with higher variance compared to HMP analysis in both Western and Indian population. Differential gene expression analysis revealed altered expression of ulcerative colitis (UC) associated enzymes, increased folds changes in Prevotella and Megamonas transcripts; whereas, low transcripts of Alistipes genera. Further, docking and simulation studies performed on screened UC-associated enzymes revealed change in catalytic efficiency and ligand interacting residues.

CONCLUSION: The β-diversity using microbes containing metalloenzymes suggests considering small group of specific genes or enzymes for understanding the diversity between ulcerative colitis and healthy individuals. The docking and differential gene expression analysis collectively suggest the probable role of metalloenzymes and few UC-associated enzymes in the severity of ulcerative colitis.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Walsh AM, Leech J, Huttenhower C, et al (2023)

"Integrated molecular approaches for fermented food microbiome research".

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:7022317 [Epub ahead of print].

Molecular technologies including high-throughput sequencing have expanded our perception of the microbial world. Unprecedented insights into the composition and function of microbial communities has generated large interest, with numerous landmark studies published in recent years relating the important roles of microbiomes and the environment-especially diet and nutrition-in human, animal, and global health. As such, food microbiomes represent an important cross-over between the environment and host. This is especially true of fermented food microbiomes, which actively introduce microbial metabolites and to a lesser extent, live microbes into the human gut. Here we discuss the history of fermented foods, and examine how molecular approaches have advanced research of these fermented foods over the past decade. We highlight how various molecular approaches have helped us to understand the ways in which microbes shape the qualities of these products, and we summarise the impacts of consuming fermented foods on the gut. Finally, we explore how advances in bioinformatics could be leveraged to enhance our understanding of fermented foods. This review highlights how integrated molecular approaches are changing our understanding of the microbial communities associated with food fermentation, the creation of unique food products, and their influences on the human microbiome and health.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Verburgt CM, Dunn KA, Otley A, et al (2023)

Personalised azithromycin+metronidazole (PAZAZ), in combination with standard induction therapy, to achieve a faecal microbiome community structure and metagenome changes associated with sustained remission in paediatric Crohn's disease (CD): protocol of a pilot study.

BMJ open, 13(2):e064944 pii:bmjopen-2022-064944.

INTRODUCTION: Early relapse in Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with a more severe disease course. The microbiome plays a crucial role, yet strategies targeting the microbiome are underrepresented in current guidelines. We hypothesise that early manipulation of the microbiome will improve clinical response to standard-of-care (SOC) induction therapy in patients with a relapse-associated microbiome profile. We describe the protocol of a pilot study assessing feasibility of treatment allocation based on baseline faecal microbiome profiles.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a 52-week, multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, add-on pilot study to test the feasibility of a larger multicontinent trial evaluating the efficacy of adjuvant antibiotic therapy in 20 paediatric patients with mild-to-moderate-CD (10
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by METC-AMC and CCMO (Netherlands) and IWK Health Centre (Canada). The first version of this protocol was approved by North Carolina Children's Hospital (USA), Wolfson Medical Centre (Israel). The FDA (USA), Health Canada and Ministry of Health (Israel) have reviewed and approved the protocol. Results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and summaries will be provided to the funders and participants.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04186247.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Bohutínská M, Vlček J, Monnahan P, et al (2023)

Population Genomic Analysis of Diploid-Autopolyploid Species.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2545:297-324.

This chapter outlines an empirical analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation and its underlying drivers among multiple natural populations within a diploid-autopolyploid species. The aim is to reconstruct the genetic structure among natural populations of varying ploidy and infer footprints of selection in these populations, framed around specific questions that are typically encountered when analyzing a mixed-ploidy data set,e.g., addressing the relevance of natural whole-genome duplication for speciation and adaptation. We briefly review the options for the analysis of polyploid population genomic data involving variant calling, population structure, demographic history inference, and selection scanning approaches. Further, we provide suggestions for methods and associated software, possible caveats, and examples of their application to mixed-ploidy and autopolyploid data sets.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Scott AD, Van de Velde JD, PY Novikova (2023)

Inference of Polyploid Origin and Inheritance Mode from Population Genomic Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2545:279-295.

Whole-genome duplications yield varied chromosomal pairing patterns, ranging from strictly bivalent to multivalent, resulting in disomic and polysomic inheritance modes. In the bivalent case, homeologous chromosomes form pairs, where in a multivalent pattern all copies are homologous and are therefore free to pair and recombine. As sufficient sequencing data is more readily available than high-quality cytological assessments of meiotic behavior or population genetic assessment of allelic segregation, especially for non-model organisms, bioinformatics approaches to infer origins and inheritance modes of polyploids using short-read sequencing data are attractive. Here we describe two such approaches, where the first is based on distributions of allelic read depth at heterozygous sites within an individual, as the expectations of such distributions are different for disomic and polysomic inheritance modes. The second approach is more laborious and based on a phylogenetic assessment of partially phased haplotypes of a polyploid in comparison to the closest diploid relatives. We discuss the sources of deviations from expected inheritance patterns, advantages and pitfalls of both methods, effects of mating types on the performance of the methods, and possible future developments.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Shen D, Zhou B, Shan M, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of plasma metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in febrile events during the first 30 days after CAR-T infusion.

Transplantation and cellular therapy pii:S2666-6367(23)00061-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a promising novel immunotherapy for hematological malignancies, and the diagnosis of infection after CAR-T infusion (CTI) presents challenges for clinicians. Plasma metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic approach for infection, especially in immunocompromised patients.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of plasma mNGS, which has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic approach in the first 30 days after CTI.

STUDY DESIGN: A total of 153 patients who underwent 170 febrile events during the first 30 days after CTI were enrolled, 51 febrile cases received both mNGS and CDM and 119 febrile cases received conventional detection methods (CDM) only. We also described the epidemiology of infections and explored differences in infection complications in cases with severe (>2) CRS (cytokine release syndrome) and moderate (≤2) CRS.

RESULTS: Cases with febrile events were clinically divided into the infection group (IG) (95/170, 55.9%) and the non-infection group (NIG) (75/170, 44.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of mNGS for the diagnosis of infectious complications in the first 30 days after CTI were 69.2% and 89.2%, respectively, and the sensitivity outperformed that of culture (P < 0.001) and serological tests (P = 0.003). More infection cases that received both mNGS and CDM were laboratory confirmed than those that received CDM only (63.9% vs. 11.9%; P < 0.001). The serum CRP level was higher and the IFN-γ level was lower in the IG group, particularly in cases with ≤2 CRS grades.

CONCLUSIONS: Infection is a common complication in the first 30 days after CTI. The addition of mNGS to CDM improved the diagnostic yield, and mNGS showed relatively high sensitivity and specificity in post-CAR-T therapy febrile events.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Ngugi DK, Salcher MM, Andrei AS, et al (2023)

Postglacial adaptations enabled colonization and quasi-clonal dispersal of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in modern European large lakes.

Science advances, 9(5):eadc9392.

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) play a key role in the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Their genetic diversity is viewed as the outcome of evolutionary processes that shaped ancestral transition from terrestrial to marine habitats. However, current genome-wide insights into AOA evolution rarely consider brackish and freshwater representatives or provide their divergence timeline in lacustrine systems. An unbiased global assessment of lacustrine AOA diversity is critical for understanding their origins, dispersal mechanisms, and ecosystem roles. Here, we leveraged continental-scale metagenomics to document that AOA species diversity in freshwater systems is remarkably low compared to marine environments. We show that the uncultured freshwater AOA, "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus limneticus," is ubiquitous and genotypically static in various large European lakes where it evolved 13 million years ago. We find that extensive proteome remodeling was a key innovation for freshwater colonization of AOA. These findings reveal the genetic diversity and adaptive mechanisms of a keystone species that has survived clonally in lakes for millennia.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Guo W, Ren K, Ning R, et al (2023)

Microbial species from multiple maternal body sites shape the developing giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cub gut microbiome.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) plays a vital role involving nutrient acquisition from its specialized bamboo diet. Giant panda cubs harbor significantly different gut microbiota during their growth and development when feeding on milk before switching to bamboo. The fetal gut is sterile, and following birth, mother-to-infant microbial transmission has been implicated as a seeding source for the infant gut microbiota. The details of this transmission in giant pandas remain unclear. In this study, fecal samples were collected from seven panda mother-cub pairs when the cubs were 4 to 16 months old. Additional samples from the cubs' diet, soil, drinking water, and multiple body sites of the mothers were collected. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing were performed to determine the source and potential transmission routes of the cub gut microbiome. Source tracking analysis showed that maternal vagina, milk, and feces were the primary contributing sources of microbes, shaping the cubs gut microbiome. Bacterial species from maternal feces persisted the longest in the cub gut. Bacterial species in the diet contributed to the microbial community. Metagenomics analysis indicated that the predicted metabolic pathways of the gut microbiome also varied at different growth stages. Gut colonization with bacteria from various body sites of the mothers provides a foundational microbial community that is beneficial towards fulfilling the evolving dietary needs of the cubs. This study suggests that mother-to-cub transmission is indispensable in shaping the gut microbiome of the developing panda cub.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Kwa WT, Sundarajoo S, Toh KY, et al (2023)

Application of emerging technologies for gut microbiome research.

Singapore medical journal, 64(1):45-52.

Microbiome is associated with a wide range of diseases. The gut microbiome is also a dynamic reflection of health status, which can be modified, thus representing great potential to exploit the mechanisms that influence human physiology. Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in gut microbiome studies, which has been enabled by the rapidly evolving high-throughput sequencing methods (i.e. 16S rRNA sequencing and shotgun sequencing). As the emerging technologies for microbiome research continue to evolve (i.e. metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, culturomics, synthetic biology), microbiome research has moved beyond phylogenetic descriptions and towards mechanistic analyses. In this review, we highlight different approaches to study the microbiome, in particular, the current limitations and future promise of these techniques. This review aims to provide clinicians with a framework for studying the microbiome, as well as to accelerate the adoption of these techniques in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Martin S, Ayling M, Patrono L, et al (2023)

Capturing variation in metagenomic assembly graphs with MetaCortex.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 39(1):.

MOTIVATION: The assembly of contiguous sequence from metagenomic samples presents a particular challenge, due to the presence of multiple species, often closely related, at varying levels of abundance. Capturing diversity within species, for example, viral haplotypes, or bacterial strain-level diversity, is even more challenging.

RESULTS: We present MetaCortex, a metagenome assembler that captures intra-species diversity by searching for signatures of local variation along assembled sequences in the underlying assembly graph and outputting these sequences in sequence graph format. We show that MetaCortex produces accurate assemblies with higher genome coverage and contiguity than other popular metagenomic assemblers on mock viral communities with high levels of strain-level diversity and on simulated communities containing simulated strains.

Source code is freely available to download from https://github.com/SR-Martin/metacortex, is implemented in C and supported on MacOS and Linux. The version used for the results presented in this article is available at doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7273627.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Lilian M, Rawlynce B, Charles G, et al (2023)

Potential role of rumen bacteria in modulating milk production and composition of admixed dairy cows.

Letters in applied microbiology pii:6988182 [Epub ahead of print].

Cattle milk is an important food for the growing calf and humans because of its concentrated macro and micro nutrients. However, the quantity and quality of milk nutrients vary depending on several factors. This study evaluated the effect of dietary modification on rumen bacteria as well as the potential role of rumen bacteria in modifying milk production and composition profile. Using a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach, the study characterized the rumen bacterial community composition in four dairy cows and their milk production and composition. The results indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria, totaling ∼83.7% of the rumen bacteria. An increase in concentrate proportion in diet led to an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (P ≤ 0.05) and Proteobacteria while Firmicutes and Fibrobacter decreased. Milk production and composition were highly correlated with the abundance of various rumen bacterial members. Lentispaerae (P = 0.010), and Synergistetes (P = 0.011) exhibited a positive and significant correlation while Tenericutes (P = 0.009) showed a negative correlation with milk protein. Fusobacteria (P = 0.016) showed a negative correlation with milk lactose. Similarly, several genera showed correlations with milk parameters. The correlation between microbes with milk parameters implies that the bacterial community possesses the potential to influence milk production and composition.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Jun SC, Kim YK, KH Han (2022)

Characterization of Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus/oryzae Strains Isolated from Korean Traditional Soybean Meju.

Mycobiology, 50(6):408-419.

Filamentous fungi that could be classified into Aspergillus flavus/oryzae were isolated from traditionally fermented meju commercially available in Korea. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A contamination by HPLC; however, no toxin was detected. In addition, fungal and bacterial metagenomic sequencing were performed to analyze the microbial distribution in the samples. The results revealed that the distribution and abundance of fungi and bacteria differed considerably depending on the production regions and fermentation conditions of the meju samples. Through morphological analysis, ITS region sequencing, and assessment of the aflatoxin-producing ability, a total of 32 A. flavus/oryzae strains were identified. PCR analysis of six regions with a high mutation frequency in the aflatoxin gene cluster (AGC) revealed a total of six types of AGC breaking point patterns. The A. flavus/oryzae strains did not exhibit the high amylase activity detected in the commercial yellow koji strain (starter mold). However, their peptidase and lipase activities were generally higher than that of the koji isolates. We verified the safety of the traditionally fermented meju samples by analyzing the AGC breaking point pattern and the enzyme activities of A. flavus/oryzae strains isolated from the samples. The isolated strains could possibly be used as starter molds for soybean fermentation.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Yang K, Wang X, Hou R, et al (2023)

Rhizosphere phage communities drive soil suppressiveness to bacterial wilt disease.

Microbiome, 11(1):16.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial viruses, phages, play a key role in nutrient turnover and lysis of bacteria in terrestrial ecosystems. While phages are abundant in soils, their effects on plant pathogens and rhizosphere bacterial communities are poorly understood. Here, we used metagenomics and direct experiments to causally test if differences in rhizosphere phage communities could explain variation in soil suppressiveness and bacterial wilt plant disease outcomes by plant-pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: (1) that healthy plants are associated with stronger top-down pathogen control by R. solanacearum-specific phages (i.e. 'primary phages') and (2) that 'secondary phages' that target pathogen-inhibiting bacteria play a stronger role in diseased plant rhizosphere microbiomes by indirectly 'helping' the pathogen.

RESULTS: Using a repeated sampling of tomato rhizosphere soil in the field, we show that healthy plants are associated with distinct phage communities that contain relatively higher abundances of R. solanacearum-specific phages that exert strong top-down pathogen density control. Moreover, 'secondary phages' that targeted pathogen-inhibiting bacteria were more abundant in the diseased plant microbiomes. The roles of R. solanacearum-specific and 'secondary phages' were directly validated in separate greenhouse experiments where we causally show that phages can reduce soil suppressiveness, both directly and indirectly, via top-down control of pathogen densities and by alleviating interference competition between pathogen-inhibiting bacteria and the pathogen.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, our findings demonstrate that soil suppressiveness, which is most often attributed to bacteria, could be driven by rhizosphere phage communities that regulate R. solanacearum densities and strength of interference competition with pathogen-suppressing bacteria. Rhizosphere phage communities are hence likely to be important in determining bacterial wilt disease outcomes and soil suppressiveness in agricultural fields. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Dede B, Priest T, Bach W, et al (2023)

High abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading Alcanivorax in plumes of hydrothermally active volcanoes in the South Pacific Ocean.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Species within the genus Alcanivorax are well known hydrocarbon-degraders that propagate quickly in oil spills and natural oil seepage. They are also inhabitants of the deep-sea and have been found in several hydrothermal plumes. However, an in-depth analysis of deep-sea Alcanivorax is currently lacking. In this study, we used multiple culture-independent techniques to analyze the microbial community composition of hydrothermal plumes in the Northern Tonga arc and Northeastern Lau Basin focusing on the autecology of Alcanivorax. The hydrothermal vents feeding the plumes are hosted in an arc volcano (Niua), a rear-arc caldera (Niuatahi) and the Northeast Lau Spreading Centre (Maka). Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that Alcanivorax dominated the community at two sites (1210-1565 mbsl), reaching up to 48% relative abundance (3.5 × 10[4] cells/ml). Through 16S rRNA gene and metagenome analyses, we identified that this pattern was driven by two Alcanivorax species in the plumes of Niuatahi and Maka. Despite no indication for hydrocarbon presence in the plumes of these areas, a high expression of genes involved in hydrocarbon-degradation was observed. We hypothesize that the high abundance and gene expression of Alcanivorax is likely due to yet undiscovered hydrocarbon seepage from the seafloor, potentially resulting from recent volcanic activity in the area. Chain-length and complexity of hydrocarbons, and water depth could be driving niche partitioning in Alcanivorax.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Du Y, Fuhrman JA, F Sun (2023)

ViralCC retrieves complete viral genomes and virus-host pairs from metagenomic Hi-C data.

Nature communications, 14(1):502.

The introduction of high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) into metagenomics enables reconstructing high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from microbial communities. Despite recent advances in recovering eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal genomes using Hi-C contact maps, few of Hi-C-based methods are designed to retrieve viral genomes. Here we introduce ViralCC, a publicly available tool to recover complete viral genomes and detect virus-host pairs using Hi-C data. Compared to other Hi-C-based methods, ViralCC leverages the virus-host proximity structure as a complementary information source for the Hi-C interactions. Using mock and real metagenomic Hi-C datasets from several different microbial ecosystems, including the human gut, cow fecal, and wastewater, we demonstrate that ViralCC outperforms existing Hi-C-based binning methods as well as state-of-the-art tools specifically dedicated to metagenomic viral binning. ViralCC can also reveal the taxonomic structure of viruses and virus-host pairs in microbial communities. When applied to a real wastewater metagenomic Hi-C dataset, ViralCC constructs a phage-host network, which is further validated using CRISPR spacer analyses. ViralCC is an open-source pipeline available at https://github.com/dyxstat/ViralCC .

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Schafran P, Li FW, CJ Rothfels (2023)

PURC Provides Improved Sequence Inference for Polyploid Phylogenetics and Other Manifestations of the Multiple-Copy Problem.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2545:189-206.

Inferring the true biological sequences from amplicon mixtures remains a difficult bioinformatics problem. The traditional approach is to cluster sequencing reads by similarity thresholds and treat the consensus sequence of each cluster as an "operational taxonomic unit" (OTU). Recently, this approach has been improved by model-based methods that correct PCR and sequencing errors in order to infer "amplicon sequence variants" (ASVs). To date, ASV approaches have been used primarily in metagenomics, but they are also useful for determining homeologs in polyploid organisms. To facilitate the usage of ASV methods among polyploidy researchers, we incorporated ASV inference alongside OTU clustering in PURC v2.0, a major update to PURC (Pipeline for Untangling Reticulate Complexes). In addition, PURC v2.0 features faster demultiplexing than the original version and has been updated to be compatible with Python 3. In this chapter we present results indicating that using the ASV approach is more likely to infer the correct biological sequences in comparison to the earlier OTU-based PURC and describe how to prepare sequencing data, run PURC v2.0 under several different modes, and interpret the output.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

de Lorenzi-Tognon M, Ruppé E, J Schrenzel (2023)

Messages from the Seventh International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg7).

Microbes and infection pii:S1286-4579(23)00008-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referring to the application of metagenomic sequencing of clinical samples to obtain clinically relevant information for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases, has been rapidly evolving these last years. Following this trend, we held the seventh International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg7) in Geneva in October 2022. During the two-day conference, cutting-edge advances and new discoveries using CMg were presented which we summarize in the present paper. During this ICCMg7, we kept on following the progresses achieved worldwide that cover reproducibility in CMg, the advent of new technologies applied to the field of infectious diseases, innovative research in the field of the gut microbiota, and finally the expansion of CMg in the fields of clinical epidemiology with surveillance studies on emerging and known pathogens, but also on antibiotic resistance genes, in the environment and in the animal reservoirs.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Woo C, Kumari P, Eo KY, et al (2023)

Combining vertebrate mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to investigate the diet of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Korea.

PloS one, 18(1):e0281245 pii:PONE-D-22-22486.

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), an endangered species in South Korea, is a small feline widely distributed in Asia. Here, we investigated the diet of leopard cats in the inland areas of Korea by examining their fecal contents using vertebrate mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed that the feces were rich in DNA not only of vertebrates but also of arthropods and plants, but care should be taken when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing to identify vertebrates at low taxonomic levels (e.g., genus level), as it was often erroneous. Meanwhile, vertebrate mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequencing was found to be accurate in the genus-level identification, as the genera identified were consistent with the Korean fauna. We found that small mammals such as murids were their main prey. By using these two sequencing methods in combination, this study demonstrated that accurate information about the overall dietary content and vertebrate prey of leopard cats could be obtained. We expect that the continued community efforts to expand the genome database of wildlife, including vertebrates, will alleviate the problem of erroneous identification of prey at low taxonomic levels by shotgun metagenomic sequencing in the near future.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Santillan M, Graham ED, Heidelberg JF, et al (2023)

Metagenome-Assembled Genome of an Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from an HetDA Enrichment from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we present HetDA_MAG_SS10, a metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) from an enrichment of a heterocystous diazotroph originally living in association with Trichodesmium spp. obtained near Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Ocean. HetDA_MAG_SS10, an alphaproteobacterium in the order Micavibrionales, is proposed to be photoheterotrophic via rhodopsin and has the potential for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) demethylation.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Ghimire-Kafle S, Weaver ME, A Bollmann (2023)

Ecophysiological and Genomic Characterization of the Freshwater Complete Ammonia Oxidizer Nitrospira sp. Strain BO4.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) are a group of ubiquitous chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of deriving energy from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. Here, we present a study characterizing the comammox strain Nitrospira sp. BO4 using a combination of cultivation-dependent and molecular methods. The enrichment culture BO4 was obtained from the sediment of Lake Burr Oak, a mesotrophic lake in eastern Ohio. The metagenome of the enrichment culture was sequenced, and a metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) was constructed for Nitrospira sp. BO4. The closest characterized relative of Nitrospira sp. BO4 was "Candidatus Nitrospira kreftii." All genes for ammonia and nitrite oxidation, reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and other pathways of the central metabolism were detected. Nitrospira sp. BO4 used ammonia and oxidized it to nitrate with nitrite as the intermediate. The culture grew on initial ammonium concentrations between 0.01 and 3 mM with the highest rates observed at the lowest ammonium concentrations. Blue light completely inhibited the growth of Nitrospira sp. BO4, while white light reduced the growth and red light had no effect on the growth. Nitrospira sp. BO4 did not grow on nitrite as its sole substrate. When supplied with ammonium and nitrite, the culture utilized nitrite after most of the ammonium was consumed. In summary, the genomic information of Nitrospira sp. BO4 coupled with the growth experiments shows that Nitrospira sp. BO4 is a freshwater comammox species. Future research will focus on further characterization of the niches of comammox in freshwater environments. IMPORTANCE Nitrification is a key process in the global nitrogen cycle. Complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) were discovered recently, and only three enrichment cultures and one pure culture have been characterized with respect to activity and growth under different conditions. The cultivated comammox strains were obtained from engineered systems such as a recirculating aquaculture system and hot water pipes. Here, we present the first study characterizing a comammox strain obtained from a mesotrophic freshwater lake. In freshwater environments, comammox coexist with ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Our results will help elucidate physiological characteristics of comammox and the distribution and niche differentiation of different ammonia oxidizers in freshwater environments.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Distaso MA, Chernikova TN, Bargiela R, et al (2023)

Thermophilic Carboxylesterases from Hydrothermal Vents of the Volcanic Island of Ischia Active on Synthetic and Biobased Polymers and Mycotoxins.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrothermal vents are geographically widespread and host microorganisms with robust enzymes useful in various industrial applications. We examined microbial communities and carboxylesterases of two terrestrial hydrothermal vents of the volcanic island of Ischia (Italy) predominantly composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidota. High-temperature enrichment cultures with the polyester plastics polyhydroxybutyrate and polylactic acid (PLA) resulted in an increase of Thermus and Geobacillus species and to some extent Fontimonas and Schleiferia species. The screening at 37 to 70°C of metagenomic fosmid libraries from above enrichment cultures identified three hydrolases (IS10, IS11, and IS12), all derived from yet-uncultured Chloroflexota and showing low sequence identity (33 to 56%) to characterized enzymes. Enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited maximal esterase activity at 70 to 90°C, with IS11 showing the highest thermostability (90% activity after 20-min incubation at 80°C). IS10 and IS12 were highly substrate promiscuous and hydrolyzed all 51 monoester substrates tested. Enzymes were active with PLA, polyethylene terephthalate model substrate, and mycotoxin T-2 (IS12). IS10 and IS12 had a classical α/β-hydrolase core domain with a serine hydrolase catalytic triad (Ser155, His280, and Asp250) in their hydrophobic active sites. The crystal structure of IS11 resolved at 2.92 Å revealed the presence of a N-terminal β-lactamase-like domain and C-terminal lipocalin domain. The catalytic cleft of IS11 included catalytic Ser68, Lys71, Tyr160, and Asn162, whereas the lipocalin domain enclosed the catalytic cleft like a lid and contributed to substrate binding. Our study identified novel thermotolerant carboxylesterases with a broad substrate range, including polyesters and mycotoxins, for potential applications in biotechnology. IMPORTANCE High-temperature-active microbial enzymes are important biocatalysts for many industrial applications, including recycling of synthetic and biobased polyesters increasingly used in textiles, fibers, coatings and adhesives. Here, we identified three novel thermotolerant carboxylesterases (IS10, IS11, and IS12) from high-temperature enrichment cultures from Ischia hydrothermal vents and incubated with biobased polymers. The identified metagenomic enzymes originated from uncultured Chloroflexota and showed low sequence similarity to known carboxylesterases. Active sites of IS10 and IS12 had the largest effective volumes among the characterized prokaryotic carboxylesterases and exhibited high substrate promiscuity, including hydrolysis of polyesters and mycotoxin T-2 (IS12). Though less promiscuous than IS10 and IS12, IS11 had a higher thermostability with a high temperature optimum (80 to 90°C) for activity and hydrolyzed polyesters, and its crystal structure revealed an unusual lipocalin domain likely involved in substrate binding. The polyesterase activity of these enzymes makes them attractive candidates for further optimization and potential application in plastics recycling.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Dubinsky V, Dotan I, U Gophna (2023)

Strains Colonizing Different Intestinal Sites within an Individual Are Derived from a Single Founder Population.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Metagenomics has improved our understanding of commensal bacteria that colonize human intestines yet relies almost exclusively on fecal samples. Thus, spatial information about the niche range of these gut microbes and the level of specialized adaptation that they undergo has been inaccessible to fecal metagenomic studies. Here, we leveraged metagenomic data obtained through colonoscopy aspirates from three intestinal sites of healthy adults, and reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes of several common gut bacteria to address intestinal site-specific evolution. We show that the genomes of bacterial strains at specific intestinal sites are clearly distinct yet are interrelated and are derived from a single founder strain colonizing multiple sites. We also reveal that within those intestinal sites, purifying selection is the dominant evolutionary force acting on Escherichia coli genomes within human hosts. Importantly, no site-specific adaptations at the level of accessory genes were detected, implying that these commensals are well-adapted to several host microniches and can therefore colonize multiple intestinal sites with high efficiency. Nevertheless, bacterial in situ growth rates differ markedly across different sections of the intestine. Metagenomics of aspirate samples can reveal unique strain- and intestinal tissue-specific genomic information. Such information may be critical for understanding bacterial contribution to gastrointestinal diseases, which involve only a part of the intestine, as is often the case in inflammatory bowel disease. IMPORTANCE By reconstructing bacterial genomes from samples taken from specific sites within the human intestines, via aspiration, we show that strains at specific intestinal sites are genetically distinct yet interrelated and are derived from a single founder population. Organ-specific metagenomic information represents a powerful tool to generate insights into gastrointestinal diseases, which involve only a part of the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Fan Y, Ju T, Bhardwaj T, et al (2023)

Week-Old Chicks with High Bacteroides Abundance Have Increased Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Reduced Markers of Gut Inflammation.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

As important commensals in the chicken intestine, Bacteroides are essential complex carbohydrate degraders, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers that are highly adapted to the distal gut. Previous studies have shown large variation in Bacteroides abundance in young chickens. However, limited information is available regarding how this variation affects the gut microbiome and host immunity. To investigate how elevated or depleted Bacteroides levels affect gut microbial functional capacity and impact host response, we sampled 7-day-old broiler chickens from 14 commercial production flocks. Week-old broiler chickens were screened and birds with low Bacteroides (LB) and high Bacteroides (HB) abundance were identified via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Cecal microbial functionality and SCFA concentration of chickens with distinct cecal Bacteroides abundance were profiled by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively. The intestinal immune responses of LB and HB chickens were assessed via reverse transcription qPCR. Results showed that the gut microbiota of the LB group had increased abundance of lactic acid bacteria pyruvate fermentation pathway, whereas complex polysaccharide degradation and SCFA production pathways were enriched in the HB group (P < 0.05), which was supported by increased SCFA concentrations in the ceca of HB chickens (P < 0.05). HB chickens also showed decreased expression of interleukin-1β and increased expression of interleukin-10 and tight-junction protein claudin-1 (P < 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that elevated Bacteroides may benefit the 7-day broiler gut and that further work should be done to confirm the causal role of Bacteroides in the observed positive outcomes. IMPORTANCE To date, limited information is available comparing distinct Bacteroides compositions in the chicken gut microbial communities, particularly in the context of microbial functional capacities and host responses. This study showed that possessing a microbiome with elevated Bacteroides in early life may confer beneficial effects to the chicken host, particularly in improving SCFA production and gut health. This study is among the first metagenomic studies focusing on the early life chicken gut microbiota structure, microbial functionality, and host immune responses. We believe that it will offer insights to future studies on broiler gut microbial population and their effects on host health.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Wang Z, Liang L, Liu L, et al (2023)

Changes in the Gut Microbiome Associated with Intussusception in Patients with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by intestinal polyposis, and intestinal intussusception is one of the most urgent complications. While it is known that imbalance of the gut microbiota is highly associated with intestinal disorders, the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of PJS has not been reported. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA sequencing on stools from 168 patients and 68 healthy family members who lived together to determine the gut microbiome composition of PJS patients. Metagenomics sequencing was further performed on the representative samples (61 PJS patients and 27 healthy family members) to analyze the functional changes. We found that the fecal microbiome of patients with PJS showed a greater variation in β-diversity. An enhancement of Escherichia coli and a reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was identified in PJS patients. Further reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was the characteristic microbial change observed in patients with intussusception. Functional analysis revealed that the abundance of propanoate metabolism was enriched in PJS patients and further enriched in those with intussusception. Escherichia coli was the major contributor to the enrichment of this metabolism pathway, which was associated with the abnormal expression of methylglyoxal synthase (encoded by mgsA) and phosphate acetyltransferase (encoded by pta). Our findings showed a distinct gut microbiome signature in PJS patients and identified the connection between the gut microbiome and intussusception. Alterations in the gut microbiome might be involved in the pathogenesis of PJS and may serve as biomarkers for gastrointestinal surveillance. IMPORTANCE Recent research has established a link between the gut microbiome and polyps and neoplasia, and antibiotic use influences the microbiome and the development of colorectal polyps. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the early development of benign precursor lesions (polyps), is associated with enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli biofilms. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and the pathophysiology of PJS has not yet been established. In this study, we found that PJS patients had a distinct microbiome composition, with a greater variation in β-diversity, an increase in Escherichia coli, and a decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. A further reduction of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was observed in patients with intussusception. Moreover, PJS involved increased propanoate metabolism as well as abnormal mgsA and pta expression. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of PJS and improve disease control strategies.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Qin Y, Wang S, Wang X, et al (2023)

Contribution of Ammonium-Induced Nitrifier Denitrification to N2O in Paddy Fields.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Paddy fields are one of the most important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), but biogeochemical N2O production mechanisms in the soil profile remain unclear. Our study used incubation, dual-isotope ([15]N-[18]O) labeling methods, and molecular techniques to elucidate N2O production characteristics and mechanisms in the soil profile (0-60 cm) during summer fallow, rice cropping, and winter fallow periods. The results pointed out that biotic processes dominated N2O production (72.2-100%) and N2O from the tillage layer accounted for 91.0-98.5% of total N2O in the soil profile. Heterotrophic denitrification (HD) was the main process generating N2O, contributing between 53.4 and 96.6%, the remainder being due to ammonia oxidation pathways, which was further confirmed by metagenomics and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Nitrifier denitrification (ND) was an important N2O production source, contributing 0-46.6% of total N2O production, which showed similar trends with N2O emissions. Among physicochemical and biological factors, ammonium content and the ratio of total organic matter to nitrate were the main driving factors affecting the contribution ratios of the ammonia oxidation pathways and HD pathway, respectively. Moisture content and pH affect norC-carrying Spirochetes and thus the N2O production rate. These findings confirm the importance of ND to N2O production and help to elucidate the impact of anthropogenic activities, including tillage, fertilization, and irrigation, on N2O production.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Lin KP, Yeh TK, Chuang YC, et al (2023)

Blood Culture Negative Endocarditis: A Review of Laboratory Diagnostic Approaches.

International journal of general medicine, 16:317-327.

Infective endocarditis is a potentially fatal condition, and identifying the pathogen is crucial to optimizing antibiotic treatment. While a blood culture takes time and may yield negative results, it remains the gold standard for diagnosis, blood culture-negative endocarditis, which accounts for up to 20% of infective endocarditis cases, poses a clinical challenge with increasing mortality. To better understand the etiology of blood culture-negative infective endocarditis, we reviewed non-culture-based strategies and compared the results. Serology tests work best in limited pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella infections. Most of the pathogens identified by broad-range PCR tests are Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp and Propionibacterium spp. adding specific real-time PCR assays to the systematic PCR testing of patients with blood culture-negative endocarditis will increase the efficiency of diagnosis. Recently, metagenomic next-generation sequencing has also shown promising results.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Champion C, Neagoe RM, Effernberger M, et al (2023)

Human liver microbiota modeling strategy at the early onset of fibrosis.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):34.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota is involved in the development of liver diseases such as fibrosis. We and others identified that selected sets of gut bacterial DNA and bacteria translocate to tissues, notably the liver, to establish a non-infectious tissue microbiota composed of microbial DNA and a low frequency live bacteria. However, the precise set of bacterial DNA, and thereby the corresponding taxa associated with the early stages of fibrosis need to be identified. Furthermore, to overcome the impact of different group size and patient origins we adapted innovative statistical approaches. Liver samples with low liver fibrosis scores (F0, F1, F2), to study the early stages of the disease, were collected from Romania(n = 36), Austria(n = 10), Italy(n = 19), and Spain(n = 17). The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. We considered the frequency, sparsity, unbalanced sample size between cohorts to identify taxonomic profiles and statistical differences.

RESULTS: Multivariate analyses, including adapted spectral clustering with L1-penalty fair-discriminant strategies, and predicted metagenomics were used to identify that 50% of liver taxa associated with the early stage fibrosis were Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthobacteriaceae and Burkholderiaceae. The Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthobacteriaceae discriminated between F0 and F1. Predicted metagenomics analysis identified that the preQ0 biosynthesis and the potential pathways involving glucoryranose and glycogen degradation were negatively associated with liver fibrosis F1-F2 vs F0.

CONCLUSIONS: Without demonstrating causality, our results suggest first a role of bacterial translocation to the liver in the progression of fibrosis, notably at the earliest stages. Second, our statistical approach can identify microbial signatures and overcome issues regarding sample size differences, the impact of environment, and sets of analyses.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: TirguMECCH ROLIVER Prospective Cohort for the Identification of Liver Microbiota, registration 4065/2014. Registered 01 01 2014.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Anonymous (2023)

Metagenomic insights into the environmental adaptation and metabolism of Candidatus Halarchaeoplasmatales, one archaeal order thriving in saline lakes.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Song Y, Sun M, Ma F, et al (2023)

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DLPT4 Protects Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice by Regulating Immune Response and Intestinal Flora.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, the strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DLPT4 was investigated for the immunostimulatory activity in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. L. plantarum DLPT4 was administered to BALB/c mice by oral gavage for 30 days, and CTX was injected intraperitoneally from the 25th to the 27th days. Intraperitoneal injection of CTX caused damage to the thymic cortex and intestines, and the immune dysfunction of the BALB/c mice. L. plantarum DLPT4 oral administration exerted immunoregulating effects evidenced by increasing serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, and IgM) levels and reducing the genes expression of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) of the CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results of the metagenome-sequencing analysis showed that oral administration of L. plantarum DLPT4 could regulate the intestinal microbial community of the immunosuppressed mice by changing the ratio of Lactiplantibacillus and Bifidobacterium. Meanwhile, the abundance of carbohydrate enzyme (CAZyme), immune diseases metabolic pathways, and AP-1/MAPK signaling pathways were enriched in the mice administrated with L. plantarum DLPT4. In conclusion, oral administration of L. plantarum DLPT4 ameliorated symptoms of CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice by regulating gut microbiota, influencing the abundance of carbohydrate esterase in the intestinal flora, and enhancing immune metabolic activity. L. plantarum DLPT4 could be a potential probiotic to regulate the immune response.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )