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Bibliography on: Brain-Computer Interface

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:37 Created: 

Brain-Computer Interface

Wikipedia: A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural control interface (NCI), mind–machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at researching, mapping, assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA. The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature. BCI-effected sensory input: Due to the cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s. BCI-effected motor output: When artificial intelligence is used to decode neural activity, then send that decoded information to some kind of effector device, BCIs have the potential to restore communication to people who have lost the ability to move or speak. To date, the focus has largely been on motor skills such as reaching or grasping. However, in May of 2021 a study showed that an AI/BCI system could be use to translate thoughts about handwriting into the output of legible characters at a usable rate (90 characters per minute with 94% accuracy).

Created with PubMed® Query: (bci OR (brain-computer OR brain-machine OR mind-machine OR neural-control interface) NOT 26799652[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-02-07

Esparza-Iaizzo M, Vigué-Guix I, Ruzzoli M, et al (2023)

Long-range alpha-synchronisation as control signal for BCI: A feasibility study.

eNeuro pii:ENEURO.0203-22.2023 [Epub ahead of print].

Shifts in spatial attention are associated with variations in alpha-band (α, 8-14 Hz) activity, specifically in inter-hemispheric imbalance. The underlying mechanism is attributed to local α-synchronisation, which regulates local inhibition of neural excitability, and fronto-parietal synchronisation reflecting long-range communication. The direction-specific nature of this neural correlate brings forward its potential as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces (BCI). In the present study, we explored whether long-range α-synchronisation presents lateralised patterns dependent on voluntary attention orienting and whether these neural patterns can be picked up at a single-trial level to provide a control signal for active BCI. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) data from a cohort of healthy adults (n = 10) while performing a covert visuospatial attention (CVSA) task. The data shows a lateralised pattern of α-band phase coupling between frontal and parieto-occipital regions after target presentation, replicating previous findings. This pattern, however, was not evident during the cue-to-target orienting interval, the ideal time window for BCI. Furthermore, decoding the direction of attention trial-by-trial from cue-locked synchronisation with support vector machines (SVM) was at chance-level. The present findings suggest EEG may not be capable of detecting long-range α-synchronisation in attentional orienting on a single-trial basis and, thus, highlight the limitations of this metric as a reliable signal for BCI control.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTCognitive neuroscience advances should ideally have a real-world impact, with an obvious avenue for transference being BCI applications. The hope is to faithfully translate user-generated brain endogenous states into control signals to actuate devices. A paramount challenge for transfer is to move from group-level, multi-trial average approaches to single-trial level. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of single-trial estimation of phase synchrony across distant brain regions. Although many studies link attention to long-range synchrony modulation, this metric has never been used to control BCI. We present a first attempt of a synchrony-based BCI that, albeit unsuccessful, should help break new ground to map endogenous attention shifts to real-time control of brain-computer actuated systems.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Kikkert S, Sonar HA, Freund P, et al (2023)

Hand and face somatotopy shown using MRI-safe vibrotactile stimulation with a novel Soft Pneumatic Actuator (SPA)-Skin interface.

NeuroImage pii:S1053-8119(23)00075-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The exact somatotopy of the human facial representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) remains debated. One reason that progress has been hampered is due to the methodological challenge of how to apply automated vibrotactile stimuli to face areas in a manner that is: 1) reliable despite differences in the curvatures of face locations; and 2) MR-compatible and free of MR-interference artefacts when applied in the MR head-coil. Here we overcome this challenge by using soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) technology. SPAs are made of a soft silicon material and can be in- or deflated by means of airflow, have a small diameter, and are flexible in structure, enabling good skin contact even on curved body surfaces (as on the face). To validate our approach, we first mapped the well-characterised S1 finger layout using this novel device and confirmed that tactile stimulation of the fingers elicited characteristic somatotopic finger activations in S1. We then used the device to automatically and systematically deliver somatosensory stimulation to different face locations. We found that the forehead representation was least distant from the representation of the hand. Within the face representation, we found that the lip representation is most distant from the forehead representation, with the chin represented in between. Together, our results demonstrate that this novel MR compatible device produces robust and clear somatotopic representational patterns using vibrotactile stimulation through SPA-technology.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Massaeli F, Bagheri M, SD Power (2023)

EEG-based detection of modality-specific visual and auditory sensory processing.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: A passive brain-computer interface (pBCI) is a system that enhances a human-machine interaction by monitoring the mental state of the user and, based on this implicit information, making appropriate modifications to the interaction. Key to the development of such a system is the ability to reliably detect the mental state of interest via neural signals. Many different mental states have been investigated, including fatigue, attention and various emotions, however one of the most commonly studied states is mental workload, i.e., the amount of attentional resources required to perform a task. The emphasis of mental workload studies to date has been almost exclusively on detecting and predicting the "level" of cognitive resources required (e.g., high vs. low), but we argue that having information regarding the specific "type" of resources (e.g., visual or auditory) would allow the pBCI to apply more suitable adaption techniques than would be possible knowing just the overall workload level.

APPROACH: 15 participants performed carefully designed visual and auditory tasks while EEG data was recorded. The tasks were designed to be as similar as possible to one another except for the type of attentional resources required. The tasks were performed at two different levels of demand. Using traditional machine learning algorithms, we investigated, firstly, if EEG can be used to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks and, secondly, what effect level of sensory processing demand has on the ability to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks.

MAIN RESULTS: The results show that at the high level of demand, the auditory vs. visual processing tasks could be distinguished with an accuracy of 77.1% on average. However, in the low demand condition in this experiment, the tasks were not classified with an accuracy exceeding chance.

SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the feasibility of developing a pBCI for detecting not only the level, but also the type, of attentional resources being required of the user at a given time. Further research is required to determine if there is a threshold of demand under which the type of sensory processing cannot be detected, but even if that is the case, these results are still promising since it is the high end of demand that is of most concern in safety critical scenarios. Such a BCI could help improve safety in high risk occupations by initiating the most effective and efficient possible adaptation strategies when high workload conditions are detected.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Ziemba AM, Woodson MCC, Funnell JL, et al (2023)

Development of a Slow-Degrading Polymerized Curcumin Coating for Intracortical Microelectrodes.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Intracortical microelectrodes are used with brain-computer interfaces to restore lost limb function following nervous system injury. While promising, recording ability of intracortical microelectrodes diminishes over time due, in part, to neuroinflammation. As curcumin has demonstrated neuroprotection through anti-inflammatory activity, we fabricated a 300 nm-thick intracortical microelectrode coating consisting of a polyurethane copolymer of curcumin and polyethylene glycol (PEG), denoted as poly(curcumin-PEG1000 carbamate) (PCPC). The uniform PCPC coating reduced silicon wafer hardness by two orders of magnitude and readily absorbed water within minutes, demonstrating that the coating is soft and hydrophilic in nature. Using an in vitro release model, curcumin eluted from the PCPC coating into the supernatant over 1 week; the majority of the coating was intact after an 8-week incubation in buffer, demonstrating potential for longer term curcumin release and softness. Assessing the efficacy of PCPC within a rat intracortical microelectrode model in vivo, there were no significant differences in tissue inflammation, scarring, neuron viability, and myelin damage between the uncoated and PCPC-coated probes. As the first study to implant nonfunctional probes with a polymerized curcumin coating, we have demonstrated the biocompatibility of a PCPC coating and presented a starting point in the design of poly(pro-curcumin) polymers as coating materials for intracortical electrodes.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Li B, Zhang S, Hu Y, et al (2023)

Assembling global and local spatial-temporal filters to extract discriminant information of EEG in RSVP task.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interface (BCI) system has developed rapidly in the past decade. And rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is an important BCI paradigm to detect the targets in high-speed image streams. For decoding EEG in RSVP task, the ensemble-model methods have better performance than the single-model ones.

APPROACH: This study proposed a method based on ensemble learning to extract discriminant information of EEG. An extreme gradient boosting (XGB) framework was utilized to sequentially generate the sub models, including one global spatial-temporal filter and a group of local ones. EEG was reconstructed in 3-dimensional form (2-D electrode space × time series) to learn the spatial-temporal features from real local cortical space.

MAIN RESULTS: A benchmark RSVP EEG dataset was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, where EEG data of 63 subjects were analyzed. Compared with several state-of-the-art methods, the spatial-temporal patterns of proposed method were more consistent with P300, and the proposed method can provide significantly better classification performance.

SIGNIFICANCE: The ensemble model in this study was end-to-end optimized, which can avoid error accumulation. The sub models optimized by gradient boosting theory can extract discriminant information complementarily and non-redundantly.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Adhikary S, Jain K, Saha B, et al (2023)

Optimized EEG Based Mood Detection with Signal Processing and Deep Neural Networks for Brain-Computer Interface.

Biomedical physics & engineering express [Epub ahead of print].

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a very promising and widely implemented procedure to study brain signals and activities by amplifying and measuring the post-synaptical potential arising from electrical impulses produced by neurons and detected by specialized electrodes attached to specific points in the scalp. It can be studied for detecting brain abnormalities, headaches, and other conditions. However, there are limited studies performed to establish a smart decision-making model to identify EEG's relation with the mood of the subject. In this experiment, EEG signals of 28 healthy human subjects have been observed with consent and attempts have been made to study and recognise moods. Savitzky-Golay band-pass filtering and Independent Component Analysis have been used for data filtration. Different neural network algorithms have been implemented to analyze and classify the EEG data based on the mood of the subject. The model is further optimised by the usage of Blackman window-based Fourier Transformation and extracting the most significant frequencies for each electrode. Using these techniques, up to 96.01% detection accuracy has been obtained.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Song M, Huang Y, Visser HJ, et al (2022)

An Energy-Efficient and High-Data-Rate IR-UWB Transmitter for Intracortical Neural Sensing Interfaces.

IEEE journal of solid-state circuits, 57(12):3656-3668.

This paper presents an implantable impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless telemetry system for intracortical neural sensing interfaces. A 3-dimensional (3-D) hybrid impulse modulation that comprises phase shift keying (PSK), pulse position modulation (PPM) and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is proposed to increase modulation order without significantly increasing the demodulation requirement, thus leading to a high data rate of 1.66 Gbps and an increased air-transmission range. Operating in 6 - 9 GHz UWB band, the presented transmitter (TX) supports the proposed hybrid modulation with a high energy efficiency of 5.8 pJ/bit and modulation quality (EVM< -21 dB). A low-noise injection-locked ring oscillator supports 8-PSK with a phase error of 2.6°. A calibration free delay generator realizes a 4-PPM with only 115 μW and avoids potential cross-modulation between PPM and PSK. A switch-cap power amplifier with an asynchronous pulse-shaping performs 4-PAM with high energy efficiency and linearity. The TX is implemented in 28 nm CMOS technology, occupying 0.155mm[2] core area. The wireless module including a printed monopole antenna has a module area of only 1.05 cm[2]. The transmitter consumes in total 9.7 mW when transmitting -41.3 dBm/MHz output power. The wireless telemetry module has been validated ex-vivo with a 15-mm multi-layer porcine tissue, and achieves a communication (air) distance up to 15 cm, leading to at least 16× improvement in distance-moralized energy efficiency of 45 pJ/bit/meter compared to state-of-the-art.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Shibu CJ, Sreedharan S, Arun KM, et al (2022)

Explainable artificial intelligence model to predict brain states from fNIRS signals.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 16:1029784.

Objective: Most Deep Learning (DL) methods for the classification of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals do so without explaining which features contribute to the classification of a task or imagery. An explainable artificial intelligence (xAI) system that can decompose the Deep Learning mode's output onto the input variables for fNIRS signals is described here. Approach: We propose an xAI-fNIRS system that consists of a classification module and an explanation module. The classification module consists of two separately trained sliding window-based classifiers, namely, (i) 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); and (ii) Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). The explanation module uses SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) to explain the CNN model's output in terms of the model's input. Main results: We observed that the classification module was able to classify two types of datasets: (a) Motor task (MT), acquired from three subjects; and (b) Motor imagery (MI), acquired from 29 subjects, with an accuracy of over 96% for both CNN and LSTM models. The explanation module was able to identify the channels contributing the most to the classification of MI or MT and therefore identify the channel locations and whether they correspond to oxy- or deoxy-hemoglobin levels in those locations. Significance: The xAI-fNIRS system can distinguish between the brain states related to overt and covert motor imagery from fNIRS signals with high classification accuracy and is able to explain the signal features that discriminate between the brain states of interest.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Almosallam W, Aljoujou AA, Ayoubi HR, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the Effect of Antihypertensive Drugs on the Values of Dental Pulp Oxygen Saturation in Hypertension Patients: A Case-Control Study.

Cureus, 15(1):e33245.

Purpose This study aimed to know about the positive or negative effect of antihypertensive drugs of different groups on the values of dental pulp oxygen saturation in hypertension patients. Materials and Methods A case-control study to evaluate the impact of the antihypertensive drugs on the values of dental pulp oxygen saturation in hypertension patients. The studied sample consisted of 40 participants, and they were distributed into two groups: Group I (n=20): Hypertension patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, and Group II (n=20): Healthy participants. A finger pulse oximeter was recorded after a rest period of 15 minutes by BCI® Advisor® vital signs monitor. The patient was then asked to use a chlorhexidine digluconate mouth rinse for five minutes, and the two dental pulp pulse oximeters for the central upper incisors were also recorded for all participants. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The results showed that there was no significant difference between the finger pulse oximeters of the two studied groups (P-value = 0.421). The two dental pulp oxygen saturation was higher than the control group with statistically significant (P-value = 0.043, P-value = 0.002). Conclusions Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that antihypertensive drugs increase the dental pulp oxygen saturation in patients with hypertension who are treated with antihypertensive drugs, and thus there is a positive effect of these drugs in stimulating the dental pulp.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Yao S, Shi S, Zhou Q, et al (2023)

Functional topography of pulvinar-visual cortex networks in macaques revealed by INS-fMRI.

The Journal of comparative neurology [Epub ahead of print].

The pulvinar in the macaque monkey contains three divisions: the medial pulvinar (PM), the lateral pulvinar (PL), and the inferior pulvinar (PI). Anatomical studies have shown that connections of PM are preferentially distributed to higher association areas, those of PL are biased toward the ventral visual pathway, and those of PI are biased with the dorsal visual pathway. To study functional connections of the pulvinar at mesoscale, we used a novel method called INS-fMRI (infrared neural stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging). This method permits studies and comparisons of multiple pulvinar networks within single animals. As previously revealed, stimulations of different sites in PL and PI produced topographically organized focal activations in visual areas V1, V2, and V3. In contrast, PM stimulation elicited little or diffuse response. The relative activations of areas V1, V2, V3A, V3d, V3v, V4, MT, and MST revealed that connections of PL are biased to ventral pathway areas, and those of PI are biased to dorsal areas. Different statistical values of activated blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses produced the same center of activation, indicating stability of connectivity; it also suggests possible dynamics of broad to focal responses from single stimulation sites. These results demonstrate that infrared neural stimulation-induced connectivity is largely consistent with previous anatomical connectivity studies, thereby demonstrating validity of our novel method. In addition, it suggests additional interpretations of functional connectivity to complement anatomical studies.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Jee S (2021)

Brain Oscillations and Their Implications for Neurorehabilitation.

Brain & NeuroRehabilitation, 14(1):e7.

Neural oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activities, which can be observed at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS). The large-scale oscillations measured by electroencephalography have long been used in clinical practice and may have a potential for the usage in neurorehabilitation for people with various CNS disorders. The recent advancement of computational neuroscience has opened up new opportunities to explore clinical application of the results of neural oscillatory activity analysis to evaluation and diagnosis; monitoring the rehab progress; prognostication; and personalized rehabilitation planning in neurorehabilitation. In addition, neural oscillation is catching more attention to its role as a target of noninvasive neuromodulation in neurological disorders.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Cui Q, Bi H, Lv Z, et al (2023)

Diverse CMT2 neuropathies are linked to aberrant G3BP interactions in stress granules.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(22)01629-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Complex diseases often involve the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 neuropathies (CMT2) are a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders, in which similar peripheral neuropathology is inexplicably caused by various mutated genes. Their possible molecular links remain elusive. Here, we found that upon environmental stress, many CMT2-causing mutant proteins adopt similar properties by entering stress granules (SGs), where they aberrantly interact with G3BP and integrate into SG pathways. For example, glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is translocated from the cytoplasm into SGs upon stress, where the mutant GlyRS perturbs the G3BP-centric SG network by aberrantly binding to G3BP. This disrupts SG-mediated stress responses, leading to increased stress vulnerability in motoneurons. Disrupting this aberrant interaction rescues SG abnormalities and alleviates motor deficits in CMT2D mice. These findings reveal a stress-dependent molecular link across diverse CMT2 mutants and provide a conceptual framework for understanding genetic heterogeneity in light of environmental stress.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Deng J, Sun J, Lu S, et al (2023)

Exploring neural activity in inflammatory bowel diseases using functional connectivity and DKI-fMRI fusion.

Behavioural brain research pii:S0166-4328(23)00043-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Although MRI has made considerable progress in Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most studies have concentrated on data information from a single modality, and a better understanding of the interplay between brain function and structure, as well as appropriate clinical aids to diagnosis, is required. We calculated functional connectivity through fMRI time series using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) data from 27 IBD patients and 29 healthy controls. Through the DKI data of each subject, its unique structure map is obtained, and the relevant indicators are projected onto the structure map corresponding to each subject by using the graph Fourier transform in the grasp signal processing (GSP) technology. After the features are optimized, a classical support vector machine is used to classify the features. IBD patients have altered functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) and subcortical network (SCN). At the same time, compared with the traditional brain network analysis, in the test of some indicators, the average classification accuracy produced by the framework method is 12.73% higher than that of the traditional analysis method. This paper found that the brain network structure of IBD patients in DMN and SCN has changed. Simultaneously, the application of GSP technology to fuse functional information and structural information is superior to the traditional framework in classification, providing a new perspective for subsequent clinical auxiliary diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Yan K, Tao R, Huang X, et al (2023)

Influence of advisees' facial feedback on subsequent advice-giving by advisors: Evidence from the behavioral and neurophysiological approach.

Biological psychology pii:S0301-0511(23)00023-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous work has demonstrated the interpersonal implications of advisees' decisions (acceptance or rejection) on advisors' advice-giving behavior in subsequent exchanges. Here, using an ERP technique, we investigated how advisees' facial feedback (smiling, neutral, or frowning) accompanying their decisions (acceptance or rejection) influenced advisors' feedback evaluation from advisees and their advice-giving in subsequent exchanges. Behaviorally, regardless of whether the advice was accepted or rejected, advisors who received smiling-expression feedback would show higher willingness rates in subsequent advice-giving decisions, while advisors who received frowning-expression feedback would show lower willingness rates. On the neural level, in the feedback evaluation stage, the FRN and P3 responses were not sensitive to facial feedback. In contrast, frowning-expression feedback elicited a larger LPC amplitude than neutral- and smiling-expression feedback, regardless of whether the advice was accepted or rejected. In the advice decision stage, advisors who received neutral-expression feedback showed a larger N2 in making decisions than advisors who received frowning-expression feedback only after the advice was rejected. Additionally, Advisors who received smiling- and neutral-expression feedback showed a larger P3 in making decisions than advisors who received frowning-expression feedback only after the advice was accepted. In sum, the current findings extended previous research findings by showing that the effect of advisees' facial expressions on the advisors' advice-giving existed in multiple stages, including both the feedback evaluation stage and the advice decision stage.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Mao J, Qiu S, Wei W, et al (2023)

Cross-modal guiding and reweighting network for multi-modal RSVP-based target detection.

Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society, 161:65-82 pii:S0893-6080(23)00009-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) facilities the high-throughput detection of rare target images by detecting evoked event-related potentials (ERPs). At present, the decoding accuracy of the RSVP-based BCI system limits its practical applications. This study introduces eye movements (gaze and pupil information), referred to as EYE modality, as another useful source of information to combine with EEG-based BCI and forms a novel target detection system to detect target images in RSVP tasks. We performed an RSVP experiment, recorded the EEG signals and eye movements simultaneously during a target detection task, and constructed a multi-modal dataset including 20 subjects. Also, we proposed a cross-modal guiding and fusion network to fully utilize EEG and EYE modalities and fuse them for better RSVP decoding performance. In this network, a two-branch backbone was built to extract features from these two modalities. A Cross-Modal Feature Guiding (CMFG) module was proposed to guide EYE modality features to complement the EEG modality for better feature extraction. A Multi-scale Multi-modal Reweighting (MMR) module was proposed to enhance the multi-modal features by exploring intra- and inter-modal interactions. And, a Dual Activation Fusion (DAF) was proposed to modulate the enhanced multi-modal features for effective fusion. Our proposed network achieved a balanced accuracy of 88.00% (±2.29) on the collected dataset. The ablation studies and visualizations revealed the effectiveness of the proposed modules. This work implies the effectiveness of introducing the EYE modality in RSVP tasks. And, our proposed network is a promising method for RSVP decoding and further improves the performance of RSVP-based target detection systems.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Gams A, GR Naik (2023)

Editorial: Neurorobotics explores gait movement in the sporting community.

Frontiers in neurorobotics, 17:1127994.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Soroush PZ, Herff C, Ries SK, et al (2023)

The Nested Hierarchy of Overt, Mouthed, and Imagined Speech Activity Evident in Intracranial Recordings.

NeuroImage pii:S1053-8119(23)00061-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to decode and synthesize various aspects of acoustic speech directly from intracranial measurements of electrophysiological brain activity. In order to continue progressing toward the development of a practical speech neuroprosthesis for the individuals with speech impairments, better understanding and modeling of imagined speech processes are required. The present study uses intracranial brain recordings from participants that performed a speaking task with trials consisting of overt, mouthed, and imagined speech modes, representing various degrees of decreasing behavioral output. Speech activity detection models are constructed using spatial, spectral, and temporal brain activity features, and the features and model performances are characterized and compared across the three degrees of behavioral output. The results indicate the existence of a hierarchy in which the relevant channels for the lower behavioral output modes form nested subsets of the relevant channels from the higher behavioral output modes. This provides important insights for the elusive goal of developing more effective imagined speech decoding models with respect to the better-established overt speech decoding counterparts.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Pan L, Ping A, Schriver KE, et al (2023)

Infrared neural stimulation in human cerebral cortex.

Brain stimulation pii:S1935-861X(23)01680-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Modulation of brain circuits by electrical stimulation has led to exciting and powerful therapies for diseases such as Parkinson's. Because human brain organization is based in mesoscale (millimeter-scale) functional nodes, having a method that can selectively target such nodes could enable more precise, functionally specific stimulation therapies. Infrared Neural Stimulation (INS) is an emerging stimulation technology that stimulates neural tissue via delivery of tiny heat pulses. In nonhuman primates, this optical method provides focal intensity-dependent stimulation of the brain without tissue damage. However, whether INS application to the human central nervous system (CNS) is similarly effective is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of INS on human cerebral cortex in intraoperative setting and to evaluate INS damage threshholds.

METHODS: Five epileptic subjects undergoing standard lobectomy for epilepsy consented to this study. Cortical response to INS was assessed by intrinsic signal optical imaging (OI, a method that detects changes in tissue reflectance due to neuronal activity). A custom integrated INS and OI system was developed specifically for short-duration INS and OI acquisition during surgical procedures. Single pulse trains of INS with intensities from 0.2 to 0.8 J/cm[2] were delivered to the somatosensory cortex and responses were recorded via optical imaging. Following tissue resection, histological analysis was conducted to evaluate damage threshholds.

RESULTS: As assessed by OI, and similar to results in monkeys, INS induced responses in human cortex were highly focal (millimeter sized) and led to relative suppression of nearby cortical sites. Intensity dependence was observed at both stimulated and functionally connected sites. Histological analysis of INS-stimulated human cortical tissue provided damage threshold estimates.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating application of INS to human CNS and shows feasibility for stimulating single cortical nodes and associated sites and provided INS damage threshold estimates for cortical tissue. Our results suggest that INS is a promising tool for stimulation of functionally selective mesoscale circuits in the human brain, and may lead to advances in the future of precision medicine.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Jin J, Chen X, Zhang D, et al (2023)

Editorial for the Special Issue "Visual Evoked Brain Computer Interface Studies".

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Rimbert S, Lelarge J, Guerci P, et al (2023)

Detection of Motor Cerebral Activity After Median Nerve Stimulation During General Anesthesia (STIM-MOTANA): Protocol for a Prospective Interventional Study.

JMIR research protocols, 12:e43870 pii:v12i1e43870.

BACKGROUND: Accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) is defined as an unexpected awareness of the patient during general anesthesia. This phenomenon occurs in 1%-2% of high-risk practice patients and can cause physical suffering and psychological after-effects, called posttraumatic stress disorder. In fact, no monitoring techniques are satisfactory enough to effectively prevent AAGA; therefore, new alternatives are needed. Because the first reflex for a patient during an AAGA is to move, but cannot do so because of the neuromuscular blockers, we believe that it is possible to design a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the detection of movement intention to warn the anesthetist. To do this, we propose to describe and detect the changes in terms of motor cortex oscillations during general anesthesia with propofol, while a median nerve stimulation is performed. We believe that our results could enable the design of a BCI based on median nerve stimulation, which could prevent AAGA.

OBJECTIVE: To our knowledge, no published studies have investigated the detection of electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns in relation to peripheral nerve stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex during general anesthesia. The main objective of this study is to describe the changes in terms of event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization modulations, in the EEG signal over the motor cortex during general anesthesia with propofol while a median nerve stimulation is performed.

METHODS: STIM-MOTANA is an interventional and prospective study conducted with patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia, involving EEG measurements and median nerve stimulation at two different times: (1) when the patient is awake before surgery (2) and under general anesthesia. A total of 30 patients will receive surgery under complete intravenous anesthesia with a target-controlled infusion pump of propofol.

RESULTS: The changes in event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization during median nerve stimulation according to the various propofol concentrations for 30 patients will be analyzed. In addition, we will apply 4 different offline machine learning algorithms to detect the median nerve stimulation at the cerebral level. Recruitment began in December 2022. Data collection is expected to conclude in June 2024.

CONCLUSIONS: STIM-MOTANA will be the first protocol to investigate median nerve stimulation cerebral motor effect during general anesthesia for the detection of intraoperative awareness. Based on strong practical and theoretical scientific reasoning from our previous studies, our innovative median nerve stimulation-based BCI would provide a way to detect intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia.



RevDate: 2023-02-02

Knopf S, Frahm N, S M Pfotenhauer (2023)

How Neurotech Start-Ups Envision Ethical Futures: Demarcation, Deferral, Delegation.

Science and engineering ethics, 29(1):4.

Like many ethics debates surrounding emerging technologies, neuroethics is increasingly concerned with the private sector. Here, entrepreneurial visions and claims of how neurotechnology innovation will revolutionize society-from brain-computer-interfaces to neural enhancement and cognitive phenotyping-are confronted with public and policy concerns about the risks and ethical challenges related to such innovations. But while neuroethics frameworks have a longer track record in public sector research such as the U.S. BRAIN Initiative, much less is known about how businesses-and especially start-ups-address ethics in tech development. In this paper, we investigate how actors in the field frame and enact ethics as part of their innovative R&D processes and business models. Drawing on an empirical case study on direct-to-consumer (DTC) neurotechnology start-ups, we find that actors engage in careful boundary-work to anticipate and address public critique of their technologies, which allows them to delineate a manageable scope of their ethics integration. In particular, boundaries are drawn around four areas: the technology's actual capability, purpose, safety and evidence-base. By drawing such lines of demarcation, we suggest that start-ups make their visions of ethical neurotechnology in society more acceptable, plausible and desirable, favoring their innovations while at the same time assigning discrete responsibilities for ethics. These visions establish a link from the present into the future, mobilizing the latter as promissory place where a technology's benefits will materialize and to which certain ethical issues can be deferred. In turn, the present is constructed as a moment in which ethical engagement could be delegated to permissive regulatory standards and scientific authority. Our empirical tracing of the construction of 'ethical realities' in and by start-ups offers new inroads for ethics research and governance in tech industries beyond neurotechnology.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Liu Y, Xu S, Yang Y, et al (2023)

Nanomaterial-based microelectrode arrays for in vitro bidirectional brain-computer interfaces: a review.

Microsystems & nanoengineering, 9:13.

A bidirectional in vitro brain-computer interface (BCI) directly connects isolated brain cells with the surrounding environment, reads neural signals and inputs modulatory instructions. As a noninvasive BCI, it has clear advantages in understanding and exploiting advanced brain function due to the simplified structure and high controllability of ex vivo neural networks. However, the core of ex vivo BCIs, microelectrode arrays (MEAs), urgently need improvements in the strength of signal detection, precision of neural modulation and biocompatibility. Notably, nanomaterial-based MEAs cater to all the requirements by converging the multilevel neural signals and simultaneously applying stimuli at an excellent spatiotemporal resolution, as well as supporting long-term cultivation of neurons. This is enabled by the advantageous electrochemical characteristics of nanomaterials, such as their active atomic reactivity and outstanding charge conduction efficiency, improving the performance of MEAs. Here, we review the fabrication of nanomaterial-based MEAs applied to bidirectional in vitro BCIs from an interdisciplinary perspective. We also consider the decoding and coding of neural activity through the interface and highlight the various usages of MEAs coupled with the dissociated neural cultures to benefit future developments of BCIs.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Hossain KM, Islam MA, Hossain S, et al (2022)

Status of deep learning for EEG-based brain-computer interface applications.

Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 16:1006763.

In the previous decade, breakthroughs in the central nervous system bioinformatics and computational innovation have prompted significant developments in brain-computer interface (BCI), elevating it to the forefront of applied science and research. BCI revitalization enables neurorehabilitation strategies for physically disabled patients (e.g., disabled patients and hemiplegia) and patients with brain injury (e.g., patients with stroke). Different methods have been developed for electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI applications. Due to the lack of a large set of EEG data, methods using matrix factorization and machine learning were the most popular. However, things have changed recently because a number of large, high-quality EEG datasets are now being made public and used in deep learning-based BCI applications. On the other hand, deep learning is demonstrating great prospects for solving complex relevant tasks such as motor imagery classification, epileptic seizure detection, and driver attention recognition using EEG data. Researchers are doing a lot of work on deep learning-based approaches in the BCI field right now. Moreover, there is a great demand for a study that emphasizes only deep learning models for EEG-based BCI applications. Therefore, we introduce this study to the recent proposed deep learning-based approaches in BCI using EEG data (from 2017 to 2022). The main differences, such as merits, drawbacks, and applications are introduced. Furthermore, we point out current challenges and the directions for future studies. We argue that this review study will help the EEG research community in their future research.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Yang T, Wang SC, Ye L, et al (2023)

Targeting Viral Proteins for Restraining SARS-CoV-2: Focusing Lens on Viral Proteins Beyond Spike for Discovering New Drug Targets.

Expert opinion on drug discovery [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants are reducing protection provided by the current vaccines, requiring constant updates in antiviral approaches. As a member of the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 encodes four structural and sixteen nonstructural proteins which participate in various aspects of the viral life cycle including genome replication and transcription, virion assembly, release and entry into cells, as well as compromising host cellular defenses. As alien proteins to host cells, many viral proteins represent potential targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2.

AREAS COVERED: Based on literature from PubMed and Web of Science databases, the authors summarize the typical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 from the whole viral particle to the individual viral proteins as well as their corresponding functions in virus life cycle. The authors also discuss the potential and emerging targeted interventions to curb virus replication and spread in detail to provide unique insights into the rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 infection and countermeasures against it.

EXPERT OPINION: Our comprehensive analysis highlights the rationale and need to focus on non-spike viral proteins that are less mutated but has important functions. Examples of this include: structural proteins (e.g., nucleocapsid protein, envelope protein) and extensively-concerned nonstructural proteins (e.g., NSP3, NSP5, NSP12) as well as the ones with relatively less attention (e.g., NSP1, NSP10, NSP14 and NSP16), for developing novel drugs to overcome resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to preexisting vaccines and antibody-based treatments.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Li Z, Zheng Y, Diao X, et al (2023)

Robust and adjustable dynamic scattering compensation for high-precision deep tissue optogenetics.

Communications biology, 6(1):128 pii:10.1038/s42003-023-04487-w.

The development of high-precision optogenetics in deep tissue is limited due to the strong optical scattering induced by biological tissue. Although various wavefront shaping techniques have been developed to compensate the scattering, it is still a challenge to non-invasively characterize the dynamic scattered optical wavefront inside the living tissue. Here, we present a non-invasive scattering compensation system with fast multidither coherent optical adaptive technique (fCOAT), which allows the rapid wavefront correction and stable focusing in dynamic scattering medium. We achieve subcellular-resolution focusing through 500-μm-thickness brain slices, or even three pieces overlapped mouse skulls after just one iteration with a 589 nm CW laser. Further, focusing through dynamic scattering medium such as live rat ear is also successfully achieved. The formed focus can maintain longer than 60 s, which satisfies the requirements of stable optogenetics manipulation. Moreover, the focus size is adjustable from subcellular level to tens of microns to freely match the various manipulation targets. With the specially designed fCOAT system, we successfully achieve single-cellular optogenetic manipulation through the brain tissue, with a stimulation efficiency enhancement up to 300% compared with that of the speckle.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Duan J, Xu P, Zhang H, et al (2023)

Mechanism of hormone and allosteric agonist mediated activation of follicle stimulating hormone receptor.

Nature communications, 14(1):519.

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential glycoprotein hormone for human reproduction, which functions are mediated by a G protein-coupled receptor, FSHR. Aberrant FSH-FSHR signaling causes infertility and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Here we report cryo-EM structures of FSHR in both inactive and active states, with the active structure bound to FSH and an allosteric agonist compound 21 f. The structures of FSHR are similar to other glycoprotein hormone receptors, highlighting a conserved activation mechanism of hormone-induced receptor activation. Compound 21 f formed extensive interactions with the TMD to directly activate FSHR. Importantly, the unique residue H615[7.42] in FSHR plays an essential role in determining FSHR selectivity for various allosteric agonists. Together, our structures provide a molecular basis of FSH and small allosteric agonist-mediated FSHR activation, which could inspire the design of FSHR-targeted drugs for the treatment of infertility and controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Li Z, Zhang G, Wang L, et al (2023)

Emotion recognition using spatial-temporal EEG features through convolutional graph attention network.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Constructing an efficient human emotion recognition model based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is of great significance for realizing emotional brain computer interaction and improving machine intelligence.

APPROACH: In this paper, we present a spatial-temporal feature fused convolutional graph attention network (STFCGAT) model based on multi-channel EEG signals for human emotion recognition. First, we combined the single-channel differential entropy (DE) feature with the cross-channel functional connectivity (FC) feature to extract both the temporal variation and spatial topological information of EEG. After that, a novel convolutional graph attention network was used to fuse the DE and FC features and further extract higher-level graph structural information with sufficient expressive power for emotion recognition. Furthermore, we introduced a multi-headed attention mechanism in graph neural networks to improve the generalization ability of the model.

MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the emotion recognition performance of our proposed model on the public SEED and DEAP datasets, which achieved a classification accuracy of 99.11±0.83% and 94.83±3.41% in subject-dependent and subject-independent experiments on SEED dataset, and achieved an accuracy of 91.19±1.24% and 92.03±4.57% for discrimination of arousal and valence in subject-independent experiments on DEAP dataset. Notably, our model achieved state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance on cross-subject emotion recognition task for both datasets. In addition, we gained an insight into the proposed frame by both the ablation experiments and the analysis of spatial patterns of FC and DE features.

SIGNIFICANCE: All these results prove the effectiveness of the STFCGAT architecture for emotion recognition and also indicate that there are significant differences in the spatial-temporal characteristics of the brain under different emotional states.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Remakanthakurup Sindhu K, Ngo D, Ombao H, et al (2023)

A novel method for dynamically altering the surface area of intracranial EEG electrodes.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Intracranial EEG (iEEG) plays a critical role in the treatment of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease, as well as the development of neural prostheses and brain computer interfaces. While electrode geometries vary widely across these applications, the impact of electrode size on iEEG features and morphology is not well understood. Some insight has been gained from computer simulations, as well as experiments in which signals are recorded using electrodes of different sizes concurrently in different brain regions. Here, we introduce a novel method to record from electrodes of different sizes in the exact same location by changing the size of iEEG electrodes after implantation in the brain. We first present a theoretical model and an in vitro validation of the method. We then report the results of an in vivo implementation in three human subjects with refractory epilepsy. We recorded iEEG data from three different electrode sizes and compared the amplitudes, power spectra, inter-channel correlations, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of interictal epileptiform discharges, i.e., epileptic spikes. We found that iEEG amplitude and power decreased as electrode size increased, while inter-channel correlation did not change significantly with electrode size. The SNR of epileptic spikes was generally highest in the smallest electrodes, but 39% of spikes had maximal SNR in larger electrodes. This likely depends on the precise location and spatial spread of each spike. Overall, this new method enables multi-scale measurements of electrical activity in the human brain that can facilitate our understanding of neurophysiology, treatment of neurological disease, and development of novel technologies.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Dong Y, Wang L, M Li (2023)

Applying correlation analysis to electrode optimization in source domain.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

In brain computer interface-based neurorehabilitation system, a large number of electrodes may increase the difficulty of signal acquisition and the time consumption of decoding algorithm for motor imagery EEG (MI-EEG). The traditional electrode optimization methods were limited by the low spatial resolution of scalp EEG. EEG source imaging (ESI) was further applied to reduce the number of electrodes, in which either the electrodes covering activated cortical areas were selected, or the reconstructed electrodes of EEGs with higher Fisher scores were retained. However, the activated dipoles do not all contribute equally to decoding, and the Fisher score cannot represent the correlations between electrodes and dipoles. In this paper, based on ESI and correlation analysis, a novel electrode optimization method, denoted ECCEO, was developed. The scalp MI-EEG was mapped to cortical regions by ESI, and the dipoles with larger amplitudes were chosen to designate a region of interest (ROI). Then, Pearson correlation coefficients between each dipole of the ROI and the corresponding electrode were calculated, averaged, and ranked to obtain two average correlation coefficient sequences. A small but important group of electrodes for each class were alternately added to the predetermined basic electrode set to form a candidate electrode set. Their features were extracted and evaluated to determine the optimal electrode set. Experiments were conducted on two public datasets, the average decoding accuracies achieved 95.99% and 88.30%, and the reduction of computational cost were 65% and 56%, respectively; statistical significance was examined as well.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Fan C, Zha R, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Altered white matter functional network in nicotine addiction.

Psychiatry research, 321:115073 pii:S0165-1781(23)00026-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Nicotine addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder with dysfunction in cortices as well as white matter (WM). The nature of the functional alterations in WM remains unclear. The small-world model can well characterize the structure and function of the human brain. In this study, we utilized the small-world model to compare the WM functional connectivity between 62 nicotine addiction participants (called the discovery sample) and 66 matched healthy controls (called the control sample). We also recruited an independent sample comprising 32 nicotine addicts (called the validation sample) for clinical application. The WM functional network data at the network level showed that the nicotine addiction group revealed decreased small-worldness index (σ) and normalized clustering coefficient (γ) compared with healthy controls. For clinical application, the small-world topology of WM functional connectivity could distinguish nicotine addicts from healthy controls (classification accuracy=0.59323, p = 0.0464). We trained abnormal small-world properties on the discovery sample to identify the severity of nicotine addiction, and the identification was successfully applied to the validation sample (classification accuracy=0.65625, p = 0.0106). Our neuroimaging findings provide direct evidence for WM functional changes in nicotine addiction and suggest that the small-world properties of WM function could be qualified as potential biomarkers in nicotine addiction.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Delisle-Rodriguez D, Silva L, TF Bastos Filho (2023)

EEG changes during passive movements improve the motor imagery feature extraction in BCIs-based sensory feedback calibration.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This work proposes a method for two calibration schemes based on sensory feedback to extract reliable motor imagery (MI) features, and provide classification outputs more correlated to the user's intention.

METHOD: After filtering the raw EEG, a two-step method for spatial feature extraction by using the Riemannian Covariance Matrices (RCM) method and Common Spatial Patterns (CSP) is proposed here. It uses electroencephalogram (EEG) data from trials providing feedback, in an intermediate step composed of both kth nearest neighbors and probability analyses, to find periods of time in which the user probably performed well the MI task without feedback. These periods are then used to extract features with better separability, and train a classifier for MI recognition. For evaluation, an in-house dataset with eight healthy volunteers and two post-stroke patients that performed lower-limb MI, and consequently received passive movements as feedback was used. Other popular public EEG datasets (such as BCI Competition IV dataset IIb, among others) from healthy subjects that executed upper-and lower-limbs MI tasks under continuous visual sensory feedback were further used.

RESULTS: The proposed system based on the Riemannian geometry method in two-steps (RCM-RCM) outperformed significantly baseline methods, reaching average accuracy up to 82.29%. These findings show that EEG data on periods providing passive movement can be used to contribute greatly during MI feature extraction.

SIGNIFICANCE: Unconscious brain responses elicited over the sensorimotor areas may be avoided or greatly reduced by applying our approach in MI-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Therefore, BCI's outputs more correlated to the user's intention can be obtained.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Willett F, Kunz E, Fan C, et al (2023)

A high-performance speech neuroprosthesis.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.21.524489.

Speech brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to restore rapid communication to people with paralysis by decoding neural activity evoked by attempted speaking movements into text [1,2] or sound [3,4] .Early demonstrations, while promising, have not yet achieved accuracies high enough for communication of unconstrainted sentences from a large vocabulary [1â€"5] . Here, we demonstrate the first speech-to-text BCI that records spiking activity from intracortical microelectrode arrays. Enabled by these high-resolution recordings, our study participant, who can no longer speak intelligibly due amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), achieved a 9.1% word error rate on a 50 word vocabulary (2.7 times fewer errors than the prior state of the art speech BCI [2]) and a 23.8% word error rate on a 125,000 word vocabulary (the first successful demonstration of large-vocabulary decoding). Our BCI decoded speech at 62 words per minute, which is 3.4 times faster than the prior record for any kind of BCI [6] and begins to approach the speed of natural conversation (160 words per minute [7]). Finally, we highlight two aspects of the neural code for speech that are encouraging for speech BCIs: spatially intermixed tuning to speech articulators that makes accurate decoding possible from only a small region of cortex, and a detailed articulatory representation of phonemes that persists years after paralysis. These results show a feasible path forward for using intracortical speech BCIs to restore rapid communication to people with paralysis who can no longer speak.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Cho YK, Koh CS, Lee Y, et al (2023)

Somatosensory ECoG-based brain-machine interface with electrical stimulation on medial forebrain bundle.

Biomedical engineering letters, 13(1):85-95.

Brain-machine interface (BMI) provides an alternative route for controlling an external device with one's intention. For individuals with motor-related disability, the BMI technologies can be used to replace or restore motor functions. Therefore, BMIs for movement restoration generally decode the neural activity from the motor-related brain regions. In this study, however, we designed a BMI system that uses sensory-related neural signals for BMI combined with electrical stimulation for reward. Four-channel electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals were recorded from the whisker-related somatosensory cortex of rats and converted to extract the BMI signals to control the one-dimensional movement of a dot on the screen. At the same time, we used operant conditioning with electrical stimulation on medial forebrain bundle (MFB), which provides a virtual reward to motivate the rat to move the dot towards the desired center region. The BMI task training was performed for 7 days with ECoG recording and MFB stimulation. Animals successfully learned to move the dot location to the desired position using S1BF neural activity. This study successfully demonstrated that it is feasible to utilize the neural signals from the whisker somatosensory cortex for BMI system. In addition, the MFB electrical stimulation is effective for rats to learn the behavioral task for BMI.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Valencia D, A Alimohammad (2023)

Partially binarized neural networks for efficient spike sorting.

Biomedical engineering letters, 13(1):73-83.

While brain-implantable neural spike sorting can be realized using efficient algorithms, the presence of noise may make it difficult to maintain high-peformance sorting using conventional techniques. In this article, we explore the use of partially binarized neural networks (PBNNs), to the best of our knowledge for the first time, for sorting of neural spike feature vectors. It is shown that compared to the waveform template-based methods, PBNNs offer robust spike sorting over various datasets and noise levels. The ASIC implementation of the PBNN-based spike sorting system in a standard 180-nm CMOS process is presented. The post place and route simulations results show that the synthesized PBNN consumes only 0.59 μ W of power from a 1.8 V supply while operating at 24 kHz and occupies 0.15 mm 2 of silicon area. It is shown that the designed PBNN-based spike sorting system not only offers comparable accuracy to the state-of-the-art spike sorting systems over various noise levels and datasets, it also occupies a smaller silicon area and consumes less power and energy. This makes PBNNs a viable alternative towards the implementation of brain-implantable spike sorting systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Sohn WJ, Lim J, Wang PT, et al (2022)

Benchtop and bedside validation of a low-cost programmable cortical stimulator in a testbed for bi-directional brain-computer-interface research.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1075971.

INTRODUCTION: Bi-directional brain-computer interfaces (BD-BCI) to restore movement and sensation must achieve concurrent operation of recording and decoding of motor commands from the brain and stimulating the brain with somatosensory feedback.

METHODS: A custom programmable direct cortical stimulator (DCS) capable of eliciting artificial sensorimotor response was integrated into an embedded BCI system to form a safe, independent, wireless, and battery powered testbed to explore BD-BCI concepts at a low cost. The BD-BCI stimulator output was tested in phantom brain tissue by assessing its ability to deliver electrical stimulation equivalent to an FDA-approved commercial electrical cortical stimulator. Subsequently, the stimulator was tested in an epilepsy patient with subcortical electrocorticographic (ECoG) implants covering the sensorimotor cortex to assess its ability to elicit equivalent responses as the FDA-approved counterpart. Additional safety features (impedance monitoring, artifact mitigation, and passive and active charge balancing mechanisms) were also implemeneted and tested in phantom brain tissue. Finally, concurrent operation with interleaved stimulation and BCI decoding was tested in a phantom brain as a proof-of-concept operation of BD-BCI system.

RESULTS: The benchtop prototype BD-BCI stimulator's basic output features (current amplitude, pulse frequency, pulse width, train duration) were validated by demonstrating the output-equivalency to an FDA-approved commercial cortical electrical stimulator (R [2] > 0.99). Charge-neutral stimulation was demonstrated with pulse-width modulation-based correction algorithm preventing steady state voltage deviation. Artifact mitigation achieved a 64.5% peak voltage reduction. Highly accurate impedance monitoring was achieved with R [2] > 0.99 between measured and actual impedance, which in-turn enabled accurate charge density monitoring. An online BCI decoding accuracy of 93.2% between instructional cues and decoded states was achieved while delivering interleaved stimulation. The brain stimulation mapping via ECoG grids in an epilepsy patient showed that the two stimulators elicit equivalent responses.

SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates clinical validation of a fully-programmable electrical stimulator, integrated into an embedded BCI system. This low-cost BD-BCI system is safe and readily applicable as a testbed for BD-BCI research. In particular, it provides an all-inclusive hardware platform that approximates the limitations in a near-future implantable BD-BCI. This successful benchtop/human validation of the programmable electrical stimulator in a BD-BCI system is a critical milestone toward fully-implantable BD-BCI systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Li H, Liu M, Yu X, et al (2022)

Coherence based graph convolution network for motor imagery-induced EEG after spinal cord injury.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1097660.

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to impaired motor function, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and other dysfunctions. Brain-computer Interface (BCI) system based on motor imagery (MI) can provide more scientific and effective treatment solutions for SCI patients.

METHODS: According to the interaction between brain regions, a coherence-based graph convolutional network (C-GCN) method is proposed to extract the temporal-frequency-spatial features and functional connectivity information of EEG signals. The proposed algorithm constructs multi-channel EEG features based on coherence networks as graphical signals and then classifies MI tasks. Different from the traditional graphical convolutional neural network (GCN), the C-GCN method uses the coherence network of EEG signals to determine MI-related functional connections, which are used to represent the intrinsic connections between EEG channels in different rhythms and different MI tasks. EEG data of SCI patients and healthy subjects have been analyzed, where healthy subjects served as the control group.

RESULTS: The experimental results show that the C-GCN method can achieve the best classification performance with certain reliability and stability, the highest classification accuracy is 96.85%.

CONCLUSION: The proposed framework can provide an effective theoretical basis for the rehabilitation treatment of SCI patients.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Sajno E, Bartolotta S, Tuena C, et al (2022)

Machine learning in biosignals processing for mental health: A narrative review.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:1066317.

Machine Learning (ML) offers unique and powerful tools for mental health practitioners to improve evidence-based psychological interventions and diagnoses. Indeed, by detecting and analyzing different biosignals, it is possible to differentiate between typical and atypical functioning and to achieve a high level of personalization across all phases of mental health care. This narrative review is aimed at presenting a comprehensive overview of how ML algorithms can be used to infer the psychological states from biosignals. After that, key examples of how they can be used in mental health clinical activity and research are illustrated. A description of the biosignals typically used to infer cognitive and emotional correlates (e.g., EEG and ECG), will be provided, alongside their application in Diagnostic Precision Medicine, Affective Computing, and brain-computer Interfaces. The contents will then focus on challenges and research questions related to ML applied to mental health and biosignals analysis, pointing out the advantages and possible drawbacks connected to the widespread application of AI in the medical/mental health fields. The integration of mental health research and ML data science will facilitate the transition to personalized and effective medicine, and, to do so, it is important that researchers from psychological/ medical disciplines/health care professionals and data scientists all share a common background and vision of the current research.

RevDate: 2023-01-29

Cai J, Xie M, Zhao L, et al (2023)

White matter changes and its relationship with clinical symptom in medication-naive first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

Asian journal of psychiatry, 82:103482 pii:S1876-2018(23)00036-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous studies have highlighted the role of white matter (WM) alterations as biomarkers of the disease state and prognosis of schizophrenia. However, less is known about WM abnormalities in the rarely occurring adolescent early onset schizophrenia (EOS). In this study, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images were collected in 56 medication-naive first-episode participants with EOS and 43 healthy controls (HCs). Using Tract-based Spatial Statistics, we calculate case-control differences in scalar diffusion measures, i.e. fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), and investigated their association with clinical feature in participants with EOS. Compared with HCs, decreased MD was found in EOS group most notably in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. No significant difference was found in FA between these two groups. The FA values of the forceps minor and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus were suggested to be related to the severity of clinical symptom in participants with EOS. These results provide clues about the neural basis of schizophrenia and a potential biomarker for clinical studies.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Angerhöfer C, Vermehren M, Colucci A, et al (2023)

The Berlin Bimanual Test for Tetraplegia (BeBiTT): development, psychometric properties, and sensitivity to change in assistive hand exoskeleton application.

Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 20(1):17.

BACKGROUND: Assistive hand exoskeletons are promising tools to restore hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) but assessing their specific impact on bimanual hand and arm function is limited due to lack of reliable and valid clinical tests. Here, we introduce the Berlin Bimanual Test for Tetraplegia (BeBiTT) and demonstrate its psychometric properties and sensitivity to assistive hand exoskeleton-related improvements in bimanual task performance.

METHODS: Fourteen study participants with subacute cervical SCI performed the BeBiTT unassisted (baseline). Thereafter, participants repeated the BeBiTT while wearing a brain/neural hand exoskeleton (B/NHE) (intervention). Online control of the B/NHE was established via a hybrid sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI) translating electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) signals into open/close commands. For reliability assessment, BeBiTT scores were obtained by four independent observers. Besides internal consistency analysis, construct validity was assessed by correlating baseline BeBiTT scores with the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III) and Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF). Sensitivity to differences in bimanual task performance was assessed with a bootstrapped paired t-test.

RESULTS: The BeBiTT showed excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.9) and internal consistency (α = 0.91). Validity of the BeBiTT was evidenced by strong correlations between BeBiTT scores and SCIM III as well as QIF. Wearing a B/NHE (intervention) improved the BeBiTT score significantly (p < 0.05) with high effect size (d = 1.063), documenting high sensitivity to intervention-related differences in bimanual task performance.

CONCLUSION: The BeBiTT is a reliable and valid test for evaluating bimanual task performance in persons with tetraplegia, suitable to assess the impact of assistive hand exoskeletons on bimanual function.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Li H, Shen S, Yu K, et al (2023)

Construction of porous structure-based carboxymethyl chitosan/sodium alginate/tea polyphenols for wound dressing.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)00290-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Polysaccharide-based materials with porous structure were selected as the basic skeleton to prepare a flexible and biodegradable wound dressing. The carboxymethyl chitosan/sodium alginate/tea polyphenols (CC/SA/TP) with two-layer porous structure exhibits a variety of performances. The specific combined structure with ordered and lamellar porous structure was constructed by high-speed homogenized foaming, Ca[2+] crosslinking and two-step freeze-drying methods. Moreover, the CC/SA/TP porous structure owns a better shape retention and recovery because of the 3D network with "egg-box" structure formed by impregnation. Tea polyphenols are efficiently encapsulated into porous structure and released in a sustained pattern. After storing for 60 days, the CC/SA/TP porous structure still exhibits great suitable water vapor transmittance, efficient antibacterial activity and ultrarapid antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the relatively low differential blood clotting index (BCI) and cytotoxicity of the CC/SA/TP porous structure indicate that it possesses the possibility for adjusting and controlling wound bleeding. The test results reveal that the CC/SA/TP porous structure might be expected to play a great potential role in biomedical applications of wound dressing.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Zhao ZD, Zhang L, Xiang X, et al (2023)

Neurocircuitry of Predatory Hunting.

Neuroscience bulletin pii:10.1007/s12264-022-01018-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Predatory hunting is an important type of innate behavior evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom. It is typically composed of a set of sequential actions, including prey search, pursuit, attack, and consumption. This behavior is subject to control by the nervous system. Early studies used toads as a model to probe the neuroethology of hunting, which led to the proposal of a sensory-triggered release mechanism for hunting actions. More recent studies have used genetically-trackable zebrafish and rodents and have made breakthrough discoveries in the neuroethology and neurocircuits underlying this behavior. Here, we review the sophisticated neurocircuitry involved in hunting and summarize the detailed mechanism for the circuitry to encode various aspects of hunting neuroethology, including sensory processing, sensorimotor transformation, motivation, and sequential encoding of hunting actions. We also discuss the overlapping brain circuits for hunting and feeding and point out the limitations of current studies. We propose that hunting is an ideal behavioral paradigm in which to study the neuroethology of motivated behaviors, which may shed new light on epidemic disorders, including binge-eating, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Lyu X, Ding P, Li S, et al (2023)

Human factors engineering of BCI: an evaluation for satisfaction of BCI based on motor imagery.

Cognitive neurodynamics, 17(1):105-118.

Existing brain-computer interface (BCI) research has made great progress in improving the accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of BCI systems. However, the practicability of BCI is still difficult to achieve. One of the important reasons for this difficulty is that human factors are not fully considered in the research and development of BCI. As a result, BCI systems have not yet reached users' expectations. In this study, we investigate a BCI system of motor imagery for lower limb synchronous rehabilitation as an example. From the perspective of human factors engineering of BCI, a comprehensive evaluation method of BCI system development is proposed based on the concept of human-centered design and evaluation. Subjects' satisfaction ratings for BCI sensors, visual analog scale (VAS), subjects' satisfaction rating of the BCI system, and the mental workload rating for subjects manipulating the BCI system, as well as interview/follow-up comprehensive evaluation of motor imagery of BCI (MI-BCI) system satisfaction were used. The methods and concepts proposed in this study provide useful insights for the design of personalized MI-BCI. We expect that the human factors engineering of BCI could be applied to the design and satisfaction evaluation of MI-BCI, so as to promote the practical application of this kind of BCI.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Cui Z, Lin J, Fu X, et al (2023)

Construction of the dynamic model of SCI rehabilitation using bidirectional stimulation and its application in rehabilitating with BCI.

Cognitive neurodynamics, 17(1):169-181.

UNLABELLED: Patients with complete spinal cord injury have a complete loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury plane, leading to a complete loss of function of the nerve pathway in the injured area. Improving the microenvironment in the injured area of patients with spinal cord injury, promoting axon regeneration of the nerve cells is challenging research fields. The brain-computer interface rehabilitation system is different from the other rehabilitation techniques. It can exert bidirectional stimulation on the spinal cord injury area, and can make positively rehabilitation effects of the patient with complete spinal cord injury. A dynamic model was constructed for the patient with spinal cord injury under-stimulation therapy, and the mechanism of the brain-computer interface in rehabilitation training was explored. The effects of the three current rehabilitation treatment methods on the microenvironment in a microscopic nonlinear model were innovatively unified and a complex system mapping relationship from the microscopic axon growth to macroscopic motor functions was constructed. The basic structure of the model was determined by simulating and fitting the data of the open rat experiments. A clinical rehabilitation experiment of spinal cord injury based on brain-computer interface was built, recruiting a patient with complete spinal cord injury, and the rehabilitation training and follow-up were conducted. The changes in the motor function of the patient was simulated and predicted through the constructed model, and the trend in the motor function improvement was successfully predicted over time. This proposed model explores the mechanism of brain-computer interface in rehabilitating patients with complete spinal cord injury, and it is also an application of complex system theory in rehabilitation medicine.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11571-022-09804-3.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

de Oliveira IH, AC Rodrigues (2022)

Empirical comparison of deep learning methods for EEG decoding.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1003984.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique that can be used in non-invasive brain-machine interface (BMI) systems to register brain electrical activity. The EEG signals are non-linear and non-stationary, making the decoding procedure a complex task. Deep learning techniques have been successfully applied in several research fields, often improving the results compared with traditional approaches. Therefore, it is believed that these techniques can also improve the process of decoding brain signals in BMI systems. In this work, we present the implementation of two deep learning-based decoders and we compared the results with other state of art deep learning methods. The first decoder uses long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network and the second, entitled EEGNet-LSTM, combines a well-known neural decoder based on convolutional neural networks, called EEGNet, with some LSTM layers. The decoders have been tested using data set 2a from BCI Competition IV, and the results showed that the EEGNet-LSTM decoder has been approximately 23% better than the competition-winning decoder. A Wilcoxon t-test showed a significant difference between the two decoders (Z = 2.524, p = 0.012). The LSTM-based decoder has been approximately 9% higher than the best decoder from the same competition. However, there was no significant difference (Z = 1.540, p = 0.123). In order to verify the replication of the EEGNet-LSTM decoder on another data, we performed a test with PhysioNet's Physiobank EEG Motor Movement/Imagery dataset. The EEGNet-LSTM presented a higher performance (0.85 accuracy) than the EEGNet (0.82 accuracy). The results of this work can be important for the development of new research, as well as EEG-based BMI systems, which can benefit from the high precision of neural decoders.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Shang Q, Ma H, Wang C, et al (2023)

Effects of Background Fitting of e-Commerce Live Streaming on Consumers' Purchase Intentions: A Cognitive-Affective Perspective.

Psychology research and behavior management, 16:149-168.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of the background fitting of e-commerce live streaming on consumers' purchase intentions and the relevant internal psychological mechanism from the cognitive-affective perspective.

METHODS: In this study, a theoretical framework model of SOR comprising six variables is established. SPSS and SmartPLS are used to test the model and analyze data collected from a comprehensive questionnaire survey of 424 Chinese online consumers.

RESULTS: Results demonstrate that the impact of background fitting in e-commerce live streaming on consumers' purchase intentions can be divided into three stages. In the first stage, background fitting (comprised of both product-background fit and anchor-background fit) positively affect consumer cognitive process (perceived trust and perceived value). Perceived trust is mainly affected by anchor-background fit, while perceived value is mainly affected by product-background fit. In the second stage, consumers' cognitive process subsequently affects their affective process (perceived pleasure). Perceived value also has a greater positive effect on consumers' perceived pleasure than perceived trust, although perceived trust is a prerequisite for improving perceived value. In the third stage, the affective process further promotes consumers' purchase intentions.

CONCLUSION: Combining both SOR theory and cognitive-affective perspective, this study reveals that the internal influence mechanism of background fitting in e-commerce live streaming on consumers' purchase intentions is divided into three stages. Theoretically, this study not only expands the application of SOR theory in the research field of e-commerce live streaming from the perspective of external background stimulation, but also importantly contributes to the application of cognitive-emotional perspective in e-commerce live streaming. Practically, the study suggests optimizing background fitting as an effective way to improve consumer purchase intention in e-commerce live streaming, and it is better to optimize background fitting from the perspective of improving perceived trust, perceived value, and perceived pleasure.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Hu J, Wang Y, Tong Y, et al (2022)

Thalamic structure and anastomosis in different hemispheres of moyamoya disease.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1058137.

OBJECTIVE: The progression of the asymptomatic hemisphere of moyamoya disease (MMD) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the differences in subcortical gray matter structure and angiographic features between asymptomatic and symptomatic hemispheres in patients with MMD.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with MMD in consecutive cases in our center. We compared subcortical gray matter volume and three types of collaterals (lenticulostriate anastomosis, thalamic anastomosis, and choroidal anastomosis) between symptomatic and asymptomatic hemispheres. Symptomatic hemispheres were classified as ischemic hemisphere (i-hemisphere) and hemorrhagic hemisphere (h-hemisphere). Asymptomatic hemispheres were classified as contralateral asymptomatic hemisphere of i-hemisphere (ai-hemisphere), contralateral asymptomatic hemisphere of h-hemisphere (ah-hemisphere), bilateral asymptomatic hemispheres in asymptomatic group (aa-hemisphere).

RESULTS: A total of 117 MMD patients were reviewed, and 49 of them met the inclusion criteria, with 98 hemispheres being analyzed. The thalamic volume was found to differ significantly between the i- and ai-hemispheres (P = 0.010), between the i- and ah-hemispheres (P = 0.004), as well as between the h- and ai-hemispheres (P = 0.002), between the h- and ah-hemispheres (P < 0.001). There was a higher incidence of thalamic anastomosis in the ai-hemispheres than i-hemispheres (31.3% vs. 6.3%, P = 0.070), and in the ah-hemispheres than h-hemispheres (29.6% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.088). Additionally, the hemispheres with thalamic anastomosis had a significantly greater volume than those without thalamic anastomosis (P = 0.024). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that thalamic volume was closely associated with thalamic anastomosis.

CONCLUSION: The thalamic volume and the incidence of thalamic anastomosis increase in asymptomatic hemispheres and decrease in symptomatic hemispheres. Combining these two characteristics may be helpful in assessing the risk of stroke in the asymptomatic hemispheres of MMD as well as understanding the pathological evolution of the disease.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Li Y, Zhang X, D Ming (2022)

Early-stage fusion of EEG and fNIRS improves classification of motor imagery.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1062889.

INTRODUCTION: Many research papers have reported successful implementation of hybrid brain-computer interfaces by complementarily combining EEG and fNIRS, to improve classification performance. However, modality or feature fusion of EEG and fNIRS was usually designed for specific user cases, which were generally customized and hard to be generalized. How to effectively utilize information from the two modalities was still unclear.

METHODS: In this paper, we conducted a study to investigate the stage of bi-modal fusion based on EEG and fNIRS. A Y-shaped neural network was proposed and evaluated on an open dataset, which fuses the bimodal information in different stages.

RESULTS: The results suggests that the early-stage fusion of EEG and fNIRS have significantly higher performance compared to middle-stage and late-stage fusion network configuration (N = 57, P < 0.05). With the proposed framework, the average accuracy of 29 participants reaches 76.21% in the left-or-right hand motor imagery task in leave-one-out cross-validation, using bi-modal data as network inputs respectively, which is in the same level as the state-of-the-art hybrid BCI methods based on EEG and fNIRS data.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Zanona AF, Piscitelli D, Seixas VM, et al (2022)

Brain-computer interface combined with mental practice and occupational therapy enhances upper limb motor recovery, activities of daily living, and participation in subacute stroke.

Frontiers in neurology, 13:1041978.

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of brain-computer interface (BCI) combined with mental practice (MP) and occupational therapy (OT) on performance in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke survivors.

METHODS: Participants were randomized into two groups: experimental (n = 23, BCI controlling a hand exoskeleton combined with MP and OT) and control (n = 21, OT). Subjects were assessed with the functional independence measure (FIM), motor activity log (MAL), amount of use (MAL-AOM), and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). The box and blocks test (BBT) and the Jebsen hand functional test (JHFT) were used for the primary outcome of performance in ADL, while the Fugl-Meyer Assessment was used for the secondary outcome. Exoskeleton activation and the degree of motor imagery (measured as event-related desynchronization) were assessed in the experimental group. For the BCI, the EEG electrodes were placed on the regions of FC3, C3, CP3, FC4, C4, and CP4, according to the international 10-20 EEG system. The exoskeleton was placed on the affected hand. MP was based on functional tasks. OT consisted of ADL training, muscle mobilization, reaching tasks, manipulation and prehension, mirror therapy, and high-frequency therapeutic vibration. The protocol lasted 1 h, five times a week, for 2 weeks.

RESULTS: There was a difference between baseline and post-intervention analysis for the experimental group in all evaluations: FIM (p = 0.001, d = 0.56), MAL-AOM (p = 0.001, d = 0.83), MAL-QOM (p = 0.006, d = 0.84), BBT (p = 0.004, d = 0.40), and JHFT (p = 0.001, d = 0.45). Within the experimental group, post-intervention improvements were detected in the degree of motor imagery (p < 0.001) and the amount of exoskeleton activations (p < 0.001). For the control group, differences were detected for MAL-AOM (p = 0.001, d = 0.72), MAL-QOM (p = 0.013, d = 0.50), and BBT (p = 0.005, d = 0.23). Notably, the effect sizes were larger for the experimental group. No differences were detected between groups at post-intervention.

CONCLUSION: BCI combined with MP and OT is a promising tool for promoting sensorimotor recovery of the upper limb and functional independence in subacute post-stroke survivors.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Lim CG, Soh CP, Lim SSY, et al (2023)

Home-based brain-computer interface attention training program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a feasibility trial.

Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 17(1):15.

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent child neurodevelopmental disorder that is treated in clinics and in schools. Previous trials suggested that our brain-computer interface (BCI)-based attention training program could improve ADHD symptoms. We have since developed a tablet version of the training program which can be paired with wireless EEG headsets. In this trial, we investigated the feasibility of delivering this tablet-based BCI intervention at home.

METHODS: Twenty children diagnosed with ADHD, who did not receive any medication for the preceding month, were randomised to receive the 8-week tablet-based BCI intervention either in the clinic or at home. Those in the home intervention group received instructions before commencing the program and got reminders if they were lagging on the training sessions. The ADHD Rating Scale was completed by a blinded clinician at baseline and at week 8. Adverse events were monitored during any contact with the child throughout the trial and at week 8.

RESULTS: Children in both groups could complete the tablet-based intervention easily on their own with minimal support from the clinic therapist or their parents (at home). The intervention was safe with few reported adverse effects. Clinician-rated inattentive symptoms on the ADHD-Rating Scale reduced by 3.2 (SD 6.20) and 3.9 (SD 5.08) for the home-based and clinic-based groups respectively, suggesting that home-based intervention was comparable to clinic-based intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrated that the tablet version of our BCI-based attention training program can be safely delivered to children in the comfort of their own home. Trial registration This trial is registered at as NCT01344044.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Öztürk S, Devecioğlu İ, B Güçlü (2023)

Bayesian prediction of psychophysical detection responses from spike activity in the rat sensorimotor cortex.

Journal of computational neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Decoding of sensorimotor information is essential for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as well as in normal functioning organisms. In this study, Bayesian models were developed for the prediction of binary decisions of 10 awake freely-moving male/female rats based on neural activity in a vibrotactile yes/no detection task. The vibrotactile stimuli were 40-Hz sinusoidal displacements (amplitude: 200 µm, duration: 0.5 s) applied on the glabrous skin. The task was to depress the right lever for stimulus detection and left lever for stimulus-off condition. Spike activity was recorded from 16-channel microwire arrays implanted in the hindlimb representation of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), overlapping also with the associated representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Single-/multi-unit average spike rate (Rd) within the stimulus analysis window was used as the predictor of the stimulus state and the behavioral response at each trial based on a Bayesian network model. Due to high neural and psychophysical response variability for each rat and also across subjects, mean Rd was not correlated with hit and false alarm rates. Despite the fluctuations in the neural data, the Bayesian model for each rat generated moderately good accuracy (0.60-0.90) and good class prediction scores (recall, precision, F1) and was also tested with subsets of data (e.g. regular vs. fast spike groups). It was generally observed that the models were better for rats with lower psychophysical performance (lower sensitivity index A'). This suggests that Bayesian inference and similar machine learning techniques may be especially helpful during the training phase of BCIs or for rehabilitation with neuroprostheses.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Fan Z, Chang J, Liang Y, et al (2023)

Neural mechanism underlying depressive-like state associated with social status loss.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(22)01576-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Downward social mobility is a well-known mental risk factor for depression, but its neural mechanism remains elusive. Here, by forcing mice to lose against their subordinates in a non-violent social contest, we lower their social ranks stably and induce depressive-like behaviors. These rank-decline-associated depressive-like behaviors can be reversed by regaining social status. In vivo fiber photometry and single-unit electrophysiological recording show that forced loss, but not natural loss, generates negative reward prediction error (RPE). Through the lateral hypothalamus, the RPE strongly activates the brain's anti-reward center, the lateral habenula (LHb). LHb activation inhibits the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that controls social competitiveness and reinforces retreats in contests. These results reveal the core neural mechanisms mutually promoting social status loss and depressive behaviors. The intertwined neuronal signaling controlling mPFC and LHb activities provides a mechanistic foundation for the crosstalk between social mobility and psychological disorder, unveiling a promising target for intervention.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Santamaría-Vázquez E, Martínez-Cagigal V, Marcos-Martínez D, et al (2023)

MEDUSA©: A novel Python-based software ecosystem to accelerate brain-computer interface and cognitive neuroscience research.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 230:107357 pii:S0169-2607(23)00024-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neurotechnologies have great potential to transform our society in ways that are yet to be uncovered. The rate of development in this field has increased significantly in recent years, but there are still barriers that need to be overcome before bringing neurotechnologies to the general public. One of these barriers is the difficulty of performing experiments that require complex software, such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI) or cognitive neuroscience experiments. Current platforms have limitations in terms of functionality and flexibility to meet the needs of researchers, who often need to implement new experimentation settings. This work was aimed to propose a novel software ecosystem, called MEDUSA©, to overcome these limitations.

METHODS: We followed strict development practices to optimize MEDUSA© for research in BCI and cognitive neuroscience, making special emphasis in the modularity, flexibility and scalability of our solution. Moreover, it was implemented in Python, an open-source programming language that reduces the development cost by taking advantage from its high-level syntax and large number of community packages.

RESULTS: MEDUSA© provides a complete suite of signal processing functions, including several deep learning architectures or connectivity analysis, and ready-to-use BCI and neuroscience experiments, making it one of the most complete solutions nowadays. We also put special effort in providing tools to facilitate the development of custom experiments, which can be easily shared with the community through an app market available in our website to promote reproducibility.

CONCLUSIONS: MEDUSA© is a novel software ecosystem for modern BCI and neurotechnology experimentation that provides state-of-the-art tools and encourages the participation of the community to make a difference for the progress of these fields. Visit the official website at to know more about this project.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Johnston R, Abbass M, Corrigan B, et al (2023)

Decoding spatial locations from primate lateral prefrontal cortex neural activity during virtual navigation.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Decoding the intended trajectories from brain signals using a brain-computer interface system could be used to improve the mobility of patients with disabilities.

APPROACH: Neuronal activity associated with spatial locations was examined while macaques performed a navigation task within a virtual environment.

MAIN RESULTS: Here, we provide proof of principle that multi-unit spiking activity recorded from the lateral prefrontal cortex of non-human primates can be used to predict the location of a subject in a virtual maze during a navigation task. The spatial positions within the maze that require a choice or are associated with relevant task events can be better predicted than the locations where no relevant events occur. Importantly, within a task epoch of a single trial, multiple locations along the maze can be independently identified using a support vector machine model.

SIGNIFICANCE: Considering that the lateral prefrontal cortex of macaques and humans share similar properties, our results suggest that this area could be a valuable implant location for an intracortical brain computer interface system used for spatial navigation in patients with disabilities.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Pattisapu S, S Ray (2023)

Stimulus-induced narrow-band gamma oscillations in humans can be recorded using open-hardware low-cost EEG amplifier.

PloS one, 18(1):e0279881 pii:PONE-D-21-39146.

Stimulus-induced narrow-band gamma oscillations (30-70 Hz) in human electro-encephalograph (EEG) have been linked to attentional and memory mechanisms and are abnormal in mental health conditions such as autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease. However, since the absolute power in EEG decreases rapidly with increasing frequency following a "1/f" power law, and the gamma band includes line noise frequency, these oscillations are highly susceptible to instrument noise. Previous studies that recorded stimulus-induced gamma oscillations used expensive research-grade EEG amplifiers to address this issue. While low-cost EEG amplifiers have become popular in Brain Computer Interface applications that mainly rely on low-frequency oscillations (< 30 Hz) or steady-state-visually-evoked-potentials, whether they can also be used to measure stimulus-induced gamma oscillations is unknown. We recorded EEG signals using a low-cost, open-source amplifier (OpenBCI) and a traditional, research-grade amplifier (Brain Products GmbH), both connected to the OpenBCI cap, in male (N = 6) and female (N = 5) subjects (22-29 years) while they viewed full-screen static gratings that are known to induce two distinct gamma oscillations: slow and fast gamma, in a subset of subjects. While the EEG signals from OpenBCI were considerably noisier, we found that out of the seven subjects who showed a gamma response in Brain Products recordings, six showed a gamma response in OpenBCI as well. In spite of the noise in the OpenBCI setup, the spectral and temporal profiles of these responses in alpha (8-13 Hz) and gamma bands were highly correlated between OpenBCI and Brain Products recordings. These results suggest that low-cost amplifiers can potentially be used in stimulus-induced gamma response detection.

RevDate: 2023-01-22

Jin J, Xu Z, Zhang L, et al (2023)

Gut-derived β-amyloid: Likely a centerpiece of the gut-brain axis contributing to Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

Gut microbes, 15(1):2167172.

Peripheral β-amyloid (Aβ), including those contained in the gut, may contribute to the formation of Aβ plaques in the brain, and gut microbiota appears to exert an impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the gut-brain axis, although detailed mechanisms are not clearly defined. The current study focused on uncovering the potential interactions among gut-derived Aβ in aging, gut microbiota, and AD pathogenesis. To achieve this goal, the expression levels of Aβ and several key proteins involved in Aβ metabolism were initially assessed in mouse gut, with key results confirmed in human tissue. The results demonstrated that a high level of Aβ was detected throughout the gut in both mice and human, and gut Aβ42 increased with age in wild type and mutant amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice. Next, the gut microbiome of mice was characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing, and we found the gut microbiome altered significantly in aged APP/PS1 mice and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of aged APP/PS1 mice increased gut BACE1 and Aβ42 levels. Intra-intestinal injection of isotope or fluorescence labeled Aβ combined with vagotomy was also performed to investigate the transmission of Aβ from gut to brain. The data showed that, in aged mice, the gut Aβ42 was transported to the brain mainly via blood rather than the vagal nerve. Furthermore, FMT of APP/PS1 mice induced neuroinflammation, a phenotype that mimics early AD pathology. Taken together, this study suggests that the gut is likely a critical source of Aβ in the brain, and gut microbiota can further upregulate gut Aβ production, thereby potentially contributing to AD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-01-22

Peng G, Zhao K, Zhang H, et al (2023)

Temporal relative transformer encoding cooperating with channel attention for EEG emotion analysis.

Computers in biology and medicine, 154:106537 pii:S0010-4825(23)00002-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion computing has become a hot topic of brain-computer fusion. EEG signals have inherent temporal and spatial characteristics. However, existing studies did not fully consider the two properties. In addition, the position encoding mechanism in the vanilla transformer cannot effectively encode the continuous temporal character of the emotion. A temporal relative (TR) encoding mechanism is proposed to encode the temporal EEG signals for constructing the temporality self-attention in the transformer. To explore the contribution of each EEG channel corresponding to the electrode on the cerebral cortex to emotion analysis, a channel-attention (CA) mechanism is presented. The temporality self-attention mechanism cooperates with the channel-attention mechanism to utilize the temporal and spatial information of EEG signals simultaneously by preprocessing. Exhaustive experiments are conducted on the DEAP dataset, including the binary classification on valence, arousal, dominance, and liking. Furthermore, the discrete emotion category classification task is also conducted by mapping the dimensional annotations of DEAP into discrete emotion categories (5-class). Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms the advanced methods for all classification tasks.

RevDate: 2023-01-22

Guo B, Zheng H, Jiang H, et al (2023)

Enhanced compound-protein binding affinity prediction by representing protein multimodal information via a coevolutionary strategy.

Briefings in bioinformatics pii:6995409 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the lack of a method to efficiently represent the multimodal information of a protein, including its structure and sequence information, predicting compound-protein binding affinity (CPA) still suffers from low accuracy when applying machine-learning methods. To overcome this limitation, in a novel end-to-end architecture (named FeatNN), we develop a coevolutionary strategy to jointly represent the structure and sequence features of proteins and ultimately optimize the mathematical models for predicting CPA. Furthermore, from the perspective of data-driven approach, we proposed a rational method that can utilize both high- and low-quality databases to optimize the accuracy and generalization ability of FeatNN in CPA prediction tasks. Notably, we visually interpret the feature interaction process between sequence and structure in the rationally designed architecture. As a result, FeatNN considerably outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) baseline in virtual drug evaluation tasks, indicating the feasibility of this approach for practical use. FeatNN provides an outstanding method for higher CPA prediction accuracy and better generalization ability by efficiently representing multimodal information of proteins via a coevolutionary strategy.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Afreen A, Ahmed Z, Khalid N, et al (2023)

Optimization and cholesterol-lowering activity of exopolysaccharide from Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum NCCP 962.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are biological polymers with unique structural features have gained particular interest in the fields of food, chemistry and medicine, and food industry. EPS from the food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be used as a natural food additives to commercial ones in the processing and development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. The current study was aimed to explore the EPS-producing LAB from the dahi; to optimize the fermentation conditions through Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM); and to study its physicochemical, rheological, functional attributes, and cholesterol-lowering activity. Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum NCCP 962 was isolated among the 08 strains screened at the initial stage. The PB design screened out four independent factors that had a significant positive effect, i.e., lactose, yeast extract, CaCl2, and tryptone, while the remaining seven had a non-significant effect. The RSM exhibited lactose, yeast extract, and CaCl2, significantly contributing to EPS yield. The maximum EPS yield (0.910 g/L) was obtained at 6.57% lactose, 0.047% yeast extract, 0.59% CaCl2, and 1.37% tryptone. The R[2] value above 97% explains the higher variability and depicts the model's validity. The resulted EPS was a heteropolysaccharide in nature with mannose, glucose, and galactose monosaccharides. FTIR spectrum reflected the presence of functional groups, i.e., O-H, C-H, C = O, C-O-H, and CH2. SEM revealed a porous and rough morphology of EPS, also found to be thermally stable and negligible weight loss, i.e., 14.0% at 257 °C and 35.4% at 292.9 °C was observed in the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively. Rheological attributes revealed that strain NCCP 962 had high viscosity by increasing the EPS concentration, low pH, and temperature with respectable water holding, oil capacities, foaming abilities, and stability. NCCP 962 EPS possessed up to 46.4% reduction in cholesterol concentration in the supernatant. Conclusively, these results suggested that strain NCCP 962 can be used in food processing applications and other medical fields. KEY POINTS: • The fermentation conditions affect EPS yield from L. paraplantarum and significantly increased yield to 0.910 g/L. • The EPS was heteropolysaccharide in nature and thermally stable with amorphous morphology. • Good cholesterol-lowering potential with the best rheological, emulsifying, and foaming capacities.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Lupenko S, Butsiy R, N Shakhovska (2023)

Advanced Modeling and Signal Processing Methods in Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on a Vector of Cyclic Rhythmically Connected Random Processes.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2): pii:s23020760.

In this study is substantiated the new mathematical model of vector of electroencephalographic signals, registered under the conditions of multiple repetitions of the mental control influences of brain-computer interface operator, in the form of a vector of cyclic rhythmically connected random processes, which, due to taking into account the stochasticity and cyclicity, the variability and commonality of the rhythm of the investigated signals have a number of advantages over the known models. This new model opens the way for the study of multidimensional distribution functions; initial, central, and mixed moment functions of higher order such as for each electroencephalographic signal separately; as well as for their respective compatible probabilistic characteristics, among which the most informative characteristics can be selected. This provides an increase in accuracy in the detection (classification) of mental control influences of the brain-computer interface operators. Based on the developed mathematical model, the statistical processing methods of vector of electroencephalographic signals are substantiated, which consist of statistical evaluation of its probabilistic characteristics and make it possible to conduct an effective joint statistical estimation of the probability characteristics of electroencephalographic signals. This provides the basis for coordinated integration of information from different sensors. The use of moment functions of higher order and their spectral images in the frequency domain, as informative characteristics in brain-computer interface systems, are substantiated. Their significant sensitivity to the mental controlling influence of the brain-computer interface operator is experimentally established. The application of Bessel's inequality to the problems of reducing the dimensions (from 500 to 20 numbers) of the vectors of informative features makes it possible to significantly reduce the computational complexity of the algorithms for the functioning of brain-computer interface systems. Namely, we experimentally established that only the first 20 values of the Fourier transform of the estimation of moment functions of higher-order electroencephalographic signals are sufficient to form the vector of informative features in brain-computer interface systems, because these spectral components make up at least 95% of the total energy of the corresponding statistical estimate of the moment functions of higher-order electroencephalographic signals.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Milanés-Hermosilla D, Trujillo-Codorniú R, Lamar-Carbonell S, et al (2023)

Robust Motor Imagery Tasks Classification Approach Using Bayesian Neural Network.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2): pii:s23020703.

The development of Brain-Computer Interfaces based on Motor Imagery (MI) tasks is a relevant research topic worldwide. The design of accurate and reliable BCI systems remains a challenge, mainly in terms of increasing performance and usability. Classifiers based on Bayesian Neural Networks are proposed in this work by using the variational inference, aiming to analyze the uncertainty during the MI prediction. An adaptive threshold scheme is proposed here for MI classification with a reject option, and its performance on both datasets 2a and 2b from BCI Competition IV is compared with other approaches based on thresholds. The results using subject-specific and non-subject-specific training strategies are encouraging. From the uncertainty analysis, considerations for reducing computational cost are proposed for future work.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Wen J, Tang L, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Qualitative and Quantitative Investigations on the Failure Effect of Critical Fissures in Rock Specimens under Plane Strain Compression.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(2): pii:ma16020611.

To investigate the failure effects of critical fissures in rock specimens subjected to plane strain compression (PSC), five types of internal fissures in rock specimens were designed and twelve PSC tests were conducted for two lithologies based on the discrete element method (DEM). The results were analyzed in terms of the fracture mode, data characteristics, and crack evolution. The results indicated the following. (1) The rock samples with a critical fissure under PSC showed a weak face shear fracture mode, which was influenced by lithology, fissure angle, and fissure surface direction. (2) There were four critical expansion points (CEPs) of axial stress of the rocks under PSC, which were the stage signs of rock materials from local damage to complete fracture. The rock-bearing capacity index (RockBCI) was further proposed. (3) The bearing capacity of rock samples with horizontal fissures, fissures whose angles coincided with the fracture surface, and fissures whose surface was perpendicular to the lateral confine direction was the worst; their BCI[2] values were found to be 80.6%, 70.8%, and 56.9% of the rock samples without any fissures, respectively. The delayed fracture situation under PSC was identified and analyzed. (4) The crack evolution followed the unified law of localization, and the fissures in the rocks changed the mode of crack development and the path of the deepening and connecting of crack clusters, as well as affecting the time process from damage to collapse. This research innovatively investigated the behavior characteristics of rock samples with a fissure under PSC, and it qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the bearing capacity of rock mass from local damage to fracture.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Ma Y, Gong A, Nan W, et al (2022)

Personalized Brain-Computer Interface and Its Applications.

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(1): pii:jpm13010046.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a new technology that subverts traditional human-computer interaction, where the control signal source comes directly from the user's brain. When a general BCI is used for practical applications, it is difficult for it to meet the needs of different individuals because of the differences among individual users in physiological and mental states, sensations, perceptions, imageries, cognitive thinking activities, and brain structures and functions. For this reason, it is necessary to customize personalized BCIs for specific users. So far, few studies have elaborated on the key scientific and technical issues involved in personalized BCIs. In this study, we will focus on personalized BCIs, give the definition of personalized BCIs, and detail their design, development, evaluation methods and applications. Finally, the challenges and future directions of personalized BCIs are discussed. It is expected that this study will provide some useful ideas for innovative studies and practical applications of personalized BCIs.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Morone G, F Pichiorri (2023)

Post-Stroke Rehabilitation: Challenges and New Perspectives.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(2): pii:jcm12020550.

A stroke is determined by insufficient blood supply to the brain due to vessel occlusion (ischemic stroke) or rupture (hemorrhagic stroke), resulting in immediate neurological impairment to differing degrees [...].

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Coelho HRS, Neves SCD, Menezes JNDS, et al (2023)

Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy Reverses Detrusor Hypoactivity in a Chronic Kidney Patient.

Biomedicines, 11(1): pii:biomedicines11010218.

Detrusor hypoactivity (DH) is characterized by low detrusor pressure or a short contraction associated with low urinary flow. This condition can progress to chronic renal failure (CRF) and result in the need for dialysis. The present case report demonstrates that a patient diagnosed with DH and CRF who received two transplants with 2 × 10[6] autologous mesenchymal stromal cells at an interval of 30 days recovered the contractile strength of the bladder and normalized his renal function. The patient had a score of 19 on the ICIQ-SF before cell therapy, and that score was reduced to 1 after transplantation. These results demonstrate that there was an improvement in his voiding function, urinary stream and urine volume as evaluated by urofluxometry. In addition, a urodynamic study carried out after treatment showed an increase in the maximum flow from 2 mL/s to 23 mL/s, the detrusor pressure in the maximum flow from 21 cm H2O to 46 cm H2O and a BCI that went from 31 to 161, characterizing good detrusor contraction. Thus, in the present case, the transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells proved to be a viable therapeutic option to allow the patient to recover the contractile strength of the bladder, and reversed the CRF.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Zhao ZP, Nie C, Jiang CT, et al (2023)

Modulating Brain Activity with Invasive Brain-Computer Interface: A Narrative Review.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010134.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used as a real-time bidirectional information gateway between the brain and machines. In particular, rapid progress in invasive BCI, propelled by recent developments in electrode materials, miniature and power-efficient electronics, and neural signal decoding technologies has attracted wide attention. In this review, we first introduce the concepts of neuronal signal decoding and encoding that are fundamental for information exchanges in BCI. Then, we review the history and recent advances in invasive BCI, particularly through studies using neural signals for controlling external devices on one hand, and modulating brain activity on the other hand. Specifically, regarding modulating brain activity, we focus on two types of techniques, applying electrical stimulation to cortical and deep brain tissues, respectively. Finally, we discuss the related ethical issues concerning the clinical application of this emerging technology.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Pepi C, Mercier M, Carfì Pavia G, et al (2022)

Can Presurgical Interhemispheric EEG Connectivity Predict Outcome in Hemispheric Surgery? A Brain Machine Learning Approach.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010071.

OBJECTIVES: Hemispherotomy (HT) is a surgical option for treatment of drug-resistant seizures due to hemispheric structural lesions. Factors affecting seizure outcome have not been fully clarified. In our study, we used a brain Machine Learning (ML) approach to evaluate the possible role of Inter-hemispheric EEG Connectivity (IC) in predicting post-surgical seizure outcome.

METHODS: We collected 21 pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy; who underwent HT in our center from 2009 to 2020; with a follow-up of at least two years. We selected 5-s windows of wakefulness and sleep pre-surgical EEG and we trained Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to estimate epilepsy outcome. We extracted EEG features as input data and selected the ANN with best accuracy.

RESULTS: Among 21 patients, 15 (71%) were seizure and drug-free at last follow-up. ANN showed 73.3% of accuracy, with 85% of seizure free and 40% of non-seizure free patients appropriately classified.

CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy level that we reached supports the hypothesis that pre-surgical EEG features may have the potential to predict epilepsy outcome after HT.

SIGNIFICANCE: The role of pre-surgical EEG data in influencing seizure outcome after HT is still debated. We proposed a computational predictive model, with an ML approach, with a high accuracy level.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Gao T, Hu Y, Zhuang J, et al (2022)

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Brain Region Activated by Motor Imagery Involving a Paretic Wrist and Hand for Upper-Extremity Motor Improvement in Severe Stroke: A Preliminary Study.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010069.

Approximately two-thirds of stroke survivors experience chronic upper-limb paresis; however, treatment options are limited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance motor function recovery in stroke survivors, but its efficacy is controversial. We compared the efficacy of stimulating different targets in 10 chronic stroke patients with severe upper-limb motor impairment. Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface training augmented with virtual reality was used to induce neural activity in the brain region during an imagery task. Participants were then randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (received high-frequency rTMS delivered to the brain region activated earlier) and a comparison group (received low-frequency rTMS delivered to the contralesional primary motor cortex). Behavioural metrics and diffusion tensor imaging were compared pre- and post rTMS. After the intervention, participants in both groups improved somewhat. This preliminary study indicates that in chronic stroke patients with severe upper-limb motor impairment, inducing activation in specific brain regions during motor imagery tasks and selecting these regions as a target is feasible. Further studies are needed to explore the efficacy of this intervention.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Adama S, M Bogdan (2022)

Application of Soft-Clustering to Assess Consciousness in a CLIS Patient.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010065.

Completely locked-in (CLIS) patients are characterized by sufficiently intact cognitive functions, but a complete paralysis that prevents them to interact with their surroundings. On one hand, studies have shown that the ability to communicate plays an important part in these patients' quality of life and prognosis. On the other hand, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a means for them to communicate using their brain signals. However, one major problem for such patients is the difficulty to determine if they are conscious or not at a specific time. This work aims to combine different sets of features consisting of spectral, complexity and connectivity measures, to increase the probability of correctly estimating CLIS patients' consciousness levels. The proposed approach was tested on data from one CLIS patient, which is particular in the sense that the experimenter was able to point out one time frame Δt during which he was undoubtedly conscious. Results showed that the method presented in this paper was able to detect increases and decreases of the patient's consciousness levels. More specifically, increases were observed during this Δt, corroborating the assertion of the experimenter reporting that the patient was definitely conscious then. Assessing the patients' consciousness is intended as a step prior attempting to communicate with them, in order to maximize the efficiency of BCI-based communication systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Fu J, Chen S, J Jia (2022)

Sensorimotor Rhythm-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces for Motor Tasks Used in Hand Upper Extremity Rehabilitation after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010056.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are becoming more popular in the neurological rehabilitation field, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is a type of brain oscillation rhythm that can be captured and analyzed in BCIs. Previous reviews have testified to the efficacy of the BCIs, but seldom have they discussed the motor task adopted in BCIs experiments in detail, as well as whether the feedback is suitable for them. We focused on the motor tasks adopted in SMR-based BCIs, as well as the corresponding feedback, and searched articles in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Scopus and found 442 articles. After a series of screenings, 15 randomized controlled studies were eligible for analysis. We found motor imagery (MI) or motor attempt (MA) are common experimental paradigms in EEG-based BCIs trials. Imagining/attempting to grasp and extend the fingers is the most common, and there were multi-joint movements, including wrist, elbow, and shoulder. There were various types of feedback in MI or MA tasks for hand grasping and extension. Proprioception was used more frequently in a variety of forms. Orthosis, robot, exoskeleton, and functional electrical stimulation can assist the paretic limb movement, and visual feedback can be used as primary feedback or combined forms. However, during the recovery process, there are many bottleneck problems for hand recovery, such as flaccid paralysis or opening the fingers. In practice, we should mainly focus on patients' difficulties, and design one or more motor tasks for patients, with the assistance of the robot, FES, or other combined feedback, to help them to complete a grasp, finger extension, thumb opposition, or other motion. Future research should focus on neurophysiological changes and functional improvements and further elaboration on the changes in neurophysiology during the recovery of motor function.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Gao X, Yang Y, Zhang F, et al (2022)

A Feature Extraction Method for Seizure Detection Based on Multi-Site Synchronous Changes and Edge Detection Algorithm.

Brain sciences, 13(1): pii:brainsci13010052.

Automatic detection of epileptic seizures is important in epilepsy control and treatment, and specific feature extraction assists in accurate detection. We developed a feature extraction method for seizure detection based on multi-site synchronous changes and an edge detection algorithm. We investigated five chronic temporal lobe epilepsy rats with 8- and 12-channel detection sites in the hippocampus and limbic system. Multi-site synchronous changes were selected as a specific feature and implemented as a seizure detection method. For preprocessing, we used magnitude-squared coherence maps and Canny edge detection algorithm to find the frequency band with the most significant change in synchronization and the important channel pairs. In detection, we used the maximal cross-correlation coefficient as an indicator of synchronization and the correlation coefficient curves' average value and standard deviation as two detection features. The method achieved high performance, with an average 96.60% detection rate, 2.63/h false alarm rate, and 1.25 s detection delay. The experimental results show that synchronization is an appropriate feature for seizure detection. The magnitude-squared coherence map can assist in selecting a specific frequency band and channel pairs to enhance the detection result. We found that individuals have a specific frequency band that reflects the most significant synchronization changes, and our method can individually adjust parameters and has good detection performance.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Xu M, Zhao Y, Xu G, et al (2022)

Recent Development of Neural Microelectrodes with Dual-Mode Detection.

Biosensors, 13(1): pii:bios13010059.

Neurons communicate through complex chemical and electrophysiological signal patterns to develop a tight information network. A physiological or pathological event cannot be explained by signal communication mode. Therefore, dual-mode electrodes can simultaneously monitor the chemical and electrophysiological signals in the brain. They have been invented as an essential tool for brain science research and brain-computer interface (BCI) to obtain more important information and capture the characteristics of the neural network. Electrochemical sensors are the most popular methods for monitoring neurochemical levels in vivo. They are combined with neural microelectrodes to record neural electrical activity. They simultaneously detect the neurochemical and electrical activity of neurons in vivo using high spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper systematically reviews the latest development of neural microelectrodes depending on electrode materials for simultaneous in vivo electrochemical sensing and electrophysiological signal recording. This includes carbon-based microelectrodes, silicon-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs), and ceramic-based MEAs, focusing on the latest progress since 2018. In addition, the structure and interface design of various types of neural microelectrodes have been comprehensively described and compared. This could be the key to simultaneously detecting electrochemical and electrophysiological signals.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Ming G, Pei W, Gao X, et al (2023)

A high-performance SSVEP-based BCI using imperceptible flickers.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Objective.Existing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) struggle to balance user experience and system performance. This study proposed an individualized space and phase modulation method to code imperceptible flickers at 60 Hz towards a user-friendly SSVEP-based BCI with high performance.Approach.The individualized customization of visual stimulation took the subject-to-subject variability in cortex geometry into account. An annulus global-stimulation was divided into local-stimulations of eight annular sectors and presented to subjects separately. The local-stimulation SSVEPs were superimposed to simulate global-stimulation SSVEPs with 4[7]space and phase coding combinations. A four-class phase-coded BCI diagram was used to evaluate the simulated classification performance. The performance ranking of all simulated global-stimulation SSVEPs were obtained and three performance levels (optimal, medium, worst) of individualized modulation groups were searched for each subject. The standard-modulation group conforming to the V1 'cruciform' geometry and the non-modulation group were involved as controls. A four-target phase-coded BCI system with SSVEPs at 60 Hz was implemented with the five modulation groups and questionnaires were used to evaluate user experience.Main results.The proposed individualized space and phase modulation method effectively modulated the SSVEP intensity without affecting the user experience. The online BCI system using the 60 Hz stimuli achieved mean information transfer rates of 52.8 ± 1.9 bits min[-1], 16.8 ± 2.4 bits min[-1], and 42.4 ± 3.0 bits min[-1]with individualized optimal-modulation, individualized worst-modulation, and non-modulation groups, respectively.Significance.Structural and functional characteristics of the human visual cortex were exploited to enhance the response intensity of SSVEPs at 60 Hz, resulting in a high-performance BCI system with good user experience. This study has important theoretical significance and application value for promoting the development of the visual BCI technology.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Li J, Wang J, Wang T, et al (2023)

Quantification of body ownership awareness induced by the visual movement illusion of the lower limbs: a study of electroencephalogram and surface electromyography.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

The visual movement illusion (VMI) is a subjective experience. This illusion is produced by watching the subject's motion video. At the same time, VMI evokes awareness of body ownership. We applied the power spectral density (PSD) matrix and the partial directed correlation (PDC) matrix to build the PPDC matrix for the γ2 band (34-98.5 Hz), combining cerebral cortical and musculomotor cortical complexity and PPDC to quantify the degree of body ownership. Thirty-five healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this experiment. The subjects' electroencephalography (EEG) and surface electromyography (sEMG) data were recorded under resting conditions, observation conditions, illusion conditions, and actual seated front-kick movements. The results show the following: (1) VMI activates the cerebral cortex to some extent; (2) VMI enhances cortical muscle excitability in the rectus femoris and medial vastus muscles; (3) VMI induces a sense of body ownership; (4) the use of PPDC values, fuzzy entropy values of muscles, and fuzzy entropy values of the cerebral cortex can quantify whether VMI induces awareness of body ownership. These results illustrate that PPDC can be used as a biomarker to show that VMI affects changes in the cerebral cortex and as a quantitative tool to show whether body ownership awareness arises.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Karbalaei Akbari M, Siraj Lopa N, Shahriari M, et al (2023)

Functional Two-Dimensional Materials for Bioelectronic Neural Interfacing.

Journal of functional biomaterials, 14(1): pii:jfb14010035.

Realizing the neurological information processing by analyzing the complex data transferring behavior of populations and individual neurons is one of the fast-growing fields of neuroscience and bioelectronic technologies. This field is anticipated to cover a wide range of advanced applications, including neural dynamic monitoring, understanding the neurological disorders, human brain-machine communications and even ambitious mind-controlled prosthetic implant systems. To fulfill the requirements of high spatial and temporal resolution recording of neural activities, electrical, optical and biosensing technologies are combined to develop multifunctional bioelectronic and neuro-signal probes. Advanced two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as graphene, graphene oxide, transition metal dichalcogenides and MXenes with their atomic-layer thickness and multifunctional capabilities show bio-stimulation and multiple sensing properties. These characteristics are beneficial factors for development of ultrathin-film electrodes for flexible neural interfacing with minimum invasive chronic interfaces to the brain cells and cortex. The combination of incredible properties of 2D nanostructure places them in a unique position, as the main materials of choice, for multifunctional reception of neural activities. The current review highlights the recent achievements in 2D-based bioelectronic systems for monitoring of biophysiological indicators and biosignals at neural interfaces.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Gu J, Jiang J, Ge S, et al (2023)

Capped L21-norm-based common spatial patterns for EEG signals classification applicable to BCI systems.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

The common spatial patterns (CSP) technique is an effective strategy for the classification of multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. However, the objective function expression of the conventional CSP algorithm is based on the L2-norm, which makes the performance of the method easily affected by outliers and noise. In this paper, we consider a new extension to CSP, which is termed capped L21-norm-based common spatial patterns (CCSP-L21), by using the capped L21-norm rather than the L2-norm for robust modeling. L21-norm considers the L1-norm sum which largely alleviates the influence of outliers and noise for the sake of robustness. The capped norm is further used to mitigate the effects of extreme outliers whose signal amplitude is much higher than that of the normal signal. Moreover, a non-greedy iterative procedure is derived to solve the proposed objective function. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the highest average recognition rates on the three real data sets of BCI competitions, which are 91.67%, 85.07%, and 82.04%, respectively. Capped L21-norm-based common spatial patterns-a robust model for EEG signals classification.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Perez-Garcia G, Bicak M, Haure-Mirande JV, et al (2023)

BCI-838, an orally active mGluR2/3 receptor antagonist pro-drug, rescues learning behavior deficits in the PS19 MAPT[P301S] mouse model of tauopathy.

Neuroscience letters pii:S0304-3940(23)00034-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are clinically and pathologically distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD) having tau inclusions in neurons and/or glia as their most prominent neuropathological feature. BCI-838 (MGS00210) is a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) antagonist pro-drug. Previously, we reported that orally administered BCI-838 improved learning behavior and reduced anxiety in Dutch (APP[E693Q]) transgenic mice, a model of the pathological accumulation of Aβ oligomers found in AD. Herein, we investigated effects of BCI-838 on PS19 male mice that express the tauopathy mutation MAPT[P301S] associated with human frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These mice develop an aging-related tauopathy without amyloid accumulation. Mice were divided into three experimental groups: (1) non-transgenic wild type mice treated with vehicle, (2) PS19 mice treated with vehicle and (3) PS19 mice treated with 5 mg/kg BCI-838. Groups of 10-13 mice were utilized. Vehicle or BCI-838 was administered by oral gavage for 4 weeks. Behavioral testing consisting of a novel object recognition task was conducted after drug administration. Two studies were performed beginning treatment of mice at 3 or 7 months of age. One month of BCI-838 treatment rescued deficits in recognition memory in PS19 mice whether treatment was begun at 3 or 7 months of age. These studies extend the potential utility of BCI-838 to neurodegenerative conditions that have tauopathy as their underlying basis. They also suggest an mGluR2/3 dependent mechanism as a basis for the behavioral deficits in PS19 mice.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Proverbio AM, Tacchini M, K Jiang (2023)

What do you have in mind? ERP markers of visual and auditory imagery.

Brain and cognition, 166:105954 pii:S0278-2626(23)00011-8 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to investigate the psychophysiological markers of imagery processes through EEG/ERP recordings. Visual and auditory stimuli representing 10 different semantic categories were shown to 30 healthy participants. After a given interval and prompted by a light signal, participants were asked to activate a mental image corresponding to the semantic category for recording synchronized electrical potentials. Unprecedented electrophysiological markers of imagination were recorded in the absence of sensory stimulation. The following peaks were identified at specific scalp sites and latencies, during imagination of infants (centroparietal positivity, CPP, and late CPP), human faces (anterior negativity, AN), animals (anterior positivity, AP), music (P300-like), speech (N400-like), affective vocalizations (P2-like) and sensory (visual vs auditory) modality (PN300). Overall, perception and imagery conditions shared some common electro/cortical markers, but during imagery the category-dependent modulation of ERPs was long latency and more anterior, with respect to the perceptual condition. These ERP markers might be precious tools for BCI systems (pattern recognition, classification, or A.I. algorithms) applied to patients affected by consciousness disorders (e.g., in a vegetative or comatose state) or locked-in-patients (e.g., spinal or SLA patients).

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Pang J, Peng S, Hou C, et al (2023)

Applications of Graphene in Five Senses, Nervous System, and Artificial Muscles.

ACS sensors [Epub ahead of print].

Graphene remains of great interest in biomedical applications because of biocompatibility. Diseases relating to human senses interfere with life satisfaction and happiness. Therefore, the restoration by artificial organs or sensory devices may bring a bright future by the recovery of senses in patients. In this review, we update the most recent progress in graphene based sensors for mimicking human senses such as artificial retina for image sensors, artificial eardrums, gas sensors, chemical sensors, and tactile sensors. The brain-like processors are discussed based on conventional transistors as well as memristor related neuromorphic computing. The brain-machine interface is introduced for providing a single pathway. Besides, the artificial muscles based on graphene are summarized in the means of actuators in order to react to the physical world. Future opportunities remain for elevating the performances of human-like sensors and their clinical applications.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Breen JR, P Pensini (2022)

Grounded by Mother Nature's Revenge.

Experimental psychology, 69(5):284-294.

Leisure air travel is a popular form of tourism, but its emissions are a major contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Restrictions to leisure air travel have previously received little support; however, the same restrictions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 have been popular. This support is unlikely to persist in a postpandemic world, highlighting the need for alternative ways to improve support for reducing leisure air travel. Anthropomorphism of nature has consistently predicted proenvironmental behavior, which has been mediated by guilt felt for harm to the environment. This research is the first empirical study to explore this relationship in the context of COVID-19, where it examined support for restricting leisure air travel to help mitigate (1) COVID-19 and (2) climate change. In an experimental online study, Australian residents (N = 325, Mage = 54.48, SDage = 14.63, 62% women) were recruited through social media. Anthropomorphism of nature in the context of COVID-19 (AMP-19) was manipulated through exposure to a news article. Participants then completed measures of environmental guilt and support for restricting leisure air travel to mitigate COVID-19 (LAT-19) and to mitigate climate change (LAT-CC). A significant indirect effect was observed in both models, such that AMP-19 predicted environmental guilt which in turn predicted LAT-19 (f[2] = .26; BCI [0.66, 3.87]) and LAT-CC (f[2] = .45; BCI [0.84, 5.06]). The results imply that anthropomorphism of nature in the context of COVID-19 can improve attitudes toward this proenvironmental behavior, with greater support when this was to mitigate climate change. Implications are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Jin S, Chen X, Zheng H, et al (2023)

Downregulation of UBE4B promotes CNS axon regrowth and functional recovery after stroke.

iScience, 26(1):105885.

The limited intrinsic regrowth capacity of corticospinal axons impedes functional recovery after cortical stroke. Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p53 pathways have been identified as the key intrinsic pathways regulating CNS axon regrowth, little is known about the key upstream regulatory mechanism by which these two major pathways control CNS axon regrowth. By screening genes that regulate ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the p53 proteins in mice, we found that ubiquitination factor E4B (UBE4B) represses axonal regrowth in retinal ganglion cells and corticospinal neurons. We found that axonal regrowth induced by UBE4B depletion depended on the cooperative activation of p53 and mTOR. Importantly, overexpression of UbV.E4B, a competitive inhibitor of UBE4B, in corticospinal neurons promoted corticospinal axon sprouting and facilitated the recovery of corticospinal axon-dependent function in a cortical stroke model. Thus, our findings provide a translatable strategy for restoring corticospinal tract-dependent functions after cortical stroke.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Zhu J, Chen F, Luo L, et al (2021)

Single-cell atlas of domestic pig cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

Science bulletin, 66(14):1448-1461.

The brain of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) has drawn considerable attention due to its high similarities to that of humans. However, the cellular compositions of the pig brain (PB) remain elusive. Here we investigated the single-nucleus transcriptomic profiles of five regions of the PB (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and hypothalamus) and identified 21 cell subpopulations. The cross-species comparison of mouse and pig hypothalamus revealed the shared and specific gene expression patterns at the single-cell resolution. Furthermore, we identified cell types and molecular pathways closely associated with neurological disorders, bridging the gap between gene mutations and pathogenesis. We reported, to our knowledge, the first single-cell atlas of domestic pig cerebral cortex and hypothalamus combined with a comprehensive analysis across species, providing extensive resources for future research regarding neural science, evolutionary developmental biology, and regenerative medicine.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Abbasi J, M Suran (2023)

From Thought to Text: How an Endovascular Brain-Computer Interface Could Help Patients With Severe Paralysis Communicate.

JAMA pii:2800761 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Liang W, Balasubramanian K, Papadourakis V, et al (2023)

Propagating spatiotemporal activity patterns across macaque motor cortex carry kinematic information.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(4):e2212227120.

Propagating spatiotemporal neural patterns are widely evident across sensory, motor, and association cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether any characteristics of neural propagation carry information about specific behavioral details. Here, we provide the first evidence for a link between the direction of cortical propagation and specific behavioral features of an upcoming movement on a trial-by-trial basis. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from multielectrode arrays implanted in the primary motor cortex of two rhesus macaque monkeys while they performed a 2D reach task. Propagating patterns were extracted from the information-rich high-gamma band (200 to 400 Hz) envelopes in the LFP amplitude. We found that the exact direction of propagating patterns varied systematically according to initial movement direction, enabling kinematic predictions. Furthermore, characteristics of these propagation patterns provided additional predictive capability beyond the LFP amplitude themselves, which suggests the value of including mesoscopic spatiotemporal characteristics in refining brain-machine interfaces.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Zhang Y, Schriver KE, Hu JM, et al (2023)

Spatial frequency representation in V2 and V4 of macaque monkey.

eLife, 12: pii:81794.

Spatial frequency (SF) is an important attribute in the visual scene and is a defining feature of visual processing channels. However, there remain many unsolved questions about how extrastriate areas in primate visual cortex code this fundamental information. Here, using intrinsic signal optical imaging in visual areas of V2 and V4 of macaque monkeys, we quantify the relationship between SF maps and (1) visual topography and (2) color and orientation maps. We find that in orientation regions, low to high SF is mapped orthogonally to orientation; in color regions, which are reported to contain orthogonal axes of color and lightness, low SFs tend to be represented more frequently than high SFs. This supports a population-based SF fluctuation related to the 'color/orientation' organizations. We propose a generalized hypercolumn model across cortical areas, comprised of two orthogonal parameters with additional parameters.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Jiang J, Fu Y, Tang A, et al (2023)

Sex difference in prebiotics on gut and blood-brain barrier dysfunction underlying stress-induced anxiety and depression.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Most of the previous studies have demonstrated the potential antidepressive and anxiolytic role of prebiotic supplement in male subjects, yet few have females enrolled. Herein, we explored whether prebiotics administration during chronic stress prevented depression-like and anxiety-like behavior in a sex-specific manner and the mechanism of behavioral differences caused by sex.

METHODS: Female and male C57 BL/J mice on normal diet were supplemented with or without a combination of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) during 3- and 4-week chronic restraint stress (CRS) treatment, respectively. C57 BL/J mice on normal diet without CRS were used as controls. Behavior consequences, gut microbiota, dysfunction of gut and brain-blood barriers, and inflammatory profiles were measured.

RESULTS: In the 3rd week, FOS + GOS administration attenuated stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in female, but not in male mice, and the anxiolytic effects in males were observed until the 4th week. However, protective effects of prebiotics on CRS-induced depression were not observed. Changes in the gene expression of tight junction proteins in the distal colon and hippocampus, and decreased number of colon goblet cells following CRS were restored by prebiotics only in females. In both female and male mice, prebiotics alleviated stress-induced BBB dysfunction and elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, and modulated gut microbiota caused by stress. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that anxiety-like behaviors were significantly correlated with levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene expression of tight junction proteins in the hippocampus of female mice, and the abundance of specific gut microbes was also correlated with anxiety-like behaviors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and gene expression of tight junction proteins in the hippocampus of female mice.

CONCLUSION: Female mice were more vulnerable to stress and prebiotics than males. The gut microbiota, gut and blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory response may mediate the protective effects of prebiotics on anxiety-like behaviors in female mice.

RevDate: 2023-01-17

Zhang J, Wang X, Xu B, et al (2023)

An overview of methods of left and right foot motor imagery based on Tikhonov regularisation common spatial pattern.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

The motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) provides an interactive control channel for spinal cord injury patients. However, the limitations of feature extraction algorithms may lead to low accuracy and instability in decoding electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, we examined the classification performance of an MI-BCI system by focusing on the distinction of the left and right foot kinaesthetic motor imagery tasks in five subjects. Feature extraction was performed using the common space pattern (CSP) and the Tikhonov regularisation CSP (TRCSP) spatial filters. TRCSP overcomes the CSP problems of noise sensitivity and overfitting. Moreover, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used for classification and recognition. We constructed four combined classification methods (TRCSP-SVM, TRCSP-LDA, CSP-SVM, and CSP-LDA) and evaluated them by comparing their accuracies, kappa coefficients, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results showed that the TRCSP-SVM method performed significantly better than others (average accuracy 97%, average kappa coefficient 0.91, and average area under ROC curve (AUC) 0.98). Using TRCSP instead of standard CSP improved accuracy by up to 10%. This study provides insights into the classification of EEG signals. The results of this study can aid lower limb MI-BCI systems in rehabilitation training.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Li M, Zuo H, Zhou H, et al (2023)

A study of action difference on motor imagery based on delayed matching posture task.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) provide an additional control pathway for people by decoding the intention of action imagination. The way people imagine greatly affects MI-BCI performance. Action itself is one of the factors that influence the way people imagine. Whether the different actions cause a difference in the MI performance is unknown. What is more important is how to manifest this action difference in the process of imagery, which has the potential to guide people to use their individualized actions to imagine more effectively.

APPROACH: To explore action differences, this study proposes a novel paradigm named as Action Observation based Delayed Matching Posture Task (AO-DMPT). Ten subjects are required to observe, memorize, match, and imagine three types of actions (cutting, grasping and writing) given by visual images or videos, to accomplish the phases of encoding, retrieval and reinforcement of MI. Event-related potential (ERP), MI features, and classification accuracy of the left or the right hand are used to evaluate the effect of the action difference on the MI difference.

MAIN RESULTS: Action differences cause different feature distributions, resulting in that the accuracy with high event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) is 27.75% higher than the ones with low ERD/ERS (p<0.05), which indicates that the action difference has impact on the MI difference and the BCI performance. In addition, significant differences in the ERP amplitudes exists among the three actions: the amplitude of P300-N200 potential reaches 9.28μV of grasping, 5.64μV and 5.25μV higher than the cutting and the writing, respectively (p<0.05).

SIGNIFICANCE: The ERP amplitudes derived from the supplementary motor area shows positive correlation to the MI classification accuracy, implying that the ERP might be an index of the MI performance when the people is faced with action selection. This study demonstrates that the MI difference is related to the action difference, and can be manifested by the ERP, which is important for improving MI training by selecting suitable action; the relationship between the ERP and the MI provides a novel index to find the suitable action to set up an individualized BCI and improve the performance further.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Valencia D, Leone G, Keller N, et al (2023)

Power-efficient in vivo brain-machine interfaces via brain-state estimation.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Advances in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) can potentially improve the quality of life of millions of users with spinal cord injury or other neurological disorders by allowing them to interact with the physical environment at their will.

APPROACH: To reduce the power consumption of the brain-implanted interface, this article presents the first hardware realization of an in vivo intention-aware interface via brain-state estimation.

MAIN RESULTS: It is shown that incorporating brain-state estimation reduces the in vivo power consumption and reduces total energy dissipation by over 1.8x compared to those of the current systems, enabling longer batter life for implanted circuits. The synthesized application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) of the designed intention-aware multi-unit spike detection system in a standard 180-nm CMOS process occupies 0.03 mm[2]of silicon area and consumes 0.63 μW of power per channel, which is the least power consumption among the current in vivo ASIC realizations.

SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed interface is the first practical approach towards realizing asynchronous BMIs while reducing the power consumption of the BMI interface and enhancing neural decoding performance compared to those of the conventional synchronous BMIs.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Sui Y, Yu H, Zhang C, et al (2022)

Deep brain-machine interfaces: sensing and modulating the human deep brain.

National science review, 9(10):nwac212.

Different from conventional brain-machine interfaces that focus more on decoding the cerebral cortex, deep brain-machine interfaces enable interactions between external machines and deep brain structures. They sense and modulate deep brain neural activities, aiming at function restoration, device control and therapeutic improvements. In this article, we provide an overview of multiple deep brain recording and stimulation techniques that can serve as deep brain-machine interfaces. We highlight two widely used interface technologies, namely deep brain stimulation and stereotactic electroencephalography, for technical trends, clinical applications and brain connectivity research. We discuss the potential to develop closed-loop deep brain-machine interfaces and achieve more effective and applicable systems for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Alharbi H (2023)

Identifying Thematics in a Brain-Computer Interface Research.

Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2023:2793211.

This umbrella review is motivated to understand the shift in research themes on brain-computer interfacing (BCI) and it determined that a shift away from themes that focus on medical advancement and system development to applications that included education, marketing, gaming, safety, and security has occurred. The background of this review examined aspects of BCI categorisation, neuroimaging methods, brain control signal classification, applications, and ethics. The specific area of BCI software and hardware development was not examined. A search using One Search was undertaken and 92 BCI reviews were selected for inclusion. Publication demographics indicate the average number of authors on review papers considered was 4.2 ± 1.8. The results also indicate a rapid increase in the number of BCI reviews from 2003, with only three reviews before that period, two in 1972, and one in 1996. While BCI authors were predominantly Euro-American in early reviews, this shifted to a more global authorship, which China dominated by 2020-2022. The review revealed six disciplines associated with BCI systems: life sciences and biomedicine (n = 42), neurosciences and neurology (n = 35), and rehabilitation (n = 20); (2) the second domain centred on the theme of functionality: computer science (n = 20), engineering (n = 28) and technology (n = 38). There was a thematic shift from understanding brain function and modes of interfacing BCI systems to more applied research novel areas of research-identified surround artificial intelligence, including machine learning, pre-processing, and deep learning. As BCI systems become more invasive in the lives of "normal" individuals, it is expected that there will be a refocus and thematic shift towards increased research into ethical issues and the need for legal oversight in BCI application.

RevDate: 2023-01-14

Zhang L, Liu C, Zhou X, et al (2022)

Neural representation and modulation of volitional motivation in response to escalating efforts.

The Journal of physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Task-dependent volitional control of the selected neural activity in the cortex is critical to neuroprosthetic learning to achieve reliable and robust control of the external device. The volitional control of neural activity is driven by a motivational factor (volitional motivation), which directly reinforces the target neurons via real-time biofeedback. However, in the absence of motor behaviour, how do we evaluate volitional motivation? Here, we defined the criterion (ΔF/F) of the calcium fluorescence signal in a volitionally controlled neural task, then escalated the efforts by progressively increasing the number of reaching the criterion or holding time after reaching the criterion. We devised calcium-based progressive threshold-crossing events (termed 'Calcium PTE') and calcium-based progressive threshold-crossing holding-time (termed 'Calcium PTH') for quantitative assessment of volitional motivation in response to progressively escalating efforts. Furthermore, we used this novel neural representation of volitional motivation to explore the neural circuit and neuromodulator bases for volitional motivation. As with behavioural motivation, chemogenetic activation and pharmacological blockade of the striatopallidal pathway decreased and increased, respectively, the breakpoints of the 'Calcium PTE' and 'Calcium PTH' in response to escalating efforts. Furthermore, volitional and behavioural motivation shared similar dopamine dynamics in the nucleus accumbens in response to trial-by-trial escalating efforts. In general, the development of a neural representation of volitional motivation may open a new avenue for smooth and effective control of brain-machine interface tasks. KEY POINTS: Volitional motivation is quantitatively evaluated by M1 neural activity in response to progressively escalating volitional efforts. The striatopallidal pathway and adenosine A2A receptor modulate volitional motivation in response to escalating efforts. Dopamine dynamics encode prediction signal for reward in response to repeated escalating efforts during motor and volitional conditioning. Mice learn to modulate neural activity to compensate for repeated escalating efforts in volitional control.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Pichiorri F, Toppi J, de Seta V, et al (2023)

Exploring high-density corticomuscular networks after stroke to enable a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface for hand motor rehabilitation.

Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 20(1):5.

BACKGROUND: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) promote upper limb recovery in stroke patients reinforcing motor related brain activity (from electroencephalogaphy, EEG). Hybrid BCIs which include peripheral signals (electromyography, EMG) as control features could be employed to monitor post-stroke motor abnormalities. To ground the use of corticomuscular coherence (CMC) as a hybrid feature for a rehabilitative BCI, we analyzed high-density CMC networks (derived from multiple EEG and EMG channels) and their relation with upper limb motor deficit by comparing data from stroke patients with healthy participants during simple hand tasks.

METHODS: EEG (61 sensors) and EMG (8 muscles per arm) were simultaneously recorded from 12 stroke (EXP) and 12 healthy participants (CTRL) during simple hand movements performed with right/left (CTRL) and unaffected/affected hand (EXP, UH/AH). CMC networks were estimated for each movement and their properties were analyzed by means of indices derived ad-hoc from graph theory and compared among groups.

RESULTS: Between-group analysis showed that CMC weight of the whole brain network was significantly reduced in patients during AH movements. The network density was increased especially for those connections entailing bilateral non-target muscles. Such reduced muscle-specificity observed in patients was confirmed by muscle degree index (connections per muscle) which indicated a connections' distribution among non-target and contralateral muscles and revealed a higher involvement of proximal muscles in patients. CMC network properties correlated with upper-limb motor impairment as assessed by Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Manual Muscle Test in patients.

CONCLUSIONS: High-density CMC networks can capture motor abnormalities in stroke patients during simple hand movements. Correlations with upper limb motor impairment support their use in a BCI-based rehabilitative approach.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Rubin DB, Ajiboye AB, Barefoot L, et al (2023)

Interim Safety Profile From the Feasibility Study of the BrainGate Neural Interface System.

Neurology pii:WNL.0000000000201707 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to restore mobility, communication, and functional independence to people with paralysis. Though supported by decades of preclinical data, the safety of chronically implanted microelectrode array BCIs in humans is unknown. We report safety results from the prospective, open-label, non-randomized BrainGate feasibility study (NCT00912041), the largest and longest-running clinical trial of an implanted BCI.

METHODS: Adults aged 18-75 with quadriparesis from spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, or motor neuron disease were enrolled through seven clinical sites in the United States. Participants underwent surgical implantation of one or two microelectrode arrays in the motor cortex of the dominant cerebral hemisphere. The primary safety outcome was device-related serious adverse events requiring device explanation or resulting in death or permanently increased disability during the one-year post-implant evaluation period. Secondary outcomes include the type and frequency of other adverse events as well as the feasibility of the BrainGate system for controlling a computer or other assistive technologies.

RESULTS: From 2004 - 2021, fourteen adults enrolled in the BrainGate trial had devices surgically implanted. The average duration of device implantation was 872 days, yielding 12,203 days of safety experience. There were 68 device-related adverse events, including 6 device-related serious adverse events. The most common device-related adverse event was skin irritation around the percutaneous pedestal. There were no safety events that required device explantation, no unanticipated adverse device events, no intracranial infections, and no participant deaths or adverse events resulting in permanently increased disability related to the investigational device.

DISCUSSION: The BrainGate Neural Interface system has a safety record comparable to other chronically implanted medical devices. Given rapid recent advances in this technology and continued performance gains, these data suggest a favorable risk/benefit ratio in appropriately selected individuals to support ongoing research and development. Identifier: NCT00912041.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that the neurosurgically placed BrainGate Neural Interface system is associated with a low rate of SAEs defined as those requiring device explanation, resulting in death, or resulting in permanently increased disability during the one-year post implant period.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Wu J, Chen C, Qin C, et al (2023)

Mimicking the Biological Sense of Taste In Vitro Using a Taste Organoids-on-a-Chip System.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Thanks to the gustatory system, humans can experience the flavors in foods and drinks while avoiding the intake of some harmful substances. Although great advances in the fields of biotechnology, microfluidics, and nanotechnologies have been made in recent years, this astonishing recognition system can hardly be replaced by any artificial sensors designed so far. Here, taste organoids are coupled with an extracellular potential sensor array to form a novel bioelectronic organoid and developed a taste organoids-on-a-chip system (TOS) for highly mimicking the biological sense of taste ex vivo with high stability and repeatability. The taste organoids maintain key taste receptors expression after the third passage and high cell viability during 7 days of on-chip culture. Most importantly, the TOS not only distinguishs sour, sweet, bitter, and salt stimuli with great specificity, but also recognizes varying concentrations of the stimuli through an analytical method based on the extraction of signal features and principal component analysis. It is hoped that this bioelectronic tongue can facilitate studies in food quality controls, disease modelling, and drug screening.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Hu J, Wang Y, Zhu Y, et al (2023)

Preoperative Brain Functional Connectivity Improve Predictive Accuracy of Outcomes After Revascularization in Moyamoya Disease.

Neurosurgery, 92(2):344-352.

BACKGROUND: In patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), focal impairments in cerebral hemodynamics are often inconsistent with patients' clinical prognoses. Evaluation of entire brain functional networks may enable predicting MMD outcomes after revascularization.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether preoperative brain functional connectivity could predict outcomes after revascularization in MMD.

METHODS: We included 34 patients with MMD who underwent preoperative MRI scanning and combined revascularization surgery. We used region of interest analyses to explore the differences in functional connectivity for 90 paired brain regions between patients who had favorable outcomes 1 year after surgery (no recurrent stroke, with improved preoperative symptoms, or modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and those who had unimproved outcomes (recurrent stroke, persistent symptoms, or declined mRS). Variables, including age, body mass index, mRS at admission, Suzuki stage, posterior cerebral artery involvement, and functional connectivity with significant differences between the groups, were included in the discriminant function analysis to predict patient outcomes.

RESULTS: Functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex and paracentral lobule within the right hemisphere, and interhemispheric connection between superior parietal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and middle cingulate cortex, cuneus and precuneus, differed significantly between the groups (P < .001, false discovery rate corrected) and had the greatest discriminant function in the prediction model. Although clinical characteristics of patients with MMD showed great accuracy in predicting outcomes (64.7%), adding information on functional connections improved accuracy to 91.2%.

CONCLUSION: Preoperative functional connectivity derived from rs-fMRI may be an early hallmark for predicting patients' prognosis after revascularization surgery for MMD.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Hudson HM, Guggenmos DJ, Azin M, et al (2023)

Broad Therapeutic Time Window for Driving Motor Recovery After TBI Using Activity-Dependent Stimulation.

Neurorehabilitation and neural repair [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: After an acquired injury to the motor cortex, the ability to generate skilled movements is impaired, leading to long-term motor impairment and disability. While rehabilitative therapy can improve outcomes in some individuals, there are no treatments currently available that are able to fully restore lost function.

OBJECTIVE: We previously used activity-dependent stimulation (ADS), initiated immediately after an injury, to drive motor recovery. The objective of this study was to determine if delayed application of ADS would still lead to recovery and if the recovery would persist after treatment was stopped.

METHODS: Rats received a controlled cortical impact over primary motor cortex, microelectrode arrays were implanted in ipsilesional premotor and somatosensory areas, and a custom brain-machine interface was attached to perform the ADS. Stimulation was initiated either 1, 2, or 3 weeks after injury and delivered constantly over a 4-week period. An additional group was monitored for 8 weeks after terminating ADS to assess persistence of effect. Results were compared to rats receiving no stimulation.

RESULTS: ADS was delayed up to 3 weeks from injury onset and still resulted in significant motor recovery, with maximal recovery occurring in the 1-week delay group. The improvements in motor performance persisted for at least 8 weeks following the end of treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: ADS is an effective method to treat motor impairments following acquired brain injury in rats. This study demonstrates the clinical relevance of this technique as it could be initiated in the post-acute period and could be explanted/ceased once recovery has occurred.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Truong MT, Liu YC, Kohn J, et al (2022)

Integrated microtia and aural atresia management.

Frontiers in surgery, 9:944223.

OBJECTIVES: To present recommendations for the coordinated evaluation and management of the hearing and reconstructive needs of patients with microtia and aural atresia.

METHODS: A national working group of 9 experts on microtia and atresia evaluated a working document on the evaluation and treatment of patients. Treatment options for auricular reconstruction and hearing habilitation were reviewed and integrated into a coordinated care timeline.

RESULTS: Recommendations were created for children with microtia and atresia, including diagnostic considerations, surgical and non-surgical options for hearing management and auricular reconstruction, and the treatment timeline for each option. These recommendations are based on the collective opinion of the group and are intended for otolaryngologists, audiologists, plastic surgeons, anaplastologists, and any provider caring for a patient with microtia and ear canal atresia. Close communication between atresia/hearing reconstruction surgeon and microtia repair surgeon is strongly recommended.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Daly I (2023)

Neural decoding of music from the EEG.

Scientific reports, 13(1):624.

Neural decoding models can be used to decode neural representations of visual, acoustic, or semantic information. Recent studies have demonstrated neural decoders that are able to decode accoustic information from a variety of neural signal types including electrocortiography (ECoG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study we explore how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be combined with EEG to develop an accoustic decoder. Specifically, we first used a joint EEG-fMRI paradigm to record brain activity while participants listened to music. We then used fMRI-informed EEG source localisation and a bi-directional long-term short term deep learning network to first extract neural information from the EEG related to music listening and then to decode and reconstruct the individual pieces of music an individual was listening to. We further validated our decoding model by evaluating its performance on a separate dataset of EEG-only recordings. We were able to reconstruct music, via our fMRI-informed EEG source analysis approach, with a mean rank accuracy of 71.8% ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Using only EEG data, without participant specific fMRI-informed source analysis, we were able to identify the music a participant was listening to with a mean rank accuracy of 59.2% ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). This demonstrates that our decoding model may use fMRI-informed source analysis to aid EEG based decoding and reconstruction of acoustic information from brain activity and makes a step towards building EEG-based neural decoders for other complex information domains such as other acoustic, visual, or semantic information.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Zhu S, Hosni SI, Huang X, et al (2022)

A dynamical graph-based feature extraction approach to enhance mental task classification in brain-computer interfaces.

Computers in biology and medicine, 153:106498 pii:S0010-4825(22)01206-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Graph theoretic approaches in analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics of brain activities are under-studied but could be very promising directions in developing effective brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Many existing BCI systems use electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to record and decode human neural activities noninvasively. Often, however, the features extracted from the EEG signals ignore the topological information hidden in the EEG temporal dynamics. Moreover, existing graph theoretic approaches are mostly used to reveal the topological patterns of brain functional networks based on synchronization between signals from distinctive spatial regions, instead of interdependence between states at different timestamps. In this study, we present a robust fold-wise hyperparameter optimization framework utilizing a series of conventional graph-based measurements combined with spectral graph features and investigate its discriminative performance on classification of a designed mental task in 6 participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Across all of our participants, we reached an average accuracy of 71.1%±4.5% for mental task classification by combining the global graph-based measurements and the spectral graph features, higher than the conventional non-graph based feature performance (67.1%±7.5%). Compared to using either one of the graphic features (66.3%±6.5% for the eigenvalues and 65.9%±5.2% for the global graph features), our feature combination strategy shows considerable improvement in both accuracy and robustness performance. Our results indicate the feasibility and advantage of the presented fold-wise optimization framework utilizing graph-based features in BCI systems targeted at end-users.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Sample M, Sattler S, Boehlen W, et al (2023)

Brain-computer interfaces, disability, and the stigma of refusal: A factorial vignette study.

Public understanding of science (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

As brain-computer interfaces are promoted as assistive devices, some researchers worry that this promise to "restore" individuals worsens stigma toward disabled people and fosters unrealistic expectations. In three web-based survey experiments with vignettes, we tested how refusing a brain-computer interface in the context of disability affects cognitive (blame), emotional (anger), and behavioral (coercion) stigmatizing attitudes (Experiment 1, N = 222) and whether the effect of a refusal is affected by the level of brain-computer interface functioning (Experiment 2, N = 620) or the risk of malfunctioning (Experiment 3, N = 620). We found that refusing a brain-computer interface increased blame and anger, while brain-computer interface functioning did change the effect of a refusal. Higher risks of device malfunctioning partially reduced stigmatizing attitudes and moderated the effect of refusal. This suggests that information about disabled people who refuse a technology can increase stigma toward them. This finding has serious implications for brain-computer interface regulation, media coverage, and the prevention of ableism.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Rajesh Rao has written the perfect introduction to the exciting world of brain-computer interfaces. The book is remarkably comprehensive — not only including full descriptions of classic and current experiments but also covering essential background concepts, from the brain to Bayes and back. Brain-Computer Interfacing will be welcomed by a wide range of intelligent readers interested in understanding the first steps toward the symbiotic merger of brains and computers. Eberhard E. Fetz, UW

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )