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Bibliography on: Evolution of Multicelluarity

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:44 Created: 

Evolution of Multicelluarity

Created with PubMed® Query: ( (evolution OR origin) AND (multicellularity OR multicellular) NOT 33634751[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Pandey T, DK Ma (2022)

Stress-Induced Phenoptosis: Mechanistic Insights and Evolutionary Implications.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(12):1504-1511.

Evolution by natural selection results in biological traits that enable organismic adaptation and survival under various stressful environments. External stresses can be sometimes too severe to overcome, leading to organismic death either because of failure in adapting to such stress, or alternatively, through a regulated form of organismic death (phenoptosis). While regulated cell deaths, including apoptosis, have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying phenoptosis and its evolutionary significance for multicellular organisms. In this article, we review documented phenomena and mechanistic evidence emerging from studies of stress-induced phenoptosis in the multicellular organism C. elegans and stress-induced deaths at cellular levels in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals, focusing on abiotic and pathogen stresses. Genes and signaling pathways involved in phenoptosis appear to promote organismic death during severe stress and aging, while conferring fitness and immune defense during mild stress and early life, consistent with their antagonistic pleiotropy actions. As cell apoptosis during development can shape tissues and organs, stress-induced phenoptosis may also contribute to possible benefits at the population level, through mechanisms including kin selection, abortive infection, and soma-to-germline resource allocation. Current models can generate experimentally testable predictions and conceptual frameworks with implications for understanding both stress-induced phenoptosis and natural aging.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Klure DM, Greenhalgh R, Parchman TL, et al (2023)

Hybridization in the absence of an ecotone favors hybrid success in woodrats (Neotoma spp.).

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution pii:7008940 [Epub ahead of print].

Hybridization is a common process that has broadly impacted the evolution of multicellular eukaryotes; however, how ecological factors influence this process remains poorly understood. Here, we report the findings of a 3-year recapture study of the Bryant's woodrat (Neotoma bryanti) and desert woodrat (N. lepida), two species that hybridize within a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) shrubland in Whitewater, CA, USA. We used a genotype-by-sequencing approach to characterize the ancestry distribution of individuals across this hybrid zone coupled with Cormack-Jolly-Seber modeling to describe demography. We identified a high frequency of hybridization at this site with ~40% of individuals possessing admixed ancestry, which is the result of multigenerational backcrossing and advanced hybrid-hybrid crossing. F1, F2 and advanced generation hybrids had apparent survival rates similar to parental N. bryanti, while parental and backcross N. lepida had lower apparent survival rates and were far less abundant. Compared to bimodal hybrid zones where hybrids are often rare and selected against, we find that hybrids at Whitewater are common and have comparable survival to the dominant parental species, N. bryanti. The frequency of hybridization at Whitewater is therefore likely limited by the abundance of the less common parental species, N. lepida, rather than selection against hybrids.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Shekhar S, Guo H, Colin SP, et al (2023)

Cooperative hydrodynamics accompany multicellular-like colonial organization in the unicellular ciliate Stentor.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.10.523506.

Evolution of multicellularity from early unicellular ancestors is arguably one of the most important transitions since the origin of life [1,2] . Multicellularity is often associated with higher nutrient uptake [3] , better defense against predation, cell specialization and better division of labor [4] . While many single-celled organisms exhibit both solitary and colonial existence [3,5,6] , the organizing principles governing the transition and the benefits endowed are less clear. Using the suspension-feeding unicellular protist Stentor coeruleus , we show that hydrodynamic coupling between proximal neighbors results in faster feeding flows that depend on the separation between individuals. Moreover, we find that the accrued benefits in feeding current enhancement are typically asymmetricâ€" individuals with slower solitary currents gain more from partnering than those with faster currents. We find that colony-formation is ephemeral in Stentor and individuals in colonies are highly dynamic unlike other colony-forming organisms like Volvox carteri [3] . Our results demonstrate benefits endowed by the colonial organization in a simple unicellular organism and can potentially provide fundamental insights into the selective forces favoring early evolution of multicellular organization.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Pineau RM, Demory D, Libby E, et al (2023)

Emergence and maintenance of stable coexistence during a long-term multicellular evolution experiment.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.19.524803.

The evolution of multicellular life spurred evolutionary radiations, fundamentally changing many of Earth’s ecosystems. Yet little is known about how early steps in the evolution of multicellularity transform eco-evolutionary dynamics, e.g., via niche expansion processes that may facilitate coexistence. Using long-term experimental evolution in the snowflake yeast model system, we show that the evolution of multicellularity drove niche partitioning and the adaptive divergence of two distinct, specialized lineages from a single multicellular ancestor. Over 715 daily transfers, snowflake yeast were subject to selection for rapid growth in rich media, followed by selection favoring larger group size. Both small and large cluster-forming lineages evolved from a monomorphic ancestor, coexisting for over ~4,300 generations. These small and large sized snowflake yeast lineages specialized on divergent aspects of a trade-off between growth rate and survival, mirroring predictions from ecological theory. Through modeling and experimentation, we demonstrate that coexistence is maintained by a trade-off between organismal size and competitiveness for dissolved oxygen. Taken together, this work shows how the evolution of a new level of biological individuality can rapidly drive adaptive diversification and the expansion of a nascent multicellular niche, one of the most historically-impactful emergent properties of this evolutionary transition.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Moriel A, Wolfenson H, E Bouchbinder (2023)

Characteristic energy scales of active fluctuations in adherent cells.

Biophysical reports, 3(1):100099.

Cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion play important roles in a wide variety of physiological processes, from the single-cell level to the large scale, multicellular organization of tissues. Cells actively apply forces to their environment, either extracellular matrix or neighboring cells, as well as sense its biophysical properties. The fluctuations associated with these active processes occur on an energy scale much larger than that of ordinary thermal equilibrium fluctuations, yet their statistical properties and characteristic scales are not fully understood. Here, we compare measurements of the energy scale of active cellular fluctuations-an effective cellular temperature-in four different biophysical settings, involving both single-cell and cell-aggregate experiments under various control conditions, different cell types, and various biophysical observables. The results indicate that a similar energy scale of active fluctuations might characterize the same cell type in different settings, though it may vary among different cell types, being approximately six to eight orders of magnitude larger than the ordinary thermal energy at room temperature. These findings call for extracting the energy scale of active fluctuations over a broader range of cell types, experimental settings, and biophysical observables and for understanding the biophysical origin and significance of such cellular energy scales.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Trivedi DD, Dalai SK, SR Bakshi (2023)

The Mystery of Cancer Resistance: A Revelation Within Nature.

Journal of molecular evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer, a disease due to uncontrolled cell proliferation is as ancient as multicellular organisms. A 255-million-years-old fossilized forerunner mammal gorgonopsian is probably the oldest evidence of cancer, to date. Cancer seems to have evolved by adapting to the microenvironment occupied by immune sentinel, modulating the cellular behavior from cytotoxic to regulatory, acquiring resistance to chemotherapy and surviving hypoxia. The interaction of genes with environmental carcinogens is central to cancer onset, seen as a spectrum of cancer susceptibility among human population. Cancer occurs in life forms other than human also, although their exposure to environmental carcinogens can be different. Role of genetic etiology in cancer in multiple species can be interesting with regard to not only cancer susceptibility, but also genetic conservation and adaptation in speciation. The widely used model organisms for cancer research are mouse and rat which are short-lived and reproduce rapidly. Research in these cancer prone animal models has been valuable as these have led to cancer therapy. However, another rewarding area of cancer research can be the cancer-resistant animal species. The Peto's paradox and G-value paradox are evident when natural cancer resistance is observed in large mammals, like elephant and whale, small rodents viz. Naked Mole Rat and Blind Mole Rat, and Bat. The cancer resistance remains to be explored in other small or large and long-living animals like giraffe, camel, rhinoceros, water buffalo, Indian bison, Shire horse, polar bear, manatee, elephant seal, walrus, hippopotamus, turtle and tortoise, sloth, and squirrel. Indeed, understanding the molecular mechanisms of avoiding neoplastic transformation across various life forms can be potentially having translational value for human cancer management. Adapted and Modified from (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011).

RevDate: 2023-01-26
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Forterre P, M Gaïa (2022)

[Viruses and the evolution of modern eukaryotic cells].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 38(12):990-998.

It is now well accepted that viruses have played an important role in the evolution of modern eukaryotes. In this review, we suggest that interactions between ancient eukaryoviruses and proto-eukaryotes also played a major role in eukaryogenesis. We discuss phylogenetic analyses that highlight the viral origin of several key proteins in the molecular biology of eukaryotes. We also discuss recent observations that, by analogy, could suggest a viral origin of the cellular nucleus. Finally, we hypothesize that mechanisms of cell differentiation in multicellular organisms might have originated from mechanisms implemented by viruses to transform infected cells into virocells.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Tuohinto K, DiMaio TA, Kiss EA, et al (2023)

KSHV infection of endothelial precursor cells with lymphatic characteristics as a novel model for translational Kaposi's sarcoma studies.

PLoS pathogens, 19(1):e1010753 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-22-01283 [Epub ahead of print].

Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a hyperplasia consisting of enlarged malformed vasculature and spindle-shaped cells, the main proliferative component of KS. While spindle cells express markers of lymphatic and blood endothelium, the origin of spindle cells is unknown. Endothelial precursor cells have been proposed as the source of spindle cells. We previously identified two types of circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), ones that expressed markers of blood endothelium and ones that expressed markers of lymphatic endothelium. Here we examined both blood and lymphatic ECFCs infected with KSHV. Lymphatic ECFCs are significantly more susceptible to KSHV infection than the blood ECFCs and maintain the viral episomes during passage in culture while the blood ECFCs lose the viral episome. Only the KSHV-infected lymphatic ECFCs (K-ECFCLY) grew to small multicellular colonies in soft agar whereas the infected blood ECFCs and all uninfected ECFCs failed to proliferate. The K-ECFCLYs express high levels of SOX18, which supported the maintenance of high copy number of KSHV genomes. When implanted subcutaneously into NSG mice, the K-ECFCLYs persisted in vivo and recapitulated the phenotype of KS tumor cells with high number of viral genome copies and spindling morphology. These spindle cell hallmarks were significantly reduced when mice were treated with SOX18 inhibitor, SM4. These data suggest that KSHV-infected lymphatic ECFCs can be utilized as a KSHV infection model for in vivo translational studies to test novel inhibitors representing potential treatment modalities for KS.

RevDate: 2023-01-24
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

McShea DW (2023)

Four reasons for scepticism about a human major transition in social individuality.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1872):20210403.

The 'major transitions in evolution' are mainly about the rise of hierarchy, new individuals arising at ever higher levels of nestedness, in particular the eukaryotic cell arising from prokaryotes, multicellular individuals from solitary protists and individuated societies from multicellular individuals. Some lists include human societies as a major transition, but based on a comparison with the non-human transitions, there are reasons for scepticism. (i) The foundation of the major transitions is hierarchy, but the cross-cutting interactions in human societies undermine hierarchical structure. (ii) Natural selection operates in three modes-stability, growth and reproductive success-and only the third produces the complex adaptations seen in fully individuated higher levels. But human societies probably evolve mainly in the stability and growth modes. (iii) Highly individuated entities are marked by division of labour and commitment to morphological differentiation, but in humans differentiation is mostly behavioural and mostly reversible. (iv) As higher-level individuals arise, selection drains complexity, drains parts, from lower-level individuals. But there is little evidence of a drain in humans. In sum, a comparison with the other transitions gives reasons to doubt that human social individuation has proceeded very far, or if it has, to doubt that it is a transition of the same sort. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Townsend C, Ferraro JV, Habecker H, et al (2023)

Human cooperation and evolutionary transitions in individuality.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1872):20210414.

A major evolutionary transition in individuality involves the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an evolutionary entity. Human cooperation shares principles with those of multicellular organisms that have undergone transitions in individuality: division of labour, communication, and fitness interdependence. After the split from the last common ancestor of hominoids, early hominins adapted to an increasingly terrestrial niche for several million years. We posit that new challenges in this niche set in motion a positive feedback loop in selection pressure for cooperation that ratcheted coevolutionary changes in sociality, communication, brains, cognition, kin relations and technology, eventually resulting in egalitarian societies with suppressed competition and rapid cumulative culture. The increasing pace of information innovation and transmission became a key aspect of the evolutionary niche that enabled humans to become formidable cooperators with explosive population growth, the ability to cooperate and compete in groups of millions, and emergent social norms, e.g. private property. Despite considerable fitness interdependence, the rise of private property, in concert with population explosion and socioeconomic inequality, subverts potential transition of human groups into evolutionary entities due to resurgence of latent competition and conflict. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Davison DR, RE Michod (2023)

Steps to individuality in biology and culture.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1872):20210407.

Did human culture arise through an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI)? To address this question, we examine the steps of biological ETIs to see how they could apply to the evolution of human culture. For concreteness, we illustrate the ETI stages using a well-studied example, the evolution of multicellularity in the volvocine algae. We then consider how those stages could apply to a cultural transition involving integrated groups of cultural traditions and the hominins that create and transmit traditions. We focus primarily on the early Pleistocene and examine hominin carnivory and the cultural change from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We use Pan behaviour as an outgroup comparison. We summarize the important similarities and differences we find between ETI stages in the biological and cultural realms. As we are not cultural anthropologists, we may overlook or be mistaken in the processes we associate with each step. We hope that by clearly describing these steps to individuality and illustrating them with cultural principles and processes, other researchers may build upon our initial exercise. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that human culture has undergone an ETI beginning with a Pan-like ancestor, continuing during the Pleistocene, and culminating in modern human culture. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Cofre J, K Saalfeld (2022)

The first embryo, the origin of cancer and animal phylogeny. I. A presentation of the neoplastic process and its connection with cell fusion and germline formation.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:1067248.

The decisive role of Embryology in understanding the evolution of animal forms is founded and deeply rooted in the history of science. It is recognized that the emergence of multicellularity would not have been possible without the formation of the first embryo. We speculate that biophysical phenomena and the surrounding environment of the Ediacaran ocean were instrumental in co-opting a neoplastic functional module (NFM) within the nucleus of the first zygote. Thus, the neoplastic process, understood here as a biological phenomenon with profound embryologic implications, served as the evolutionary engine that favored the formation of the first embryo and cancerous diseases and allowed to coherently create and recreate body shapes in different animal groups during evolution. In this article, we provide a deep reflection on the Physics of the first embryogenesis and its contribution to the exaptation of additional NFM components, such as the extracellular matrix. Knowledge of NFM components, structure, dynamics, and origin advances our understanding of the numerous possibilities and different innovations that embryos have undergone to create animal forms via Neoplasia during evolutionary radiation. The developmental pathways of Neoplasia have their origins in ctenophores and were consolidated in mammals and other apical groups.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Zhou Y, Li G, Han G, et al (2023)

Developmental Programmed Cell Death Involved in Ontogenesis of Dictamnus dasycarpus Capitate Glandular Hairs.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2):.

Plant glandular trichomes have received much attention due to their commercial and biological value. Recent studies have focused on the development of various glands in plants, suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) may play an important role during the development of plant secretory structures. However, the development processes and cytological characteristics in different types of plant secretory structures differed significantly. This study aims to provide new data on the developmental PCD of the capitate glandular hairs in Dictamnus dasycarpus. Light, scanning, immunofluorescence labeling, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the different developmental processes of the capitate glandular hairs from a cytological perspective. Morphologically, the capitate glandular hair originates from one initial epidermal cell and differentiates into a multicellular trichome characterized by two basal cells, two lines of stalk cells, and a multicellular head. It is also histochemically detected by essential oils. TUNEL-positive reactions identified nuclei with diffused fluorescence or an irregular figure by DAPI, and Evans blue staining showed that the head and stalk cells lost their viability. Ultrastructural evidence revealed the developmental process by two possible modes of PCD. Non-autolytic PCD was characterized by buckling cell walls and degenerated nuclei, mitochondria, plastids, multivesicular body (MVB), and end-expanded endoplasmic reticulum in the condensed cytoplasm, which were mainly observed in the head cells. The MVB was detected in the degraded vacuole, a degraded nucleus with condensed chromatin and diffused membrane, and eventual loss of the vacuole membrane integrity exhibited typical evidence of vacuole-mediated autolytic PCD in the stalk cells. Furthermore, protoplasm degeneration coupled with dark oil droplets and numerous micro-dark osmiophilic substances was observed during late stages. The secretion mode of essential oils is also described in this paper.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Sui Y, Huang C, Zhang R, et al (2018)

Astronomical time scale for the lower Doushantuo Formation of early Ediacaran, South China.

Science bulletin, 63(22):1485-1494.

Nearly 90% of the Ediacaran Period (635-541 Ma) of the Neoproterozoic is represented by the Doushantuo Formation (DST Fm) in South China. Its lowest Member I is a 3.7 m-thick cap carbonate deposited at the termination of the Cryogenian Marinoan glaciation. The DST Fm consists of alternating organic-rich black shale and thinly bedded dolostone, and it contains some of the oldest records of multi-cellular life and three pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The Jiulongwan (JLW) section is a well-studied reference section for these Ediacaran events. Spectral analysis of geochemical data through the lower DST Fm (22.3 m) shows 27 predominant ∼90 cm sedimentary cycles that correspond to 405-ka long eccentricity cycles. The power spectra of the 405-ka tuned Ca and Fe/Ti series show significant peaks at ∼1.2-Ma, 405-ka, 133-ka, 128-ka, 100-ka, 82-ka, ∼31-ka and 29-ka periods, respectively. A 11.16 Ma-long astronomical time scale has been constructed for the lower DST Fm and provide a duration of 1.6 Ma for the cap carbonate (Member I) based on the 405-ka long eccentricity cycle tuning. Using the U-Pb age of 635.2 ± 0.6 Ma for the volcanic ash bed at the Member I/II boundary, we proposed a 636.8 Ma age for the base of the DST Fm. These ages and astronomical timescale provide important new constraints on the subdivision of Ediacaran strata, and have implications for understanding the character of the first negative δ[13]C excursion (EN1). Orbital forcing may have been played an important role for the climate changes and the evolution of Ediacaran multi-cellular life and the carbon cycle variations.

RevDate: 2023-01-20
CmpDate: 2023-01-20

Römling U (2023)

Is biofilm formation intrinsic to the origin of life?.

Environmental microbiology, 25(1):26-39.

Biofilms are multicellular, often surface-associated, communities of autonomous cells. Their formation is the natural mode of growth of up to 80% of microorganisms living on this planet. Biofilms refractory towards antimicrobial agents and the actions of the immune system due to their tolerance against multiple environmental stresses. But how did biofilm formation arise? Here, I argue that the biofilm lifestyle has its foundation already in the fundamental, surface-triggered chemical reactions and energy preserving mechanisms that enabled the development of life on earth. Subsequently, prototypical biofilm formation has evolved and diversified concomitantly in composition, cell morphology and regulation with the expansion of prokaryotic organisms and their radiation by occupation of diverse ecological niches. This ancient origin of biofilm formation thus mirrors the harnessing environmental conditions that have been the rule rather than the exception in microbial life. The subsequent emergence of the association of microbes, including recent human pathogens, with higher organisms can be considered as the entry into a nutritional and largely stress-protecting heaven. Nevertheless, basic mechanisms of biofilm formation have surprisingly been conserved and refunctionalized to promote sustained survival in new environments.

RevDate: 2023-01-20
CmpDate: 2023-01-19

Nozaki H, Mori F, Tanaka Y, et al (2023)

Cryopreservation of two species of the multicellular volvocine green algal genus Astrephomene.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):16.

BACKGROUND: Astrephomene is an interesting green algal genus that, together with Volvox, shows convergent evolution of spheroidal multicellular bodies with somatic cells of the colonial or multicellular volvocine lineage. A recent whole-genome analysis of A. gubernaculifera resolved the molecular-genetic basis of such convergent evolution, and two species of Astrephomene were described. However, maintenance of culture strains of Astrephomene requires rapid inoculation of living cultures, and cryopreserved culture strains have not been established in public culture collections.

RESULTS: To establish cryopreserved culture strains of two species of Astrephomene, conditions for cryopreservation of the two species were investigated using immature and mature vegetative colonies and two cryoprotectants: N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and hydroxyacetone (HA). Rates of cell survival of the A. gubernaculifera or A. perforata strain after two-step cooling and freezing in liquid nitrogen were compared between different concentrations (3 and 6%) of DMF and HA and two types of colonies: immature colonies (small colonies newly released from the parent) and mature colonies (large colonies just before daughter colony formation). The highest rate of survival [11 ± 13% (0.36-33%) by the most probable number (MPN) method] of A. gubernaculifera strain NIES-4017 (established in 2014) was obtained when culture samples of immature colonies were subjected to cryogenic treatment with 6% DMF. In contrast, culture samples of mature colonies subjected to 3% HA cryogenic treatment showed the highest "MPN survival" [5.5 ± 5.9% (0.12-12%)] in A. perforata. Using the optimized cryopreservation conditions for each species, survival after freezing in liquid nitrogen was examined for six other strains of A. gubernaculifera (established from 1962 to 1981) and another A. perforata strain maintained in the Microbial Culture Collection at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (MCC-NIES). We obtained ≥0.1% MPN survival of the A. perforata strain. However, only two of the six strains of A. gubernaculifera showed ≥0.1% MPN survival. By using the optimal cryopreserved conditions obtained for each species, five cryopreserved strains of two species of Astrephomene were established and deposited in the MCC-NIES.

CONCLUSIONS: The optimal cryopreservation conditions differed between the two species of Astrephomene. Cryopreservation of long-term-maintained strains of A. gubernaculifera may be difficult; further studies of cryopreservation of these strains are needed.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Muñoz-Gómez SA (2023)

Energetics and evolution of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria and aerobic respiration have been suggested to be required for the evolution of eukaryotic cell complexity. Aerobic respiration is several times more energetically efficient than fermentation. Moreover, aerobic respiration occurs at internalized mitochondrial membranes that are not constrained by a sublinear scaling with cell volume. However, diverse and complex anaerobic eukaryotes (for example, free-living and parasitic unicellular, and even small multicellular, eukaryotes) that exclusively rely on fermentation for energy generation have evolved repeatedly from aerobic ancestors. How do fermenting eukaryotes maintain their cell volumes and complexity while relying on such a low energy-yielding process? Here I propose that reduced rates of ATP generation in fermenting versus respiring eukaryotes are compensated for by longer cell cycles that satisfy lifetime energy demands. A literature survey and growth efficiency calculations show that fermenting eukaryotes divide approximately four to six times slower than aerobically respiring counterparts with similar cell volumes. Although ecological advantages such as competition avoidance offset lower growth rates and yields in the short term, fermenting eukaryotes inevitably have fewer physiological and ecological possibilities, which ultimately constrain their long-term evolutionary trajectories.

RevDate: 2023-01-15

Barrenechea Angeles I, Romero-Martínez ML, Cavaliere M, et al (2023)

Encapsulated in sediments: eDNA deciphers the ecosystem history of one of the most polluted European marine sites.

Environment international, 172:107738 pii:S0160-4120(23)00011-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Anthropocene is characterized by dramatic ecosystem changes driven by human activities. The impact of these activities can be assessed by different geochemical and paleontological proxies. However, each of these proxies provides only a fragmentary insight into the effects of anthropogenic impacts. It is highly challenging to reconstruct, with a holistic view, the state of the ecosystems from the preindustrial period to the present day, covering all biological components, from prokaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we used sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) archives encompassing all trophic levels of biodiversity to reconstruct the two century-natural history in Bagnoli-Coroglio (Gulf of Pozzuoli, Tyrrhenian Sea), one of the most polluted marine-coastal sites in Europe. The site was characterized by seagrass meadows and high eukaryotic diversity until the beginning of the 20th century. Then, the ecosystem completely changed, with seagrasses and associated fauna as well as diverse groups of planktonic and benthic protists being replaced by low diversity biota dominated by dinophyceans and infaunal metazoan species. The sedaDNA analysis revealed a five-phase evolution of the area, where changes appear as the result of a multi-level cascade effect of impacts associated with industrial activities, urbanization, water circulation and land-use changes. The sedaDNA allowed to infer reference conditions that must be considered when restoration actions are to be implemented.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Kuzdzal-Fick JJ, Moreno A, Broersma CME, et al (2022)

From individual behaviors to collective outcomes: fruiting body formation in Dictyostelium as a group-level phenotype.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution pii:6873149 [Epub ahead of print].

Collective phenotypes, which arise from the interactions among individuals, can be important for the evolution of higher levels of biological organization. However, how a group's composition determines its collective phenotype remains poorly understood. When starved, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum cooperate to build a multicellular fruiting body, and the morphology of the fruiting body is likely advantageous to the surviving spores. We assessed how the number of strains, as well as their genetic and geographic relationships to one another, impact the group's morphology and productivity. We find that some strains consistently enhance or detract from the productivity of their groups, regardless of the identity of the other group members. We also detect extensive pairwise and higher-order genotype interactions, which collectively have a large influence on the group phenotype. Whereas previous work in Dictyostelium has focused almost exclusively on whether spore production is equitable when strains cooperate to form multicellular fruiting bodies, our results suggest a previously unrecognized impact of chimeric co-development on the group phenotype. Our results demonstrate how interactions among members of a group influence collective phenotypes and how group phenotypes might in turn impact selection on the individual.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Iyer J, Pillai S, Munguia-Lopez JG, et al (2023)

Salivary gland bioengineering - yesterday, today, tomorrow!.

Histology and histopathology pii:HH-18-580 [Epub ahead of print].

Salivary glands are specialized structures developed as an extensively compact, arborized design through classical embryogenesis, accompanied by a cascade of events channelized by numerous growth factors and genetic regulatory pathways. Salivary secretions maintain oral homeostasis and, when diminished in certain conditions, present as xerostomia or salivary hypofunction, adversely impacting the patient's quality of life. The current available treatments primarily aim at tackling the immediate symptoms providing temporary relief to the patient. Despite scientific efforts to develop permanent and effective solutions to restore salivation, a significant permanent treatment is yet to be established. Tissue engineering has proven as a promising remedial tool in several diseases, as well as in xerostomia, and aims to restore partial loss of organ function. Recapitulating the physiological cellular microenvironment to in vitro culture conditions is constantly evolving. Replicating the dynamic multicellular interactions, genetic pathways, and cytomorphogenic forces, as displayed during salivary gland development have experienced considerable barriers. Through this review, we endeavour to provide an outlook on the evolution of in vitro salivary gland research, highlighting the key bioengineering advances and the challenges faced with the current therapeutic strategies for salivary hypofunction, with an insight into our team's scientific contributions.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Gombos S, Miras M, Howe V, et al (2023)

A high-confidence Physcomitrium patens plasmodesmata proteome by iterative scoring and validation reveals diversification of cell wall proteins during evolution.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Plasmodesmata (PD) facilitate movement of molecules between plant cells. Regulation of this movement is still not understood. PD are hard to study, being deeply embedded within cell walls and incorporating several membrane types. Thus, structure and protein composition of PD remain enigmatic. Previous studies of PD protein composition identified protein lists with few validations, making functional conclusions difficult. We developed a PD scoring approach in iteration with large-scale systematic localization, defining a high-confidence PD proteome of Physcomitrium patens (HC300). HC300, together with bona fide PD proteins from literature, were placed in PDDB. About 65% of proteins in HC300 were not previously PD-localized. Callose-degrading glycolyl hydrolase 17 family (GHL17) is an abundant protein family with representatives across evolutionary scale. Among GHL17s, we exclusively found members of one phylogenetic clade with PD localization and orthologs occur only in species with developed PD. Phylogenetic comparison was expanded to xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases and Exordium-like proteins, which also diversified into PD-localized and non-PD-localized members on distinct phylogenetic clades. Our high-confidence PD proteome HC300 provides insights into diversification of large protein families. Iterative and systematic large-scale localization across plant species strengthens the reliability of HC300 as basis for exploring structure, function and evolution of this important organelle.

RevDate: 2023-01-10

Wu X, Liu X, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Cell Division and Meristem Dynamics in Fern Gametophytes.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1):.

One of the most important questions in all multicellular organisms is how to define and maintain different cell fates during continuous cell division and proliferation. Plant meristems provide a unique research system to address this fundamental question because meristems dynamically maintain themselves and sustain organogenesis through balancing cell division and cell differentiation. Different from the gametophytes of seed plants that depend on their sporophytes and lack meristems, the gametophytes of seed-free ferns develop different types of meristems (including apical cell-based meristems and multicellular apical and marginal meristems) to promote independent growth and proliferation during the sexual gametophyte phase. Recent studies combining confocal time-lapse imaging and computational image analysis reveal the cellular basis of the initiation and proliferation of different types of meristems in fern gametophytes, providing new insights into the evolution of meristems in land plants. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the cell growth dynamics in fern gametophytes and discuss both conserved and diversified mechanisms underlying meristem cell proliferation in seed-free vascular plants.

RevDate: 2023-01-10
CmpDate: 2023-01-10

von der Heyde B, A Hallmann (2022)

Cell Type-Specific Pherophorins of Volvox carteri Reveal Interplay of Both Cell Types in ECM Biosynthesis.

Cells, 12(1):.

The spheroidal green algae Volvox carteri serves as a model system to investigate the formation of a complex, multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM) in a relatively simple, multicellular organism with cell differentiation. The V. carteri ECM is mainly composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) and there are diverse region-specific, anatomically distinct structures in the ECM. One large protein family with importance for ECM biosynthesis stands out: the pherophorins. The few pherophorins previously extracted from the ECM and characterized, were specifically expressed by somatic cells. However, the localization and function of most pherophorins is unknown. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of 153 pherophorins of V. carteri and its unicellular relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our analysis of cell type-specific mRNA expression of pherophorins in V. carteri revealed that, contrary to previous assumptions, only about half (52%) of the 102 investigated pherophorin-related genes show stronger expression in somatic cells, whereas about one-third (34%) of the genes show significant higher expression in reproductive cells (gonidia). We fused two pherophorin genes that are expressed by different cell types to yfp, stably expressed them in Volvox and studied the tagged proteins by live-cell imaging. In contrast to earlier biochemical approaches, this genetic approach also allows the in vivo analysis of non-extractable, covalently cross-linked ECM proteins. We demonstrate that the soma-specific pherophorin SSG185 is localized in the outermost ECM structures of the spheroid, the boundary zone and at the flagellar hillocks. SSG185:YFP is detectable as early as 1.5 h after completion of embryogenesis. It is then present for the rest of the life cycle. The gonidia-specific pherophorin PhG is localized in the gonidial cellular zone 1 ("gonidial vesicle") suggesting its involvement in the protection of gonidia and developing embryos until hatching. Even if somatic cells produce the main portion of the ECM of the spheroids, ECM components produced by gonidia are also required to cooperatively assemble the total ECM. Our results provide insights into the evolution of the pherophorin protein family and convey a more detailed picture of Volvox ECM synthesis.

RevDate: 2023-01-04
CmpDate: 2023-01-05

Chuai M, Serrano Nájera G, Serra M, et al (2023)

Reconstruction of distinct vertebrate gastrulation modes via modulation of key cell behaviors in the chick embryo.

Science advances, 9(1):eabn5429.

The morphology of gastrulation driving the internalization of the mesoderm and endoderm differs markedly among vertebrate species. It ranges from involution of epithelial sheets of cells through a circular blastopore in amphibians to ingression of mesenchymal cells through a primitive streak in amniotes. By targeting signaling pathways controlling critical cell behaviors in the chick embryo, we generated crescent- and ring-shaped mesendoderm territories in which cells can or cannot ingress. These alterations subvert the formation of the chick primitive streak into the gastrulation modes seen in amphibians, reptiles, and teleost fish. Our experimental manipulations are supported by a theoretical framework linking cellular behaviors to self-organized multicellular flows outlined in detail in the accompanying paper. Together, this suggests that the evolution of gastrulation movements is largely determined by changes in a few critical cell behaviors in the mesendoderm territory across different species and controlled by a relatively small number of signaling pathways.

RevDate: 2023-01-04

Dang CC, LS Vinh (2023)

Estimating amino acid substitution models for metazoan evolutionary studies.

Journal of evolutionary biology [Epub ahead of print].

Amino acid substitution models represent the substitution rates among amino acids during the evolution of protein sequences. The models are a prerequisite for maximum likelihood or Bayesian methods to analyse the phylogenetic relationships among species based on their protein sequences. Estimating amino acid substitution models requires large protein datasets and intensive computation. In this paper, we presented the estimation of both time-reversible model (Q.met) and time non-reversible model (NQ.met) for multicellular animals (Metazoa). Analyses showed that the Q.met and NQ.met models were significantly better than existing models in analysing metazoan protein sequences. Moreover, the time non-reversible model NQ.met enables us to reconstruct the rooted phylogenetic tree for Metazoa. We recommend researchers to employ the Q.met and NQ.met models in analysing metazoan protein sequences.

RevDate: 2023-01-01

Palmiero M, Cantarosso I, di Blasio L, et al (2023)

Collective directional migration drives the formation of heteroclonal cancer cell clusters.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Metastasisation occurs through the acquisition of invasive and survival capabilities that allow tumour cells to colonise distant sites. While the role of multicellular aggregates in cancer dissemination is acknowledged, the mechanisms that drive the formation of multi-clonal cell aggregates are not fully elucidated. Here we show that cancer cells of different tissue of origins can perform collective directional migration and can actively form heteroclonal aggregates in 3D, through a proliferation-independent mechanism. Coalescence of distant cell clusters is mediated by subcellular actin-rich protrusions and multicellular outgrowths that extend towards neighbouring aggregates. Coherently, perturbation of cytoskeletal dynamics impairs collective migration while myosin II activation is necessary for multicellular movements. We put forward the hypothesis that cluster attraction is mediated by secreted soluble factors. Such a hypothesis is consistent with the abrogation of aggregation by inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK, the chemoattracting activity of conditioned culture media and with a wide screening on secreted proteins. Our results present a novel collective migration model and shed light on the mechanisms of formation of heteroclonal aggregates in cancer.

RevDate: 2023-01-03
CmpDate: 2023-01-03

Lynch M, Trickovic B, CP Kempes (2022)

Evolutionary scaling of maximum growth rate with organism size.

Scientific reports, 12(1):22586.

Data from nearly 1000 species reveal the upper bound to rates of biomass production achievable by natural selection across the Tree of Life. For heterotrophs, maximum growth rates scale positively with organism size in bacteria but negatively in eukaryotes, whereas for phototrophs, the scaling is negligible for cyanobacteria and weakly negative for eukaryotes. These results have significant implications for understanding the bioenergetic consequences of the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and of the expansion of some groups of the latter into multicellularity. The magnitudes of the scaling coefficients for eukaryotes are significantly lower than expected under any proposed physical-constraint model. Supported by genomic, bioenergetic, and population-genetic data and theory, an alternative hypothesis for the observed negative scaling in eukaryotes postulates that growth-diminishing mutations with small effects passively accumulate with increasing organism size as a consequence of associated increases in the power of random genetic drift. In contrast, conditional on the structural and functional features of ribosomes, natural selection has been able to promote bacteria with the fastest possible growth rates, implying minimal conflicts with both bioenergetic constraints and random genetic drift. If this extension of the drift-barrier hypothesis is correct, the interpretations of comparative studies of biological traits that have traditionally ignored differences in population-genetic environments will require revisiting.

RevDate: 2022-12-26
CmpDate: 2022-12-26

Kozlov AP (2022)

The Theory of Carcino-Evo-Devo and Its Non-Trivial Predictions.

Genes, 13(12):.

To explain the sources of additional cell masses in the evolution of multicellular organisms, the theory of carcino-evo-devo, or evolution by tumor neofunctionalization, has been developed. The important demand for a new theory in experimental science is the capability to formulate non-trivial predictions which can be experimentally confirmed. Several non-trivial predictions were formulated using carcino-evo-devo theory, four of which are discussed in the present paper: (1) The number of cellular oncogenes should correspond to the number of cell types in the organism. The evolution of oncogenes, tumor suppressor and differentiation gene classes should proceed concurrently. (2) Evolutionarily new and evolving genes should be specifically expressed in tumors (TSEEN genes). (3) Human orthologs of fish TSEEN genes should acquire progressive functions connected with new cell types, tissues and organs. (4) Selection of tumors for new functions in the organism is possible. Evolutionarily novel organs should recapitulate tumor features in their development. As shown in this paper, these predictions have been confirmed by the laboratory of the author. Thus, we have shown that carcino-evo-devo theory has predictive power, fulfilling a fundamental requirement for a new theory.

RevDate: 2022-12-30
CmpDate: 2022-12-27

Bowman JL (2022)

The origin of a land flora.

Nature plants, 8(12):1352-1369.

The origin of a land flora fundamentally shifted the course of evolution of life on earth, facilitating terrestrialization of other eukaryotic lineages and altering the planet's geology, from changing atmospheric and hydrological cycles to transforming continental erosion processes. Despite algal lineages inhabiting the terrestrial environment for a considerable preceding period, they failed to evolve complex multicellularity necessary to conquer the land. About 470 million years ago, one lineage of charophycean alga evolved complex multicellularity via developmental innovations in both haploid and diploid generations and became land plants (embryophytes), which rapidly diversified to dominate most terrestrial habitats. Genome sequences have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic and genomic bases for embryophyte origins, with some embryophyte-specific genes being associated with the evolution of key developmental or physiological attributes, such as meristems, rhizoids and the ability to form mycorrhizal associations. However, based on the fossil record, the evolution of the defining feature of embryophytes, the embryo, and consequently the sporangium that provided a reproductive advantage, may have been most critical in their rise to dominance. The long timeframe and singularity of a land flora were perhaps due to the stepwise assembly of a large constellation of genetic innovations required to conquer the terrestrial environment.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Baselga-Cervera B, Gettle N, M Travisano (2022)

Loss-of-heterozygosity facilitates a fitness valley crossing in experimentally evolved multicellular yeast.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1976):20212722.

Determining how adaptive possibilities do or do not become evolutionary realities is central to understanding the tempo and mode of evolutionary change. Some of the simplest evolutionary landscapes arise from underdominance at a single locus where the fitness valley consists of only one less-fit genotype. Despite their potential for rapid evolutionary change, few such examples have been investigated. We capitalized on an experimental system in which a significant evolutionary shift, the transition from uni-to-multicellularity, was observed in asexual diploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae experimentally selected for increased settling rates. The multicellular phenotype results from recessive single-locus mutations that undergo loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events. By reconstructing the necessary heterozygous intermediate steps, we found that the evolution of multicellularity involves a decrease in size during the first steps. Heterozygous genotypes are 20% smaller in size than genotypes with functional alleles. Nevertheless, populations of heterozygotes give rise to multicellular genotypes more readily than unicellular genotypes with two functional alleles, by rapid LOH events. LOH drives adaptation that may enable rapid evolution in diploid yeast. Together these results show discordance between the phenotypic and genotypic multicellular transition. The evolutionary path to multicellularity, and the adaptive benefits of increased size, requires initial size reductions.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Liu J, Zhang W, He K, et al (2022)

Survival of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense exposed to Earth's lower near space.

Science bulletin, 67(13):1335-1339.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Martinez P, Ustyantsev K, Biryukov M, et al (2022)

Genome assembly of the acoel flatworm Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model for research on body plan evolution and photosymbiosis.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6948452 [Epub ahead of print].

Symsagittifera roscoffensis is a well-known member of the order Acoela that lives in symbiosis with the algae Tetraselmis convolutae during its adult stage. Its natural habitat is the eastern coast of the Atlantic, where at specific locations thousands of individuals can be found, mostly, lying in large pools on the surface of sand at low tide. As a member of the Acoela it has been thought as a proxy for ancestral bilaterian animals; however, its phylogenetic position remains still debated. In order to understand the basic structural characteristics of the acoel genome, we sequenced and assembled the genome of aposymbiotic species S. roscoffensis. The size of this genome was measured to be in range 910 - 940 Mb. Sequencing of the genome was performed using PacBio Hi-Fi technology. Hi-C and RNA-seq data were also generated to scaffold and annotate it. The resulting assembly is 1.1 Gb large (covering 118% of the estimated genome size) and highly continuous, with N50 scaffold size of 1.04 Mb. The repetitive fraction of the genome is 61%, of which 85% (half of the genome) are LTR retrotransposons. Genome-guided transcriptome assembly identified 34,493 genes, of which 29,351 are protein coding (BUSCO score 97.6%), and 30.2% of genes are spliced leader (SL) trans-spliced. The completeness of this genome suggests that it can be used extensively to characterize gene families and conduct accurate phylogenomic reconstructions.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Bonardd S, Nandi M, Hernández García JI, et al (2022)

Self-Healing Polymeric Soft Actuators.

Chemical reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Natural evolution has provided multicellular organisms with sophisticated functionalities and repair mechanisms for surviving and preserve their functions after an injury and/or infection. In this context, biological systems have inspired material scientists over decades to design and fabricate both self-healing polymeric materials and soft actuators with remarkable performance. The latter are capable of modifying their shape in response to environmental changes, such as temperature, pH, light, electrical/magnetic field, chemical additives, etc. In this review, we focus on the fusion of both types of materials, affording new systems with the potential to revolutionize almost every aspect of our modern life, from healthcare to environmental remediation and energy. The integration of stimuli-triggered self-healing properties into polymeric soft actuators endow environmental friendliness, cost-saving, enhanced safety, and lifespan of functional materials. We discuss the details of the most remarkable examples of self-healing soft actuators that display a macroscopic movement under specific stimuli. The discussion includes key experimental data, potential limitations, and mechanistic insights. Finally, we include a general table providing at first glance information about the nature of the external stimuli, conditions for self-healing and actuation, key information about the driving forces behind both phenomena, and the most important features of the achieved movement.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

La Fortezza M, GJ Velicer (2022)

Correction to: 'Social selection within aggregative multicellular development drives morphological evolution' (2021) by La Fortezza and Velicer.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1989):20222290.

RevDate: 2022-12-20

Rangarajan ES, Smith EW, T Izard (2022)

The nematode HMP1/α-catenin has an extended α-helix when bound to actin filaments.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(22)01260-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The regulation of cell-cell junctions during epidermal morphogenesis ensures tissue integrity, a process regulated by α-catenin. This cytoskeletal protein connects the cadherin complex to filamentous actin at cell-cell junctions. The cadherin-catenin complex plays key roles in cell physiology, organism development, and disease. While mutagenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans cadherin and catenin shows that these proteins are key for embryonic morphogenesis, we know surprisingly little about their structure and attachment to the cytoskeleton. In contrast to mammalian α-catenin that functions as a dimer or monomer, the nematode α-catenin ortholog HMP1 is a monomer. Here we report the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of HMP1/α-catenin. Notably, the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of HMP1/α-catenin are disordered and not in contact with the remaining HMP1/α-catenin middle domain. Since the carboxy-terminal HMP1/α-catenin domain is the F-actin binding domain (FABD), this interdomain interaction suggests that HMP1/α-catenin is constitutively active, which we confirm by actin co-sedimentation assays. Our cryoEM structure of HMP1/α-catenin bound to F-actin reveals what is perhaps our most surprising finding. Unlike the mammalian structure of α-catenin bound to F-actin structure, binding to F-actin seems to allosterically convert a loop region of the HMP1/α-catenin FABD to extend an HMP1/α-catenin FABD α-helix. This longer α-helix increases the buried surface area compared to the mammalian α-catenin and might stabilize the FABD helical bundle. Additionally, we use cryoEM and bundling assays to show for the first time how the FABD of HMP1/α-catenin bundles actin in the absence of force. Collectively, our data provide further insights into α-catenin regulation of cell-cell contacts and additionally aid our understanding of the evolution of multicellularity in metazoans.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Nery MF, Rennó M, Picorelli A, et al (2022)

A phylogenetic review of cancer resistance highlights evolutionary solutions to Peto's Paradox.

Genetics and molecular biology, 45(3 Suppl 1):e20220133.

Cancer is a genetic disease present in all complex multicellular lineages. Finding ways to eliminate it is a goal of a large part of the scientific community and nature itself. Early, scientists realized that the cancer incidence at the species level was not related to the number of cells or lifespan, a phenomenon called Peto's Paradox. The interest in resolving this paradox triggered a growing interest in investigating the natural strategies for cancer suppression hidden in the animal's genomes. Here, we gathered information on the main mechanisms that confer resistance to cancer, currently described for lineages that have representatives with extended longevity and large body sizes. Some mechanisms to reduce or evade cancer are common and shared between lineages, while others are species-specific. The diversity of paths that evolution followed to face the cancer challenge involving coding, regulatory, and structural aspects of genomes is astonishing and much yet lacks discovery. Multidisciplinary studies involving oncology, ecology, and evolutionary biology and focusing on nonmodel species can greatly expand the frontiers of knowledge about cancer resistance in animals and may guide new promising treatments and prevention that might apply to humans.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Nguyen NM, Merle T, Broders-Bondon F, et al (2022)

Mechano-biochemical marine stimulation of inversion, gastrulation, and endomesoderm specification in multicellular Eukaryota.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:992371.

The evolutionary emergence of the primitive gut in Metazoa is one of the decisive events that conditioned the major evolutionary transition, leading to the origin of animal development. It is thought to have been induced by the specification of the endomesoderm (EM) into the multicellular tissue and its invagination (i.e., gastrulation). However, the biochemical signals underlying the evolutionary emergence of EM specification and gastrulation remain unknown. Herein, we find that hydrodynamic mechanical strains, reminiscent of soft marine flow, trigger active tissue invagination/gastrulation or curvature reversal via a Myo-II-dependent mechanotransductive process in both the metazoan Nematostella vectensis (cnidaria) and the multicellular choanoflagellate Choanoeca flexa. In the latter, our data suggest that the curvature reversal is associated with a sensory-behavioral feeding response. Additionally, like in bilaterian animals, gastrulation in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is shown to participate in the biochemical specification of the EM through mechanical activation of the β-catenin pathway via the phosphorylation of Y654-βcatenin. Choanoflagellates are considered the closest living relative to metazoans, and the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans dates back at least 700 million years. Therefore, the present findings using these evolutionarily distant species suggest that the primitive emergence of the gut in Metazoa may have been initiated in response to marine mechanical stress already in multicellular pre-Metazoa. Then, the evolutionary transition may have been achieved by specifying the EM via a mechanosensitive Y654-βcatenin dependent mechanism, which appeared during early Metazoa evolution and is specifically conserved in all animals.

RevDate: 2022-12-20
CmpDate: 2022-12-20

Liau P, Kim C, Saxton MA, et al (2022)

Microbial succession in a marine sediment: Inferring interspecific microbial interactions with marine cable bacteria.

Environmental microbiology, 24(12):6348-6364.

Cable bacteria are long, filamentous, multicellular bacteria that grow in marine sediments and couple sulfide oxidation to oxygen reduction over centimetre-scale distances via long-distance electron transport. Cable bacteria can strongly modify biogeochemical cycling and may affect microbial community networks. Here we examine interspecific interactions with marine cable bacteria (Ca. Electrothrix) by monitoring the succession of 16S rRNA amplicons (DNA and RNA) and cell abundance across depth and time, contrasting sediments with and without cable bacteria growth. In the oxic zone, cable bacteria activity was positively associated with abundant predatory bacteria (Bdellovibrionota, Myxococcota, Bradymonadales), indicating putative predation on cathodic cells. At suboxic depths, cable bacteria activity was positively associated with sulfate-reducing and magnetotactic bacteria, consistent with cable bacteria functioning as ecosystem engineers that modify their local biogeochemical environment, benefitting certain microbes. Cable bacteria activity was negatively associated with chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria (Thiogranum, Sedimenticola) at oxic depths, suggesting competition, and positively correlated with these taxa at suboxic depths, suggesting syntrophy and/or facilitation. These observations are consistent with chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers benefitting from an oxidizing potential imparted by cable bacteria at suboxic depths, possibly by using cable bacteria as acceptors for electrons or electron equivalents, but by an as yet enigmatic mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-12-19

Fisher LAB, F Schöck (2022)

The unexpected versatility of ALP/Enigma family proteins.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:963608.

One of the most intriguing features of multicellular animals is their ability to move. On a cellular level, this is accomplished by the rearrangement and reorganization of the cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of filamentous proteins which provides stability and structure in a stationary context, but also facilitates directed movement by contracting. The ALP/Enigma family proteins are a diverse group of docking proteins found in numerous cellular milieus and facilitate these processes among others. In vertebrates, they are characterized by having a PDZ domain in combination with one or three LIM domains. The family is comprised of CLP-36 (PDLIM1), Mystique (PDLIM2), ALP (PDLIM3), RIL (PDLIM4), ENH (PDLIM5), ZASP (PDLIM6), and Enigma (PDLIM7). In this review, we will outline the evolution and function of their protein domains which confers their versatility. Additionally, we highlight their role in different cellular environments, focusing specifically on recent advances in muscle research using Drosophila as a model organism. Finally, we show the relevance of this protein family to human myopathies and the development of muscle-related diseases.

RevDate: 2022-12-18

Liu Y, Cao M, Yan X, et al (2022)

Genome-wide identification of gap junction (connexins and pannexins) genes in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii): Evolution and immune response mechanism following challenge.

Fish & shellfish immunology pii:S1050-4648(22)00832-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Cell-to-cell communication through gap junction channels is very important to coordinate the functions of cells in all multicellular biological tissues. It allows the direct exchange of ions and small molecules (including second messengers, such as Ca[2+], IP3, cyclic nucleotides, and oligonucleotides). In this study, a total of 48 members of the gap junction (GJ) protein family were identified from Sebastes schlegelii. In S. schlegelii, GJ proteins were classified into two types, connexin, and pannexin, and then connexins were divided into five subfamilies. The naming of 48 genes was verified through phylogenetic analysis and syntenic analysis. The connexin proteins contained four transmembrane fragments and two extracellular loops, the lengths of the intracellular loop and C-terminal was quite different, and the C-terminal region was highly variable after post-translational modification. PPI analysis showed that GJs interacted with tight junctions, adhesive junctions, and cell adhesions to form a complex network and participated in cell-cell junction organization, ATP binding, ion channel, voltage-gated conduction, wnt signaling pathway, Fc-γ receptor signaling pathway, and DNA replication. In addition, the S. schlegelii GJ protein was highly expressed in intestinal tissues and remarkably regulated after Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae infection. The expression of GJs in intestinal cells of S. schlegelii was significantly regulated by LPS and poly (I:C), which was consistent with the results of intestinal tissue stimulation by pathogens. In conclusion, this study can provide valuable information for further research on the function of S. schlegelii GJ proteins.

RevDate: 2022-12-16

Barbosa FAS, Brait LAS, Coutinho FH, et al (2022)

Ecological landscape explains aquifers microbial structure.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07925-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquifers have significant social, economic, and ecological importance. They supply 30 % of the freshwater for human consumption worldwide, including agricultural and industrial use. Despite aquifers' importance, the relationships between aquifer categories and their inhabiting microbial communities are still unknown. Characterizing variations within microbial communities' function and taxonomy structure at different aquifers could give a panoramic view of patterns that may enable the detection and prediction of environmental impact caused by multiple sources. Using publicly available shotgun metagenomic datasets, we examined whether soil properties, land use, and climate variables would have a more significant influence on the taxonomy and functional structure of the microbial communities than the ecological landscapes of the aquifer (i.e., Karst, Porous, Saline, Geyser, and Porous Contaminated). We found that these categories are stronger predictors of microbial communities' structure than geographical localization. In addition, our results show that microbial richness and dominance patterns are the opposite of those found in multicellular life, where extreme habitats harbour richer functional and taxonomic microbial communities. We found that low-abundant and recently described candidate taxa, such as the chemolithoautotrophic genus Candidatus Altiarcheum and the Candidate phylum Parcubacteria, are the main contributors to aquifer microbial communities' dissimilarities. Genes related to gram-negative bacteria proteins, cell wall structures, and phage activity were the primary contributors to aquifer microbial communities' dissimilarities among the aquifers' ecological landscapes. The results reported in the present study highlight the utility of using ecological landscapes for investigating aquifer microbial communities. In addition, we suggest that functions played by recently described and low abundant bacterial groups need further investigation once they might affect water quality, geochemical cycles, and the effects of anthropogenic disturbances such as pollution and climatic events on aquifers.

RevDate: 2022-12-16

Hogg DW, Reid AL, Dodsworth TL, et al (2022)

Skeletal muscle metabolism and contraction performance regulation by teneurin C-terminal-associated peptide-1.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:1031264.

Skeletal muscle regulation is responsible for voluntary muscular movement in vertebrates. The genes of two essential proteins, teneurins and latrophilins (LPHN), evolving in ancestors of multicellular animals form a ligand-receptor pair, and are now shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Teneurins possess a bioactive peptide, termed the teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) that interacts with the LPHNs to regulate skeletal muscle contractility strength and fatigue by an insulin-independent glucose importation mechanism in rats. CRISPR-based knockouts and siRNA-associated knockdowns of LPHN-1 and-3 in the C2C12 mouse skeletal cell line shows that TCAP stimulates an LPHN-dependent cytosolic Ca[2+] signal transduction cascade to increase energy metabolism and enhance skeletal muscle function via increases in type-1 oxidative fiber formation and reduce the fatigue response. Thus, the teneurin/TCAP-LPHN system is presented as a novel mechanism that regulates the energy requirements and performance of skeletal muscle.

RevDate: 2022-12-15
CmpDate: 2022-12-14

Hao J, Liang Y, Ping J, et al (2022)

Chloroplast gene expression level is negatively correlated with evolutionary rates and selective pressure while positively with codon usage bias in Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):580.

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the key factors determining gene expression level has been of significant interest. Previous studies on the relationship among evolutionary rates, codon usage bias, and expression level mostly focused on either nuclear genes or unicellular/multicellular organisms but few in chloroplast (cp) genes. Ophioglossum vulgatum is a unique fern and has important scientific and medicinal values. In this study, we sequenced its cp genome and transcriptome to estimate the evolutionary rates (dN and dS), selective pressure (dN/dS), gene expression level, codon usage bias, and their correlations.

RESULTS: The correlation coefficients between dN, dS, and dN/dS, and Transcripts Per Million (TPM) average values were -0.278 (P = 0.027 < 0.05), -0.331 (P = 0.008 < 0.05), and -0.311 (P = 0.013 < 0.05), respectively. The codon adaptation index (CAI) and tRNA adaptation index (tAI) were significantly positively correlated with TPM average values (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that when the gene expression level was higher, the evolutionary rates and selective pressure were lower, but the codon usage bias was stronger. We provided evidence from cp gene data which supported the E-R (E stands for gene expression level and R stands for evolutionary rate) anti-correlation.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Wright BA, Kvansakul M, Schierwater B, et al (2022)

Cell polarity signalling at the birth of multicellularity: What can we learn from the first animals.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:1024489.

The innovation of multicellularity has driven the unparalleled evolution of animals (Metazoa). But how is a multicellular organism formed and how is its architecture maintained faithfully? The defining properties and rules required for the establishment of the architecture of multicellular organisms include the development of adhesive cell interactions, orientation of division axis, and the ability to reposition daughter cells over long distances. Central to all these properties is the ability to generate asymmetry (polarity), coordinated by a highly conserved set of proteins known as cell polarity regulators. The cell polarity complexes, Scribble, Par and Crumbs, are considered to be a metazoan innovation with apicobasal polarity and adherens junctions both believed to be present in all animals. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms regulating cell polarity and tissue architecture should provide key insights into the development and regeneration of all animals including humans. Here we review what is currently known about cell polarity and its control in the most basal metazoans, and how these first examples of multicellular life can inform us about the core mechanisms of tissue organisation and repair, and ultimately diseases of tissue organisation, such as cancer.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Alarcón ME, Polo PG, Akyüz SN, et al (2022)

Evolution and ontogeny of bacteriocytes in insects.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:1034066.

The ontogenetic origins of the bacteriocytes, which are cells that harbour bacterial intracellular endosymbionts in multicellular animals, are unknown. During embryonic development, a series of morphological and transcriptional changes determine the fate of distinct cell types. The ontogeny of bacteriocytes is intimately linked with the evolutionary transition of endosymbionts from an extracellular to an intracellular environment, which in turn is linked to the diet of the host insect. Here we review the evolution and development of bacteriocytes in insects. We first classify the endosymbiotic occupants of bacteriocytes, highlighting the complex challenges they pose to the host. Then, we recall the historical account of the discovery of bacteriocytes. We then summarize the molecular interactions between the endosymbiont and the host. In addition, we illustrate the genetic contexts in which the bacteriocytes develop, with examples of the genetic changes in the hosts and endosymbionts, during specific endosymbiotic associations. We finally address the evolutionary origin as well as the putative ontogenetic or developmental source of bacteriocytes in insects.

RevDate: 2022-12-11

Vainshelbaum NM, Giuliani A, Salmina K, et al (2022)

The Transcriptome and Proteome Networks of Malignant Tumours Reveal Atavistic Attractors of Polyploidy-Related Asexual Reproduction.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(23): pii:ijms232314930.

The expression of gametogenesis-related (GG) genes and proteins, as well as whole genome duplications (WGD), are the hallmarks of cancer related to poor prognosis. Currently, it is not clear if these hallmarks are random processes associated only with genome instability or are programmatically linked. Our goal was to elucidate this via a thorough bioinformatics analysis of 1474 GG genes in the context of WGD. We examined their association in protein-protein interaction and coexpression networks, and their phylostratigraphic profiles from publicly available patient tumour data. The results show that GG genes are upregulated in most WGD-enriched somatic cancers at the transcriptome level and reveal robust GG gene expression at the protein level, as well as the ability to associate into correlation networks and enrich the reproductive modules. GG gene phylostratigraphy displayed in WGD+ cancers an attractor of early eukaryotic origin for DNA recombination and meiosis, and one relative to oocyte maturation and embryogenesis from early multicellular organisms. The upregulation of cancer-testis genes emerging with mammalian placentation was also associated with WGD. In general, the results suggest the role of polyploidy for soma-germ transition accessing latent cancer attractors in the human genome network, which appear as pre-formed along the whole Evolution of Life.

RevDate: 2022-12-11

Aktas RG, Karski M, Issac B, et al (2022)

Long-Term Characteristics of Human-Derived Biliary Organoids under a Single Continuous Culture Condition.

Cells, 11(23): pii:cells11233797.

Organoids have been used to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) organization and function of their respective organs. These self-organizing 3D structures offer a distinct advantage over traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture techniques by creating a more physiologically relevant milieu to study complex biological systems. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of establishing organoids from various pediatric liver diseases and characterize the long-term evolution of cholangiocyte organoids (chol-orgs) under a single continuous culture condition. We established chol-orgs from 10 different liver conditions and characterized their multicellular organization into complex epithelial structures through budding, merging, and lumen formation. Immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopy, and single-nucleus RNA (snRNA-seq) sequencing confirmed the cholangiocytic nature of the chol-orgs. There were significant cell population differences in the transcript profiles of two-dimensional and organoid cultures based on snRNA-seq. Our study provides an approach for the generation and long-term maintenance of chol-orgs from various pediatric liver diseases under a single continuous culture condition.

RevDate: 2022-12-09

Sun H, Fang T, Wang T, et al (2022)

Single-cell profiles reveal tumor cell heterogeneity and immunosuppressive microenvironment in Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Journal of translational medicine, 20(1):576.

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare and incurable indolent B-cell malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis and the role of immunosuppressive microenvironment in WM development are still incompletely understood.

METHODS: The multicellular ecosystem in bone marrow (BM) of WM were delineated by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) and investigated the underlying molecular characteristics.

RESULTS: Our data uncovered the heterogeneity of malignant cells in WM, and investigated the kinetic co-evolution of WM and immune cells, which played pivotal roles in disease development and progression. Two novel subpopulations of malignant cells, CD19[+]CD3[+] and CD138[+]CD3[+], co-expressing T-cell marker genes were identified at single-cell resolution. Pseudotime-ordered analysis elucidated that CD19[+]CD3[+] malignant cells presented at an early stage of WM-B cell differentiation. Colony formation assay further identified that CD19[+]CD3[+] malignant cells acted as potential WM precursors. Based on the findings of T cell marker aberrant expressed on WM tumor cells, we speculate the long-time activation of tumor antigen-induced immunosuppressive microenvironment that is involved in the pathogenesis of WM. Therefore, our study further investigated the possible molecular mechanism of immune cell dysfunction. A precursor exhausted CD8-T cells and functional deletion of NK cells were identified in WM, and CD47 would be a potential therapeutic target to reverse the dysfunction of immune cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study facilitates further understanding of the biological heterogeneity of tumor cells and immunosuppressive microenvironment in WM. These data may have implications for the development of novel immunotherapies, such as targeting pre-exhausted CD8-T cells in WM.

RevDate: 2022-12-08

La Fortezza M, Rendueles O, Keller H, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Hidden paths to endless forms most wonderful: ecology latently shapes evolution of multicellular development in predatory bacteria.

Communications biology, 5(1):1342 pii:10.1038/s42003-022-04312-w.

RevDate: 2022-12-08

Nakabachi A, Inoue H, Y Hirose (2022)

High-resolution Microbiome Analyses of Nine Psyllid Species of the Family Triozidae Identified Previously Unrecognized but Major Bacterial Populations, including Liberibacter and Wolbachia of Supergroup O.

Microbes and environments, 37(4):.

Psyllids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea) are plant sap-sucking insects that include important agricultural pests. To obtain insights into the ecological and evolutionary behaviors of microbes, including plant pathogens, in Psylloidea, high-resolution ana-lyses of the microbiomes of nine psyllid species belonging to the family Triozidae were performed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Analyses identified various bacterial populations, showing that all nine psyllids have at least one secondary symbiont, along with the primary symbiont "Candidatus Carsonella ruddii" (Gammaproteobacteria: Oceanospirillales: Halomonadaceae). The majority of the secondary symbionts were gammaproteobacteria, particularly those of the order Enterobacterales, which included Arsenophonus and Serratia symbiotica, a bacterium formerly recognized only as a secondary symbiont of aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea). The non-Enterobacterales gammaproteobacteria identified in the present study were Diplorickettsia (Diplorickettsiales: Diplorickettsiaceae), a potential human pathogen, and Carnimonas (Oceanospirillales: Halomonadaceae), a lineage detected for the first time in Psylloidea. Regarding alphaproteobacteria, the potential plant pathogen "Ca. Liberibacter europaeus" (Rhizobiales: Rhizobiaceae) was detected for the first time in Epitrioza yasumatsui, which feeds on the Japanese silverberry Elaeagnus umbellata (Elaeagnaceae), an aggressive invasive plant in the United States and Europe. Besides the detection of Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) of supergroup B in three psyllid species, a lineage belonging to supergroup O was identified for the first time in Psylloidea. These results suggest the rampant transfer of bacterial symbionts among animals and plants, thereby providing deeper insights into the evolution of interkingdom interactions among multicellular organisms and bacteria, which will facilitate the control of pest psyllids.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Zhang DQ, Chen PC, Li ZY, et al (2022)

Topological defect-mediated morphodynamics of active-active interfaces.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(50):e2122494119.

Physical interfaces widely exist in nature and engineering. Although the formation of passive interfaces is well elucidated, the physical principles governing active interfaces remain largely unknown. Here, we combine simulation, theory, and cell-based experiment to investigate the evolution of an active-active interface. We adopt a biphasic framework of active nematic liquid crystals. We find that long-lived topological defects mechanically energized by activity display unanticipated dynamics nearby the interface, where defects perform "U-turns" to keep away from the interface, push the interface to develop local fingers, or penetrate the interface to enter the opposite phase, driving interfacial morphogenesis and cross-interface defect transport. We identify that the emergent interfacial morphodynamics stems from the instability of the interface and is further driven by the activity-dependent defect-interface interactions. Experiments of interacting multicellular monolayers with extensile and contractile differences in cell activity have confirmed our predictions. These findings reveal a crucial role of topological defects in active-active interfaces during, for example, boundary formation and tissue competition that underlie organogenesis and clinically relevant disorders.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Colizzi ES, Hogeweg P, RMA Vroomans (2022)

Modelling the evolution of novelty: a review.

Essays in biochemistry pii:232198 [Epub ahead of print].

Evolution has been an inventive process since its inception, about 4 billion years ago. It has generated an astounding diversity of novel mechanisms and structures for adaptation to the environment, for competition and cooperation, and for organisation of the internal and external dynamics of the organism. How does this novelty come about? Evolution builds with the tools available, and on top of what it has already built - therefore, much novelty consists in repurposing old functions in a different context. In the process, the tools themselves evolve, allowing yet more novelty to arise. Despite evolutionary novelty being the most striking observable of evolution, it is not accounted for in classical evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, mathematical and computational models that illustrate mechanisms of evolutionary innovation have been developed. In the present review, we present and compare several examples of computational evo-devo models that capture two aspects of novelty: 'between-level novelty' and 'constructive novelty.' Novelty can evolve between predefined levels of organisation to dynamically transcode biological information across these levels - as occurs during development. Constructive novelty instead generates a level of biological organisation by exploiting the lower level as an informational scaffold to open a new space of possibilities - an example being the evolution of multicellularity. We propose that the field of computational evo-devo is well-poised to reveal many more exciting mechanisms for the evolution of novelty. A broader theory of evolutionary novelty may well be attainable in the near future.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Niculescu VF (2022)

A comment on the article Jaques et al. "Origin and evolution of animal multicellularity in light of phylogenomics and cancer genetics ".

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 40(1):38.

For developmental biologists, the work of Jaques et al. is quite surprising. It suggests that cancer genetics and cancer phylogenomics may contribute to the origin and evolution of multicellularity in animals. My commentary complements the work of Jaques et al. from the perspective of evolutionary life cycle biology and recalls the statement of Douglas H. Erwin, who said that understanding life cycle evolution is (equally) crucial to subsequent steps [1].

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Baker EA, A Woollard (2022)

The road less travelled? Exploring the nuanced evolutionary consequences of duplicated genes.

Essays in biochemistry pii:232174 [Epub ahead of print].

Duplicated genes have long been appreciated as both substrates and catalysts of evolutionary processes. From even the simplest cell to complex multicellular animals and plants, duplicated genes have made immeasurable contributions to the phenotypic evolution of all life on Earth. Not merely drivers of morphological innovation and speciation events, however, gene duplications sculpt the evolution of genetic architecture in ways we are only just coming to understand now we have the experimental tools to do so. As such, the present article revisits our understanding of the ways in which duplicated genes evolve, examining closely the various fates they can adopt in light of recent work that yields insights from studies of paralogues from across the tree of life that challenge the classical framework.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Liu Y, Ma Y, Aray H, et al (2022)

Morphogenesis and cell wall composition of trichomes and their function in response to salt in halophyte Salsola ferganica.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):551.

BACKGROUND: To survive harsh environmental conditions, desert plants show various adaptions, such as the evolution of trichomes, which are protective epidermal protrusions. Currently, the morphogenesis and function of trichomes in desert plants are not well understood. Salsola ferganica is an annual halophyte distributed in cold deserts; at the seedling stage, its rod-shaped true leaves are covered with long and thick trichomes and are affected by habitat conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the trichomes on morphogenesis and cell wall composition of S. ferganica compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and cotton, related gene expression, and preliminary function in salt accumulation of the leaves.

RESULTS: The trichomes of S. ferganica were initiated from the epidermal primordium, followed by two to three rounds of cell division to form a multicellular trichome, while some genes associated with them were positively involved. Cell wall composition analysis showed that different polysaccharides including heavily methyl-esterified and fully de-esterified pectins (before maturation, probably in the primary wall), xyloglucans (in the mid-early and middle stages, probably in the secondary wall), and extensin (during the whole developmental period) were detected, which were different from those found in trichomes of Arabidopsis and cotton. Moreover, trichome development was affected by abiotic stress, and might accumulate salt from the mesophyll cells and secrete outside.

CONCLUSIONS: S. ferganica has multicellular, non-branched trichomes that undergo two to three rounds of cell division and are affected by abiotic stress. They have a unique cell wall composition which is different from that of Arabidopsis and cotton. Furthermore, several genes positively or negatively regulate trichome development. Our findings should contribute to our further understanding of the biogenesis and adaptation of plant accessory structures in desert plant species.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Zhan A, Luo Y, Qin H, et al (2022)

Hypomagnetic Field Exposure Affecting Gut Microbiota, Reactive Oxygen Species Levels, and Colonic Cell Proliferation in Mice.

Bioelectromagnetics [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota has been considered one of the key factors in host health, which is influenced by many environmental factors. The geomagnetic field (GMF) represents one of the important environmental conditions for living organisms. Previous studies have shown that the elimination of GMF, the so-called hypomagnetic field (HMF), could affect the physiological functions and resistance to antibiotics of some microorganisms. However, whether long-term HMF exposure could alter the gut microbiota to some extent in mammals remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term (8- and 12-week) HMF exposure on the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice. Our results clearly showed that 8-week HMF significantly affected the diversity and function of the mouse gut microbiota. Compared with the GMF group, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids tended to decrease in the HMF group. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that HMF promoted colonic cell proliferation, concomitant with an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo finding that long-term HMF exposure could affect the mouse gut microbiota, ROS levels, and colonic cell proliferation in the colon. Moreover, the changes in gut microbiota can be restored by returning mice to the GMF environment, thus the possible harm to the microbiota caused by HMF exposure can be alleviated. © 2022 Bioelectromagnetics Society.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Kreider JJ, Janzen T, Bernadou A, et al (2022)

Resource sharing is sufficient for the emergence of division of labour.

Nature communications, 13(1):7232.

Division of labour occurs in a broad range of organisms. Yet, how division of labour can emerge in the absence of pre-existing interindividual differences is poorly understood. Using a simple but realistic model, we show that in a group of initially identical individuals, division of labour emerges spontaneously if returning foragers share part of their resources with other group members. In the absence of resource sharing, individuals follow an activity schedule of alternating between foraging and other tasks. If non-foraging individuals are fed by other individuals, their alternating activity schedule becomes interrupted, leading to task specialisation and the emergence of division of labour. Furthermore, nutritional differences between individuals reinforce division of labour. Such differences can be caused by increased metabolic rates during foraging or by dominance interactions during resource sharing. Our model proposes a plausible mechanism for the self-organised emergence of division of labour in animal groups of initially identical individuals. This mechanism could also play a role for the emergence of division of labour during the major evolutionary transitions to eusociality and multicellularity.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Ojosnegros S, Alvarez JM, Grossmann J, et al (2022)

The Shared Proteome of the Apomictic Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis and Its Sexual Relative Dryopteris oreades.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(22): pii:ijms232214027.

Ferns are a diverse evolutionary lineage, sister to the seed plants, which is of great ecological importance and has a high biotechnological potential. Fern gametophytes represent one of the simplest autotrophic, multicellular plant forms and show several experimental advantages, including a simple and space-efficient in vitro culture system. However, the molecular basis of fern growth and development has hardly been studied. Here, we report on a proteomic study that identified 417 proteins shared by gametophytes of the apogamous fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis and its sexual relative Dryopteris oreades. Most proteins are predicted to localize to the cytoplasm, the chloroplast, or the nucleus, and are linked to enzymatic, binding, and structural activities. A subset of 145 proteins are involved in growth, reproduction, phytohormone signaling and biosynthesis, and gene expression, including homologs of SHEPHERD (SHD), HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90-5 (CR88), TRP4, BOBBER 1 (BOB1), FLAVONE 3'-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (OMT1), ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ABA1), GLUTAMATE DESCARBOXYLASE 1 (GAD), and dsRNA-BINDING DOMAIN-LIKE SUPERFAMILY PROTEIN (HLY1). Nearly 25% of the annotated proteins are associated with responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As for biotic stress, the proteins PROTEIN SGT1 HOMOLOG B (SGT1B), SUPPRESSOR OF SA INSENSITIVE2 (SSI2), PHOSPHOLIPASE D ALPHA 1 (PLDALPHA1), SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE SRK2E (OST1), ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 4 (ACP4), and NONHOST RESISTANCE TO P. S. PHASEOLICOLA1 (GLPK) are worth mentioning. Regarding abiotic stimuli, we found proteins associated with oxidative stress: SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE[CU-ZN] 1 (CSD1), and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U19 (GSTU19), light intensity SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (SHM1) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 35 (UBC35), salt and heavy metal stress included MITOCHONDRIAL PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROTEIN 3 (PHT3;1), as well as drought and thermotolerance: LEA7, DEAD-BOX ATP-DEPENDENT RNA HELICASE 38 (LOS4), and abundant heat-shock proteins and other chaperones. In addition, we identified interactomes using the STRING platform, revealing protein-protein associations obtained from co-expression, co-occurrence, text mining, homology, databases, and experimental datasets. By focusing on ferns, this proteomic study increases our knowledge on plant development and evolution, and may inspire future applications in crop species.

RevDate: 2022-12-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Sowa ST, Bosetti C, Galera-Prat A, et al (2022)

An Evolutionary Perspective on the Origin, Conservation and Binding Partner Acquisition of Tankyrases.

Biomolecules, 12(11):.

Tankyrases are poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases that regulate many crucial and diverse cellular processes in humans such as Wnt signaling, telomere homeostasis, mitotic spindle formation and glucose metabolism. While tankyrases are present in most animals, functional differences across species may exist. In this work, we confirm the widespread distribution of tankyrases throughout the branches of multicellular animal life and identify the single-celled choanoflagellates as earliest origin of tankyrases. We further show that the sequences and structural aspects of TNKSs are well-conserved even between distantly related species. We also experimentally characterized an anciently diverged tankyrase homolog from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and show that the basic functional aspects, such as poly-ADP-ribosylation activity and interaction with the canonical tankyrase binding peptide motif, are conserved. Conversely, the presence of tankyrase binding motifs in orthologs of confirmed interaction partners varies greatly between species, indicating that tankyrases may have different sets of interaction partners depending on the animal lineage. Overall, our analysis suggests a remarkable degree of conservation for tankyrases, and that their regulatory functions in cells have likely changed considerably throughout evolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Pandey R, Mani D, Shanker K, et al (2022)

Towards the development of phytoextract based healthy ageing cognitive booster formulation, explored through Caenorhabditis elegans model.

The Nucleus : an international journal of cytology and allied topics, 65(3):303-320.

UNLABELLED: The positive effect of herbal supplements on aging and age-related disorders has led to the evolution of natural curatives for remedial neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The advancement in aging is exceedingly linked to oxidative stress. Enhanced oxidative stress interrupts health of humans in various ways, necessitating to find stress alleviating herbal resources. Currently, minimal scientifically validated health and cognitive booster resources are available. Therefore, we explored the impact of plant extracts in different combinations on oxidative stress, life span and cognition using the multicellular transgenic humanized C. elegans, and further validated the same in Mus musculus, besides testing their safety and toxicity. In our investigations, the final product-the HACBF (healthy ageing cognitive booster formulation) thus developed was found to reduce major aging biomarkers like lipofuscin, protein carbonyl, lipid levels and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes. Further confirmation was done using transgenic worms and RT-PCR. The cognitive boosting activities analyzed in C. elegans and M. musculus model system were found to be at par with donepezil and L-dopa, the two drugs which are commonly used to treat Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In the transgenic C. elegans model system, the HACBF exhibited reduced aggregation of misfolded disease proteins α-synuclein and increased the health of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, levels of Acetylcholine and Dopamine contents respectively, the major neurotransmitters responsible for memory, language, learning behavior and movement. Molecular studies clearly indicate that HACBF upregulated major genes responsible for healthy aging and cognitive booster activities in C. elegans and as well as in M. musculus. As such, the present herbal product thus developed may be quite useful for healthy aging and cognitive boosting activities, and more so during this covid-19 pandemic.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13237-022-00407-1.

RevDate: 2022-11-20

Sepp T, M Giraudeau (2022)

Wild animals as an underused treasure trove for studying the genetics of cancer.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent years have seen an emergence of the field of comparative cancer genomics. However, the advancements in this field are held back by the hesitation to use knowledge obtained from human studies to study cancer in other animals, and vice versa. Since cancer is an ancient disease that arose with multicellularity, oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes are amongst the oldest gene classes, shared by most animal species. Acknowledging that other animals are, in terms of cancer genetics, ecology, and evolution, rather similar to humans, creates huge potential for advancing the fields of human and animal oncology, but also biodiversity conservation.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Rodríguez-Rojas A, J Rolff (2022)

Antimicrobial activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides against stationary phase bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1029084.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient antimicrobial weapons used by multicellular organisms as components of their innate immune defenses. Because of the antibiotic crisis, AMPs have also become candidates for developing new drugs. Here, we show that five different AMPs of different classes are effective against non-dividing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. By comparison, three conventional antibiotics from the main three classes of antibiotics poorly kill non-dividing bacteria at clinically relevant doses. The killing of fast-growing bacteria by AMPs is faster than that of slow-dividing bacteria and, in some cases, without any difference. Still, non-dividing bacteria are effectively killed over time. Our results point to a general property of AMPs, which might explain why selection has favored AMPs in the evolution of metazoan immune systems. The ability to kill non-dividing cells is another reason that makes AMPs exciting candidates for drug development.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Pinskey JM, Lagisetty A, Gui L, et al (2022)

Three-dimensional flagella structures from animals' closest unicellular relatives, the Choanoflagellates.

eLife, 11:.

In most eukaryotic organisms, cilia and flagella perform a variety of life-sustaining roles related to environmental sensing and motility. Cryo-electron microscopy has provided considerable insight into the morphology and function of flagellar structures, but studies have been limited to less than a dozen of the millions of known eukaryotic species. Ultrastructural information is particularly lacking for unicellular organisms in the Opisthokonta clade, leaving a sizeable gap in our understanding of flagella evolution between unicellular species and multicellular metazoans (animals). Choanoflagellates are important aquatic heterotrophs, uniquely positioned within the opisthokonts as the metazoans' closest living unicellular relatives. We performed cryo-focused ion beam milling and cryo-electron tomography on flagella from the choanoflagellate species Salpingoeca rosetta. We show that the axonemal dyneins, radial spokes, and central pair complex in S. rosetta more closely resemble metazoan structures than those of unicellular organisms from other suprakingdoms. In addition, we describe unique features of S. rosetta flagella, including microtubule holes, microtubule inner proteins, and the flagellar vane: a fine, net-like extension that has been notoriously difficult to visualize using other methods. Furthermore, we report barb-like structures of unknown function on the extracellular surface of the flagellar membrane. Together, our findings provide new insights into choanoflagellate biology and flagella evolution between unicellular and multicellular opisthokonts.

RevDate: 2022-11-20
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Huang J, Zhao L, Malik S, et al (2022)

Specification of female germline by microRNA orchestrated auxin signaling in Arabidopsis.

Nature communications, 13(1):6960.

Germline determination is essential for species survival and evolution in multicellular organisms. In most flowering plants, formation of the female germline is initiated with specification of one megaspore mother cell (MMC) in each ovule; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this key event remains unclear. Here we report that spatially restricted auxin signaling promotes MMC fate in Arabidopsis. Our results show that the microRNA160 (miR160) targeted gene ARF17 (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17) is required for promoting MMC specification by genetically interacting with the SPL/NZZ (SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE) gene. Alterations of auxin signaling cause formation of supernumerary MMCs in an ARF17- and SPL/NZZ-dependent manner. Furthermore, miR160 and ARF17 are indispensable for attaining a normal auxin maximum at the ovule apex via modulating the expression domain of PIN1 (PIN-FORMED1) auxin transporter. Our findings elucidate the mechanism by which auxin signaling promotes the acquisition of female germline cell fate in plants.

RevDate: 2022-12-04
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Durbagula S, Korlimarla A, Ravikumar G, et al (2022)

Prenatal epigenetic factors are predisposing for neurodevelopmental disorders-Considering placenta as a model.

Birth defects research, 114(20):1324-1342.

The heterogeneous characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) have resulted in varied perspectives on their causation. The biology behind the phenotypic heterogeneity in NDDs is not yet well-defined, but a strong genetic basis has become well accepted as causal for NDDs. Alongside this, there is growing focus on epigenetic mechanisms. The evidence mounting for in-utero origins of NDDs has promoted research focused on epigenetic mechanisms that impact genes that program early brain development. Considering that placenta is a vital organ, this review emphasizes the prenatal factors and their effects on epigenetic changes influencing the normal functioning of the placenta, and factors mediating pathology in the developing fetus. Overall, it is an attempt to bring focus on the hypothesis that "Prenatal epigenetic factors in the placenta could be predisposing to NDDs (with special interest on autism spectrum disorders)." This review finds growing evidence for epigenetic modifications in the placenta that affect glucocorticoid, nutrient, and immune signaling pathways, eventually impacting fetal brain development. This evidence largely comes from animal models. Given the multicellular nature of placenta, we conclude that, there is a need for placental research focused on employing single-cell approaches and genome-wide methylation profiles to bring insights into specific molecular pathways in the placenta that regulate early brain development.

RevDate: 2022-11-24

Yu L, Stachowicz JJ, DuBois K, et al (2022)

Detecting clonemate pairs in multicellular diploid clonal species based on a shared heterozygosity index.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Clonal reproduction, the formation of nearly identical individuals via mitosis in the absence of genetic recombination, is a very common reproductive mode across plants, fungi and animals. To detect clonal genetic structure, genetic similarity indices based on shared alleles are widely used, such as the Jaccard index, or identity by state. Here we propose a new pairwise genetic similarity index, the SH index, based on segregating genetic marker loci (typically single nucleotide polymorphisms) that are identically heterozygous for pairs of samples (NSH). To test our method, we analyse two old seagrass clones (Posidonia australis, estimated to be around 8500 years old; Zostera marina, >750 years old) along with two young Z. marina clones of known age (17 years old). We show that focusing on shared heterozygosity amplifies the power to distinguish sample pairs belonging to different clones compared to methods focusing on all shared alleles. Our proposed workflow can successfully detect clonemates at a location dominated by a single clone. When the collected samples involve two or more clones, the SH index shows a clear gap between clonemate pairs and interclone sample pairs. Ideally NSH should be on the order of approximately ≥3000, a number easily achievable via restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing or whole-genome resequencing. Another potential application of the SH index is to detect possible parent-descendant pairs under selfing. Our proposed workflow takes advantage of the availability of the larger number of genetic markers in the genomic era, and improves the ability to distinguish clonemates from nonclonemates in multicellular diploid clonal species.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Peterson AF, Ingram K, Huang EJ, et al (2022)

Systematic analysis of the MAPK signaling network reveals MAP3K-driven control of cell fate.

Cell systems, 13(11):885-894.e4.

The classic network of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is highly interconnected and controls a diverse array of biological processes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the MAPKs ERK, JNK, and p38 control opposing cell behaviors but are often activated simultaneously, raising questions about how input-output specificity is achieved. Here, we use multiplexed MAPK activity biosensors to investigate how cell fate control emerges from the connectivity and dynamics of the MAPK network. Through chemical and genetic perturbation, we systematically explore the outputs and functions of all the MAP3 kinases encoded in the human genome and show that MAP3Ks control cell fate by triggering unique combinations of MAPK activity. We show that these MAPK activity combinations explain the paradoxical dual role of JNK signaling as pro-apoptotic or pro-proliferative kinase. Overall, our integrative analysis indicates that the MAPK network operates as a unit to control cell fate and shifts the focus from MAPKs to MAP3Ks to better understand signaling-mediated control of cell fate.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Oda AH, Tamura M, Kaneko K, et al (2022)

Autotoxin-mediated latecomer killing in yeast communities.

PLoS biology, 20(11):e3001844.

Cellular adaptation to stressful environments such as starvation is essential to the survival of microbial communities, but the uniform response of the cell community may lead to entire cell death or severe damage to their fitness. Here, we demonstrate an elaborate response of the yeast community against glucose depletion, in which the first adapted cells kill the latecomer cells. During glucose depletion, yeast cells release autotoxins, such as leucic acid and L-2keto-3methylvalerate, which can even kill the clonal cells of the ones producing them. Although these autotoxins were likely to induce mass suicide, some cells differentiated to adapt to the autotoxins without genetic changes. If nondifferentiated latecomers tried to invade the habitat, autotoxins damaged or killed the latecomers, but the differentiated cells could selectively survive. Phylogenetically distant fission and budding yeast shared this behavior using the same autotoxins, suggesting that latecomer killing may be the universal system of intercellular communication, which may be relevant to the evolutional transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Alvarez FE, Carrillo JA, J Clairambault (2022)

Evolution of a structured cell population endowed with plasticity of traits under constraints on and between the traits.

Journal of mathematical biology, 85(6-7):64.

Confronted with the biological problem of managing plasticity in cell populations, which is in particular responsible for transient and reversible drug resistance in cancer, we propose a rationale consisting of an integro-differential and a reaction-advection-diffusion equation, the properties of which are studied theoretically and numerically. By using a constructive finite volume method, we show the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution and illustrate by numerical approximations and their simulations the capacity of the model to exhibit divergence of traits. This feature may be theoretically interpreted as describing a physiological step towards multicellularity in animal evolution and, closer to present-day clinical challenges in oncology, as a possible representation of bet hedging in cancer cell populations.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Banijamali M, Höjer P, Nagy A, et al (2022)

Characterizing single extracellular vesicles by droplet barcode sequencing for protein analysis.

Journal of extracellular vesicles, 11(11):e12277.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have in recent years evolved as a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutic follow up. sEV samples derived from multicellular organisms exhibit a high heterogeneous repertoire of vesicles which current methods based on ensemble measurements cannot capture. In this work we present droplet barcode sequencing for protein analysis (DBS-Pro) to profile surface proteins on individual sEVs, facilitating identification of sEV-subtypes within and between samples. The method allows for analysis of multiple proteins through use of DNA barcoded affinity reagents and sequencing as readout. High throughput single vesicle profiling is enabled through compartmentalization of individual sEVs in emulsion droplets followed by droplet barcoding through PCR. In this proof-of-concept study we demonstrate that DBS-Pro allows for analysis of single sEVs, with a mixing rate below 2%. A total of over 120,000 individual sEVs obtained from a NSCLC cell line and from malignant pleural effusion (MPE) fluid of NSCLC patients have been analyzed based on their surface proteins. We also show that the method enables single vesicle surface protein profiling and by extension characterization of sEV-subtypes, which is essential to identify the cellular origin of vesicles in heterogenous samples.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Sakai D, Nishikawa J, Kakiuchida H, et al (2022)

Stack of cellular lamellae forms a silvered cortex to conceal the opaque organ in a transparent gastropod in epipelagic habitat.

PeerJ, 10:e14284.

BACKGROUND: Gelatinous zooplankton in epipelagic environments often have highly transparent bodies to avoid detection by their visual predators and prey; however, the digestive systems are often exceptionally opaque even in these organisms. In a holoplanktonic gastropod, Pterotrachea coronata, the visceral nucleus is an opaque organ located at the posterior end of its alimentary system, but this organ has a mirrored surface to conceal its internal opaque tissue.

RESULTS: Our ultrastructural observation proved that the cortex of the visceral nucleus comprised a stack of thin cellular lamellae forming a Bragg reflector, and the thickness of lamellae (0.16 µm in average) and the spaces between the lamellae (0.1 µm in average) tended to become thinner toward inner lamellae. Based on the measured values, we built virtual models of the multilamellar layer comprising 50 lamellae and spaces, and the light reflection on the models was calculated using rigorous coupled wave analysis to evaluate their properties as reflectors. Our simulation supported the idea that the layer is a reflective tissue, and the thickness of the lamella/space must be chirped to reflect sunlight as white/silver light, mostly independent of the angle of incidence.

CONCLUSIONS: In P. coronata, the cortex of the visceral nucleus comprised multicellular lamellae that form a chirped Bragg reflector. It is distinct in structure from the intracellular Bragg structures of common iridophores. This novel Bragg reflector demonstrates the diversity and convergent evolution of reflective tissue using reflectin-like proteins in Mollusca.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Niklas KJ, BH Tiffney (2022)

Viridiplantae Body Plans Viewed Through the Lens of the Fossil Record and Molecular Biology.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6783162 [Epub ahead of print].

A review of the fossil record coupled with insights gained from molecular and developmental biology reveal a series of body plan transformations that gave rise to the first land plants. Across diverse algal clades, including the green algae and their descendants, the plant body plan underwent a unicellul ar $\to$ colonial $\to$ simple multicellular $\to \,\,$complex multicellular transformation series. The colonization of land involved increasing body size and associated cell specialization, including cells capable of hydraulic transport. The evolution of the life-cycle that characterizes all known land plant species involved a divergence in body plan phenotypes between the haploid and diploid generations, one adapted to facilitate sexual reproduction (a free-water dependent gametophyte), and another adapted to the dissemination of spores (a more water-independent sporophyte). The amplification of this phenotypic divergence, combined with indeterminate growth in body size, resulted in a desiccation-adapted branched sporophyte with a cuticularized epidermis, stomates, and vascular tissues. Throughout the evolution of the land plants, the body plans of the sporophyte generation involved "axiation," i.e., the acquisition of a cylindrical geometry and subsequent organographic specializations.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Nicolicht-Amorim P, Delgado-Garcia LM, Nakamura TKE, et al (2022)

Simple and efficient protocol to isolate and culture brain microvascular endothelial cells from newborn mice.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:949412.

The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a multicellular structure comprising of neurons, glial cells, and non-neural cells, and it is supported by a specialized extracellular matrix, the basal lamina. Astrocytes, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, and smooth muscle cells constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BMECs have a mesodermal origin and invade the nervous system early in neural tube development, forming the BBB anatomical core. BMECs are connected by adherent junction complexes composed of integral membrane and cytoplasmic proteins. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that, given the proximity and relationship with neural cells, BMECs acquire a unique gene expression profile, proteome, and specific mechanical and physical properties compared to endothelial cells from the general vasculature. BMECs are fundamental in maintaining brain homeostasis by regulating transcellular and paracellular transport of fluids, molecules, and cells. Therefore, it is essential to gain in-depth knowledge of the dynamic cellular structure of the cells in the NVU and their interactions with health and disease. Here we describe a significantly improved and simplified protocol using C57BL/6 newborn mice at postnatal day 1 (PND1) to isolate, purify, and culture BMECs monolayers in two different substrates (glass coverslips and transwell culture inserts). In vitro characterization and validation of the BMEC primary culture monolayers seeded on glass or insert included light microscopy, immunolabeling, and gene expression profile. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and diffusion test were used as functional assays for adherent junction complexes and integrity and permeability of BMECs monolayers. The protocol presented here for the isolation and culture of BMECs is more straightforward than previously published protocols and yields a high number of purified cells. Finally, we tested BMECs function using the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of hypoxia. This protocol may be suitable as a bioscaffold for secondary cell seeding allowing the study and better understanding of the NVU.

RevDate: 2022-12-02

León-Ruiz JA, A Cruz Ramírez (2022)

Predicted landscape of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED LxCxE-mediated interactions across the Chloroplastida.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

The colonization of land by a single streptophyte algae lineage some 450 million years ago has been linked to multiple key innovations such as three-dimensional growth, alternation of generations, the presence of stomata, as well as innovations inherent to the birth of major plant lineages, such as the origins of vascular tissues, roots, seeds and flowers. Multicellularity, which evolved multiple times in the Chloroplastida coupled with precise spatiotemporal control of proliferation and differentiation were instrumental for the evolution of these traits. RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR), the plant homolog of the metazoan Retinoblastoma protein (pRB), is a highly conserved and multifunctional core cell cycle regulator that has been implicated in the evolution of multicellularity in the green lineage as well as in plant multicellularity-related processes such as proliferation, differentiation, stem cell regulation and asymmetric cell division. RBR fulfills these roles through context-specific protein-protein interactions with proteins containing the Leu-x-Cys-x-Glu (LxCxE) short-linear motif (SLiM); however, how RBR-LxCxE interactions have changed throughout major innovations in the Viridiplantae kingdom is a question that remains unexplored. Here, we employ an in silico evo-devo approach to predict and analyze potential RBR-LxCxE interactions in different representative species of key Chloroplastida lineages, providing a valuable resource for deciphering RBR-LxCxE multiple functions. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that RBR-LxCxE interactions are an important component of RBR functions and that interactions with chromatin modifiers/remodelers, DNA replication and repair machinery are highly conserved throughout the Viridiplantae, while LxCxE interactions with transcriptional regulators likely diversified throughout the water-to-land transition.

RevDate: 2022-10-27
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Keller J, PM Delaux (2022)

Plant phylogenetics: The never-ending cycle of evolutionary gains and losses.

Current biology : CB, 32(20):R1028-R1029.

The Zygnematophyceae is the sister clade to the land plants, but their biology remains mysterious. In a new study, a resolved phylogeny and a scenario for the evolution of multicellularity in that clade are proposed.

RevDate: 2022-10-25
CmpDate: 2022-10-24

Whye D, Wood D, Kim KH, et al (2022)

Dynamic 3D Combinatorial Generation of hPSC-Derived Neuromesodermal Organoids With Diverse Regional and Cellular Identities.

Current protocols, 2(10):e568.

Neuromesodermal progenitors represent a unique, bipotent population of progenitors residing in the tail bud of the developing embryo, which give rise to the caudal spinal cord cell types of neuroectodermal lineage as well as the adjacent paraxial somite cell types of mesodermal origin. With the advent of stem cell technologies, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the modeling of rare genetic disorders can be accomplished in vitro to interrogate cell-type specific pathological mechanisms in human patient conditions. Stem cell-derived models of neuromesodermal progenitors have been accomplished by several developmental biology groups; however, most employ a 2D monolayer format that does not fully reflect the complexity of cellular differentiation in the developing embryo. This article presents a dynamic 3D combinatorial method to generate robust populations of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neuromesodermal organoids with multi-cellular fates and regional identities. By utilizing a dynamic 3D suspension format for the differentiation process, the organoids differentiated by following this protocol display a hallmark of embryonic development that involves a morphological elongation known as axial extension. Furthermore, by employing a combinatorial screening assay, we dissect essential pathways for optimally directing the patterning of pluripotent stem cells into neuromesodermal organoids. This protocol highlights the influence of timing, duration, and concentration of WNT and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways on enhancing early neuromesodermal identity, and later, downstream cell fate specification through combined synergies of retinoid signaling and sonic hedgehog activation. Finally, through robust inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, this protocol accelerates the acquisition of terminal cell identities. This enhanced organoid model can serve as a powerful tool for studying normal developmental processes as well as investigating complex neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neural tube defects. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Robust generation of 3D hPSC-derived spheroid populations in dynamic motion settings Support Protocol 1: Pluronic F-127 reagent preparation and coating to generate low-attachment suspension culture dishes Basic Protocol 2: Enhanced specification of hPSCs into NMP organoids Support Protocol 2: Combinatorial pathway assay for NMP organoid protocol optimization Basic Protocol 3: Differentiation of NMP organoids along diverse cellular trajectories and accelerated terminal fate specification into neurons, neural crest, and sclerotome derivatives.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Bano N, Aalam S, SK Bag (2022)

Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) transcription factor in different regulatory mechanism in plants: a review.

Plant molecular biology, 110(6):455-468.

Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) transcription factors are found in single-celled to multi-cellular eukaryotes in the form of large multigene families. TLPs are identified through a specific signature of carboxyl terminal tubby domain, required for plasma membrane tethering and amino terminal F-box domain communicate as functional SCF-type E3 ligases. The comprehensive distribution of TLP gene family members in diverse species indicates some conserved functions of TLPs in multicellular organisms. Plant TLPs have higher gene members than animals and these members reported important role in multiple physiological and developmental processes and various environmental stress responses. Although the TLPs are suggested to be a putative transcription factors but their functional mechanism is not much clear. This review provides significant recent updates on TLP-mediated regulation with an insight into its functional roles, origin and evolution and also phytohormones related regulation to combat with various stresses and its involvement in adaptive stress response in crop plants.

RevDate: 2022-11-03
CmpDate: 2022-10-19

Günther M, Reimer C, Herbst R, et al (2022)

Yellow polyketide pigment suppresses premature hatching in social amoeba.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(43):e2116122119.

Low-molecular-weight natural products from microbes are indispensable in the development of potent drugs. However, their biological roles within an ecological context often remain elusive. Here, we shed light on natural products from eukaryotic microorganisms that have the ability to transition from single cells to multicellular organisms: the social amoebae. These eukaryotes harbor a large number of polyketide biosynthetic genes in their genomes, yet virtually none of the corresponding products can be isolated or characterized. Using complementary molecular biology approaches, including CRISPR-Cas9, we generated polyketide synthase (pks5) inactivation and overproduction strains of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Differential, untargeted metabolomics of wild-type versus mutant fruiting bodies allowed us to pinpoint candidate metabolites derived from the amoebal PKS5. Extrachromosomal expression of the respective gene led to the identification of a yellow polyunsaturated fatty acid. Analysis of the temporospatial production pattern of this compound in conjunction with detailed bioactivity studies revealed the polyketide to be a spore germination suppressor.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Nedelcu AM (2022)

Evo-devo perspectives on cancer.

Essays in biochemistry pii:231941 [Epub ahead of print].

The integration of evolutionary and developmental approaches into the field of evolutionary developmental biology has opened new areas of inquiry- from understanding the evolution of development and its underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms to addressing the role of development in evolution. For the last several decades, the terms 'evolution' and 'development' have been increasingly linked to cancer, in many different frameworks and contexts. This mini-review, as part of a special issue on Evolutionary Developmental Biology, discusses the main areas in cancer research that have been addressed through the lenses of both evolutionary and developmental biology, though not always fully or explicitly integrated in an evo-devo framework. First, it briefly introduces the current views on carcinogenesis that invoke evolutionary and/or developmental perspectives. Then, it discusses the main mechanisms proposed to have specifically evolved to suppress cancer during the evolution of multicellularity. Lastly, it considers whether the evolution of multicellularity and development was shaped by the threat of cancer (a cancer-evo-devo perspective), and/or whether the evolution of developmental programs and life history traits can shape cancer resistance/risk in various lineages (an evo-devo-cancer perspective). A proper evolutionary developmental framework for cancer, both as a disease and in terms of its natural history (in the context of the evolution of multicellularity and development as well as life history traits), could bridge the currently disparate evolutionary and developmental perspectives and uncover aspects that will provide new insights for cancer prevention and treatment.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Kumar P, Kumar P, Mandal D, et al (2022)

The emerging role of Deubiquitinases (DUBs) in parasites: A foresight review.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:985178.

Before the discovery of the proteasome complex, the lysosomes with acidic proteases and caspases in apoptotic pathways were thought to be the only pathways for the degradation of damaged, unfolded, and aged proteins. However, the discovery of 26S and 20S proteasome complexes in eukaryotes and microbes, respectively, established that the degradation of most proteins is a highly regulated ATP-dependent pathway that is significantly conserved across each domain of life. The proteasome is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), where the covalent tagging of a small molecule called ubiquitin (Ub) on the proteins marks its proteasomal degradation. The type and chain length of ubiquitination further determine whether a protein is designated for further roles in multi-cellular processes like DNA repair, trafficking, signal transduction, etc., or whether it will be degraded by the proteasome to recycle the peptides and amino acids. Deubiquitination, on the contrary, is the removal of ubiquitin from its substrate molecule or the conversion of polyubiquitin chains into monoubiquitin as a precursor to ubiquitin. Therefore, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) can maintain the dynamic state of cellular ubiquitination by releasing conjugated ubiquitin from proteins and controlling many cellular pathways that are essential for their survival. Many DUBs are well characterized in the human system with potential drug targets in different cancers. Although, proteasome complex and UPS of parasites, like plasmodium and leishmania, were recently coined as multi-stage drug targets the role of DUBs is completely unexplored even though structural domains and functions of many of these parasite DUBs are conserved having high similarity even with its eukaryotic counterpart. This review summarizes the identification & characterization of different parasite DUBs based on in silico and a few functional studies among different phylogenetic classes of parasites including Metazoan (Schistosoma, Trichinella), Apicomplexan protozoans (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium), Kinetoplastidie (Leishmania, Trypanosoma) and Microsporidia (Nosema). The identification of different homologs of parasite DUBs with structurally similar domains with eukaryotes, and the role of these DUBs alone or in combination with the 20S proteosome complex in regulating the parasite survival/death is further elaborated. We propose that small molecules/inhibitors of human DUBs can be potential antiparasitic agents due to their significant structural conservation.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Vinogradov AE, OV Anatskaya (2022)

Cellular Biogenetic Law and Its Distortion by Protein Interactions: A Possible Unified Framework for Cancer Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19):.

The biogenetic law (recapitulation law) states that ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis. However, this law can be distorted by the modification of development. We showed the recapitulation of phylogenesis during the differentiation of various cell types, using a meta-analysis of human single-cell transcriptomes, with the control for cell cycle activity and the improved phylostratigraphy (gene dating). The multipotent progenitors, differentiated from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC), showed the downregulation of unicellular (UC) genes and the upregulation of multicellular (MC) genes, but only in the case of those originating up to the Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates). This picture strikingly resembles the evolutionary profile of regulatory gene expansion due to gene duplication in the human genome. The recapitulation of phylogenesis in the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) during their differentiation resembles the ESC pattern. The unipotent erythroblasts differentiating into erythrocytes showed the downregulation of UC genes and the upregulation of MC genes originating after the Euteleostomi. The MC interactome neighborhood of a protein encoded by a UC gene reverses the gene expression pattern. The functional analysis showed that the evolved environment of the UC proteins is typical for protein modifiers and signaling-related proteins. Besides a fundamental aspect, this approach can provide a unified framework for cancer biology and regenerative/rejuvenation medicine because oncogenesis can be defined as an atavistic reversal to a UC state, while regeneration and rejuvenation require an ontogenetic reversal.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Akçelik N, M Akçelik (2022)

What makes another life possible in bacteria? Global regulators as architects of bacterial biofilms.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 38(12):236.

Biofilm structures are the main mode of evolutionary reproductive adaptation of bacteria, and even these features alone, are sufficient to make them the focus of genetic and physiological studies. As this life form is a multicellular-like life form coordinated by genetic and physiological programming, it is quite different from the planktonic form. In bacterial biofilms, which are often composed of more than one species in nature, there is a clear division of labor, nutrient channels, and a language (signaling) established between the cells forming the biofilm. On the other hand, biofilms, especially formed by pathogens, cause important industrial and clinical problems due to their high resistance to environmental stress conditions. Obtaining new data on the molecular basis of bacterial evolution and understanding the intra- and inter-species ecosystem relations in this context, as well as finding permanent solutions to the serious problems they create, are directly related to a detailed understanding of the genetic regulation of bacterial biofilm structures. Today, it is becoming increasingly certain that environmental signals effective in the transition from planktonic form to biofilm form and their receptor/response molecules are generally managed by similar systems and global regulator molecules in bacteria. In this sense; Besides the quorum sensing (QS) systems, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-catabolite suppressor protein (cAMP-CRP) and bis-(3'-5') cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) signaling molecules are of critical importance. In this review article, current information on bacterial biofilms is summarized and interpreted based on this framework.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Silva VSD, CR Machado (2022)

Sex in protists: A new perspective on the reproduction mechanisms of trypanosomatids.

Genetics and molecular biology, 45(3):e20220065.

The Protist kingdom individuals are the most ancestral representatives of eukaryotes. They have inhabited Earth since ancient times and are currently found in the most diverse environments presenting a great heterogeneity of life forms. The unicellular and multicellular algae, photosynthetic and heterotrophic organisms, as well as free-living and pathogenic protozoa represents the protist group. The evolution of sex is directly associated with the origin of eukaryotes being protists the earliest protagonists of sexual reproduction on earth. In eukaryotes, the recombination through genetic exchange is a ubiquitous mechanism that can be stimulated by DNA damage. Scientific evidences support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced DNA damage can promote sexual recombination in eukaryotes which might have been a decisive factor for the origin of sex. The fact that some recombination enzymes also participate in meiotic sex in modern eukaryotes reinforces the idea that sexual reproduction emerged as consequence of specific mechanisms to cope with mutations and alterations in genetic material. In this review we will discuss about origin of sex and different strategies of evolve sexual reproduction in some protists such that cause human diseases like malaria, toxoplasmosis, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-12

Datta S, WC Ratcliff (2022)

Illuminating a new path to multicellularity.

eLife, 11:.

A new species of multicellular bacteria broadens our understanding of prokaryotic multicellularity and provides insight into how multicellular organisms arise.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-12

Mizuno K, Maree M, Nagamura T, et al (2022)

Novel multicellular prokaryote discovered next to an underground stream.

eLife, 11:.

A diversity of prokaryotes currently exhibit multicellularity with different generation mechanisms in a variety of contexts of ecology on Earth. In the present study, we report a new type of multicellular bacterium, HS-3, isolated from an underground stream. HS-3 self-organizes its filamentous cells into a layer-structured colony with the properties of a nematic liquid crystal. After maturation, the colony starts to form a semi-closed sphere accommodating clusters of coccobacillus daughter cells and selectively releases them upon contact with water. This is the first report that shows that a liquid-crystal status of cells can support the prokaryotic multicellular behavior. Importantly, the observed behavior of HS-3 suggests that the recurrent intermittent exposure of colonies to water flow in the cave might have been the ecological context that cultivated the evolutionary transition from unicellular to multicellular life. This is the new extant model that underpins theories regarding a role of ecological context in the emergence of multicellularity.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Ren P, Dong X, J Vijg (2022)

Age-related somatic mutation burden in human tissues.

Frontiers in aging, 3:1018119.

The genome of multicellular organisms carries the hereditary information necessary for the development of all organs and tissues and to maintain function in adulthood. To ensure the genetic stability of the species, genomes are protected against changes in sequence information. However, genomes are not static. De novo mutations in germline cells are passed on to offspring and generate the variation needed in evolution. Moreover, postzygotic mutations occur in all somatic cells during development and aging. These somatic mutations remain limited to the individual, generating tissues that are genome mosaics. Insight into such mutations and their consequences has been limited due to their extremely low abundance, with most mutations unique for each cell. Recent advances in sequencing, including whole genome sequencing at the single-cell level, have now led to the first insights into somatic mutation burdens in human tissues. Here, we will first briefly describe the latest methodology for somatic mutation analysis, then review our current knowledge of somatic mutation burden in human tissues and, finally, briefly discuss the possible functional impact of somatic mutations on the aging process and age-related diseases, including cancer and diseases other than cancer.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Wang P, Chen C, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Tumor inhibition via magneto-mechanical oscillation by magnetotactic bacteria under a swing MF.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 351:941-953.

Since magnetic micro/nano-materials can serve as multifunctional transducers for remote control of cell functions by applying diverse magnetic fields, magnetic cell manipulation provides a highly promising tool in biomedical research encompassing neuromodulation, tissue regeneration engineering and tumor cell destruction. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which contain natural magnetic materials, can sensitively respond to external magnetic fields via their endogenous magnetosome chains. Here, we developed a technique for magnetotactic bacteria-based cell modulation and tumor suppression combined with a swing magnetic field. We enabled MTB cells to recognize and bind to mammalian tumor cells via functional modification with RGD peptides onto the surfaces of MTB cells, and RGD-modified MTB bacteria could interact with the targeted tumor cells effectively. The magnetic torque, which was due to the interaction of the long magnetosome chain inside the MTB bacterial cell and the applied swing magnetic field, could result in obvious swing magnetic behaviors of the modified MTB bacteria bound to tumor cell surfaces and thus subsequently exert a sustained magnetomechanical oscillation on the tumor cell surfaces, which could induce a significant activation of Ca[2+] ion influx in vitro and tumor growth inhibition in vivo. These findings suggest that MTB cells mediated magnetomechanical stimulation, which is remotely controlled by dynamic magnetic fields, as an effective way to regulate cell signaling and treat tumor growth, which will shed the light on further biomedical applications utilizing whole magnetotactic bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-10-07

Fuloria NK, Raheja RK, Shah KH, et al (2022)

Biological activities of meroterpenoids isolated from different sources.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:830103.

Meroterpenoids are natural products synthesized by unicellular organisms such as bacteria and multicellular organisms such as fungi, plants, and animals, including those of marine origin. Structurally, these compounds exhibit a wide diversity depending upon the origin and the biosynthetic pathway they emerge from. This diversity in structural features imparts a wide spectrum of biological activity to meroterpenoids. Based on the biosynthetic pathway of origin, these compounds are either polyketide-terpenoids or non-polyketide terpenoids. The recent surge of interest in meroterpenoids has led to a systematic screening of these compounds for many biological actions. Different meroterpenoids have been recorded for a broad range of operations, such as anti-cholinesterase, COX-2 inhibitory, anti-leishmanial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-bacterial, antimalarial, anti-viral, anti-obesity, and insecticidal activity. Meroterpenoids also possess inhibitory activity against the expression of nitric oxide, TNF- α, and other inflammatory mediators. These compounds also show renal protective, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activities. The present review includes literature from 1999 to date and discusses 590 biologically active meroterpenoids, of which 231 are from fungal sources, 212 are from various species of plants, and 147 are from marine sources such as algae and sponges.

RevDate: 2022-11-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-01

Grunt TW, P Valent (2022)

Cancer - A devastating disease, but also an eye-opener and window into the deep mysteries of life and its origins.

Progress in biophysics and molecular biology, 175:131-139.

Although cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide, basic research has largely elucidated the underlying mechanisms that lead us deep into the laws of animate and inanimate nature. This review aims to demonstrate that the cancer process profoundly affects and reprograms fundamental principles and concepts of cellular life by harnessing the natural mechanisms of biological evolution. It is shown that mutation and selection - the drivers of cancer formation and progression - are mandatory consequences of Boltzmann's version of the second law of thermodynamics, which stipulates that entropy (or disorder) according to probability never decreases, followed by Darwinian evolution by filtering for the suitable geno- and karyotypes. Cancer research has shown that malignant cells can develop gradually or abruptly depending on the prevailing stress conditions. Similar principles were then observed in the evolution of species, referred to as micro- and macroevolution. Cancer cells can be related to phylogenetically older forms of life, and malignant transformation can be viewed as reverse (atavistic) evolution, accompanied by typical rearrangement of system information and loss of 'social' behavior. It becomes obvious that in nature no distinction is made between normal biology and pathobiology. Instead, everything follows the rules of natural evolution. This illustrates the depth of the cancer problem and may explain the serious difficulties faced in trying to eradicate cancer.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-06

Gauthier AE, Rotjan RD, JC Kagan (2022)

Lipopolysaccharide detection by the innate immune system may be an uncommon defence strategy used in nature.

Open biology, 12(10):220146.

Since the publication of the Janeway's Pattern Recognition hypothesis in 1989, study of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and their immuno-stimulatory activities has accelerated. Most studies in this area have been conducted in model organisms, which leaves many open questions about the universality of PAMP biology across living systems. Mammals have evolved multiple proteins that operate as receptors for the PAMP lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, but LPS is not immuno-stimulatory in all eukaryotes. In this review, we examine the history of LPS as a PAMP in mammals, recent data on LPS structure and its ability to activate mammalian innate immune receptors, and how these activities compare across commonly studied eukaryotes. We discuss why LPS may have evolved to be immuno-stimulatory in some eukaryotes but not others and propose two hypotheses about the evolution of PAMP structure based on the ecology and environmental context of the organism in question. Understanding PAMP structures and stimulatory mechanisms across multi-cellular life will provide insights into the evolutionary origins of innate immunity and may lead to the discovery of new PAMP variations of scientific and therapeutic interest.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Turishcheva E, Vildanova M, Onishchenko G, et al (2022)

The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Differentiation of Cells of Mesenchymal Origin.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(9):916-931.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional membrane-enclosed organelle. One of the major ER functions is cotranslational transport and processing of secretory, lysosomal, and transmembrane proteins. Impaired protein processing caused by disturbances in the ER homeostasis results in the ER stress. Restoration of normal ER functioning requires activation of an adaptive mechanism involving cell response to misfolded proteins, the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Besides controlling protein folding, UPR plays a key role in other physiological processes, in particular, differentiation of cells of connective, muscle, epithelial, and neural tissues. Cell differentiation is induced by the physiological levels of ER stress, while excessive ER stress suppresses differentiation and can result in cell death. So far, it remains unknown whether UPR activation induces cell differentiation or if UPR is initiated by the upregulated synthesis of secretory proteins during cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is an important stage in the development of multicellular organisms and is tightly controlled. Suppression or excessive activation of this process can lead to the development of various pathologies in an organism. In particular, impairments in the differentiation of connective tissue cells can result in the development of fibrosis, obesity, and osteoporosis. Recently, special attention has been paid to fibrosis as one of the major complications of COVID-19. Therefore, studying the role of UPR in the activation of cell differentiation is of both theoretical and practical interest, as it might result in the identification of molecular targets for selective regulation of cell differentiation stages and as well as the potential to modulate the mechanisms involved in the development of various pathological states.

RevDate: 2022-10-15

Hiraki HL, Matera DL, Wang WY, et al (2022)

Fiber density and matrix stiffness modulate distinct cell migration modes in a 3D stroma mimetic composite hydrogel.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(22)00612-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The peritumoral stroma is a complex 3D tissue that provides cells with myriad biophysical and biochemical cues. Histologic observations suggest that during metastatic spread of carcinomas, these cues influence transformed epithelial cells, prompting a diversity of migration modes spanning single cell and multicellular phenotypes. Purported consequences of these variations in tumor escape strategies include differential metastatic capability and therapy resistance. Therefore, understanding how cues from the peritumoral stromal microenvironment regulate migration mode has both prognostic and therapeutic value. Here, we utilize a synthetic stromal mimetic in which matrix fiber density and bulk hydrogel mechanics can be orthogonally tuned to investigate the contribution of these two key matrix attributes on MCF10A migration mode phenotypes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and invasive potential. We develop an automated computational image analysis framework to extract migratory phenotypes from fluorescent images and determine 3D migration metrics relevant to metastatic spread. Using this analysis, we find that matrix fiber density and bulk hydrogel mechanics distinctly contribute to a variety of MCF10A migration modes including amoeboid, single mesenchymal, clusters, and strands. We identify combinations of physical and soluble cues that induce a variety of migration modes originating from the same MCF10A spheroid and use these settings to examine a functional consequence of migration mode -resistance to apoptosis. We find that cells migrating as strands are more resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis than either disconnected clusters or individual invading cells. Improved models of the peritumoral stromal microenvironment and understanding of the relationships between matrix attributes and cell migration mode can aid ongoing efforts to identify effective cancer therapeutics that address cell plasticity-based therapy resistances. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Stromal extracellular matrix structure dictates both cell homeostasis and activation towards migratory phenotypes. However decoupling the effects of myriad biophysical cues has been difficult to achieve. Here, we encapsulate electrospun fiber segments within an amorphous hydrogel to create a fiber-reinforced hydrogel composite in which fiber density and hydrogel stiffness can be orthogonally tuned. Quantification of 3D cell migration reveal these two parameters uniquely contribute to a diversity of migration phenotypes spanning amoeboid, single mesenchymal, multicellular cluster, and collective strand. By tuning biophysical and biochemical cues to elicit heterogeneous migration phenotypes, we find that collective strands best resist apoptosis. This work establishes a composite approach to modulate fibrous topography and bulk hydrogel mechanics and identified biomaterial parameters to direct distinct 3D cell migration phenotypes.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Boutry J, Tissot S, Mekaoui N, et al (2022)

Tumors alter life history traits in the freshwater cnidarian, Hydra oligactis.

iScience, 25(10):105034.

Although tumors can occur during the lifetime of most multicellular organisms and have the potential to influence health, how they alter life-history traits in tumor-bearing individuals remains poorly documented. This question was explored using the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis, a species sometimes affected by vertically transmitted tumors. We found that tumorous polyps have a reduced survival compared to healthy ones. However, they also displayed higher asexual reproductive effort, by producing more often multiple buds than healthy ones. A similar acceleration is observed for the sexual reproduction (estimated through gamete production). Because tumoral cells are not transmitted through this reproductive mode, this finding suggests that hosts may adaptively respond to tumors, compensating the expected fitness losses by increasing their immediate reproductive effort. This study supports the hypothesis that tumorigenesis has the potential to influence the biology, ecology, and evolution of multicellular species, and thus should be considered more by evolutionary ecologists.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Gecow A, Iantovics LB, M Tez (2022)

Cancer and Chaos and the Complex Network Model of a Multicellular Organism.

Biology, 11(9):.

In the search of theoretical models describing cancer, one of promising directions is chaos. It is connected to ideas of "genome chaos" and "life on the edge of chaos", but they profoundly differ in the meaning of the term "chaos". To build any coherent models, notions used by both ideas should be firstly brought closer. The hypothesis "life on the edge of chaos" using deterministic chaos has been radically deepened developed in recent years by the discovery of half-chaos. This new view requires a deeper interpretation within the range of the cell and the organism. It has impacts on understanding "chaos" in the term "genome chaos". This study intends to present such an interpretation on the basis of which such searches will be easier and closer to intuition. We interpret genome chaos as deterministic chaos in a large module of half-chaotic network modeling the cell. We observed such chaotic modules in simulations of evolution controlled by weaker variant of natural selection. We also discuss differences between free and somatic cells in modeling their disturbance using half-chaotic networks.

RevDate: 2022-09-27
CmpDate: 2022-09-26

Dudin O (2022)

Preprint Highlight: Clonal Development, Not Aggregation, Drives the Transition to Multicellularity in an Isogenic Model System.

Molecular biology of the cell, 33(12):mbcP22071011.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-26

Guryanova SV, TV Ovchinnikova (2022)

Innate Immunity Mechanisms in Marine Multicellular Organisms.

Marine drugs, 20(9):.

The innate immune system provides an adequate response to stress factors and pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), located on the surface of cell membranes and in the cytoplasm. Generally, the structures of PRRs are formed by several domains that are evolutionarily conserved, with a fairly high degree of homology in representatives of different species. The orthologs of TLRs, NLRs, RLRs and CLRs are widely represented, not only in marine chordates, but also in invertebrates. Study of the interactions of the most ancient marine multicellular organisms with microorganisms gives us an idea of the evolution of molecular mechanisms of protection against pathogens and reveals new functions of already known proteins in ensuring the body's homeostasis. The review discusses innate immunity mechanisms of protection of marine invertebrate organisms against infections, using the examples of ancient multicellular hydroids, tunicates, echinoderms, and marine worms in the context of searching for analogies with vertebrate innate immunity. Due to the fact that mucous membranes first arose in marine invertebrates that have existed for several hundred million years, study of their innate immune system is both of fundamental importance in terms of understanding molecular mechanisms of host defense, and of practical application, including the search of new antimicrobial agents for subsequent use in medicine, veterinary and biotechnology.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Ma C, Liu K, Li Q, et al (2022)

Synthetic Extracellular Matrices for 3D Culture of Schwann Cells, Hepatocytes, and HUVECs.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9):.

Synthetic hydrogels from polyisocyanides (PIC) are a type of novel thermoreversible biomaterials, which can covalently bind biomolecules such as adhesion peptides to provide a suitable extracellular matrix (ECM)-like microenvironment for different cells. Although we have demonstrated that PIC is suitable for three-dimensional (3D) culture of several cell types, it is unknown whether this hydrogel sustains the proliferation and passaging of cells originating from different germ layers. In the present study, we propose a 3D culture system for three representative cell sources: Schwann cells (ectoderm), hepatocytes (endoderm), and endothelial cells (mesoderm). Both Schwann cells and hepatocytes proliferated into multicellular spheroids and maintained their properties, regardless of the amount of cell-adhesive RGD motifs in long-term culture. Notably, Schwann cells grew into larger spheroids in RGD-free PIC than in PIC-RGD, while HL-7702 showed the opposite behavior. Endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVECs) spread and formed an endothelial cell (EC) network only in PIC-RGD. Moreover, in a hepatocyte/HUVEC co-culture system, the characteristics of both cells were well kept for a long period in PIC-RGD. In all, our work highlights a simple ECM mimic that supports the growth and phenotype maintenance of cells from all germ layers in the long term. Our findings might contribute to research on biological development, organoid engineering, and in vitro drug screening.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Bargel H, Trossmann VT, Sommer C, et al (2022)

Bioselectivity of silk protein-based materials and their bio-inspired applications.

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 13:902-921.

Adhesion to material surfaces is crucial for almost all organisms regarding subsequent biological responses. Mammalian cell attachment to a surrounding biological matrix is essential for maintaining their survival and function concerning tissue formation. Conversely, the adhesion and presence of microbes interferes with important multicellular processes of tissue development. Therefore, tailoring bioselective, biologically active, and multifunctional materials for biomedical applications is a modern focus of biomaterial research. Engineering biomaterials that stimulate and interact with cell receptors to support binding and subsequent physiological responses of multicellular systems attracted much interest in the last years. Further to this, the increasing threat of multidrug resistance of pathogens against antibiotics to human health urgently requires new material concepts for preventing microbial infestation and biofilm formation. Thus, materials exhibiting microbial repellence or antimicrobial behaviour to reduce inflammation, while selectively enhancing regeneration in host tissues are of utmost interest. In this context, protein-based materials are interesting candidates due to their natural origin, biological activity, and structural properties. Silk materials, in particular those made of spider silk proteins and their recombinant counterparts, are characterized by extraordinary properties including excellent biocompatibility, slow biodegradation, low immunogenicity, and non-toxicity, making them ideally suited for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. Furthermore, recombinant production technologies allow for application-specific modification to develop adjustable, bioactive materials. The present review focusses on biological processes and surface interactions involved in the bioselective adhesion of mammalian cells and repellence of microbes on protein-based material surfaces. In addition, it highlights the importance of materials made of recombinant spider silk proteins, focussing on the progress regarding bioselectivity.

RevDate: 2022-09-30
CmpDate: 2022-09-23

Chai S, Aria C, H Hua (2022)

A stem group Codium alga from the latest Ediacaran of South China provides taxonomic insight into the early diversification of the plant kingdom.

BMC biology, 20(1):199.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, Precambrian lifeforms have generated an ever-increasing interest because they revealed a rich eukaryotic diversity prior to the Cambrian explosion of modern animals. Among them, macroalgae are known to be a conspicuous component of Neoproterozoic ecosystems, and chlorophytes in particular are already documented in the Tonian, when they were so far expected to originate. However, like for other major eukaryotic lineages, and despite predictions of molecular clock analyses placing roots of these lineages well into the Neoproterozoic, a taxonomic constraint on Precambrian green algae has remained difficult.

RESULTS: Here, we present an exceptionally preserved spherical, coenocytic unicellular alga from the latest Ediacaran Dengying Formation of South China (> ca. 541 Ma), known from both external and internal morphology, fully tridimensional and in great detail. Tomographic X-ray and electronic microscopy revealed a characteristic medulla made of intertwined siphons and tightly packed peripheral utricles, suggesting these fossils belong to the Bryopsidales genus Codium. However, its distinctly smaller size compared to extant species leads us to create Protocodium sinense gen. et sp. nov. and a phylomorphospace investigation points to a possible stem group affinity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding has several important implications. First, Protocodium allows for a more precise calibration of Archaeplastida and directly confirms that a group as derived as Ulvophyceae was already well diversified in various ecosystems prior to the Cambrian explosion. Details of tridimensional morphology also invite a reassessment of the identification of other Ediacaran algae, such as Chuaria, to better discriminate mono-versus multicellularity, and suggest unicellular Codium-like morphotypes could be much older and widespread. More broadly, Protocodium provides insights into the early diversification of the plant kingdom, the composition of Precambrian ecosystems, and the extreme longevity of certain eukaryotic plans of organization.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

La Fortezza M, Rendueles O, Keller H, et al (2022)

Hidden paths to endless forms most wonderful: ecology latently shapes evolution of multicellular development in predatory bacteria.

Communications biology, 5(1):977.

Ecological causes of developmental evolution, for example from predation, remain much investigated, but the potential importance of latent phenotypes in eco-evo-devo has received little attention. Using the predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, which undergoes aggregative fruiting body development upon starvation, we tested whether adaptation to distinct growth environments that do not induce development latently alters developmental phenotypes under starvation conditions that do induce development. In an evolution experiment named MyxoEE-3, growing M. xanthus populations swarmed across agar surfaces while adapting to conditions varying at factors such as surface stiffness or prey identity. Such ecological variation during growth was found to greatly impact the latent evolution of development, including fruiting body morphology, the degree of morphological trait correlation, reaction norms, degrees of developmental plasticity and stochastic diversification. For example, some prey environments promoted retention of developmental proficiency whereas others led to its systematic loss. Our results have implications for understanding evolutionary interactions among predation, development and motility in myxobacterial life cycles, and, more broadly, how ecology can profoundly shape the evolution of developmental systems latently rather than by direct selection on developmental features.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

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Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

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Selected Bibliographies

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