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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Nov 2019 at 01:38 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Fu A, Mo Q, Wu Y, et al (2019)

Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against Salmonella via polarizing macrophages to M1 phenotype directly and to M2 depended on microbiota.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SC06 (BaSC06), a potential probiotic, plays a positive role in animal growth performance and immune function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of BaSC06 against Salmonella infection and its association with macrophage polarization. C57BL/6 mice were fed with or without a BaSC06-containing diet before Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) challenge. Results showed that BaSC06 had a protective effect against ST inoculation and induced both M1 and M2 macrophage polarization in the cecum. An in vitro co-culture model demonstrated that BaSC06 promoted M1 polarization directly, and thus increased the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity against ST. In addition, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated by BaSC06 significantly decreased the counts of ST in the spleen. Furthermore, 16S rRNA-based analysis of cecal content showed that BaSC06 significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobia and decreased Bacterodetes. Transplantation of the fecal microbiota from BaSC06-treated animals promoted M2 macrophage polarization in the cecum and significantly relieved inflammation caused by ST. In conclusion, BaSC06 polarized macrophages to the M1 type directly resulting in excellent bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the microbiota modified by BaSC06 can induce M2 polarization which ameliorates the inflammation caused by ST.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Krajicek E, Bohm M, Sagi S, et al (2019)

Fulminant Clostridium difficile Infection Cured by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient With Critical Neutropenia.

ACG case reports journal, 6(8):e00198 pii:ACGCR-19-0079.

Clostridium difficile infection is the most prevalent health care-associated infection. Treatment relies on antimicrobial therapy with mounting evidence supporting fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in refractory cases. Cohort studies have documented the safety of FMT in immunocompromised patients. However, the safety of FMT in patients with critically low (<500/μL) absolute neutrophil count is unknown. Currently, in severely immunocompromised bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients, FMT is delayed until normalization of absolute neutrophil count. We present a patient with absolute neutropenia in whom sequential FMTs were safely and successfully administered, resulting in cure of fulminant C. difficile infection.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Terveer EM, van Gool T, Ooijevaar RE, et al (2019)

Human transmission of Blastocystis by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation without development of gastrointestinal symptoms in recipients.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5625875 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) are treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) provided by healthy donors. Blastocystis colonization of donors is considered an exclusion criterion, whereas its pathogenicity is still under debate.

METHODS: The introduction of molecular screening for Blastocystis sp. at our stool bank identified two donors with prior negative microscopy but positive PCR. Potential transmission of Blastocystis sp. to patients was assessed on 16 fecal patient samples, pre- and post-FMT, by PCR and subtype (ST) analysis. In addition, clinical outcome for treatment of rCDI (n=31), as well as development of gastrointestinal symptoms was assessed.

RESULTS: One donor carried Blastocystis ST1, the other contained ST3. All patients tested Blastocystis negative prior to FMT. With a median of 20.5 days after FMT, 8 of 16 (50%) patients developed intestinal colonization with Blastocystis, with identical ST-sequences as their respective donors. Blastocystis containing fecal suspensions were used to treat 31 rCDI patients, with a FMT success rate of 84%. This success rate was not statistically different from patients transferred with Blastocystis sp. negative donor feces (93%, 76/82). Patients transferred with Blastocystis sp. positive donor feces did not report any significant difference in bowel complaints in the first week, after 3 weeks and the months following FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the first transmission of Blastocystis ST1 and ST3 from donor to patients by FMT. This did not result in gastrointestinal symptomatology or have any significant effect on rCDI treatment outcome.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Fukui H (2019)

Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Liver Diseases: What Have We Learned So Far?.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 7(4): pii:diseases7040058.

Accumulating evidence supports that gut dysbiosis may relate to various liver diseases. Alcoholics with high intestinal permeability had a decrease in the abundance of Ruminnococcus. Intestinal dysmotility, increased gastric pH, and altered immune responses in addition to environmental and genetic factors are likely to cause alcohol-associated gut microbial changes. Alcohol-induced dysbiosis may be associated with gut barrier dysfunction, as microbiota and their products modulate barrier function by affecting epithelial pro-inflammatory responses and mucosal repair functions. High levels of plasma endotoxin are detected in alcoholics, in moderate fatty liver to advanced cirrhosis. Decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an anti-inflammatory commensal, stimulating IL-10 secretion and inhibiting IL-12 and interferon-γ expression. Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia were reported to be increased in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) patients. Increased abundance of fecal Escherichia to elevated blood alcohol levels in these patients and gut microbiota enriched in alcohol-producing bacteria produce more alcohol (alcohol hypothesis). Some undetermined pathological sequences related to gut dysbiosis may facilitate energy-producing and proinflammatory conditions for the progression of NAFLD. A shortage of autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria and an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria are common findings in cirrhotic patients. The ratio of the amounts of beneficial autochthonous taxa (Lachnospiraceae + Ruminococaceae + Veillonellaceae + Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIV) to those of potentially pathogenic taxa (Enterobacteriaceae + Bacteroidaceae) was low in those with early death and organ failure. Cirrhotic patients with decreased microbial diversity before liver transplantation were more likely to develop post-transplant infections and cognitive impairment related to residual dysbiosis. Patients with PSC had marked reduction of bacterial diversity. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus were increased in PSC patients (without liver cirrhosis.) Treatment-naive PBC patients were associated with altered composition and function of gut microbiota, as well as a lower level of diversity. As serum anti-gp210 antibody has been considered as an index of disease progression, relatively lower species richness and lower abundance of Faecalibacterium spp. in gp210-positive patients are interesting. The dysbiosis-induced altered bacterial metabolites such as a hepatocarcinogenesis promotor DCA, together with a leaky gut and bacterial translocation. Gut protective Akkermansia and butyrate-producing genera were decreased, while genera producing-lipopolysaccharide were increased in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Steube A, Vital M, Grunert P, et al (2019)

Long-term Multidonor Faecal Microbiota Transfer by Oral Capsules for Active Ulcerative Colitis.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis, 13(11):1480-1481.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Mullaney JA, Stephens JE, Geeling BE, et al (2019)

Early-life exposure to gut microbiota from disease-protected mice does not impact disease outcome in type 1 diabetes susceptible NOD mice.

Immunology and cell biology, 97(1):97-103.

The microbial community making up the gut microbiota can profoundly influence intestinal homeostasis and immune system development, and is believed to influence the development of complex diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have been shown to harbor a distinct microbiota to disease-protected mice. We hypothesized that the T1D susceptible genetic background of NOD mice would be resistant to the introduction of a C57BL/6-derived microbiota. NOD and C57BL/6 mice were cohoused either continually from birth, from birth until weaning or from weaning onwards, allowing transfer of microbiota between the mice. Cohousing NOD with C57BL/6 mice from before birth, resulted in moderate changes to the gut microbiota, whereas initiating cohousing at weaning only led to minimal changes. Terminating cohousing at weaning reduced the changes in the microbiota composition. However, diabetes onset was not significantly delayed and there was no reduction in intestinal inflammation or the proportion of regulatory T cells in the cohoused NOD mice. However, insulin but not islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein-specific CD8+ T cells were reduced by cohousing suggesting an epitope-specific modulation of the autoreactive response by the gut microbiota. These results suggest that the T1D susceptible genetic background of the NOD mouse was resistant to the introduction of a C57BL/6-derived microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Severyn CJ, Brewster R, TM Andermann (2019)

Microbiota modification in hematology: still at the bench or ready for the bedside?.

Blood advances, 3(21):3461-3472.

Growing evidence suggests that human microbiota likely influence diverse processes including hematopoiesis, chemotherapy metabolism, and efficacy, as well as overall survival in patients with hematologic malignancies and other cancers. Both host genetic susceptibility and host-microbiota interactions may impact cancer risk and response to treatment; however, microbiota have the potential to be uniquely modifiable and accessible targets for treatment. Here, we focus on strategies to modify microbiota composition and function in patients with cancer. First, we evaluate the use of fecal microbiota transplant to restore microbial equilibrium following perturbation by antibiotics and chemotherapy, and as a treatment of complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), such as graft-versus-host disease and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. We then address the potential use of both probiotics and dietary prebiotic compounds in targeted modulation of the microbiota intended to improve outcomes in hematologic diseases. With each type of therapy, we highlight the role that abnormal, or dysbiotic, microbiota play in disease, treatment efficacy, and toxicity and evaluate their potential promise as emerging strategies for microbiota manipulation in patients with hematologic malignancies and in those undergoing HSCT.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Hadjivasilis A, Tsioutis C, Michalinos A, et al (2019)

New insights into irritable bowel syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment.

Annals of gastroenterology, 32(6):554-564.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common reason to visit a gastroenterologist. IBS was believed to be a functional disease, but many possible pathophysiologic mechanisms can now explain the symptoms. IBS patients are classified into subtypes according to their predominant bowel habit, based on the Rome IV criteria. These include diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant IBS, as well as the mixed type, a combination of the two. Usually, IBS treatment is based on the predominant symptoms, with many options for each subtype. A new promising treatment option, fecal microbiota transplantation, seems to have beneficial effects on IBS. However, treating the pathophysiological causative agent responsible for the symptoms is an emerging approach. Therefore, before the appropriate therapeutic option is chosen for treating IBS, a clinical evaluation of its pathophysiology should be performed.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Alhifany AA, Almutairi AR, Almangour TA, et al (2019)

Comparing the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation with bezlotoxumab in reducing the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

BMJ open, 9(11):e031145 pii:bmjopen-2019-031145.

OBJECTIVES: The risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs) is high when treated with standard antibiotics therapy (SAT) alone. It is suggested that the addition of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or bezlotoxumab after SAT reduces the risk of RCDI. In the absence of head-to-head randomised controlled trials (RCTs), this review attempts to compare the efficacy and safety of bezlotoxumab with FMT in reducing the risk of RCDI in hospitalised patients.

DESIGN: A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCE: A comprehensive search from inception to 30 February 2019 was conducted in four databases (Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus,

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: RCTs reporting the resolution of diarrhoea associated with RCDI without relapse for at least 60 days after the end of treatments as the primary outcome.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We extracted author, year of publication, study design and binomial data that represented the resolution of diarrhoea or adverse events of monoclonal antibodies and FMT infusion. Random-effects models were used for resolution rate of RCDI and adverse events. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the quality of included RCTs.

RESULTS: Out of 1003 articles identified, seven RCTs involving 3043 patients contributed to the review. No difference was reported between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab in resolving RCDI, (OR 1.53, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.39 to 5.16) and (OR 2.86, 95% CrI 1.29 to 6.57), respectively. Patients treated with SAT alone or bezlotoxumab with SAT showed significantly lower rates of diarrhoea than FMT (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.09) and (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.19), respectively. There was no difference in terms of other adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first network meta-analysis that has compared the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab with FMT for resolving RCDI. The quality of the included RCTs was variable. The findings of this study suggested no difference between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab. However, FMT was associated with a higher rate of non-serious diarrhoea as opposed to SAT used alone or in combination with bezlotoxumab.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Kang XX, Yan J, Huang F, et al (2019)

On the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and fecal microbiota transplantation.

Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE, 16(6):7057-7084.

Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to human health and is caused by mainly the overuse of antibiotics in clinical medicine. Clinically, drug resistance emerges after a series of antibiotic treatments, implying that each treatment changes the intestinal flora composition and the accumulations of these changes induce the resistance. But mathematically, this cumulative effect cannot be achieved by a general population model, because the system will return to its pre-treatment state (an isolated steady state) after each cure. Based on the fact that sensitive bacteria and resistant bacteria are similar in most respects except their reactions to antibiotics, we developed a mathematical model with a specific phase-space structure: instead of isolated points, the steady states of this system compose one-dimensional manifolds (line segments). This structure explains the fundamental mechanism of antibiotic resistance: after antibiotic treatment, the system cannot return to the pretreatment healthy steady state but rather slightly moves along the manifold to a different steady state. Each use of antibiotics can change the ratio of resistant to susceptible pathogens in the host. The change the ratio can persist and accumulate, and finally promotes the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We also assessed key factors (such as pathogen composition, the amount and composition of beneficial bacteria, medication duration and bactericidal rates of drugs) influencing the development of drug resistance. In addition, we clarified how fecal microbiota transplantation affects the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. The effect is essentially a transfer towards the healthy state in the phase space. Finally, based on the mechanisms revealed by the mathematical models, we suggested some strategies to delay or prevent the emergence of drug resistance. These findings not only provide a solid theoretical basis for the treatment of antimicrobial resistance, but also inspire clues to the phenomenon of drug resistance.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Kamata K, Watanabe T, Minaga K, et al (2019)

Intestinal dysbiosis mediates experimental autoimmune pancreatitis via activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

International immunology, 31(12):795-809.

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a pancreatic manifestation of a newly proposed disease entity, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), characterized by enhanced IgG4 antibody responses and involvement of multiple organs. We have previously reported that innate immune activation contributes to the development of AIP and IgG4-RD, as these diseases are characterized by the production of IFN-α and IL-33 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) that mediate chronic fibroinflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the roles played by innate immunity against intestinal microflora in experimental AIP induced in MRL/MpJ mice by repeated administrations of 100 µg of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)]. Bowel sterilization with a broad spectrum of antibiotics inhibited pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α and IL-33, and thereby suppressed the development of AIP. Mice treated with 10 µg of poly (I:C) developed severe AIP equivalent to that induced by 100 µg of poly (I:C) upon co-housing with mice treated with 100 µg of poly (I:C). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from donor mice treated with 100 µg of poly (I:C) led to the development of severe AIP in the recipient mice upon injection with 10 µg of poly (I:C). Induction of severe AIP in mice with 10 µg of poly (I:C) was associated with pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α and IL-33 in the co-housing and FMT experiments. These data collectively suggest that innate immune responses against intestinal microflora are involved in the development of experimental AIP, and that intestinal dysbiosis increases sensitivity to experimental AIP via activation of pDCs.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Porras D, Nistal E, Martínez-Flórez S, et al (2019)

Functional Interactions between Gut Microbiota Transplantation, Quercetin, and High-Fat Diet Determine Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Development in Germ-Free Mice.

Molecular nutrition & food research, 63(8):e1800930.

SCOPE: Modulation of intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, it is addressed whether gut microbiota modulation by quercetin and intestinal microbiota transplantation can influence NAFLD development.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota donor mice are selected according to their response to high-fat diet (HFD) and quercetin in terms of obesity and NAFLD-related biomarkers. Germ-free recipients displayed metabolic phenotypic differences derived from interactions between microbiota transplanted, diets, and quercetin. Based on the evaluation of hallmark characteristics of NAFLD, it is found that gut microbiota transplantation from the HFD-non-responder donor and the HFD-fed donor with the highest response to quercetin results in a protective phenotype against HFD-induced NAFLD, in a mechanism that involves gut-liver axis alteration blockage in these receivers. Gut microbiota from the HFD-responder donor predisposed transplanted germ-free mice to NAFLD. Divergent protective and deleterious metabolic phenotypes exhibited are related to definite microbial profiles in recipients, highlighting the predominant role of Akkermansia genus in the protection from obesity-associated NAFLD development.

CONCLUSIONS: The results provide scientific support for the prebiotic capacity of quercetin and the transfer of established metabolic profiles through gut microbiota transplantation as a protective strategy against the development of obesity-related NAFLD.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Kumar V, M Fischer (2019)

Expert opinion on fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection and beyond.

Expert opinion on biological therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure involving transfer of stool from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased recipient to restore intestinal microbial composition and functionality. FMT's tremendous success in recurrent and refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) catalyzed gut microbiota research and opened the door to microbiome-based therapy for various gastrointestinal and other disorders.Areas Covered: We used PubMed search engine to identify significant publications in the field of CDI and FMT. Here we present an overview of the current literature on FMT's use for recurrent, non-severe, severe and fulminant CDI and on promising future application.Expert Opinion: FMT as the best tool for treatment of antibiotic-refractory CDI has gained immense popularity over the last decade. The future of gut microbiota-based therapy should include oral formulations that contain well-described ingredients in effective doses, clear mechanism of action and excellent safety profile.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Wu M, Li P, An Y, et al (2019)

Phloretin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice by regulating the gut microbiota.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(19)31296-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Phloretin, extracted from the pericarp and velamen of apples or pears, is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid with anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. It has been reported that phloretin has anti-inflammatory effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. However, the role of the gut microbiota in the phloretin anti-UC process remains unclear. In this study, we observed that the anti-UC effect of phloretin was affected by co-housing, probably because of the transmissible nature of the gut micobiota. Through fecal micobiota transplantation (FMT), the effects of the gut microbiota on the anti-UC of phloretin were further confirmed. UC was induced in mice by administrating 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Phloretin (60 mg/kg) was administered by gavage every day during the experiment. Fecal microbes (109 CFU/mL) from phloretin-treated UC mice were administered by gavage to non-phloretin-treated UC mice for 7 days. The results showed that FMT, like phloretin, ameliorated UC by improving disease symptoms and colon inflammation, balancing inflammatory cytokines, maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, restoring systemic immune function, inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorating the oxidant stress. Both FMT and phloretin treatment increased the levels of Bacteroidetes, Alistipes and Lactobacillus and decreased those of Firmicutes, Oscillibacter and Ruminiclostridium_6. Correlation analysis between gut microbes and micro-environmental factors revealed that Alistipes abundance was negatively correlated with DAI, pathological score, and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels, and Alistipes was more abundant in phloretin or FMT treated UC mice. Oscillibacter abundance was significantly positively correlated with IL-6 and IL-1β levels and pathological score, and Oscillibacter was increased in UC mice. Furthermore, network analysis of the dominant genera revealed that Alistipes abundance was negatively related to Oscillibacter abundance. In conclusion, this study suggests that the anti-UC effects of phloretin are achieved through regulation of the gut microbiota and phloretin has the potential to be developed as a promising agent for the treatment of UC.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Singh H, Ross L, Smith H, et al (2019)

Oral fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile in pediatric autoimmune enteropathy.

European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 31(12):1602-1603.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Ianiro G, Murri R, Sciumè GD, et al (2019)

Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Annals of internal medicine pii:2754174 [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.

Objective: To assess incidence of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score.

Setting: Single academic medical center.

Patients: 290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort).

Intervention: FMT or antibiotics.

Measurements: The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.

Results: Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated with FMT and 181 received antibiotics. Five patients in the FMT group and 40 in the antibiotic group developed BSI. Because of differences in the patients treated with FMT versus antibiotics in many baseline characteristics, including number of recurrences and CDI severity, comparative analyses were limited to the matched cohort. Risk for BSI was 23 percentage points (95% CI, 10 to 35 percentage points) lower in the FMT group; the FMT group also had 14 fewer days of hospitalization (CI, 9 to 20 fewer days) and a 32-percentage point increase in OS (CI, 16 to 47 percentage points) compared with the antibiotic group.

Limitation: Nonrandomized study with potential for unmeasured or residual confounding; limited generalizability of the propensity score-matched cohort.

Conclusion: In a propensity score-matched cohort, patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT were less likely to develop primary BSI.

Primary Funding Source: None.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Rosa CP, Pereira JA, Cristina de Melo Santos N, et al (2019)

Vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in a mice model.

Journal of leukocyte biology [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens causing respiratory infections in hospitals. Vancomycin, the antimicrobial agent usually used to treat bacterial nosocomial infections, is associated with gut dysbiosis. As a lung-gut immunologic axis has been described, this study aimed to evaluate both the immunologic and histopathologic effects on the lungs and the large intestine resulting from vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis in the P. aeruginosa pneumonia murine model. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis resulted in higher Proteobacteria and lower Bacteroidetes populations in feces. Given that gut dysbiosis could augment the proinflammatory status of the intestines leading to a variety of acute inflammatory diseases, bone marrow-derived macrophages were stimulated with cecal content from dysbiotic mice showing a higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines and lower expression of IL-10. Dysbiotic mice showed higher levels of viable bacteria in the lungs and spleen when acutely infected with P. aeruginosa, with more lung and cecal damage and increased IL-10 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage. The susceptible and tissue damage phenotype was reversed when dysbiotic mice received fecal microbiota transplantation. In spite of higher recruitment of CD11b+ cells in the lungs, there was no higher CD80+ expression, DC+ cell amounts or proinflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the bacterial community found in vancomycin-induced dysbiosis dysregulates the gut inflammatory status, influencing the lung-gut immunologic axis to favor increased opportunistic infections, for example, by P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2019-11-02

Kuhnen A (2019)

Genetic and Environmental Considerations for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

The Surgical clinics of North America, 99(6):1197-1207.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract driven by an exaggerated immune response to luminal microbiota in susceptible individuals. It presents with a heterogenous pattern of clinical disease severity, location, and behavior. Understanding the interaction between the host genome, gut microbiome, and further environmental exposures in the development of IBD is in the early stages, and factors that trigger onset of disease in susceptible individuals remain unknown. This article addresses the genetic, microbial, and environmental influences on development of inflammatory bowel disease and the ability to manipulate these factors through surgery and medical therapy.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Huttner BD, de Lastours V, Wassenberg M, et al (2019)

A 5-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a randomized clinical trial.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 25(7):830-838.

OBJECTIVES: Intestinal carriage with extended spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) can persist for months. We aimed to evaluate whether oral antibiotics followed by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can eradicate intestinal carriage with ESBL-E/CPE.

METHODS: Randomized, open-label, superiority trial in four tertiary-care centres (Geneva (G), Paris (P), Utrecht (U), Tel Aviv (T)). Non-immunocompromised adult patients were randomized 1: 1 to either no intervention (control) or a 5-day course of oral antibiotics (colistin sulphate 2 × 106 IU 4×/day; neomycin sulphate 500 mg 4×/day) followed by frozen FMT obtained from unrelated healthy donors. The primary outcome was detectable intestinal carriage of ESBL-E/CPE by stool culture 35-48 days after randomization (V4). ClinicalTrials.govNCT02472600. The trial was funded by the European Commission (FP7).

RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (G = 14; P = 16; U = 7; T = 2) colonized by ESBL-E (n = 36) and/or CPE (n = 11) were enrolled between February 2016 and June 2017. In the intention-to-treat analysis 9/22 (41%) patients assigned to the intervention arm were negative for ESBL-E/CPE at V4 (1/22 not receiving the intervention imputed as positive) whereas in the control arm 5/17 (29%) patients were negative (one lost to follow up imputed as negative) resulting in an OR for decolonization success of 1.7 (95% CI 0.4-6.4). Study drugs were well tolerated overall but three patients in the intervention group prematurely stopped the study antibiotics because of diarrhoea (all received FMT).

CONCLUSIONS: Non-absorbable antibiotics followed by FMT slightly decreased ESBL-E/CPE carriage compared with controls; this difference was not statistically significant, potentially due to early trial termination. Further clinical investigations seem warranted.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Adams JB, Borody TJ, Kang DW, et al (2019)

Microbiota transplant therapy and autism: lessons for the clinic.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: The purpose of this review is to discuss Microbiota Transplant Therapy (MTT), a type of intensive intestinal microbiota transplantation (IMT), for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders (constipation and/or diarrhea).Areas covered: This paper briefly reviews IMT, gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal bacteria in children with ASD, and results and lessons learned from intensive MTT for autism.Expert opinion: An open-label study and a two-year follow-up suggests that MTT is relatively safe and effective in significantly reducing gastrointestinal disorders and autism symptoms, changing the gut microbiome structure, and increasing gut microbial diversity. Further research with larger, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies is warranted.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

DeFilipp Z, Bloom PP, Torres Soto M, et al (2019)

Drug-Resistant E. coli Bacteremia Transmitted by Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The New England journal of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection and is being actively investigated for other conditions. We describe two patients in whom extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia occurred after they had undergone FMT in two independent clinical trials; both cases were linked to the same stool donor by means of genomic sequencing. One of the patients died. Enhanced donor screening to limit the transmission of microorganisms that could lead to adverse infectious events and continued vigilance to define the benefits and risks of FMT across different patient populations are warranted.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Blaser MJ (2019)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Dysbiosis - Predictable Risks.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Kassam Z, Dubois N, Ramakrishna B, et al (2019)

Donor Screening for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Rokkas T, Gisbert JP, Gasbarrini A, et al (2019)

A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials exploring the role of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

United European gastroenterology journal, 7(8):1051-1063.

Background: Recurrence remains a challenge in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and in this field fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted significant interest. Network meta-analysis (NWM) has been established as an evidence-synthesis tool that incorporates direct and indirect evidence in a collection of randomized controlled trials. So far no NWM exists concerning therapeutic interventions for recurrent CDI (rCDI).

Objective: In this NWM we assessed the comparative effectiveness of various therapies for rCDI to examine the efficacy rank order and determine the optimum therapeutic approach.

Methods: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy rank order of rCDI interventions.

Results: Six eligible RCTs were entered into an NWM. They included 348 rCDI patients, in whom seven therapeutic interventions were used, i.e. donor fecal microbiota transplantation (DFMT), vancomycin, fidaxomicin, vancomycin + DFMT, vancomycin + bowel lavage, autologous FMT and placebo. DFMT showed the highest efficacy in comparison with vancomycin [odds ratio (95% credible interval), 20.02 (7.05-70.03)] and fidaxomicin (22.01 (4.38-109.63)).

Conclusion: This NWM showed that DFMT is the optimum therapeutic approach for rCDI, as it was the most efficacious among various therapeutic interventions, particularly in comparison with commonly used antibiotics such as vancomycin or fidaxomicin.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Myneedu K, Deoker A, Schmulson MJ, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

United European gastroenterology journal, 7(8):1033-1041.

Background: Modulating gut microbiota is a potential treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This meta-analysis explored whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is successful in treating IBS.

Methods: A systematic review was performed to find trials on FMT in IBS. Ratios and relative ratios (RR) of improvement for single-arm trials (SATs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were calculated, respectively. Changes in IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) instrument compared to baseline in FMT versus placebo groups were pooled.

Results: In SATs, 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1-69.3) of IBS patients showed significant improvement. In RCTs, there were no differences between FMT and control in improvement (RR=0.93 (95% CI 0.50-1.75)) or changes in the IBS-SSS and IBS-QOL.

Conclusions: FMT was not effective in IBS. Variations in FMT methods and patient factors may contribute to the heterogeneous results of the trials.

RevDate: 2019-10-29

Hocquart M, Pham T, Kuete E, et al (2019)

Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient Suffering From Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz398 pii:ofz398.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting 9%-23% of the population across the world. The relative efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on IBS symptoms was demonstrated in a double-blind, randomized study.

Methods: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman suffering from IBS (abdominal pain, bloating, and abundant and disabling diarrhea, with 10-15 stools a day) and repetitive urinary tract infection (UTI; 5 episodes in 6 months, including 3 the last 2 months) for several years, generating an impaired quality of life. She received an FMT with 400 mL of fecal infusion from a healthy donor via a nasogastric tube after bowel lavage. Her digestive microbiota was analyzed using culturomic and metagenomic targeting 16S rRNA sequencing methods.

Results: Eight months after transplantation, we observed a significant reduction in frequency and improvement in stool consistency (3-4 molded stools a day against 10-15 before the transplant) and no recurrence of urinary infection (as previously reported). Using culturomics, we found 12 bacteria present in the fecal infusion and post-transplant stool; these were absent pretransplant. Three of them (Intestinimonas massiliensis, Oscillibacter massiliensis, and Provencibacter massiliensis) were previously discovered and cultivated in our laboratory using culturomics. Using metagenomics, we also observed 12 bacteria, different from those observed during culture, that could have been transferred to the patient by FMT.

Conclusions: In this case report, IBS symptoms and UTI frequency decreased after FMT UTI. Further studies involving more patients would be relevant to confirm this work and develop bacteriotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-10-29

Woodworth MH, Hayden MK, Young VB, et al (2019)

Corrigendum: The Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Reducing Intestinal Colonization With Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms: The Current Landscape and Future Directions.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz391 pii:ofz391.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz288.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz288.].

RevDate: 2019-10-29

Hourigan SK, Ahn M, Gibson KM, et al (2019)

Fecal Transplant in Children With Clostridioides difficile Gives Sustained Reduction in Antimicrobial Resistance and Potential Pathogen Burden.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz379 pii:ofz379.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) treats Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Little is known regarding the changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and potential pathogen burden that occur in pediatric recipients of FMT. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in AMR genes, potential pathogens, species, and functional pathways with FMT in children.

Methods: Nine children with recurrent CDI underwent FMT. Stool was collected from donor and recipient pre-FMT and longitudinally post-FMT for up to 24 weeks. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Reads were analyzed using PathoScope 2.0.

Results: All children had resolution of CDI. AMR genes decreased post-FMT (P < .001), with a sustained decrease in multidrug resistance genes (P < .001). Tetracycline resistance genes increased post-FMT (P < .001). Very low levels of potential pathogens were identified in donors and recipients, with an overall decrease post-FMT (P < .001). Prevotella sp. 109 expanded in all recipients post-FMT, and no recipients had any clinical infection. Alpha diversity was lower in recipients vs donors pre-FMT (P < .001), with an increase post-FMT (P ≤ .002) that was sustained. Beta diversity differed significantly in pre- vs post-FMT recipient samples (P < .001). Bacterial species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides ovatus showed higher abundance in donors than recipients (P = .008 and P = .040, respectively), with expansion post-FMT. Biosynthetic pathways predominated in the donor and increased in the recipient post-FMT.

Conclusions: FMT for CDI in children decreases AMR genes and potential pathogens and changes microbiota composition and function. However, acquisition of certain AMR genes post-FMT combined with low levels of potential pathogens found in donors suggests that further study is warranted regarding screening donors using metagenomics sequencing before FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

Jitsumura M, Cunningham AL, Hitchings MD, et al (2018)

Protocol for faecal microbiota transplantation in ulcerative colitis (FMTUC): a randomised feasibility study.

BMJ open, 8(10):e021987.

BACKGROUND: The interaction of the gut microbiota with the human host is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immunological diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a method of restoring gut microbial diversity is of increasing interest as a therapeutic approach in the management of UC. The current literature lacks consensus about the dose of FMT, route of administration and duration of response.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded randomised trial will explore the feasibility of FMT in 30 treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed distal UC limited to the recto-sigmoid region (up to 40 cm from the anal verge). This study aims to estimate the magnitude of treatment response to FMT under controlled conditions. The intervention (FMT) will be administered by rectal retention enema. It will test the feasibility of randomising patients to: (i) single FMT dose, (ii) five daily FMT doses or (iii) control (no FMT dose). All groups will receive standard antibiotic gut decontamination and bowel preparation before FMT. Recruitment will take place over a 24-month period with a 12-week patient follow-up. Trial objectives include evaluation of the magnitude of treatment response to FMT, investigation of the clinical value of metabolic phenotyping for predicting the clinical response to FMT and testing the recruitment rate of donors and patients for a study in FMT. This feasibility trial will enable an estimate of number of patients needed, help determine optimal study conditions and inform the choice of endpoints for a future definitive phase III study.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial is approved by the regional ethics committee and is sponsored by Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University's Health Board. Written informed consent from all patients will be obtained. Serious adverse events will be reported to the sponsor. Trial results will be disseminated via peer review publication and shared with trial participants.


RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

De Luca F, Y Shoenfeld (2019)

The microbiome in autoimmune diseases.

Clinical and experimental immunology, 195(1):74-85.

The microbiome is represented by microorganisms which live in a symbiotic way with the mammalian. Microorganisms have the ability to influence different physiological aspects such as the immune system, metabolism and behaviour. In recent years, several studies have highlighted the role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Notably, in systemic lupus erythematosus an alteration of the intestinal flora (lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio) has been described. Conversely, changes to the gut commensal and periodontal disease have been proposed as important factors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. At the same time, other autoimmune diseases (i.e. systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and anti-phospholipid syndrome) also share modifications of the microbiome in the intestinal tract and oral flora. Herein, we describe the role of the microbiome in the maintenance homeostasis of the immune system and then the alterations of the microorganisms that occur in systemic autoimmune diseases. Finally, we will consider the use of probiotics and faecal transplantation as novel therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2019-10-28

Li S, Xu N, Hua R, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in cerebral cortex of septic rats through intestinal microbiota].

Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue, 31(9):1102-1107.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on septic gut flora and the cortex cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in rats.

METHODS: Sixty clean grade male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal saline (NS) control group, sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group by random number table, with 20 rats in each group. The rat model of sepsis was reproduced by injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via tail vein, the rats in the NS control group was given the same amount of NS. The rats in the fecal microbiota transplantation group received nasogastric infusion of feces from healthy donor on the 1st day, 2 mL each time, for 3 times a day, the other two groups were given equal dose of NS by gavage. Fecal samples were collected on the 7th day after modeling, the levels of intestinal microbiota composition was determined using the 16SrDNA gene sequencing technology. The brain function was evaluated by electroencephalogram (EEG), and the proportion of each waveform in EEG was calculated. After sacrifice of rats, the brain tissues were harvested, the levels of protein expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined by Western Blot, and positive cells of Iba-1 in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry method. The levels of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Seven days after the reproduction of the model, all rats in the NS control group survived, while 10 rats and 8 rats died in the sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group, respectively, with mortality rates of 50% and 40% respectively. Finally, there were 20 rats in the NS control group, 10 in the sepsis model group and 12 in the fecal microbiota transplantation group. Compared with the NS control group, the diversity and composition of intestinal flora were changed, the incidence of abnormal EEG increased significantly, the expression of α7nAchR in the cortex decreased significantly, and the levels of Iba-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased in the model group, suggested that the intestinal flora was dysbiosis, and severe inflammatory reaction occurred in the cerebral cortex, and brain function was impaired. Compared with the model group, the diversity of intestinal flora in the fecal microbiota transplantation group was significantly increased (species index: 510.24±58.76 vs. 282.50±47.42, Chao1 index: 852.75±25.24 vs. 705.50±46.50, both P < 0.05), the dysbiosis of intestinal flora at phylum, family, genus level induced by LPS were also significantly reversed, and with the improvement of intestinal flora, the incidence of abnormal EEG waveforms was lower in the fecal microbiota transplantation group compared with that in the model group [25.0% (3/12) vs. 80.0% (8/10), P < 0.05], and the expression of α7nAChR protein in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased (α7nAChR/β-actin: 1.56±0.05 vs. 0.82±0.07, P < 0.05), immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Iba-1 positive expression of microglia decreased significantly, and cerebral cortex TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β levels were significantly decreased [TNF-α (ng/L): 6.28±0.61 vs. 12.02±0.54, IL-6 (ng/L): 28.26±3.15 vs. 60.58±4.62, IL-1β (ng/L): 33.63±3.48 vs. 72.56±2.25, all P < 0.05].

CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that fecal microbiota transplantation has remarkably modulated the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and activated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and ameliorate the brain dysfunction in septic rats.

RevDate: 2019-10-26

Aira A, Fehér C, Rubio E, et al (2019)

The Intestinal Microbiota as a Reservoir and a Therapeutic Target to Fight Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

Infectious diseases and therapy pii:10.1007/s40121-019-00272-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The appearance and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in specific closed environments such as intensive care units of acute care hospitals, have become a major health concern. The intestinal microbiota has various functions including host protection from overgrowth or colonization by unwanted bacteria. The exposure to antibiotics significantly reduces the bacterial density of intestinal microbiota leaving an ecologic void that can be occupied by potentially pathogenic and/or resistant bacteria frequently present in hospital settings. Consequently, the intestinal microbiota of inpatients acts as a major reservoir and plays a critical role in perpetuating the spread of resistant bacteria. There are novel innovative methods to protect the host microbiota during antibiotic treatment, but they do not offer a solution for already established colonization by resistant microorganisms. Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is a promising intervention to achieve this goal; however, controlled trials report lower success rates than initial retrospective studies, especially in case of gram negatives. The aim of the present article is to highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiota in the global spread of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms and to review the recent advances to protect the human microbiota from the action of antibiotics as well as a critical discussion about the evidence of decolonization of MDR microorganisms by FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Oneto C, P Feuerstadt (2019)

Concise Commentary: Treatment of Recurrent C. difficile Infection: A New Take on the Fecal-Oral Route.

Digestive diseases and sciences, 64(6):1679.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Cammarota G, Gallo A, S Bibbò (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplant for C. difficile infection: Just say yes.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(19)30181-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The burden of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea is a worrying clinical issue worldwide, mainly as regarding the high incidence of recurrences after standard antibiotic therapy and the risk for more severe clinical manifestations. For this reason, new and more effective therapies are needed for the treatment of recurrent episodes. Fecal microbiota transplantation seems to be a valid tool considering the mechanism of action and the growing number of studies that demonstrate its clinical efficacy.

RevDate: 2019-10-22

Dai M, Liu Y, Chen W, et al (2019)

Rescue fecal microbiota transplantation for antibiotic-associated diarrhea in critically ill patients.

Critical care (London, England), 23(1):324 pii:10.1186/s13054-019-2604-5.

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a risk factor for exacerbating the outcome of critically ill patients. Dysbiosis induced by the exposure to antibiotics reveals the potential therapeutic role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in these patients. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the safety and potential benefit of rescue FMT for AAD in critically ill patients.

METHODS: A series of critically ill patients with AAD received rescue FMT from Chinese fmtBank, from September 2015 to February 2019. Adverse events (AEs) and rescue FMT success which focused on the improvement of abdominal symptoms and post-ICU survival rate during a minimum of 12 weeks follow-up were assessed.

RESULTS: Twenty critically ill patients with AAD underwent rescue FMT, and 18 of them were included for analysis. The mean of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at intensive care unit (ICU) admission was 21.7 ± 8.3 (range 11-37). Thirteen patients received FMT through nasojejunal tube, four through gastroscopy, and one through enema. Patients were treated with four (4.2 ± 2.1, range 2-9) types of antibiotics before and during the onset of AAD. 38.9% (7/18) of patients had FMT-related AEs during follow-up, including increased diarrhea frequency, abdominal pain, increased serum amylase, and fever. Eight deaths unrelated to FMT occurred during follow-up. One hundred percent (2/2) of abdominal pain, 86.7% (13/15) of diarrhea, 69.2% (9/13) of abdominal distention, and 50% (1/2) of hematochezia were improved after FMT. 44.4% (8/18) of patients recovered from abdominal symptoms without recurrence and survived for a minimum of 12 weeks after being discharged from ICU.

CONCLUSION: In this case series studying the use of FMT in critically ill patients with AAD, good clinical outcomes without infectious complications were observed. These findings could potentially encourage researchers to set up new clinical trials that will provide more insight into the potential benefit and safety of the procedure in the ICU.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:, Number NCT03895593 . Registered 29 March 2019 (retrospectively registered).

RevDate: 2019-10-21

Gori S, Inno A, Belluomini L, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota and cancer: How gut microbiota modulates activity, efficacy and toxicity of antitumoral therapy.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 143:139-147 pii:S1040-8428(19)30184-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota is involved in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Also, it modulates the activity, efficacy and toxicity of several chemotherapy agents, such as gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, irinotecan, cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil, and target therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. More recently, accumulating data suggest that the composition of gut microbiota may also affect efficacy and toxicity of cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, the manipulation of gut microbiota through antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics or fecal transplantation has been investigating with the aim to improve efficacy and mitigate toxicity of anticancer drugs.

RevDate: 2019-10-19

Houben T, Penders J, Oligschlaeger Y, et al (2019)

Hematopoietic Npc1 mutation shifts gut microbiota composition in Ldlr-/- mice on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.

Scientific reports, 9(1):14956 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51525-x.

While the link between diet-induced changes in gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been established, the contribution of host genetics is rather unexplored. As several findings suggested a role for the lysosomal lipid transporter Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) in macrophages during MetS, we here explored whether a hematopoietic Npc1 mutation, induced via bone marrow transplantation, influences gut microbiota composition in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 12 weeks. Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFC diet mimic a human plasma lipoprotein profile and show features of MetS, providing a model to explore the role of host genetics on gut microbiota under MetS conditions. Fecal samples were used to profile the microbial composition by 16 s ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The hematopoietic Npc1 mutation shifted the gut microbiota composition and increased microbial richness and diversity. Variations in plasma lipid levels correlated with microbial diversity and richness as well as with several bacterial genera. This study suggests that host genetic influences on lipid metabolism affect the gut microbiome under MetS conditions. Future research investigating the role of host genetics on gut microbiota might therefore lead to identification of diagnostic and therapeutic targets for MetS.

RevDate: 2019-10-18

Xie WR, Yang XY, Xia HH, et al (2019)

Hair regrowth following fecal microbiota transplantation in an elderly patient with alopecia areata: A case report and review of the literature.

World journal of clinical cases, 7(19):3074-3081.

BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is a hair loss disease associated with genetics, autoimmunity, and other factors. There is an intriguing link between alopecia areata and gut dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recommended to treat Clostridium difficile (previously known as Clostridioides difficile) infection, and has also shown potentials in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and non-alcohol fatty liver disease.

CASE SUMMARY: An 86-year-old man, with a history of sigmoid colon carcinoma, suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and distension, and diarrhea for six months, with inappetence. At admission, he was also diagnosed with depression. Upon physical examination, the patient presented with a 1.5 cm × 2.0 cm alopecia areata on his right occiput. Due to the negative results of laboratory testing, capsule endoscopy, and colonoscopy, the patient was diagnosed with noninfectious diarrhea, depressive disorder, and patchy alopecia areata. Considering that noninfectious diarrhea in the elderly patient was mainly caused by gut dysbiosis, he was given six rounds of FMT. His diarrhea improved remarkably one month after FMT, with improved appetite and disappearance of abdominal pain, distension, and depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, he reported new hair growth on the affected region of his scalp, with some of his white hair gradually turning to black, without taking any other therapies for alopecia areata before and after FMT.

CONCLUSION: FMT might act as a potential therapy for patients who suffer from alopecia areata. Large and well-designed studies are required to confirm the role of FMT in alopecia areata.

RevDate: 2019-10-18

Barathikannan K, Chelliah R, Rubab M, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiome Modulation Based on Probiotic Application for Anti-Obesity: A Review on Efficacy and Validation.

Microorganisms, 7(10): pii:microorganisms7100456.

The growing prevalence of obesity has become an important problem worldwide as obesity has several health risks. Notably, factors such as excessive food consumption, a sedentary way of life, high sugar consumption, a fat-rich diet, and a certain genetic profile may lead to obesity. The present review brings together recent advances regarding the significance of interventions involving intestinal gut bacteria and host metabolic phenotypes. We assess important biological molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of gut microbiota on hosts including bile salt metabolism, short-chain fatty acids, and metabolic endotoxemia. Some previous studies have shown a link between microbiota and obesity, and associated disease reports have been documented. Thus, this review focuses on obesity and gut microbiota interactions and further develops the mechanism of the gut microbiome approach related to human obesity. Specifically, we highlight several alternative diet treatments including dietary changes and supplementation with probiotics. The future direction or comparative significance of fecal transplantation, synbiotics, and metabolomics as an approach to the modulation of intestinal microbes is also discussed.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Albillos A, Gottardi A, M Rescigno (2019)

The gut-liver axis in liver disease: pathophysiological basis for therapy.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30604-X [Epub ahead of print].

The gut-liver axis refers to the bidirectional relationship between the gut and its microbiota, and the liver, resulting from the integration of signals generated by dietary, genetic and environmental factors. This reciprocal interaction is established through the vascular route of the portal vein that carries gut-derived products directly to the liver, and the liver feed-back route of bile and antibody secretion to the intestine. The intestinal mucosal and vascular barrier is the functional and anatomical structure that serves as a playground for the interactions between the gut and the liver, limiting the systemic dissemination of microbes and toxins while allowing nutrients to access the circulation and to reach the liver. The control of microbial communities is critical to maintain homeostasis of the gut-liver axis, and as part of the two-way communication the liver shapes intestinal microbial communities. Alcohol disrupts the gut-liver axis at multiple interconnected levels, including the gut microbiome, mucus, epithelial barrier and antimicrobial peptides production, which increases the microbial exposure and the pro-inflammatory environment of the liver. Growing evidences indicate the pathogenetic role of microbe-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine, secondary bile acids, SCFA and ethanol, in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis by itself is associated to profound alterations in gut microbiota and damage at the different levels of defense of the intestinal barrier, including the epithelial, the vascular and the immune barriers. The relevance of the severe disturbance of the intestinal barrier in cirrhosis has been linked to translocation of live bacteria, bacterial infections and disease progression. The identification of the elements of the gut-liver axis primarily damaged in each chronic liver disease offers possibilities to intervention. Beyond antibiotics, upcoming therapies centered in the gut include new generations of probiotics, bacterial metabolites (postbiotics), fecal microbial transplantation, and carbon nanoparticles. FXR-agonists target both the gut and the liver and are currently being tested in different liver diseases. Finally, synthetic biotic medicines, phages that target specific bacteria or therapies that create physical barriers between the gut and the liver offer new approaches of treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Zou M, Jie Z, Cui B, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation results in bacterial strain displacement in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

FEBS open bio [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is thought to have the potential to correct dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has been used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for almost a decade. Here, we report an interventional prospective cohort study performed to elucidate the extent of and processes underlying microbiota engraftment in IBD patients after FMT treatment. The cohort included two categories of patients: (1) patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD)(Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≥ 7, n = 11) and (2) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Montreal classification S2 and S3, n = 4). All patients were treated with a single FMT (via mid-gut, from healthy donors) and follow-up visits were performed at baseline, 3 days, one week, and one month after FMT (missing time points included). At each follow-up time point, fecal samples and clinical metadata were collected. For comparative analysis, 10 fecal samples from 10 healthy donors were included to represent the diversity level of normal gut microbiota. Additionally, the metagenomic data of 25 fecal samples from 5 individuals with metabolic syndrome who underwent autologous FMT treatment were downloaded from a previous published paper to represent fluctuations in microbiota induced during FMT. All fecal samples underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that 3 days after FMT, 11 out of 15 recipients were in remission (3 out of 4 UC recipients; 8 out of 11 CD recipients). Generally, bacterial colonization was observed to be lower in CD recipients than in UC recipients at both species and strain levels. Furthermore, across species, different strains displayed disease-specific displacement advantages under two-disease status. Finally, most post-FMT species (> 80%) could be properly predicted (AUC > 85%) using a random forest classification model, with the gut microbiota composition and clinical parameters of pre-FMT recipients acting as factors that contribute to prediction accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Mandrioli J, Amedei A, Cammarota G, et al (2019)

FETR-ALS Study Protocol: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Frontiers in neurology, 10:1021.

Background and Rationale: Among the key players in the pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), microglia and T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) are candidate cells for modifying the course of the disease. The gut microbiota (GM) acts by shaping immune tolerance and regulating the Treg number and suppressive function, besides circulating neuropeptides, and other immune cells that play in concert through the gut-brain axis. Previous mouse models have shown an altered enteric flora in early stage ALS, pointing to a possible GM role in ALS pathogenesis. Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) is a well-known therapeutic intervention used to re-establish the proper microenvironment and to modulate enteric and systemic immunity. Methods: We are going to perform a multicenter randomized double-blind clinical trial employing FMT as a therapeutic intervention for ALS patients (NCT0376632). Forty-two ALS patients, at an early stage, will be enrolled with a 2:1 allocation ratio (28 FMT-treated patients vs. 14 controls). Study duration will be 12 months per patient. Three endoscopic procedures for intestinal biopsies in FMT and control groups are predicted at baseline, month 6 and month 12; at baseline and at month 6 fresh feces from healthy donors will be infused at patients in the intervention arm. The primary outcome is a significant change in Treg number between FMT-treated patients and control arm from baseline to month 6. Secondary outcomes include specific biological aims, involving in-depth analysis of immune cells and inflammatory status changes, central and peripheral biomarkers of ALS, besides comprehensive analysis of the gut, saliva and fecal microbiota. Other secondary aims include validated clinical outcomes of ALS (survival, forced vital capacity, and modifications in ALSFRS-R), besides safety and quality of life. Expected Results: We await FMT to increase Treg number and suppressive functionality, switching the immune system surrounding motorneurons to an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective status. Extensive analysis on immune cell populations, cytokines levels, and microbiota (gut, fecal and saliva) will shed light on early processes possibly leading the degenerative ALS course. Conclusions: This is the first trial with FMT as a potential intervention to modify immunological response to ALS and disease progression at an early stage.

RevDate: 2019-10-17
CmpDate: 2019-10-17

Mullish BH, McDonald JAK, Pechlivanis A, et al (2019)

Microbial bile salt hydrolases mediate the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

Gut, 68(10):1791-1800.

OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) effectively treats recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI), but its mechanisms of action remain poorly defined. Certain bile acids affect C. difficile germination or vegetative growth. We hypothesised that loss of gut microbiota-derived bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) predisposes to CDI by perturbing gut bile metabolism, and that BSH restitution is a key mediator of FMT's efficacy in treating the condition.

DESIGN: Using stool collected from patients and donors pre-FMT/post-FMT for rCDI, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) bile acid profiling, BSH activity measurement, and qPCR of bsh/baiCD genes involved in bile metabolism. Human data were validated in C. difficile batch cultures and a C57BL/6 mouse model of rCDI.

RESULTS: From metataxonomics, pre-FMT stool demonstrated a reduced proportion of BSH-producing bacterial species compared with donors/post-FMT. Pre-FMT stool was enriched in taurocholic acid (TCA, a potent C. difficile germinant); TCA levels negatively correlated with key bacterial genera containing BSH-producing organisms. Post-FMT samples demonstrated recovered BSH activity and bsh/baiCD gene copy number compared with pretreatment (p<0.05). In batch cultures, supernatant from engineered bsh-expressing E. coli and naturally BSH-producing organisms (Bacteroides ovatus, Collinsella aerofaciens, Bacteroides vulgatus and Blautia obeum) reduced TCA-mediated C. difficile germination relative to culture supernatant of wild-type (BSH-negative) E. coli. C. difficile total viable counts were ~70% reduced in an rCDI mouse model after administration of E. coli expressing highly active BSH relative to mice administered BSH-negative E. coli (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Restoration of gut BSH functionality contributes to the efficacy of FMT in treating rCDI.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Spinner JA, Bocchini CE, Luna RA, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in a toddler after heart transplant was a safe and effective treatment for recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection: A case report.

Pediatric recipients of SOT have a significantly increased risk of Clostridiodes (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI), which is associated with adverse outcomes after SOT. Alterations to the intestinal microbiota community structure increase the risk of CDI. FMT is a safe and effective treatment for recurrent CDI in immunocompetent children and adults. While there are increasing data that FMT in immunosuppressed patients is safe and effective without increased risk of infection, data regarding safety and efficacy of FMT in children after SOT are limited. To our knowledge, we report the youngest immunocompromised patient to undergo FMT and the third overall case of FMT in a child after HTx. Our patient presented with five episodes of rCDI in 6 months, and 16S rRNA genetic analysis revealed significant loss of overall microbiota community structure and diversity prior to FMT compared with a donor and a healthy, age-matched control. After FMT, marked and prolonged (at least 16 months) shifts in the recipient microbiota community structure and diversity were evident, approaching that of donor and healthy, age-matched control. FMT was well tolerated, restored microbial diversity without any graft or transplant complications, and prevented further rCDI episodes after more than 4 years of follow-up.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Sharma A, Das P, Buschmann M, et al (2019)

The future of microbiome-based therapeutics in clinical applications.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome, a collection of microorganisms, their genomes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, is akin to a human organ, and knowledge is emerging on its role in human health and diseases. The influence of the microbiome in drug response has only been investigated in detail for the last 10 years. The human microbiome is a complex and highly dynamic system, which varies dramatically between individuals, yet there exists a common core microbiome that is heritable and can be transmitted to progeny. Here, we review the role of the human microbiome, which is now widely accepted as a major factor that drives the interpersonal variation in therapeutic response. We describe examples in which the microbiome modifies drug action. Despite its complexity, the microbiome can be readily altered, with the potential to increase the benefits and reduce the toxicity and side-effects associated with pharmaceutical drugs. The potential of new microbiome-based strategies, such as Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT), probiotics and phage therapy as promising medical therapeutics are outlined. We also suggest a combination reductionist and system-level approaches that could be applied to further investigate the role of microbiota in drug metabolism modulation of drug response. Finally, we emphasize the importance of combining microbiome and pharmacology studies, as a novel means to treat disease and reduce side effects.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Heimesaat MM, Mrazek K, S Bereswill (2019)

Murine Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviates Intestinal and Systemic Immune Responses in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Mice Harboring a Human Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2272.

Human campylobacteriosis constitutes a zoonotic food-borne disease and a progressively rising health burden of significant socioeconomic impact. We have recently shown that conventional mice are protected from Campylobacter jejuni infection, which was not the case for human microbiota associated (hma) mice indicating that the host-specific gut microbiota composition primarily determines susceptibility to or resistance against C. jejuni infection. In our present preclinical intervention study we addressed whether gut microbiota changes in stably C. jejuni infected hma mice following murine fecal microbiota transplantation (mFMT) could alleviate pathogen-induced immune responses. To accomplish this, secondary abiotic C57BL/6 mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, perorally reassociated with a complex human gut microbiota and challenged with C. jejuni by gavage. Seven days later C. jejuni infected hma mice were subjected to peroral mFMT on 3 consecutive days. Within a week post-mFMT fecal pathogenic burdens had decreased by two orders of magnitude, whereas distinct changes in the gut microbiota composition with elevated numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be assessed. In addition, mFMT resulted in less C. jejuni induced apoptotic responses in colonic epithelia, reduced numbers of macrophages and monocytes as well as of T lymphocytes in the large intestinal mucosa and lamina propria and in less distinct intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as compared to mock challenge. Strikingly, inflammation dampening effects of mFMT were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically as indicated by elevated serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in C. jejuni infected hma mice of the mock, but not the mFMT cohort. In conclusion, our preclinical mFMT intervention study provides evidence that changes in the gut microbiota composition which might be achieved by pre- or probiotic formulations may effectively lower intestinal C. jejuni loads, dampen both, pathogen-induced intestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae and may represent a useful tool to treat continuous shedding of C. jejuni by asymptomatic carriers which is critical in the context of food production, hospitalization and immunosuppression.

RevDate: 2019-10-16
CmpDate: 2019-10-16

Hart ML, Ericsson AC, Lloyd KCK, et al (2018)

Development of outbred CD1 mouse colonies with distinct standardized gut microbiota profiles for use in complex microbiota targeted studies.

Scientific reports, 8(1):10107.

Studies indicate that the gut microbiota (GM) can significantly influence both local and systemic host physiologic processes. With rising concern for optimization of experimental reproducibility and translatability, it is essential to consider the GM in study design. However, GM profiles can vary between rodent producers making consistency between models challenging. To circumvent this, we developed outbred CD1 mouse colonies with stable, complex GM profiles that can be used as donors for a variety of GM transfer techniques including rederivation, co-housing, cross-foster, and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT). CD1 embryos were surgically transferred into CD1 or C57BL/6 surrogate dams that varied by GM composition and complexity to establish four separate mouse colonies harboring GM profiles representative of contemporary mouse producers. Using targeted 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, subsequent female offspring were found to have similar GM profiles to surrogate dams. Furthermore, breeding colonies of CD1 mice with distinct GM profiles were maintained for nine generations, demonstrating GM stability within these colonies. To confirm GM stability, we shipped cohorts of these four colonies to collaborating institutions and found no significant variation in GM composition. These mice are an invaluable experimental resource that can be used to investigate GM effects on mouse model phenotype.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Ersöz Alan B, F Gülerman (2019)

[The Role of Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

Turk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry, 30(3):210-219.

Human microbiota are colonies of microorganisms located in different parts of the human body with diverse functions. Healthy gut microbiota comprises differing ratios of microoganisms wholly contributing to metabolic and other molecular reactions in a healthy, functioning body. After the demonstration of the bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and gut microbiota through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms, investigations have been started on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in psychiatric disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood, is one of these disorders. Most of such studies were cross-sectional and mainly investigated the bacterial species. Changes in gut microbiota composition and the leaky gut syndrome are some of the hypotheses proposed to explain the core symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of ASD. Probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, diet have been proposed as treatment options. However, the role of microbiota in diagnosis, followup, and treatment is not yet clear. The bidirectional interaction between central nervous system and intestinal microbiota makes it difficult to establish the cause-effect relationship. The current data on microbiota may be useful to plan patient-specific treatment in autistic children with GI symptoms. This article aims to review the results of the studies on microbiota in animal models and children and discuss the emerging clinical relationship of ASD and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Abu-Sbeih H, Ali FS, Y Wang (2019)

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors induced diarrhea and colitis: a review of incidence, pathogenesis and management.

Current opinion in gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diarrhea and colitis are among the most commonly encountered immune-mediated adverse events among patients receiving antiprogrammed cell death protein/ligand-1 (PD-1/L1) as well as anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. With growing indications and widespread use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, it is imperative to summarize the current body of evidence concerning the incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options currently available for the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis. Additionally, with emerging evidence analyzing the resumption of immune checkpoint inhibitors, it is pivotal to summarize our current understanding and future challenges.

RECENT FINDINGS: Immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis can potentially be a viable surrogate marker for improved survival as it is validated further in large-scale studies. Early endoscopic evaluation can aid in the identification of patients at risk of developing steroid refractory immune-mediated colitis, and hence can be chosen to receive early add-on therapy with infliximab, vedolizumab or fecal microbiota transplantation, an emerging treatment option for immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis. Resuming immune checkpoint inhibitors carries a manageable risk of recurrent diarrhea and colitis, with most cases being mild and effectively managed with immunosuppressive therapy.

SUMMARY: As our understanding of immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis grows, it is likely that this clinicopathologic entity will represent more than just an adverse event. With a growing number of treatment options, the management algorithms for immune-mediated diarrhea/colitis are likely to evolve in the future.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Bruno G, Gagliardi A, Oliva A, et al (2019)

Fecal Microbial Transplantation impact on gut microbiota composition and metabolome, microbial translocation and T-lymphocyte immune activation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection patients.

The new microbiologica, 42(4): pii:496N116 [Epub ahead of print].

This short communication reports the preliminary results of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) impact on microbiota, microbial translocation (MT), and immune activation in four recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) patients. After FMT a restore of gut microbiota composition with a significant increase of fecal acetyl-putrescine and spermidine and fecal acetate and butyrate, a decrease of immune activation of T cells CD4+ and CD8+levels, and of LPS binding protein (LBP) level, were observed. Preliminary results indicate that FMT seems to be helpful not only as a CDI radical cure, with an impact on fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles, but also on MT and immune activation.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Lin TC, Hung YP, Ko WC, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection in Taiwan: Establishment and implementation.

Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi pii:S1684-1182(19)30142-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a major public health issue, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become one of the standard therapies for recurrent or refractory CDI. When compared to medical therapies, such as metronidazole or vancomycin, FMT has a high rate of treatment response with acceptable safety and efficiency. Following promulgation of the amendments in September 2018 in Taiwan, FMT has been indicated for recurrent or refractory CDI. The Taiwan Microbiota Consortium contributed to the Taiwan FMT Expert Consensus, which established basic norms and stipulated essential principles, including the indications for transplantation, eligible locations and personnel, donor screening policies, fecal sample handling, and post-FMT follow-up. However, establishing an eligible FMT team in a qualified hospital remains a clinical challenge, and the requirement for facilities and well-screened donors impedes the implementation of FMT. In this review, we aim to provide domestic FMT teams with explicit instructions to facilitate realization and increase the practice of FMT. Based on the Taiwan FMT Expert Consensus and current regulations, we performed a literature review and integrated the experiences of Taiwanese multidisciplinary experts into this article. The content intends to offer clinicians up-to-date evidence and highlight the essential points of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Chu H, Duan Y, Lang S, et al (2019)

The Candida albicans exotoxin Candidalysin promotes alcohol-associated liver disease.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30599-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol-associated liver disease is a leading indication for liver transplantation and leading cause of mortality. Alterations of the gut microbiota contribute to pathogenesis of alcohol-associated liver disease. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have increased proportions of Candida spp. in the fecal mycobiome. However, little is known about the effect of intestinal Candida on alcohol-associated liver disease. Here we evaluated the contributions of Candida albicans and its exotoxin Candidalysin on alcoholic liver disease.

METHODS: C. albicans and ECE1 were analyzed in fecal samples from controls, patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis. Mice colonized with different and genetically manipulated C. albicans strains were subjected to the chronic-plus-binge ethanol diet model. Primary hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with Candidalysin.

RESULTS: The percentages of subjects carrying ECE1 are 0%, 4.76% and 30.77% in non-alcoholic controls, alcohol use disorder patients and alcoholic hepatitis patients, respectively. Candidalysin exacerbates ethanol-induced liver disease and is associated with increased mortality in mice. Candidalysin enhances ethanol-induced liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells, and Candidalysin does not alter gut barrier function. Candidalysin can damage primary hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and is associated with liver disease severity and mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Candidalysin is associated with progression of ethanol-induced liver disease in preclinical models and worse clinical outcomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

LAY SUMMARY: Candidalysin is a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans. Candidalysin enhances alcohol-associated liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells in mice without affecting intestinal permeability. Candidalysin is cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes, indicating a direct role of Candidalysin on ethanol-induced liver disease. Candidalysin might be an effective target for therapy in patients with alcohol-associated liver disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Madar PC, Petre O, Baban A, et al (2019)

Medical students' perception on fecal microbiota transplantation.

BMC medical education, 19(1):368 pii:10.1186/s12909-019-1804-7.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become an emergent method in the therapy of several intestinal diseases, mainly in Clostridium difficile recurrence. The training of FMT in medical schools is at its beginning and in countries where FMT is only occasionally carried out, it is important to know the perception of medical students on FMT.

METHODS: We undertook a survey of 3rd year medical students not exposed to official academic information on FMT in order to find out their knowledge, beliefs and attitude toward FMT. A number of 80 students were asked to fill a dedicated online questionnaire.

RESULTS: 52 out of 80 third year medical students anonymously filled the questionnaire (65% response rate). 34% of respondents reported to have at least a medium level of knowledge regarding FMT. The top indication for FMT identified by 76.9% was C. difficile infection; however, 60% believed FMT to be a promising therapy for a high number of conditions and while almost all respondents (98.1%) would recommend it, 88.4% would explore other options first. Colonoscopy was considered the optimal method of delivery by 42.3%. Only 39% of participants believed that patients would accept FMT, however 71% considered that a more socially acceptable name for the procedure and anonymous donors would increase acceptance rate. The risk of transmitting a disease undetected by donor stool screening procedures to the recipient was the most worrying side effect considered by 75% of respondents. 54% believed that more research is required for FMT to enter clinical practice and 55.7% of respondents would enroll patients in controlled clinical trials.

CONCLUSIONS: Medical students not exposed to educational information on FMT seem to be somewhat well informed about this method and would recommend it to their patients. Students, however, need to know more on the indications of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-11
CmpDate: 2019-10-11

Paramsothy S, NO Kaakoush (2019)


Gastroenterology, 157(4):1165-1166.

RevDate: 2019-10-11
CmpDate: 2019-10-11

Kellermayer R (2019)

Roseburia Species: Prime Candidates for Microbial Therapeutics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Gastroenterology, 157(4):1164-1165.

RevDate: 2019-10-10

Duvallet C, Zellmer C, Panchal P, et al (2019)

Framework for rational donor selection in fecal microbiota transplant clinical trials.

PloS one, 14(10):e0222881 pii:PONE-D-19-13813.

Early clinical successes are driving enthusiasm for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), the transfer of healthy gut bacteria through whole stool, as emerging research is linking the microbiome to many different diseases. However, preliminary trials have yielded mixed results and suggest that heterogeneity in donor stool may play a role in patient response. Thus, clinical trials may fail because an ineffective donor was chosen rather than because FMT is not appropriate for the indication. Here, we describe a conceptual framework to guide rational donor selection to increase the likelihood that FMT clinical trials will succeed. We argue that the mechanism by which the microbiome is hypothesized to be associated with a given indication should inform how healthy donors are selected for FMT trials, categorizing these mechanisms into four disease models and presenting associated donor selection strategies. We next walk through examples based on previously published FMT trials and ongoing investigations to illustrate how donor selection might occur in practice. Finally, we show that typical FMT trials are not powered to discover individual taxa mediating patient responses, suggesting that clinicians should develop targeted hypotheses for retrospective analyses and design their clinical trials accordingly. Moving forward, developing and applying novel clinical trial design methodologies like rational donor selection will be necessary to ensure that FMT successfully translates into clinical impact.

RevDate: 2019-10-10

Shah H, P Zezos (2019)

Pouchitis: diagnosis and management.

Current opinion in gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pouchitis is the most common complication in patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), occurring more frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis - the inflammation of the pouch - can be due to idiopathic or secondary causes. Chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (CADP) and chronic antibiotic-resistant pouchitis (CARP) are the most difficult forms of chronic idiopathic pouchitis to treat. Crohn's disease of the pouch may develop de novo in ulcerative colitis patients following colectomy with IPAA. It carries a high risk for pouch failure, and its diagnosis and management are challenging. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the present trends in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pouchitis and Crohn's disease of the pouch.

RECENT FINDINGS: The use of the newer biologic agents, vedolizumab and ustekinumab, has shown promising results in patients with CADP, CARP, and Crohn's disease of the pouch. Fecal microbiota transplantation has also been reported to have encouraging preliminary results in small studies and case series for the treatment of chronic pouchitis.

SUMMARY: Promising new treatments are emerging for difficult-to-treat forms of pouchitis. Larger prospective and head-to-head comparative studies among the various treatments are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents across the pouchitis subgroups, and to identify predictors of response.

RevDate: 2019-10-10
CmpDate: 2019-10-10

Frye RE (2018)

Social Skills Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Biological Origins and Progress in Developing Therapeutic Agents.

CNS drugs, 32(8):713-734.

Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception. Abnormalities identified in early social skill development and an overview of the pathophysiology abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder are discussed as are the abnormalities in brain circuits associated with the social function deficit. Previous and ongoing clinical trials examining agents that have the potential to improve social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorder are discussed in detail. This discussion reveals that agents such as oxytocin and propranolol are particularly promising and undergoing active investigation, while other agents such as vasopressin agonists and antagonists are being activity investigated but have limited published evidence at this time. In addition, agents such as bumetanide and manipulation of the enteric microbiome using microbiota transfer therapy appear to have promising effects on core autism spectrum disorder symptoms including social function. Other pertinent issues associated with developing treatments in autism spectrum disorder, such as disease heterogeneity, high placebo response rates, trial design, and the most appropriate way of assessing effects on social skills (outcome measures), are also discussed.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Mashaqi S, D Gozal (2019)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Systemic Hypertension: Gut Dysbiosis as the Mediator?.

Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 15(10):1517-1527.

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and systemic hypertension (SH) are common and interrelated diseases. It is estimated that approximately 75% of treatment-resistant hypertension cases have an underlying OSA. Exploration of the gut microbiome is a new advance in medicine that has been linked to many comorbid illnesses, including SH and OSA. Here, we will review the literature in SH and gut dysbiosis, OSA and gut dysbiosis, and whether gut dysbiosis is common in both conditions.

METHODS: We reviewed the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, including PubMed and PubMed Central. We identified a total of 230 articles. The literature search was conducted using the phrase "obstructive sleep apnea and gut dysbiosis." Only original research articles were included. This yielded a total of 12 articles.

RESULTS: Most of the research conducted in this field was on animal models, and almost all trials confirmed that intermittent hypoxia models resulted in gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis, however, can cause a state of low-grade inflammation through damage to the gut wall barrier resulting in "leaky gut." Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of OSA-induced SH.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut dysbiosis seems to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of OSA-induced hypertension. Reversing gut dysbiosis at an early stage through prebiotics and probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation combined with positive airway pressure therapy may open new horizons of treatment to prevent SH. More studies are needed in humans to elicit the effect of positive airway pressure therapy on gut dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Li L, Li X, Zhong W, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota from colorectal cancer patients enhances the progression of intestinal adenoma in Apcmin/+ mice.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(19)30625-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence points to a close relationship between gut dysbiosis and colorectal cancer (CRC). As >90% of CRC develop from adenoma, we aimed to investigate the crucial role of imbalanced gut microbiota on the progression of intestinal adenoma.

METHODS: The Apcmin/+ mice gavage with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), feces from healthy controls or CRC patients after antibiotic cocktails. The intestinal tissues were isolated for histopathology, western blotting, and RNA-seq. The microbiota of feces and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analysed by 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing and gas chromatography.

FINDINGS: The Apcmin/+mice gavaged by feces from CRC patients had more intestinal tumours compared with those fed with feces from healthy controls or PBS. Administration of feces from CRC patients increased tumour proliferation and decreased apoptosis in tumour cells, accompanied by impairment of gut barrier function and up-regulation the pro-inflammatory cytokines profile. The up-regulated the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 further indicating the activation of Wnt signalling pathway. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria was increased after FMT, while producing SCFAs bacteria and SCFAs production were decreased.

INTERPRETATION: Gut microbiota of CRC patients disrupted intestinal barrier, induced low-grade inflammation and dysbiosis. The altered gut microbiota enhanced the progression of intestinal adenomas in Apcmin/+mice, suggesting that a new strategy to target gut microbiota against CRC could be noted. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Tianjin Research Programme of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology of China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Benno P, Norin E, Midtvedt T, et al (2019)

Therapeutic potential of an anaerobic cultured human intestinal microbiota, ACHIM, for treatment of IBS.

Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology, 40-41:101607.

By administering an anaerobic cultivated human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM) via upper gastrointestinal route using endoscopy we aimed to rectify intestinal dysbiosis and simultaneously achieve a treatment response in IBS patients. The study population fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria and comprised 50 patients. During 10 days, patients recorded the irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) along with the Bristol stool scale and number of stools/day. The enrolled patients were categorized as follows: 37 with diarrhea, 5 with constipation and 8 with mixed symptoms. The treatment response showed reduction in a majority of patients, 32 of which with 50-point reduction of IBS-SSS and 21 with a 100-point IBS-SSS reduction. The percentage improvement was 36 (23-49) and 28 (18-38) for women and men respectively. Short-chain fatty acids were not changed. We consider fecal microbiota transplantation in the form of ACHIM as an option for the future therapeutic armamentarium in IBS. REGISTERED TRIAL: NCT02857257.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Yin G, Li JF, Sun YF, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation as a novel therapy for severe psoriasis].

Zhonghua nei ke za zhi, 58(10):782-785.

To explore the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for severe psoriasis. A patient, male, 36 years old, diagnosed as severe plaque psoriasis for 10 years and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for 15 years, was administrated twice FMT via both upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with a 5-week interval. The following items were used to evaluate responses: body surface area (BSA), psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), dermatology life quality index (DLQI), histological examination, intestinal symptoms, adverse reactions and serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. After second FMT treatment for 5 weeks, aforementioned items were improved greatly compared with those before treatment. Moreover, IBS was completely relieved and no adverse reactions were observed during the treatment and follow-up. In conclusion, FMT could be a novel therapy for psoriasis. Further clinical trials are needed to provide solid evidences.

RevDate: 2019-10-07
CmpDate: 2019-10-07

Majid A, M Jamali (2018)

Faecal microbial transplant: Therapy of the past, magic pill of the present?.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 68(4):691.

RevDate: 2019-10-06

Aggeletopoulou I, Konstantakis C, Assimakopoulos SF, et al (2019)

The role of the gut microbiota in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(19)30957-X [Epub ahead of print].

The human intestinal microbiota coevolves with its host through a symbiotic relationship and exerts great influence on substantial functions including aspects of physiology, metabolism, nutrition and regulation of immune responses leading to physiological homeostasis. Over the last years, several studies have been conducted toward the assessment of the host-gut microbiota interaction, aiming to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several diseases. A defect on the microbiota-host crosstalk and the concomitant dysregulation of immune responses combined with genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To this end, novel therapeutic options based on the gut microbiota modulation have been an area of extensive research interest. In this review we present the recent findings on the association of dysbiosis with IBD pathogenesis, we focus on the role of gut microbiota on the treatment of IBD and discuss the novel and currently available therapeutic strategies in manipulating the composition and function of gut microbiota in IBD patients. Applicable and emerging microbiota treatment modalities, such as the use of antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) constitute promising therapeutic options. However, the therapeutic potential of the aforementioned approaches is a topic of investigation and further studies are needed to elucidate their position in the present treatment algorithms of IBD.

RevDate: 2019-10-06

Song M, Chan AT, J Sun (2019)

Influence of the Gut Microbiome, Diet, and Environment on Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(19)41369-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and processed meat. These factors alter microbiome structure and function, along with the metabolic and immune pathways that mediate CRC development. We review epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for the influence of the microbiome, diet, and environmental factors on CRC incidence and outcomes. Based on these data, features of the intestinal microbiome might be used for CRC screening and modified for chemoprevention and treatment. Integrated prospective studies are urgently needed to investigate these strategies.

RevDate: 2019-10-04

Dougé A, Bay JO, Ravinet A, et al (2019)

[Intestinal microbiota and allogeneic stem cell transplantation].

Bulletin du cancer pii:S0007-4551(19)30330-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Allogeneic hematopoïetic stem cell transplantation is one of the most efficient curative treatment for acute leukemia. But it is also a heavy process with an important risk of complications, particularly infection and graft versus host disease. Increasing data in literature show that an alteration of the intestinal microbiota of allogeneic stem cell recipients is associated with these complications. Indeed, treatments used during conditioning regimen lead to an impaired microbiota, which cannot fulfill its protective functions anymore. To limit this microbiota impairment, we could restore a healthy microbiota by a fecal microbiota transplantation, which has already shown its efficiency in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this review is to describe the intestinal microbiota, the link between microbiota and complications of allogeneic stem cells transplantation, and the recent published data on fecal microbiota transplantation in this field.

RevDate: 2019-10-03

Drewes JL, Corona A, Sanchez U, et al (2019)

Transmission and clearance of potential procarcinogenic bacteria during fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile.

JCI insight, 4(19): pii:130848.

BACKGROUNDFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) in adults and children, but donor stool samples are currently screened for only a limited number of potential pathogens. We sought to determine whether putative procarcinogenic bacteria (enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Escherichia coli harboring the colibactin toxin) could be durably transmitted from donors to patients during FMT.METHODSStool samples were collected from 11 pediatric rCDI patients and their respective FMT donors prior to FMT as well as from the patients at 2-10 weeks, 10-20 weeks, and 6 months after FMT. Bacterial virulence factors in stool DNA extracts and stool cultures were measured by quantitative PCR: Bacteroides fragilis toxin (bft), Fusobacterium adhesin A (fadA), and Escherichia coli colibactin (clbB).RESULTSFour of 11 patients demonstrated sustained acquisition of a procarcinogenic bacteria. Whole genome sequencing was performed on colony isolates from one of these donor/recipient pairs and demonstrated that clbB+ E. coli strains present in the recipient after FMT were identical to a strain present in the donor, confirming strain transmission. Conversely, 2 patients exhibited clearance of procarcinogenic bacteria following FMT from a negative donor.CONCLUSIONBoth durable transmission and clearance of procarcinogenic bacteria occurred following FMT, suggesting that additional studies on appropriate screening measures for FMT donors and the long-term consequences and/or benefits of FMT are warranted.FUNDINGCrohn's & Colitis Foundation, the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Genton L, Mareschal J, Charretier Y, et al (2019)

Targeting the Gut Microbiota to Treat Cachexia.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:305.

Cachexia occurs in many chronic diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is treated by nutritional support but often with limited effectiveness, leading to the search of other therapeutic strategies. The modulation of gut microbiota, whether through pro-, pre-, syn- or antibiotics or fecal transplantation, is attracting ever-growing interest in the field of obesity, but could also be an interesting and innovative alternative for treating cachexia. This article reviews the evidence linking the features of malnutrition, as defined by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition [low body mass index (BMI), unintentional body weight loss, low muscle mass, low appetite, and systemic inflammation] and the gut microbiota in human adults with cachexia-associated diseases, and shows the limitations of the present research in that field with suggestions for future directions.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Zhou H, Tai J, Xu H, et al (2019)

Xanthoceraside Could Ameliorate Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms of Rats by Affecting the Gut Microbiota Composition and Modulating the Endogenous Metabolite Levels.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 10:1035.

Xanthoceraside (XAN) is a natural-derived compound with anti-Alzheimer activity from the husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia. Although its therapeutic effect had been confirmed in previous studies, the mechanism was still unclear due to its poor solubility and low permeability. In this study, the pharmacological effect of XAN on Alzheimer's disease (AD) was confirmed by behavior experiments and H&E staining observation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment also replicated the therapeutic effects, which indicates the potential targets of XAN on gut microbiota. The sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples demonstrated that XAN reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis in AD animals. XAN could change the relative abundances of several phyla and genus of bacterial, particularly the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. Among them, Clostridium IV, Desulfovibrio, Corynebacterium, and Enterorhabdus had been reported to be involved in the pathologic developments of AD and other central nervous system disease. In metabolomics study, a series of host endogenous metabolites were detected, including amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine, which were all closely associated with the development of AD. Combined with the Spearman's correlation analysis, it was confirmed that the increases of five bacterial strains and decreases of six bacterial strains were closely correlated with the increases of nine host metabolites and the decreases of another five host metabolites. Therefore, XAN can modulate the structure of gut microbiota in AD rats; the changes of gut microbiota were significantly correlated with endogenous metabolites, and symptom of AD was ultimately alleviated. Our findings suggest that XAN may be a potential therapeutic drug for AD, and the gut microbiota may be potential targeting territory of XAN via microbiome-gut-brain pathway.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Liu Y, Chen K, Li F, et al (2019)

Probiotic LGG prevents liver fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic bile acid synthesis and enhancing bile acid excretion in mice.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) [Epub ahead of print].

Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by gut dysbiosis and excessive toxic hepatic bile acids (BAs). Modification of gut microbiota and repression of BA synthesis are potential strategies for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects and to understand the mechanisms of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), on hepatic bile acid synthesis, liver injury and fibrosis in bile-duct ligation (BDL) and Mdr2-/- mice. Global and intestinal specific FXR inhibitors were used to dissect the role of FXR. LGG treatment significantly attenuated liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis with a significant reduction of hepatic BAs in BDL mice. Hepatic concentration of T-βMCA, an FXR antagonist, was markedly increased in BDL mice and reduced in LGG-treated mice, while chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an FXR agonist, was decreased in BDL mice and normalized in LGG-treated mice. LGG treatment significantly increased the expression of serum and ileum FGF15 and subsequently reduced hepatic CYP7A1 and BA synthesis in BDL and Mdr2-/- mice. At the molecular level, these changes were reversed by global and intestinal specific FXR inhibitors in BDL mice. In addition, LGG treatment altered gut microbiota, which was associated with increased BA de-conjugation and increased fecal and urine BA excretion both in BDL and Mdr2-/- mice. In vitro studies showed that LGG suppressed the inhibitory effect of T-βMCA on FXR and FGF19 expression in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: LGG supplementation decreases hepatic BA by increasing intestinal FXR/FGF15 signaling pathway-mediated suppression of BA de novo synthesis and enhances BA excretion, which prevents excessive BA-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mice.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Elangovan A, Allegretti JR, M Fischer (2019)

Microbiota modulation-based therapy for Luminal GI disorders: Current Applications of Probiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Expert opinion on biological therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Alteration in the intestinal microbiota also termed as intestinal dysbiosis has been demonstrated in numerous gastrointestinal disorders linked to aberrant immune processes, acquisition of pathogenic organisms and often administration of antibiotics. Restoration of microbiota through probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained tremendous popularity among researchers in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Areas covered: In this review, studies testing the safety and efficacy of probiotics and FMT for the treatment of various infectious and inflammatory luminal gastrointestinal diseases are reviewed. Randomized control studies are given priority while important uncontrolled studies are also highlighted. Expert Opinion: Probiotics have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Their utility in the primary and secondary prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection is debatable. The future of medicine should bring forth a personalized approach to probiotic use. FMT has revolutionized the treatment of recurrent CDI as well as severe and fulminant CDI. At the same time, it has galvanized gut microbiota research in the last decade. While FMT in ulcerative colitis appears promising, further studies on the durability and long-term safety are needed before it can be recommended in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Ma J, Li J, Qian M, et al (2019)

The comprehensive pathophysiological changes in a novel rat model of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [Epub ahead of print].

So far, a comprehensive animal model that can mimic both the central and peripheral pathophysiological changes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is lacking. Here, we developed a novel IBS rat model combining trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (designated as TC-IBS) and compared it with the TNBS-induced and CUMS-induced models. TC-IBS showed a pronounced depression phenotype with increased corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR)1 and CRHR2 expression at the frontal cortex and increased serum ACTH concentration. Visceral hypersensitivity (VH), as evidenced by colorectal distention (CRD) test, was highest in TC-IBS, accompanied by increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level and colonic 5-HT receptor 3A (5-HT3AR)/5-HT receptor 2B expression, impaired tight junction protein expression including occludin, zonula occludens-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. Palonosetron, a second generation of 5-HT3AR antagonist, alleviated VH significantly in TC-IBS. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that TNBS plus CUMS induced a significant disturbance of the gut microbiota. Cytokine profile analysis of TC-IBS model indicated an innate immune activation both in serum and colonic mucosa. Further, fecal microbiota transplantation improved VH and some pathophysiological changes in TC-IBS. In summary, we established a postinflammatory IBS model covering multifactorial pathophysiological changes, which may help to develop therapies that target specific IBS subtype.-Ma, J., Li, J., Qian, M., He, N., Cao, Y., Liu, Y., Wu, K., He, S. The comprehensive pathophysiological changes in a novel rat model of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.

RevDate: 2019-10-02
CmpDate: 2019-10-02

Zaheer M, Wang C, Bian F, et al (2018)

Protective role of commensal bacteria in Sjögren Syndrome.

Journal of autoimmunity, 93:45-56.

CD25 knock-out (CD25KO) mice spontaneously develop Sjögren Syndrome (SS)-like inflammation. We investigated the role of commensal bacteria by comparing CD25KO mice housed in conventional or germ-free conditions. Germ-free CD25KO mice have greater corneal barrier dysfunction, lower goblet cell density, increased total lymphocytic infiltration score, increased expression of IFN-γ, IL-12 and higher a frequency of CD4+IFN-γ+ cells than conventional mice. CD4+ T cells isolated from female germ-free CD25KO mice adoptively transferred to naive immunodeficient RAG1KO recipients caused more severe Sjögren-like disease than CD4+ T cells transferred from conventional CD25KO mice. Fecal transplant in germ-free CD25KO mice reversed the spontaneous dry eye phenotype and decreased the generation of pathogenic CD4+IFN-γ+ cells. Our studies indicate that lack of commensal bacteria accelerates the onset and severity of dacryoadenitis and generates autoreactive CD4+T cells with greater pathogenicity in the CD25KO model, suggesting that the commensal bacteria or their metabolites products have immunoregulatory properties that protect exocrine glands in the CD25KO SS model.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Zhang Z, Mocanu V, Cai C, et al (2019)

Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.

Nutrients, 11(10): pii:nu11102291.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Cammarota G, Ianiro G, Kelly CR, et al (2019)

International consensus conference on stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2019-319548 [Epub ahead of print].

Although faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), its widespread dissemination is limited by several obstacles, including lack of dedicated centres, difficulties with donor recruitment and complexities related to regulation and safety monitoring. Given the considerable burden of CDI on global healthcare systems, FMT should be widely available to most centres.Stool banks may guarantee reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for patients and a traceable workflow that ensures safety and quality of procedures. In this consensus project, FMT experts from Europe, North America and Australia gathered and released statements on the following issues related to the stool banking: general principles, objectives and organisation of the stool bank; selection and screening of donors; collection, preparation and storage of faeces; services and clients; registries, monitoring of outcomes and ethical issues; and the evolving role of FMT in clinical practice,Consensus on each statement was achieved through a Delphi process and then in a plenary face-to-face meeting. For each key issue, the best available evidence was assessed, with the aim of providing guidance for the development of stool banks in order to promote accessibility to FMT in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Gong Y, Dong R, Gao X, et al (2019)

Neohesperidin Prevents Colorectal Tumorigenesis by Altering the Gut Microbiota.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(19)31054-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Neohesperidin (NHP), derived from citrus fruits, has attracted considerable interest due to its preventative and therapeutic effects on numerous diseases. However, little progress has been made in determining the exact function of NHP on tumorigenesis. In the current study, we found that NHP inhibited colorectal tumorigenesis in the APC min/+ transgenic mouse model, as well as inducing apoptosis and blocking angiogenesis in vivo. Our in-cell study suggested that this tumorigenic preventative effect of NHP is not due to the direct impact on tumor cells. Intriguingly, by utilizing 16 s rRNA gene-based microbiota sequencing, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was decreased, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were increased in the presence of NHP. Additionally, the fecal microbiota transplantation experiment further revealed that feeding with fecal of NHP-treated mice induced considerable inhibition of tumorigenesis, which indicates that the alteration of gut microbiota is responsible for NHP-mediated prevention of colorectal tumorigenesis. Thus, our study not only suggests the efficacy of NHP as a potent natural product for preventing colorectal cancer but also proposes a compelling model to connect the gut microbiota to the preventative effect of NHP on tumorigenesis.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Smith AD, Foss ED, Zhang I, et al (2019)

Microbiota of MR1 deficient mice confer resistance against Clostridium difficile infection.

PloS one, 14(9):e0223025 pii:PONE-D-19-09497.

Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to CDI. To this end, wild-type (WT) and MR1-/- mice were treated with antibiotics and then infected with Cd spores. Surprisingly, MR1-/- mice exhibited resistance to Cd colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of feces revealed inherent differences in microbial composition. This colonization resistance was transferred from MR1-/- to WT mice via fecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting that MR1-dependent factors influence the microbiota, leading to CDI susceptibility.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Abu-Sbeih H, Y Wang (2019)

Management Considerations for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Enterocolitis Based on Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5574910 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has significantly improved the outcomes of various advanced malignancies that were deemed unruly prior to its invention. Immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis are among the most frequently encountered adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Given the increasing use of these therapies in the treatment of an ever-growing number of malignancies, providing appropriate treatment for such adverse effects has become crucial.

METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current body of evidence concerning the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis. Additionally, management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis is likened to that of inflammatory bowel disease, given the resemblance between both entities in pathogenesis and clinical features. Reviewing the literature raised several points regarding this devastating toxicity that still need further investigation by future efforts.

RESULTS: Endoscopic and histologic evaluation is pivotal in the assessment of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis and provides vital information regarding the severity of the disease to guide treatment. Corticosteroids are the main therapy for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis, with infliximab and vedolizumab as second-line agents. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has emerged as a treatment option for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis that is refractory to corticosteroids. Restarting immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy after resolution of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis carries a risk of recurrence that is mostly controllable with current immune-suppressive treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Lastly, we propose a management algorithm for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis. Prospective research, preferably as collaborative efforts from oncology and gastroenterology specialists, is needed to refine the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Hu Y, Xiao HY, He C, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation as an effective initial therapy for pancreatitis complicated with severe Clostridium difficile infection: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 7(17):2597-2604.

BACKGROUND: Moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) is a critical form of acute pancreatitis that is related with high morbidity and mortality. Severe Clostridium difficile infection (sCDI) is a serious and rare nosocomial diarrheal complication, especially in MSAP patients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for refractory and recurrent CDI (rCDI). However, knowledge regarding the initial use of FMT in patients suffering from sCDI is limited.

CASE SUMMARY: Here, we report an MSAP patient complicated with sCDI who was treated by FMT as a first-line therapy. The patient was a 51-year-old man who suffered from diarrhea in his course of acute pancreatitis. An enzyme immunoassay was performed to detect toxins, and the result was positive for toxin-producing C. difficile and toxin B and negative for C. difficile ribotype 027. The colonoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis. Due to these findings, sCDI was our primary consideration. Because the patient provided informed consent for FMT treatment, we initially treated the patient by FMT rather than metronidazole. Diarrhea resolved within 5 d after FMT. The patient remained asymptomatic, and the follow-up colonoscopy performed 40 d after discharge showed a complete recovery. Our case is the first reported in China.

CONCLUSION: This case explores the possibilities of initially using FMT to treat severe CDI. Moreover, FMT may become a critical component of the treatment for severe CDI in MSAP patients.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Zheng P, Li Y, Wu J, et al (2019)

Perturbed Microbial Ecology in Myasthenia Gravis: Evidence from the Gut Microbiome and Fecal Metabolome.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), 6(18):1901441 pii:ADVS1275.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a devastating acquired autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiome plays a key role in maintaining immune system homeostasis. This work reports that MG is characterized by decreased α-phylogenetic diversity, and significantly disturbed gut microbiome and fecal metabolome. The altered gut microbial composition is associated with fecal metabolome changes, with 38.75% of altered bacterial operational taxonomic units showing significant correlations with a range of metabolite biomarkers. Some microbes are particularly linked with MG severity. Moreover, a combination of microbial makers and their correlated metabolites enable discriminating MG from healthy controls (HCs) with 100% accuracy. To investigate whether disturbed gut mcirobiome might contribute to the onset of MG, germ-free (GF) mice are initially colonized with MG microbiota (MMb) or healthy microbiota (HMb), and then immunized in a classic mouse model of MG. The MMb mice demonstrate substantially impaired locomotion ability compared with the HMb mice. This effect could be reversed by cocolonizing GF mice with both MMb and HMb. The MMb mice also exhibit similar disturbances of fecal metabolic pathways as found in MG. Together these data demonstrate disturbances in microbiome composition and activity that are likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of MG.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Son DH, Park WJ, YJ Lee (2019)

Recent Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine.

Korean journal of family medicine, 40(5):289-296.

A rapidly aging population in Korea has led to increased attention in the field of anti-aging medicine. The purpose of anti-aging medicine is to slow, stop, or reverse the aging process and its associated effects, such as disability and frailty. Anti-aging medicine is emerging as a growing industry, but many supplements or protocols are available that do not have scientific evidence to support their claims. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of anti-aging interventions were examined and explained. Calorie restriction mimetics define compounds that imitate the outcome of calorie restriction, including an activator of AMP protein kinase (metformin), inhibitor of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis (pegvisomant), inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (rapamycin), and activator of the sirtuin pathway (resveratrol). Hormonal replacement has also been widely used in the elderly population to improve their quality of life. Manipulating healthy gut microbiota through prebiotic/probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation has significant potential in anti-aging medicine. Vitamin D is expected to be a primary anti-aging medicine in the near future due to its numerous positive effects in the elderly population.

RevDate: 2019-09-26

DeLong K, Bensouda S, Zulfiqar F, et al (2019)

Conceptual Design of a Universal Donor Screening Approach for Vaginal Microbiota Transplant.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:306.

The success of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection has led to growing excitement about the potential of using transplanted human material as a therapy for a wide range of diseases and conditions related to microbial dysbiosis. We anticipate that the next frontier of microbiota transplantation will be vaginal microbiota transplant (VMT). The composition of the vaginal microbiota has broad impact on sexual and reproductive health. The vaginal microbiota in the "optimal" state are one of the simplest communities, dominated by one of only a few species of Lactobacillus. Diversity in the microbiota and the concomitant depletion of lactobacilli, a condition referred to as bacterial vaginosis (BV), is associated with a wide range of deleterious effects, including increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections and increased likelihood of having a preterm birth. However, we have very few treatment options available, and none of them curative or restorative, for "resetting" the vaginal microbiota to a more protective state. In order to test the hypothesis that VMT may be a more effective treatment option, we must first determine how to screen donors to find those with minimal risk of pathogen transmission and "optimal" vaginal microbiota for transplant. Here, we describe a universal donor screening approach that was implemented in a small pilot study of 20 women. We further characterized key physicochemical properties of donor cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) and the corresponding composition of the vaginal microbiota to delineate criteria for inclusion/exclusion. We anticipate that the framework described here will help accelerate clinical studies of VMT.

RevDate: 2019-09-25

Kim J, Lee H, An J, et al (2019)

Alterations in Gut Microbiota by Statin Therapy and Possible Intermediate Effects on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1947.

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is a contributing factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Pharmacotherapy for metabolic diseases involves the modulation of gut microbiota, which is suggested to be a potential therapeutic target. In this study, the modulation of gut microbiota by statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs: atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) was investigated in an aged mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity, and the association between gut microbiota and immune responses was described. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin significantly increased the abundance of the genera Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Mucispirillum. Moreover, the abundance of these genera was correlated with the inflammatory response, including levels of IL-1β and TGFβ1 in the ileum. In addition, oral fecal microbiota transplantation with fecal material collected from rosuvastatin-treated mouse groups improved hyperglycemia. From these results, the effect of statins on metabolic improvements could be explained by altered gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that the modulation of gut microbiota by statins has an important role in the therapeutic actions of these drugs.

RevDate: 2019-09-24

Li N, Tian HL, Chen QY, et al (2019)

[Efficacy analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of 2010 patients with intestinal disorders].

Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery, 22(9):861-868.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for intestinal disorders. Methods: A retrospectively descriptive cohort study was carried out. Clinical data of 2010 patients who underwent FMT and received follow-up for more than 3 months from May 2014 to November 2018 were collected, including 1,206 cases from Tongji University Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital and 804 cases from Nanjing Eastern Military General Hospital. Of the 2,010 patients, 797 were male and 1,213 were female, with a mean age of (49.4±16.5) years old. Inclusion criteria were those with indications for FMT and voluntary treatment of FMT. Pregnant or lactating women, patients with end-stage disease, cases who were participating or participated in other clinical trials within 3 months, and patients with previous bowel history of pathogen infection, oral antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for the recent2 weeks, and those at immunosuppressive state were excluded. Informed consent was obtained from the enrolled patients and their families. There were 1,356 cases of constipation, 175 cases of inflammatory bowel disease, 148 cases of chronic diarrhea, 127 cases of radiation enteritis, 119 cases of irritable bowel syndrome, and 85 cases of autism (complicating with intestinal disorders). FMT donor requirements: (1) 18 to 30 years old non-relatives, non-pregnant healthy adults with healthy lifestyle and good eating habits as volunteers to participate in fecal donation; (2) no administration of antibiotics within 3 months; (3) no chronic diseases such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, etc., no autoimmune disease, not in immunosuppressive state, no history of malignant disease; (4) negative pathogen examination of infectious diseases (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, syphilis, HIV, etc.); (5) negative fecal examination (C.difficile, dysentery bacillus, Shigella, Campylobacter, parasites, etc.). The donor requirements after enrollment: (1) physical examination was reviewed once every two months, and the result still met the above requirements; (2) 16S rRNA sequencing was performed for every fecal donation in order to ensure that the composition and diversity of the fecal flora was stable and reliable. The preparation of the stool suspension referred to the Amsterdam criteria and the preparation process was less than 1 hour. The preparation of the FMT capsule was processed by pre-freezing the stool suspension after the preparation of the above suspension, and the frozen sample was transferred into a freeze dryer for freezing. The dried and lyophilized powder was encapsulated in capsules, and the capsule shell was made of acid-resistant hypromellose capsule (No.0) and pediatric-specific capsule (No.3), sealed and packaged in a-20℃ refrigerator. Three ways of accepting FMT treatment pathways included 6-day transplantation after the placement of the nasointestinal tube, 6-day oral FMT capsule transplantation and one-time transplantation through colonoscopy. Intestinal preparation (nasointestinal tube feeding of polyethylene glycol until watery stool) was carried out before transplantation. Other treatments were stopped during treatment and follow-up, and any medication was not recommended when necessary. Results: Of the 2010 patients, 1,497 cases received nasointestinal tube transplantation (nasointestinal tube group), 452 cases oral capsule transplantation (oral capsule group) and 61 cases colonoscopy (colonoscopy group). At 3 time points of 3, 12, and 36 months after FMT, the clinical cure rates and the clinical improvement rates were 41.3% (560/1 356), 35.2% (320/909), 31.4% (69/220), and 29.0% (393/1 356), 27.8% (253/909), 29.1% (64/220), respectively in constipation patients; 33.1% (58/175), 29.9% (35/117), 24.5% (12/49), and 31.4% (55/175), 27.4% (32/117), 57.1% (28/49), respectively in inflammatory bowel disease patients; 87.8% (130/148), 81.8% (81/99), 78.3% (36/46), and 8.1% (12/148), 7.1% (7/99), 4.3% (2/46), respectively in chronic diarrhea patients; 61.4% (78/127), 56.5% (48/85), 47.6% (20/42), and 21.2% (27/127), 15.3% (13/85), 14.3% (6/42), respectively in radiation enteritis patients; 53.8% (64/119), 45.0% (36/80), 6/15, and 21.0% (25/119), 26.2% (21/80), 4/15, respectively in irritable bowel syndrome patients; 23.5% (20/85), 22.8% (13/57), 20.0%(5/25), and 55.3% (47/85), 49.1% (28/57), 40.0% (10/25), respectively in autism patients. Meanwhile the clinical cure rates and the clinical improvement rates at 3, 12, and 36 months were 47.7% (714/1 497), 42.8% (425/994), 39.1% (128/327), and 29.1% (436/1 497), 27.0% (268/994), 28.1% (92/327), respectively in the nasointestinal tube group; 38.7% (175/452), 30.2% (91/301), 33.3% (16/48), and 24.3% (110/452), 26.2% (79/301), 25.0% (12/48), respectively in the oral capsule group; 34.4% (21/61), 32.7% (17/52), 18.2% (4/22), and 21.3% (13/61), 13.5% (7/52), 45.5% (10/22), respectively in colonoscopy group. No serious adverse events occurred during treatment and follow-up period. The adverse event of nasointestinal tube group presented higher ratio of discomfort in respiratorytract accounting for 13.1% (196/1497); the oral capsule group had a higher proportion of nausea and vomiting when swallowing capsules accounting for 7.1% (32/452); the colonoscopy group was mainly diarrhea, accounting for 37.7% (23/61). The above symptoms disappeared after the nasointestinal tube was removed, or after treatment ended, or within 1 to 3 days after hospitalization. Conclusion: FMT is a safe and effective method for the treatment of intestinal dysfunction.

RevDate: 2019-09-24

Cotter JM, Nicholson MR, LK Kociolek (2019)

An Infectious Diseases Perspective on Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile Infection in Children.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society pii:5573379 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is efficacious for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDIs). Pediatric experience with FMT for rCDIs is increasing, particularly at large centers. While retrospective studies suggest that FMT is generally safe in the short term, particularly in immunocompetent patients and with rigorous donor screening, additional large prospective studies are needed. This particularly includes those at high risk for infectious complications, such as immunocompromised hosts. Further, long-term implications of altering the intestinal microbiome with FMT are not well understood. The role of FMT in children, particularly in high-risk patients, will require continual reexamination with future availability of pediatric safety and efficacy data. This review summarizes key points for infectious diseases physicians to consider when evaluating a child for FMT.

RevDate: 2019-09-23

Guirro M, Costa A, Gual-Grau A, et al (2019)

Effects from diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity can be ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation: A multiomics approach.

PloS one, 14(9):e0218143 pii:PONE-D-19-14257.

Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; therefore, the manipulation of gut microbiota may represent an accurate strategy to understand its relationship with obesity caused by diet. Fecal microbiota transplantation, during which fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted to an obese subject, has aroused interest as an effective approach for the treatment of obesity. To determine its success, a multiomics approach was used that combined metagenomics and metaproteomics to study microbiota composition and function. To do this, a study was performed in rats that evaluated the effect of a hypercaloric diet on the gut microbiota, and this was combined with antibiotic treatment to deplete the microbiota before fecal microbiota transplantation to verify its effects on gut microbiota-host homeostasis. Our results showed that a high-fat diet induces changes in microbiota biodiversity and alters its function in the host. Moreover, we found that antibiotics depleted the microbiota enough to reduce its bacterial content. Finally, we assessed the use of fecal microbiota transplantation as a complementary obesity therapy, and we found that it reversed the effects of antibiotics and reestablished the microbiota balance, which restored normal functioning and alleviated microbiota disruption. This new approach could be implemented to support the dietary and healthy habits recommended as a first option to maintain the homeostasis of the microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-09-23

Lee JR, Huang J, Magruder M, et al (2019)

Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria and Viral Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is being associated increasingly with development of infections besides C. difficile infection. A recent study found an association between butyrate-producing gut (BPG) bacteria and less frequent development of lower respiratory viral infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (Haak et al., Blood 131(26): 2978, 2018). In this investigation, we examine the relationship between the abundance of BPG bacteria and the development of viral infections in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

METHODS: We recruited 168 kidney transplant recipients who provided 510 fecal specimens in the first 3 months after transplantation and profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V4-V5 hypervariable region. We classified the kidney transplant recipients into higher BPG Bacteria Group and lower BPG Bacteria Group using the same criteria of 1% relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria as the Haak et al. study.

RESULTS: Administration of antibiotics against anaerobes was associated with a significant decrease in the relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria. The higher BPG Bacteria Group was associated with less development of respiratory viral infections (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.28, P=0.01) but not with less development of CMV viremia (HR: 0.38, P=0.13) or BK viremia (HR: 1.02, P= 0.98) at 2 years post-transplantation.

CONCLUSION: Our pilot investigation supports future validation of the relationship between high relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria and decreased risk for development of respiratory viral infections.

RevDate: 2019-09-23

Yuan J, Chen C, Cui J, et al (2019)

Fatty Liver Disease Caused by High-Alcohol-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Cell metabolism pii:S1550-4131(19)30447-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The underlying etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is believed to be quite varied. Changes in the gut microbiota have been investigated and are believed to contribute to at least some cases of the disease, though a causal relationship remains unclear. Here, we show that high-alcohol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (HiAlc Kpn) is associated with up to 60% of individuals with NAFLD in a Chinese cohort. Transfer of clinical isolates of HiAlc Kpn by oral gavage into mice induced NAFLD. Likewise, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) into mice using a HiAlc-Kpn-strain-containing microbiota isolated from an individual with NASH induced NAFLD. However, selective elimination of the HiAlc Kpn strain before FMT prevented NAFLD in the recipient mice. These results suggest that at least in some cases of NAFLD an alteration in the gut microbiome drives the condition due to excess endogenous alcohol production.

RevDate: 2019-09-21

Meroni M, Longo M, P Dongiovanni (2019)

Alcohol or Gut Microbiota: Who Is the Guilty?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(18): pii:ijms20184568.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a disorder caused by excessive alcohol intake represents a global health care burden. ALD encompasses a broad spectrum of hepatic injuries including asymptomatic steatosis, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The susceptibility of alcoholic patients to develop ALD is highly variable and its progression to more advanced stages is strongly influenced by several hits (i.e., amount and duration of alcohol abuse). Among them, the intestinal microbiota and its metabolites have been recently identified as paramount in ALD pathophysiology. Ethanol abuse triggers qualitative and quantitative modifications in intestinal flora taxonomic composition, mucosal inflammation, and intestinal barrier derangement. Intestinal hypermeability results in the translocation of viable pathogenic bacteria, Gram-negative microbial products, and pro-inflammatory luminal metabolites into the bloodstream, further corroborating the alcohol-induced liver damage. Thus, the premise of this review is to discuss the beneficial effect of gut microbiota modulation as a novel therapeutic approach in ALD management.

RevDate: 2019-09-19

Villéger R, Lopès A, Carrier G, et al (2019)

Intestinal Microbiota: A Novel Target to Improve Anti-Tumor Treatment?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(18): pii:ijms20184584.

Recently, preclinical and clinical studies targeting several types of cancer strongly supported the key role of the gut microbiota in the modulation of host response to anti-tumoral therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and even surgery. Intestinal microbiome has been shown to participate in the resistance to a wide range of anticancer treatments by direct interaction with the treatment or by indirectly stimulating host response through immunomodulation. Interestingly, these effects were described on colorectal cancer but also in other types of malignancies. In addition to their role in therapy efficacy, gut microbiota could also impact side effects induced by anticancer treatments. In the first part of this review, we summarized the role of the gut microbiome on the efficacy and side effects of various anticancer treatments and underlying mechanisms. In the second part, we described the new microbiota-targeting strategies, such as probiotics and prebiotics, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation and physical activity, which could be effective adjuvant therapies developed in order to improve anticancer therapeutic efficiency.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Castaño-Rodríguez N, Paramsothy S, NO Kaakoush (2019)

Promise of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Therapy in Pouchitis.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Du H, Kuang TT, Qiu S, et al (2019)

Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, traditional uses, and modern investigations.

Chinese medicine, 14:31 pii:253.

In China, the medical use of fecal matter (fresh fecal suspension or dry feces) can be dated back to the fourth century, approximately 1700 years ago. In long-term clinical practice, Chinese doctors have accumulated unique and invaluable medical experience in the use of fecal materials. In view of their good curative effect and medicinal potential, fecal medicines should be paid much attention. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive data compilation of fecal medicines used in various Chinese traditional medical systems by bibliographic investigation of 31 medicine monographs and standards. A total of 54 fecal medicines were found to be used in 14 traditional Chinese medical systems. Their names, original species, medicinal forms, and traditional uses were described in detail. These fecal medicines were commonly used to treat gastrointestinal, nervous system, skin, and gynecological diseases. Commonly used fecal medicines include Wu-Ling-Zhi, Jiu-Fen and Hei-Bing-Pian. The information summarized in this study can provide a good reference for the development and utilization of fecal medicines. Further studies are necessary to prove their medicinal value, identify their active ingredients, and elucidate their mechanisms of action so that more people can accept these special medicines.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Wu R, Mei X, Ye Y, et al (2019)

Zn(II)-curcumin solid dispersion impairs hepatocellular carcinoma growth and enhances chemotherapy by modulating gut microbiota-mediated zinc homeostasis.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(19)30854-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Zinc(II) complexes of curcumin display moderate cytotoxicity towards cancer cells at low micromolar concentrations. However, the clinical use of zinc(II) complexes is hampered by hydrolytic insolubility and poor bioavailability and their anticancer mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of action of a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-k30)-based solid dispersion of Zn(II)-curcumin (ZnCM-SD) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays revealed ZnCM-SD not only reduced the viability of HepG2 cells and SK-HEP1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also potently and synergistically enhanced cell growth inhibition and cell death in response to doxorubicin by regulating cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnCM-SD was internalized into the cells via non-specific endocytosis and degraded to release curcumin and Zn2+ ions within cells. The anticancer effects also occur in vivo in animals following the oral administration of ZnCM-SD, without significantly affecting the weight of the animals. Interestingly, ZnCM-SD did not reduce tumor growth or affect zinc homeostasis in HepG2-bearing mice after gut microbiome depletion. Moreover, administration of ZnCM-SD alone or in combination with doxorubicin significantly attenuated gut dysbiosis and zinc dyshomeostasis in a rat HCC model. Notably, fecal microbiota transplantation revealed the ability of ZnCM-SD to regulate zinc homeostasis and act as a chemosensitizer for doxorubicin were dependent on the gut microbiota. The crucial role of the gut microbiota in the chemosensitizing ability of ZnCM-SD was confirmed by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Collectively, ZnCM-SD could represent a simple, well-tolerated, safe, effective therapy and function as a novel chemosensitizing agent for cancer.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Lavazza A, VA Sironi (2019)

Are we Ready for a "Microbiome-Guided Behaviour" Approach?.

Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees, 28(4):708-724.

The microbiome is proving to be increasingly important for human brain functioning. A series of recent studies have shown that the microbiome influences the central nervous system in various ways, and consequently acts on the psychological well-being of the individual by mediating, among others, the reactions of stress and anxiety. From a specifically neuroethical point of view, according to some scholars, the particular composition of the microbiome-qua microbial community-can have consequences on the traditional idea of human individuality. Another neuroethical aspect concerns the reception of this new knowledge in relation to clinical applications. In fact, attention to the balance of the microbiome-which includes eating behavior, the use of psychobiotics and, in the treatment of certain diseases, the use of fecal microbiota transplantation-may be limited or even prevented by a biased negative attitude. This attitude derives from a prejudice related to everything that has to do with the organic processing of food and, in general, with the human stomach and intestine: the latter have traditionally been regarded as low, dirty, contaminated and opposed to what belongs to the mind and the brain. This biased attitude can lead one to fail to adequately consider the new anthropological conceptions related to the microbiome, resulting in a state of health, both physical and psychological, inferior to what one might have by paying the right attention to the knowledge available today. Shifting from the ubiquitous high-low metaphor (which is synonymous with superior-inferior) to an inside-outside metaphor can thus be a neuroethical strategy to achieve a new and unbiased reception of the discoveries related to the microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Schwartz DJ, Rebeck ON, G Dantas (2019)

Complex interactions between the microbiome and cancer immune therapy.

Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Immuno-oncology has rapidly grown in the last thirty years, and immunotherapeutic agents are now approved to treat many disparate cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are employed to augment cytotoxic anti-cancer activity by inhibiting negative regulatory elements of the immune system. Modulating the immune system to target neoplasms has improved survivability of numerous cancers in many individuals, but forecasting outcomes post therapy is difficult due to insufficient predictive biomarkers. Recently, the tumor and gastrointestinal microbiome and immune milieu have been investigated as predictors and influencers of cancer immune therapy. In this review, we discuss: (1) ways to measure the microbiome including relevant bioinformatic analyses, (2) recent developments in animal studies and human clinical trials utilizing gut microbial composition and function as biomarkers of cancer immune therapy response and toxicity, and (3) using prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to modulate immune therapy. We discuss the respective benefits of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing including important considerations in obtaining samples and in designing and interpreting human and animal microbiome studies. We then focus on studies discussing the differences in response to ICIs in relation to the microbiome and inflammatory mediators. ICIs cause colitis in up to 25% of individuals, and colitis is often refractory to common immunosuppressive medications. Researchers have measured microbiota composition prior to ICI therapy and correlated baseline microbiota composition with efficacy and colitis. Certain bacterial taxa that appear to enhance therapeutic benefit are also implicated in increased susceptibility to colitis, alluding to a delicate balance between pro-inflammatory tumor killing and anti-inflammatory protection from colitis. Pre-clinical and clinical models have trialed probiotic administration, e.g. Bifidobacterium spp. or FMT, to treat colitis when immune suppressive agents fail. We are excited about the future of modulating the microbiome to predict and influence cancer outcomes. Furthermore, novel therapies employed for other illnesses including bacteriophage and genetically-engineered microbes can be adapted in the future to promote increased advancements in cancer treatment and side effect management.

RevDate: 2019-09-17
CmpDate: 2019-09-17

Mullish BH, Quraishi MN, Segal JP, et al (2018)

The use of faecal microbiota transplant as treatment for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection and other potential indications: joint British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Healthcare Infection Society (HIS) guidelines.

The Journal of hospital infection, 100 Suppl 1:S1-S31.

RevDate: 2019-09-18
CmpDate: 2019-09-18

Leung V, Vincent C, Edens TJ, et al (2018)

Reply to Davido et al.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 66(8):1317-1318.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Faivre B, Bellenger J, Rieu A, et al (2019)

Disentangling the effect of host genetics and gut microbiota on resistance to an intestinal parasite.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(19)30206-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Resistance to infection is a multifactorial trait, and recent work has suggested that the gut microbiota can also contribute to resistance. Here, we performed a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to disentangle the contribution of the gut microbiota and host genetics as drivers of resistance to the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. We transplanted the microbiota of a strain of mice (SJL), resistant to H. polygyrus, into a susceptible strain (CBA) and vice-versa. We predicted that if the microbiota shapes resistance to H. polygyrus, the FMT should reverse the pattern of resistance between the two host strains. The two host strains had different microbiota diversities and compositions before the start of the experiment, and the FMT altered the microbiota of recipient mice. One mouse strain (SJL) was more resistant to colonization by the heterologous microbiota, and it maintained its resistance profile to H. polygyrus (lower parasite burden) independently of the FMT. On the contrary, CBA mice harbored parasites with lower fecundity during the early stage of the infection, and had an up-regulated expression of the cytokine IL-4 (a marker of H. polygyrus resistance) after receiving the heterologous microbiota. Therefore, while host genetics remains the main factor shaping the pattern of resistance to H. polygyrus, the composition of the gut microbiota also seems to play a strain-specific role.

RevDate: 2019-09-16
CmpDate: 2019-09-16

Li X, Chen P, Zhang P, et al (2019)

Protein-Bound β-glucan from Coriolus Versicolor has Potential for Use Against Obesity.

Molecular nutrition & food research, 63(7):e1801231.

SCOPE: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders has vastly increased throughout the world and prevention of such circumstances thus represents a major challenge. Here, it has been shown that one protein-bound β-glucan (PBG) from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor can be a potent anti-obesity component.

METHODS AND RESULTS: PBG can reduce obesity and metabolic inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Gut microbiota analysis reveals that PBG markedly increases the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, although it does not rescue HFD-induced change in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. It appears that PBG alters host physiology and creates an intestinal microenvironment favorable for A. muciniphila colonization. Fecal transplants from PBG-treated animals in part reduce obesity in recipient HFD-fed mice. Further, PBG is shown to upregulate expression of a set of genes related to host metabolism in microbiota-depleted mice.

CONCLUSION: The data highlight that PBG may exert its anti-obesity effects through a mirobiota-dependent (richness of specific microbiota) and -independent (modulation of host metabolism) manner. The fact that C. versicolor PBGs are approved oral immune boosters in cancers and chronic hepatitis with well-established safety profiles may accelerate PBG as a novel use for obesity treatment.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

McCormack UM, Curião T, Metzler-Zebeli BU, et al (2019)

Seeking to improve feed efficiency in pigs through microbial modulation via fecal microbiota transplantation in sows and dietary supplementation of offspring with inulin.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01255-19 [Epub ahead of print].

As previous studies have demonstrated a link between the porcine intestinal microbiome and feed efficiency (FE), microbiota manipulation may offer a means of improving FE in pigs. A fecal microbiota transplantation procedure (FMTp), using fecal extracts from highly feed efficient pigs, was performed in pregnant sows (n=11), with a control group (n=11) receiving no FMTp. At weaning, offspring were allocated, within sow treatment, to 1) control (n=67; no dietary supplement) or 2) inulin (n=65; 6-week dietary inulin supplementation) treatments. The sow FMTp, alone or in combination with offspring inulin supplementation, reduced offspring body weight by 8.1-10.6 Kg at ∼140 days of age, but there was no effect on feed intake. It resulted in better FE, higher bacterial diversity and higher relative abundances of potentially beneficial bacterial taxa (Fibrobacter, Prevotella) in offspring. Due to FMTp and/or inulin supplementation, relative abundance of potential pathogens (Chlamydia, Treponema) in the ileum, and cecal concentrations of butyric acid were significantly lower. Maternal FMTp led to a greater number of jejunal goblet cells in offspring. Inulin supplementation alone did not affect growth or FE, but up-regulated duodenal genes linked to glucose and volatile fatty acid homeostasis and increased mean platelet volume, but reduced ileal propionic acid, granulocyte counts, and serum urea. Overall, FMTp in pregnant sows, with/without offspring dietary inulin supplementation, beneficially modulated offspring intestinal microbiota (albeit mostly low relative abundance taxa) and associated physiological parameters. Although FE was improved, the detrimental effect on growth limits the application of this FMTp/inulin strategy in commercial pig production.IMPORTANCE As previous research suggests a link between microbiota and FE, modulation of the intestinal microbiome may be effective in improving FE in pigs. The FMTp in gestating sows, alone/in combination with offspring post-weaning dietary inulin supplementation, achieved improvements in FE, and resulted in higher relative abundance of intestinal bacteria associated with fiber degradation, and lower relative abundance of potential pathogens. However, there was a detrimental effect on growth, although this may not be wholly attributable to microbiota transplantation, as antibiotic and other interventions were also part of the FMT regime. Therefore, further work with additional control groups is needed to disentangle the effects of each component of the FMTp in order to develop a regime with practical applications in pig production. Additional research based on findings from this study may also identify specific dietary supplements for promotion/maintenance of the microbiota transferred via maternal FMTp, thereby optimizing pig growth and FE.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )