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Bibliography on: History of Genetics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Jan 2019 at 01:39 Created: 

History of Genetics

Created with PubMed® Query: "Genetics/*history"[MESH] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-01-15
CmpDate: 2019-01-15

Tan SY, JK Furubayashi (2018)

Jacques Lucien Monod (1910-1976): Co-discoverer of the operon system.

Singapore medical journal, 59(10):555-556.

RevDate: 2019-01-15
CmpDate: 2019-01-15

Anonymous (2018)

James Watson at 90.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 32(6):2901-2902.

RevDate: 2019-01-15
CmpDate: 2019-01-15

Kropinski AM (2018)

Bacteriophage research - What we have learnt and what still needs to be addressed.

Research in microbiology, 169(9):481-487.

Research on bacteriophages has significantly enhanced our understanding of molecular biology, the genomes of prokaryotic cells, and viral ecology. Phages and lysins offer a viable alternative to the declining utility of antibiotics in this post-antibiotic era. They also provide ideal teaching tools for genomics and bioinformatics. This article touches on the first 100 years of phage research with the author commenting on what he thinks are the highlights, and what needs to be addressed.

RevDate: 2019-01-07
CmpDate: 2019-01-07

Godde K (2018)

A new analysis interpreting Nilotic relationships and peopling of the Nile Valley.

Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen, 69(4):147-157.

The process of the peopling of the Nile Valley likely shaped the population structure and early biological similarity of Egyptians and Nubians. As others have noted, affinity among Nilotic populations was due to an aggregation of events, including environmental, linguistic, and sociopolitical changes over a great deal of time. This study seeks to evaluate the relationships of Nubian and Egyptian groups in the context of the original peopling event. Cranial nonmetric traits from 18 Nubian and Egyptian samples, spanning Lower Egypt to Lower Nubia and approximately 7400 years, were analyzed using Mahalanobis D2 as a measure of biological distance. A principal coordinates analysis and spatial-temporal model were applied to these data. The results reveal temporal and spatial patterning consistent with documented events in Egyptian and Nubian population history. Moreover, the Mesolithic Nubian sample clustered with later Nubian and Egyptian samples, indicating that events prior to the Mesolithic were important in shaping the later genetic patterning of the Nubian population. Later contact through the establishment of the Egyptian fort at Buhen, Kerma's position as a strategic trade center along the Nile, and Egyptian colonization at Tombos maintained genetic similarity among the populations.

RevDate: 2019-01-07
CmpDate: 2019-01-07

von Heijne G (2018)

Membrane protein serendipity.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 293(10):3470-3476.

My scientific career has taken me from chemistry, via theoretical physics and bioinformatics, to molecular biology and even structural biology. Along the way, serendipity led me to work on problems such as the identification of signal peptides that direct protein trafficking, membrane protein biogenesis, and cotranslational protein folding. I've had some great collaborations that came about because of a stray conversation or from following up on an interesting paper. And I've had the good fortune to be asked to sit on the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, where I am constantly reminded of the amazing pace and often intricate history of scientific discovery. Could I have planned this? No way! I just went with the flow ….

RevDate: 2019-01-07
CmpDate: 2019-01-07

Lebel RR (2018)

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: A Familial Syndrome of Renal, Genital, and Middle Ear Anomalies.

The Journal of pediatrics, 192:129.

RevDate: 2019-01-03
CmpDate: 2019-01-03

Leitzmann C (2018)

Whole new concepts of nutrition.

European journal of clinical nutrition, 72(1):1-3.

RevDate: 2019-01-02
CmpDate: 2019-01-02

Lowe JWE (2018)

Sequencing through thick and thin: Historiographical and philosophical implications.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 72:10-27.

DNA sequencing has been characterised by scholars and life scientists as an example of 'big', 'fast' and 'automated' science in biology. This paper argues, however, that these characterisations are a product of a particular interpretation of what sequencing is, what I call 'thin sequencing'. The 'thin sequencing' perspective focuses on the determination of the order of bases in a particular stretch of DNA. Based upon my research on the pig genome mapping and sequencing projects, I provide an alternative 'thick sequencing' perspective, which also includes a number of practices that enable the sequence to travel across and be used in wider communities. If we take sequencing in the thin manner to be an event demarcated by the determination of sequences in automated sequencing machines and computers, this has consequences for the historical analysis of sequencing projects, as it focuses attention on those parts of the work of sequencing that are more centralised, fast (and accelerating) and automated. I argue instead that sequencing can be interpreted as a more open-ended process including activities such as the generation of a minimum tile path or annotation, and detail the historiographical and philosophical consequences of this move.

RevDate: 2018-12-31
CmpDate: 2018-12-31

Rosbash M (2017)

Life Is an N of 1.

Cell, 171(6):1241-1245.

RevDate: 2018-12-31
CmpDate: 2018-12-31

Young MW (2017)

As Time Flew By.

Cell, 171(6):1236-1240.

RevDate: 2018-12-31
CmpDate: 2018-12-31

Yuste R (2017)

The Origins of the BRAIN Initiative: A Personal Journey.

Cell, 171(4):726-735.

RevDate: 2018-12-21
CmpDate: 2018-12-21

van Dijk PJ, Weissing FJ, THN Ellis (2018)

How Mendel's Interest in Inheritance Grew out of Plant Improvement.

Genetics, 210(2):347-355.

Despite the fact that Gregor Mendel is generally respected as the founder of genetics, little is known about the origin of and motivation for his revolutionary work. No primary sources are known that discuss his work during the period of his pea crossing experiments. Here, we report on two previously unknown interconnected local newspaper articles about Mendel's work that predate his famous Pisum lectures by 4 years. These articles describe Mendel as a plant breeder and a horticulturist. We argue that Mendel's initial interests concerned crop improvement, but that with time he became more interested in fundamental questions about inheritance, fertilization, and natural hybridization.

RevDate: 2018-12-21
CmpDate: 2018-12-21

Haloupek N (2018)

Philip Hieter: 2018 George W. Beadle Award.

Genetics, 210(2):345-346.

The Genetics Society of America's (GSA) George W. Beadle Award honors individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the community of genetics researchers and who exemplify the qualities of its namesake. For his work fostering communication and collaboration among members of the many subfields of genetics, Philip Hieter of the University of British Columbia has been named 2018's recipient of the award. Among his contributions are many initiatives that aim to better link human and model organism geneticists, including the Canadian Rare Diseases Models and Mechanisms Network-a consortium that connects investigators who identify rare disease genes in humans to basic scientists who can study the genes in model organisms.

RevDate: 2018-12-21
CmpDate: 2018-12-21

Morrison PJ (2018)

Medical Myths and Legends: Presidential Address to the Ulster Medical Society. 6th October 2016.

The Ulster medical journal, 87(2):102-108.

RevDate: 2018-12-20
CmpDate: 2018-12-20

Segal NL (2018)

Symposium in Honor of Irving I. Gottesman (December 29, 1930-June 29, 2016).

Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies, 21(4):281-284.

The June 2016 death of our esteemed colleague, Dr Irving I. Gottesman, was felt as an extreme loss at so many levels by colleagues, students, friends, and family across the globe. Irv's stellar contributions to the field of twin research will continue to be remembered and cited for many years to come. In commemoration of his life and work, I organized a symposium at the 16th meeting of the International Society for Twin Studies, held in Madrid, Spain, November 16-18, 2017. The panelists included mostly former students, as well as colleagues, who presented their scientific research and personal remarks reflecting Irv's profound influence in shaping their lives and careers. A chronology of Irv's academic positions and honors is included in the introduction to this special issue of Twin Research and Human Genetics, followed by brief sketches of the panel participants; their scholarly papers and personal reflections follow.

RevDate: 2018-12-12
CmpDate: 2018-12-12

Leeming W, A Barahona (2018)

Synthesis, convergence, and differences in the entangled histories of cytogenetics in medicine: A comparative study of Canada and Mexico.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 71:8-16.

Most historians of science and medicine agree that medical interest in genetics intensified after 1930, and interest in the relationship of radiation damage and genetics continued and expanded after World War II. Moreover, they maintain that the synthesis and convergence of human genetics and cytological techniques in European centers resulted in their dissemination to centers in the United States, resulting in a new field of expertise focused on medicine and clinical research, known as cytogenetics. In this article, we broaden the scope of the inquiry by showing how the early histories of cytogenetics in Canada and Mexico unfolded against strikingly different backgrounds in clinical research and the delivery of health care. We thus argue that the field of cytogenetics did not emerge in a straightforward manner and develop in the same way in all countries. The article provides a brief background to the history of human cytogenetics, and then outlines key developments related to the early adoption of cytogenetics in Canada and Mexico. Conclusions are then drawn using comparisons of the different ways in which local determinants affected adoption. We then propose directions for future study focused on the ways in which circuits of practices, collaborative research, and transfers of knowledge have shaped how cytogenetics has come to be organised in medicine around the world.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Schaeffer SW (2018)

Muller "Elements" in Drosophila: How the Search for the Genetic Basis for Speciation Led to the Birth of Comparative Genomics.

Genetics, 210(1):3-13.

The concept of synteny, or conservation of genes on the same chromosome, traces its origins to the early days of Drosophila genetics. This discovery emerged from comparisons of linkage maps from different species of Drosophila with the goal of understanding the process of speciation. H. J. Muller published a landmark article entitled Bearings of the "Drosophila" work on systematics, where he synthesized genetic and physical map data and proposed a model of speciation and chromosomal gene content conservation. These models have withstood the test of time with the advent of molecular genetic analysis from protein to genome level variation. Muller's ideas provide a framework to begin to answer questions about the evolutionary forces that shape the structure of the genome.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Romero R (2018)

A Profile of Dennis Lo, DM, DPhil, FRCP, FRCPath, FRS.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 218(4):371-378.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Brunner HG (2018)

2017 Curt Stern Award Introduction: Nico Katsanis.

American journal of human genetics, 102(3):354.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Cox NJ (2018)

2017 Presidential Address: Checking, Balancing, and Celebrating Diversity: Celebrating Some of the Women Who Paved the Way.

American journal of human genetics, 102(3):342-349.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Stolarek I, Juras A, Handschuh L, et al (2018)

A mosaic genetic structure of the human population living in the South Baltic region during the Iron Age.

Scientific reports, 8(1):2455.

Despite the increase in our knowledge about the factors that shaped the genetic structure of the human population in Europe, the demographic processes that occurred during and after the Early Bronze Age (EBA) in Central-East Europe remain unclear. To fill the gap, we isolated and sequenced DNAs of 60 individuals from Kowalewko, a bi-ritual cemetery of the Iron Age (IA) Wielbark culture, located between the Oder and Vistula rivers (Kow-OVIA population). The collected data revealed high genetic diversity of Kow-OVIA, suggesting that it was not a small isolated population. Analyses of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and genetic distances performed for Kow-OVIA and other ancient European populations showed that Kow-OVIA was most closely linked to the Jutland Iron Age (JIA) population. However, the relationship of both populations to the preceding Late Neolithic (LN) and EBA populations were different. We found that this phenomenon is most likely the consequence of the distinct genetic history observed for Kow-OVIA women and men. Females were related to the Early-Middle Neolithic farmers, whereas males were related to JIA and LN Bell Beakers. In general, our findings disclose the mechanisms that could underlie the formation of the local genetic substructures in the South Baltic region during the IA.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Metcalfe SA (2018)

Genetic counselling, patient education, and informed decision-making in the genomic era.

Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine, 23(2):142-149.

Genomic technologies are now being applied to reproductive genetic screening. Circulating cell-free DNA testing in pregnancy for fetal chromosomal abnormalities is becoming more widely used as a screening test, and expanded carrier screening for autosomal and X-linked recessive conditions for more than a hundred conditions is available to couples for testing before and during pregnancy. These are most typically available as a commercial test. The purpose of reproductive genetic screening is to facilitate autonomous reproductive choices. Previous studies would suggest that many women do not make informed decisions about prenatal genetic screening, and the introduction of genomic technologies has generally added to the ethical debate. Appropriate pre-test genetic counselling is recommended, and healthcare providers should include information that is balanced, accurate and up-to-date, comprising written and/or e-learning tools, as well as providing psychosocial support so that couples consider the pros and cons of being tested and can make informed decisions.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Harris S, Reed D, NL Vora (2018)

Screening for fetal chromosomal and subchromosomal disorders.

Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine, 23(2):85-93.

Screening for fetal chromosomal disorders has evolved greatly over the last four decades. Initially, only maternal age-related risks of aneuploidy were provided to patients. This was followed by screening with maternal serum analytes and ultrasound markers, followed by the introduction and rapid uptake of maternal plasma cell-free DNA-based screening. Studies continue to demonstrate that cfDNA screening for common aneuploidies has impressive detection rates with low false-positive rates. The technology continues to push the boundaries of prenatal screening as it is now possible to screen for less common aneuploidies and subchromosomal disorders. The optimal method for incorporating cfDNA screening into existing programs continues to be debated. It is important that obstetricians understand the biological foundations and limitations of this technology and provide patients with up-to-date information regarding cfDNA screening.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Gramelsberger G (2017)

[Big Data Revolution or Data Hubris? : On the Data Positivism of Molecular Biology].

NTM, 25(4):459-483.

Genome data, the core of the 2008 proclaimed big data revolution in biology, are automatically generated and analyzed. The transition from the manual laboratory practice of electrophoresis sequencing to automated DNA-sequencing machines and software-based analysis programs was completed between 1982 and 1992. This transition facilitated the first data deluge, which was considerably increased by the second and third generation of DNA-sequencers during the 2000s. However, the strategies for evaluating sequence data were also transformed along with this transition. The paper explores both the computational strategies of automation, as well as the data evaluation culture connected with it, in order to provide a complete picture of the complexity of today's data generation and its intrinsic data positivism. This paper is thereby guided by the question, whether this data positivism is the basis of the big data revolution of molecular biology announced today, or it marks the beginning of its data hubris.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Rose NC, M Wick (2018)

Carrier screening for single gene disorders.

Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine, 23(2):78-84.

Screening for genetic disorders began in 1963 with the initiation of newborn screening for phenylketonuria. Advances in molecular technology have made both newborn screening for newborns affected with serious disorders, and carrier screening of individuals at risk for offspring with genetic disorders, more complex and more widely available. Carrier screening today can be performed secondary to family history-based screening, ethnic-based screening, and expanded carrier screening (ECS). ECS is panel-based screening, which analyzes carrier status for hundreds of genetic disorders irrespective of patient race or ethnicity. In this article, we review the historical and current aspects of carrier screening for single gene disorders, including future research directions.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Sancar A (2017)

Claud S. Rupert (1919-2017): The Father of DNA Repair.

Photochemistry and photobiology, 93(4):1133-1134.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

O'Malley BW (2016)

Origins of the Field of Molecular Endocrinology: A Personal Perspective.

Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 30(10):1015-1018.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Nilson JH (2016)

Bidding a Fond Farwell to Molecular Endocrinology.

Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 30(10):1023-1024.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Thompson EB (2016)

Reflections on the Merger of Molecular Endocrinology and Endocrinology.

Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 30(10):1019-1020.

RevDate: 2018-10-11
CmpDate: 2018-10-11

Lieberman J (2018)

Unveiling the RNA World.

The New England journal of medicine, 379(13):1278-1280.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-07-05

Weinberg SM, Cornell R, EJ Leslie (2018)

Craniofacial genetics: Where have we been and where are we going?.

PLoS genetics, 14(6):e1007438 pii:PGENETICS-D-18-00895.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-26

Jarvik GP (2018)

Arno G. Motulsky, MD (1923-2018): Holocaust survivor who cofounded the field of medical genetics.

Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics, 20(5):477-479.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-08-15

Doctrow B (2018)

QnAs with Howard Y. Chang.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(19):4805-4806.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-24

Elloumi-Zghal H, H Chaabouni Bouhamed (2018)

Genetics and genomic medicine in Tunisia.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 6(2):134-159.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-24

Leppig KA (2018)

Collaborations in medical genetics: 10-Year history of an ongoing Vietnamese-North American Collaboration.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 6(2):129-133.

RevDate: 2018-08-29
CmpDate: 2018-08-29

Hill WG (2018)

Contributions to quantitative genetic models by Yule and by Weinberg prior to Fisher 1918.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 135(2):93-94.

RevDate: 2018-04-02
CmpDate: 2018-04-02

Ferguson-Smith AC, MS Bartolomei (2018)

Obituary: Denise Barlow (1950-2017).

Development (Cambridge, England), 145(5): pii:145/5/dev164616.

Anne Ferguson-Smith and Marisa Bartolomei look back at the life and science of Denise Barlow, a pioneer in genomic imprinting and epigenetics.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-06-25

Rusu I, Modi A, Vai S, et al (2018)

Maternal DNA lineages at the gate of Europe in the 10th century AD.

PloS one, 13(3):e0193578 pii:PONE-D-17-33927.

Given the paucity of archaeogenetic data available for medieval European populations in comparison to other historical periods, the genetic landscape of this age appears as a puzzle of dispersed, small, known pieces. In particular, Southeastern Europe has been scarcely investigated to date. In this paper, we report the study of mitochondrial DNA in 10th century AD human samples from Capidava necropolis, located in Dobruja (Southeastern Romania, Southeastern Europe). This geographical region is particularly interesting because of the extensive population flux following diverse migration routes, and the complex interactions between distinct population groups during the medieval period. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial control region of 10 individuals. For five of them, we also reconstructed the complete mitochondrial genomes using hybridization-based DNA capture combined with Next Generation Sequencing. We have portrayed the genetic structure of the Capidava medieval population, represented by 10 individuals displaying 8 haplotypes (U5a1c2a, V1a, R0a2'3, H1, U3a, N9a9, H5e1a1, and H13a1a3). Remarkable for this site is the presence of both Central Asiatic (N9a) and common European mtDNA haplotypes, establishing Capidava as a point of convergence between East and West. The distribution of mtDNA lineages in the necropolis highlighted the existence of two groups of two individuals with close maternal relationships as they share the same haplotypes. We also sketch, using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, the genetic relationships between the investigated dataset and other medieval and modern Eurasian populations.

RevDate: 2018-10-16
CmpDate: 2018-10-16

Jones ED (2018)

Ancient DNA: a history of the science before Jurassic Park.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 68-69:1-14.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-10-02

Salzano FM (2018)

The Evolution of Science in a Latin-American Country: Genetics and Genomics in Brazil.

Genetics, 208(3):823-832.

This article begins with a brief overview of the history of Brazil and that of Brazilian science, from the European discovery of the country in 1500 up to the early 21st century. The history of the fields of genetics and genomics, from the 1930s, is then first examined from the focal point of the lives and publications of the three persons who are generally considered to be the founders of genetics in Brazil (C. A. Krug, F. G. Brieger, and A. Dreyfus), and then by 12 other researchers up to 1999. The area of molecular genetics and genomics from 2000 to present is then described. Despite the problems of underdevelopment and the periodical political and economic crises that have affected life in Brazil, the fields of genetics and genomics in Brazil can be regarded as having developed at an appropriate pace, and have contributed in several major ways to world science.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-19

Palkopoulou E, Lipson M, Mallick S, et al (2018)

A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(11):E2566-E2574.

Elephantids are the world's most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an ∼120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution. We found that the genetic makeup of the straight-tusked elephant, previously placed as a sister group to African forest elephants based on lower coverage data, in fact comprises three major components. Most of the straight-tusked elephant's ancestry derives from a lineage related to the ancestor of African elephants while its remaining ancestry consists of a large contribution from a lineage related to forest elephants and another related to mammoths. Columbian and woolly mammoths also showed evidence of interbreeding, likely following a latitudinal cline across North America. While hybridization events have shaped elephantid history in profound ways, isolation also appears to have played an important role. Our data reveal nearly complete isolation between the ancestors of the African forest and savanna elephants for ∼500,000 y, providing compelling justification for the conservation of forest and savanna elephants as separate species.

RevDate: 2018-10-23
CmpDate: 2018-10-23

Anonymous (2018)

Alternative Genetics.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 32(2):537-539.

RevDate: 2018-07-23
CmpDate: 2018-07-23

Silva L (2018)

A Brief History of Biochemical Genetics' 50 Years and a Reflection About Past and Present Research Directions.

Biochemical genetics, 56(1-2):1-6.

RevDate: 2018-09-04
CmpDate: 2018-09-04

Rose JP, Kleist TJ, Löfstrand SD, et al (2018)

Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and diversification of angiosperm order Ericales suggest ancient Neotropical and East Asian connections.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 122:59-79.

Inferring interfamilial relationships within the eudicot order Ericales has remained one of the more recalcitrant problems in angiosperm phylogenetics, likely due to a rapid, ancient radiation. As a result, no comprehensive time-calibrated tree or biogeographical analysis of the order has been published. Here, we elucidate phylogenetic relationships within the order and then conduct time-dependent biogeographical and diversification analyses by using a taxon and locus-rich supermatrix approach on one-third of the extant species diversity calibrated with 23 macrofossils and two secondary calibration points. Our results corroborate previous studies and also suggest several new but poorly supported relationships. Newly suggested relationships are: (1) holoparasitic Mitrastemonaceae is sister to Lecythidaceae, (2) the clade formed by Mitrastemonaceae + Lecythidaceae is sister to Ericales excluding balsaminoids, (3) Theaceae is sister to the styracoids + sarracenioids + ericoids, and (4) subfamilial relationships with Ericaceae suggest that Arbutoideae is sister to Monotropoideae and Pyroloideae is sister to all subfamilies excluding Arbutoideae, Enkianthoideae, and Monotropoideae. Our results indicate Ericales began to diversify 110 Mya, within Indo-Malaysia and the Neotropics, with exchange between the two areas and expansion out of Indo-Malaysia becoming an important area in shaping the extant diversity of many families. Rapid cladogenesis occurred along the backbone of the order between 104 and 106 Mya. Jump dispersal is important within the order in the last 30 My, but vicariance is the most important cladogenetic driver of disjunctions at deeper levels of the phylogeny. We detect between 69 and 81 shifts in speciation rate throughout the order, the vast majority of which occurred within the last 30 My. We propose that range shifting may be responsible for older shifts in speciation rate, but more recent shifts may be better explained by morphological innovation.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-03-12

Singh J (2017)

Amar Klar: A giant among scientists (1947-2017).

Journal of biosciences, 42(3):355-357.

RevDate: 2018-08-29
CmpDate: 2018-08-29

James JW (2018)

A century later.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 135(1):1-2.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-07-20

Ravindran S (2018)

Profile of Scott W. Lowe.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(4):630-632.

RevDate: 2018-08-16
CmpDate: 2018-08-16

Creager ANH (2017)

A Chemical Reaction to the Historiography of Biology.

Ambix, 64(4):343-359.

This article examines the often-overlooked role of chemical ideas and practices in the history of modern biology. The first section analyses how the conventional histories of the life sciences have, through the twentieth century, come to focus nearly exclusively on evolutionary theory and genetics, and why this storyline is inadequate. The second section elaborates on what the restricted neo-Darwinian history of biology misses, noting a variety of episodes in the history of biology that relied on developments in - or tools from - chemistry, including an example from the author's own work. The diverse ways in which biologists have used chemical approaches often relate to the concrete, infrastructural side of research; a more inclusive history thus also connects to a historiography of materials and objects in science.

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Taskent RO, O Gokcumen (2017)

The Multiple Histories of Western Asia: Perspectives from Ancient and Modern Genomes.

Human biology, 89(2):107-117.

Western Asia lies at the heart of the Old World, in the midst of Africa, Asia, and Europe. As such, this region has been populated and repopulated by myriad peoples, starting with the first migrants from Africa. All evidence points to Western Asia for the beginnings of sedentary life, and indeed, first the villages and later the cities of this land remain as archaeological wonders, revealing complex histories of multiple peoples and their interactions. With the wondrous breakthroughs in genomic studies, we now have the power to look at these histories with a truly quantitative lens. Here, we review the recent anthropological genomics literature pertaining to this region, with an outlook for the future challenges and exciting possibilities for the field.

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Vukelic A, Cohen JA, Sullivan AP, et al (2017)

Extending Genome-Wide Association Study Results to Test Classic Anthropological Hypotheses: Human Third Molar Agenesis and the "Probable Mutation Effect".

Human biology, 89(2):157-169.

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identifies regions of the genome that likely affect the variable state of a phenotype of interest. These regions can then be studied with population genetic methods to make inferences about the evolutionary history of the trait. There are increasing opportunities to use GWAS results-even from clinically motivated studies-for tests of classic anthropological hypotheses. One such example, presented here as a case study for this approach, involves tooth development variation related to dental crowding. Specifically, more than 10% of humans fail to develop one or more permanent third molars (M3 agenesis). M3 presence/absence variation within human populations has a significant genetic component (heritability estimate h 2 = 0.47). The evolutionary significance of M3 agenesis has a long history of anthropological speculation. First, the modern frequency of M3 agenesis could reflect a relaxation of selection pressure to retain larger and more teeth following the origins of cooking and other food-softening behaviors (i.e., the genetic drift hypothesis or, classically, the "probable mutation effect"). Alternatively, commensurate with increasing hominin brain size and facial shortening, M3 agenesis may have conferred an adaptive fitness advantage if it reduced the risk of M3 impaction and potential health complications (i.e., the positive selection hypothesis). A recent GWAS identified 70 genetic loci that may play a role in human M3 presence/absence variation. To begin evaluating the contrasting evolutionary scenarios for M3 agenesis, we used the integrated haplotype score (iHS) statistic to test whether those 70 genetic regions are enriched for genomic signatures of recent positive selection. None of our findings are inconsistent with the null hypothesis of genetic drift to explain the high prevalence of human M3 agenesis. This result might suggest that M3 impaction rates for modern humans do not accurately retrodict those of the preagricultural past. Alternatively, the absence of support for the positive selection hypothesis could reflect a lack of power; this analysis should be repeated following the completion of more comprehensive GWAS analyses for human M3 agenesis.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Harper PS (2017)

Activities and initiatives of the renewed European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) (1992-2017).

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S2-S5.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Cassiman JJ (2017)

EuroGentest NoE, the ESHG, and genetic services.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S47-S49.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Donnai D (2017)

Dysmorphology and the ESHG.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S33-S34.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Brunner H (2017)

The annual meeting 1988-2017.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S35-S36.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Pignatti PF, FJ Ramos (2017)

Involving the European National Human Genetics Societies.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S39-S42.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Pembrey M (2017)

The creation of the International Federation of Human Genetics Societies in 1995-1996.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S43-S44.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Cassiman JJ (2017)

The growth of the IFHGS after 2000.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S45-S46.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Aymé S, MC Cornel (2017)

The development of the public and professional policy committee.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S29-S32.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

van Ommen G (2017)

The development and growth of EJHG 1995-2017.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S23-S26.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Read AP (2017)

Read's Recall: Shuffling abstracts - and foundations.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S27-S28.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Skirton H (2017)

The European Board of Medical Genetics: development of a professional registration system in Europe.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S51-S52.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Kristoffersson U, M Macek (2017)

From Mendel to Medical Genetics.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S53-S59.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Houge G, J Del Picchia (2017)

The inner life and structure of ESHG.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S16-S19.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

van Ommen G, M Rice (2017)

The ESHG's second quarter century: consolidation and growth-the period covering 1992-2017.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S1.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Pembrey M (2017)

Those wonderful school days in Sestri Levante!.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S13-S15.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Kääriäinen H, G Houge (2017)

Secretary Generals on recent ESHG presidents (2003-2015).

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S20-S22.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Romeo G, Passarge E, A de la Chapelle (2017)

The early years of the ESHG leading to the reform of 1988 and the spirit of the Sestri Levante school.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S6-S12.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Burn J (2017)

Recognition of clinical genetics in Europe.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S50.

RevDate: 2018-11-16
CmpDate: 2018-11-16

Wirth B (2017)

Commemoration of 15 years ESHG SPC member and chair from 2009 to 2016.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(s2):S37-S38.

RevDate: 2018-05-11
CmpDate: 2018-05-11

Collier RJ, DE Bauman (2017)

TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Journal of animal science, 95(12):5639-5652.

The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored in these fields to produce the harvest of knowledge we enjoy today.

RevDate: 2018-04-18
CmpDate: 2018-04-18

Jager MJ (2017)

Introducing Johanna M. Seddon, the 2017 Recipient of the Mildred Weisenfeld Award.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 58(14):6510-6512.

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Anonymous (2017)

Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Kathryn Paige Harden.

The American psychologist, 72(9):898-900.

The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2017 award winners is Kathryn Paige Harden, for demonstrating "how to integrate genetic knowledge with the classical clinical and developmental insights into human behavior." Harden's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Anonymous (2017)

Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Robert Plomin.

The American psychologist, 72(9):885-887.

The American Psychological Association Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. Robert Plomin is a recipient of the 2017 award "for leading the transformation of behavioral genetics from an isolated and sometimes vilified scientific outpost to a fully integrated mainstay of scientific psychology." Plomin's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

RevDate: 2018-08-24
CmpDate: 2018-08-24

Carter AM (2018)

Classics revisited: Miguel Fernández on germ layer inversion and specific polyembryony in armadillos.

Placenta, 61:55-60.

BACKGROUND: Miguel Fernández was an Argentinian zoologist who published the first account of obligate polyembryony in armadillos. His contribution is here discussed in relation to his contemporaries, Newman and Patterson, and more recent work.

FINDINGS: Fernandez worked on the mulita (Dasypus hybridus). He was able to get early stages before twinning occurred and show it was preceded by inversion of the germ layers. By the primitive streak stage there were separate embryonic shields and partition of the amnion. There was, however, a single exocoelom and all embryos were enclosed in a common set of membranes comprising chorion towards the attachment site in the uterine fundus and inverted yolk sac on the opposite face. He showed that monozygotic twinning did not occur in another armadillo, the peludo (Chaetophractus villosus).

CONCLUSIONS: Fernández's work represented a major breakthrough in understanding how twinning occurred in armadillos. His work and that of others is of intrinsic interest to zoologists and has a direct bearing on the origin of monozygotic twins and birth defects in humans.

RevDate: 2018-03-23
CmpDate: 2018-01-15

Chenette EJ (2017)

Announcing the winners of our 50th Anniversary Science Communication Competition.

The FEBS journal, 284(24):4172-4173.

The FEBS Journal is pleased to announce the three winners of its 50th Anniversary Science Communication Competition. Read on to see their prize-winning entries!

RevDate: 2018-10-01
CmpDate: 2018-09-28

Anonymous (2018)

2017 American Society of Naturalists Awards.

The American naturalist, 191(1):vi-viii.

RevDate: 2018-05-09
CmpDate: 2018-05-09

Cornish VW (2017)

Ronald Breslow (1931-2017).

Nature, 552(7684):176.

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Rao V (2017)

J. B. S. Haldane and Journal of Genetics.

Journal of genetics, 96(5):855-864.

This is a brief sketch of the history of Journal of Genetics from its beginning in 1909 to the taking over of its publication by the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1985. The account is centred on J. B. S. Haldane's involvement with it over many years, especially as Editor, initially in the UK and later in India.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Mcouat G (2017)

J. B. S. Haldane's passage to India: reconfiguring science.

Journal of genetics, 96(5):845-852.

In 1957, John Burdon Sanderson (JBS) Haldane (1892-1964), the world's leading population geneticist, committed political radical and one of the three 'founders' of neo-Darwinian 'Modern Synthesis' of twentieth century biology (Sarkar 1995; Haldane 1932; Cain 2009; Smocovitis 1996), ostentatiously renounced both his British citizenship and his prestigious chair at University College London. In a decisively and very public anti-imperial gesture, ostensibly played out as a reaction to the Suez crisis (although his discontent was simmering for quite some time), Haldane, and his partner, geneticistHelen Spurway (1917-1977), turned their backs on Britain and set off to India to offer their considerable scientific prestige, their inexhaustible organisational abilities, along with their leading Journal of Genetics, behind the efforts to build a 'modern', democratic India emerging out of the ashes of colonial rule. Haldane's support of independent India was a major triumph for the new state, itself in the midst of negotiating a fine balance between rapid modernization through science and technology and an postcolonial respect for traditional 'non-Western' values. Although his time in India was short, Haldane's few years in India were marked by a frenzied engagement with the new India, its science, its government and its culture (Rao 2013).

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Damodaran V (2017)

Janaki Ammal, C. D. Darlington and J. B. S. Haldane: scientific encounters at the end of empire.

Journal of genetics, 96(5):827-836.

Right from the beginning, genetics has been an international venture, with international networks involving the collaboration of scientists across continents. Janaki Ammal's career illustrates this. This paper traces her scientific path by situating it in the context of her relationships with J. B. S. Haldane and C. D. Darlington.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Rao V (2017)

Haldane's view of natural selection.

Journal of genetics, 96(5):765-772.

Among many things, J. B. S. Haldane is known for demonstrating how the principle of natural selection can be used to build a mathematical, and in particular quantitative, theory of evolution. However, to the end, he remained open to the idea of other evolutionary mechanisms. In his late writings, he repeatedly drew attention to situations in which natural selection did not operate, was hemmed in by constraints, or worked in a surprising manner. In this respect Haldane stands out among the architects of the Modern Synthesis.

RevDate: 2018-02-13
CmpDate: 2018-02-13

Raskó I, E Horváth (2017)

[Professor George Szemere (1931-2016) founder of the first regional genetic counselling service in Hungary].

Orvosi hetilap, 158(50):2003-2006.

RevDate: 2018-06-25
CmpDate: 2018-06-25

Weiss TM (2017)

Small Angle Scattering: Historical Perspective and Future Outlook.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1009:1-10.

Small angle scattering (SAS) is a powerful and versatile tool to elucidate the structure of matter at the nanometer scale. Recently, the technique has seen a tremendous growth of applications in the field of structural molecular biology. Its origins however date back to almost a century ago and even though the methods potential for studying biological macromolecules was realized already early on, it was only during the last two decades that SAS gradually became a major experimental technique for the structural biologist. This rise in popularity and application was driven by the concurrence of different key factors such as the increased accessibility to high quality SAS instruments enabled by the growing number of synchrotron facilities and neutron sources established around the world, the emerging need of the structural biology community to study large multi-domain complexes and flexible systems that are hard to crystalize, and in particular the development and availability of data analysis software together with the overall access to computational resources powerful enough to run them. Today, SAS is an established and widely used tool for structural studies on bio-macromolecules. Given the potential offered by the next generation X-ray and neutron sources as well as the development of new, innovative approaches to collect and analyze solution scattering data, the application of SAS in the field of structural molecular biology will certainly continue to thrive in the years to come.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-12-27

Cope AP, Barnes MR, Belson A, et al (2018)

The RA-MAP Consortium: a working model for academia-industry collaboration.

Nature reviews. Rheumatology, 14(1):53-60.

Collaboration can be challenging; nevertheless, the emerging successes of large, multi-partner, multi-national cooperatives and research networks in the biomedical sector have sustained the appetite of academics and industry partners for developing and fostering new research consortia. This model has percolated down to national funding agencies across the globe, leading to funding for projects that aim to realise the true potential of genomic medicine in the 21st century and to reap the rewards of 'big data'. In this Perspectives article, the experiences of the RA-MAP consortium, a group of more than 140 individuals affiliated with 21 academic and industry organizations that are focused on making genomic medicine in rheumatoid arthritis a reality are described. The challenges of multi-partner collaboration in the UK are highlighted and wide-ranging solutions are offered that might benefit large research consortia around the world.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-18

Hoskins SG (2017)

Inside the Literature: An Interview with Sally G. Hoskins, 2017 Recipient of the Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education.

Genetics, 207(4):1223-1225.

The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2017 recipient is Sally G. Hoskins, in recognition of her role in developing and promoting the transformative science education method CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, and Think of the next Experiment). This innovative approach uses primary literature to engage students, allowing them to experience for themselves the creativity and challenge of study design, analysis, interpretation, collaboration, and debate. Comprehensive evaluation of CREATE has consistently found that students improve in difficult-to-teach skills like critical thinking and experimental design, while showing improved attitudes and beliefs about science.This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at genestogenomes.org/hoskins/.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-18

Kingsley DM (2017)

Beautiful Piles of Bones: An Interview with 2017 Genetics Society of America Medal Recipient David M. Kingsley.

Genetics, 207(4):1221-1222.

The Genetics Society of America Medal is awarded to an individual for outstanding contributions to the field of genetics in the last 15 years. Recipients of the GSA Medal are recognized for elegant and highly meaningful contributions to modern genetics, exemplifying the ingenuity of GSA membership. The 2017 recipient is David M. Kingsley, whose work in mouse, sticklebacks, and humans has shifted paradigms about how vertebrates evolve. Kingsley first fell in love with genetics in graduate school, where he worked on receptor mediated endocytosis with Monty Krieger. In his postdoctoral training he was able to unite genetics with his first scientific love: vertebrate morphology. He joined the group of Neal Copeland and Nancy Jenkins, where he led efforts to map the classical mouse skeletal mutation short ear Convinced that experimental genetics had a unique power to reveal the inner workings of evolution, Kingsley then established the stickleback fish as an extraordinarily productive model of quantitative trait evolution in wild species. He and his colleagues revealed many important insights, including the discoveries that major morphological differences can map to key loci with large effects, that regulatory changes in essential developmental control genes have produced advantageous new traits, and that nature has selected the same genes over and over again to drive the stickleback's skeletal evolution. Recently, Kingsley's group has been using these lessons to reveal more about how our own species evolved.This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at genestogenomes.org/kingsley/.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-18

Hodgkin J (2017)

Frontiers of Knowledge: An Interview with 2017 Edward Novitski Prize Recipient Jonathan Hodgkin.

Genetics, 207(4):1219-1220.

The Genetics Society of America's Edward Novitski Prize recognizes a single experimental accomplishment or a body of work in which an exceptional level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity has been used to design and execute scientific experiments to solve a difficult problem in genetics. The 2017 winner, Jonathan Hodgkin, used elegant genetic studies to unravel the sex determination pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans He inferred the order of genes in the pathway and their modes of regulation using epistasis analyses-a powerful tool that was quickly adopted by other researchers. He expanded the number and use of informational suppressor mutants in C. elegans that are able to act on many genes. He also introduced the use of collections of wild C. elegans to study naturally occurring genetic variation, paving the way for SNP mapping and QTL analysis, as well as studies of hybrid incompatibilities between worm species. His current work focuses on nematode-bacterial interactions and innate immunity.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-18

Gerbi SA (2017)

Treasure Your Exceptions: An Interview with 2017 George Beadle Award Recipient Susan A. Gerbi.

Genetics, 207(4):1215-1217.

THE Genetics Society of America's (GSA) George W. Beadle Award honors individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the community of genetics researchers and who exemplify the qualities of its namesake. The 2017 recipient is Susan A. Gerbi, who has been a prominent leader and advocate for the scientific community. In the course of her research on DNA replication, Gerbi helped develop the method of Replication Initiation Point (RIP) mapping to map replication origins at the nucleotide level, improving resolution by two orders of magnitude. RIP mapping also provides the basis for the now popular use of λ-exonuclease to enrich nascent DNA to map replication origins genome-wide. Gerbi's second area of research on ribosomal RNA revealed a conserved core secondary structure, as well as conserved nucleotide elements (CNEs). Some CNEs are universally conserved, while other CNEs are conserved in all eukaryotes but not in archaea or bacteria, suggesting a eukaryotic function. Intriguingly, the majority of the eukaryotic-specific CNEs line the tunnel of the large ribosomal subunit through which the nascent polypeptide exits. Gerbi has promoted the fly Sciara coprophila as a model organism ever since she used its enormous polytene chromosomes to help develop the method of in situ hybridization during her Ph.D. research in Joe Gall's laboratory. The Gerbi laboratory maintains the Sciara International Stock Center and manages its future, actively spreading Sciara stocks to other laboratories. Gerbi has also served in many leadership roles, working on issues of science policy, women in science, scientific training, and career preparation. This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at genestogenomes.org/gerbi.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-18

Lewontin RC (2017)

Random Factors: An Interview with 2017 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal Recipient Richard C. Lewontin.

Genetics, 207(4):1213-1214.

The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal is awarded to an individual member of the Genetics Society of America for lifetime achievement in the field of genetics. It recognizes the full body of work of an exceptional geneticist. The 2017 recipient is Richard C. Lewontin, whose contributions and influence have profoundly shaped the field of evolutionary genetics. As a testament to this legacy, his nomination for the Morgan Medal was cosigned by 160 faculty members from around the world. A student of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Lewontin's early work established the two-locus theory, which laid the foundation for our understanding of linkage disequilibrium. In the 1960s, he collaborated with biochemist Jack Hubby on a method to quantify natural genetic variation using protein gel electrophoresis. This approach helped launch the field of molecular evolution and spurred a great influx of data into a formerly theory-dominated domain. The subsequent contributions of Lewontin and his group helped set the stage for much of modern population genetics and genomics research. As well as this direct impact, Lewontin influenced the field through his guidance and inspiration, as well as through his capacity to spur vigorous but productive debates. His prominent role as a writer and social commentator included highlighting problems with the inference of heritability, concepts of race, and the overemphasis of genetic influences on phenotypes.

RevDate: 2018-03-29
CmpDate: 2018-03-29

Dolgin E (2017)

The most popular genes in the human genome.

Nature, 551(7681):427-431.

RevDate: 2018-10-16
CmpDate: 2018-10-16

Kleinman K (2018)

Genera, evolution, and botanists in 1940: Edgar Anderson's "Survey of Modern Opinion".

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 67:1-7.

RevDate: 2018-10-16
CmpDate: 2018-10-16

Smoller JW (2017)

A Quarter Century of Progress in Psychiatric Genetics.

Harvard review of psychiatry, 25(6):256-258.

RevDate: 2018-06-11
CmpDate: 2018-06-11

Anonymous (2017)

[Academician Andrey Dar'evich Mirzabekov (to the 80th anniversary)].

Molekuliarnaia biologiia, 51(5):747-751.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-10

Calabrese EJ (2017)

A glance into how the cold war and governmental loyalty investigations came to affect a leading U.S. radiation geneticist: Lewis J. Stadler's nightmare.

Philosophy, ethics, and humanities in medicine : PEHM, 12(1):8 pii:10.1186/s13010-017-0050-z.

This paper describes an episode in the life of the prominent plant radiation geneticist, Lewis J. Stadler (1897-1954) during which he became a target of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) concerning loyalty to the United States due to possible associations with the communist party. The research is based on considerable private correspondence of Dr. Stadler, the FBI interrogatory questions and Dr. Stadler's answers and letters of support for Dr. Stadler by leading scientists such as, Hermann J. Muller.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-08-24

Besser J, Carleton HA, Gerner-Smidt P, et al (2018)

Next-generation sequencing technologies and their application to the study and control of bacterial infections.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 24(4):335-341.

BACKGROUND: With the efficiency and the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing, the technology is being rapidly introduced into clinical and public health laboratory practice.

AIMS: The historical background and principles of first-, second- and third-generation sequencing are described, as are the characteristics of the most commonly used sequencing instruments.

SOURCES: Peer-reviewed literature, white papers and meeting reports.

CONTENT AND IMPLICATIONS: Next-generation sequencing is a technology that could potentially replace many traditional microbiological workflows, providing clinicians and public health specialists with more actionable information than hitherto achievable. Examples of the clinical and public health uses of the technology are provided. The challenge of comparability of different sequencing platforms is discussed. Finally, the future directions of the technology integrating it with laboratory management and public health surveillance systems, and moving it towards performing sequencing directly from the clinical specimen (metagenomics), could lead to yet another fundamental transformation of clinical diagnostics and public health surveillance.

RevDate: 2018-07-05
CmpDate: 2018-07-05

Nicoglou A, F Merlin (2017)

Epigenetics: A way to bridge the gap between biological fields.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 66:73-82.

The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history. Second, we show on this basis that epigenetics has progressively turned its main focus from biological problems regarding development, toward issues concerning evolution. Yet, both these different epistemological aspects of epigenetics still coexist. Third, we claim that the classical opposition between epigenesis and preformationism as ways of thinking about the developmental process is part of the history of epigenetics and has contributed to its current various meanings. With these objectives in mind, we first show how Waddington introduced the term "epigenetics" in a biological context in order to solve a developmental problem, and we then build on this by presenting Nanney's, Riggs' and Holliday's definitions, which form the basis for the current conception of "molecular epigenetics". Then, we show that the evo-devo research field is where some particular uses of epigenetics have started shifting from developmental issues to evolutionary problems. We also show that epigenetics has progressively focused on the issue of epigenetic inheritance within the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis' framework. Finally, we conclude by presenting a typology of the different conceptions of epigenetics throughout time, and analyse the connections between them. We argue that, since Waddington, epigenetics, as an integrative research area, has been used to bridge the gap between different biological fields.

RevDate: 2018-11-05
CmpDate: 2018-11-05

Anonymous (2017)

Society for Glycobiology Awards-2017.

Glycobiology, 27(12):1077-1080.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Kolchinsky EI, Kutschera U, Hossfeld U, et al (2017)

Russia's new Lysenkoism.

Current biology : CB, 27(19):R1042-R1047.

During the late 1940s and 1950s, a pseudo-scientific concept based on Marxist-Leninist ideology became internationally known as 'Lysenkoism'. Lysenkoism was a neo-Lamarckian idea, claiming that in crop plants, such as wheat, environmental influences are heritable via all cells of the organism. Lysenkoism was applied to agriculture during the Stalin era with disastrous consequences. Despite the triumphs of modern genetics, and the disproval of Lysenkoism, recent years have seen a 're-thinking' of this doctrine in Russia. This disturbing pro-Lysenko movement, which is accompanied by a growing sympathy for Stalin, claims to have its scientific roots in modern epigenetics, specifically the heritability of variation by mechanisms other than changes in DNA sequence. Based on recent research on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, its is clear that Lysenkoism has nothing to do with heritable 'epigenetic' modifications. Biologists should defend science against ideological and political interferences.

RevDate: 2018-06-12
CmpDate: 2018-06-12

Jordan B (2017)

[Cancer: three eras of personalized medicine].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 33(10):905-908.

Since the completion of the first human DNA sequence, genomic approaches have penetrated into cancer research and therapy: first through expression profiling for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes, then by sequencing of tumour DNA in order to define and apply targeted therapies. These overlapping changes occurred quite rapidly and are now overshadowed by immuno-oncology approaches that show much promise. There is however still much left to understand to make this more widely applicable, and the extreme cost of these therapies is a serious concern.

RevDate: 2018-04-16
CmpDate: 2018-04-16

Anonymous (2017)

Ingemar Gustavsson (1938-2016).

Cytogenetic and genome research, 152(4):167-168.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )