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Bibliography on: Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 02 Aug 2021 at 01:34 Created: 

Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

Created with PubMed® Query: (origin OR evolution) and (eukaryotes OR eukaryota) AND (multicelluarity OR multicellular) NOT 33634751[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-07-23
CmpDate: 2021-07-23

Shang-Guan XY, Cai YJ, Xu HZ, et al (2021)

A C-type lectin with a single CRD from Onychostoma macrolepis mediates immune recognition against bacterial challenge.

Fish & shellfish immunology, 115:160-170.

C-type lectins (CTL) are a large group of pattern-recognition proteins and to play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration, and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups that possess different physiological functions. A typical C-type lectin (named as OmLec1) was identified from the fish, Onychostoma macrolepis, an important cultured fish in China. Open reading frame of OmLec1 contains a 570 bp, encoding a protein of 189 amino acids that includes a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain. The phylogenetic analysis showed that OmLec1 could be grouped with C-type lectin from other fish. OmLec1 was expressed in all the tissues in our study, and the expression level was highest in liver. And its relative expression levels were significantly upregulated following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. The recombinant OmLec1 protein (rOmLec1) could agglutinate some Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro in the presence of Ca2+, showing a typical Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. Furthermore, rOmLec1 purified from E. coli BL21 (DE3), strongly bound to LPS and PGN, as well as all tested bacteria in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that OmLec1 plays a central role in the innate immune response and as a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes diverse pathogens among O. macrolepis.

RevDate: 2021-07-22

Kożyczkowska A, Najle SR, Ocaña-Pallarès E, et al (2021)

Stable transfection in protist Corallochytriumlimacisporum identifies novel cellular features among unicellular animals relatives.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)00890-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The evolutionary path from protists to multicellular animals remains a mystery. Recent work on the genomes of several unicellular relatives of animals has shaped our understanding of the genetic changes that may have occurred in this transition.1-3 However, the specific cellular modifications that took place to accommodate these changes remain unclear. To address this, we need to compare metazoan cells with those of their extant relatives, which are choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, and corallochytreans/pluriformeans. Interestingly, these lineages display a range of developmental patterns potentially homologous to animal ones. Genetic tools have already been established in three of those lineages.4-7 However, there are no genetic tools available for Corallochytrea. We here report the development of stable transfection in the corallochytrean Corallochytrium limacisporum. Using these tools, we discern previously unknown biological features of C. limacisporum. In particular, we identify two different paths for cell division-binary fission and coenocytic growth-that reveal a non-linear life cycle. Additionally, we found that C. limacisporum is binucleate for most of its life cycle, and that, contrary to what happens in most eukaryotes, nuclear division is decoupled from cellular division. Moreover, its actin cytoskeleton shares characteristics with both fungal and animal cells. The establishment of these tools in C. limacisporum fills an important gap in the unicellular relatives of animals, opening up new avenues of research to elucidate the specific cellular changes that occurred in the evolution of animals.

RevDate: 2021-07-22
CmpDate: 2021-07-22

Michalakis Y, S Blanc (2020)

The Curious Strategy of Multipartite Viruses.

Annual review of virology, 7(1):203-218.

Multipartite virus genomes are composed of several segments, each packaged in a distinct viral particle. Although this puzzling genome architecture is found in ∼17% of known viral species, its distribution among hosts or among distinct types of genome-composing nucleic acid remains poorly understood. No convincing advantage of multipartitism has been identified, yet the maintenance of genomic integrity appears problematic. Here we review recent studies shedding light on these issues. Multipartite viruses rapidly modify the copy number of each segment/gene from one host species to another, a putative benefit if host switches are common. One multipartite virus functions in a multicellular way: The segments do not all need to be present in the same cell and can functionally complement across cells, maintaining genome integrity within hosts. The genomic integrity maintenance during host-to-host transmission needs further elucidation. These features challenge several virology foundations and could apply to other multicomponent viral systems.

RevDate: 2021-07-20
CmpDate: 2021-07-20

Bernardes JP, John U, Woltermann N, et al (2021)

The evolution of convex trade-offs enables the transition towards multicellularity.

Nature communications, 12(1):4222.

The evolutionary transition towards multicellular life often involves growth in groups of undifferentiated cells followed by differentiation into soma and germ-like cells. Theory predicts that germ soma differentiation is facilitated by a convex trade-off between survival and reproduction. However, this has never been tested and these transitions remain poorly understood at the ecological and genetic level. Here, we study the evolution of cell groups in ten isogenic lines of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with prolonged exposure to a rotifer predator. We confirm that growth in cell groups is heritable and characterized by a convex trade-off curve between reproduction and survival. Identical mutations evolve in all cell group isolates; these are linked to survival and reducing associated cell costs. Overall, we show that just 500 generations of predator selection were sufficient to lead to a convex trade-off and incorporate evolved changes into the prey genome.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Cricrì G, Bellucci L, Montini G, et al (2021)

Urinary Extracellular Vesicles: Uncovering the Basis of the Pathological Processes in Kidney-Related Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

Intercellular communication governs multicellular interactions in complex organisms. A variety of mechanisms exist through which cells can communicate, e.g., cell-cell contact, the release of paracrine/autocrine soluble molecules, or the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane-surrounded structures released by almost all cell types, acting both nearby and distant from their tissue/organ of origin. In the kidney, EVs are potent intercellular messengers released by all urinary system cells and are involved in cell crosstalk, contributing to physiology and pathogenesis. Moreover, urine is a reservoir of EVs coming from the circulation after crossing the glomerular filtration barrier-or originating in the kidney. Thus, urine represents an alternative source for biomarkers in kidney-related diseases, potentially replacing standard diagnostic techniques, including kidney biopsy. This review will present an overview of EV biogenesis and classification and the leading procedures for isolating EVs from body fluids. Furthermore, their role in intra-nephron communication and their use as a diagnostic tool for precision medicine in kidney-related disorders will be discussed.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Loidl J (2021)

Tetrahymena meiosis: Simple yet ingenious.

PLoS genetics, 17(7):e1009627 pii:PGENETICS-D-21-00564.

The presence of meiosis, which is a conserved component of sexual reproduction, across organisms from all eukaryotic kingdoms, strongly argues that sex is a primordial feature of eukaryotes. However, extant meiotic structures and processes can vary considerably between organisms. The ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila, which diverged from animals, plants, and fungi early in evolution, provides one example of a rather unconventional meiosis. Tetrahymena has a simpler meiosis compared with most other organisms: It lacks both a synaptonemal complex (SC) and specialized meiotic machinery for chromosome cohesion and has a reduced capacity to regulate meiotic recombination. Despite this, it also features several unique mechanisms, including elongation of the nucleus to twice the cell length to promote homologous pairing and prevent recombination between sister chromatids. Comparison of the meiotic programs of Tetrahymena and higher multicellular organisms may reveal how extant meiosis evolved from proto-meiosis.

RevDate: 2021-07-14
CmpDate: 2021-07-14

Fritsche E, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Kapr J, et al (2021)

Stem Cells for Next Level Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 17(15):e2006252.

The call for a paradigm change in toxicology from the United States National Research Council in 2007 initiates awareness for the invention and use of human-relevant alternative methods for toxicological hazard assessment. Simple 2D in vitro systems may serve as first screening tools, however, recent developments infer the need for more complex, multicellular organotypic models, which are superior in mimicking the complexity of human organs. In this review article most critical organs for toxicity assessment, i.e., skin, brain, thyroid system, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and intestine are discussed with regards to their functions in health and disease. Embracing the manifold modes-of-action how xenobiotic compounds can interfere with physiological organ functions and cause toxicity, the need for translation of such multifaceted organ features into the dish seems obvious. Currently used in vitro methods for toxicological applications and ongoing developments not yet arrived in toxicity testing are discussed, especially highlighting the potential of models based on embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells of human origin. Finally, the application of innovative technologies like organs-on-a-chip and genome editing point toward a toxicological paradigm change moves into action.

RevDate: 2021-07-15
CmpDate: 2021-07-15

Tan Y, Barnbrook M, Wilson Y, et al (2020)

Shared Mutations in a Novel Glutaredoxin Repressor of Multicellular Trichome Fate Underlie Parallel Evolution of Antirrhinum Species.

Current biology : CB, 30(8):1357-1366.e4.

Most angiosperms produce trichomes-epidermal hairs that have protective or more specialized roles. Trichomes are multicellular in almost all species and, in the majority, secretory. Despite the importance of multicellular trichomes for plant protection and as a source of high-value products, the mechanisms that control their development are only poorly understood. Here, we investigate the control of multicellular trichome patterns using natural variation within the genus Antirrhinum (snapdragons), which has evolved hairy alpine-adapted species or lowland species with a restricted trichome pattern multiple times in parallel. We find that a single gene, Hairy (H), which is needed to repress trichome fate, underlies variation in trichome patterns between all Antirrhinum species except one. We show that H encodes a novel epidermis-specific glutaredoxin and that the pattern of trichome distribution within individuals reflects the location of H expression. Phylogenetic and functional tests suggest that H gained its trichome-repressing role late in the history of eudicots and that the ancestral Antirrhinum had an active H gene and restricted trichome distribution. Loss of H function was involved in an early divergence of alpine and lowland Antirrhinum lineages, and the alleles underlying this split were later reused in parallel evolution of alpines from lowland ancestors, and vice versa. We also find evidence for an evolutionary reversal from a widespread to restricted trichome distribution involving a suppressor mutation and for a pleiotropic effect of H on plant growth that might constrain the evolution of trichome pattern.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Vigneau J, M Borg (2021)

The epigenetic origin of life history transitions in plants and algae.

Plant reproduction [Epub ahead of print].

Plants and algae have a complex life history that transitions between distinct life forms called the sporophyte and the gametophyte. This phenomenon-called the alternation of generations-has fascinated botanists and phycologists for over 170 years. Despite the mesmerizing array of life histories described in plants and algae, we are only now beginning to learn about the molecular mechanisms controlling them and how they evolved. Epigenetic silencing plays an essential role in regulating gene expression during multicellular development in eukaryotes, raising questions about its impact on the life history strategy of plants and algae. Here, we trace the origin and function of epigenetic mechanisms across the plant kingdom, from unicellular green algae through to angiosperms, and attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary steps that influenced life history transitions during plant evolution. Central to this evolutionary scenario is the adaption of epigenetic silencing from a mechanism of genome defense to the repression and control of alternating generations. We extend our discussion beyond the green lineage and highlight the peculiar case of the brown algae. Unlike their unicellular diatom relatives, brown algae lack epigenetic silencing pathways common to animals and plants yet display complex life histories, hinting at the emergence of novel life history controls during stramenopile evolution.

RevDate: 2021-07-06
CmpDate: 2021-07-06

Machado SR, TM Rodrigues (2021)

Apoplasmic barrier in the extrafloral nectary of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaceae).

Planta, 254(2):19.

MAIN CONCLUSION: The cytological changes underlying the formation of an apoplasmic barrier in the multi-layered extrafloral nectaries of Citharexylum myrianthum are compatible with the synthesis, transport and deposition of suberin. In terms of ontogenesis and function, the intermediate layers of these nectaries are homologous with the stalks of nectar-secreting trichomes. Anticlinal cell wall impregnations are common in trichomatic nectaries and their functions as endodermis-like barriers have been discussed because of possible direct effects on the nectary physiology, mainly in the nectar secretion and resorption. However, the cytological events linked to nectary wall impregnations remain little explored. This study documents the ontogenesis and the fine structure of the EFN cells, and cytological events linked to the wall impregnations of multi-layered extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. (Verbenaceae). EFNs are patelliform, and differentiated into (a) a multicellular foot, which is compound in structure and vascularised with phloem strands, (b) a bi-layered intermediate region with thickened cell walls and (c) a single-layered secretory region with palisade-like cells. EFNs are protodermal in origin, starting with a single protodermal cell and ending with the complex, multi-layered structure. The cell wall impregnations first appear in the very young EFN and increase towards maturity. Lipid patches (assumed to be suberin) are deposited on the inner faces of the primary walls, first along the anticlinal walls and then extend to the periclinal walls. On both walls, plasmodesmata remain apparently intact during the maturation of the EFNs. In the peripheral cytoplasm there are abundant polymorphic plastids, well-developed Golgi bodies often close to rough endoplasmic reticulum profiles, mitochondria and polyribosomes. Cytological events linked to the wall impregnations are consistent with suberin synthesis, transport and deposition. Our findings offer new insights into the structure-properties of specialised nectary cell walls and so should contribute to our knowledge of the physiological and protective roles of this structure in nectar glands.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Amaral-Zettler LA, Zettler ER, Mincer TJ, et al (2021)

Biofouling impacts on polyethylene density and sinking in coastal waters: A macro/micro tipping point?.

Water research, 201:117289 pii:S0043-1354(21)00487-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofouling causing an increase in plastic density and sinking is one of the hypotheses to account for the unexpectedly low amount of buoyant plastic debris encountered at the ocean surface. Field surveys show that polyethylene and polypropylene, the two most abundant buoyant plastics, both occur below the surface and in sediments, and experimental studies confirm that biofouling can cause both of these plastics to sink. However, studies quantifying the actual density of fouled plastics are rare, despite the fact that density will determine the transport and eventual fate of plastic in the ocean. Here we investigated the role of microbial biofilms in sinking of polyethylene microplastic and quantified the density changes natural biofouling communities cause in the coastal waters of the North Sea. Molecular data confirmed the variety of bacteria and eukaryotes (including animals and other multicellular organisms) colonizing the plastic over time. Fouling communities increased the density of plastic and caused sinking, and the plastic remained negatively buoyant even during the winter with lower growth rates. Relative surface area alone, however, did not predict whether a plastic piece sank. Due to patchy colonization, fragmentation of sinking pieces may result in smaller pieces regaining buoyancy and returning to the surface. Our results suggest that primarily multicellular organisms cause sinking of plastic pieces with surface area to volume ratios (SA:V) below 100 (generally pieces above a couple hundred micrometers in size), and that this is a "tipping point" at which microbial biofilms become the key players causing sinking of smaller pieces with higher SA:V ratios, including most fibers that are too small for larger (multicellular) organisms to colonize.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Badis Y, Scornet D, Harada M, et al (2021)

Targeted CRISPR-Cas9-based gene knockouts in the model brown alga Ectocarpus.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Brown algae are an important group of multicellular eukaryotes, phylogenetically distinct from both the animal and land plant lineages. Ectocarpus has emerged as a model organism to study diverse aspects of brown algal biology but this system currently lacks an effective reverse genetics methodology to analyse the functions of selected target genes. Here we report that mutations at specific target sites are generated following the introduction of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins into Ectocarpus cells, using either biolistics or microinjection as the delivery method. Individuals with mutations affecting the ADENINE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE (APT) gene were isolated following treatment with 2-fluoroadenine and this selection system was used to isolate individuals in which mutations had been introduced simultaneously at APT and at a second gene. This double mutation approach could potentially be used to isolate mutants affecting any Ectocarpus gene, providing an effective reverse genetics tool for this model organism. The availability of this tool will significantly enhance the utility of Ectocarpus as a model organism for this ecologically and economically important group of marine organisms. Moreover, the methodology described here should be readily transferable to other brown algal species.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Miller WB, Enguita FJ, AL Leitão (2021)

Non-Random Genome Editing and Natural Cellular Engineering in Cognition-Based Evolution.

Cells, 10(5):.

Neo-Darwinism presumes that biological variation is a product of random genetic replication errors and natural selection. Cognition-Based Evolution (CBE) asserts a comprehensive alternative approach to phenotypic variation and the generation of biological novelty. In CBE, evolutionary variation is the product of natural cellular engineering that permits purposive genetic adjustments as cellular problem-solving. CBE upholds that the cornerstone of biology is the intelligent measuring cell. Since all biological information that is available to cells is ambiguous, multicellularity arises from the cellular requirement to maximize the validity of available environmental information. This is best accomplished through collective measurement purposed towards maintaining and optimizing individual cellular states of homeorhesis as dynamic flux that sustains cellular equipoise. The collective action of the multicellular measurement and assessment of information and its collaborative communication is natural cellular engineering. Its yield is linked cellular ecologies and mutualized niche constructions that comprise biofilms and holobionts. In this context, biological variation is the product of collective differential assessment of ambiguous environmental cues by networking intelligent cells. Such concerted action is enabled by non-random natural genomic editing in response to epigenetic impacts and environmental stresses. Random genetic activity can be either constrained or deployed as a 'harnessing of stochasticity'. Therefore, genes are cellular tools. Selection filters cellular solutions to environmental stresses to assure continuous cellular-organismal-environmental complementarity. Since all multicellular eukaryotes are holobionts as vast assemblages of participants of each of the three cellular domains (Prokaryota, Archaea, Eukaryota) and the virome, multicellular variation is necessarily a product of co-engineering among them.

RevDate: 2021-07-01

Sheng Y, Pan B, Wei F, et al (2021)

Case Study of the Response of N6-Methyladenine DNA Modification to Environmental Stressors in the Unicellular Eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

mSphere, 6(3):e0120820.

Rediscovered as a potential epigenetic mark, N6-methyladenine DNA modification (6mA) was recently reported to be sensitive to environmental stressors in several multicellular eukaryotes. As 6mA distribution and function differ significantly in multicellular and unicellular organisms, whether and how 6mA in unicellular eukaryotes responds to environmental stress remains elusive. Here, we characterized the dynamic changes of 6mA under starvation in the unicellular model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing reveals that DNA 6mA levels in starved cells are significantly reduced, especially symmetric 6mA, compared to those in vegetatively growing cells. Despite a global 6mA reduction, the fraction of asymmetric 6mA with a high methylation level was increased, which might be the driving force for stronger nucleosome positioning in starved cells. Starvation affects expression of many metabolism-related genes, the expression level change of which is associated with the amount of 6mA change, thereby linking 6mA with global transcription and starvation adaptation. The reduction of symmetric 6mA and the increase of asymmetric 6mA coincide with the downregulation of AMT1 and upregulation of AMT2 and AMT5, which are supposedly the MT-A70 methyltransferases required for symmetric and asymmetric 6mA, respectively. These results demonstrated that a regulated 6mA response to environmental cues is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence indicated that 6mA could respond to environmental stressors in multicellular eukaryotes. As 6mA distribution and function differ significantly in multicellular and unicellular organisms, whether and how 6mA in unicellular eukaryotes responds to environmental stress remains elusive. In the present work, we characterized the dynamic changes of 6mA under starvation in the unicellular model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Our results provide insights into how Tetrahymena fine-tunes its 6mA level and composition upon starvation, suggesting that a regulated 6mA response to environmental cues is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2021-06-03
CmpDate: 2021-06-03

Bozdag GO, Libby E, Pineau R, et al (2021)

Oxygen suppression of macroscopic multicellularity.

Nature communications, 12(1):2838.

Atmospheric oxygen is thought to have played a vital role in the evolution of large, complex multicellular organisms. Challenging the prevailing theory, we show that the transition from an anaerobic to an aerobic world can strongly suppress the evolution of macroscopic multicellularity. Here we select for increased size in multicellular 'snowflake' yeast across a range of metabolically-available O2 levels. While yeast under anaerobic and high-O2 conditions evolved to be considerably larger, intermediate O2 constrained the evolution of large size. Through sequencing and synthetic strain construction, we confirm that this is due to O2-mediated divergent selection acting on organism size. We show via mathematical modeling that our results stem from nearly universal evolutionary and biophysical trade-offs, and thus should apply broadly. These results highlight the fact that oxygen is a double-edged sword: while it provides significant metabolic advantages, selection for efficient use of this resource may paradoxically suppress the evolution of macroscopic multicellular organisms.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Orban A, Weber A, Herzog R, et al (2021)

Transcriptome of different fruiting stages in the cultivated mushroom Cyclocybe aegerita suggests a complex regulation of fruiting and reveals enzymes putatively involved in fungal oxylipin biosynthesis.

BMC genomics, 22(1):324.

BACKGROUND: Cyclocybe aegerita (syn. Agrocybe aegerita) is a commercially cultivated mushroom. Its archetypal agaric morphology and its ability to undergo its whole life cycle under laboratory conditions makes this fungus a well-suited model for studying fruiting body (basidiome, basidiocarp) development. To elucidate the so far barely understood biosynthesis of fungal volatiles, alterations in the transcriptome during different developmental stages of C. aegerita were analyzed and combined with changes in the volatile profile during its different fruiting stages.

RESULTS: A transcriptomic study at seven points in time during fruiting body development of C. aegerita with seven mycelial and five fruiting body stages was conducted. Differential gene expression was observed for genes involved in fungal fruiting body formation showing interesting transcriptional patterns and correlations of these fruiting-related genes with the developmental stages. Combining transcriptome and volatilome data, enzymes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of C8 oxylipins in C. aegerita including lipoxygenases (LOXs), dioxygenases (DOXs), hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs), alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and ene-reductases could be identified. Furthermore, we were able to localize the mycelium as the main source for sesquiterpenes predominant during sporulation in the headspace of C. aegerita cultures. In contrast, changes in the C8 profile detected in late stages of development are probably due to the activity of enzymes located in the fruiting bodies.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the combination of volatilome and transcriptome data of C. aegerita revealed interesting candidates both for functional genetics-based analysis of fruiting-related genes and for prospective enzyme characterization studies to further elucidate the so far barely understood biosynthesis of fungal C8 oxylipins.

RevDate: 2021-05-12
CmpDate: 2021-05-12

Romanova MA, Maksimova AI, Pawlowski K, et al (2021)

YABBY Genes in the Development and Evolution of Land Plants.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(8):.

Mounting evidence from genomic and transcriptomic studies suggests that most genetic networks regulating the morphogenesis of land plant sporophytes were co-opted and modified from those already present in streptophyte algae and gametophytes of bryophytes sensu lato. However, thus far, no candidate genes have been identified that could be responsible for "planation", a conversion from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional growth pattern. According to the telome theory, "planation" was required for the genesis of the leaf blade in the course of leaf evolution. The key transcription factors responsible for leaf blade development in angiosperms are YABBY proteins, which until recently were thought to be unique for seed plants. Yet, identification of a YABBY homologue in a green alga and the recent findings of YABBY homologues in lycophytes and hornworts suggest that YABBY proteins were already present in the last common ancestor of land plants. Thus, these transcriptional factors could have been involved in "planation", which fosters our understanding of the origin of leaves. Here, we summarise the current data on functions of YABBY proteins in the vegetative and reproductive development of diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms as well as in the development of lycophytes. Furthermore, we discuss a putative role of YABBY proteins in the genesis of multicellular shoot apical meristems and in the evolution of leaves in early divergent terrestrial plants.

RevDate: 2021-06-28
CmpDate: 2021-06-28

Hage H, Rosso MN, L Tarrago (2021)

Distribution of methionine sulfoxide reductases in fungi and conservation of the free-methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase in multicellular eukaryotes.

Free radical biology & medicine, 169:187-215.

Methionine, either as a free amino acid or included in proteins, can be oxidized into methionine sulfoxide (MetO), which exists as R and S diastereomers. Almost all characterized organisms possess thiol-oxidoreductases named methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) enzymes to reduce MetO back to Met. MsrA and MsrB reduce the S and R diastereomers of MetO, respectively, with strict stereospecificity and are found in almost all organisms. Another type of thiol-oxidoreductase, the free-methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (fRMsr), identified so far in prokaryotes and a few unicellular eukaryotes, reduces the R MetO diastereomer of the free amino acid. Moreover, some bacteria possess molybdenum-containing enzymes that reduce MetO, either in the free or protein-bound forms. All these Msrs play important roles in the protection of organisms against oxidative stress. Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotes that colonize all niches on Earth and play fundamental functions, in organic matter recycling, as symbionts, or as pathogens of numerous organisms. However, our knowledge on fungal Msrs is still limited. Here, we performed a survey of msr genes in almost 700 genomes across the fungal kingdom. We show that most fungi possess one gene coding for each type of methionine sulfoxide reductase: MsrA, MsrB, and fRMsr. However, several fungi living in anaerobic environments or as obligate intracellular parasites were devoid of msr genes. Sequence inspection and phylogenetic analyses allowed us to identify non-canonical sequences with potentially novel enzymatic properties. Finaly, we identified several ocurences of msr horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to fungi.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Menichelli C, Guitard V, Martins RM, et al (2021)

Identification of long regulatory elements in the genome of Plasmodium falciparum and other eukaryotes.

PLoS computational biology, 17(4):e1008909.

Long regulatory elements (LREs), such as CpG islands, polydA:dT tracts or AU-rich elements, are thought to play key roles in gene regulation but, as opposed to conventional binding sites of transcription factors, few methods have been proposed to formally and automatically characterize them. We present here a computational approach named DExTER (Domain Exploration To Explain gene Regulation) dedicated to the identification of candidate LREs (cLREs) and apply it to the analysis of the genomes of P. falciparum and other eukaryotes. Our analyses show that all tested genomes contain several cLREs that are somewhat conserved along evolution, and that gene expression can be predicted with surprising accuracy on the basis of these long regions only. Regulation by cLREs exhibits very different behaviours depending on species and conditions. In P. falciparum and other Apicomplexan organisms as well as in Dictyostelium discoideum, the process appears highly dynamic, with different cLREs involved at different phases of the life cycle. For multicellular organisms, the same cLREs are involved in all tissues, but a dynamic behavior is observed along embryonic development stages. In P. falciparum, whose genome is known to be strongly depleted of transcription factors, cLREs are predictive of expression with an accuracy above 70%, and our analyses show that they are associated with both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation signals. Moreover, we assessed the biological relevance of one LRE discovered by DExTER in P. falciparum using an in vivo reporter assay. The source code (python) of DExTER is available at https://gite.lirmm.fr/menichelli/DExTER.

RevDate: 2021-07-01
CmpDate: 2021-06-28

Genau AC, Li Z, Renzaglia KS, et al (2021)

HAG1 and SWI3A/B control of male germ line development in P. patens suggests conservation of epigenetic reproductive control across land plants.

Plant reproduction, 34(2):149-173.

KEY MESSAGE: Bryophytes as models to study the male germ line: loss-of-function mutants of epigenetic regulators HAG1 and SWI3a/b demonstrate conserved function in sexual reproduction. With the water-to-land transition, land plants evolved a peculiar haplodiplontic life cycle in which both the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte are multicellular. The switch between these phases was coined alternation of generations. Several key regulators that control the bauplan of either generation are already known. Analyses of such regulators in flowering plants are difficult due to the highly reduced gametophytic generation, and the fact that loss of function of such genes often is embryo lethal in homozygous plants. Here we set out to determine gene function and conservation via studies in bryophytes. Bryophytes are sister to vascular plants and hence allow evolutionary inferences. Moreover, embryo lethal mutants can be grown and vegetatively propagated due to the dominance of the bryophyte gametophytic generation. We determined candidates by selecting single copy orthologs that are involved in transcriptional control, and of which flowering plant mutants show defects during sexual reproduction, with a focus on the under-studied male germ line. We selected two orthologs, SWI3a/b and HAG1, and analyzed loss-of-function mutants in the moss P. patens. In both mutants, due to lack of fertile spermatozoids, fertilization and hence the switch to the diploid generation do not occur. Pphag1 additionally shows arrested male and impaired female gametangia development. We analyzed HAG1 in the dioecious liverwort M. polymorpha and found that in Mphag1 the development of gametangiophores is impaired. Taken together, we find that involvement of both regulators in sexual reproduction is conserved since the earliest divergence of land plants.

RevDate: 2021-04-22
CmpDate: 2021-04-22

Baluška F, Miller WB, AS Reber (2021)

Biomolecular Basis of Cellular Consciousness via Subcellular Nanobrains.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(5):.

Cells emerged at the very beginning of life on Earth and, in fact, are coterminous with life. They are enclosed within an excitable plasma membrane, which defines the outside and inside domains via their specific biophysical properties. Unicellular organisms, such as diverse protists and algae, still live a cellular life. However, fungi, plants, and animals evolved a multicellular existence. Recently, we have developed the cellular basis of consciousness (CBC) model, which proposes that all biological awareness, sentience and consciousness are grounded in general cell biology. Here we discuss the biomolecular structures and processes that allow for and maintain this cellular consciousness from an evolutionary perspective.

RevDate: 2021-05-03

Porfírio-Sousa AL, Tice AK, Brown MW, et al (2021)

Phylogenetic reconstruction and evolution of the Rab GTPase gene family in Amoebozoa.

Small GTPases [Epub ahead of print].

Rab GTPase is a paralog-rich gene family that controls the maintenance of the eukaryotic cell compartmentalization system. Diverse eukaryotes have varying numbers of Rab paralogs. Currently, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of Rab GTPase in most major eukaryotic 'supergroups'. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the Rab GTPase gene family in the eukaryotic 'supergroup' Amoebozoa, a diverse lineage represented by unicellular and multicellular organisms. We demonstrate that Amoebozoa conserved 20 of the 23 ancestral Rab GTPases predicted to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and massively expanded several 'novel' in-paralogs. Due to these 'novel' in-paralogs, the Rab family composition dramatically varies between the members of Amoebozoa; as a consequence, 'supergroup'-based studies may significantly change our current understanding of the evolution and diversity of this gene family. The high diversity of the Rab GTPase gene family in Amoebozoa makes this 'supergroup' a key lineage to study and advance our knowledge of the evolution of Rab in Eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2021-06-23
CmpDate: 2021-06-23

Roudaire T, Héloir MC, Wendehenne D, et al (2020)

Cross Kingdom Immunity: The Role of Immune Receptors and Downstream Signaling in Animal and Plant Cell Death.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:612452.

Both plants and animals are endowed with sophisticated innate immune systems to combat microbial attack. In these multicellular eukaryotes, innate immunity implies the presence of cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors able to detect danger signal referred as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Membrane-associated pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), receptor-like kinases (RLKs), and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) are employed by these organisms for sensing different invasion patterns before triggering antimicrobial defenses that can be associated with a form of regulated cell death. Intracellularly, animals nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors or plants nucleotide-binding domain (NBD)-containing leucine rich repeats (NLRs) immune receptors likely detect effectors injected into the host cell by the pathogen to hijack the immune signaling cascade. Interestingly, during the co-evolution between the hosts and their invaders, key cross-kingdom cell death-signaling macromolecular NLR-complexes have been selected, such as the inflammasome in mammals and the recently discovered resistosome in plants. In both cases, a regulated cell death located at the site of infection constitutes a very effective mean for blocking the pathogen spread and protecting the whole organism from invasion. This review aims to describe the immune mechanisms in animals and plants, mainly focusing on cell death signaling pathways, in order to highlight recent advances that could be used on one side or the other to identify the missing signaling elements between the perception of the invasion pattern by immune receptors, the induction of defenses or the transmission of danger signals to other cells. Although knowledge of plant immunity is less advanced, these organisms have certain advantages allowing easier identification of signaling events, regulators and executors of cell death, which could then be exploited directly for crop protection purposes or by analogy for medical research.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Barnett AM, Mullaney JA, Hendriks C, et al (2021)

Porcine colonoids and enteroids keep the memory of their origin during regeneration.

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology, 320(5):C794-C805.

The development of alternative in vitro culture methods has increased in the last decade as three-dimensional organoids of various tissues, including those of the small and large intestines. Due to their multicellular composition, organoids offer advantages over traditionally used immortalized or primary cell lines. However, organoids must be accurate models of their tissues of origin. This study compared gene expression profiles with respect to markers of specific cell types (stem cells, enterocytes, goblet, and enteroendocrine cells) and barrier maturation (tight junctions) of colonoid and enteroid cultures with their tissues of origin and colonoids with enteroids. Colonoids derived from three healthy pigs formed multilobed structures with a monolayer of cells similar to the crypt structures in colonic tissue. Colonoid and enteroid gene expression signatures were more similar to those found for the tissues of their origin than to each other. However, relative to their derived tissues, organoids had increased gene expression levels of stem cell markers Sox9 and Lgr5 encoding sex-determining region Y-box 9 and leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled rector 5, respectively. In contrast, expression levels of Occl and Zo1 encoding occludin and zonula occludens 1, respectively, were decreased. Expression levels of the cell lineage markers Atoh1, Cga, and Muc2 encoding atonal homolog 1, chromogranin A, and mucin 2, respectively, were decreased in colonoids, whereas Sglt1 and Apn encoding sodium-glucose transporter 1 and aminopeptidase A, respectively, were decreased in enteroids. These results indicate colonoid and enteroid cultures were predominantly comprised of undifferentiated cell types with decreased barrier maturation relative to their tissues of origin.

RevDate: 2021-03-23

Dhakshinamoorthy R, SP Singh (2021)

Evolution of Reproductive Division of Labor - Lessons Learned From the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum During Its Multicellular Development.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:599525.

The origin of multicellular life from unicellular beings is an epochal step in the evolution of eukaryotes. There are several factors influencing cell fate choices during differentiation and morphogenesis of an organism. Genetic make-up of two cells that unite and fertilize is the key factor to signal the formation of various cell-types in due course of development. Although ploidy of the cell-types determines the genetics of an individual, the role of ploidy in cell fate decisions remains unclear. Dictyostelium serves as a versatile model to study the emergence of multicellular life from unicellular life forms. In this work, we investigate the role played by ploidy status of a cell on cell fate commitments during Dictyostelium development. To answer this question, we created Dictyostelium cells of different ploidy: haploid parents and derived isogenic diploids, allowing them to undergo development. The diploid strains used in this study were generated using parasexual genetics. The ploidy status of the haploids and diploids were confirmed by microscopy, flow cytometry, and karyotyping. Prior to reconstitution, we labeled the cells by two methods. First, intragenic expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP) and second, staining the amoebae with a vital, fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). RFP labeled haploid cells allowed us to track the haploids in the chimeric aggregates, slugs, and fruiting bodies. The CFSE labeling method allowed us to track both the haploids and the diploids in the chimeric developmental structures. Our findings illustrate that the haploids demonstrate sturdy cell fate commitment starting from the aggregation stage. The haploids remain crowded at the aggregation centers of the haploid-diploid chimeric aggregates. At the slug stage haploids are predominantly occupying the slug posterior, and are visible in the spore population in the fruiting bodies. Our findings show that cell fate decisions during D. discoideum development are highly influenced by the ploidy status of a cell, adding a new aspect to already known factors Here, we report that ploidy status of a cell could also play a crucial role in regulating the cell fate commitments.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Ramos-Martínez E, Hernández-González L, Ramos-Martínez I, et al (2021)

Multiple Origins of Extracellular DNA Traps.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:621311.

Extracellular DNA traps (ETs) are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial mechanisms present in protozoa, plants, and animals. In this review, we compare their similarities in species of different taxa, and put forward the hypothesis that ETs have multiple origins. Our results are consistent with a process of evolutionary convergence in multicellular organisms through the application of a congruency test. Furthermore, we discuss why multicellularity is related to the presence of a mechanism initiating the formation of ETs.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Vijg J (2021)

From DNA damage to mutations: All roads lead to aging.

Ageing research reviews, 68:101316.

Damage to the repository of genetic information in cells has plagued life since its very beginning 3-4 billion years ago. Initially, in the absence of an ozone layer, especially damage from solar UV radiation must have been frequent, with other sources, most notably endogenous sources related to cell metabolism, gaining in importance over time. To cope with this high frequency of damage to the increasingly long DNA molecules that came to encode the growing complexity of cellular functions in cells, DNA repair evolved as one of the earliest genetic traits. Then as now, errors during the repair of DNA damage generated mutations, which provide the substrate for evolution by natural selection. With the emergence of multicellular organisms also the soma became a target of DNA damage and mutations. In somatic cells selection against the adverse effects of DNA damage is greatly diminished, especially in postmitotic cells after the age of first reproduction. Based on an abundance of evidence, DNA damage is now considered as the single most important driver of the degenerative processes that collectively cause aging. Here I will first briefly review the evidence for DNA damage as a cause of aging since the beginning of life. Then, after discussing the possible direct adverse effects of DNA damage and its cellular responses, I will provide an overview of the considerable progress that has recently been made in analyzing a major consequence of DNA damage in humans and other complex organisms: somatic mutations and the resulting genome mosaicism. Recent advances in studying somatic mutagenesis and genome mosaicism in different human and animal tissues will be discussed with a focus on the possible mechanisms through which loss of DNA sequence integrity could cause age-related functional decline and disease.

RevDate: 2021-05-19
CmpDate: 2021-05-19

Darveau RP, MA Curtis (2021)

Oral biofilms revisited: A novel host tissue of bacteriological origin.

Periodontology 2000, 86(1):8-13.

The central theme of this volume of Periodontology 2000 is that the microbial dental plaque biofilm, specifically the subgingival dental plaque biofilm, mimics a human tissue in both structure and function. As a basis for this assertion we use the definition of a tissue as an aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a defined structure with a specific function, in a multicellular organism. Accordingly, we propose that the dental plaque biofilm represents an acquired human tissue largely of bacterial origin that maintains the health of gingival tissue. Furthermore, we acknowledge that disease can be defined as a deviation from the normal structure or an interruption to the function of any body part, organ, or system, and that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. Therefore, in this volume we present the concept that periodontitis is a disruption of the normal function of the healthy subgingival plaque biofilm with concomitant disruption to its functional properties in relation to innate defense surveillance and tissue maintenance, leading to excessive, deregulated inflammation and tissue destruction.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Yang H, Shi X, Chen C, et al (2021)

Predominantly inverse modulation of gene expression in genomically unbalanced disomic haploid maize.

The Plant cell, 33(4):901-916.

The phenotypic consequences of the addition or subtraction of part of a chromosome is more severe than changing the dosage of the whole genome. By crossing diploid trisomies to a haploid inducer, we identified 17 distal segmental haploid disomies that cover ∼80% of the maize genome. Disomic haploids provide a level of genomic imbalance that is not ordinarily achievable in multicellular eukaryotes, allowing the impact to be stronger and more easily studied. Transcriptome size estimates revealed that a few disomies inversely modulate most of the transcriptome. Based on RNA sequencing, the expression levels of genes located on the varied chromosome arms (cis) in disomies ranged from being proportional to chromosomal dosage (dosage effect) to showing dosage compensation with no expression change with dosage. For genes not located on the varied chromosome arm (trans), an obvious trans-acting effect can be observed, with the majority showing a decreased modulation (inverse effect). The extent of dosage compensation of varied cis genes correlates with the extent of trans inverse effects across the 17 genomic regions studied. The results also have implications for the role of stoichiometry in gene expression, the control of quantitative traits, and the evolution of dosage-sensitive genes.

RevDate: 2021-06-18
CmpDate: 2021-06-18

Goldberg Y, J Friedman (2021)

Positive interactions within and between populations decrease the likelihood of evolutionary rescue.

PLoS computational biology, 17(2):e1008732.

Positive interactions, including intraspecies cooperation and interspecies mutualisms, play crucial roles in shaping the structure and function of many ecosystems, ranging from plant communities to the human microbiome. While the evolutionary forces that form and maintain positive interactions have been investigated extensively, the influence of positive interactions on the ability of species to adapt to new environments is still poorly understood. Here, we use numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to study how positive interactions impact the likelihood that populations survive after an environment deteriorates, such that survival in the new environment requires quick adaptation via the rise of new mutants-a scenario known as evolutionary rescue. We find that the probability of evolutionary rescue in populations engaged in positive interactions is reduced significantly. In cooperating populations, this reduction is largely due to the fact that survival may require at least a minimal number of individuals, meaning that adapted mutants must arise and spread before the population declines below this threshold. In mutualistic populations, the rescue probability is decreased further due to two additional effects-the need for both mutualistic partners to adapt to the new environment, and competition between the two species. Finally, we show that the presence of cheaters reduces the likelihood of evolutionary rescue even further, making it extremely unlikely. These results indicate that while positive interactions may be beneficial in stable environments, they can hinder adaptation to changing environments and thereby elevate the risk of population collapse. Furthermore, these results may hint at the selective pressures that drove co-dependent unicellular species to form more adaptable organisms able to differentiate into multiple phenotypes, including multicellular life.

RevDate: 2021-05-20
CmpDate: 2021-05-20

He S, Sieksmeyer T, Che Y, et al (2021)

Evidence for reduced immune gene diversity and activity during the evolution of termites.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1945):20203168.

The evolution of biological complexity is associated with the emergence of bespoke immune systems that maintain and protect organism integrity. Unlike the well-studied immune systems of cells and individuals, little is known about the origins of immunity during the transition to eusociality, a major evolutionary transition comparable to the evolution of multicellular organisms from single-celled ancestors. We aimed to tackle this by characterizing the immune gene repertoire of 18 cockroach and termite species, spanning the spectrum of solitary, subsocial and eusocial lifestyles. We find that key transitions in termite sociality are correlated with immune gene family contractions. In cross-species comparisons of immune gene expression, we find evidence for a caste-specific social defence system in termites, which appears to operate at the expense of individual immune protection. Our study indicates that a major transition in organismal complexity may have entailed a fundamental reshaping of the immune system optimized for group over individual defence.

RevDate: 2021-06-01
CmpDate: 2021-06-01

Pourhasanzade F, SH Sabzpoushan (2021)

A New Mathematical Model for Controlling Tumor Growth Based on Microenvironment Acidity and Oxygen Concentration.

BioMed research international, 2021:8886050.

Hypoxia and the pH level of the tumor microenvironment have a great impact on the treatment of tumors. Here, the tumor growth is controlled by regulating the oxygen concentration and the acidity of the tumor microenvironment by introducing a two-dimensional multiscale cellular automata model of avascular tumor growth. The spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth and metabolic variations is modeled based on biological assumptions, physical structure, states of cells, and transition rules. Each cell is allocated to one of the following states: proliferating cancer, nonproliferating cancer, necrotic, and normal cells. According to the response of the microenvironmental conditions, each cell consumes/produces metabolic factors and updates its state based on some stochastic rules. The input parameters are compatible with cancer biology using experimental data. The effect of neighborhoods during mitosis and simulating spatial heterogeneity is studied by considering multicellular layer structure of tumor. A simple Darwinist mutation is considered by introducing a critical parameter (Nmm) that affects division probability of the proliferative tumor cells based on the microenvironmental conditions and cancer hallmarks. The results show that Nmm regulation has a significant influence on the dynamics of tumor growth, the growth fraction, necrotic fraction, and the concentration levels of the metabolic factors. The model not only is able to simulate the in vivo tumor growth quantitatively and qualitatively but also can simulate the concentration of metabolic factors, oxygen, and acidity graphically. The results show the spatial heterogeneity effects on the proliferation of cancer cells and the rest of the system. By increasing Nmm, tumor shrinkage and significant increasing in the oxygen concentration and the pH value of the tumor microenvironment are observed. The results demonstrate the model's ability, providing an essential tool for simulating different tumor evolution scenarios of a patient and reliable prediction of spatiotemporal progression of tumors for utilizing in personalized therapy.

RevDate: 2021-07-01
CmpDate: 2021-07-01

Bustamante DE, Yeon Won B, Wynne MJ, et al (2021)

Molecular and morphological analyses reveal new taxa additions to the tribe Streblocladieae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta).

Journal of phycology, 57(3):817-830.

The recent segregation of 12 genera in the tribe Streblocladieae suggests that the taxonomy of some species belonging to Polysiphonia sensu lato is updated with the transfer and the proposal of new combinations. Accordingly, six new additions to the tribe Streblocladieae on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses are presented as a consequence of this new segregation. These additions include the description of the new species Carradoriella platensis sp. nov., the proposal of the following new combinations Eutrichosiphonia paniculata comb. nov., E. tapinocarpa comb. nov., and the reinstatement of Vertebrata curta, V. decipiens, and V. patersonis. Additionally, our morphological observations identified additional diagnostic features for two genera of the Streblocladieae. Carradoriella has branches with sexual reproductive structures arranged adaxially on branchlets, and the recently described Eutrichosiphonia has rhizoids with multicellular digitate haptera. Our study gives insights in regards to the distribution, the diagnostic features for delimiting genera morphologically, and the molecular evolutionary relationships in the Streblocladieae.

RevDate: 2021-02-19
CmpDate: 2021-02-19

Grum-Grzhimaylo AA, Bastiaans E, van den Heuvel J, et al (2021)

Somatic deficiency causes reproductive parasitism in a fungus.

Nature communications, 12(1):783.

Some multicellular organisms can fuse because mergers potentially provide mutual benefits. However, experimental evolution in the fungus Neurospora crassa has demonstrated that free fusion of mycelia favours cheater lineages, but the mechanism and evolutionary dynamics of this exploitation are unknown. Here we show, paradoxically, that all convergently evolved cheater lineages have similar fusion deficiencies. These mutants are unable to initiate fusion but retain access to wild-type mycelia that fuse with them. This asymmetry reduces cheater-mutant contributions to somatic substrate-bound hyphal networks, but increases representation of their nuclei in the aerial reproductive hyphae. Cheaters only benefit when relatively rare and likely impose genetic load reminiscent of germline senescence. We show that the consequences of somatic fusion can be unequally distributed among fusion partners, with the passive non-fusing partner profiting more. We discuss how our findings may relate to the extensive variation in fusion frequency of fungi found in nature.

RevDate: 2021-04-12
CmpDate: 2021-02-15

Gostner JM, Fuchs D, K Kurz (2021)

Metabolic Stress and Immunity: Nutrient-Sensing Kinases and Tryptophan Metabolism.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1275:395-405.

The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) has gained major attention due the immunoregulatory nature of this pathway. Both depletion of tryptophan concentrations as well as the accumulation of downstream metabolites are relevant for the mediation of the manifold consequences of increased tryptophan metabolism. Increased tryptophan catabolism is indicative for several chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. Low tryptophan availability is likely to be involved in the manifestation of a variety of comorbidities such as anemia, cachexia, depression and neurocognitive disturbances.Several nutrient sensing kinases are implicated in the downstream effects of dysregulated tryptophan metabolism. These include mechanisms that were conserved during evolution but have gained special features in multicellular eukaryotes, such as pathways regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2)-alpha kinase (GCN2, also named general control nonderepressible 2 kinase), 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR).The interplay between IDO-1 and above-mentioned pathway seems to be highly context dependent. A better understanding of the crosstalk is necessary to support the search for druggable targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.

RevDate: 2021-05-26
CmpDate: 2021-05-20

Berger D, Stångberg J, Baur J, et al (2021)

Elevated temperature increases genome-wide selection on de novo mutations.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1944):20203094.

Adaptation in new environments depends on the amount of genetic variation available for evolution, and the efficacy by which natural selection discriminates among this variation. However, whether some ecological factors reveal more genetic variation, or impose stronger selection pressures than others, is typically not known. Here, we apply the enzyme kinetic theory to show that rising global temperatures are predicted to intensify natural selection throughout the genome by increasing the effects of DNA sequence variation on protein stability. We test this prediction by (i) estimating temperature-dependent fitness effects of induced mutations in seed beetles adapted to ancestral or elevated temperature, and (ii) calculate 100 paired selection estimates on mutations in benign versus stressful environments from unicellular and multicellular organisms. Environmental stress per se did not increase mean selection on de novo mutation, suggesting that the cost of adaptation does not generally increase in new ecological settings to which the organism is maladapted. However, elevated temperature increased the mean strength of selection on genome-wide polymorphism, signified by increases in both mutation load and mutational variance in fitness. These results have important implications for genetic diversity gradients and the rate and repeatability of evolution under climate change.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Naimark E, Kirpotin D, Boeva N, et al (2021)

Taphonomic experiments imply a possible link between the evolution of multicellularity and the fossilization potential of soft-bodied organisms.

Ecology and evolution, 11(2):1037-1056.

The reliability of evolutionary reconstructions based on the fossil record critically depends on our knowledge of the factors affecting the fossilization of soft-bodied organisms. Despite considerable research effort, these factors are still poorly understood. In order to elucidate the main prerequisites for the preservation of soft-bodied organisms, we conducted long-term (1-5 years) taphonomic experiments with the model crustacean Artemia salina buried in five different sediments. The subsequent analysis of the carcasses and sediments revealed that, in our experimental settings, better preservation was associated with the fast deposition of aluminum and silicon on organic tissues. Other elements such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which can also accumulate quickly on the carcasses, appear to be much less efficient in preventing decay. Next, we asked if the carcasses of uni- and multicellular organisms differ in their ability to accumulate aluminum ions on their surface. The experiments with the flagellate Euglena gracilis and the sponge Spongilla lacustris showed that aluminum ions are more readily deposited onto a multicellular body. This was further confirmed by the experiments with uni- and multicellular stages of the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum. The results lead us to speculate that the evolution of cell adhesion molecules, which provide efficient cell-cell and cell-substrate binding, probably can explain the rich fossil record of soft-bodied animals, the comparatively poor fossil record of nonskeletal unicellular eukaryotes, and the explosive emergence of the Cambrian diversity of soft-bodied fossils.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Kjellin J, Avesson L, Reimegård J, et al (2021)

Abundantly expressed class of noncoding RNAs conserved through the multicellular evolution of dictyostelid social amoebas.

Genome research, 31(3):436-447.

Aggregative multicellularity has evolved multiple times in diverse groups of eukaryotes, exemplified by the well-studied development of dictyostelid social amoebas, for example, Dictyostelium discoideum However, it is still poorly understood why multicellularity emerged in these amoebas while the majority of other members of Amoebozoa are unicellular. Previously, a novel type of noncoding RNA, Class I RNAs, was identified in D. discoideum and shown to be important for normal multicellular development. Here, we investigated Class I RNA evolution and its connection to multicellular development. We identified a large number of new Class I RNA genes by constructing a covariance model combined with a scoring system based on conserved upstream sequences. Multiple genes were predicted in representatives of each major group of Dictyostelia and expression analysis confirmed that our search approach identifies expressed Class I RNA genes with high accuracy and sensitivity and that the RNAs are developmentally regulated. Further studies showed that Class I RNAs are ubiquitous in Dictyostelia and share highly conserved structure and sequence motifs. In addition, Class I RNA genes appear to be unique to dictyostelid social amoebas because they could not be identified in outgroup genomes, including their closest known relatives. Our results show that Class I RNA is an ancient class of ncRNAs, likely to have been present in the last common ancestor of Dictyostelia dating back at least 600 million years. Based on previous functional analyses and the presented evolutionary investigation, we hypothesize that Class I RNAs were involved in evolution of multicellularity in Dictyostelia.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Miele L, S De Monte (2021)

Aggregative cycles evolve as a solution to conflicts in social investment.

PLoS computational biology, 17(1):e1008617.

Multicellular organization is particularly vulnerable to conflicts between different cell types when the body forms from initially isolated cells, as in aggregative multicellular microbes. Like other functions of the multicellular phase, coordinated collective movement can be undermined by conflicts between cells that spend energy in fuelling motion and 'cheaters' that get carried along. The evolutionary stability of collective behaviours against such conflicts is typically addressed in populations that undergo extrinsically imposed phases of aggregation and dispersal. Here, via a shift in perspective, we propose that aggregative multicellular cycles may have emerged as a way to temporally compartmentalize social conflicts. Through an eco-evolutionary mathematical model that accounts for individual and collective strategies of resource acquisition, we address regimes where different motility types coexist. Particularly interesting is the oscillatory regime that, similarly to life cycles of aggregative multicellular organisms, alternates on the timescale of several cell generations phases of prevalent solitary living and starvation-triggered aggregation. Crucially, such self-organized oscillations emerge as a result of evolution of cell traits associated to conflict escalation within multicellular aggregates.

RevDate: 2021-04-27
CmpDate: 2021-04-27

Kruger AN, JL Mueller (2021)

Mechanisms of meiotic drive in symmetric and asymmetric meiosis.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 78(7):3205-3218.

Meiotic drive, the non-Mendelian transmission of chromosomes to the next generation, functions in asymmetric or symmetric meiosis across unicellular and multicellular organisms. In asymmetric meiosis, meiotic drivers act to alter a chromosome's spatial position in a single egg. In symmetric meiosis, meiotic drivers cause phenotypic differences between gametes with and without the driver. Here we discuss existing models of meiotic drive, highlighting the underlying mechanisms and regulation governing systems for which the most is known. We focus on outstanding questions surrounding these examples and speculate on how new meiotic drive systems evolve and how to detect them.

RevDate: 2021-05-21
CmpDate: 2021-02-09

Stadler T, Pybus OG, MPH Stumpf (2021)

Phylodynamics for cell biologists.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 371(6526):.

Multicellular organisms are composed of cells connected by ancestry and descent from progenitor cells. The dynamics of cell birth, death, and inheritance within an organism give rise to the fundamental processes of development, differentiation, and cancer. Technical advances in molecular biology now allow us to study cellular composition, ancestry, and evolution at the resolution of individual cells within an organism or tissue. Here, we take a phylogenetic and phylodynamic approach to single-cell biology. We explain how "tree thinking" is important to the interpretation of the growing body of cell-level data and how ecological null models can benefit statistical hypothesis testing. Experimental progress in cell biology should be accompanied by theoretical developments if we are to exploit fully the dynamical information in single-cell data.

RevDate: 2021-04-06
CmpDate: 2021-04-06

Takahashi T (2021)

Multiple Roles for Cholinergic Signaling from the Perspective of Stem Cell Function.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(2):.

Stem cells have extensive proliferative potential and the ability to differentiate into one or more mature cell types. The mechanisms by which stem cells accomplish self-renewal provide fundamental insight into the origin and design of multicellular organisms. These pathways allow the repair of damage and extend organismal life beyond that of component cells, and they probably preceded the evolution of complex metazoans. Understanding the true nature of stem cells can only come from discovering how they are regulated. The concept that stem cells are controlled by particular microenvironments, also known as niches, has been widely accepted. Technical advances now allow characterization of the zones that maintain and control stem cell activity in several organs, including the brain, skin, and gut. Cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine (ACh) that mediates chemical transmission via ACh receptors such as nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Although the cholinergic system is composed of organized nerve cells, the system is also involved in mammalian non-neuronal cells, including stem cells, embryonic stem cells, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. Thus, cholinergic signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling their behaviors. Studies regarding this signal are beginning to unify our understanding of stem cell regulation at the cellular and molecular levels, and they are expected to advance efforts to control stem cells therapeutically. The present article reviews recent findings about cholinergic signaling that is essential to control stem cell function in a cholinergic niche.

RevDate: 2021-02-02
CmpDate: 2021-02-02

Sagova-Mareckova M, Boenigk J, Bouchez A, et al (2021)

Expanding ecological assessment by integrating microorganisms into routine freshwater biomonitoring.

Water research, 191:116767.

Bioindication has become an indispensable part of water quality monitoring in most countries of the world, with the presence and abundance of bioindicator taxa, mostly multicellular eukaryotes, used for biotic indices. In contrast, microbes (bacteria, archaea and protists) are seldom used as bioindicators in routine assessments, although they have been recognized for their importance in environmental processes. Recently, the use of molecular methods has revealed unexpected diversity within known functional groups and novel metabolic pathways that are particularly important in energy and nutrient cycling. In various habitats, microbial communities respond to eutrophication, metals, and natural or anthropogenic organic pollutants through changes in diversity and function. In this review, we evaluated the common trends in these changes, documenting that they have value as bioindicators and can be used not only for monitoring but also for improving our understanding of the major processes in lotic and lentic environments. Current knowledge provides a solid foundation for exploiting microbial taxa, community structures and diversity, as well as functional genes, in novel monitoring programs. These microbial community measures can also be combined into biotic indices, improving the resolution of individual bioindicators. Here, we assess particular molecular approaches complemented by advanced bioinformatic analysis, as these are the most promising with respect to detailed bioindication value. We conclude that microbial community dynamics are a missing link important for our understanding of rapid changes in the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and should be addressed in the future environmental monitoring of freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-05-12

Giam M, Wong CK, Low JS, et al (2020)

P53 induces senescence in the unstable progeny of aneuploid cells.

Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 19(24):3508-3520.

Aneuploidy is the condition of having an imbalanced karyotype, which is associated with tumor initiation, evolution, and acquisition of drug-resistant features, possibly by generating heterogeneous populations of cells with distinct genotypes and phenotypes. Multicellular eukaryotes have therefore evolved a range of extrinsic and cell-autonomous mechanisms for restraining proliferation of aneuploid cells, including activation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. However, accumulating evidence indicates that a subset of aneuploid cells can escape p53-mediated growth restriction and continue proliferating in vitro. Here we show that such aneuploid cell lines display a robust modal karyotype and low frequency of chromosomal aberrations despite ongoing chromosome instability. Indeed, while these aneuploid cells are able to survive for extended periods in vitro, their chromosomally unstable progeny remain subject to p53-induced senescence and growth restriction, leading to subsequent elimination from the aneuploid pool. This mechanism helps maintain low levels of heterogeneity in aneuploid populations and may prevent detrimental evolutionary processes such as cancer progression and development of drug resistance.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Ruiz-Trillo I, A de Mendoza (2020)

Towards understanding the origin of animal development.

Development (Cambridge, England), 147(23): pii:147/23/dev192575.

Almost all animals undergo embryonic development, going from a single-celled zygote to a complex multicellular adult. We know that the patterning and morphogenetic processes involved in development are deeply conserved within the animal kingdom. However, the origins of these developmental processes are just beginning to be unveiled. Here, we focus on how the protist lineages sister to animals are reshaping our view of animal development. Most intriguingly, many of these protistan lineages display transient multicellular structures, which are governed by similar morphogenetic and gene regulatory processes as animal development. We discuss here two potential alternative scenarios to explain the origin of animal embryonic development: either it originated concomitantly at the onset of animals or it evolved from morphogenetic processes already present in their unicellular ancestors. We propose that an integrative study of several unicellular taxa closely related to animals will allow a more refined picture of how the last common ancestor of animals underwent embryonic development.

RevDate: 2021-03-08
CmpDate: 2021-03-08

Lyall R, Nikoloski Z, T Gechev (2020)

Comparative Analysis of ROS Network Genes in Extremophile Eukaryotes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(23):.

The reactive oxygen species (ROS) gene network, consisting of both ROS-generating and detoxifying enzymes, adjusts ROS levels in response to various stimuli. We performed a cross-kingdom comparison of ROS gene networks to investigate how they have evolved across all Eukaryotes, including protists, fungi, plants and animals. We included the genomes of 16 extremotolerant Eukaryotes to gain insight into ROS gene evolution in organisms that experience extreme stress conditions. Our analysis focused on ROS genes found in all Eukaryotes (such as catalases, superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductases, peroxidases and glutathione peroxidase/peroxiredoxins) as well as those specific to certain groups, such as ascorbate peroxidases, dehydroascorbate/monodehydroascorbate reductases in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX) were found in most multicellular organisms, although several NOX-like genes were identified in unicellular or filamentous species. However, despite the extreme conditions experienced by extremophile species, we found no evidence for expansion of ROS-related gene families in these species compared to other Eukaryotes. Tardigrades and rotifers do show ROS gene expansions that could be related to their extreme lifestyles, although a high rate of lineage-specific horizontal gene transfer events, coupled with recent tetraploidy in rotifers, could explain this observation. This suggests that the basal Eukaryotic ROS scavenging systems are sufficient to maintain ROS homeostasis even under the most extreme conditions.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Kaczanowski S (2020)

Symbiotic Origin of Apoptosis.

Results and problems in cell differentiation, 69:253-280.

The progress of evolutionary biology has revealed that symbiosis played a basic role in the evolution of complex eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Mitochondria are actually simplified endosymbiotic bacteria currently playing the role of cellular organelles. Mitochondrial domestication occurred at the very beginning of eukaryotic evolution. Mitochondria have two different basic functions: they produce energy using oxidative respiration, and they initiate different forms of apoptotic programmed/regulated cell death. Apoptotic programmed cell death may have different cytological forms. Mechanisms of apoptotic programmed cell death exist even in the unicellular organisms, and they play a basic role in the development of complex multicellular organisms, such as fungi, green plants, and animals. Multicellularity was independently established many times among eukaryotes. There are indications that apoptotic programmed cell death is a trait required for the establishment of multicellularity. Regulated cell death is initiated by many different parallel biochemical pathways. It is generally accepted that apoptosis evolved during mitochondrial domestication. However, there are different hypothetical models of the origin of apoptosis. The phylogenetic studies of my group indicate that apoptosis probably evolved during an evolutionary arms race between host ancestral eukaryotic predators and ancestral prey mitochondria (named protomitochondria). Protomitochondrial prey produced many different toxins as a defense against predators. From these toxins evolved extant apoptotic factors. There are indications that aerobic respiration and apoptosis co-evolved and are functionally linked in extant organisms. Perturbations of apoptosis and oxidative respiration are frequently observed during neoplastic transition. Our group showed that perturbations of apoptosis in yeasts also cause perturbations of oxidative respiration.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

McEvoy E, Han YL, Guo M, et al (2020)

Gap junctions amplify spatial variations in cell volume in proliferating tumor spheroids.

Nature communications, 11(1):6148.

Sustained proliferation is a significant driver of cancer progression. Cell-cycle advancement is coupled with cell size, but it remains unclear how multiple cells interact to control their volume in 3D clusters. In this study, we propose a mechano-osmotic model to investigate the evolution of volume dynamics within multicellular systems. Volume control depends on an interplay between multiple cellular constituents, including gap junctions, mechanosensitive ion channels, energy-consuming ion pumps, and the actomyosin cortex, that coordinate to manipulate cellular osmolarity. In connected cells, we show that mechanical loading leads to the emergence of osmotic pressure gradients between cells with consequent increases in cellular ion concentrations driving swelling. We identify how gap junctions can amplify spatial variations in cell volume within multicellular spheroids and, further, describe how the process depends on proliferation-induced solid stress. Our model may provide new insight into the role of gap junctions in breast cancer progression.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

König SG, AM Nedelcu (2020)

The genetic basis for the evolution of soma: mechanistic evidence for the co-option of a stress-induced gene into a developmental master regulator.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1940):20201414.

In multicellular organisms with specialized cells, the most significant distinction among cell types is between reproductive (germ) cells and non-reproductive/somatic cells (soma). Although soma contributed to the marked increase in complexity of many multicellular lineages, little is known about its evolutionary origins. We have previously suggested that the evolution of genes responsible for the differentiation of somatic cells involved the co-option of life history trade-off genes that in unicellular organisms enhanced survival at a cost to immediate reproduction. In the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, cell fate is established early in development by the differential expression of a master regulatory gene known as regA. A closely related RegA-Like Sequence (RLS1) is present in its single-celled relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. RLS1 is expressed in response to stress, and we proposed that an environmentally induced RLS1-like gene was co-opted into a developmental pathway in the lineage leading to V. carteri. However, the exact evolutionary scenario responsible for the postulated co-option event remains to be determined. Here, we show that in addition to being developmentally regulated, regA can also be induced by environmental cues, indicating that regA has maintained its ancestral regulation. We also found that the absence of a functional RegA protein confers increased sensitivity to stress, consistent with RegA having a direct or indirect role in stress responses. Overall, this study (i) provides mechanistic evidence for the co-option of an environmentally induced gene into a major developmental regulator, (ii) supports the view that major morphological innovations can evolve via regulatory changes and (iii) argues for the role of stress in the evolution of multicellular complexity.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Retzinger AC, GS Retzinger (2020)

Mites, ticks, anaphylaxis and allergy: The Acari hypothesis.

Medical hypotheses, 144:110257.

Anaphylaxis is a poorly understood immune process in which a Th2-/IgE-mediated adaptive response commandeers cellular machinery, typically reserved for defense against multicellular ectoparasites, to activate against otherwise benign molecules. Its clinical manifestations consist of rapid pathophysiological reflexes that target epithelial surfaces. The galactose-α-1,3-galactose hypersensitivity response is a compelling model of anaphylaxis for which causation has been demonstrated. At the core of the model, a tick bite sensitizes a recipient to a tick foodstuff. As proposed herein, the model likely informs on the origin of all allergic inflammation; namely, allergy is not intended to protect against seemingly harmless and irrelevant materials, but is, instead, intended to rid epithelial surfaces of pathogen-bearing Acari, i.e., mites and ticks. The demonstrated adjuvant activity of acarian gastrointestinal secretions, when paired with the polyphagous diet of mites, renders acarians eminently suited to accounting, mechanistically, for many, if not all, human allergies.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-11

Xu Z, Wang S, Zhao C, et al (2020)

Photosynthetic hydrogen production by droplet-based microbial micro-reactors under aerobic conditions.

Nature communications, 11(1):5985.

The spontaneous self-assembly of multicellular ensembles into living materials with synergistic structure and function remains a considerable challenge in biotechnology and synthetic biology. Here, we exploit the aqueous two-phase separation of dextran-in-PEG emulsion micro-droplets for the capture, spatial organization and immobilization of algal cells or algal/bacterial cell communities to produce discrete multicellular spheroids capable of both aerobic (oxygen producing) and hypoxic (hydrogen producing) photosynthesis in daylight under air. We show that localized oxygen depletion results in hydrogen production from the core of the algal microscale reactor, and demonstrate that enhanced levels of hydrogen evolution can be achieved synergistically by spontaneously enclosing the photosynthetic cells within a shell of bacterial cells undergoing aerobic respiration. Our results highlight a promising droplet-based environmentally benign approach to dispersible photosynthetic microbial micro-reactors comprising segregated cellular micro-niches with dual functionality, and provide a step towards photobiological hydrogen production under aerobic conditions.

RevDate: 2021-06-29
CmpDate: 2021-06-29

Coelho SM, JM Cock (2020)

Brown Algal Model Organisms.

Annual review of genetics, 54:71-92.

Model organisms are extensively used in research as accessible and convenient systems for studying a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally, only a limited number of organisms have been studied in detail, but modern genomic tools are enabling researchers to extend beyond the set of classical model organisms to include novel species from less-studied phylogenetic groups. This review focuses on model species for an important group of multicellular organisms, the brown algae. The development of genetic and genomic tools for the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus has led to it emerging as a general model system for this group, but additional models, such as Fucus or Dictyota dichotoma, remain of interest for specific biological questions. In addition, Saccharina japonica has emerged as a model system to directly address applied questions related to algal aquaculture. We discuss the past, present, and future of brown algal model organisms in relation to the opportunities and challenges in brown algal research.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Aubier TG, Galipaud M, Erten EY, et al (2020)

Transmissible cancers and the evolution of sex under the Red Queen hypothesis.

PLoS biology, 18(11):e3000916.

The predominance of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes remains paradoxical in evolutionary theory. Of the hypotheses proposed to resolve this paradox, the 'Red Queen hypothesis' emphasises the potential of antagonistic interactions to cause fluctuating selection, which favours the evolution and maintenance of sex. Whereas empirical and theoretical developments have focused on host-parasite interactions, the premises of the Red Queen theory apply equally well to any type of antagonistic interactions. Recently, it has been suggested that early multicellular organisms with basic anticancer defences were presumably plagued by antagonistic interactions with transmissible cancers and that this could have played a pivotal role in the evolution of sex. Here, we dissect this argument using a population genetic model. One fundamental aspect distinguishing transmissible cancers from other parasites is the continual production of cancerous cell lines from hosts' own tissues. We show that this influx dampens fluctuating selection and therefore makes the evolution of sex more difficult than in standard Red Queen models. Although coevolutionary cycling can remain sufficient to select for sex under some parameter regions of our model, we show that the size of those regions shrinks once we account for epidemiological constraints. Altogether, our results suggest that horizontal transmission of cancerous cells is unlikely to cause fluctuating selection favouring sexual reproduction. Nonetheless, we confirm that vertical transmission of cancerous cells can promote the evolution of sex through a separate mechanism, known as similarity selection, that does not depend on coevolutionary fluctuations.

RevDate: 2021-03-10
CmpDate: 2021-03-10

Konarska A, B Łotocka (2020)

Glandular trichomes of Robinia viscosa Vent. var. hartwigii (Koehne) Ashe (Faboideae, Fabaceae)-morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure.

Planta, 252(6):102.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Permanent glandular trichomes of Robinia viscosa var. hartwigii produce viscous secretion containing several secondary metabolites, as lipids, mucilage, flavonoids, proteins and alkaloids. Robinia viscosa var. hartwigii (Hartweg's locust) is an ornamental tree with high apicultural value. It can be planted in urban greenery and in degraded areas. The shoots, leaves, and inflorescences of this plant are equipped with numerous persistent glandular trichomes producing sticky secretion. The distribution, origin, development, morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of glandular trichomes of Hartweg's locust flowers as well as the localisation and composition of their secretory products were investigated for the first time. To this end, light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy combined with histochemical and fluorescence techniques were used. The massive glandular trichomes differing in the distribution, length, and stage of development were built of a multicellular and multiseriate stalk and a multicellular head. The secretory cells in the stalk and head had large nuclei with nucleoli, numerous chloroplasts with thylakoids and starch grains, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum profiles, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and multivesicular bodies. Many vacuoles contained phenolic compounds dissolved or forming various condensed deposits. The secretion components were transported through symplast elements, and the granulocrine and eccrine modes of nectar secretion were observed. The secretion was accumulated in the subcuticular space at the trichome apex and released through a pore in the cuticle. Histochemical and fluorescence assays showed that the trichomes and secretion contained lipophilic and polyphenol compounds, polysaccharides, proteins, and alkaloids. We suggest that these metabolites may serve an important function in protection of plants against biotic stress conditions and may also be a source of phytopharmaceuticals in the future.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Du K, Luo Q, Yin L, et al (2020)

OsChz1 acts as a histone chaperone in modulating chromatin organization and genome function in rice.

Nature communications, 11(1):5717.

While the yeast Chz1 acts as a specific histone-chaperone for H2A.Z, functions of CHZ-domain proteins in multicellular eukaryotes remain obscure. Here, we report on the functional characterization of OsChz1, a sole CHZ-domain protein identified in rice. OsChz1 interacts with both the canonical H2A-H2B dimer and the variant H2A.Z-H2B dimer. Within crystal structure the C-terminal region of OsChz1 binds H2A-H2B via an acidic region, pointing to a previously unknown recognition mechanism. Knockout of OsChz1 leads to multiple plant developmental defects. At genome-wide level, loss of OsChz1 causes mis-regulations of thousands of genes and broad alterations of nucleosome occupancy as well as reductions of H2A.Z-enrichment. While OsChz1 associates with chromatin regions enriched of repressive histone marks (H3K27me3 and H3K4me2), its loss does not affect the genome landscape of DNA methylation. Taken together, it is emerging that OsChz1 functions as an important H2A/H2A.Z-H2B chaperone in dynamic regulation of chromatin for higher eukaryote development.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Willman S, Peel JS, Ineson JR, et al (2020)

Ediacaran Doushantuo-type biota discovered in Laurentia.

Communications biology, 3(1):647.

The Ediacaran period (635-541 Ma) was a time of major environmental change, accompanied by a transition from a microbial world to the animal world we know today. Multicellular, macroscopic organisms preserved as casts and molds in Ediacaran siliciclastic rocks are preserved worldwide and provide snapshots of early organismal, including animal, evolution. Remarkable evolutionary advances are also witnessed by diverse cellular and subcellular phosphatized microfossils described from the Doushantuo Formation in China, the only source showing a diversified assemblage of microfossils. Here, we greatly extend the known distribution of this Doushantuo-type biota in reporting an Ediacaran Lagerstätte from Laurentia (Portfjeld Formation, North Greenland), with phosphatized animal-like eggs, embryos, acritarchs, and cyanobacteria, the age of which is constrained by the Shuram-Wonoka anomaly (c. 570-560 Ma). The discovery of these Ediacaran phosphatized microfossils from outside East Asia extends the distribution of the remarkable biota to a second palaeocontinent in the other hemisphere of the Ediacaran world, considerably expanding our understanding of the temporal and environmental distribution of organisms immediately prior to the Cambrian explosion.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Katoh T, M Satoh (2020)

[Environment and immunity-Allergies and autoimmune diseases from epidemiological perspective].

Nihon eiseigaku zasshi. Japanese journal of hygiene, 75(0):.

Immunity, which denotes the protection of multicellular organisms against various bacterial and viral infections, is an essential protective mechanism for living organisms. Allergy is a reaction to a foreign substance existing in the environment that is basically not a component of the self. Additionally, autoimmune diseases are associated with the dysfunction in the recognition of self and non-self, and are pathological conditions caused by immune cells attacking their own tissues and cells. In this paper, we outline the current status of immunity with respect to the environment from the epidemiological perspective with regard to the following: (1) evolution and immunity, (2) allergy, (3) autoantibodies, (4) autoimmune diseases, (5) relationships of immunity with the environment, allergy, autoantibodies, and autoimmune diseases, and (6) celiac disease.

RevDate: 2021-03-26
CmpDate: 2021-03-26

Petrushin I, Belikov S, L Chernogor (2020)

Cooperative Interaction of Janthinobacterium sp. SLB01 and Flavobacterium sp. SLB02 in the Diseased Sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(21):.

Endemic freshwater sponges (demosponges, Lubomirskiidae) dominate in Lake Baikal, Central Siberia, Russia. These sponges are multicellular filter-feeding animals that represent a complex consortium of many species of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In recent years, mass disease and death of Lubomirskia baicalensis has been a significant problem in Lake Baikal. The etiology and ecology of these events remain unknown. Bacteria from the families Flavobacteriaceae and Oxalobacteraceae dominate the microbiomes of diseased sponges. Both species are opportunistic pathogens common in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of our study was to analyze the genomes of strains Janthinobacterium sp. SLB01 and Flavobacterium sp. SLB02, isolated from diseased sponges to identify the reasons for their joint dominance. Janthinobacterium sp. SLB01 attacks other cells using a type VI secretion system and suppresses gram-positive bacteria with violacein, and regulates its own activity via quorum sensing. It produces floc and strong biofilm by exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and PEP-CTERM/XrtA protein expression. Flavobacterium sp. SLB02 utilizes the fragments of cell walls produced by polysaccharides. These two strains have a marked difference in carbohydrate acquisition. We described a possible means of joint occupation of the ecological niche in the freshwater sponge microbial community. This study expands the understanding of the symbiotic relationship of microorganisms with freshwater Baikal sponges.

RevDate: 2021-06-14

Ingargiola C, Turqueto Duarte G, Robaglia C, et al (2020)

The Plant Target of Rapamycin: A Conduc TOR of Nutrition and Metabolism in Photosynthetic Organisms.

Genes, 11(11):.

Living organisms possess many mechanisms to sense nutrients and favorable conditions, which allow them to grow and develop. Photosynthetic organisms are very diverse, from green unicellular algae to multicellular flowering plants, but most of them are sessile and thus unable to escape from the biotic and abiotic stresses they experience. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway is conserved in all eukaryotes and acts as a central regulatory hub between growth and extrinsic factors, such as nutrients or stress. However, relatively little is known about the regulations and roles of this pathway in plants and algae. Although some features of the TOR pathway seem to have been highly conserved throughout evolution, others clearly differ in plants, perhaps reflecting adaptations to different lifestyles and the rewiring of this primordial signaling module to adapt to specific requirements. Indeed, TOR is involved in plant responses to a vast array of signals including nutrients, hormones, light, stresses or pathogens. In this review, we will summarize recent studies that address the regulations of TOR by nutrients in photosynthetic organisms, and the roles of TOR in controlling important metabolic pathways, highlighting similarities and differences with the other eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2021-03-25
CmpDate: 2021-03-25

Combarnous Y, TMD Nguyen (2020)

Cell Communications among Microorganisms, Plants, and Animals: Origin, Evolution, and Interplays.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(21):.

Cellular communications play pivotal roles in multi-cellular species, but they do so also in uni-cellular species. Moreover, cells communicate with each other not only within the same individual, but also with cells in other individuals belonging to the same or other species. These communications occur between two unicellular species, two multicellular species, or between unicellular and multicellular species. The molecular mechanisms involved exhibit diversity and specificity, but they share common basic features, which allow common pathways of communication between different species, often phylogenetically very distant. These interactions are possible by the high degree of conservation of the basic molecular mechanisms of interaction of many ligand-receptor pairs in evolutionary remote species. These inter-species cellular communications played crucial roles during Evolution and must have been positively selected, particularly when collectively beneficial in hostile environments. It is likely that communications between cells did not arise after their emergence, but were part of the very nature of the first cells. Synchronization of populations of non-living protocells through chemical communications may have been a mandatory step towards their emergence as populations of living cells and explain the large commonality of cell communication mechanisms among microorganisms, plants, and animals.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Véron E, Vernoux T, Y Coudert (2021)

Phyllotaxis from a Single Apical Cell.

Trends in plant science, 26(2):124-131.

Phyllotaxis, the geometry of leaf arrangement around stems, determines plant architecture. Molecular interactions coordinating the formation of phyllotactic patterns have mainly been studied in multicellular shoot apical meristems of flowering plants. Phyllotaxis evolved independently in the major land plant lineages. In mosses, it arises from a single apical cell, raising the question of how asymmetric divisions of a single-celled meristem create phyllotactic patterns and whether associated genetic processes are shared across lineages. We present an overview of the mechanisms governing shoot apical cell specification and activity in the model moss, Physcomitrium patens, and argue that similar molecular regulatory modules have been deployed repeatedly across evolution to operate at different scales and drive apical function in convergent shoot forms.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Soubigou A, Ross EG, Touhami Y, et al (2020)

Regeneration in the sponge Sycon ciliatum partly mimics postlarval development.

Development (Cambridge, England), 147(22): pii:dev.193714.

Somatic cells dissociated from an adult sponge can reorganize and develop into a juvenile-like sponge, a remarkable phenomenon of regeneration. However, the extent to which regeneration recapitulates embryonic developmental pathways has remained enigmatic. We have standardized and established a sponge Sycon ciliatum regeneration protocol from dissociated cells. Morphological analysis demonstrated that dissociated sponge cells follow a series of morphological events resembling postembryonic development. We performed high-throughput sequencing on regenerating samples and compared the data with that from regular postlarval development. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that sponge regeneration is as equally dynamic as embryogenesis. We found that sponge regeneration is orchestrated by recruiting pathways similar to those utilized in embryonic development. We also demonstrated that sponge regeneration is accompanied by cell death at early stages, revealing the importance of apoptosis in remodelling the primmorphs to initiate re-development. Because sponges are likely to be the first branch of extant multicellular animals, we suggest that this system can be explored to study the genetic features underlying the evolution of multicellularity and regeneration.

RevDate: 2020-12-18
CmpDate: 2020-12-18

Hammarlund EU, Flashman E, Mohlin S, et al (2020)

Oxygen-sensing mechanisms across eukaryotic kingdoms and their roles in complex multicellularity.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6515):.

Oxygen-sensing mechanisms of eukaryotic multicellular organisms coordinate hypoxic cellular responses in a spatiotemporal manner. Although this capacity partly allows animals and plants to acutely adapt to oxygen deprivation, its functional and historical roots in hypoxia emphasize a broader evolutionary role. For multicellular life-forms that persist in settings with variable oxygen concentrations, the capacity to perceive and modulate responses in and between cells is pivotal. Animals and higher plants represent the most complex life-forms that ever diversified on Earth, and their oxygen-sensing mechanisms demonstrate convergent evolution from a functional perspective. Exploring oxygen-sensing mechanisms across eukaryotic kingdoms can inform us on biological innovations to harness ever-changing oxygen availability at the dawn of complex life and its utilization for their organismal development.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Teulière J, Bernard G, E Bapteste (2020)

The Distribution of Genes Associated With Regulated Cell Death Is Decoupled From the Mitochondrial Phenotypes Within Unicellular Eukaryotic Hosts.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:536389.

Genetically regulated cell death (RCD) occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, the evolutionary origin of the mitochondrion and of certain forms of RCD, in particular apoptosis, are thought to coincide, suggesting a central general role for mitochondria in cellular suicide. We tested this mitochondrial centrality hypothesis across a dataset of 67 species of protists, presenting 5 classes of mitochondrial phenotypes, including functional mitochondria, metabolically diversified mitochondria, functionally reduced mitochondria (Mitochondrion Related Organelle or MRO) and even complete absence of mitochondria. We investigated the distribution of genes associated with various forms of RCD. No homologs for described mammalian regulators of regulated necrosis could be identified in our set of 67 unicellular taxa. Protists with MRO and the secondarily a mitochondriate Monocercomonoides exilis display heterogeneous reductions of apoptosis gene sets with respect to typical mitochondriate protists. Remarkably, despite the total lack of mitochondria in M. exilis, apoptosis-associated genes could still be identified. These same species of protists with MRO and M. exilis harbored non-reduced autophagic cell death gene sets. Moreover, transiently multicellular protist taxa appeared enriched in apoptotic and autophagy associated genes compared to free-living protists. This analysis suggests that genes associated with apoptosis in animals and the presence of the mitochondria are significant yet non-essential biological components for RCD in protists. More generally, our results support the hypothesis of a selection for RCD, including both apoptosis and autophagy, as a developmental mechanism linked to multicellularity.

RevDate: 2021-05-19
CmpDate: 2021-05-19

Palazzo AF, EV Koonin (2020)

Functional Long Non-coding RNAs Evolve from Junk Transcripts.

Cell, 183(5):1151-1161.

Transcriptome studies reveal pervasive transcription of complex genomes, such as those of mammals. Despite popular arguments for functionality of most, if not all, of these transcripts, genome-wide analysis of selective constraints indicates that most of the produced RNA are junk. However, junk is not garbage. On the contrary, junk transcripts provide the raw material for the evolution of diverse long non-coding (lnc) RNAs by non-adaptive mechanisms, such as constructive neutral evolution. The generation of many novel functional entities, such as lncRNAs, that fuels organismal complexity does not seem to be driven by strong positive selection. Rather, the weak selection regime that dominates the evolution of most multicellular eukaryotes provides ample material for functional innovation with relatively little adaptation involved.

RevDate: 2020-11-26
CmpDate: 2020-11-26

Liu XB, Xia EH, Li M, et al (2020)

Transcriptome data reveal conserved patterns of fruiting body development and response to heat stress in the mushroom-forming fungus Flammulina filiformis.

PloS one, 15(10):e0239890.

Mushroom-forming fungi are complex multicellular organisms that form the basis of a large industry, yet, our understanding of the mechanisms of mushroom development and its responses to various stresses remains limited. The winter mushroom (Flammulina filiformis) is cultivated at a large commercial scale in East Asia and is a species with a preference for low temperatures. This study investigated fruiting body development in F. filiformis by comparing transcriptomes of 4 developmental stages, and compared the developmental genes to a 200-genome dataset to identify conserved genes involved in fruiting body development, and examined the response of heat sensitive and -resistant strains to heat stress. Our data revealed widely conserved genes involved in primordium development of F. filiformis, many of which originated before the emergence of the Agaricomycetes, indicating co-option for complex multicellularity during evolution. We also revealed several notable fruiting-specific genes, including the genes with conserved stipe-specific expression patterns and the others which related to sexual development, water absorption, basidium formation and sporulation, among others. Comparative analysis revealed that heat stress induced more genes in the heat resistant strain (M1) than in the heat sensitive one (XR). Of particular importance are the hsp70, hsp90 and fes1 genes, which may facilitate the adjustment to heat stress in the early stages of fruiting body development. These data highlighted novel genes involved in complex multicellular development in fungi and aid further studies on gene function and efforts to improve the productivity and heat tolerance in mushroom-forming fungi.

RevDate: 2021-03-24
CmpDate: 2020-10-27

Toda S, McKeithan WL, Hakkinen TJ, et al (2020)

Engineering synthetic morphogen systems that can program multicellular patterning.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6514):327-331.

In metazoan tissues, cells decide their fates by sensing positional information provided by specialized morphogen proteins. To explore what features are sufficient for positional encoding, we asked whether arbitrary molecules (e.g., green fluorescent protein or mCherry) could be converted into synthetic morphogens. Synthetic morphogens expressed from a localized source formed a gradient when trapped by surface-anchoring proteins, and they could be sensed by synthetic receptors. Despite their simplicity, these morphogen systems yielded patterns reminiscent of those observed in vivo. Gradients could be reshaped by altering anchor density or by providing a source of competing inhibitor. Gradient interpretation could be altered by adding feedback loops or morphogen cascades to receiver cell response circuits. Orthogonal cell-cell communication systems provide insight into morphogen evolution and a platform for engineering tissues.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Dyrka W, Coustou V, Daskalov A, et al (2020)

Identification of NLR-associated Amyloid Signaling Motifs in Bacterial Genomes.

Journal of molecular biology, 432(23):6005-6027.

In filamentous fungi, amyloid signaling sequences allow Nod-like receptors (NLRs) to activate downstream cell-death inducing proteins with HeLo and HeLo-like (HELL) domains and amyloid RHIM and RHIM-related motifs control immune defense pathways in mammals and flies. Herein, we show bioinformatically that analogous amyloid signaling motifs exist in bacteria. These short motifs are found at the N terminus of NLRs and at the C terminus of proteins with a domain we term BELL. The corresponding NLR and BELL proteins are encoded by adjacent genes. We identify 10 families of such bacterial amyloid signaling sequences (BASS), one of which (BASS3) is homologous to RHIM and a fungal amyloid motif termed PP. BASS motifs occur nearly exclusively in bacteria forming multicellular structures (mainly in Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria). We analyze experimentally a subset of seven of these motifs (from the most common BASS1 family and the RHIM-related BASS3 family) and find that these sequences form fibrils in vitro. Using a fungal in vivo model, we show that all tested BASS-motifs form prions and that the NLR-side motifs seed prion-formation of the corresponding BELL-side motif. We find that BASS3 motifs show partial prion cross-seeding with mammalian RHIM and fungal PP-motifs and that proline mutations on key positions of the BASS3 core motif, conserved in RHIM and PP-motifs, abolish prion formation. This work expands the paradigm of prion amyloid signaling to multicellular prokaryotes and suggests a long-term evolutionary conservation of these motifs from bacteria, to fungi and animals.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Kurakin GF, Samoukina AM, NA Potapova (2020)

Bacterial and Protozoan Lipoxygenases Could be Involved in Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Immune Response Suppression.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 85(9):1048-1071.

Lipoxygenases are found in animals, plants, and fungi, where they are involved in a wide range of cell-to-cell signaling processes. The presence of lipoxygenases in a number of bacteria and protozoa has been also established, but their biological significance remains poorly understood. Several hypothetical functions of lipoxygenases in bacteria and protozoa have been suggested without experimental validation. The objective of our study was evaluating the functions of bacterial and protozoan lipoxygenases by evolutionary and taxonomic analysis using bioinformatics tools. Lipoxygenase sequences were identified and examined using BLAST, followed by analysis of constructed phylogenetic trees and networks. Our results support the theory on the involvement of lipoxygenases in the formation of multicellular structures by microorganisms and their possible evolutionary significance in the emergence of multicellularity. Furthermore, we observed association of lipoxygenases with the suppression of host immune response by parasitic and symbiotic bacteria including dangerous opportunistic pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Essen LO, Vogt MS, HU Mösch (2020)

Diversity of GPI-anchored fungal adhesins.

Biological chemistry, 401(12):1389-1405.

Selective adhesion of fungal cells to one another and to foreign surfaces is fundamental for the development of multicellular growth forms and the successful colonization of substrates and host organisms. Accordingly, fungi possess diverse cell wall-associated adhesins, mostly large glycoproteins, which present N-terminal adhesion domains at the cell surface for ligand recognition and binding. In order to function as robust adhesins, these glycoproteins must be covalently linkedto the cell wall via C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors by transglycosylation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural and functional diversity of so far characterized protein families of adhesion domains and set it into a broad context by an in-depth bioinformatics analysis using sequence similarity networks. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the membrane-to-cell wall transfer of fungal adhesins by membrane-anchored Dfg5 transglycosidases.

RevDate: 2021-04-29
CmpDate: 2021-04-29

Jiang L, Lu Y, Zheng L, et al (2020)

The algal selenoproteomes.

BMC genomics, 21(1):699.

BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element, and selenocysteine (Sec, U) is its predominant form in vivo. Proteins that contain Sec are selenoproteins, whose special structural features include not only the TGA codon encoding Sec but also the SECIS element in mRNA and the conservation of the Sec-flanking region. These unique features have led to the development of a series of bioinformatics methods to predict and research selenoprotein genes. There have been some studies and reports on the evolution and distribution of selenoprotein genes in prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes, but the systematic analysis of single-cell eukaryotes, especially algae, has been very limited.

RESULTS: In this study, we predicted selenoprotein genes in 137 species of algae by using a program we previously developed. More than 1000 selenoprotein genes were obtained. A database website was built to record these algae selenoprotein genes (www.selenoprotein.com). These genes belong to 42 selenoprotein families, including three novel selenoprotein gene families.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the primordial state of the eukaryotic selenoproteome. It is an important clue to explore the significance of selenium for primordial eukaryotes and to determine the complete evolutionary spectrum of selenoproteins in all life forms.

RevDate: 2021-04-15
CmpDate: 2021-04-15

Ibrahim-Hashim A, Luddy K, Abrahams D, et al (2021)

Artificial selection for host resistance to tumour growth and subsequent cancer cell adaptations: an evolutionary arms race.

British journal of cancer, 124(2):455-465.

BACKGROUND: Cancer progression is governed by evolutionary dynamics in both the tumour population and its host. Since cancers die with the host, each new population of cancer cells must reinvent strategies to overcome the host's heritable defences. In contrast, host species evolve defence strategies over generations if tumour development limits procreation.

METHODS: We investigate this "evolutionary arms race" through intentional breeding of immunodeficient SCID and immunocompetent Black/6 mice to evolve increased tumour suppression. Over 10 generations, we injected Lewis lung mouse carcinoma cells [LL/2-Luc-M38] and selectively bred the two individuals with the slowest tumour growth at day 11. Their male progeny were hosts in the subsequent round.

RESULTS: The evolved SCID mice suppressed tumour growth through biomechanical restriction from increased mesenchymal proliferation, and the evolved Black/6 mice suppressed tumour growth by increasing immune-mediated killing of cancer cells. However, transcriptomic changes of multicellular tissue organisation and function genes allowed LL/2-Luc-M38 cells to adapt through increased matrix remodelling in SCID mice, and reduced angiogenesis, increased energy utilisation and accelerated proliferation in Black/6 mice.

CONCLUSION: Host species can rapidly evolve both immunologic and non-immunologic tumour defences. However, cancer cell plasticity allows effective phenotypic and population-based counter strategies.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Rochman ND, Wolf YI, EV Koonin (2020)

Deep phylogeny of cancer drivers and compensatory mutations.

Communications biology, 3(1):551.

Driver mutations (DM) are the genetic impetus for most cancers. The DM are assumed to be deleterious in species evolution, being eliminated by purifying selection unless compensated by other mutations. We present deep phylogenies for 84 cancer driver genes and investigate the prevalence of 434 DM across gene-species trees. The DM are rare in species evolution, and 181 are completely absent, validating their negative fitness effect. The DM are more common in unicellular than in multicellular eukaryotes, suggesting a link between these mutations and cell proliferation control. 18 DM appear as the ancestral state in one or more major clades, including 3 among mammals. We identify within-gene, compensatory mutations for 98 DM and infer likely interactions between the DM and compensatory sites in protein structures. These findings elucidate the evolutionary status of DM and are expected to advance the understanding of the functions and evolution of oncogenes and tumor suppressors.

RevDate: 2021-04-19
CmpDate: 2021-04-19

Petre B (2020)

Toward the Discovery of Host-Defense Peptides in Plants.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1825.

Defense peptides protect multicellular eukaryotes from infections. In biomedical sciences, a dominant conceptual framework refers to defense peptides as host-defense peptides (HDPs), which are bifunctional peptides with both direct antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. No HDP has been reported in plants so far, and the very concept of HDP has not been captured yet by the plant science community. Plant science thus lacks the conceptual framework that would coordinate research efforts aimed at discovering plant HDPs. In this perspective article, I used bibliometric and literature survey approaches to raise awareness about the HDP concept among plant scientists, and to encourage research efforts aimed at discovering plant HDPs. Such discovery would enrich our comprehension of the function and evolution of the plant immune system, and provide us with novel molecular tools to develop innovative strategies to control crop diseases.

RevDate: 2020-10-02
CmpDate: 2020-09-30

Kinsella CM, Bart A, Deijs M, et al (2020)

Entamoeba and Giardia parasites implicated as hosts of CRESS viruses.

Nature communications, 11(1):4620.

Metagenomic techniques have enabled genome sequencing of unknown viruses without isolation in cell culture, but information on the virus host is often lacking, preventing viral characterisation. High-throughput methods capable of identifying virus hosts based on genomic data alone would aid evaluation of their medical or biological relevance. Here, we address this by linking metagenomic discovery of three virus families in human stool samples with determination of probable hosts. Recombination between viruses provides evidence of a shared host, in which genetic exchange occurs. We utilise networks of viral recombination to delimit virus-host clusters, which are then anchored to specific hosts using (1) statistical association to a host organism in clinical samples, (2) endogenous viral elements in host genomes, and (3) evidence of host small RNA responses to these elements. This analysis suggests two CRESS virus families (Naryaviridae and Nenyaviridae) infect Entamoeba parasites, while a third (Vilyaviridae) infects Giardia duodenalis. The trio supplements five CRESS virus families already known to infect eukaryotes, extending the CRESS virus host range to protozoa. Phylogenetic analysis implies CRESS viruses infecting multicellular life have evolved independently on at least three occasions.

RevDate: 2021-06-02
CmpDate: 2021-06-02

Cai Y, Huang J, Xu H, et al (2020)

Synthesis, characterization and application of magnetoferritin nanoparticle by using human H chain ferritin expressed by Pichia pastoris.

Nanotechnology, 31(48):485709.

Protein-based nanoparticles have developed rapidly in areas such as drug delivery, biomedical imaging and biocatalysis. Ferritin possesses unique properties that make it attractive as a potential platform for a variety of nanobiotechnological applications. Here we synthesized magnetoferritin (P-MHFn) nanoparticles for the first time by using the human H chain of ferritin that was expressed by Pichia pastoris (P-HFn). Western blot results showed that recombinant P-HFn was successfully expressed after methanol induction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the spherical cage-like shape and monodispersion of P-HFn. The synthesized magnetoferritin (P-MHFn) retained the properties of magnetoferritin nanoparticles synthesized using HFn expressed by E. coli (E-MHFn): superparamagnetism under ambient conditions and peroxidase-like activity. It is stable under a wider range of pH values (from 5.0 to 11.0), likely due to post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation on P-HFn. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging experiments revealed that P-MHFn nanoparticles can accumulate in tumors, which suggests that P-MHFn could be used in tumor imaging and therapy. An acute toxicity study of P-MHFn in Sprague Dawley rats showed no abnormalities at a dose up to 20 mg Fe Kg-1 body weight. Therefore, this study shed light on the development of magnetoferritin nanoparticles using therapeutic HFn expressed by Pichia pastoris for biomedical applications.

RevDate: 2021-06-01
CmpDate: 2021-06-01

Mowday AM, Copp JN, Syddall SP, et al (2020)

E. coli nitroreductase NfsA is a reporter gene for non-invasive PET imaging in cancer gene therapy applications.

Theranostics, 10(23):10548-10562.

The use of reporter genes to non-invasively image molecular processes inside cells has significant translational potential, particularly in the context of systemically administered gene therapy vectors and adoptively administered cells such as immune or stem cell based therapies. Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes possess ideal properties for reporter gene imaging applications, being of non-human origin and possessing the ability to metabolize a range of clinically relevant nitro(hetero)cyclic substrates. Methods: A library of eleven Escherichia coli nitroreductase candidates were screened for the ability to efficiently metabolize 2-nitroimidazole based positron emission tomography (PET) probes originally developed as radiotracers for hypoxic cell imaging. Several complementary methods were utilized to detect formation of cell-entrapped metabolites, including various in vitro and in vivo models to establish the capacity of the 2-nitroimidazole PET agent EF5 to quantify expression of a nitroreductase candidate. Proof-of-principle PET imaging studies were successfully conducted using 18F-HX4. Results: Recombinant enzyme kinetics, bacterial SOS reporter assays, anti-proliferative assays and flow cytometry approaches collectively identified the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase NfsA from E. coli (NfsA_Ec) as the most promising nitroreductase reporter gene. Cells expressing NfsA_Ec were demonstrably labelled with the imaging agent EF5 in a manner that was quantitatively superior to hypoxia, in monolayers (2D), multicellular layers (3D), and in human tumor xenograft models. EF5 retention correlated with NfsA_Ec positive cell density over a range of EF5 concentrations in 3D in vitro models and in xenografts in vivo and was predictive of in vivo anti-tumor activity of the cytotoxic prodrug PR-104. Following PET imaging with 18F-HX4, a significantly higher tumor-to-blood ratio was observed in two xenograft models for NfsA_Ec expressing tumors compared to the parental tumors thereof, providing verification of this reporter gene imaging approach. Conclusion: This study establishes that the bacterial nitroreductase NfsA_Ec can be utilized as an imaging capable reporter gene, with the ability to metabolize and trap 2-nitroimidazole PET imaging agents for non-invasive imaging of gene expression.

RevDate: 2021-04-14
CmpDate: 2021-04-14

Cohen IR, A Marron (2020)

The evolution of universal adaptations of life is driven by universal properties of matter: energy, entropy, and interaction.

F1000Research, 9:626.

The evolution of multicellular eukaryotes expresses two sorts of adaptations: local adaptations like fur or feathers, which characterize species in particular environments, and universal adaptations like microbiomes or sexual reproduction, which characterize most multicellulars in any environment. We reason that the mechanisms driving the universal adaptations of multicellulars should themselves be universal, and propose a mechanism based on properties of matter and systems: energy, entropy, and interaction. Energy from the sun, earth and beyond creates new arrangements and interactions. Metabolic networks channel some of this energy to form cooperating, interactive arrangements. Entropy, used here as a term for all forces that dismantle ordered structures (rather than as a physical quantity), acts as a selective force. Entropy selects for arrangements that resist it long enough to replicate, and dismantles those that do not. Interactions, energy-charged and dynamic, restrain entropy and enable survival and propagation of integrated living systems. This fosters survival-of-the-fitted - those entities that resist entropic destruction - and not only of the fittest - the entities with the greatest reproductive success. The "unit" of evolution is not a discrete entity, such as a gene, individual, or species; what evolves are collections of related interactions at multiple scales. Survival-of-the-fitted explains universal adaptations, including resident microbiomes, sexual reproduction, continuous diversification, programmed turnover, seemingly wasteful phenotypes, altruism, co-evolving environmental niches, and advancing complexity. Indeed survival-of-the-fittest may be a particular case of the survival-of-the-fitted mechanism, promoting local adaptations that express reproductive advantages in addition to resisting entropy. Survival-of-the-fitted accounts for phenomena that have been attributed to neutral evolution: in the face of entropy, there is no neutrality; all variations are challenged by ubiquitous energy and entropy, retaining those that are "fit enough". We propose experiments to test predictions of the survival-of-the-fitted theory, and discuss implications for the wellbeing of humans and the biosphere.

RevDate: 2021-03-11
CmpDate: 2021-03-11

Funato Y, Yoshida A, Hirata Y, et al (2020)

The Oncogenic PRL Protein Causes Acid Addiction of Cells by Stimulating Lysosomal Exocytosis.

Developmental cell, 55(4):387-397.e8.

Extracellular pH is usually maintained around 7.4 in multicellular organisms, and cells are optimized to proliferate under this condition. Here, we find cells can adapt to a more acidic pH of 6.5 and become addicted to this acidic microenvironment by expressing phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL), a driver of cancer malignancy. Genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screening and subsequent analyses revealed that PRL promotes H+ extrusion and acid addiction by stimulating lysosomal exocytosis. Further experiments using cultured cells and Caenorhabditis elegans clarified the molecular link between PRL and lysosomal exocytosis across species, involving activation of lysosomal Ca2+ channel TRPML by ROS. Indeed, disruption of TRPML in cancer cells abolished PRL-stimulated lysosomal exocytosis, acid addiction, and metastasis. Thus, PRL is the molecular switch turning cells addicted to an acidic condition, which should benefit cancer cells to thrive in an acidic tumor microenvironment.

RevDate: 2021-01-28
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Gao M, Mackley IGP, Mesbahi-Vasey S, et al (2020)

Structural characterization and computational analysis of PDZ domains in Monosiga brevicollis.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 29(11):2226-2244.

Identification of the molecular networks that facilitated the evolution of multicellular animals from their unicellular ancestors is a fundamental problem in evolutionary cellular biology. Choanoflagellates are recognized as the closest extant nonmetazoan ancestors to animals. These unicellular eukaryotes can adopt a multicellular-like "rosette" state. Therefore, they are compelling models for the study of early multicellularity. Comparative studies revealed that a number of putative human orthologs are present in choanoflagellate genomes, suggesting that a subset of these genes were necessary for the emergence of multicellularity. However, previous work is largely based on sequence alignments alone, which does not confirm structural nor functional similarity. Here, we focus on the PDZ domain, a peptide-binding domain which plays critical roles in myriad cellular signaling networks and which underwent a gene family expansion in metazoan lineages. Using a customized sequence similarity search algorithm, we identified 178 PDZ domains in the Monosiga brevicollis proteome. This includes 11 previously unidentified sequences, which we analyzed using Rosetta and homology modeling. To assess conservation of protein structure, we solved high-resolution crystal structures of representative M. brevicollis PDZ domains that are homologous to human Dlg1 PDZ2, Dlg1 PDZ3, GIPC, and SHANK1 PDZ domains. To assess functional conservation, we calculated binding affinities for mbGIPC, mbSHANK1, mbSNX27, and mbDLG-3 PDZ domains from M. brevicollis. Overall, we find that peptide selectivity is generally conserved between these two disparate organisms, with one possible exception, mbDLG-3. Overall, our results provide novel insight into signaling pathways in a choanoflagellate model of primitive multicellularity.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2020-09-21

Fukushima K, DD Pollock (2020)

Amalgamated cross-species transcriptomes reveal organ-specific propensity in gene expression evolution.

Nature communications, 11(1):4459.

The origins of multicellular physiology are tied to evolution of gene expression. Genes can shift expression as organisms evolve, but how ancestral expression influences altered descendant expression is not well understood. To examine this, we amalgamate 1,903 RNA-seq datasets from 182 research projects, including 6 organs in 21 vertebrate species. Quality control eliminates project-specific biases, and expression shifts are reconstructed using gene-family-wise phylogenetic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Expression shifts following gene duplication result in more drastic changes in expression properties than shifts without gene duplication. The expression properties are tightly coupled with protein evolutionary rate, depending on whether and how gene duplication occurred. Fluxes in expression patterns among organs are nonrandom, forming modular connections that are reshaped by gene duplication. Thus, if expression shifts, ancestral expression in some organs induces a strong propensity for expression in particular organs in descendants. Regardless of whether the shifts are adaptive or not, this supports a major role for what might be termed preadaptive pathways of gene expression evolution.

RevDate: 2020-11-30

Sidorova A, Tverdislov V, Levashova N, et al (2020)

A model of autowave self-organization as a hierarchy of active media in the biological evolution.

Bio Systems, 198:104234.

Within the framework of the active media concept, we develop a biophysical model of autowave self-organization which is treated as a hierarchy of active media in the evolution of the biosphere. We also propose a mathematical model of the autowave process of speciation in a flow of mutations for the three main taxonometric groups (prokaryotes, unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes) with a naturally determined lower boundary of living matter (the appearance of prokaryotes) and an open upper boundary for the formation of new species. It is shown that the fluctuation-bifurcation description of the evolution for the formation of new taxonometric groups as a trajectory of transformation of small fluctuations into giant ones adequately reflects the process of self-organization during the formation of taxa. The major concepts of biological evolution, conditions of hierarchy formation as a fundamental manifestation of self-organization and complexity in the evolution of biological systems are considered.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Ruiz-Arrebola S, Tornero-López AM, Guirado D, et al (2020)

An on-lattice agent-based Monte Carlo model simulating the growth kinetics of multicellular tumor spheroids.

Physica medica : PM : an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology : official journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB), 77:194-203.

PURPOSE: To develop an on-lattice agent-based model describing the growth of multicellular tumor spheroids using simple Monte Carlo tools.

METHODS: Cells are situated on the vertices of a cubic grid. Different cell states (proliferative, hypoxic or dead) and cell evolution rules, driven by 10 parameters, and the effects of the culture medium are included. About twenty spheroids of MCF-7 human breast cancer were cultivated and the experimental data were used for tuning the model parameters.

RESULTS: Simulated spheroids showed adequate sizes of the necrotic nuclei and of the hypoxic and proliferative cell phases as a function of the growth time, mimicking the overall characteristics of the experimental spheroids. The relation between the radii of the necrotic nucleus and the whole spheroid obtained in the simulations was similar to the experimental one and the number of cells, as a function of the spheroid volume, was well reproduced. The statistical variability of the Monte Carlo model described the whole volume range observed for the experimental spheroids. Assuming that the model parameters vary within Gaussian distributions it was obtained a sample of spheroids that reproduced much better the experimental findings.

CONCLUSIONS: The model developed allows describing the growth of in vitro multicellular spheroids and the experimental variability can be well reproduced. Its flexibility permits to vary both the agents involved and the rules that govern the spheroid growth. More general situations, such as, e. g., tumor vascularization, radiotherapy effects on solid tumors, or the validity of the tumor growth mathematical models can be studied.

RevDate: 2021-06-17
CmpDate: 2021-06-17

Futo M, Opašić L, Koska S, et al (2021)

Embryo-Like Features in Developing Bacillus subtilis Biofilms.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(1):31-47.

Correspondence between evolution and development has been discussed for more than two centuries. Recent work reveals that phylogeny-ontogeny correlations are indeed present in developmental transcriptomes of eukaryotic clades with complex multicellularity. Nevertheless, it has been largely ignored that the pervasive presence of phylogeny-ontogeny correlations is a hallmark of development in eukaryotes. This perspective opens a possibility to look for similar parallelisms in biological settings where developmental logic and multicellular complexity are more obscure. For instance, it has been increasingly recognized that multicellular behavior underlies biofilm formation in bacteria. However, it remains unclear whether bacterial biofilm growth shares some basic principles with development in complex eukaryotes. Here we show that the ontogeny of growing Bacillus subtilis biofilms recapitulates phylogeny at the expression level. Using time-resolved transcriptome and proteome profiles, we found that biofilm ontogeny correlates with the evolutionary measures, in a way that evolutionary younger and more diverged genes were increasingly expressed toward later timepoints of biofilm growth. Molecular and morphological signatures also revealed that biofilm growth is highly regulated and organized into discrete ontogenetic stages, analogous to those of eukaryotic embryos. Together, this suggests that biofilm formation in Bacillus is a bona fide developmental process comparable to organismal development in animals, plants, and fungi. Given that most cells on Earth reside in the form of biofilms and that biofilms represent the oldest known fossils, we anticipate that the widely adopted vision of the first life as a single-cell and free-living organism needs rethinking.

RevDate: 2021-04-12
CmpDate: 2021-04-12

Pérez-Hernández CA, Kern CC, Butkeviciute E, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial Signature in Human Monocytes and Resistance to Infection in C. elegans During Fumarate-Induced Innate Immune Training.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1715.

Monocytes can develop immunological memory, a functional characteristic widely recognized as innate immune training, to distinguish it from memory in adaptive immune cells. Upon a secondary immune challenge, either homologous or heterologous, trained monocytes/macrophages exhibit a more robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, than untrained monocytes. Candida albicans, β-glucan, and BCG are all inducers of monocyte training and recent metabolic profiling analyses have revealed that training induction is dependent on glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the cholesterol synthesis pathway, along with fumarate accumulation; interestingly, fumarate itself can induce training. Since fumarate is produced by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within mitochondria, we asked whether extra-mitochondrial fumarate has an effect on mitochondrial function. Results showed that the addition of fumarate to monocytes induces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, fusion, and increased membrane potential (Δψm), while mitochondrial cristae became closer to each other, suggesting that immediate (from minutes to hours) mitochondrial activation plays a role in the induction phase of innate immune training of monocytes. To establish whether fumarate induces similar mitochondrial changes in vivo in a multicellular organism, effects of fumarate supplementation were tested in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. This induced mitochondrial fusion in both muscle and intestinal cells and also increased resistance to infection of the pharynx with E. coli. Together, these findings contribute to defining a mitochondrial signature associated with the induction of innate immune training by fumarate treatment, and to the understanding of whole organism infection resistance.

RevDate: 2021-06-17
CmpDate: 2021-06-17

Ho AT, LD Hurst (2021)

Effective Population Size Predicts Local Rates but Not Local Mitigation of Read-through Errors.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(1):244-262.

In correctly predicting that selection efficiency is positively correlated with the effective population size (Ne), the nearly neutral theory provides a coherent understanding of between-species variation in numerous genomic parameters, including heritable error (germline mutation) rates. Does the same theory also explain variation in phenotypic error rates and in abundance of error mitigation mechanisms? Translational read-through provides a model to investigate both issues as it is common, mostly nonadaptive, and has good proxy for rate (TAA being the least leaky stop codon) and potential error mitigation via "fail-safe" 3' additional stop codons (ASCs). Prior theory of translational read-through has suggested that when population sizes are high, weak selection for local mitigation can be effective thus predicting a positive correlation between ASC enrichment and Ne. Contra to prediction, we find that ASC enrichment is not correlated with Ne. ASC enrichment, although highly phylogenetically patchy, is, however, more common both in unicellular species and in genes expressed in unicellular modes in multicellular species. By contrast, Ne does positively correlate with TAA enrichment. These results imply that local phenotypic error rates, not local mitigation rates, are consistent with a drift barrier/nearly neutral model.

RevDate: 2020-10-28
CmpDate: 2020-10-28

Xin Y, Le Poul Y, Ling L, et al (2020)

Enhancer evolutionary co-option through shared chromatin accessibility input.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(34):20636-20644.

The diversity of forms in multicellular organisms originates largely from the spatial redeployment of developmental genes [S. B. Carroll, Cell 134, 25-36 (2008)]. Several scenarios can explain the emergence of cis-regulatory elements that govern novel aspects of a gene expression pattern [M. Rebeiz, M. Tsiantis, Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 45, 115-123 (2017)]. One scenario, enhancer co-option, holds that a DNA sequence producing an ancestral regulatory activity also becomes the template for a new regulatory activity, sharing regulatory information. While enhancer co-option might fuel morphological diversification, it has rarely been documented [W. J. Glassford et al., Dev. Cell 34, 520-531 (2015)]. Moreover, if two regulatory activities are borne from the same sequence, their modularity, considered a defining feature of enhancers [J. Banerji, L. Olson, W. Schaffner, Cell 33, 729-740 (1983)], might be affected by pleiotropy. Sequence overlap may thereby play a determinant role in enhancer function and evolution. Here, we investigated this problem with two regulatory activities of the Drosophila gene yellow, the novel spot enhancer and the ancestral wing blade enhancer. We used precise and comprehensive quantification of each activity in Drosophila wings to systematically map their sequences along the locus. We show that the spot enhancer has co-opted the sequences of the wing blade enhancer. We also identified a pleiotropic site necessary for DNA accessibility of a shared regulatory region. While the evolutionary steps leading to the derived activity are still unknown, such pleiotropy suggests that enhancer accessibility could be one of the molecular mechanisms seeding evolutionary co-option.

RevDate: 2021-03-29
CmpDate: 2021-03-29

Whelan CJ, Avdieiev SS, RA Gatenby (2020)

Insights From the Ecology of Information to Cancer Control.

Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center, 27(3):1073274820945980.

Uniquely in nature, living systems must acquire, store, and act upon information. The survival and replicative fate of each normal cell in a multicellular organism is determined solely by information obtained from its surrounding tissue. In contrast, cancer cells as single-cell eukaryotes live in a disrupted, heterogeneous environment with opportunities and hazards. Thus, cancer cells, unlike normal somatic cells, must constantly obtain information from their environment to ensure survival and proliferation. In this study, we build upon a simple mathematical modeling framework developed to predict (1) how information promotes population persistence in a highly heterogeneous environment and (2) how disruption of information resulting from habitat fragmentation increases the probability of population extinction. Because (1) tumors grow in a highly heterogeneous microenvironment and (2) many cancer therapies fragment tumors into isolated, small cancer cell populations, we identify parallels between these 2 systems and develop ideas for cancer cure based on lessons gleaned from Anthropocene extinctions. In many Anthropocene extinctions, such as that of the North American heath hen (Tympanuchus cupido cupido), a large and widespread population was initially reduced and fragmented owing to overexploitation by humans (a "first strike"). After this, the small surviving populations are vulnerable to extinction from environmental or demographic stochastic disturbances (a "second strike"). Following this analogy, after a tumor is fragmented into small populations of isolated cancer cells by an initial therapy, additional treatment can be applied with the intent of extinction (cure). Disrupting a cancer cell's ability to acquire and use information in a heterogeneous environment may be an important tactic for causing extinction following an effective initial therapy. Thus, information, from the scale of cells within tumors to that of species within ecosystems, can be used to identify vulnerabilities to extinction and opportunities for novel treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2021-03-09
CmpDate: 2021-03-09

Pajkos M, Zeke A, Z Dosztányi (2020)

Ancient Evolutionary Origin of Intrinsically Disordered Cancer Risk Regions.

Biomolecules, 10(8):.

Cancer is a heterogeneous genetic disease that alters the proper functioning of proteins involved in key regulatory processes such as cell cycle, DNA repair, survival, or apoptosis. Mutations often accumulate in hot-spots regions, highlighting critical functional modules within these proteins that need to be altered, amplified, or abolished for tumor formation. Recent evidence suggests that these mutational hotspots can correspond not only to globular domains, but also to intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which play a significant role in a subset of cancer types. IDRs have distinct functional properties that originate from their inherent flexibility. Generally, they correspond to more recent evolutionary inventions and show larger sequence variations across species. In this work, we analyzed the evolutionary origin of disordered regions that are specifically targeted in cancer. Surprisingly, the majority of these disordered cancer risk regions showed remarkable conservation with ancient evolutionary origin, stemming from the earliest multicellular animals or even beyond. Nevertheless, we encountered several examples where the mutated region emerged at a later stage compared with the origin of the gene family. We also showed the cancer risk regions become quickly fixated after their emergence, but evolution continues to tinker with their genes with novel regulatory elements introduced even at the level of humans. Our concise analysis provides a much clearer picture of the emergence of key regulatory elements in proteins and highlights the importance of taking into account the modular organisation of proteins for the analyses of evolutionary origin.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Ovsepian SV, O'Leary VB, NP Vesselkin (2020)

Evolutionary origins of chemical synapses.

Vitamins and hormones, 114:1-21.

Synaptic transmission is a fundamental neurobiological process by which neurons interact with each other and non-neuronal cells. It involves release of active substances from the presynaptic neuron onto receptive elements of postsynaptic cells, inducing waves of spreading electrochemical response. While much has been learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving and governing transmitter release and sensing, the evolutionary origin of synaptic connections remains obscure. Herein, we review emerging evidence and concepts suggesting that key components of chemical synapse arose independently from neurons, in different functional and biological contexts, before the rise of multicellular living forms. We argue that throughout evolution, distinct synaptic constituents have been co-opted from ancestral forms for a new role in early metazoan, leading to the rise of chemical synapses and neurotransmission. Such a mosaic model of the origin of chemical synapses agrees with and supports the pluralistic hypothesis of evolutionary change.

RevDate: 2021-02-16
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Erber L, Hoffmann A, Fallmann J, et al (2020)

Unusual Occurrence of Two Bona-Fide CCA-Adding Enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(15):.

Dictyostelium discoideum, the model organism for the evolutionary supergroup of Amoebozoa, is a social amoeba that, upon starvation, undergoes transition from a unicellular to a multicellular organism. In its genome, we identified two genes encoding for tRNA nucleotidyltransferases. Such pairs of tRNA nucleotidyltransferases usually represent collaborating partial activities catalyzing CC- and A-addition to the tRNA 3'-end, respectively. In D. discoideum, however, both enzymes exhibit identical activities, representing bona-fide CCA-adding enzymes. Detailed characterization of the corresponding activities revealed that both enzymes seem to be essential and are regulated inversely during different developmental stages of D. discoideum. Intriguingly, this is the first description of two functionally equivalent CCA-adding enzymes using the same set of tRNAs and showing a similar distribution within the cell. This situation seems to be a common feature in Dictyostelia, as other members of this phylum carry similar pairs of tRNA nucleotidyltransferase genes in their genome.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Yan JJ, Lee YC, Tsou YL, et al (2020)

Insulin-like growth factor 1 triggers salt secretion machinery in fish under acute salinity stress.

The Journal of endocrinology, 246(3):277-288.

Timely adjustment of osmoregulation upon acute salinity stress is essential for the survival of euryhaline fish. This rapid response is thought to be tightly controlled by hormones; however, there are still questions unanswered. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the endocrine hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), a slow-acting hormone, is involved in the activation of salt secretion mechanisms in euryhaline medaka (Oryzias melastigma) during acclimation to acute salinity stress. In response to a 30-ppt seawater (SW) challenge, Na+/Cl- secretion was enhanced within 0.5 h, with concomitant organization of ionocyte multicellular complexes and without changes in expression of major transporters. Igf1 receptor inhibitors significantly impair the Na+/Cl- secretion and ionocyte multicellular complex responses without affecting transporter expression. Thus, Igf1 may activate salt secretion as part of the teleost response to acute salinity stress by exerting effects on transporter function and enhancing the formation of ionocyte multicellular complexes. These findings provide new insights into hormonal control of body fluid ionic/osmotic homeostasis during vertebrate evolution.

RevDate: 2020-09-02
CmpDate: 2020-09-02

Fisher RM, Shik JZ, JJ Boomsma (2020)

The evolution of multicellular complexity: the role of relatedness and environmental constraints.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1931):20192963.

A major challenge in evolutionary biology has been to explain the variation in multicellularity across the many independently evolved multicellular lineages, from slime moulds to vertebrates. Social evolution theory has highlighted the key role of relatedness in determining multicellular complexity and obligateness; however, there is a need to extend this to a broader perspective incorporating the role of the environment. In this paper, we formally test Bonner's 1998 hypothesis that the environment is crucial in determining the course of multicellular evolution, with aggregative multicellularity evolving more frequently on land and clonal multicellularity more frequently in water. Using a combination of scaling theory and phylogenetic comparative analyses, we describe multicellular organizational complexity across 139 species spanning 14 independent transitions to multicellularity and investigate the role of the environment in determining multicellular group formation and in imposing constraints on multicellular evolution. Our results, showing that the physical environment has impacted the way in which multicellular groups form, highlight that environmental conditions might have affected the major evolutionary transition to obligate multicellularity.

RevDate: 2021-02-03
CmpDate: 2021-02-03

Wavreil FDM, M Yajima (2020)

Diversity of activator of G-protein signaling (AGS)-family proteins and their impact on asymmetric cell division across taxa.

Developmental biology, 465(2):89-99.

Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a cellular process that forms two different cell types through a cell division and is thus critical for the development of all multicellular organisms. Not all but many of the ACD processes are mediated by proper orientation of the mitotic spindle, which segregates the fate determinants asymmetrically into daughter cells. In many cell types, the evolutionarily conserved protein complex of Gαi/AGS-family protein/NuMA-like protein appears to play critical roles in orienting the spindle and/or generating the polarized cortical forces to regulate ACD. Studies in various organisms reveal that this conserved protein complex is slightly modified in each phylum or even within species. In particular, AGS-family proteins appear to be modified with a variable number of motifs in their functional domains across taxa. This apparently creates different molecular interactions and mechanisms of ACD in each developmental program, ultimately contributing to developmental diversity across species. In this review, we discuss how a conserved ACD machinery has been modified in each phylum over the course of evolution with a major focus on the molecular evolution of AGS-family proteins and its impact on ACD regulation.

RevDate: 2021-06-01
CmpDate: 2021-06-01

Nedelcu AM (2020)

The evolution of multicellularity and cancer: views and paradigms.

Biochemical Society transactions, 48(4):1505-1518.

Conceptually and mechanistically, the evolution of multicellularity required the integration of single cells into new functionally, reproductively and evolutionary stable multicellular individuals. As part of this process, a change in levels of selection occurred, with selection at the multicellular level overriding selection at the cell level. The stability of multicellular individuals is dependent on a combination of mechanisms that supress within-group evolution, by both reducing the occurrence of somatic mutations as well as supressing somatic selection. Nevertheless, mutations that, in a particular microenvironment, confer mutant lineages a fitness advantage relative to normal somatic cells do occur, and can result in cancer. This minireview highlights several views and paradigms that relate the evolution of multicellularity to cancer. As a phenomenon, cancer is generally understood as a failure of multicellular systems to suppress somatic evolution. However, as a disease, cancer is interpreted in different frameworks: (i) a breakdown of cooperative behaviors underlying the evolution of multicellularity, (ii) a disruption of molecular networks established during the emergence of multicellularity to impose constraints on single-celled units, or (iii) an atavistic state resulting from reactivating primitive programs that originated in the earliest unicellular species. A number of assumptions are common in all the views relating cancer as a disease to the evolution of multicellularity. For instance, cancer is considered a reversal to unicellularity, and cancer cells are thought to both resemble unicellular organisms and benefit from ancestral-like traits. Nevertheless, potential limitations of current paradigms should be acknowledged as different perspectives can provide novel insights with potential therapeutic implications.

RevDate: 2021-03-04
CmpDate: 2021-03-04

Bylino OV, Ibragimov AN, YV Shidlovskii (2020)

Evolution of Regulated Transcription.

Cells, 9(7):.

The genomes of all organisms abound with various cis-regulatory elements, which control gene activity. Transcriptional enhancers are a key group of such elements in eukaryotes and are DNA regions that form physical contacts with gene promoters and precisely orchestrate gene expression programs. Here, we follow gradual evolution of this regulatory system and discuss its features in different organisms. In eubacteria, an enhancer-like element is often a single regulatory element, is usually proximal to the core promoter, and is occupied by one or a few activators. Activation of gene expression in archaea is accompanied by the recruitment of an activator to several enhancer-like sites in the upstream promoter region. In eukaryotes, activation of expression is accompanied by the recruitment of activators to multiple enhancers, which may be distant from the core promoter, and the activators act through coactivators. The role of the general DNA architecture in transcription control increases in evolution. As a whole, it can be seen that enhancers of multicellular eukaryotes evolved from the corresponding prototypic enhancer-like regulatory elements with the gradually increasing genome size of organisms.

RevDate: 2021-04-15
CmpDate: 2021-04-15

Helsen J, Voordeckers K, Vanderwaeren L, et al (2020)

Gene Loss Predictably Drives Evolutionary Adaptation.

Molecular biology and evolution, 37(10):2989-3002.

Loss of gene function is common throughout evolution, even though it often leads to reduced fitness. In this study, we systematically evaluated how an organism adapts after deleting genes that are important for growth under oxidative stress. By evolving, sequencing, and phenotyping over 200 yeast lineages, we found that gene loss can enhance an organism's capacity to evolve and adapt. Although gene loss often led to an immediate decrease in fitness, many mutants rapidly acquired suppressor mutations that restored fitness. Depending on the strain's genotype, some ultimately even attained higher fitness levels than similarly adapted wild-type cells. Further, cells with deletions in different modules of the genetic network followed distinct and predictable mutational trajectories. Finally, losing highly connected genes increased evolvability by facilitating the emergence of a more diverse array of phenotypes after adaptation. Together, our findings show that loss of specific parts of a genetic network can facilitate adaptation by opening alternative evolutionary paths.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Picard M, C Sandi (2021)

The social nature of mitochondria: Implications for human health.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 120:595-610.

Sociality has profound evolutionary roots and is observed from unicellular organisms to multicellular animals. In line with the view that social principles apply across levels of biological complexity, a growing body of data highlights the remarkable social nature of mitochondria - life-sustaining endosymbiotic organelles with their own genome that populate the cell cytoplasm. Here, we draw from organizing principles of behavior in social organisms to reveal that similar to individuals among social networks, mitochondria communicate with each other and with the cell nucleus, exhibit group formation and interdependence, synchronize their behaviors, and functionally specialize to accomplish specific functions within the organism. Mitochondria are social organelles. The extension of social principles across levels of biological complexity is a theoretical shift that emphasizes the role of communication and interdependence in cell biology, physiology, and neuroscience. With the help of emerging computational methods capable of capturing complex dynamic behavioral patterns, the implementation of social concepts in mitochondrial biology may facilitate cross-talk across disciplines towards increasingly holistic and accurate models of human health.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Brunkard JO (2020)

Exaptive Evolution of Target of Rapamycin Signaling in Multicellular Eukaryotes.

Developmental cell, 54(2):142-155.

Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a protein kinase that coordinates metabolism with nutrient and energy availability in eukaryotes. TOR and its primary interactors, RAPTOR and LST8, have been remarkably evolutionarily static since they arose in the unicellular last common ancestor of plants, fungi, and animals, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms and downstream effectors of TOR signaling have evolved considerable diversity in these separate lineages. Here, I focus on the roles of exaptation and adaptation in the evolution of novel signaling axes in the TOR network in multicellular eukaryotes, concentrating especially on amino acid sensing, cell-cell signaling, and cell differentiation.

RevDate: 2020-08-12
CmpDate: 2020-08-12

Rose CJ, Hammerschmidt K, Pichugin Y, et al (2020)

Meta-population structure and the evolutionary transition to multicellularity.

Ecology letters, 23(9):1380-1390.

The evolutionary transition to multicellularity has occurred on numerous occasions, but transitions to complex life forms are rare. Here, using experimental bacterial populations as proxies for nascent multicellular organisms, we manipulate ecological factors shaping the evolution of groups. Groups were propagated under regimes requiring reproduction via a life cycle replete with developmental and dispersal (propagule) phases, but in one treatment lineages never mixed, whereas in a second treatment, cells from different lineages experienced intense competition during the dispersal phase. The latter treatment favoured traits promoting cell growth at the expense of traits underlying group fitness - a finding that is supported by results from a mathematical model. Our results show that the transition to multicellularity benefits from ecological conditions that maintain discreteness not just of the group (soma) phase, but also of the dispersal (germline) phase.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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