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Bibliography on: Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2022 at 01:47 Created: 

Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

Created with PubMed® Query: ( (origin OR evolution) AND (eukaryotes OR eukaryota) AND (multicelluarity OR multicellular) NOT 33634751[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Niculescu VF (2022)

A comment on the article Jaques et al. "Origin and evolution of animal multicellularity in light of phylogenomics and cancer genetics ".

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 40(1):38.

For developmental biologists, the work of Jaques et al. is quite surprising. It suggests that cancer genetics and cancer phylogenomics may contribute to the origin and evolution of multicellularity in animals. My commentary complements the work of Jaques et al. from the perspective of evolutionary life cycle biology and recalls the statement of Douglas H. Erwin, who said that understanding life cycle evolution is (equally) crucial to subsequent steps [1].

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Liu Y, Ma Y, Aray H, et al (2022)

Morphogenesis and cell wall composition of trichomes and their function in response to salt in halophyte Salsola ferganica.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):551.

BACKGROUND: To survive harsh environmental conditions, desert plants show various adaptions, such as the evolution of trichomes, which are protective epidermal protrusions. Currently, the morphogenesis and function of trichomes in desert plants are not well understood. Salsola ferganica is an annual halophyte distributed in cold deserts; at the seedling stage, its rod-shaped true leaves are covered with long and thick trichomes and are affected by habitat conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the trichomes on morphogenesis and cell wall composition of S. ferganica compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and cotton, related gene expression, and preliminary function in salt accumulation of the leaves.

RESULTS: The trichomes of S. ferganica were initiated from the epidermal primordium, followed by two to three rounds of cell division to form a multicellular trichome, while some genes associated with them were positively involved. Cell wall composition analysis showed that different polysaccharides including heavily methyl-esterified and fully de-esterified pectins (before maturation, probably in the primary wall), xyloglucans (in the mid-early and middle stages, probably in the secondary wall), and extensin (during the whole developmental period) were detected, which were different from those found in trichomes of Arabidopsis and cotton. Moreover, trichome development was affected by abiotic stress, and might accumulate salt from the mesophyll cells and secrete outside.

CONCLUSIONS: S. ferganica has multicellular, non-branched trichomes that undergo two to three rounds of cell division and are affected by abiotic stress. They have a unique cell wall composition which is different from that of Arabidopsis and cotton. Furthermore, several genes positively or negatively regulate trichome development. Our findings should contribute to our further understanding of the biogenesis and adaptation of plant accessory structures in desert plant species.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Kreider JJ, Janzen T, Bernadou A, et al (2022)

Resource sharing is sufficient for the emergence of division of labour.

Nature communications, 13(1):7232.

Division of labour occurs in a broad range of organisms. Yet, how division of labour can emerge in the absence of pre-existing interindividual differences is poorly understood. Using a simple but realistic model, we show that in a group of initially identical individuals, division of labour emerges spontaneously if returning foragers share part of their resources with other group members. In the absence of resource sharing, individuals follow an activity schedule of alternating between foraging and other tasks. If non-foraging individuals are fed by other individuals, their alternating activity schedule becomes interrupted, leading to task specialisation and the emergence of division of labour. Furthermore, nutritional differences between individuals reinforce division of labour. Such differences can be caused by increased metabolic rates during foraging or by dominance interactions during resource sharing. Our model proposes a plausible mechanism for the self-organised emergence of division of labour in animal groups of initially identical individuals. This mechanism could also play a role for the emergence of division of labour during the major evolutionary transitions to eusociality and multicellularity.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Ojosnegros S, Alvarez JM, Grossmann J, et al (2022)

The Shared Proteome of the Apomictic Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis and Its Sexual Relative Dryopteris oreades.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(22): pii:ijms232214027.

Ferns are a diverse evolutionary lineage, sister to the seed plants, which is of great ecological importance and has a high biotechnological potential. Fern gametophytes represent one of the simplest autotrophic, multicellular plant forms and show several experimental advantages, including a simple and space-efficient in vitro culture system. However, the molecular basis of fern growth and development has hardly been studied. Here, we report on a proteomic study that identified 417 proteins shared by gametophytes of the apogamous fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis and its sexual relative Dryopteris oreades. Most proteins are predicted to localize to the cytoplasm, the chloroplast, or the nucleus, and are linked to enzymatic, binding, and structural activities. A subset of 145 proteins are involved in growth, reproduction, phytohormone signaling and biosynthesis, and gene expression, including homologs of SHEPHERD (SHD), HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90-5 (CR88), TRP4, BOBBER 1 (BOB1), FLAVONE 3'-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (OMT1), ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ABA1), GLUTAMATE DESCARBOXYLASE 1 (GAD), and dsRNA-BINDING DOMAIN-LIKE SUPERFAMILY PROTEIN (HLY1). Nearly 25% of the annotated proteins are associated with responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As for biotic stress, the proteins PROTEIN SGT1 HOMOLOG B (SGT1B), SUPPRESSOR OF SA INSENSITIVE2 (SSI2), PHOSPHOLIPASE D ALPHA 1 (PLDALPHA1), SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE SRK2E (OST1), ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 4 (ACP4), and NONHOST RESISTANCE TO P. S. PHASEOLICOLA1 (GLPK) are worth mentioning. Regarding abiotic stimuli, we found proteins associated with oxidative stress: SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE[CU-ZN] 1 (CSD1), and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U19 (GSTU19), light intensity SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (SHM1) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 35 (UBC35), salt and heavy metal stress included MITOCHONDRIAL PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROTEIN 3 (PHT3;1), as well as drought and thermotolerance: LEA7, DEAD-BOX ATP-DEPENDENT RNA HELICASE 38 (LOS4), and abundant heat-shock proteins and other chaperones. In addition, we identified interactomes using the STRING platform, revealing protein-protein associations obtained from co-expression, co-occurrence, text mining, homology, databases, and experimental datasets. By focusing on ferns, this proteomic study increases our knowledge on plant development and evolution, and may inspire future applications in crop species.

RevDate: 2022-12-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Sowa ST, Bosetti C, Galera-Prat A, et al (2022)

An Evolutionary Perspective on the Origin, Conservation and Binding Partner Acquisition of Tankyrases.

Biomolecules, 12(11):.

Tankyrases are poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases that regulate many crucial and diverse cellular processes in humans such as Wnt signaling, telomere homeostasis, mitotic spindle formation and glucose metabolism. While tankyrases are present in most animals, functional differences across species may exist. In this work, we confirm the widespread distribution of tankyrases throughout the branches of multicellular animal life and identify the single-celled choanoflagellates as earliest origin of tankyrases. We further show that the sequences and structural aspects of TNKSs are well-conserved even between distantly related species. We also experimentally characterized an anciently diverged tankyrase homolog from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and show that the basic functional aspects, such as poly-ADP-ribosylation activity and interaction with the canonical tankyrase binding peptide motif, are conserved. Conversely, the presence of tankyrase binding motifs in orthologs of confirmed interaction partners varies greatly between species, indicating that tankyrases may have different sets of interaction partners depending on the animal lineage. Overall, our analysis suggests a remarkable degree of conservation for tankyrases, and that their regulatory functions in cells have likely changed considerably throughout evolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Pinskey JM, Lagisetty A, Gui L, et al (2022)

Three-dimensional flagella structures from animals' closest unicellular relatives, the Choanoflagellates.

eLife, 11:.

In most eukaryotic organisms, cilia and flagella perform a variety of life-sustaining roles related to environmental sensing and motility. Cryo-electron microscopy has provided considerable insight into the morphology and function of flagellar structures, but studies have been limited to less than a dozen of the millions of known eukaryotic species. Ultrastructural information is particularly lacking for unicellular organisms in the Opisthokonta clade, leaving a sizeable gap in our understanding of flagella evolution between unicellular species and multicellular metazoans (animals). Choanoflagellates are important aquatic heterotrophs, uniquely positioned within the opisthokonts as the metazoans' closest living unicellular relatives. We performed cryo-focused ion beam milling and cryo-electron tomography on flagella from the choanoflagellate species Salpingoeca rosetta. We show that the axonemal dyneins, radial spokes, and central pair complex in S. rosetta more closely resemble metazoan structures than those of unicellular organisms from other suprakingdoms. In addition, we describe unique features of S. rosetta flagella, including microtubule holes, microtubule inner proteins, and the flagellar vane: a fine, net-like extension that has been notoriously difficult to visualize using other methods. Furthermore, we report barb-like structures of unknown function on the extracellular surface of the flagellar membrane. Together, our findings provide new insights into choanoflagellate biology and flagella evolution between unicellular and multicellular opisthokonts.

RevDate: 2022-11-20
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Huang J, Zhao L, Malik S, et al (2022)

Specification of female germline by microRNA orchestrated auxin signaling in Arabidopsis.

Nature communications, 13(1):6960.

Germline determination is essential for species survival and evolution in multicellular organisms. In most flowering plants, formation of the female germline is initiated with specification of one megaspore mother cell (MMC) in each ovule; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this key event remains unclear. Here we report that spatially restricted auxin signaling promotes MMC fate in Arabidopsis. Our results show that the microRNA160 (miR160) targeted gene ARF17 (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17) is required for promoting MMC specification by genetically interacting with the SPL/NZZ (SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE) gene. Alterations of auxin signaling cause formation of supernumerary MMCs in an ARF17- and SPL/NZZ-dependent manner. Furthermore, miR160 and ARF17 are indispensable for attaining a normal auxin maximum at the ovule apex via modulating the expression domain of PIN1 (PIN-FORMED1) auxin transporter. Our findings elucidate the mechanism by which auxin signaling promotes the acquisition of female germline cell fate in plants.

RevDate: 2022-12-04
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Durbagula S, Korlimarla A, Ravikumar G, et al (2022)

Prenatal epigenetic factors are predisposing for neurodevelopmental disorders-Considering placenta as a model.

Birth defects research, 114(20):1324-1342.

The heterogeneous characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) have resulted in varied perspectives on their causation. The biology behind the phenotypic heterogeneity in NDDs is not yet well-defined, but a strong genetic basis has become well accepted as causal for NDDs. Alongside this, there is growing focus on epigenetic mechanisms. The evidence mounting for in-utero origins of NDDs has promoted research focused on epigenetic mechanisms that impact genes that program early brain development. Considering that placenta is a vital organ, this review emphasizes the prenatal factors and their effects on epigenetic changes influencing the normal functioning of the placenta, and factors mediating pathology in the developing fetus. Overall, it is an attempt to bring focus on the hypothesis that "Prenatal epigenetic factors in the placenta could be predisposing to NDDs (with special interest on autism spectrum disorders)." This review finds growing evidence for epigenetic modifications in the placenta that affect glucocorticoid, nutrient, and immune signaling pathways, eventually impacting fetal brain development. This evidence largely comes from animal models. Given the multicellular nature of placenta, we conclude that, there is a need for placental research focused on employing single-cell approaches and genome-wide methylation profiles to bring insights into specific molecular pathways in the placenta that regulate early brain development.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Peterson AF, Ingram K, Huang EJ, et al (2022)

Systematic analysis of the MAPK signaling network reveals MAP3K-driven control of cell fate.

Cell systems, 13(11):885-894.e4.

The classic network of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is highly interconnected and controls a diverse array of biological processes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the MAPKs ERK, JNK, and p38 control opposing cell behaviors but are often activated simultaneously, raising questions about how input-output specificity is achieved. Here, we use multiplexed MAPK activity biosensors to investigate how cell fate control emerges from the connectivity and dynamics of the MAPK network. Through chemical and genetic perturbation, we systematically explore the outputs and functions of all the MAP3 kinases encoded in the human genome and show that MAP3Ks control cell fate by triggering unique combinations of MAPK activity. We show that these MAPK activity combinations explain the paradoxical dual role of JNK signaling as pro-apoptotic or pro-proliferative kinase. Overall, our integrative analysis indicates that the MAPK network operates as a unit to control cell fate and shifts the focus from MAPKs to MAP3Ks to better understand signaling-mediated control of cell fate.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Oda AH, Tamura M, Kaneko K, et al (2022)

Autotoxin-mediated latecomer killing in yeast communities.

PLoS biology, 20(11):e3001844.

Cellular adaptation to stressful environments such as starvation is essential to the survival of microbial communities, but the uniform response of the cell community may lead to entire cell death or severe damage to their fitness. Here, we demonstrate an elaborate response of the yeast community against glucose depletion, in which the first adapted cells kill the latecomer cells. During glucose depletion, yeast cells release autotoxins, such as leucic acid and L-2keto-3methylvalerate, which can even kill the clonal cells of the ones producing them. Although these autotoxins were likely to induce mass suicide, some cells differentiated to adapt to the autotoxins without genetic changes. If nondifferentiated latecomers tried to invade the habitat, autotoxins damaged or killed the latecomers, but the differentiated cells could selectively survive. Phylogenetically distant fission and budding yeast shared this behavior using the same autotoxins, suggesting that latecomer killing may be the universal system of intercellular communication, which may be relevant to the evolutional transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Alvarez FE, Carrillo JA, J Clairambault (2022)

Evolution of a structured cell population endowed with plasticity of traits under constraints on and between the traits.

Journal of mathematical biology, 85(6-7):64.

Confronted with the biological problem of managing plasticity in cell populations, which is in particular responsible for transient and reversible drug resistance in cancer, we propose a rationale consisting of an integro-differential and a reaction-advection-diffusion equation, the properties of which are studied theoretically and numerically. By using a constructive finite volume method, we show the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution and illustrate by numerical approximations and their simulations the capacity of the model to exhibit divergence of traits. This feature may be theoretically interpreted as describing a physiological step towards multicellularity in animal evolution and, closer to present-day clinical challenges in oncology, as a possible representation of bet hedging in cancer cell populations.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Banijamali M, Höjer P, Nagy A, et al (2022)

Characterizing single extracellular vesicles by droplet barcode sequencing for protein analysis.

Journal of extracellular vesicles, 11(11):e12277.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have in recent years evolved as a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutic follow up. sEV samples derived from multicellular organisms exhibit a high heterogeneous repertoire of vesicles which current methods based on ensemble measurements cannot capture. In this work we present droplet barcode sequencing for protein analysis (DBS-Pro) to profile surface proteins on individual sEVs, facilitating identification of sEV-subtypes within and between samples. The method allows for analysis of multiple proteins through use of DNA barcoded affinity reagents and sequencing as readout. High throughput single vesicle profiling is enabled through compartmentalization of individual sEVs in emulsion droplets followed by droplet barcoding through PCR. In this proof-of-concept study we demonstrate that DBS-Pro allows for analysis of single sEVs, with a mixing rate below 2%. A total of over 120,000 individual sEVs obtained from a NSCLC cell line and from malignant pleural effusion (MPE) fluid of NSCLC patients have been analyzed based on their surface proteins. We also show that the method enables single vesicle surface protein profiling and by extension characterization of sEV-subtypes, which is essential to identify the cellular origin of vesicles in heterogenous samples.

RevDate: 2022-10-27
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Keller J, PM Delaux (2022)

Plant phylogenetics: The never-ending cycle of evolutionary gains and losses.

Current biology : CB, 32(20):R1028-R1029.

The Zygnematophyceae is the sister clade to the land plants, but their biology remains mysterious. In a new study, a resolved phylogeny and a scenario for the evolution of multicellularity in that clade are proposed.

RevDate: 2022-10-25
CmpDate: 2022-10-24

Whye D, Wood D, Kim KH, et al (2022)

Dynamic 3D Combinatorial Generation of hPSC-Derived Neuromesodermal Organoids With Diverse Regional and Cellular Identities.

Current protocols, 2(10):e568.

Neuromesodermal progenitors represent a unique, bipotent population of progenitors residing in the tail bud of the developing embryo, which give rise to the caudal spinal cord cell types of neuroectodermal lineage as well as the adjacent paraxial somite cell types of mesodermal origin. With the advent of stem cell technologies, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the modeling of rare genetic disorders can be accomplished in vitro to interrogate cell-type specific pathological mechanisms in human patient conditions. Stem cell-derived models of neuromesodermal progenitors have been accomplished by several developmental biology groups; however, most employ a 2D monolayer format that does not fully reflect the complexity of cellular differentiation in the developing embryo. This article presents a dynamic 3D combinatorial method to generate robust populations of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neuromesodermal organoids with multi-cellular fates and regional identities. By utilizing a dynamic 3D suspension format for the differentiation process, the organoids differentiated by following this protocol display a hallmark of embryonic development that involves a morphological elongation known as axial extension. Furthermore, by employing a combinatorial screening assay, we dissect essential pathways for optimally directing the patterning of pluripotent stem cells into neuromesodermal organoids. This protocol highlights the influence of timing, duration, and concentration of WNT and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways on enhancing early neuromesodermal identity, and later, downstream cell fate specification through combined synergies of retinoid signaling and sonic hedgehog activation. Finally, through robust inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, this protocol accelerates the acquisition of terminal cell identities. This enhanced organoid model can serve as a powerful tool for studying normal developmental processes as well as investigating complex neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neural tube defects. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Robust generation of 3D hPSC-derived spheroid populations in dynamic motion settings Support Protocol 1: Pluronic F-127 reagent preparation and coating to generate low-attachment suspension culture dishes Basic Protocol 2: Enhanced specification of hPSCs into NMP organoids Support Protocol 2: Combinatorial pathway assay for NMP organoid protocol optimization Basic Protocol 3: Differentiation of NMP organoids along diverse cellular trajectories and accelerated terminal fate specification into neurons, neural crest, and sclerotome derivatives.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Bano N, Aalam S, SK Bag (2022)

Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) transcription factor in different regulatory mechanism in plants: a review.

Plant molecular biology, 110(6):455-468.

Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) transcription factors are found in single-celled to multi-cellular eukaryotes in the form of large multigene families. TLPs are identified through a specific signature of carboxyl terminal tubby domain, required for plasma membrane tethering and amino terminal F-box domain communicate as functional SCF-type E3 ligases. The comprehensive distribution of TLP gene family members in diverse species indicates some conserved functions of TLPs in multicellular organisms. Plant TLPs have higher gene members than animals and these members reported important role in multiple physiological and developmental processes and various environmental stress responses. Although the TLPs are suggested to be a putative transcription factors but their functional mechanism is not much clear. This review provides significant recent updates on TLP-mediated regulation with an insight into its functional roles, origin and evolution and also phytohormones related regulation to combat with various stresses and its involvement in adaptive stress response in crop plants.

RevDate: 2022-11-03
CmpDate: 2022-10-19

Günther M, Reimer C, Herbst R, et al (2022)

Yellow polyketide pigment suppresses premature hatching in social amoeba.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(43):e2116122119.

Low-molecular-weight natural products from microbes are indispensable in the development of potent drugs. However, their biological roles within an ecological context often remain elusive. Here, we shed light on natural products from eukaryotic microorganisms that have the ability to transition from single cells to multicellular organisms: the social amoebae. These eukaryotes harbor a large number of polyketide biosynthetic genes in their genomes, yet virtually none of the corresponding products can be isolated or characterized. Using complementary molecular biology approaches, including CRISPR-Cas9, we generated polyketide synthase (pks5) inactivation and overproduction strains of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Differential, untargeted metabolomics of wild-type versus mutant fruiting bodies allowed us to pinpoint candidate metabolites derived from the amoebal PKS5. Extrachromosomal expression of the respective gene led to the identification of a yellow polyunsaturated fatty acid. Analysis of the temporospatial production pattern of this compound in conjunction with detailed bioactivity studies revealed the polyketide to be a spore germination suppressor.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Kumar P, Kumar P, Mandal D, et al (2022)

The emerging role of Deubiquitinases (DUBs) in parasites: A foresight review.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:985178.

Before the discovery of the proteasome complex, the lysosomes with acidic proteases and caspases in apoptotic pathways were thought to be the only pathways for the degradation of damaged, unfolded, and aged proteins. However, the discovery of 26S and 20S proteasome complexes in eukaryotes and microbes, respectively, established that the degradation of most proteins is a highly regulated ATP-dependent pathway that is significantly conserved across each domain of life. The proteasome is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), where the covalent tagging of a small molecule called ubiquitin (Ub) on the proteins marks its proteasomal degradation. The type and chain length of ubiquitination further determine whether a protein is designated for further roles in multi-cellular processes like DNA repair, trafficking, signal transduction, etc., or whether it will be degraded by the proteasome to recycle the peptides and amino acids. Deubiquitination, on the contrary, is the removal of ubiquitin from its substrate molecule or the conversion of polyubiquitin chains into monoubiquitin as a precursor to ubiquitin. Therefore, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) can maintain the dynamic state of cellular ubiquitination by releasing conjugated ubiquitin from proteins and controlling many cellular pathways that are essential for their survival. Many DUBs are well characterized in the human system with potential drug targets in different cancers. Although, proteasome complex and UPS of parasites, like plasmodium and leishmania, were recently coined as multi-stage drug targets the role of DUBs is completely unexplored even though structural domains and functions of many of these parasite DUBs are conserved having high similarity even with its eukaryotic counterpart. This review summarizes the identification & characterization of different parasite DUBs based on in silico and a few functional studies among different phylogenetic classes of parasites including Metazoan (Schistosoma, Trichinella), Apicomplexan protozoans (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium), Kinetoplastidie (Leishmania, Trypanosoma) and Microsporidia (Nosema). The identification of different homologs of parasite DUBs with structurally similar domains with eukaryotes, and the role of these DUBs alone or in combination with the 20S proteosome complex in regulating the parasite survival/death is further elaborated. We propose that small molecules/inhibitors of human DUBs can be potential antiparasitic agents due to their significant structural conservation.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Vinogradov AE, OV Anatskaya (2022)

Cellular Biogenetic Law and Its Distortion by Protein Interactions: A Possible Unified Framework for Cancer Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19):.

The biogenetic law (recapitulation law) states that ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis. However, this law can be distorted by the modification of development. We showed the recapitulation of phylogenesis during the differentiation of various cell types, using a meta-analysis of human single-cell transcriptomes, with the control for cell cycle activity and the improved phylostratigraphy (gene dating). The multipotent progenitors, differentiated from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC), showed the downregulation of unicellular (UC) genes and the upregulation of multicellular (MC) genes, but only in the case of those originating up to the Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates). This picture strikingly resembles the evolutionary profile of regulatory gene expansion due to gene duplication in the human genome. The recapitulation of phylogenesis in the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) during their differentiation resembles the ESC pattern. The unipotent erythroblasts differentiating into erythrocytes showed the downregulation of UC genes and the upregulation of MC genes originating after the Euteleostomi. The MC interactome neighborhood of a protein encoded by a UC gene reverses the gene expression pattern. The functional analysis showed that the evolved environment of the UC proteins is typical for protein modifiers and signaling-related proteins. Besides a fundamental aspect, this approach can provide a unified framework for cancer biology and regenerative/rejuvenation medicine because oncogenesis can be defined as an atavistic reversal to a UC state, while regeneration and rejuvenation require an ontogenetic reversal.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Silva VSD, CR Machado (2022)

Sex in protists: A new perspective on the reproduction mechanisms of trypanosomatids.

Genetics and molecular biology, 45(3):e20220065.

The Protist kingdom individuals are the most ancestral representatives of eukaryotes. They have inhabited Earth since ancient times and are currently found in the most diverse environments presenting a great heterogeneity of life forms. The unicellular and multicellular algae, photosynthetic and heterotrophic organisms, as well as free-living and pathogenic protozoa represents the protist group. The evolution of sex is directly associated with the origin of eukaryotes being protists the earliest protagonists of sexual reproduction on earth. In eukaryotes, the recombination through genetic exchange is a ubiquitous mechanism that can be stimulated by DNA damage. Scientific evidences support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced DNA damage can promote sexual recombination in eukaryotes which might have been a decisive factor for the origin of sex. The fact that some recombination enzymes also participate in meiotic sex in modern eukaryotes reinforces the idea that sexual reproduction emerged as consequence of specific mechanisms to cope with mutations and alterations in genetic material. In this review we will discuss about origin of sex and different strategies of evolve sexual reproduction in some protists such that cause human diseases like malaria, toxoplasmosis, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Wang P, Chen C, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Tumor inhibition via magneto-mechanical oscillation by magnetotactic bacteria under a swing MF.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 351:941-953.

Since magnetic micro/nano-materials can serve as multifunctional transducers for remote control of cell functions by applying diverse magnetic fields, magnetic cell manipulation provides a highly promising tool in biomedical research encompassing neuromodulation, tissue regeneration engineering and tumor cell destruction. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which contain natural magnetic materials, can sensitively respond to external magnetic fields via their endogenous magnetosome chains. Here, we developed a technique for magnetotactic bacteria-based cell modulation and tumor suppression combined with a swing magnetic field. We enabled MTB cells to recognize and bind to mammalian tumor cells via functional modification with RGD peptides onto the surfaces of MTB cells, and RGD-modified MTB bacteria could interact with the targeted tumor cells effectively. The magnetic torque, which was due to the interaction of the long magnetosome chain inside the MTB bacterial cell and the applied swing magnetic field, could result in obvious swing magnetic behaviors of the modified MTB bacteria bound to tumor cell surfaces and thus subsequently exert a sustained magnetomechanical oscillation on the tumor cell surfaces, which could induce a significant activation of Ca[2+] ion influx in vitro and tumor growth inhibition in vivo. These findings suggest that MTB cells mediated magnetomechanical stimulation, which is remotely controlled by dynamic magnetic fields, as an effective way to regulate cell signaling and treat tumor growth, which will shed the light on further biomedical applications utilizing whole magnetotactic bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-01

Grunt TW, P Valent (2022)

Cancer - A devastating disease, but also an eye-opener and window into the deep mysteries of life and its origins.

Progress in biophysics and molecular biology, 175:131-139.

Although cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide, basic research has largely elucidated the underlying mechanisms that lead us deep into the laws of animate and inanimate nature. This review aims to demonstrate that the cancer process profoundly affects and reprograms fundamental principles and concepts of cellular life by harnessing the natural mechanisms of biological evolution. It is shown that mutation and selection - the drivers of cancer formation and progression - are mandatory consequences of Boltzmann's version of the second law of thermodynamics, which stipulates that entropy (or disorder) according to probability never decreases, followed by Darwinian evolution by filtering for the suitable geno- and karyotypes. Cancer research has shown that malignant cells can develop gradually or abruptly depending on the prevailing stress conditions. Similar principles were then observed in the evolution of species, referred to as micro- and macroevolution. Cancer cells can be related to phylogenetically older forms of life, and malignant transformation can be viewed as reverse (atavistic) evolution, accompanied by typical rearrangement of system information and loss of 'social' behavior. It becomes obvious that in nature no distinction is made between normal biology and pathobiology. Instead, everything follows the rules of natural evolution. This illustrates the depth of the cancer problem and may explain the serious difficulties faced in trying to eradicate cancer.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-06

Gauthier AE, Rotjan RD, JC Kagan (2022)

Lipopolysaccharide detection by the innate immune system may be an uncommon defence strategy used in nature.

Open biology, 12(10):220146.

Since the publication of the Janeway's Pattern Recognition hypothesis in 1989, study of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and their immuno-stimulatory activities has accelerated. Most studies in this area have been conducted in model organisms, which leaves many open questions about the universality of PAMP biology across living systems. Mammals have evolved multiple proteins that operate as receptors for the PAMP lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, but LPS is not immuno-stimulatory in all eukaryotes. In this review, we examine the history of LPS as a PAMP in mammals, recent data on LPS structure and its ability to activate mammalian innate immune receptors, and how these activities compare across commonly studied eukaryotes. We discuss why LPS may have evolved to be immuno-stimulatory in some eukaryotes but not others and propose two hypotheses about the evolution of PAMP structure based on the ecology and environmental context of the organism in question. Understanding PAMP structures and stimulatory mechanisms across multi-cellular life will provide insights into the evolutionary origins of innate immunity and may lead to the discovery of new PAMP variations of scientific and therapeutic interest.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Turishcheva E, Vildanova M, Onishchenko G, et al (2022)

The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Differentiation of Cells of Mesenchymal Origin.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(9):916-931.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional membrane-enclosed organelle. One of the major ER functions is cotranslational transport and processing of secretory, lysosomal, and transmembrane proteins. Impaired protein processing caused by disturbances in the ER homeostasis results in the ER stress. Restoration of normal ER functioning requires activation of an adaptive mechanism involving cell response to misfolded proteins, the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Besides controlling protein folding, UPR plays a key role in other physiological processes, in particular, differentiation of cells of connective, muscle, epithelial, and neural tissues. Cell differentiation is induced by the physiological levels of ER stress, while excessive ER stress suppresses differentiation and can result in cell death. So far, it remains unknown whether UPR activation induces cell differentiation or if UPR is initiated by the upregulated synthesis of secretory proteins during cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is an important stage in the development of multicellular organisms and is tightly controlled. Suppression or excessive activation of this process can lead to the development of various pathologies in an organism. In particular, impairments in the differentiation of connective tissue cells can result in the development of fibrosis, obesity, and osteoporosis. Recently, special attention has been paid to fibrosis as one of the major complications of COVID-19. Therefore, studying the role of UPR in the activation of cell differentiation is of both theoretical and practical interest, as it might result in the identification of molecular targets for selective regulation of cell differentiation stages and as well as the potential to modulate the mechanisms involved in the development of various pathological states.

RevDate: 2022-09-30
CmpDate: 2022-09-23

Chai S, Aria C, H Hua (2022)

A stem group Codium alga from the latest Ediacaran of South China provides taxonomic insight into the early diversification of the plant kingdom.

BMC biology, 20(1):199.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, Precambrian lifeforms have generated an ever-increasing interest because they revealed a rich eukaryotic diversity prior to the Cambrian explosion of modern animals. Among them, macroalgae are known to be a conspicuous component of Neoproterozoic ecosystems, and chlorophytes in particular are already documented in the Tonian, when they were so far expected to originate. However, like for other major eukaryotic lineages, and despite predictions of molecular clock analyses placing roots of these lineages well into the Neoproterozoic, a taxonomic constraint on Precambrian green algae has remained difficult.

RESULTS: Here, we present an exceptionally preserved spherical, coenocytic unicellular alga from the latest Ediacaran Dengying Formation of South China (> ca. 541 Ma), known from both external and internal morphology, fully tridimensional and in great detail. Tomographic X-ray and electronic microscopy revealed a characteristic medulla made of intertwined siphons and tightly packed peripheral utricles, suggesting these fossils belong to the Bryopsidales genus Codium. However, its distinctly smaller size compared to extant species leads us to create Protocodium sinense gen. et sp. nov. and a phylomorphospace investigation points to a possible stem group affinity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding has several important implications. First, Protocodium allows for a more precise calibration of Archaeplastida and directly confirms that a group as derived as Ulvophyceae was already well diversified in various ecosystems prior to the Cambrian explosion. Details of tridimensional morphology also invite a reassessment of the identification of other Ediacaran algae, such as Chuaria, to better discriminate mono-versus multicellularity, and suggest unicellular Codium-like morphotypes could be much older and widespread. More broadly, Protocodium provides insights into the early diversification of the plant kingdom, the composition of Precambrian ecosystems, and the extreme longevity of certain eukaryotic plans of organization.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

La Fortezza M, Rendueles O, Keller H, et al (2022)

Hidden paths to endless forms most wonderful: ecology latently shapes evolution of multicellular development in predatory bacteria.

Communications biology, 5(1):977.

Ecological causes of developmental evolution, for example from predation, remain much investigated, but the potential importance of latent phenotypes in eco-evo-devo has received little attention. Using the predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, which undergoes aggregative fruiting body development upon starvation, we tested whether adaptation to distinct growth environments that do not induce development latently alters developmental phenotypes under starvation conditions that do induce development. In an evolution experiment named MyxoEE-3, growing M. xanthus populations swarmed across agar surfaces while adapting to conditions varying at factors such as surface stiffness or prey identity. Such ecological variation during growth was found to greatly impact the latent evolution of development, including fruiting body morphology, the degree of morphological trait correlation, reaction norms, degrees of developmental plasticity and stochastic diversification. For example, some prey environments promoted retention of developmental proficiency whereas others led to its systematic loss. Our results have implications for understanding evolutionary interactions among predation, development and motility in myxobacterial life cycles, and, more broadly, how ecology can profoundly shape the evolution of developmental systems latently rather than by direct selection on developmental features.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Xie Q, Xiong C, Yang Q, et al (2022)

A novel regulatory complex mediated by Lanata (Ln) controls multicellular trichome formation in tomato.

The New phytologist, 236(6):2294-2310.

Trichomes that originate from plant aerial epidermis act as mechanical and chemical barriers against herbivores. Although several regulators have recently been identified, the regulatory pathway underlying multicellular trichome formation remains largely unknown in tomato. Here, we report a novel HD-ZIP IV transcription factor, Lanata (Ln), a missense mutation which caused the hairy phenotype. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that Ln separately interacts with two trichome regulators, Woolly (Wo) and Hair (H). Genetic and molecular evidence demonstrates that Ln directly regulates the expression of H. The interaction between Ln and Wo can increase trichome density by enhancing the expression of SlCycB2 and SlCycB3, which we previously showed are involved in tomato trichome formation. Furthermore, SlCycB2 represses the transactivation of the SlCycB3 gene by Ln and vice versa. Our findings provide new insights into the novel regulatory network controlling multicellular trichome formation in tomato.

RevDate: 2022-09-19
CmpDate: 2022-09-15

Ress V, Traulsen A, Y Pichugin (2022)

Eco-evolutionary dynamics of clonal multicellular life cycles.

eLife, 11:.

The evolution of multicellular life cycles is a central process in the course of the emergence of multicellularity. The simplest multicellular life cycle is comprised of the growth of the propagule into a colony and its fragmentation to give rise to new propagules. The majority of theoretical models assume selection among life cycles to be driven by internal properties of multicellular groups, resulting in growth competition. At the same time, the influence of interactions between groups on the evolution of life cycles is rarely even considered. Here, we present a model of colonial life cycle evolution taking into account group interactions. Our work shows that the outcome of evolution could be coexistence between multiple life cycles or that the outcome may depend on the initial state of the population - scenarios impossible without group interactions. At the same time, we found that some results of these simpler models remain relevant: evolutionary stable strategies in our model are restricted to binary fragmentation - the same class of life cycles that contains all evolutionarily optimal life cycles in the model without interactions. Our results demonstrate that while models neglecting interactions can capture short-term dynamics, they fall short in predicting the population-scale picture of evolution.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Noh S, Capodanno BJ, Xu S, et al (2022)

Reduced and Nonreduced Genomes in Paraburkholderia Symbionts of Social Amoebas.

mSystems, 7(5):e0056222.

The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a predatory soil protist frequently used for studying host-pathogen interactions. A subset of D. discoideum strains isolated from soil persistently carry symbiotic Paraburkholderia, recently formally described as P. agricolaris, P. bonniea, and P. hayleyella. The three facultative symbiont species of D. discoideum present a unique opportunity to study a naturally occurring symbiosis in a laboratory model protist. There is a large difference in genome size between P. agricolaris (8.7 million base pairs [Mbp]) versus P. hayleyella and P. bonniea (4.1 Mbp). We took a comparative genomics approach and compared the three genomes of D. discoideum symbionts to 12 additional Paraburkholderia genomes to test for genome evolution patterns that frequently accompany host adaptation. Overall, P. agricolaris is difficult to distinguish from other Paraburkholderia based on its genome size and content, but the reduced genomes of P. bonniea and P. hayleyella display characteristics indicative of genome streamlining rather than deterioration during adaptation to their protist hosts. In addition, D. discoideum-symbiont genomes have increased secretion system and motility genes that may mediate interactions with their host. Specifically, adjacent BurBor-like type 3 and T6SS-5-like type 6 secretion system operons shared among all three D. discoideum-symbiont genomes may be important for host interaction. Horizontal transfer of these secretion system operons within the amoeba host environment may have contributed to the unique ability of these symbionts to establish and maintain a symbiotic relationship with D. discoideum. IMPORTANCE Protists are a diverse group of typically single cell eukaryotes. Bacteria and archaea that form long-term symbiotic relationships with protists may evolve in additional ways than those in relationships with multicellular eukaryotes such as plants, animals, or fungi. Social amoebas are a predatory soil protist sometimes found with symbiotic bacteria living inside their cells. They present a unique opportunity to explore a naturally occurring symbiosis in a protist frequently used for studying host-pathogen interactions. We show that one amoeba-symbiont species is similar to other related bacteria in genome size and content, while the two reduced-genome-symbiont species show characteristics of genome streamlining rather than deterioration during adaptation to their host. We also identify sets of genes present in all three amoeba-symbiont genomes that are potentially used for host-symbiont interactions. Because the amoeba symbionts are distantly related, the amoeba host environment may be where these genes were shared among symbionts.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Anatskaya OV, AE Vinogradov (2022)

Polyploidy and Myc Proto-Oncogenes Promote Stress Adaptation via Epigenetic Plasticity and Gene Regulatory Network Rewiring.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17):.

Polyploid cells demonstrate biological plasticity and stress adaptation in evolution; development; and pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, and cancer. The nature of ploidy-related advantages is still not completely understood. Here, we summarize the literature on molecular mechanisms underlying ploidy-related adaptive features. Polyploidy can regulate gene expression via chromatin opening, reawakening ancient evolutionary programs of embryonality. Chromatin opening switches on genes with bivalent chromatin domains that promote adaptation via rapid induction in response to signals of stress or morphogenesis. Therefore, stress-associated polyploidy can activate Myc proto-oncogenes, which further promote chromatin opening. Moreover, Myc proto-oncogenes can trigger polyploidization de novo and accelerate genome accumulation in already polyploid cells. As a result of these cooperative effects, polyploidy can increase the ability of cells to search for adaptive states of cellular programs through gene regulatory network rewiring. This ability is manifested in epigenetic plasticity associated with traits of stemness, unicellularity, flexible energy metabolism, and a complex system of DNA damage protection, combining primitive error-prone unicellular repair pathways, advanced error-free multicellular repair pathways, and DNA damage-buffering ability. These three features can be considered important components of the increased adaptability of polyploid cells. The evidence presented here contribute to the understanding of the nature of stress resistance associated with ploidy and may be useful in the development of new methods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and oncological diseases.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Burzacka-Hinz A, Narajczyk M, Dudek M, et al (2022)

Micromorphology of Labellum in Selected Dendrobium Sw. (Orchidaceae, Dendrobieae).

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17):.

Dendrobium is one of the most species-rich genera of the Paleotropical orchids. It embraces more than 1000 species, most of which are epiphytes. The strong variation in floral characters causes many identification difficulties within this genus. One of the key structures, often sufficient in identification on a species level, is the labellum, which in many species of Dendrobium possesses a thickened callus and various types of trichomes and papillae. The aim of this study is to identify and describe the structures present on the labellum surface of the analyzed species, determine their distribution and density, as well as to check whether the obtained data have taxonomic value. In this paper, we present the results of a micromorphological study on the labellum of 21 species of Dendrobium, representing 13 sections, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our studies revealed the presence of both uni- and multicellular structures on the surface of the labellum. We observed three types of trichomes (conical, cylindrical, ellipsoidal) and three types of papillae (conical, cylindrical, semicircular). Neither trichomes nor papillae were recorded for five species. In addition, we made diagrams showing the distribution and density of structures on the labellum. Based on the micromorphological results combined with the phylogenetic tree performed, we suggest that the presence/absence of labellum structures does not necessarily reflect the phylogenetic relationship and might be misleading, as in some cases, they arise due to convergence.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Hess S, Williams SK, Busch A, et al (2022)

A phylogenomically informed five-order system for the closest relatives of land plants.

Current biology : CB, 32(20):4473-4482.e7.

The evolution of streptophytes had a profound impact on life on Earth. They brought forth those photosynthetic eukaryotes that today dominate the macroscopic flora: the land plants (Embryophyta).[1] There is convincing evidence that the unicellular/filamentous Zygnematophyceae-and not the morphologically more elaborate Coleochaetophyceae or Charophyceae-are the closest algal relatives of land plants.[2-6] Despite the species richness (>4,000), wide distribution, and key evolutionary position of the zygnematophytes, their internal phylogeny remains largely unresolved.[7,8] There are also putative zygnematophytes with interesting body plan modifications (e.g., filamentous growth) whose phylogenetic affiliations remain unknown. Here, we studied a filamentous green alga (strain MZCH580) from an Austrian peat bog with central or parietal chloroplasts that lack discernible pyrenoids. It represents Mougeotiopsis calospora PALLA, an enigmatic alga that was described more than 120 years ago[9] but never subjected to molecular analyses. We generated transcriptomic data of M. calospora strain MZCH580 and conducted comprehensive phylogenomic analyses (326 nuclear loci) for 46 taxonomically diverse zygnematophytes. Strain MZCH580 falls in a deep-branching zygnematophycean clade together with some unicellular species and thus represents a formerly unknown zygnematophycean lineage with filamentous growth. Our well-supported phylogenomic tree lets us propose a new five-order system for the Zygnematophyceae and provides evidence for at least five independent origins of true filamentous growth in the closest algal relatives of land plants. This phylogeny provides a robust and comprehensive framework for performing comparative analyses and inferring the evolution of cellular traits and body plans in the closest relatives of land plants.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-11-30

Michla M, C Wilhelm (2022)

Food for thought - ILC metabolism in the context of helminth infections.

Mucosal immunology, 15(6):1234-1242.

Helminths are multicellular ancient organisms residing as parasites at mucosal surfaces of their host. Through adaptation and co-evolution with their hosts, helminths have been able to develop tolerance mechanisms to limit inflammation and avoid expulsion. The study of helminth infections as an integral part of tissue immunology allowed us to understand fundamental aspects of mucosal and barrier immunology, which led to the discovery of a new group of tissue-resident immune cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), over a decade ago. Here, we review the intricate interplay between helminth infections and type 2 ILC (ILC2) biology, discuss the host metabolic adaptation to helminth infections and the metabolic pathways fueling ILC2 responses. We hypothesize that nutrient competition between host and helminths may have prevented chronic inflammation in the past and argue that a detailed understanding of the metabolic restraints imposed by helminth infections may offer new therapeutic avenues in the future.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Senthilkumar I, Howley E, E McEvoy (2022)

Thermodynamically-motivated chemo-mechanical models and multicellular simulation to provide new insight into active cell and tumour remodelling.

Experimental cell research, 419(2):113317.

Computational models can shape our understanding of cell and tissue remodelling, from cell spreading, to active force generation, adhesion, and growth. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in modelling of chemo-mechanical cell behaviour and the evolution of multicellular systems. In particular, we highlight recent advances in (i) free-energy based single cell models that can provide new fundamental insight into cell spreading, cancer cell invasion, stem cell differentiation, and remodelling in disease, and (ii) mechanical agent-based models to simulate large numbers of discrete interacting cells in proliferative tumours. We describe how new biological understanding has emerged from such theoretical models, and the trade-offs and constraints associated with current approaches. Ultimately, we aim to make a case for why theory should be integrated with an experimental workflow to optimise new in-vitro studies, to predict feedback between cells and their microenvironment, and to deepen understanding of active cell behaviour.

RevDate: 2022-09-15
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

Le NG, van Ulsen P, van Spanning R, et al (2022)

A Functional Carbohydrate Degrading Enzyme Potentially Acquired by Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Genome of the Soil Invertebrate Folsomia candida.

Genes, 13(8):.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is defined as the acquisition by an organism of hereditary material from a phylogenetically unrelated organism. This process is mostly observed among bacteria and archaea, and considered less likely between microbes and multicellular eukaryotes. However, recent studies provide compelling evidence of the evolutionary importance of HGT in eukaryotes, driving functional innovation. Here, we study an HGT event in Folsomia candida (Collembola, Hexapoda) of a carbohydrate-active enzyme homologous to glycosyl hydrase group 43 (GH43). The gene encodes an N-terminal signal peptide, targeting the product for excretion, which suggests that it contributes to the diversity of digestive capacities of the detritivore host. The predicted α-L-arabinofuranosidase shows high similarity to genes in two other Collembola, an insect and a tardigrade. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using a cell-free protein expression system. The expressed protein showed activity against p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside. Our work provides evidence for functional activity of an HGT gene in a soil-living detritivore, most likely from a bacterial donor, with genuine eukaryotic properties, such as a signal peptide. Co-evolution of metazoan GH43 genes with the Panarthropoda phylogeny suggests the HGT event took place early in the evolution of this ecdysozoan lineage.

RevDate: 2022-11-01
CmpDate: 2022-09-23

Ocaña-Pallarès E, Williams TA, López-Escardó D, et al (2022)

Divergent genomic trajectories predate the origin of animals and fungi.

Nature, 609(7928):747-753.

Animals and fungi have radically distinct morphologies, yet both evolved within the same eukaryotic supergroup: Opisthokonta[1,2]. Here we reconstructed the trajectory of genetic changes that accompanied the origin of Metazoa and Fungi since the divergence of Opisthokonta with a dataset that includes four novel genomes from crucial positions in the Opisthokonta phylogeny. We show that animals arose only after the accumulation of genes functionally important for their multicellularity, a tendency that began in the pre-metazoan ancestors and later accelerated in the metazoan root. By contrast, the pre-fungal ancestors experienced net losses of most functional categories, including those gained in the path to Metazoa. On a broad-scale functional level, fungal genomes contain a higher proportion of metabolic genes and diverged less from the last common ancestor of Opisthokonta than did the gene repertoires of Metazoa. Metazoa and Fungi also show differences regarding gene gain mechanisms. Gene fusions are more prevalent in Metazoa, whereas a larger fraction of gene gains were detected as horizontal gene transfers in Fungi and protists, in agreement with the long-standing idea that transfers would be less relevant in Metazoa due to germline isolation[3-5]. Together, our results indicate that animals and fungi evolved under two contrasting trajectories of genetic change that predated the origin of both groups. The gradual establishment of two clearly differentiated genomic contexts thus set the stage for the emergence of Metazoa and Fungi.

RevDate: 2022-08-26
CmpDate: 2022-08-26

Shi B, Huang X, Fu X, et al (2022)

[Advances in the plant multicellular network analysis].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 38(8):2798-2810.

Multicellular network analysis is a method for topological properties analysis of cells. The functions of organs are determined by their inner cells. The arrangement of cells within organs endows higher-order functionality through a structure-function relationship, though the organizational properties of these multicellular configurations remain poorly understood. Multicellular network analysis with multicellular models established by 3D scanning of plants, will further discover the plant development mechanism, and provide clues for synthesizing plant multicellular systems. In this paper, we review the development of multicellular models, summarize the process of multicellular network analysis, and describe the development and application of multicellular network analysis in plants. In addition, this review also provides perspective on future development of plant multicellular network analysis.

RevDate: 2022-08-31
CmpDate: 2022-08-25

Gahan JM, Leclère L, Hernandez-Valladares M, et al (2022)

A developmental role for the chromatin-regulating CoREST complex in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.

BMC biology, 20(1):184.

BACKGROUND: Chromatin-modifying proteins are key players in the regulation of development and cell differentiation in animals. Most chromatin modifiers, however, predate the evolution of animal multicellularity, and how they gained new functions and became integrated into the regulatory networks underlying development is unclear. One way this may occur is the evolution of new scaffolding proteins that integrate multiple chromatin regulators into larger complexes that facilitate coordinated deposition or removal of different chromatin modifications. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the evolution of the CoREST-Lsd1-HDAC complex.

RESULTS: Using phylogenetic analyses, we show that a bona fide CoREST homolog is found only in choanoflagellates and animals. We then use the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model for early branching metazoans and identify a conserved CoREST complex by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of an endogenously tagged Lsd1 allele. In addition to CoREST, Lsd1 and HDAC1/2 this complex contains homologs of HMG20A/B and PHF21A, two subunits that have previously only been identified in mammalian CoREST complexes. NvCoREST expression overlaps fully with that of NvLsd1 throughout development, with higher levels in differentiated neural cells. NvCoREST mutants, generated using CRISPR-Cas9, fail to develop beyond the primary polyp stage, thereby revealing essential roles during development and for the differentiation of cnidocytes that phenocopy NvLsd1 mutants. We also show that this requirement is cell autonomous using a cell-type-specific rescue approach.

CONCLUSIONS: The identification of a Nematostella CoREST-Lsd1-HDAC1/2 complex, its similarity in composition with the vertebrate complex, and the near-identical expression patterns and mutant phenotypes of NvCoREST and NvLsd1 suggest that the complex was present before the last common cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and thus represents an ancient component of the animal developmental toolkit.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-08-24

Nyongesa S, Weber PM, Bernet È, et al (2022)

Evolution of longitudinal division in multicellular bacteria of the Neisseriaceae family.

Nature communications, 13(1):4853.

Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate and divide by transverse fission. However, several bacterial species can form rod-shaped cells that divide longitudinally. Here, we study the evolution of cell shape and division mode within the family Neisseriaceae, which includes Gram-negative coccoid and rod-shaped species. In particular, bacteria of the genera Alysiella, Simonsiella and Conchiformibius, which can be found in the oral cavity of mammals, are multicellular and divide longitudinally. We use comparative genomics and ultrastructural microscopy to infer that longitudinal division within Neisseriaceae evolved from a rod-shaped ancestor. In multicellular longitudinally-dividing species, neighbouring cells within multicellular filaments are attached by their lateral peptidoglycan. In these bacteria, peptidoglycan insertion does not appear concentric, i.e. from the cell periphery to its centre, but as a medial sheet guillotining each cell. Finally, we identify genes and alleles associated with multicellularity and longitudinal division, including the acquisition of amidase-encoding gene amiC2, and amino acid changes in proteins including MreB and FtsA. Introduction of amiC2 and allelic substitution of mreB in a rod-shaped species that divides by transverse fission results in shorter cells with longer septa. Our work sheds light on the evolution of multicellularity and longitudinal division in bacteria, and suggests that members of the Neisseriaceae family may be good models to study these processes due to their morphological plasticity and genetic tractability.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-08-18

Jacques F, Baratchart E, Pienta KJ, et al (2022)

Origin and evolution of animal multicellularity in the light of phylogenomics and cancer genetics.

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 39(11):160.

The rise of animals represents a major but enigmatic event in the evolutionary history of life. In recent years, numerous studies have aimed at understanding the genetic basis of this transition. However, genome comparisons of diverse animal and protist lineages suggest that the appearance of gene families that were previously considered animal specific indeed preceded animals. Animals' unicellular relatives, such as choanoflagellates, ichthyosporeans, and filastereans, demonstrate complex life cycles including transient multicellularity as well as genetic toolkits for temporal cell differentiation, cell-to-cell communication, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. This has warranted further exploration of the genetic basis underlying transitions in cellular organization. An alternative model for the study of transitions in cellular organization is tumors, which exploit physiological programs that characterize both unicellularity and multicellularity. Tumor cells, for example, switch adhesion on and off, up- or downregulate specific cell differentiation states, downregulate apoptosis, and allow cell migration within tissues. Here, we use insights from both the fields of phylogenomics and tumor biology to review the evolutionary history of the regulatory systems of multicellularity and discuss their overlap. We claim that while evolutionary biology has contributed to an increased understanding of cancer, broad investigations into tissue-normal and transformed-can also contribute the framework for exploring animal evolution.

RevDate: 2022-10-26
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Smith TJ, PCJ Donoghue (2022)

Evolution of fungal phenotypic disparity.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(10):1489-1500.

Organismal-grade multicellularity has been achieved only in animals, plants and fungi. All three kingdoms manifest phenotypically disparate body plans but their evolution has only been considered in detail for animals. Here we tested the general relevance of hypotheses on the evolutionary assembly of animal body plans by characterizing the evolution of fungal phenotypic variety (disparity). The distribution of living fungal form is defined by four distinct morphotypes: flagellated; zygomycetous; sac-bearing; and club-bearing. The discontinuity between morphotypes is a consequence of extinction, indicating that a complete record of fungal disparity would present a more homogeneous distribution of form. Fungal disparity expands episodically through time, punctuated by a sharp increase associated with the emergence of multicellular body plans. Simulations show these temporal trends to be non-random and at least partially shaped by hierarchical contingency. These trends are decoupled from changes in gene number, genome size and taxonomic diversity. Only differences in organismal complexity, characterized as the number of traits that constitute an organism, exhibit a meaningful relationship with fungal disparity. Both animals and fungi exhibit episodic increases in disparity through time, resulting in distributions of form made discontinuous by extinction. These congruences suggest a common mode of multicellular body plan evolution.

RevDate: 2022-08-19
CmpDate: 2022-08-12

Kim H, Skinner DJ, Glass DS, et al (2022)

4-bit adhesion logic enables universal multicellular interface patterning.

Nature, 608(7922):324-329.

Multicellular systems, from bacterial biofilms to human organs, form interfaces (or boundaries) between different cell collectives to spatially organize versatile functions[1,2]. The evolution of sufficiently descriptive genetic toolkits probably triggered the explosion of complex multicellular life and patterning[3,4]. Synthetic biology aims to engineer multicellular systems for practical applications and to serve as a build-to-understand methodology for natural systems[5-8]. However, our ability to engineer multicellular interface patterns[2,9] is still very limited, as synthetic cell-cell adhesion toolkits and suitable patterning algorithms are underdeveloped[5,7,10-13]. Here we introduce a synthetic cell-cell adhesin logic with swarming bacteria and establish the precise engineering, predictive modelling and algorithmic programming of multicellular interface patterns. We demonstrate interface generation through a swarming adhesion mechanism, quantitative control over interface geometry and adhesion-mediated analogues of developmental organizers and morphogen fields. Using tiling and four-colour-mapping concepts, we identify algorithms for creating universal target patterns. This synthetic 4-bit adhesion logic advances practical applications such as human-readable molecular diagnostics, spatial fluid control on biological surfaces and programmable self-growing materials[5-8,14]. Notably, a minimal set of just four adhesins represents 4 bits of information that suffice to program universal tessellation patterns, implying a low critical threshold for the evolution and engineering of complex multicellular systems[3,5].

RevDate: 2022-11-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-03

Raguž L, Peng CC, Rutaganira FUN, et al (2022)

Total Synthesis and Functional Evaluation of IORs, Sulfonolipid-based Inhibitors of Cell Differentiation in Salpingoeca rosetta.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 61(41):e202209105.

The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta is an important model system to study the evolution of multicellularity. In this study we developed a new, modular, and scalable synthesis of sulfonolipid IOR-1A (six steps, 27 % overall yield), which acts as bacterial inhibitor of rosette formation in S. rosetta. The synthesis features a decarboxylative cross-coupling reaction of a sulfonic acid-containing tartaric acid derivative with alkyl zinc reagents. Synthesis of 15 modified IOR-1A derivatives, including fluorescent and photoaffinity-based probes, allowed quantification of IOR-1A, localization studies within S. rosetta cells, and evaluation of structure-activity relations. In a proof of concept study, an inhibitory bifunctional probe was employed in proteomic profiling studies, which allowed to deduce binding partners in bacteria and S. rosetta. These results showcase the power of synthetic chemistry to decipher the biochemical basis of cell differentiation processes within S. rosetta.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Le Gloanec C, Collet L, Silveira SR, et al (2022)

Cell type-specific dynamics underlie cellular growth variability in plants.

Development (Cambridge, England), 149(14):.

Coordination of growth, patterning and differentiation is required for shaping organs in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell growth is controlled by positional information, yet the behavior of individual cells is often highly heterogeneous. The origin of this variability is still unclear. Using time-lapse imaging, we determined the source and relevance of cellular growth variability in developing organs of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that growth is more heterogeneous in the leaf blade than in the midrib and petiole, correlating with higher local differences in growth rates between neighboring cells in the blade. This local growth variability coincides with developing stomata. Stomatal lineages follow a specific, time-dependent growth program that is different from that of their surroundings. Quantification of cellular dynamics in the leaves of a mutant lacking stomata, as well as analysis of floral organs, supports the idea that growth variability is mainly driven by stomata differentiation. Thus, the cell-autonomous behavior of specialized cells is the main source of local growth variability in otherwise homogeneously growing tissue. Those growth differences are buffered by the immediate neighbors of stomata and trichomes to achieve robust organ shapes.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Dijkwel Y, DJ Tremethick (2022)

The Role of the Histone Variant H2A.Z in Metazoan Development.

Journal of developmental biology, 10(3):.

During the emergence and radiation of complex multicellular eukaryotes from unicellular ancestors, transcriptional systems evolved by becoming more complex to provide the basis for this morphological diversity. The way eukaryotic genomes are packaged into a highly complex structure, known as chromatin, underpins this evolution of transcriptional regulation. Chromatin structure is controlled by a variety of different epigenetic mechanisms, including the major mechanism for altering the biochemical makeup of the nucleosome by replacing core histones with their variant forms. The histone H2A variant H2A.Z is particularly important in early metazoan development because, without it, embryos cease to develop and die. However, H2A.Z is also required for many differentiation steps beyond the stage that H2A.Z-knockout embryos die. H2A.Z can facilitate the activation and repression of genes that are important for pluripotency and differentiation, and acts through a variety of different molecular mechanisms that depend upon its modification status, its interaction with histone and nonhistone partners, and where it is deposited within the genome. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the different mechanisms by which H2A.Z regulates chromatin function at various developmental stages and the chromatin remodeling complexes that determine when and where H2A.Z is deposited.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Ní Leathlobhair M, RE Lenski (2022)

Population genetics of clonally transmissible cancers.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(8):1077-1089.

Populations of cancer cells are subject to the same core evolutionary processes as asexually reproducing, unicellular organisms. Transmissible cancers are particularly striking examples of these processes. These unusual cancers are clonal lineages that can spread through populations via physical transfer of living cancer cells from one host individual to another, and they have achieved long-term success in the colonization of at least eight different host species. Population genetic theory provides a useful framework for understanding the shift from a multicellular sexual animal into a unicellular asexual clone and its long-term effects on the genomes of these cancers. In this Review, we consider recent findings from transmissible cancer research with the goals of developing an evolutionarily informed perspective on transmissible cancers, examining possible implications for their long-term fate and identifying areas for future research on these exceptional lineages.

RevDate: 2022-09-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-25

Howe J, Rink JC, Wang B, et al (2022)

Multicellularity in animals: The potential for within-organism conflict.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(32):e2120457119.

Metazoans function as individual organisms but also as "colonies" of cells whose single-celled ancestors lived and reproduced independently. Insights from evolutionary biology about multicellular group formation help us understand the behavior of cells: why they cooperate, and why cooperation sometimes breaks down. Current explanations for multicellularity focus on two aspects of development which promote cooperation and limit conflict among cells: a single-cell bottleneck, which creates organisms composed of clones, and a separation of somatic and germ cell lineages, which reduces the selective advantage of cheating. However, many obligately multicellular organisms thrive with neither, creating the potential for within-organism conflict. Here, we argue that the prevalence of such organisms throughout the Metazoa requires us to refine our preconceptions of conflict-free multicellularity. Evolutionary theory must incorporate developmental mechanisms across a broad range of organisms-such as unusual reproductive strategies, totipotency, and cell competition-while developmental biology must incorporate evolutionary principles. To facilitate this cross-disciplinary approach, we provide a conceptual overview from evolutionary biology for developmental biologists, using analogous examples in the well-studied social insects.

RevDate: 2022-08-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Belcher LJ, Madgwick PG, Kuwana S, et al (2022)

Developmental constraints enforce altruism and avert the tragedy of the commons in a social microbe.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(29):e2111233119.

Organisms often cooperate through the production of freely available public goods. This can greatly benefit the group but is vulnerable to the "tragedy of the commons" if individuals lack the motivation to make the necessary investment into public goods production. Relatedness to groupmates can motivate individual investment because group success ultimately benefits their genes' own self-interests. However, systems often lack mechanisms that can reliably ensure that relatedness is high enough to promote cooperation. Consequently, groups face a persistent threat from the tragedy unless they have a mechanism to enforce investment when relatedness fails to provide adequate motivation. To understand the real threat posed by the tragedy and whether groups can avert its impact, we determine how the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum responds as relatedness decreases to levels that should induce the tragedy. We find that, while investment in public goods declines as overall within-group relatedness declines, groups avert the expected catastrophic collapse of the commons by continuing to invest, even when relatedness should be too low to incentivize any contribution. We show that this is due to a developmental buffering system that generates enforcement because insufficient cooperation perturbs the balance of a negative feedback system controlling multicellular development. This developmental constraint enforces investment under the conditions expected to be most tragic, allowing groups to avert a collapse in cooperation. These results help explain how mechanisms that suppress selfishness and enforce cooperation can arise inadvertently as a by-product of constraints imposed by selection on different traits.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Chakravarty AK, McGrail DJ, Lozanoski TM, et al (2022)

Biomolecular Condensation: A New Phase in Cancer Research.

Cancer discovery, 12(9):2031-2043.

UNLABELLED: Multicellularity was a watershed development in evolution. However, it also meant that individual cells could escape regulatory mechanisms that restrict proliferation at a severe cost to the organism: cancer. From the standpoint of cellular organization, evolutionary complexity scales to organize different molecules within the intracellular milieu. The recent realization that many biomolecules can "phase-separate" into membraneless organelles, reorganizing cellular biochemistry in space and time, has led to an explosion of research activity in this area. In this review, we explore mechanistic connections between phase separation and cancer-associated processes and emerging examples of how these become deranged in malignancy.

SIGNIFICANCE: One of the fundamental functions of phase separation is to rapidly and dynamically respond to environmental perturbations. Importantly, these changes often lead to alterations in cancer-relevant pathways and processes. This review covers recent advances in the field, including emerging principles and mechanisms of phase separation in cancer.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-09-29

Wu TY, Hoh KL, Boonyaves K, et al (2022)

Diversification of heat shock transcription factors expanded thermal stress responses during early plant evolution.

The Plant cell, 34(10):3557-3576.

The copy numbers of many plant transcription factor (TF) genes substantially increased during terrestrialization. This allowed TFs to acquire new specificities and thus create gene regulatory networks (GRNs) with new biological functions to help plants adapt to terrestrial environments. Through characterizing heat shock factor (HSF) genes MpHSFA1 and MpHSFB1 in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, we explored how heat-responsive GRNs widened their functions in M. polymorpha and Arabidopsis thaliana. An interspecies comparison of heat-induced transcriptomes and the evolutionary rates of HSFs demonstrated the emergence and subsequent rapid evolution of HSFB prior to terrestrialization. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of M. polymorpha HSF-null mutants revealed that MpHSFA1 controls canonical heat responses such as thermotolerance and metabolic changes. MpHSFB1 also plays essential roles in heat responses, as well as regulating developmental processes including meristem branching and antheridiophore formation. Analysis of cis-regulatory elements revealed development- and stress-related TFs that function directly or indirectly downstream of HSFB. Male gametophytes of M. polymorpha showed higher levels of thermotolerance than female gametophytes, which could be explained by different expression levels of MpHSFA1U and MpHSFA1V on sex chromosome. We propose that the diversification of HSFs is linked to the expansion of HS responses, which enabled coordinated multicellular reactions in land plants.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-23

Gabaldón T, Völcker E, G Torruella (2022)

On the Biology, Diversity and Evolution of Nucleariid Amoebae (Amorphea, Obazoa, Opisthokonta[1].

Protist, 173(4):125895.

Nucleariids are a small group of free-living heterotrophic amoebae. Although these organisms present a variety of cell sizes and cell coverings, they are mostly spherical cells with radiating filopodia, sometimes with several nuclei. Nuclearia, the genus that gives the name to the group, contains species that are opportunistic consumers of detritus, bacteria, and algae. The beautiful Pompholyxophrys is covered with endogenous siliceous pearls. Lithocolla covers itself with sand particles, or otherwise diatom frustules. The tiny Parvularia exclusively feeds on bacteria, and Fonticula is adapted to solid substrates and presents aggregative multicellular stages. Nucleariids belong to the Opisthokonta, which comprise animals, fungi, and their protist relatives, and form the earliest branch in the holomycotan clade (fungi and closest relatives). Hence, they are key for understanding the origin and diversification of Opisthokonta, an eukaryotic supergroup that contains organisms with different feeding modes, life-styles, and cell organizations. In this review, the reader will find an introduction to nucleariids, from their discovery in the 19th century until the most recent studies. It summarizes available information on their morphology, life history, cell organisation, ecology, diversity, systematics and evolution.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Meléndez García R, Haccard O, Chesneau A, et al (2022)

A non-transcriptional function of Yap regulates the DNA replication program in Xenopus laevis.

eLife, 11:.

In multicellular eukaryotic organisms, the initiation of DNA replication occurs asynchronously throughout S-phase according to a regulated replication timing program. Here, using Xenopus egg extracts, we showed that Yap (Yes-associated protein 1), a downstream effector of the Hippo signalling pathway, is required for the control of DNA replication dynamics. We found that Yap is recruited to chromatin at the start of DNA replication and identified Rif1, a major regulator of the DNA replication timing program, as a novel Yap binding protein. Furthermore, we show that either Yap or Rif1 depletion accelerates DNA replication dynamics by increasing the number of activated replication origins. In Xenopus embryos, using a Trim-Away approach during cleavage stages devoid of transcription, we found that either Yap or Rif1 depletion triggers an acceleration of cell divisions, suggesting a shorter S-phase by alterations of the replication program. Finally, our data show that Rif1 knockdown leads to defects in the partitioning of early versus late replication foci in retinal stem cells, as we previously showed for Yap. Altogether, our findings unveil a non-transcriptional role for Yap in regulating replication dynamics. We propose that Yap and Rif1 function as brakes to control the DNA replication program in early embryos and post-embryonic stem cells.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Angaroni F, Guidi A, Ascolani G, et al (2022)

J-SPACE: a Julia package for the simulation of spatial models of cancer evolution and of sequencing experiments.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):269.

BACKGROUND: The combined effects of biological variability and measurement-related errors on cancer sequencing data remain largely unexplored. However, the spatio-temporal simulation of multi-cellular systems provides a powerful instrument to address this issue. In particular, efficient algorithmic frameworks are needed to overcome the harsh trade-off between scalability and expressivity, so to allow one to simulate both realistic cancer evolution scenarios and the related sequencing experiments, which can then be used to benchmark downstream bioinformatics methods.

RESULT: We introduce a Julia package for SPAtial Cancer Evolution (J-SPACE), which allows one to model and simulate a broad set of experimental scenarios, phenomenological rules and sequencing settings.Specifically, J-SPACE simulates the spatial dynamics of cells as a continuous-time multi-type birth-death stochastic process on a arbitrary graph, employing different rules of interaction and an optimised Gillespie algorithm. The evolutionary dynamics of genomic alterations (single-nucleotide variants and indels) is simulated either under the Infinite Sites Assumption or several different substitution models, including one based on mutational signatures. After mimicking the spatial sampling of tumour cells, J-SPACE returns the related phylogenetic model, and allows one to generate synthetic reads from several Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms, via the ART read simulator. The results are finally returned in standard FASTA, FASTQ, SAM, ALN and Newick file formats.

CONCLUSION: J-SPACE is designed to efficiently simulate the heterogeneous behaviour of a large number of cancer cells and produces a rich set of outputs. Our framework is useful to investigate the emergent spatial dynamics of cancer subpopulations, as well as to assess the impact of incomplete sampling and of experiment-specific errors. Importantly, the output of J-SPACE is designed to allow the performance assessment of downstream bioinformatics pipelines processing NGS data. J-SPACE is freely available at: .

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Fukai E, Yoshikawa M, Shah N, et al (2022)

Widespread and transgenerational retrotransposon activation in inter- and intraspecies recombinant inbred populations of Lotus japonicus.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 111(5):1397-1410.

Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a large proportion of genomes of multicellular eukaryotes, including flowering plants. TEs are normally maintained in a silenced state and their transpositions rarely occur. Hybridization between distant species has been regarded as a 'shock' that stimulates genome reorganization, including TE mobilization. However, whether crosses between genetically close parents that result in viable and fertile offspring can induce TE transpositions has remained unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in three Lotus japonicus recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. We found that at least six LTR retrotransposon families were activated and transposed in 78% of the RILs investigated. LORE1a, one of the transposed LTR retrotransposons, showed transgenerational epigenetic activation, indicating the long-term effects of epigenetic instability induced by hybridization. Our study highlights TE activation as an unexpectedly common event in plant reproduction.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Beljan S, Dominko K, Talajić A, et al (2022)

Structure and function of cancer-related developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG1) is conserved between sponges and humans.

Scientific reports, 12(1):11379.

Cancer is a disease caused by errors within the multicellular system and it represents a major health issue in multicellular organisms. Although cancer research has advanced substantially, new approaches focusing on fundamental aspects of cancer origin and mechanisms of spreading are necessary. Comparative genomic studies have shown that most genes linked to human cancer emerged during the early evolution of Metazoa. Thus, basal animals without true tissues and organs, such as sponges (Porifera), might be an innovative model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of proteins involved in cancer biology. One of these proteins is developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG1), a GTPase stabilized by interaction with DRG family regulatory protein 1 (DFRP1). This study reveals a high evolutionary conservation of DRG1 gene/protein in metazoans. Our biochemical analysis and structural predictions show that both recombinant sponge and human DRG1 are predominantly monomers that form complexes with DFRP1 and bind non-specifically to RNA and DNA. We demonstrate the conservation of sponge and human DRG1 biological features, including intracellular localization and DRG1:DFRP1 binding, function of DRG1 in α-tubulin dynamics, and its role in cancer biology demonstrated by increased proliferation, migration and colonization in human cancer cells. These results suggest that the ancestor of all Metazoa already possessed DRG1 that is structurally and functionally similar to the human DRG1, even before the development of real tissues or tumors, indicating an important function of DRG1 in fundamental cellular pathways.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-09-19

Belpaire TER, Pešek J, Lories B, et al (2022)

Permissive aggregative group formation favors coexistence between cooperators and defectors in yeast.

The ISME journal, 16(10):2305-2312.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the FLO1 gene encodes flocculins that lead to formation of multicellular flocs, that offer protection to the constituent cells. Flo1p was found to preferentially bind to fellow cooperators compared to defectors lacking FLO1 expression, enriching cooperators within the flocs. Given this dual function in cooperation and kin recognition, FLO1 has been termed a "green beard gene". Because of the heterophilic nature of the Flo1p bond however, we hypothesize that kin recognition is permissive and depends on the relative stability of the FLO1[+]/flo1[-] versus FLO1[+]/FLO1[+] detachment force F. We combine single-cell measurements of adhesion, individual cell-based simulations of cluster formation, and in vitro flocculation to study the impact of relative bond stability on the evolutionary stability of cooperation. We identify a trade-off between both aspects of the green beard mechanism, with reduced relative bond stability leading to increased kin recognition at the expense of cooperative benefits. We show that the fitness of FLO1 cooperators decreases as their frequency in the population increases, arising from the observed permissive character (F+- = 0.5 F++) of the Flo1p bond. Considering the costs associated with FLO1 expression, this asymmetric selection often results in a stable coexistence between cooperators and defectors.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-23

Cameron-Pack ME, König SG, Reyes-Guevara A, et al (2022)

A personal cost of cheating can stabilize reproductive altruism during the early evolution of clonal multicellularity.

Biology letters, 18(6):20220059.

Understanding how cooperation evolved and is maintained remains an important and often controversial topic because cheaters that reap the benefits of cooperation without paying the costs can threaten the evolutionary stability of cooperative traits. Cooperation-and especially reproductive altruism-is particularly relevant to the evolution of multicellularity, as somatic cells give up their reproductive potential in order to contribute to the fitness of the newly emerged multicellular individual. Here, we investigated cheating in a simple multicellular species-the green alga Volvox carteri, in the context of the mechanisms that can stabilize reproductive altruism during the early evolution of clonal multicellularity. We found that the benefits cheater mutants can gain in terms of their own reproduction are pre-empted by a cost in survival due to increased sensitivity to stress. This personal cost of cheating reflects the antagonistic pleiotropic effects that the gene coding for reproductive altruism-regA-has at the cell level. Specifically, the expression of regA in somatic cells results in the suppression of their reproduction potential but also confers them with increased resistance to stress. Since regA evolved from a life-history trade-off gene, we suggest that co-opting trade-off genes into cooperative traits can provide a built-in safety system against cheaters in other clonal multicellular lineages.

RevDate: 2022-10-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Kaufmann M, Schaupp AL, Sun R, et al (2022)

Identification of early neurodegenerative pathways in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Nature neuroscience, 25(7):944-955.

Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by unrelenting neurodegeneration, which causes cumulative disability and is refractory to current treatments. Drug development to prevent disease progression is an urgent clinical need yet is constrained by an incomplete understanding of its complex pathogenesis. Using spatial transcriptomics and proteomics on fresh-frozen human MS brain tissue, we identified multicellular mechanisms of progressive MS pathogenesis and traced their origin in relation to spatially distributed stages of neurodegeneration. By resolving ligand-receptor interactions in local microenvironments, we discovered defunct trophic and anti-inflammatory intercellular communications within areas of early neuronal decline. Proteins associated with neuronal damage in patient samples showed mechanistic concordance with published in vivo knockdown and central nervous system (CNS) disease models, supporting their causal role and value as potential therapeutic targets in progressive MS. Our findings provide a new framework for drug development strategies, rooted in an understanding of the complex cellular and signaling dynamics in human diseased tissue that facilitate this debilitating disease.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-22

Mori G, Delfino D, Pibiri P, et al (2022)

Origin and significance of the human DNase repertoire.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10364.

The human genome contains four DNase1 and two DNase2 genes. The origin and functional specialization of this repertoire are not fully understood. Here we use genomics and transcriptomics data to infer the evolutionary history of DNases and investigate their biological significance. Both DNase1 and DNase2 families have expanded in vertebrates since ~ 650 million years ago before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrates. DNase1, DNase1L1, and DNase1L3 co-existed in jawless fish, whereas DNase1L2 originated in amniotes by tandem duplication of DNase1. Among the non-human DNases, DNase1L4 and newly identified DNase1L5 derived from early duplications that were lost in terrestrial vertebrates. The ancestral gene of the DNase2 family, DNase2b, has been conserved in synteny with the Uox gene across 700 million years of animal evolution,while DNase2 originated in jawless fish. DNase1L1 acquired a GPI-anchor for plasma membrane attachment in bony fishes, and DNase1L3 acquired a C-terminal basic peptide for the degradation of microparticle DNA in jawed vertebrates. The appearance of DNase1L2, with a distinct low pH optimum and skin localization, is among the amniote adaptations to life on land. The expansion of the DNase repertoire in vertebrates meets the diversified demand for DNA debris removal in complex multicellular organisms.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-07-20

Passer AR, Clancey SA, Shea T, et al (2022)

Obligate sexual reproduction of a homothallic fungus closely related to the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex.

eLife, 11:.

eLife digest. Fungi are enigmatic organisms that flourish in soil, on decaying plants, or during infection of animals or plants. Growing in myriad forms, from single-celled yeast to multicellular molds and mushrooms, fungi have also evolved a variety of strategies to reproduce. Normally, fungi reproduce in one of two ways: either they reproduce asexually, with one individual producing a new individual identical to itself, or they reproduce sexually, with two individuals of different 'mating types' contributing to produce a new individual. However, individuals of some species exhibit 'homothallism' or self-fertility: these individuals can produce reproductive cells that are universally compatible, and therefore can reproduce sexually with themselves or with any other cell in the population. Homothallism has evolved multiple times throughout the fungal kingdom, suggesting it confers advantage when population numbers are low or mates are hard to find. Yet some homothallic fungi been overlooked compared to heterothallic species, whose mating types have been well characterised. Understanding the genetic basis of homothallism and how it evolved in different species can provide insights into pathogenic species that cause fungal disease. With that in mind, Passer, Clancey et al. explored the genetic basis of homothallism in Cryptococcus depauperatus, a close relative of C. neoformans, a species that causes fungal infections in humans. A combination of genetic sequencing techniques and experiments were applied to analyse, compare, and manipulate C. depauperatus' genome to see how this species evolved self-fertility. Passer, Clancey et al. showed that C. depauperatus evolved the ability to reproduce sexually by itself via a unique evolutionary pathway. The result is a form of homothallism never reported in fungi before. C. depauperatus lost some of the genes that control mating in other species of fungi, and acquired genes from the opposing mating types of a heterothallic ancestor to become self-fertile. Passer, Clancey et al. also found that, unlike other Cryptococcus species that switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, C. depauperatus grows only as long, branching filaments called hyphae, a sexual form. The species reproduces sexually with itself throughout its life cycle and is unable to produce a yeast (asexual) form, in contrast to other closely related species. This work offers new insights into how different modes of sexual reproduction have evolved in fungi. It also provides another interesting case of how genome plasticity and evolutionary pressures can produce similar outcomes, homothallism, via different evolutionary paths. Lastly, assembling the complete genome of C. depauperatus will foster comparative studies between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Cryptococcus species.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-13

Minelli A, A Valero-Gracia (2022)

Spatially and Temporally Distributed Complexity-A Refreshed Framework for the Study of GRN Evolution.

Cells, 11(11):.

Irrespective of the heuristic value of interpretations of developmental processes in terms of gene regulatory networks (GRNs), larger-angle views often suffer from: (i) an inadequate understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype; (ii) a predominantly zoocentric vision; and (iii) overconfidence in a putatively hierarchical organization of animal body plans. Here, we constructively criticize these assumptions. First, developmental biology is pervaded by adultocentrism, but development is not necessarily egg to adult. Second, during development, many unicells undergo transcriptomic profile transitions that are comparable to those recorded in pluricellular organisms; thus, their study should not be neglected from the GRN perspective. Third, the putatively hierarchical nature of the animal body is mirrored in the GRN logic, but in relating genotype to phenotype, independent assessments of the dynamics of the regulatory machinery and the animal's architecture are required, better served by a combinatorial than by a hierarchical approach. The trade-offs between spatial and temporal aspects of regulation, as well as their evolutionary consequences, are also discussed. Multicellularity may derive from a unicell's sequential phenotypes turned into different but coexisting, spatially arranged cell types. In turn, polyphenism may have been a crucial mechanism involved in the origin of complex life cycles.

RevDate: 2022-09-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-12

Northey JJ, VM Weaver (2022)

Mechanosensitive Steroid Hormone Signaling and Cell Fate.

Endocrinology, 163(8):.

Mechanical forces collaborate across length scales to coordinate cell fate during development and the dynamic homeostasis of adult tissues. Similarly, steroid hormones interact with their nuclear and nonnuclear receptors to regulate diverse physiological processes necessary for the appropriate development and function of complex multicellular tissues. Aberrant steroid hormone action is associated with tumors originating in hormone-sensitive tissues and its disruption forms the basis of several therapeutic interventions. Prolonged perturbations to mechanical forces may further foster tumor initiation and the evolution of aggressive metastatic disease. Recent evidence suggests that steroid hormone and mechanical signaling intersect to direct cell fate during development and tumor progression. Potential mechanosensitive steroid hormone signaling pathways along with their molecular effectors will be discussed in this context.

RevDate: 2022-08-10
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

Bao L, Ren J, Nguyen M, et al (2022)

The cellular function of ROP GTPase prenylation is important for multicellularity in the moss Physcomitrium patens.

Development (Cambridge, England), 149(12):.

A complete picture of how signaling pathways lead to multicellularity is largely unknown. Previously, we generated mutations in a protein prenylation enzyme, GGB, and showed that it is essential for maintaining multicellularity in the moss Physcomitrium patens. Here, we show that ROP GTPases act as downstream factors that are prenylated by GGB and themselves play an important role in the multicellularity of P. patens. We also show that the loss of multicellularity caused by the suppression of GGB or ROP GTPases is due to uncoordinated cell expansion, defects in cell wall integrity and the disturbance of the directional control of cell plate orientation. Expressing prenylatable ROP in the ggb mutant not only rescues multicellularity in protonemata but also results in development of gametophores. Although the prenylation of ROP is important for multicellularity, a higher threshold of active ROP is required for gametophore development. Thus, our results suggest that ROP activation via prenylation by GGB is a key process at both cell and tissue levels, facilitating the developmental transition from one dimension to two dimensions and to three dimensions in P. patens.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-08

Phillips JE, Santos M, Konchwala M, et al (2022)

Genome editing in the unicellular holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki suggests a premetazoan role for the Hippo pathway in multicellular morphogenesis.

eLife, 11:.

Animal development is mediated by a surprisingly small set of canonical signaling pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, Notch, and Hippo pathways. Although once thought to be present only in animals, recent genome sequencing has revealed components of these pathways in the closest unicellular relatives of animals. These findings raise questions about the ancestral functions of these developmental pathways and their potential role in the emergence of animal multicellularity. Here, we provide the first functional characterization of any of these developmental pathways in unicellular organisms by developing techniques for genetic manipulation in Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals that displays aggregative multicellularity. We then use these tools to characterize the Capsaspora ortholog of the Hippo signaling nuclear effector YAP/TAZ/Yorkie (coYki), a key regulator of tissue size in animals. In contrast to what might be expected based on studies in animals, we show that coYki is dispensable for cell proliferation but regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and the three-dimensional (3D) shape of multicellular structures. We further demonstrate that the cytoskeletal abnormalities of individual coYki mutant cells underlie the abnormal 3D shape of coYki mutant aggregates. Taken together, these findings implicate an ancestral role for the Hippo pathway in cytoskeletal dynamics and multicellular morphogenesis predating the origin of animal multicellularity, which was co-opted during evolution to regulate cell proliferation.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Díaz E, Febres A, Giammarresi M, et al (2022)

G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Potential Intercellular Communication Mediators in Trypanosomatidae.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:812848.

Detection and transduction of environmental signals, constitute a prerequisite for successful parasite invasion; i.e., Leishmania transmission, survival, pathogenesis and disease manifestation and dissemination, with diverse molecules functioning as inter-cellular signaling ligands. Receptors [i.e., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)] and their associated transduction mechanisms, well conserved through evolution, specialize in this function. However, canonical GPCR-related signal transduction systems have not been described in Leishmania, although orthologs, with reduced domains and function, have been identified in Trypanosomatidae. These inter-cellular communication means seem to be essential for multicellular and unicellular organism's survival. GPCRs are flexible in their molecular architecture and may interact with the so-called receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), which modulate their function, changing GPCRs pharmacology, acting as chaperones and regulating signaling and/or trafficking in a receptor-dependent manner. In the skin, vasoactive- and neuro- peptides released in response to the noxious stimuli represented by the insect bite may trigger parasite physiological responses, for example, chemotaxis. For instance, in Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, sensory [Substance P, SP, chemoattractant] and autonomic [Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, VIP, and Neuropeptide Y, NPY, chemorepellent] neuropeptides at physiological levels stimulate in vitro effects on parasite taxis. VIP and NPY chemotactic effects are impaired by their corresponding receptor antagonists, suggesting that the stimulated responses might be mediated by putative GPCRs (with essential conserved receptor domains); the effect of SP is blocked by [(D-Pro 2, D-Trp7,9]-Substance P (10[-6] M)] suggesting that it might be mediated by neurokinin-1 transmembrane receptors. Additionally, vasoactive molecules like Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide [CGRP] and Adrenomedullin [AM], exert a chemorepellent effect and increase the expression of a 24 kDa band recognized in western blot analysis by (human-)-RAMP-2 antibodies. In-silico search oriented towards GPCRs-like receptors and signaling cascades detected a RAMP-2-aligned sequence corresponding to Leishmania folylpolyglutamate synthase and a RAMP-3 aligned protein, a hypothetical Leishmania protein with yet unknown function, suggesting that in Leishmania, CGRP and AM activities may be modulated by RAMP- (-2) and (-3) homologs. The possible presence of proteins and molecules potentially involved in GPCRs cascades, i.e., RAMPs, signpost conservation of ancient signaling systems associated with responses, fundamental for cell survival, (i.e., taxis and migration) and may constitute an open field for description of pharmacophores against Leishmania parasites.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-31

Paradžik T, Podgorski II, Vojvoda Zeljko T, et al (2022)

Ancient Origins of Cytoskeletal Crosstalk: Spectraplakin-like Proteins Precede the Emergence of Cortical Microtubule Stabilization Complexes as Crosslinkers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(10):.

Adhesion between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the prerequisites for multicellularity, motility, and tissue specialization. Focal adhesions (FAs) are defined as protein complexes that mediate signals from the ECM to major components of the cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments), and their mutual communication determines a variety of cellular processes. In this study, human cytoskeletal crosstalk proteins were identified by comparing datasets with experimentally determined cytoskeletal proteins. The spectraplakin dystonin was the only protein found in all datasets. Other proteins (FAK, RAC1, septin 9, MISP, and ezrin) were detected at the intersections of FAs, microtubules, and actin cytoskeleton. Homology searches for human crosstalk proteins as queries were performed against a predefined dataset of proteomes. This analysis highlighted the importance of FA communication with the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, as these crosstalk proteins exhibit the highest degree of evolutionary conservation. Finally, phylogenetic analyses elucidated the early evolutionary history of spectraplakins and cortical microtubule stabilization complexes (CMSCs) as model representatives of the human cytoskeletal crosstalk. While spectraplakins probably arose at the onset of opisthokont evolution, the crosstalk between FAs and microtubules is associated with the emergence of metazoans. The multiprotein complexes contributing to cytoskeletal crosstalk in animals gradually gained in complexity from the onset of metazoan evolution.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-31

Paul B, Sterner ZR, Buchholz DR, et al (2022)

Thyroid and Corticosteroid Signaling in Amphibian Metamorphosis.

Cells, 11(10):.

In multicellular organisms, development is based in part on the integration of communication systems. Two neuroendocrine axes, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axes, are central players in orchestrating body morphogenesis. In all vertebrates, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis controls thyroid hormone production and release, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis regulates the production and release of corticosteroids. One of the most salient effects of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids in post-embryonic developmental processes is their critical role in metamorphosis in anuran amphibians. Metamorphosis involves modifications to the morphological and biochemical characteristics of all larval tissues to enable the transition from one life stage to the next life stage that coincides with an ecological niche switch. This transition in amphibians is an example of a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates, where thyroid hormones and corticosteroids coordinate a post-embryonic developmental transition. The review addresses the functions and interactions of thyroid hormone and corticosteroid signaling in amphibian development (metamorphosis) as well as the developmental roles of these two pathways in vertebrate evolution.

RevDate: 2022-05-30
CmpDate: 2022-05-30

Puzakov MV, LV Puzakova (2022)

[Prevalence, Diversity, and Evolution of L18 (DD37E) Transposons in the Genomes of Cnidarians].

Molekuliarnaia biologiia, 56(3):476-490.

Transposable elements have a significant impact on the structure and functioning of multicellular genomes, and also serve as a source of new genes. Studying the diversity and evolution of transposable elements in different taxa is necessary for the fundamental understanding of their role in genomes. The Tc1/mariner elements are one of the most widespread and diverse groups of DNA transposons. In this work, the structure, distribution, diversity, and evolution of the L18 (DD37E) elements in the genomes of cnidarians (Cnidaria) were studied for the first time. As a result, it was found that the L18 group is an independent family (and not a subfamily of the TLE family, as previously thought) in the Tc1/mariner superfamily. Of the 51 detected elements, only four had potentially functional copies. It is assumed that the L18 transposons are of ancient origin, and, in addition, the elements found in the genomes of organisms of the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa classes do not come from a common ancestral transposon within the Cnidaria phylum. In organisms of the Hydrozoa class, L18 transposons appeared as a result of horizontal transfer at a later time period. An intraspecies comparison of the diversity of the L18 elements demonstrates high homogeneity with respect to "old" transposons, which have already lost their activity. At the same time, distant populations, as in the case of Hydra viridissima, have differences in the representation of DNA transposons and the number of copies. These data supplement the knowledge on the diversity and evolution of Tc1/mariner transposons and contribute to the study of the influence of mobile genetic elements on the evolution of multicellular organisms.

RevDate: 2022-06-03
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Udayantha HMV, Samaraweera AV, Liyanage DS, et al (2022)

Molecular characterization, antiviral activity, and UV-B damage responses of Caspase-9 from Amphiprion clarkii.

Fish & shellfish immunology, 125:247-257.

Apoptosis plays a vital role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Caspase-9 (casp-9) is one of the major initiator caspases that induces apoptosis by activating downstream intrinsic apoptosis pathway genes. Here, we isolated the cDNA sequence (1992 bp) of caspase-9 from Amphiprion clarkii (Accasp-9) that consists of a 1305 bp coding region and encodes a 434 aa protein. In silico analysis showed that Accasp-9 has a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.81 and a molecular weight of 48.45 kDa. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the CARD domain is located at the N-terminus, whereas the large P-20 and small P-10 domains are located at the C-terminus. Moreover, a highly conserved pentapeptide active site ([296]QACGG[301]), as well as histidine and cysteine active sites, are also retained at the C-terminus. In phylogenetic analysis, Accasp-9 formed a clade with casp-9 from different species, distinct from other caspases. Accasp-9 was highly expressed in the gill and intestine compared with other tissues analyzed in healthy A. clarkii. Accasp-9 expression was significantly elevated in the blood after stimulation with Vibrio harveyi and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; 12-48 h), but not with lipopolysaccharide. The nucleoprotein expression of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus was significantly reduced in Accasp-9 overexpressed fathead minnow (FHM) cells compared with that in the control. In addition, other in vitro assays revealed that cell apoptosis was significantly elevated in poly I:C and UV-B-treated Accasp-9 transfected FHM cells. However, H[248P] or C[298S] mutated Accasp-9 significantly reduced apoptosis in UV-B irradiated cells. Collectively, our results show that Accasp-9 might play a defensive role against invading pathogens and UV-B radiation and H[248] and C[298] active residues are significantly involved in apoptosis in teleosts.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Ritch SJ, CM Telleria (2022)

The Transcoelomic Ecosystem and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Dissemination.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:886533.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is considered the deadliest gynecological disease and is normally diagnosed at late stages, at which point metastasis has already occurred. Throughout disease progression, EOC will encounter various ecosystems and the communication between cancer cells and these microenvironments will promote the survival and dissemination of EOC. The primary tumor is thought to develop within the ovaries or the fallopian tubes, both of which provide a microenvironment with high risk of causing DNA damage and enhanced proliferation. EOC disseminates by direct extension from the primary tumors, as single cells or multicellular aggregates. Under the influence of cellular and non-cellular factors, EOC spheroids use the natural flow of peritoneal fluid to reach distant organs within the peritoneal cavity. These cells can then implant and seed distant organs or tissues, which develop rapidly into secondary tumor nodules. The peritoneal tissue and the omentum are two common sites of EOC metastasis, providing a microenvironment that supports EOC invasion and survival. Current treatment for EOC involves debulking surgery followed by platinum-taxane combination chemotherapy; however, most patients will relapse with a chemoresistant disease with tumors developed within the peritoneum. Therefore, understanding the role of the unique microenvironments that promote EOC transcoelomic dissemination is important in improving patient outcomes from this disease. In this review article, we address the process of ovarian cancer cellular fate at the site of its origin in the secretory cells of the fallopian tube or in the ovarian surface epithelial cells, their detachment process, how the cells survive in the peritoneal fluid avoiding cell death triggers, and how cancer- associated cells help them in the process. Finally, we report the mechanisms used by the ovarian cancer cells to adhere and migrate through the mesothelial monolayer lining the peritoneum. We also discuss the involvement of the transcoelomic ecosystem on the development of chemoresistance of EOC.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Zhang J, Shen N, Li C, et al (2022)

Population genomics provides insights into the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in the mushroom-forming fungus Lentinula edodes.

Journal of advanced research, 38:91-106.

INTRODUCTION: Mushroom-forming fungi comprise diverse species that develop complex multicellular structures. In cultivated species, both ecological adaptation and artificial selection have driven genome evolution. However, little is known about the connections among genotype, phenotype and adaptation in mushroom-forming fungi.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) uncover the population structure and demographic history of Lentinula edodes, (2) dissect the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in L. edodes, and (3) determine if genes related to fruiting body development are involved in adaptive evolution.

METHODS: We analyzed genomes and fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs) in 133 L. edodes strains and conducted RNA-seq analysis of fruiting body development in the YS69 strain. Combined methods of genomic scan for divergence, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and RNA-seq were used to dissect the genetic basis of adaptive evolution.

RESULTS: We detected three distinct subgroups of L. edodes via single nucleotide polymorphisms, which showed robust phenotypic and temperature response differentiation and correlation with geographical distribution. Demographic history inference suggests that the subgroups diverged 36,871 generations ago. Moreover, L. edodes cultivars in China may have originated from the vicinity of Northeast China. A total of 942 genes were found to be related to genetic divergence by genomic scan, and 719 genes were identified to be candidates underlying FBRTs by GWAS. Integrating results of genomic scan and GWAS, 80 genes were detected to be related to phenotypic differentiation. A total of 364 genes related to fruiting body development were involved in genetic divergence and phenotypic differentiation.

CONCLUSION: Adaptation to the local environment, especially temperature, triggered genetic divergence and phenotypic differentiation of L. edodes. A general model for genetic divergence and phenotypic differentiation during adaptive evolution in L. edodes, which involves in signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and fruiting body morphogenesis, was also integrated here.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Heinz MC, Peters NA, Oost KC, et al (2022)

Liver Colonization by Colorectal Cancer Metastases Requires YAP-Controlled Plasticity at the Micrometastatic Stage.

Cancer research, 82(10):1953-1968.

UNLABELLED: Micrometastases of colorectal cancer can remain dormant for years prior to the formation of actively growing, clinically detectable lesions (i.e., colonization). A better understanding of this step in the metastatic cascade could help improve metastasis prevention and treatment. Here we analyzed liver specimens of patients with colorectal cancer and monitored real-time metastasis formation in mouse livers using intravital microscopy to reveal that micrometastatic lesions are devoid of cancer stem cells (CSC). However, lesions that grow into overt metastases demonstrated appearance of de novo CSCs through cellular plasticity at a multicellular stage. Clonal outgrowth of patient-derived colorectal cancer organoids phenocopied the cellular and transcriptomic changes observed during in vivo metastasis formation. First, formation of mature CSCs occurred at a multicellular stage and promoted growth. Conversely, failure of immature CSCs to generate more differentiated cells arrested growth, implying that cellular heterogeneity is required for continuous growth. Second, early-stage YAP activity was required for the survival of organoid-forming cells. However, subsequent attenuation of early-stage YAP activity was essential to allow for the formation of cell type heterogeneity, while persistent YAP signaling locked micro-organoids in a cellularly homogenous and growth-stalled state. Analysis of metastasis formation in mouse livers using single-cell RNA sequencing confirmed the transient presence of early-stage YAP activity, followed by emergence of CSC and non-CSC phenotypes, irrespective of the initial phenotype of the metastatic cell of origin. Thus, establishment of cellular heterogeneity after an initial YAP-controlled outgrowth phase marks the transition to continuously growing macrometastases.

SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of the cell type dynamics, composition, and transcriptome of early colorectal cancer liver metastases reveals that failure to establish cellular heterogeneity through YAP-controlled epithelial self-organization prohibits the outgrowth of micrometastases. See related commentary by LeBleu, p. 1870.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-05-18

Stange K, Keric A, Friese A, et al (2022)

Preparation of Spheroids from Primary Pig Cells in a Mid-Scale Bioreactor Retaining Their Myogenic Potential.

Cells, 11(9):.

Three-dimensional cell culture techniques mimic the in vivo cell environment more adequately than flat surfaces. Spheroids are multicellular aggregates and we aimed to produce scaffold-free spheroids of myogenic origin, called myospheres, using a mid-scale incubator and bioreactor hybrid. For the first time, we obtained spheroids from primary porcine muscle cells (PMCs) with this technology and compared their morphology and growth parameters, marker expression, and myogenic potential to C2C12-derived spheroids. Both cell types were able to form round-shaped spheroids in the bioreactor already after 24 h. The mean diameter of the C2C12 spheroids (44.6 µm) was larger than that of the PMCs (32.7 µm), and the maximum diameter exceeded 1 mm. C2C12 cells formed less aggregates than PMCs with a higher packing density (cell nuclei/mm[2]). After dissociation from the spheroids, C2C12 cells and PMCs started to proliferate again and were able to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, as shown by myotube formation and the expression of F-Actin, Desmin, MyoG, and Myosin. For C2C12, multinucleated syncytia and Myosin expression were observed in spheroids, pointing to accelerated myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the mid-scale incubator and bioreactor system is suitable for spheroid formation and cultivation from primary muscle cells while preserving their myogenic potential.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Eskandari E, CJ Eaves (2022)

Paradoxical roles of caspase-3 in regulating cell survival, proliferation, and tumorigenesis.

The Journal of cell biology, 221(6):.

Caspase-3 is a widely expressed member of a conserved family of proteins, generally recognized for their activated proteolytic roles in the execution of apoptosis in cells responding to specific extrinsic or intrinsic inducers of this mode of cell death. However, accumulating evidence indicates that caspase-3 also plays key roles in regulating the growth and homeostatic maintenance of both normal and malignant cells and tissues in multicellular organisms. Given that yeast possess an ancestral caspase-like gene suggests that the caspase-3 protein may have acquired different functions later during evolution to better meet the needs of more complex multicellular organisms, but without necessarily losing all of the functions of its ancestral yeast precursor. This review provides an update on what has been learned about these interesting dichotomous roles of caspase-3, their evolution, and their potential relevance to malignant as well as normal cell biology.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

de la Fuente M, M Novo (2022)

Understanding Diversity, Evolution, and Structure of Small Heat Shock Proteins in Annelida Through in Silico Analyses.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:817272.

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are oligomeric stress proteins characterized by an α-crystallin domain (ACD). These proteins are localized in different subcellular compartments and play critical roles in the stress physiology of tissues, organs, and whole multicellular eukaryotes. They are ubiquitous proteins found in all living organisms, from bacteria to mammals, but they have never been studied in annelids. Here, a data set of 23 species spanning the annelid tree of life, including mostly transcriptomes but also two genomes, was interrogated and 228 novel putative sHsps were identified and manually curated. The analysis revealed very high protein diversity and showed that a significant number of sHsps have a particular dimeric architecture consisting of two tandemly repeated ACDs. The phylogenetic analysis distinguished three main clusters, two of them containing both monomeric sHsps, and ACDs located downstream in the dimeric sHsps, and the other one comprising the upstream ACDs from those dimeric forms. Our results support an evolutionary history of these proteins based on duplication events prior to the Spiralia split. Monomeric sHsps 76) were further divided into five subclusters. Physicochemical properties, subcellular location predictions, and sequence conservation analyses provided insights into the differentiating elements of these putative functional groups. Strikingly, three of those subclusters included sHsps with features typical of metazoans, while the other two presented characteristics resembling non-metazoan proteins. This study provides a solid background for further research on the diversity, evolution, and function in the family of the sHsps. The characterized annelid sHsps are disclosed as essential for improving our understanding of this important family of proteins and their pleotropic functions. The features and the great diversity of annelid sHsps position them as potential powerful molecular biomarkers of environmental stress for acting as prognostic tool in a diverse range of environments.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-09

Yuan F, Wang X, Zhao B, et al (2022)

The genome of the recretohalophyte Limonium bicolor provides insights into salt gland development and salinity adaptation during terrestrial evolution.

Molecular plant, 15(6):1024-1044.

Halophytes have evolved specialized strategies to cope with high salinity. The extreme halophyte sea lavender (Limonium bicolor) lacks trichomes but possesses salt glands on its epidermis that can excrete harmful ions, such as sodium, to avoid salt damage. Here, we report a high-quality, 2.92-Gb, chromosome-scale L. bicolor genome assembly based on a combination of Illumina short reads, single-molecule, real-time long reads, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data, and Bionano genome maps, greatly enriching the genomic information on recretohalophytes with multicellular salt glands. Although the L. bicolor genome contains genes that show similarity to trichome fate genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, it lacks homologs of the decision fate genes GLABRA3, ENHANCER OF GLABRA3, GLABRA2, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2, and SIAMESE, providing a molecular explanation for the absence of trichomes in this species. We identified key genes (LbHLH and LbTTG1) controlling salt gland development among classical trichome homologous genes and confirmed their roles by showing that their mutations markedly disrupted salt gland initiation, salt secretion, and salt tolerance, thus offering genetic support for the long-standing hypothesis that salt glands and trichomes may share a common origin. In addition, a whole-genome duplication event occurred in the L. bicolor genome after its divergence from Tartary buckwheat and may have contributed to its adaptation to high salinity. The L. bicolor genome resource and genetic evidence reported in this study provide profound insights into plant salt tolerance mechanisms that may facilitate the engineering of salt-tolerant crops.

RevDate: 2022-08-15
CmpDate: 2022-06-09

Reyes-Rivera J, Wu Y, Guthrie BGH, et al (2022)

Nitric oxide signaling controls collective contractions in a colonial choanoflagellate.

Current biology : CB, 32(11):2539-2547.e5.

Although signaling by the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO) regulates key physiological processes in animals, including contractility,[1-3] immunity,[4][,][5] development,[6-9] and locomotion,[10][,][11] the early evolution of animal NO signaling remains unclear. To reconstruct the role of NO in the animal stem lineage, we set out to study NO signaling in choanoflagellates, the closest living relatives of animals.[12] In animals, NO produced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) canonically signals through cGMP by activating soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs).[13][,][14] We surveyed the distribution of the NO signaling pathway components across the diversity of choanoflagellates and found three species that express NOS (of either bacterial or eukaryotic origin), sGCs, and downstream genes previously shown to be involved in the NO/cGMP pathway. One of the species coexpressing sGCs and a bacterial-type NOS, Choanoeca flexa, forms multicellular sheets that undergo collective contractions controlled by cGMP.[15] We found that treatment with NO induces cGMP synthesis and contraction in C. flexa. Biochemical assays show that NO directly binds C. flexa sGC1 and stimulates its cyclase activity. The NO/cGMP pathway acts independently from other inducers of C. flexa contraction, including mechanical stimuli and heat, but sGC activity is required for contractions induced by light-to-dark transitions. The output of NO signaling in C. flexa-contractions resulting in a switch from feeding to swimming-resembles the effect of NO in sponges[1-3] and cnidarians,[11][,][16][,][17] where it interrupts feeding and activates contractility. These data provide insights into the biology of the first animals and the evolution of NO signaling.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Staps M, CE Tarnita (2022)

When being flexible matters: Ecological underpinnings for the evolution of collective flexibility and task allocation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(18):e2116066119.

Task allocation is a central feature of collective organization. Living collective systems, such as multicellular organisms or social insect colonies, have evolved diverse ways to allocate individuals to different tasks, ranging from rigid, inflexible task allocation that is not adjusted to changing circumstances to more fluid, flexible task allocation that is rapidly adjusted to the external environment. While the mechanisms underlying task allocation have been intensely studied, it remains poorly understood whether differences in the flexibility of task allocation can be viewed as adaptive responses to different ecological contexts—for example, different degrees of temporal variability. Motivated by this question, we develop an analytically tractable mathematical framework to explore the evolution of task allocation in dynamic environments. We find that collective flexibility is not necessarily always adaptive, and fails to evolve in environments that change too slowly (relative to how long tasks can be left unattended) or too quickly (relative to how rapidly task allocation can be adjusted). We further employ the framework to investigate how environmental variability impacts the internal organization of task allocation, which allows us to propose adaptive explanations for some puzzling empirical observations, such as seemingly unnecessary task switching under constant environmental conditions, apparent task specialization without efficiency benefits, and high levels of individual inactivity. Altogether, this work provides a general framework for probing the evolved diversity of task allocation strategies in nature and reinforces the idea that considering a system’s ecology is crucial to explaining its collective organization.

RevDate: 2022-10-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-10

Farkas Z, Kovács K, Sarkadi Z, et al (2022)

Gene loss and compensatory evolution promotes the emergence of morphological novelties in budding yeast.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(6):763-773.

Deleterious mutations are generally considered to be irrelevant for morphological evolution. However, they could be compensated by conditionally beneficial mutations, thereby providing access to new adaptive paths. Here we use high-dimensional phenotyping of laboratory-evolved budding yeast lineages to demonstrate that new cellular morphologies emerge exceptionally rapidly as a by-product of gene loss and subsequent compensatory evolution. Unexpectedly, the capacities for invasive growth, multicellular aggregation and biofilm formation also spontaneously evolve in response to gene loss. These multicellular phenotypes can be achieved by diverse mutational routes and without reactivating the canonical regulatory pathways. These ecologically and clinically relevant traits originate as pleiotropic side effects of compensatory evolution and have no obvious utility in the laboratory environment. The extent of morphological diversity in the evolved lineages is comparable to that of natural yeast isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and lifestyles. Finally, we show that both the initial gene loss and subsequent compensatory mutations contribute to new morphologies, with their synergistic effects underlying specific morphological changes. We conclude that compensatory evolution is a previously unrecognized source of morphological diversity and phenotypic novelties.

RevDate: 2022-06-03
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Wang B, Zhu F, Shi Z, et al (2022)

Molecular characteristics, polymorphism and expression analysis of mhc Ⅱ in yellow catfish(pelteobagrus fulvidraco)responding to Flavobacterium columnare infection.

Fish & shellfish immunology, 125:90-100.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an important component of the immune system of vertebrates, which plays a vital role in presenting extrinsic antigens. In this study, we cloned and characterized the mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB genes of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The open reading frames (ORFs) of mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB genes were 708 bp and 747bp in length, encoding 235 and 248 amino acids, respectively. The structure of mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB includes a signal peptide, an α1/β1 domain, an α2/β2 domain, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic region. Homologous identity analysis revealed that both mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB shared high protein sequence similarity with that of Chinese longsnout catfish Leiocassis longirostris. mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB showed similar expression patterns in different tissues, with the higher expression level in spleen, head kidney and gill and lower expression in liver, stomach, gall bladder and heart. The mRNA expression level of mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB in different embryonic development stages also showed the similar trends. The higher expression was detected from fertilized egg to 32 cell stage, low expression from multicellular period to 3 days post hatching (dph), and then the expression increased to a higher level from 4 dph to 14 dph. The mRNA expression levels of mhc ⅡA and mhc ⅡB were significantly up-regulated not only in the body kidney and spleen, but also in the midgut, hindgut, liver and gill after challenge of Flavobacterium columnare. The results suggest that Mhc Ⅱ plays an important role in the anti-infection process of yellow catfish P. fulvidraco.

RevDate: 2022-06-24
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Chaigne A, T Brunet (2022)

Incomplete abscission and cytoplasmic bridges in the evolution of eukaryotic multicellularity.

Current biology : CB, 32(8):R385-R397.

The textbook view of cell division terminates with the final separation of the two daughter cells in the process called abscission. However, in contrast to this classical view, a variety of cell types in multicellular organisms are connected through cytoplasmic bridges, which most often form by incomplete abscission or - more rarely - by local fusion of plasma membranes. In this review, we survey the distribution, function, and formation of cytoplasmic bridges across the eukaryotic tree of life. We find that cytoplasmic bridges are widespread, and were likely ancestrally present, in almost all lineages of eukaryotes with clonal multicellularity - including the five 'complex multicellular' lineages: animals, fungi, land plants, red algae, and brown algae. In animals, cytoplasmic bridges resulting from incomplete abscission are ubiquitous in the germline and common in pluripotent cell types. Although cytoplasmic bridges have been less studied than other structural mediators of multicellularity (such as adhesion proteins and extracellular matrix), we propose that they have played a pivotal role in the repeated evolution of eukaryotic clonal multicellularity - possibly by first performing a structural role and later by allowing exchange of nutrients and/or intercellular communication, which notably buffered cell-cell competition by averaging gene expression. Bridges were eventually lost from many animal tissues in concert with the evolution of spatial cell differentiation, cell motility within the organism, and other mechanisms for intercellular distribution of signals and metabolites. Finally, we discuss the molecular basis for the evolution of incomplete abscission and examine the alternative hypotheses of single or multiple origins.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-11

Mulcahey PJ, Chen Y, Driscoll N, et al (2022)

Multimodal, Multiscale Insights into Hippocampal Seizures Enabled by Transparent, Graphene-Based Microelectrode Arrays.

eNeuro, 9(3):.

Hippocampal seizures are a defining feature of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Area CA1 of the hippocampus is commonly implicated in the generation of seizures, which may occur because of the activity of endogenous cell populations or of inputs from other regions within the hippocampal formation. Simultaneously observing activity at the cellular and network scales in vivo remains challenging. Here, we present a novel technology for simultaneous electrophysiology and multicellular calcium imaging of CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) in mice enabled by a transparent graphene-based microelectrode array (Gr MEA). We examine PC firing at seizure onset, oscillatory coupling, and the dynamics of the seizure traveling wave as seizures evolve. Finally, we couple features derived from both modalities to predict the speed of the traveling wave using bootstrap aggregated regression trees. Analysis of the most important features in the regression trees suggests a transition among states in the evolution of hippocampal seizures.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-08-18

Melnikov NP, Bolshakov FV, Frolova VS, et al (2022)

Tissue homeostasis in sponges: Quantitative analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution, 338(6):360-381.

Tissues of multicellular animals are maintained due to a tight balance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Sponges are early branching metazoans essential to understanding the key mechanisms of tissue homeostasis. This article is dedicated to the comparative analysis of proliferation and apoptosis in intact tissues of two sponges, Halisarca dujardinii (class Demospongiae) and Leucosolenia variabilis (class Calcarea). Labeled nucleotides EdU and anti-phosphorylated histone 3 antibodies reveal a considerable number of cycling cells in intact tissues of both species. Quantitative DNA staining reveals the classic cell cycle distribution curve. The main type of cycling cells are choanocytes - flagellated cells of the aquiferous system. The rate of proliferation remains constant throughout various areas of sponge bodies that contain choanocytes. The EdU tracking experiments conducted in H. dujardinii indicate that choanocytes may give rise to mesohyl cells through migration. The number of apoptotic cells in tissues of both species is insignificant, although being comparable to the renewing tissues of other animals. In vivo studies with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester and CellEvent Caspase-3/7 indicate that apoptosis might be independent of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Altogether, a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry provides a quantitative description of cell proliferation and apoptosis in sponges displaying either rapid growth or cell turnover.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-18

Nozaki H, Mori F, Tanaka Y, et al (2022)

Cryopreservation of vegetative cells and zygotes of the multicellular volvocine green alga Gonium pectorale.

BMC microbiology, 22(1):103.

BACKGROUND: Colonial and multicellular volvocine green algae have been extensively studied recently in various fields of the biological sciences. However, only one species (Pandorina morum) has been cryopreserved in public culture collections.

RESULTS: Here, we investigated conditions for cryopreservation of the multicellular volvocine alga Gonium pectorale using vegetative colonies or cells and zygotes. Rates of vegetative cell survival in a G. pectorale strain after two-step cooling and freezing in liquid nitrogen were compared between different concentrations (3% and 6%) of the cryoprotectant N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and two types of tubes (0.2-mL polymerase chain reaction tubes and 2-mL cryotubes) used for cryopreservation. Among the four conditions investigated, the highest rate of survival [2.7 ± 3.6% (0.54-10%) by the most probable number (MPN) method] was obtained when 2.0-mL cryotubes containing 1.0 mL of culture samples with 6% DMF were subjected to cryogenic treatment. Using these optimized cryopreservation conditions, survival rates after freezing in liquid nitrogen were examined for twelve other strains of G. pectorale and twelve strains of five other Gonium species. We obtained ≥ 0.1% MPN survival in nine of the twelve G. pectorale strains tested. However, < 0.1% MPN survival was detected in eleven of twelve strains of five other Gonium species. In total, ten cryopreserved strains of G. pectorale were newly established in the Microbial Culture Collection at the National Institute for Environmental Studies. Although the cryopreservation of zygotes of volvocine algae has not been previously reported, high rates (approximately 60%) of G. pectorale zygote germination were observed after thawing zygotes that had been cryopreserved with 5% or 10% methanol as the cryoprotectant during two-step cooling and freezing in liquid nitrogen.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation of G. pectorale is possible with 6% DMF as a cryoprotectant and 1.0-mL culture samples in 2.0-mL cryotubes subjected to two-step cooling in a programmable freezer.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Rohkin Shalom S, Weiss B, Lalzar M, et al (2022)

Abundance and Localization of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities in the Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 88(9):e0254921.

Multicellular eukaryotes often host multiple microbial symbionts that may cooperate or compete for host resources, such as space and nutrients. Here, we studied the abundances and localization of four bacterial symbionts, Rickettsia, Wolbachia, Sodalis, and Arsenophonus, in the parasitic wasp Spalangia cameroni. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we measured the symbionts' titers in wasps that harbor different combinations of these symbionts. We found that the titer of each symbiont decreased as the number of symbiont species in the community increased. Symbionts' titers were higher in females than in males. Rickettsia was the most abundant symbiont in all the communities, followed by Sodalis and Wolbachia. The titers of these three symbionts were positively correlated in some of the colonies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was in line with the qPCR results: Rickettsia, Wolbachia, and Sodalis were observed in high densities in multiple organs, including brain, muscles, gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, ovaries, and testes, while Arsenophonus was localized to fewer organs and in lower densities. Sodalis and Arsenophonus were observed in ovarian follicle cells but not within oocytes or laid eggs. This study highlights the connection between symbionts' abundance and localization. We discuss the possible connections between our findings to symbiont transmission success. IMPORTANCE Many insects carry intracellular bacterial symbionts (bacteria that reside within the cells of the insect). When multiple symbiont species cohabit in a host, they may compete or cooperate for space, nutrients, and transmission, and the nature of such interactions would be reflected in the abundance of each symbiont species. Given the widespread occurrence of coinfections with maternally transmitted symbionts in insects, it is important to learn more about how they interact, where they are localized, and how these two aspects affect their co-occurrence within individual insects. Here, we studied the abundance and the localization of four symbionts, Rickettsia, Wolbachia, Sodalis, and Arsenophonus, that cohabit the parasitic wasp Spalangia cameroni. We found that symbionts' titers differed between symbiotic communities. These results were corroborated by microscopy, which shows differential localization patterns. We discuss the findings in the contexts of community ecology, possible symbiont-symbiont interactions, and host control mechanisms that may shape the symbiotic community structure.

RevDate: 2022-06-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Kambayashi C, Kakehashi R, Sato Y, et al (2022)

Geography-Dependent Horizontal Gene Transfer from Vertebrate Predators to Their Prey.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(4):.

Horizontal transfer (HT) of genes between multicellular animals, once thought to be extremely rare, is being more commonly detected, but its global geographic trend and transfer mechanism have not been investigated. We discovered a unique HT pattern of Bovine-B (BovB) LINE retrotransposons in vertebrates, with a bizarre transfer direction from predators (snakes) to their prey (frogs). At least 54 instances of BovB HT were detected, which we estimate to have occurred across time between 85 and 1.3 Ma. Using comprehensive transcontinental sampling, our study demonstrates that BovB HT is highly prevalent in one geographical region, Madagascar, suggesting important regional differences in the occurrence of HTs. We discovered parasite vectors that may plausibly transmit BovB and found that the proportion of BovB-positive parasites is also high in Madagascar where BovB thus might be physically transported by parasites to diverse vertebrates, potentially including humans. Remarkably, in two frog lineages, BovB HT occurred after migration from a non-HT area (Africa) to the HT hotspot (Madagascar). These results provide a novel perspective on how the prevalence of parasites influences the occurrence of HT in a region, similar to pathogens and their vectors in some endemic diseases.

RevDate: 2022-04-19
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Kasperski A (2022)

Life Entrapped in a Network of Atavistic Attractors: How to Find a Rescue.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7):.

In view of unified cell bioenergetics, cell bioenergetic problems related to cell overenergization can cause excessive disturbances in current cell fate and, as a result, lead to a change of cell-fate. At the onset of the problem, cell overenergization of multicellular organisms (especially overenergization of mitochondria) is solved inter alia by activation and then stimulation of the reversible Crabtree effect by cells. Unfortunately, this apparently good solution can also lead to a much bigger problem when, despite the activation of the Crabtree effect, cell overenergization persists for a long time. In such a case, cancer transformation, along with the Warburg effect, may occur to further reduce or stop the charging of mitochondria by high-energy molecules. Understanding the phenomena of cancer transformation and cancer development has become a real challenge for humanity. To date, many models have been developed to understand cancer-related mechanisms. Nowadays, combining all these models into one coherent universal model of cancer transformation and development can be considered a new challenge. In this light, the aim of this article is to present such a potentially universal model supported by a proposed new model of cellular functionality evolution. The methods of fighting cancer resulting from unified cell bioenergetics and the two presented models are also considered.

RevDate: 2022-05-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Zschüntzsch J, Meyer S, Shahriyari M, et al (2022)

The Evolution of Complex Muscle Cell In Vitro Models to Study Pathomechanisms and Drug Development of Neuromuscular Disease.

Cells, 11(7):.

Many neuromuscular disease entities possess a significant disease burden and therapeutic options remain limited. Innovative human preclinical models may help to uncover relevant disease mechanisms and enhance the translation of therapeutic findings to strengthen neuromuscular disease precision medicine. By concentrating on idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders, we summarize the recent evolution of the novel in vitro models to study disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. A particular focus is laid on the integration and simulation of multicellular interactions of muscle tissue in disease phenotypes in vitro. Finally, the requirements of a neuromuscular disease drug development workflow are discussed with a particular emphasis on cell sources, co-culture systems (including organoids), functionality, and throughput.

RevDate: 2022-04-09

Koide RT (2022)

On Holobionts, Holospecies, and Holoniches: the Role of Microbial Symbioses in Ecology and Evolution.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

My goal in writing this is to increase awareness of the roles played by microbial symbionts in eukaryote ecology and evolution. Most eukaryotes host one or more species of symbiotic microorganisms, including prokaryotes and fungi. Many of these have profound impacts on the biology of their hosts. For example, microbial symbionts may expand the niches of their hosts, cause rapid adaptation of the host to the environment and re-adaptation to novel conditions via symbiont swapping, facilitate speciation, and fundamentally alter our concept of the species. In some cases, microbial symbionts and multicellular eukaryote hosts have a mutual dependency, which has obvious conservation implications. Hopefully, this contribution will stimulate a reevaluation of important ecological and evolutionary concepts including niche, adaptation, the species, speciation, and conservation of multicellular eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Ramon-Mateu J, Edgar A, Mitchell D, et al (2022)

Studying Ctenophora WBR Using Mnemiopsis leidyi.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2450:95-119.

Ctenophores, also known as comb jellies, are a clade of fragile holopelagic, carnivorous marine invertebrates, that represent one of the most ancient extant groups of multicellular animals. Ctenophores show a remarkable ability to regenerate in the adult form, being capable of replacing all body parts (i.e., whole-body regeneration) after loss/amputation. With many favorable experimental features (optical clarity, stereotyped cell lineage, multiple cell types), a full genome sequence available and their early branching phylogenetic position, ctenophores are well placed to provide information about the evolution of regenerative ability throughout the Metazoa. Here, we provide a collection of detailed protocols for use of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to study whole-body regeneration, including specimen collection, husbandry, surgical manipulation, and imaging techniques.

RevDate: 2022-04-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Shapiro JA (2022)

What we have learned about evolutionary genome change in the past 7 decades.

Bio Systems, 215-216:104669.

Cytogenetics and genomics have completely transformed our understanding of evolutionary genome change since the early 1950s. The point of this paper is to outline some of the empirical findings responsible for that transformation. The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in maize by McClintock, and their subsequent rediscovery in all forms of life, tell us that organisms have the inherent capacity to evolve dispersed genomic networks encoding complex cellular and multicellular adaptations. Genomic analysis confirms the role of TEs in wiring novel networks at major evolutionary transitions. TEs and other forms of repetitive DNA are also important contributors to genome regions that serve as transcriptional templates for regulatory and other biologically functional noncoding ncRNAs. The many functions documented for ncRNAs shows the concept of abundant "selfish" or "junk" DNA in complex genomes is mistaken. Natural and artificial speciation by interspecific hybridization demonstrates that TEs and other biochemical systems of genome restructuring are subject to rapid activation and can generate changes throughout the genomes of the novel species that emerge. In addition to TEs and hybrid species, cancer cells have taught us important lessons about chromothripsis, chromoplexy and other forms of non-random multisite genome restructuring. In many of these restructured genomes, alternative end-joining processes display the capacities of eukaryotes to generate novel combinations of templated and untemplated DNA sequences at the sites of break repair. Sequence innovation by alternative end-joining is widespread among eukaryotes from single cells to advanced plants and animals. In sum, the cellular and genomic capacities of eukaryotic cells have proven to be capable of executing rapid macroevolutionary change under a variety of conditions.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-04-01

Burnetti A, WC Ratcliff (2022)

Experimental evolution is not just for model organisms.

PLoS biology, 20(3):e3001587.

In a new paper published in PLOS Biology, Dudin and colleagues evolve simple multicellularity in Sphaeroforma arctica, a unicellular relative of animals. This work establishes a new and open-ended avenue for examining the evolution of multicellularity in an important but understudied group of organisms.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Toret C, Picco A, Boiero-Sanders M, et al (2022)

The cellular slime mold Fonticula alba forms a dynamic, multicellular collective while feeding on bacteria.

Current biology : CB, 32(9):1961-1973.e4.

Multicellularity evolved in fungi and animals, or the opisthokonts, from their common amoeboflagellate ancestor but resulted in strikingly distinct cellular organizations. The origins of this multicellularity divergence are not known. The stark mechanistic differences that underlie the two groups and the lack of information about ancestral cellular organizations limits progress in this field. We discovered a new type of invasive multicellular behavior in Fonticula alba, a unique species in the opisthokont tree, which has a simple, bacteria-feeding sorocarpic amoeba lifestyle. This invasive multicellularity follows germination dependent on the bacterial culture state, after which amoebae coalesce to form dynamic collectives that invade virgin bacterial resources. This bacteria-dependent social behavior emerges from amoeba density and allows for rapid and directed invasion. The motile collectives have animal-like properties but also hyphal-like search and invasive behavior. These surprising findings enrich the diverse multicellularities present within the opisthokont lineage and offer a new perspective on fungal origins.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-04-01

Dudin O, Wielgoss S, New AM, et al (2022)

Regulation of sedimentation rate shapes the evolution of multicellularity in a close unicellular relative of animals.

PLoS biology, 20(3):e3001551.

Significant increases in sedimentation rate accompany the evolution of multicellularity. These increases should lead to rapid changes in ecological distribution, thereby affecting the costs and benefits of multicellularity and its likelihood to evolve. However, how genetic and cellular traits control this process, their likelihood of emergence over evolutionary timescales, and the variation in these traits as multicellularity evolves are still poorly understood. Here, using isolates of the ichthyosporean genus Sphaeroforma-close unicellular relatives of animals with brief transient multicellular life stages-we demonstrate that sedimentation rate is a highly variable and evolvable trait affected by at least 2 distinct physical mechanisms. First, we find extensive (>300×) variation in sedimentation rates for different Sphaeroforma species, mainly driven by size and density during the unicellular-to-multicellular life cycle transition. Second, using experimental evolution with sedimentation rate as a focal trait, we readily obtained, for the first time, fast settling and multicellular Sphaeroforma arctica isolates. Quantitative microscopy showed that increased sedimentation rates most often arose by incomplete cellular separation after cell division, leading to clonal "clumping" multicellular variants with increased size and density. Strikingly, density increases also arose by an acceleration of the nuclear doubling time relative to cell size. Similar size- and density-affecting phenotypes were observed in 4 additional species from the Sphaeroforma genus, suggesting that variation in these traits might be widespread in the marine habitat. By resequencing evolved isolates to high genomic coverage, we identified mutations in regulators of cytokinesis, plasma membrane remodeling, and chromatin condensation that may contribute to both clump formation and the increase in the nuclear number-to-volume ratio. Taken together, this study illustrates how extensive cellular control of density and size drive sedimentation rate variation, likely shaping the onset and further evolution of multicellularity.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-25

Booth DS, N King (2022)

The history of Salpingoeca rosetta as a model for reconstructing animal origins.

Current topics in developmental biology, 147:73-91.

Choanoflagellates, the closest living relatives of animals, have the potential to reveal the genetic and cell biological foundations of complex multicellular development in animals. Here we describe the history of research on the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. From its original isolation in 2000 to the establishment of CRISPR-mediated genome editing in 2020, S. rosetta provides an instructive case study in the establishment of a new model organism.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-25

Hammond M, Dorrell RG, Speijer D, et al (2022)

Eukaryotic cellular intricacies shape mitochondrial proteomic complexity.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 44(5):e2100258.

Mitochondria have been fundamental to the eco-physiological success of eukaryotes since the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). They contribute essential functions to eukaryotic cells, above and beyond classical respiration. Mitochondria interact with, and complement, metabolic pathways occurring in other organelles, notably diversifying the chloroplast metabolism of photosynthetic organisms. Here, we integrate existing literature to investigate how mitochondrial metabolism varies across the landscape of eukaryotic evolution. We illustrate the mitochondrial remodelling and proteomic changes undergone in conjunction with major evolutionary transitions. We explore how the mitochondrial complexity of the LECA has been remodelled in specific groups to support subsequent evolutionary transitions, such as the acquisition of chloroplasts in photosynthetic species and the emergence of multicellularity. We highlight the versatile and crucial roles played by mitochondria during eukaryotic evolution, extending from its huge contribution to the development of the LECA itself to the dynamic evolution of individual eukaryote groups, reflecting both their current ecologies and evolutionary histories.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Bogaert KA, Zakka EE, Coelho SM, et al (2023)

Polarization of brown algal zygotes.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 134:90-102.

Brown algae are a group of multicellular, heterokont algae that have convergently evolved developmental complexity that rivals that of embryophytes, animals or fungi. Early in development, brown algal zygotes establish a basal and an apical pole, which will become respectively the basal system (holdfast) and the apical system (thallus) of the adult alga. Brown algae are interesting models for understanding the establishment of cell polarity in a broad evolutionary context, because they exhibit a large diversity of life cycles, reproductive strategies and, importantly, their zygotes are produced in large quantities free of parental tissue, with symmetry breaking and asymmetric division taking place in a highly synchronous manner. This review describes the current knowledge about the establishment of the apical-basal axis in the model brown seaweeds Ectocarpus, Dictyota, Fucus and Saccharina, highlighting the advantages and specific interests of each system. Ectocarpus is a genetic model system that allows access to the molecular basis of early development and life-cycle control over apical-basal polarity. The oogamous brown alga Fucus, together with emerging comparative models Dictyota and Saccharina, emphasize the diversity of strategies of symmetry breaking in determining a cell polarity vector in brown algae. A comparison with symmetry-breaking mechanisms in land plants, animals and fungi, reveals that the one-step zygote polarisation of Fucus compares well to Saccharomyces budding and Arabidopsis stomata development, while the two-phased symmetry breaking in the Dictyota zygote compares to Schizosaccharomyces fission, the Caenorhabditis anterior-posterior zygote polarisation and Arabidopsis prolate pollen polarisation. The apical-basal patterning in Saccharina zygotes on the other hand, may be seen as analogous to that of land plants. Overall, brown algae have the potential to bring exciting new information on how a single cell gives rise to an entire complex body plan.

RevDate: 2022-04-07
CmpDate: 2022-04-07

Chen C, Wang P, Chen H, et al (2022)

Smart Magnetotactic Bacteria Enable the Inhibition of Neuroblastoma under an Alternating Magnetic Field.

ACS applied materials & interfaces, 14(12):14049-14058.

Magnetotactic bacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms in nature that synthesize intracellular magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes in a gene-controlled way and arrange them in chains. From in vitro to in vivo, we demonstrate that the intact body of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 has potential as a natural magnetic hyperthermia material for cancer therapy. Compared to chains of magnetosomes and individual magnetosomes, the entire AMB-1 cell exhibits superior heating capability under an alternating magnetic field. When incubating with tumor cells, the intact AMB-1 cells disperse better than the other two types of magnetosomes, decreasing cellular viability under the control of an alternating magnetic field. Furthermore, in vivo experiments in nude mice with neuroblastoma found that intact AMB-1 cells had the best antitumor activity with magnetic hyperthermia therapy compared to other treatment groups. These findings suggest that the intact body of magnetotactic bacteria has enormous promise as a natural material for tumor magnetic hyperthermia. In biomedical applications, intact and living magnetotactic bacteria play an increasingly essential function as a targeting robot due to their magnetotaxis.

RevDate: 2022-03-19

Jiménez-Marín B, BJSC Olson (2022)

The Curious Case of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:787665.

The evolution of multicellularity is a major evolutionary transition that underlies the radiation of many species in all domains of life, especially in eukaryotes. The volvocine green algae are an unconventional model system that holds great promise in the field given its genetic tractability, late transition to multicellularity, and phenotypic diversity. Multiple efforts at linking multicellularity-related developmental landmarks to key molecular changes, especially at the genome level, have provided key insights into the molecular innovations or lack thereof that underlie multicellularity. Twelve developmental changes have been proposed to explain the evolution of complex differentiated multicellularity in the volvocine algae. Co-option of key genes, such as cell cycle and developmental regulators has been observed, but with few exceptions, known co-option events do not seem to coincide with most developmental features observed in multicellular volvocines. The apparent lack of "master multicellularity genes" combined with no apparent correlation between gene gains for developmental processes suggest the possibility that many multicellular traits might be the product gene-regulatory and functional innovations; in other words, multicellularity can arise from shared genomic repertoires that undergo regulatory and functional overhauls.

RevDate: 2022-03-08

Palazzo AF, NS Kejiou (2022)

Non-Darwinian Molecular Biology.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:831068.

With the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, a shift occurred in how biologists investigated questions surrounding cellular processes, such as protein synthesis. Instead of viewing biological activity through the lens of chemical reactions, this new field used biological information to gain a new profound view of how biological systems work. Molecular biologists asked new types of questions that would have been inconceivable to the older generation of researchers, such as how cellular machineries convert inherited biological information into functional molecules like proteins. This new focus on biological information also gave molecular biologists a way to link their findings to concepts developed by genetics and the modern synthesis. However, by the late 1960s this all changed. Elevated rates of mutation, unsustainable genetic loads, and high levels of variation in populations, challenged Darwinian evolution, a central tenant of the modern synthesis, where adaptation was the main driver of evolutionary change. Building on these findings, Motoo Kimura advanced the neutral theory of molecular evolution, which advocates that selection in multicellular eukaryotes is weak and that most genomic changes are neutral and due to random drift. This was further elaborated by Jack King and Thomas Jukes, in their paper "Non-Darwinian Evolution", where they pointed out that the observed changes seen in proteins and the types of polymorphisms observed in populations only become understandable when we take into account biochemistry and Kimura's new theory. Fifty years later, most molecular biologists remain unaware of these fundamental advances. Their adaptionist viewpoint fails to explain data collected from new powerful technologies which can detect exceedingly rare biochemical events. For example, high throughput sequencing routinely detects RNA transcripts being produced from almost the entire genome yet are present less than one copy per thousand cells and appear to lack any function. Molecular biologists must now reincorporate ideas from classical biochemistry and absorb modern concepts from molecular evolution, to craft a new lens through which they can evaluate the functionality of transcriptional units, and make sense of our messy, intricate, and complicated genome.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Frenkel-Pinter M, Petrov AS, Matange K, et al (2022)

Adaptation and Exaptation: From Small Molecules to Feathers.

Journal of molecular evolution, 90(2):166-175.

Evolution works by adaptation and exaptation. At an organismal level, exaptation and adaptation are seen in the formation of organelles and the advent of multicellularity. At the sub-organismal level, molecular systems such as proteins and RNAs readily undergo adaptation and exaptation. Here we suggest that the concepts of adaptation and exaptation are universal, synergistic, and recursive and apply to small molecules such as metabolites, cofactors, and the building blocks of extant polymers. For example, adenosine has been extensively adapted and exapted throughout biological evolution. Chemical variants of adenosine that are products of adaptation include 2' deoxyadenosine in DNA and a wide array of modified forms in mRNAs, tRNAs, rRNAs, and viral RNAs. Adenosine and its variants have been extensively exapted for various functions, including informational polymers (RNA, DNA), energy storage (ATP), metabolism (e.g., coenzyme A), and signaling (cyclic AMP). According to Gould, Vrba, and Darwin, exaptation imposes a general constraint on interpretation of history and origins; because of exaptation, extant function should not be used to explain evolutionary history. While this notion is accepted in evolutionary biology, it can also guide the study of the chemical origins of life. We propose that (i) evolutionary theory is broadly applicable from the dawn of life to the present time from molecules to organisms, (ii) exaptation and adaptation were important and simultaneous processes, and (iii) robust origin of life models can be constructed without conflating extant utility with historical basis of origins.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )