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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 27 May 2022 at 01:45 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: "microbial ecology" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-05-26

Xiong C, Calatayud M, van de Wiele T, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota metabolize arsenolipids in a donor dependent way.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 239:113662 pii:S0147-6513(22)00502-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and arsenolipids can help us manage the potential health risk of consuming seafood, but little is known about the bioconversion fate of arsenolipids in the gastrointestinal tract. We use an in vitro mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME) to mimic the digestive tract of four healthy donors during exposure to two arsenolipids (an arsenic fatty acid AsFA 362 or an arsenic hydrocarbon AsHC 332). The metabolites were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The human gut bacteria accumulated arsenolipids in a donor-dependent way, with higher retention of AsHC 332. Colonic microbiota partly transformed both arsenolipids to their thioxo analogs, while AsFA 362 was additionally transformed into arsenic-containing fatty esters, arsenic-containing fatty alcohols, and arsenic-containing sterols. There was no significant difference in water-soluble arsenicals between arsenolipid treatments. The study shows that arsenolipids can be quickly biotransformed into several lipid-soluble arsenicals of unknown toxicity, which cannot be excluded when considering potential implications on human health.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Laber CP, Pontiller B, Bunse C, et al (2022)

Seasonal and Spatial Variations in Synechococcus Abundance and Diversity Throughout the Gullmar Fjord, Swedish Skagerrak.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:828459.

The picophytoplankton Synechococcus is a globally abundant autotroph that contributes significantly to primary production in the oceans and coastal areas. These cyanobacteria constitute a diverse genus of organisms that have developed independent niche spaces throughout aquatic environments. Here, we use the 16S V3-V4 rRNA gene region and flow cytometry to explore the diversity of Synechococcus within the picophytoplankton community in the Gullmar Fjord, on the west coast of Sweden. We conducted a station-based 1-year time series and two transect studies of the fjord. Our analysis revealed that within the large number of Synechococcus amplicon sequence variants (ASVs; 239 in total), prevalent ASVs phylogenetically clustered with clade representatives in both marine subcluster 5.1 and 5.2. The near-surface composition of ASVs shifted from spring to summer, when a 5.1 subcluster dominated community developed along with elevated Synechococcus abundances up to 9.3 × 104 cells ml-1. This seasonal dominance by subcluster 5.1 was observed over the length of the fjord (25 km), where shifts in community composition were associated with increasing depth. Unexpectedly, the community shift was not associated with changes in salinity. Synechococcus abundance dynamics also differed from that of the photosynthetic picoeukaryote community. These results highlight how seasonal variations in environmental conditions influence the dynamics of Synechococcus clades in a high latitude threshold fjord.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Pierangeli GMF, Domingues MR, Choueri RB, et al (2022)

Spatial Variation and Environmental Parameters Affecting the Abundant and Rare Communities of Bacteria and Archaea in the Sediments of Tropical Urban Reservoirs.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities in freshwater sediments play an important role in organic matter remineralization, contributing to biogeochemical cycles, nutrient release, and greenhouse gases emissions. Bacterial and archaeal communities might show spatial or seasonal patterns and were shown to be influenced by distinct environmental parameters and anthropogenic activities, including pollution and damming. Here, we determined the spatial variation and the environmental variables influencing the abundant and rare bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments of eutrophic-hypereutrophic reservoirs from a tropical urban area in Brazil. The most abundant microbes included mainly Anaerolineae and Deltaproteobacteria genera from the Bacteria domain, and Methanomicrobia genera from the Archaea domain. Microbial communities differed spatially in each reservoir, reflecting the establishment of specific environmental conditions. Locations with better or worst water quality, or close to a dam, showed more distinct microbial communities. Besides the water column depth, microbial communities were affected by some pollution indicators, including total phosphorus, orthophosphate, electrical conductivity, and biochemical oxygen demand. Distinct proportions of variation were explained by spatial and environmental parameters for each microbial community. Furthermore, spatial variations in environmental parameters affecting these communities, especially the most distinct ones, contributed to microbial variations mediated by spatial and environmental properties together. Finally, our study showed that different pressures in each reservoir affected the sediment microbiota, promoting different responses and possible adaptations of abundant and rare bacterial and archaeal communities.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Dhar K, Panneerselvan L, Subashchandrabose SR, et al (2022)

Anaerobic Degradation of Naphthalene and Pyrene by Sulfate-Reducing Cultures Enriched from Former Manufactured Gas Plant Soil.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under completely anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions is an energetically challenging process. To date, anaerobic degradations of only two-ringed naphthalene and three-ringed phenanthrene by sediment-free and enriched sulfate-reducing bacteria have been reported. In this study, sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures capable of degrading naphthalene and four-ringed PAH, pyrene, were enriched from a contaminated former gas plant site soil. Bacterial community composition analysis revealed that a naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture, MMNap, was dominated (84.90%) by a Gram-positive endospore-forming member of the genus Desulfotomaculum with minor contribution (8.60%) from a member of Clostridium. The pyrene-degrading enrichment, MMPyr, was dominated (97.40%) by a species of Desulfotomaculum. The sequences representing the Desulfotomaculum phylotypes shared 98.80% similarity to each other. After 150 days of incubation, MMNap degraded 195 µM naphthalene with simultaneous reduction of sulfate and accumulation of sulfide. Similarly, MMPyr degraded 114 µM pyrene during 180 days of incubation with nearly stochiometric sulfate consumption and sulfide accumulation. In both cases, the addition of sulfate reduction inhibitor, molybdate (20 mM), resulted in complete cessation of the substrate utilization and sulfate reduction that clearly indicated the major role of the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum in biodegradation of the two PAHs. This study is the first report on anaerobic pyrene degradation by a matrix-free, strictly anaerobic, and sulfate-reducing enrichment culture.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Perini L, Gostinčar C, Likar M, et al (2022)

Interactions of Fungi and Algae from the Greenland Ice Sheet.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Heavily pigmented glacier ice algae Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Ancylonema alaskanum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) reduce the bare ice albedo of the Greenland Ice Sheet, amplifying melt from the largest cryospheric contributor to eustatic sea-level rise. Little information is available about glacier ice algae interactions with other microbial communities within the surface ice environment, including fungi, which may be important for sustaining algal bloom development. To address this substantial knowledge gap and investigate the nature of algal-fungal interactions, an ex situ co-cultivation experiment with two species of fungi, recently isolated from the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (here proposed new species Penicillium anthracinoglaciei Perini, Frisvad and Zalar, Mycobank (MB 835602), and Articulospora sp.), and the mixed microbial community dominated by glacier ice algae was performed. The utilization of the dark pigment purpurogallin carboxylic acid-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (C18H18O12) by the two fungi was also evaluated in a separate experiment. P. anthracinoglaciei was capable of utilizing and converting the pigment to purpurogallin carboxylic acid, possibly using the sugar moiety as a nutrient source. Furthermore, after 3 weeks of incubation in the presence of P. anthracinoglaciei, a significantly slower decline in the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, inverse proxy of algal stress) in glacier ice algae, compared to other treatments, was evident, suggesting a positive relationship between these species. Articulospora sp. did uptake the glycosylated purpurogallin, but did not seem to be involved in its conversion to aglycone derivative. At the end of the incubation experiments and, in conjunction with increased algal mortality, we detected a substantially increasing presence of the zoosporic fungi Chytridiomycota suggesting an important role for them as decomposers or parasites of glacier ice algae.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Semler AC, Fortney JL, Fulweiler RW, et al (2022)

Cold Seeps on the Passive Northern U.S. Atlantic Margin Host Globally Representative Members of the Seep Microbiome with Locally Dominant Strains of Archaea.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Marine cold seeps are natural sites of methane emission and harbor distinct microbial communities capable of oxidizing methane. The majority of known cold seeps are on tectonically active continental margins, but recent discoveries have revealed abundant seeps on passive margins as well, including on the U.S. Atlantic Margin (USAM). We sampled in and around four USAM seeps and combined pore water geochemistry measurements with amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA and mcrA (DNA and RNA) to investigate the microbial communities present, their assembly processes, and how they compare to communities at previously studied sites. We found that the USAM seeps contained communities consistent with the canonical seep microbiome at the class and order levels but differed markedly at the sequence variant level, especially within the anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea. The ANME populations were highly uneven, with just a few dominant mcrA sequence variants at each seep. Interestingly, the USAM seeps did not form a distinct phylogenetic cluster when compared with other previously described seeps around the world. Consistent with this, we found only a very weak (though statistically significant) distance-decay trend in seep community similarity across a global data set. Ecological assembly indices suggest that the USAM seep communities were assembled primarily deterministically, in contrast to the surrounding nonseep sediments, where stochastic processes dominated. Together, our results suggest that the primary driver of seep microbial community composition is local geochemistry-specifically methane, sulfide, nitrate, acetate, and ammonium concentrations-rather than the geologic context, the composition of nearby seeps, or random events of dispersal. IMPORTANCE Cold seeps are now known to be widespread features of passive continental margins, including the northern U.S. Atlantic Margin (USAM). Methane seepage is expected to intensify at these relatively shallow seeps as bottom waters warm and underlying methane hydrates dissociate. While methanotrophic microbial communities might reduce or prevent methane release, microbial communities on passive margins have rarely been characterized. In this study, we investigated the Bacteria and Archaea at four cold seeps on the northern USAM and found that despite being colocated on the same continental slope, the communities significantly differ by site at the sequence variant level, particularly methane-cycling community members. Differentiation by site was not observed in similarly spaced background sediments, raising interesting questions about the dispersal pathways of cold seep microorganisms. Understanding the genetic makeup of these discrete seafloor ecosystems and how their microbial communities develop will be increasingly important as the climate changes.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Benítez-Páez A, Hartstra AV, Nieuwdorp M, et al (2022)

Species- and strain-level assessment using rrn long-amplicons suggests donor's influence on gut microbial transference via fecal transplants in metabolic syndrome subjects.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2078621.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently used for treating Clostridium difficile infection and explored for other clinical applications in experimental trials. However, the effectiveness of this therapy could vary, and partly depend on the donor's bacterial species engraftment, whose evaluation is challenging because there are no cost-effective strategies for accurately tracking the microbe transference. In this regard, the precise identification of bacterial species inhabiting the human gut is essential to define their role in human health unambiguously. We used Nanopore-based device to sequence bacterial rrn operons (16S-ITS-23S) and to reveal species-level abundance changes in the human gut microbiota of a FMT trial. By assessing the donor and recipient microbiota before and after FMT, we further evaluated whether this molecular approach reveals strain-level genetic variation to demonstrate microbe transfer and engraftment. Strict control over sequencing data quality and major microbiota covariates was critical for accurately estimating the changes in gut microbial species abundance in the recipients after FMT. We detected strain-level variation via single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) at rrn regions in a species-specific manner. We showed that it was possible to explore successfully the donor-bacterial strain (e.g., Parabacteroides merdae) engraftment in recipients of the FMT by assessing the nucleotide frequencies at rrn-associated SNVs. Our findings indicate that the engraftment of donors' microbiota is to some extent correlated with the improvement of metabolic health in recipients and that parameters such as the baseline gut microbiota configuration, sex, and age of donors should be considered to ensure the success of FMT in humans. The study was prospectively registered at the Dutch Trial registry - NTR4488 (https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/4488).

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Fang J, Jiang W, Meng S, et al (2022)

Polychaete Bioturbation Alters the Taxonomic Structure, Co-occurrence Network, and Functional Groups of Bacterial Communities in the Intertidal Flat.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Polychaetes are important benthic macrofauna that lives in sediments, usually in intertidal flats with high organic content and high sulfide. It has been suggested that polychaete bioturbation could perform environmental remediation. During the process, the microbial community plays important roles. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to study the bioturbation effects on the bacterial community in the polychaete (Perinereis aibuhitensis) burrows at different tidal positions in intertidal flat. The results showed that the bacterial communities were dramatically influenced by the polychaete bioturbation. The ACE, Chao, and Shannon indices of the polychaete burrows increased in summer. Dominant phyla in the polychaete burrows were Proteobacteria, Campilobacterota, Desulfobacterota, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidota, and the dominant bacterial families were Sulfurvaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Woeseiaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Sulfurimonadaceae. Results of linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) showed that groups that include organic matter degraders, such as Bacteroidota, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Woeseiaceae, and groups that include sulfur oxidizers, such as Campilobacterota, Sulfurovaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Sulfurimonadaceae, were significantly increased due to the polychaete bioturbation. The polychaete bioturbation reduced the complexity of the bacterial co-occurrence network while increased its modularity and homogeneity. The polychaete bioturbation also changed the functional groups, which significantly enhanced in functional groups of aerobic nitrite oxidation, nitration, dark thiosulfate oxidation, dark sulfur oxidation, and dark sulfite oxidation, while nitrogen respiration and nitrate respiration decreased. These results provide insight into the impact of bacterial communities under the intertidal polychaete bioturbation.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Salazar B, Ortiz A, Keswani C, et al (2022)

Bacillus spp. as Bio-factories for Antifungal Secondary Metabolites: Innovation Beyond Whole Organism Formulations.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Several fungi act as parasites for crops causing huge annual crop losses at both pre- and post-harvest stages. For years, chemical fungicides were the solution; however, their wide use has caused environmental contamination and human health problems. For this reason, the use of biofungicides has been in practice as a green solution against fungal phytopathogens. In the context of a more sustainable agriculture, microbial biofungicides have the largest share among the commercial biocontrol products that are available in the market. Precisely, the genus Bacillus has been largely studied for the management of plant pathogenic fungi because they offer a chemically diverse arsenal of antifungal secondary metabolites, which have spawned a heightened industrial engrossment of it as a biopesticide. In this sense, it is indispensable to know the wide arsenal that Bacillus genus has to apply these products for sustainable agriculture. Having this idea in our minds, in this review, secondary metabolites from Bacillus having antifungal activity are chemically and structurally described giving details of their action against several phytopathogens. Knowing the current status of Bacillus secreted antifungals is the base for the goal to apply these in agriculture and it is addressed in depth in the second part of this review.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Schultz J, Argentino ICV, Kallies R, et al (2022)

Polyphasic Analysis Reveals Potential Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation and Biosurfactant Production by Rare Biosphere Thermophilic Bacteria From Deception Island, an Active Antarctic Volcano.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:885557.

Extreme temperature gradients in polar volcanoes are capable of selecting different types of extremophiles. Deception Island is a marine stratovolcano located in maritime Antarctica. The volcano has pronounced temperature gradients over very short distances, from as high as 100°C in the fumaroles to subzero next to the glaciers. These characteristics make Deception a promising source of a variety of bioproducts for use in different biotechnological areas. In this study, we isolated thermophilic bacteria from sediments in fumaroles at two geothermal sites on Deception Island with temperatures between 50 and 100°C, to evaluate the potential capacity of these bacteria to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and produce biosurfactants under thermophilic conditions. We isolated 126 thermophilic bacterial strains and identified them molecularly as members of genera Geobacillus, Anoxybacillus, and Brevibacillus (all in phylum Firmicutes). Seventy-six strains grew in a culture medium supplemented with crude oil as the only carbon source, and 30 of them showed particularly good results for oil degradation. Of 50 strains tested for biosurfactant production, 13 showed good results, with an emulsification index of 50% or higher of a petroleum hydrocarbon source (crude oil and diesel), emulsification stability at 100°C, and positive results in drop-collapse, oil spreading, and hemolytic activity tests. Four of these isolates showed great capability of degrade crude oil: FB2_38 (Geobacillus), FB3_54 (Geobacillus), FB4_88 (Anoxybacillus), and WB1_122 (Geobacillus). Genomic analysis of the oil-degrading and biosurfactant-producer strain FB4_88 identified it as Anoxybacillus flavithermus, with a high genetic and functional diversity potential for biotechnological applications. These initial culturomic and genomic data suggest that thermophilic bacteria from this Antarctic volcano have potential applications in the petroleum industry, for bioremediation in extreme environments and for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in reservoirs. In addition, recovery of small-subunit rRNA from metagenomes of Deception Island showed that Firmicutes is not among the dominant phyla, indicating that these low-abundance microorganisms may be important for hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant production in the Deception Island volcanic sediments.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Emmanuel Sunday O, Chinasa Valerie O, Ndidi Ethel N, et al (2022)

Microbial Ecology and Evolution is key to Pandemics: using the Coronavirus model to mitigate future Public Health Challenges.

Heliyon pii:S2405-8440(22)00737-X [Epub ahead of print].

Pandemics are global challenges that lead to total disruption of human activities. From the inception of human existence, all pandemics have resulted in loss of human lives. The coronavirus disease caused by SAR-CoV-2 began in China and is now at the global scale with an increase in mortality and morbidity. Numerous anthropogenic activities have been implicated in the emergence and severity of pandemics, including COVID-19. These activities cause changes in microbial ecology, leading to evolution due to mutation and recombination. This review hypothesized that an understanding of these anthropogenic activities would explain the dynamics of pandemics. We used the recent coronavirus model to study issues leading to microbial evolution, preventing future pandemics. Our review highlighted anthropogenic activities, including deforestation, mining activities, waste treatment, burning of fossil fuel, as well as international travels as drivers of microbial evolution leading to pandemics. Furthermore, human-animal interaction has also been implicated in pandemic incidents. Our study recommends substantial control of such anthropogenic activities as having been highlighted as ways to reduce the frequency of mutation, reduce pathogenic reservoirs, and the emergence of infectious disease.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Abel SM, Primpke S, Wu F, et al (2022)

Human footprints at hadal depths: Interlayer and intralayer comparison of sediment cores from the Kuril Kamchatka trench.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03132-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastic (MP) pollution affects almost all ecosystems on Earth. Given the increasing plastic production worldwide and the durability of these polymers, concerns arise about the fate of this material in the environment. A candidate to consider as a depositional final sink of MP is the sea floor and its deepest representatives, hadal trenches, as ultimate sinks. In this study, 13 sediment samples were collected with a multiple-corer at depths between 5740 and 9450 m from the Kuril Kamchatka trench (KKT), in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean. These samples were analysed for MP presence in the upper sediment layer, by slicing the first 5 cm of sediment cores into 1 cm horizontal layers. These were compared against each other and between the sampling areas, in order to achieve a detailed picture of the depositional system of the trench and small-scale perturbations such as bioturbation. The analyses revealed the presence of 215 to 1596 MP particles per kg -1 sediment (dry weight), with a polymer composition represented by 14 polymer types and the prevalence of particles smaller than 25 μm. A heterogeneous microplastic distribution through the sediment column and different microplastic concentration and polymer types among sampling stations located in different areas of the trench reflects the dynamics of this environment and the numerous forces that drive the deposition processes and the in situ recast of this pollutant at the trench floor.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Müller V, Chavez-Capilla T, Feldmann J, et al (2022)

Increasing temperature and flooding enhance arsenic release and biotransformations in Swiss soils.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03146-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Reductive dissolution is one of the main causes for arsenic (As) mobilisation in flooded soils while biomethylation and biovolatilisation are two microbial mechanisms that greatly influence the mobility and toxicity of As. Climate change results in more extreme weather events such as flooding and higher temperatures, potentially leading to an increase in As release and biotransformations. Here, we investigated the effects of flooding and temperature on As release, biomethylation and biovolatilisation from As-rich soils with different pH and source of As (one acidic and anthropogenic (Salanfe) and one neutral and geogenic (Liesberg)). Flooded soils incubated at 23 °C for two weeks showed a ~ 3-fold (Liesberg site) and ~ 7-fold (Salanfe site) increase in the total As concentration of soil solution compared to those incubated at 18 °C. Methyl- and thio-As species were found in the acidic soil and soil solution. High temperatures enhanced thiolation and methylation although inorganic As was predominant. We also show that volatile As fluxes increased more than 4-fold between treatments, from 18 ± 5 ng/kg/d at 18 °C to 75 ± 6 ng/kg/d at 23 °C from Salanfe soil. Our results suggest that high As soils with acidic pH can become an important source of As to the surrounding environment according to realistic climatic scenarios, and that biovolatilisation is very sensitive to increases in temperature. This study provides new data and further justifies further investigations into climate-induced changes on As release and speciation and its links to important factors such as microbial ecology and sulfate or iron biogeochemistry. SYNOPSIS: In the studied Swiss soils elevated temperature increases arsenic mobility through volatilisation and methylation.

RevDate: 2022-05-21

Ghuneim LJ, Raghuvanshi R, Neugebauer KA, et al (2022)

Complex and unexpected outcomes of antibiotic therapy against a polymicrobial infection.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics are our primary approach to treating complex infections, yet we have a poor understanding of how these drugs affect microbial communities. To better understand antimicrobial effects on host-associated microbial communities we treated cultured sputum microbiomes from people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF, n = 24) with 11 different antibiotics, supported by theoretical and mathematical modeling-based predictions in a mucus-plugged bronchiole microcosm. Treatment outcomes we identified in vitro that were predicted in silico were: 1) community death, 2) community resistance, 3) pathogen killing, and 4) fermenter killing. However, two outcomes that were not predicted when antibiotics were applied were 5) community profile shifts with little change in total bacterial load (TBL), and 6) increases in TBL. The latter outcome was observed in 17.8% of samples with a TBL increase of greater than 20% and 6.8% of samples with an increase greater than 40%, demonstrating significant increases in community carrying capacity in the presence of an antibiotic. An iteration of the mathematical model showed that TBL increase was due to antibiotic-mediated release of pH-dependent inhibition of pathogens by anaerobe fermentation. These dynamics were verified in vitro when killing of fermenters resulted in a higher community carrying capacity compared to a no antibiotic control. Metagenomic sequencing of sputum samples during antibiotic therapy revealed similar dynamics in clinical samples. This study shows that the complex microbial ecology dictates the outcomes of antibiotic therapy against a polymicrobial infection.

RevDate: 2022-05-21

Yu X, Zhang Y, Shen M, et al (2022)

Soil Conditioner Affects Tobacco Rhizosphere Soil Microecology.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Reasonable fertilization management can increase nutrient content and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil, and even increase soil microbial richness. However, different fertilizers could raise distinct influences on the soil properties, including soil environmental factors (physicochemical properties and enzymatic activities) and microbial community. Here, the effects of two soil amendments (microbial fertilizer and woody peat) on environmental factors and microbial community structure in tobacco rhizosphere soil were evaluated, with the correlations between microbes and environmental factors explored. As the results, microbial fertilizer could effectively alleviate soil acidification, increase available potassium and organic matter contents in soil, and was also beneficial to increase nitrate reductase activity in rhizosphere soil. Fertilizers cause changes in the abundance of certain microbes in the soil. Besides, it was shown that the candidate phyla Gal15, Acidobacterota, Latescibacterota, Mortierellommycota, Basidiomycota, and Rozellomycota in tobacco rhizosphere soil had significant correlation with soil environmental factors. Through the functional analysis of these populations, it can be deduced that the changes in the abundance of certain microorganisms may be an important reason for the differences in environmental factors. All these indicated that the differences of environmental factors in different treatments are closely related to the abundance of some special soil microorganisms. Studying the life activities of these microbes would provide good guidance for exploring the interaction among crops, soil, and microorganisms and improving crop yields.

RevDate: 2022-05-21

Arnolds KL, Yamada E, Neff CP, et al (2022)

Disruption of Genes Encoding Putative Zwitterionic Capsular Polysaccharides of Diverse Intestinal Bacteroides Reduces the Induction of Host Anti-Inflammatory Factors.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial zwitterionic capsular polysaccharides (ZPS), such as polysaccharide A (PSA) of the intestinal commensal Bacteroides fragilis, have been shown to modulate T cells, including inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells (Tregs). We previously used a genomic screen to identify diverse host-associated bacteria with the predicted genetic capacity to produce ZPSs related to PSA of B. fragilis and hypothesized that genetic disruption (KO) of a key functional gene within these operons would reduce the anti-inflammatory activity of these bacteria. We found that ZPS-KO bacteria in two common gut commensals, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides cellulosilyticus, had a reduced ability to induce Tregs and IL-10 in stimulations of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, we found that macrophage stimulated with either wildtype B. fragilis or B. uniformis produced significantly more IL-10 than KOs, indicating a potentially novel function of ZPS of shifting the cytokine response in macrophages to a more anti-inflammatory state. These findings support the hypothesis that these related ZPS may represent a shared strategy to modulate host immune responses.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Xie J, Li Q, Haesebrouck F, et al (2022)

The tremendous biomedical potential of bacterial extracellular vesicles.

Trends in biotechnology pii:S0167-7799(22)00073-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) are nano-sized, lipid membrane-delimited particles filled with bacteria-derived components. They have important roles in the physiology and pathogenesis of bacteria, and in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Interestingly, recent advances in biotechnology have made it possible to engineer the bEV surface and decorate it with diverse biomolecules and nanoparticles (NPs). bEVs have been the focus of significant interest in a range of biomedical fields and are being evaluated as vaccines, cancer immunotherapy agents, and drug delivery vehicles. However, significant hurdles in terms of their safety, efficacy, and mass production need to be addressed to enable their full clinical potential. Here, we review recent advances and remaining obstacles regarding the use of bEVs in different biomedical applications and discuss paths toward clinical translation.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Rotoni C, Leite MFA, Pijl A, et al (2022)

Rhizosphere microbiome response to host genetic variability: a trade-off between bacterial and fungal community assembly.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6590037 [Epub ahead of print].

Rhizosphere microbial community composition is strongly influenced by plant species and cultivar. However, our understanding of the impact of plant cultivar genetic variability on microbial assembly composition remains limited. Here, we took advantage of vegetatively propagated chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum L.) as a plant model and induced roots in five commercial cultivars: Barolo, Chic, Chic 45, Chic Cream, and Haydar. We observed strong rhizosphere selection for the bacterial community but weaker selection for the fungal community. The genetic distance between cultivars explained 42.83% of the total dissimilarity between the bacteria selected by the different cultivars. By contrast, rhizosphere fungal selection was not significantly linked to plant genetic dissimilarity. Each chrysanthemum cultivar selected unique bacterial and fungal genera in the rhizosphere. We also observed a trade-off in the rhizosphere selection of bacteria and fungi in which the cultivar with the strongest selection of fungal communities showed the weakest bacterial selection. Finally, bacterial and fungal family taxonomic groups consistently selected by all cultivars were identified (bacteria Chitinophagaceae, Beijerinckiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae and fungi Pseudeurotiaceae and Chrysozymaceae). Taken together, our findings suggest that chrysanthemum cultivars select distinct rhizosphere microbiomes and share a common core of microbes partially explained by the genetic dissimilarity between cultivars.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Blakney AJC, Bainard LD, St-Arnaud M, et al (2022)

Brassicaceae host plants mask the feedback from the previous year's soil history on bacterial communities, except when they experience drought.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Soil history operates through time to influence the structure and biodiversity of soil bacterial communities. Examining how different soil histories endure will help clarify the rules of bacterial community assembly. In this study, we established three different soil histories in field trials; the following year these plots were planted with five different Brassicaceae species. We hypothesized that the previously established soil histories would continue to structure the subsequent Brassicaceae bacterial root and rhizosphere communities. We used a MiSeq 16S rRNA metabarcoding strategy to determine the impact of different soil histories on the structure and biodiversity of the bacterial root and rhizosphere communities from the five different Brassicaceae host plants. We found that the Brassicaceae hosts were consistently significant factors in structuring the bacterial communities. Four host plants (Sinapis alba, Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata) formed similar bacterial communities, regardless of different soil histories. Camelina sativa host plants structured phylogenetically distinct bacterial communities compared to the other hosts, particularly in their roots. Soil history established the previous year was only a significant factor for bacterial community structure when the feedback of the Brassicaceae host plants was weakened, potentially due to limited soil moisture during a dry year. Understanding how soil history is involved in the structure and biodiversity of bacterial communities through time is a limitation in microbial ecology and is required for employing microbiome technologies in improving agricultural systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

King NG, Moore PJ, Thorpe JM, et al (2022)

Consistency and Variation in the Kelp Microbiota: Patterns of Bacterial Community Structure Across Spatial Scales.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Kelp species are distributed along ~ 25% of the world's coastlines and the forests they form represent some of the world's most productive and diverse ecosystems. Like other marine habitat-formers, the associated microbial community is fundamental for host and, in turn, wider ecosystem functioning. Given there are thousands of bacteria-host associations, determining which relationships are important remains a major challenge. We characterised the associated bacteria of two habitat-forming kelp species, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharina latissima, from eight sites across a range of spatial scales (10 s of metres to 100 s of km) in the northeast Atlantic. We found no difference in diversity or community structure between the two kelps, but there was evidence of regional structuring (across 100 s km) and considerable variation between individuals (10 s of metres). Within sites, individuals shared few amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and supported a very small proportion of diversity found across the wider study area. However, consistent characteristics between individuals were observed with individual host communities containing a small conserved "core" (8-11 ASVs comprising 25 and 32% of sample abundances for L. hyperborea and S. latissima, respectively). At a coarser taxonomic resolution, communities were dominated by four classes (Planctomycetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidia) that made up ~ 84% of sample abundances. Remaining taxa (47 classes) made up very little contribution to overall abundance but the majority of taxonomic diversity. Overall, our study demonstrates the consistent features of kelp bacterial communities across large spatial scales and environmental gradients and provides an ecologically meaningful baseline to track environmental change.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Kohl KD, Dieppa-Colón E, Goyco-Blas J, et al (2022)

Gut Microbial Ecology of Five Species of Sympatric Desert Rodents in Relation to Herbivorous and Insectivorous Feeding Strategies.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6589408 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbial communities of mammals provide numerous benefits to their hosts. However, given the recent development of the microbiome field, we still lack a thorough understanding of the variety of ecological and evolutionary factors that structure these communities across species. Metabarcoding is a powerful technique that allows for multiple microbial ecology questions to be investigated simultaneously. Here, we employed DNA metabarcoding techniques, predictive metagenomics, and culture-dependent techniques to inventory the gut microbial communities of several species of rodent collected from the same environment that employ different natural feeding strategies [granivorous pocket mice (Chaetodipus penicillatus); granivorous kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami); herbivorous woodrats (Neotoma albigula); omnivorous cactus mice (Peromyscus eremicus), and insectivorous grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus)]. Of particular interest were shifts in gut microbial communities in rodent species with herbivorous and insectivorous diets, given the high amounts of indigestible fibers and chitinous exoskeleton in these diets, respectively. We found that herbivorous woodrats harbored the greatest microbial diversity. Granivorous pocket mice and kangaroo rats had the highest abundances of the genus Ruminococcus and highest predicted abundances of genes related to the digestion of fiber, representing potential adaptations in these species to the fiber content of seeds and the limitations to digestion given their small body size. Insectivorous grasshopper mice exhibited the greatest inter-individual variation in the membership of their microbiomes, and also exhibited the highest predicted abundances of chitin-degrading genes. Culture-based approaches identified 178 microbial isolates (primarily Bacillus and Enterococcus) capable of degrading cellulose and chitin. We observed several instances of strain-level diversity in these metabolic capabilities across isolates, somewhat highlighting the limitations and hidden diversity underlying DNA metabarcoding techniques. However, these methods offer power in allowing the investigation of several questions concurrently, thus enhancing our understanding of gut microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Raglin SS, Kent AD, EN Ngumbi (2022)

Herbivory Protection via Volatile Organic Compounds Is Influenced by Maize Genotype, Not Bacillus altitudinis-Enriched Bacterial Communities.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:826635.

Belowground, plants interact with beneficial soil microbes such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are rhizosphere bacteria that colonize roots and elicit beneficial effects in plants such as improved plant growth, pathogen resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and herbivore protection. Treatment of plants with PGPR has been shown to trigger the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Volatile emissions can also be triggered by herbivory, termed herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), with important ramifications for chemical-mediated plant and insect interactions. Much of our current understanding of PGPR and herbivore-induced volatiles is based on studies using one plant genotype, yet domestication and modern breeding has led to the development of diverse germplasm with altered phenotypes and chemistry. In this study, we investigated if volatile emissions triggered by PGPR colonization and herbivory varies by maize genotype and microbial community assemblages. Six maize genotypes representing three decades of crop breeding and two heterotic groups were used, with four microbiome treatments: live or sterilized soil, with or without a Bacillus inoculant. Soil sterilization was used to delay microbiome establishment, resulting in low-diversity treatments. At planting, maize seeds were inoculated with PGPR Bacillus altitudinis AP-283 and grown under greenhouse conditions. Four weeks post planting, plants were subjected to feeding by third instar Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Volatiles were collected using solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Illumina NovaSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was carried out to characterize the rhizosphere microbiome. Maize genotype significantly influenced total volatile emissions, and relative abundance of volatile classes. We did not document a strong influence of microbe treatment on plant VOC emissions. However, inoculating plants with PGPR improved plant growth under sterile conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that genotypic variation is the dominant driver in HIPV composition and individual HIPV abundances, and any bacterial-mediated benefit is genotype and HIPV-specific. Therefore, understanding the interplay of these factors is necessary to fully harness microbially-mediated benefits and improve agricultural sustainability.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Wan L, Caruso G, Cao X, et al (2022)

Microbial Response to Coastal-Offshore Gradients in Taiwan Straits: Community Metabolism and Total Prokaryotic Abundance as Potential Proxies.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Located between the South and the East China Sea, the Taiwan Straits (TWS) are a marine shelf-channel area, with unique hydrological and geomorphological features affected by rivers inflow and with recent algal blooms with red tide events. This study aimed at assessing microbial distribution and function and their modulation in response to environmental gradients. Surface (0.5 m) water samples from 16 stations along five north to south transects were collected; total prokaryotic abundance by epifluorescence microscope and carbon substrate utilization patterns by Biolog Ecoplates were estimated. Spatially, a patchy microbial distribution was found, with the highest microbial metabolic levels and prokaryotic abundance in the TWS area between Minjiang River estuary and Pingtan Island, and progressive decreases towards offshore stations. Complex carbon sources and carbohydrates were preferentially metabolized. This study provides a snapshot of the microbial abundance and activity in TWS as a model site of aquatic ecosystems impacted from land inputs; obtained data highlights that microbial metabolism is more sensitive than abundance to environmental changes.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Kuroda K, Narihiro T, Shinshima F, et al (2022)

High-rate cotreatment of purified terephthalate and dimethyl terephthalate manufacturing wastewater by a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and the microbial ecology relevant to aromatic compound degradation.

Water research, 219:118581 pii:S0043-1354(22)00534-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is produced worldwide, mainly as material for plastic drink bottles. PET is produced by polymerization of purified terephthalate (PTA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with ethylene glycol. During the synthetic manufacturing processes of PTA and DMT, high organic loading wastewater is produced, which is typically treated separately by anaerobic wastewater treatment technologies. Given the high demand for PET, manufacturing plants are expanding globally, which will result in an increase in the amounts of PTA and DMT wastewater in need of treatment. In terms of effective treatment, the cotreatment of PTA and DMT wastewater has several advantages, including lower area and energy requirements. In this study, we examined the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in cotreating PTA and DMT wastewater with high organic loading, evaluating its removal characteristics after 518 days of continuous operation. In addition, we performed a microbiome analysis of the UASB granular sludge to uncover the microbial interactions and metabolic functions within the reactor. By continuous operation, we achieved an organic removal rate of 6.6 kg m-3 day-1. In addition, we confirmed that aromatic compounds in the complex wastewater from the PTA and DMT manufacturing processes are biodegradable in the following order: benzoate > orthophthalate > terephthalate > isophthalate > p-toluic acid. 16S rRNA gene-based network analysis shows that anaerobic Woesearchaeales belonging to phylum Nanoarchaeota has a positive correlation with Methanoregula, Candidatus Methanofastidiosum, and Methanosarcina, suggesting a symbiotic relationship with methanogens in granular sludge. Shotgun metagenomic analysis revealed that terephthalate, isophthalate/orthophthalate, and benzoate were degraded by different members of Pelotomaculaceae and Syntrophorhabdaceae. According to the genomic information, we propose two new possible routes for orthophthalate degradation by the Syntrophorhabdaceae organism.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Pavan S, Prabhu AN, Prasad Gorthi S, et al (2022)

Exploring the multifactorial aspects of Gut Microbiome in Parkinson's Disease.

Folia microbiologica [Epub ahead of print].

Advanced research in health science has broadened our view in approaching and understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and has also revolutionised diagnosis and treatment. Ever since the establishment of Braak's hypothesis in the propagation of alpha-synuclein from the distant olfactory and enteric nervous system towards the brain in Parkinson's Disease (PD), studies have explored and revealed the involvement of altered gut microbiota in PD. This review recapitulates the gut microbiome associated with PD severity, duration, motor and non-motor symptoms, and antiparkinsonian treatment from recent literature. Gut microbial signatures in PD are potential predictors of the disease and are speculated to be used in early diagnosis and treatment. In brief, the review also emphasises on implications of the prebiotic, probiotic, faecal microbiota transplantation, and dietary interventions as alternative treatments in modulating the disease symptoms in PD.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Wu MH, Li T, Zhang GS, et al (2022)

Seasonal Variation of Hypolithic Microbiomes in the Gobi Desert : Seasonal Variation of Hypolithic Microbiomes in the Gobi Desert.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding how microbial communities adapt to environmental stresses is critical for interpreting ecological patterns and microbial diversity. In the case of the Gobi Desert, little is known on the environmental factors that explain hypolithic colonization under quartz stones. By analyzing nine hypolithic communities across an arid gradient and the effects of the season of the year in the Hexi Corridor of this desert, we found a significant decrease in hypolithic colonization rates (from 47.24 to 15.73%) with the increasing drought gradient and found two distinct communities in Hot and Cold samples, which survived or proliferated after a hot or a cold period. While Cold communities showed a greater species diversity and a predominance of Cyanobacteria, Hot communities showed a predominance of members of the Proteobacteria and the Firmicutes. In comparison, Cold communities also possessed stronger functions in the photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. Based on the findings of this study, we proposed that the hypolithic communities of the Hexi Corridor of the Gobi Desert might follow a seasonal developmental cycle in which temperature play an important role. Thus after a critical thermal threshold is crossed, heterotrophic microorganisms predominate in the hot period, while Cyanobacteria predominate in the cold period.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Mangola SM, Lund JR, Schnorr SL, et al (2022)

Ethical microbiome research with Indigenous communities.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Human-microbiome interactions have been associated with evolutionary, cultural and environmental processes. With clinical applications of microbiome research now feasible, it is crucial that the science conducted, particularly among Indigenous communities, adheres to principles of inclusion. This necessitates a transdisciplinary dialogue to decide how biological samples are collected and who benefits from the research and any derived products. As a group of scholars working at the interface of biological and social science, we offer a candid discussion of the lessons learned from our own research and introduce one approach to carry out ethical microbiome research with Indigenous communities.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Kuzikova I, Andronov E, Zaytseva T, et al (2022)

A microcosm approach for evaluating the microbial nonylphenol and butyltin biodegradation and bacterial community shifts in co-contaminated bottom sediments from the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Pollution of aquatic ecosystems with nonylphenol (NP) and butyltins (BuTs) is of great concern due to their effects on endocrine activity, toxicity to aquatic organisms, and extended persistence in sediments. The impact of contamination with NP and/or BuTs on the microbial community structure in marine sediments was investigated using microcosms and high-throughput sequencing. Sediment microcosms with NP (300 mg/kg) and/or BuTs (95 mg/kg) were constructed. Complete removal of monobutyltin (MBT) occurred in the microcosms after 240 days of incubation, while a residual NP rate was 40%. The content of toxic tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in the sediments did not change notably. Co-contamination of the sediments with NP and BuTs did not affect the processes of their degradation. The pollutants in the microcosms could have been biodegraded by autochthonous microorganisms. Significantly different and less diverse bacterial communities were observed in the contaminated sediments compared to non-contaminated control. Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria dominated in the NP treatment, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria in the BuT treatment, and Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria in the NP-BuT mixture treatment. The prevalence of microorganisms from the bacterial genera Halothiobacillus, Geothrix, Methanosarcina, Dyella, Parvibaculum, Pseudomonas, Proteiniclasticum, and bacteria affiliated with the order Rhizobiales may indicate their role in biodegradation of NP and BuTs in the co-contaminated sediments. This study can provide some new insights towards NP and BuT biodegradation and microbial ecology in NP-BuT co-contaminated environment.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Patil JS, K Sathish (2022)

Responses of Phytoplankton Benthic Propagules to Macronutrient Enrichment and Varying Light Intensities: Elucidation from Monsoon-Influenced Mandovi and Zuari Riverine System : Responses of Phytoplankton Benthic Propagules to Macronutrient Enrichment and Varying Light Intensities: Elucidation from Monsoon-Influenced Mandovi and Zuari Riverine System.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The ecological importance of phytoplankton-benthic-propagules (PBP) from coastal sediments, except tropical monsoon-influenced rivers and estuaries, is well documented. PBP in such systems is often transported from upstream (near freshwater) to downstream (estuary) through freshwater discharges during monsoon and thereby experiences higher salinities (>30 PSU) and nutrients with varying light conditions due to reducing discharges during the monsoon-break/withdrawal-phase. However, the PBP responses (germination and subsequent growth) to such changes are unknown and are examined here at ~35 PSU salinity. For the study, macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate+phosphate+silicate) and light intensities were considered to assess the response of PBP representing estuarine, brackish, and near freshwater locations of monsoon-influenced Mandovi and Zuari rivers (Goa, India). Diatoms dominated the viable PBP community, but the maximum growth and sustained photosynthetic activity were observed when all macronutrients were supplied than individually. Here, variable fluorescence technique utility in PBP resurrection (detection of viability and responses) was also explored. The PBP growth was similar for macronutrients but increased with light intensity indicating a longer growth response during monsoon. For PBP (germination and photosynthetic activity), light intensities drive the rate of improvement/development, whereas the nutrients are essential for maintaining vegetative growth upon germination in the region. The PBP dominance of common planktonic species (Skeletonema and Thalassiosira) along the river also signifies the role of seawater intrusion (up to upstream locations) in distribution. Skeletonema and Thalassiosira, which contribute significantly to the total community, are light-sensitive with a similar response and cause single species blooms during monsoon and non-monsoon, respectively, depending on the species' tolerance to salinity.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Peruzzo A, Losasso C, Di Castri A, et al (2022)

Genome Sequence of Campylobacter Strain 19-13652, Isolated from Breeding Pheasants.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We report the whole-genome sequence of a Campylobacter strain that was isolated from breeding pheasants presenting "bulgy eyes" in Italy. Traditional molecular typing methods did not return any reliable result. Whole-genome sequencing and sequence comparison with known genomes did not meet the criteria for assignment to an existing species.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Ghosh A, Saha R, P Bhadury (2022)

Metagenomic insights into surface water microbial communities of a South Asian mangrove ecosystem.

PeerJ, 10:e13169 pii:13169.

Estuaries are one of the most productive ecosystems and their productivity is maintained by resident microbial communities. Recent alterations driven by climate change have further escalated these stressors leading to the propagation of traits such as antibiotic resistance and heavy metal resistance in microbial communities. Surface water samples from eleven stations along the Thakuran and Matla estuaries of the Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (SBR) of Sundarbans mangrove located in South Asia were sampled in monsoon (June) 2019 to elucidate resident microbial communities based on Nanopore sequencing. Metagenomic analyses revealed the widespread dominance of Proteobacteria across all the stations along with a high abundance of Firmicutes. Other phyla, including Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria showed site-specific trends in abundance. Further taxonomic affiliations showed Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria to be dominant classes with high abundances of Bacilli in SBR_Stn58 and SBR_Stn113. Among the eukaryotic communities, the most abundant classes included Prasinophyceae, Saccharyomycetes and Sardariomycetes. Functional annotation showed metabolic activities such as carbohydrate, amino acid, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolisms to be uniformly distributed across all the studied stations. Pathways such as stress response, sulphur metabolism and motility-associated genes appeared in low abundances in SBR. Functional traits such as antibiotic resistance showed overwhelming dominance of genes involved in multidrug resistance along with widespread resistance towards commonly used antibiotics including Tetracycline, glycopeptide and aminoglycoside. Metal resistance genes including arsenic, nickel and copper were found in comparable abundances across the studied stations. The prevalence of ARG and MRG might indicate presence of pollutants and hint toward deteriorating ecosystem health status of Sundarbans mangrove.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Aponte H, Galindo-Castañeda T, Yáñez C, et al (2022)

Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles and Genetic Prokaryotic Structure of Burned Soils Under Mediterranean Sclerophyll Forests in Central Chile.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:824813.

Forest fires alter soil microbial communities that are essential to support ecosystem recovery following land burning. These alterations have different responses according to soil abiotic pre- and post-fire conditions and fire severity, among others, and tend to decrease along vegetation recovery over time. Thus, understanding the effects of fires on microbial soil communities is critical to evaluate ecosystem resilience and restoration strategies in fire-prone ecosystems. We studied the state of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and the prokaryotic community structure of rhizosphere and bulk soils from two fire-affected sclerophyll forests (one surveyed 17 months and the other 33 months after fire occurrence) in the Mediterranean climate zone of central Chile. Increases in catabolic activity (by average well color development of CLPPs), especially in the rhizosphere as compared with the bulk soil, were observed in the most recently affected site only. Legacy of land burning was still clearly shaping soil prokaryote community structure, as shown by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, particularly in the most recent fire-affected site. The qPCR copy numbers and alpha diversity indexes (Shannon and Pielou's evenness) of sequencing data decreased in burned soils at both locations. Beta diversity analyses showed dissimilarity of prokaryote communities at both study sites according to fire occurrence, and NO3 - was the common variable explaining community changes for both of them. Acidobacteria and Rokubacteria phyla significantly decreased in burned soils at both locations, while Firmicutes and Actinobacteria increased. These findings provide a better understanding of the resilience of soil prokaryote communities and their physiological conditions in Mediterranean forests of central Chile following different time periods after fire, conditions that likely influence the ecological processes taking place during recovery of fire-affected ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Matassa S, Pelagalli V, Papirio S, et al (2022)

Direct nitrogen stripping and upcycling from anaerobic digestate during conversion of cheese whey into single cell protein.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)00637-X [Epub ahead of print].

The environmental impact of the dairy industry is heavily influenced by the overproduction of nitrogen- and carbon-rich effluents. The present study proposes an innovative process to recover waste contaminated nitrogen from anaerobic digestate while treating excess cheese whey (CW) and producing high-quality, clean single cell protein (SCP). By relying on direct aeration stripping techniques, employing an airflow subsequently used in the aerobic cheese whey fermentation step, the investigated process was able to strip 41-80% of the total ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4+) from liquid digestate. The stripped ammonia gas (NH3) was completely recovered as N-NH4+ in the acidic CW, and further upcycled into SCP having a total protein content of 74.7% and a balanced amino acids profile. A preliminary techno-economic analysis revealed the potential to directly recover and upcycle nitrogen into SCP at costs (4.1-8.2 €·kgN-1) and energetic inputs (90-132 MJ·kgN-1) matching those of conventional feed and nitrogen management processes.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Li K, Bi Q, Liu X, et al (2022)

Unveiling the role of dissolved organic matter on phosphorus sorption and availability in a 5-year manure amended paddy soil.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)02989-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an active component of organic manure that is widely used in agroecosystems to increase nutrient availability and consequently enhance crop yields. However, the ways in which soil DOM characteristics are influenced by organic manure and how it contributes to crop yield and soil P availability remains unclear. Here, we conducted a 5-year field experiment and demonstrated that partial replacement of chemical P fertilizer with swine manure could maintain high rice yield and soil available P levels and increase P fertilizer use efficiency (PUE) in comparison to chemical fertilization, even when the total P input was reduced. This suggests that organic manure application can significantly mobilize soil P and increase P availability. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the soil pH and humification degree of DOM, rather than DOM content, directly decreased maximum P adsorption capacity. The combined results of the optical spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectroscopy obtained from the laboratory validation experiment based on the DOM-removed soil demonstrated that manure-derived DOM competing with P for adsorption was one of the main reasons for the increase in soil P availability and that the effective DOM components were N-containing lignins, tannins, and condensed polycyclic aromatics with higher O/C and lower H/C ratios. Overall, our results provide solid evidence that soil DOM characteristics are influenced by manure application and facilitate soil P availability, which could help guide the sustainable P management and manure application in agroecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Deng X, Zhang N, Li Y, et al (2022)

Bio-organic soil amendment promotes the suppression of Ralstonia solanacearum by inducing changes in the functionality and composition of rhizosphere bacterial communities.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Stimulating the development of soil suppressiveness against certain pathogens represents a sustainable solution toward reducing pesticide use in agriculture. However, understanding the dynamics of suppressiveness and the mechanisms leading to pathogen control remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanisms used by the rhizosphere microbiome induces bacterial wilt disease suppression in a long-term field experiment where continuous application of bio-organic (BF) fertilizers triggered disease suppressiveness when compared to chemical fertilizer (CF) application. We further demonstrated in a greenhouse experiment that the suppressiveness of the rhizosphere bacterial communities was triggered mainly by changes in community composition rather than only by the abundance of the introduced biocontrol strain. Metagenomics approaches revealed that members of the families Sphingomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae with the ability to produce secondary metabolites were enriched in the BF plant rhizosphere but only upon pathogen invasion. We experimentally validated this observation by inoculating bacterial isolates belonging to the families Sphingomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae into conducive soil, which led to a significant reduction in pathogen abundance and increase in non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene abundance. We conclude that priming of the soil microbiome with bio-organic fertilizer amendment fostered reactive bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of tomato plants in response to biotic disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Dranseikienė D, Balčiūnaitė-Murzienė G, Karosienė J, et al (2022)

Cyano-Phycocyanin: Mechanisms of Action on Human Skin and Future Perspectives in Medicine.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:plants11091249.

Cyano-phycocyanin is one of the active pigments of the blue-green algae and is usually isolated from the filamentous cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis Gomont (Spirulina). Due to its multiple physiological functions and non-toxicity, cyano-phycocyanin may be a potential substance for the topical treatment of various skin diseases. Considering that the conventional medicine faces drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and side effects, the plant origin compounds can act as an alternative option. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the wound healing, antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimelanogenic and anticancer properties and mechanisms of cyano-phycocyanin topical activities on human skin. Moreover, possible applications and biotechnological requirements for pharmaceutical forms of cyano-phycocyanin for the treatment of various skin diseases are discussed in this review.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Li Y, Wang C, Ge L, et al (2022)

Environmental Behaviors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Insecticidal Proteins and Their Effects on Microbial Ecology.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:plants11091212.

Bt proteins are crystal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the early stage of spore formation that exhibit highly specific insecticidal activities. The application of Bt proteins primarily includes Bt transgenic plants and Bt biopesticides. Transgenic crops with insect resistance (via Bt)/herbicide tolerance comprise the largest global area of agricultural planting. After artificial modification, Bt insecticidal proteins expressed from Bt can be released into soils through root exudates, pollen, and plant residues. In addition, the construction of Bt recombinant engineered strains through genetic engineering has become a major focus of Bt biopesticides, and the expressed Bt proteins will also remain in soil environments. Bt proteins expressed and released by Bt transgenic plants and Bt recombinant strains are structurally and functionally quite different from Bt prototoxins naturally expressed by B. thuringiensis in soils. The former can thus be regarded as an environmentally exogenous substance with insecticidal toxicity that may have potential ecological risks. Consequently, biosafety evaluations must be conducted before field tests and production of Bt plants or recombinant strains. This review summarizes the adsorption, retention, and degradation behavior of Bt insecticidal proteins in soils, in addition to their impacts on soil physical and chemical properties along with soil microbial diversity. The review provides a scientific framework for evaluating the environmental biosafety of Bt transgenic plants, Bt transgenic microorganisms, and their expression products. In addition, prospective research targets, research methods, and evaluation methods are highlighted based on current research of Bt proteins.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Deehan EC, Zhang Z, Riva A, et al (2022)

Elucidating the role of the gut microbiota in the physiological effects of dietary fiber.

Microbiome, 10(1):77.

BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber is an integral part of a healthy diet, but questions remain about the mechanisms that underlie effects and the causal contributions of the gut microbiota. Here, we performed a 6-week exploratory trial in adults with excess weight (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2) to compare the effects of a high-dose (females: 25 g/day; males: 35 g/day) supplement of fermentable corn bran arabinoxylan (AX; n = 15) with that of microbiota-non-accessible microcrystalline cellulose (MCC; n = 16). Obesity-related surrogate endpoints and biomarkers of host-microbiome interactions implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity (trimethylamine N-oxide, gut hormones, cytokines, and measures of intestinal barrier integrity) were assessed. We then determined whether clinical outcomes could be predicted by fecal microbiota features or mechanistic biomarkers.

RESULTS: AX enhanced satiety after a meal and decreased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), while MCC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α and fecal calprotectin. Machine learning models determined that effects on satiety could be predicted by fecal bacterial taxa that utilized AX, as identified by bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging. Reductions in HOMA-IR and calprotectin were associated with shifts in fecal bile acids, but correlations were negative, suggesting that the benefits of fiber may not be mediated by their effects on bile acid pools. Biomarkers of host-microbiome interactions often linked to bacterial metabolites derived from fiber fermentation (short-chain fatty acids) were not affected by AX supplementation when compared to non-accessible MCC.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the efficacy of purified dietary fibers when used as supplements and suggests that satietogenic effects of AX may be linked to bacterial taxa that ferment the fiber or utilize breakdown products. Other effects are likely microbiome independent. The findings provide a basis for fiber-type specific therapeutic applications and their personalization.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02322112 , registered on July 3, 2015. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Greene LK, McKenney EA, Gasper W, et al (2022)

Gut Site and Gut Morphology Predict Microbiome Structure and Function in Ecologically Diverse Lemurs.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Most studies of wildlife gut microbiotas understandably rely on feces to approximate consortia along the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore compared microbiome structure and predicted metagenomic function in stomach, small intestinal, cecal, and colonic samples from 52 lemurs harvested during routine necropsies. The lemurs represent seven genera (Cheirogaleus, Daubentonia, Varecia, Hapalemur, Eulemur, Lemur, Propithecus) characterized by diverse feeding ecologies and gut morphologies. In particular, the hosts variably depend on fibrous foodstuffs and show correlative morphological complexity in their large intestines. Across host lineages, microbiome diversity, variability, membership, and function differed between the upper and lower gut, reflecting regional tradeoffs in available nutrients. These patterns related minimally to total gut length but were modulated by fermentation capacity (i.e., the ratio of small to large intestinal length). Irrespective of feeding strategy, host genera with limited fermentation capacity harbored more homogenized microbiome diversity along the gut, whereas those with expanded fermentation capacity harbored cecal and colonic microbiomes with greater diversity and abundant fermentative Ruminococcaceae taxa. While highlighting the value of curated sample repositories for retrospective comparisons, our results confirm that the need to survive on fibrous foods, either routinely or in hypervariable environments, can shape the morphological and microbial features of the lower gut.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Mariën Q, Ulcar B, Verleyen J, et al (2022)

High-rate conversion of lactic acid-rich streams to caproic acid in a fermentative granular system.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)00579-X [Epub ahead of print].

Lactic acid-driven chain elongation enables upgrading low-value organic streams into caproic acid. Recently, volumetric production rates over 0.5 g L-1 h-1 have been reported for carbohydrate-rich streams in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. However, many target streams contain mixtures of carbohydrates and lactic acid, and little is known about their impact on product profile and microbial ecology, or the importance of carbohydrates as substrate to achieve high rates. This manuscript investigated varying glucose-to-lactate ratios and observed that decreasing glucose-content eliminated odd-chain by-products, while glucose omission required acetic acid addition to support lactic acid conversion. Decreasing the glucose-content fed resulted in decreasing amounts of granular biomass, with the disappearance of granules when no glucose was fed. Lowering the HRT to 0.3 days while feeding only lactic and acetic acid likely triggered re-granulation, enabling the highest lactic acid-driven caproic acid production rates reported thus far at 16.4±1.7 g L-1 d-1.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Zhang R, Wang L, Chen P, et al (2018)

Shifts in microbial community structure and diversity in a novel waterfall biofilm reactor combined with MBBR under light and dark conditions.

RSC advances, 8(65):37462-37471 pii:c8ra07039c.

In this study, a novel, low-cost, easy-maintenance and effective waterfall aeration biofilm reactor (WFBR) was designed to treat wastewater with MBBR. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen removal efficiency, and the microbial community structure in this novel system were evaluated for 70 days under light and dark conditions. The COD and ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiency remained at approximately 90% and 100% respectively after 25 days, even if the influent substrate concentration and illumination condition changes. High-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the composition and function of the microbial community in different fillers in the treatment system. Dark padding, illuminate carrier and fabric play the good performance in nitrogen nitrification, denitrification and fixation respectively. The major classes present were Betaproteobacteria (30.2% on average), Cytophagia (19.8%), Gammaproteobacteria (11.7%), Alphaproteobacteria (11.2%), Sphingobacteriia (5.1%), Flavobacteriia (2.6%), Deltaproteobacteria (2.4%), Verrucomicrobiae (0.7%), Chloroplast (0.6%) and Clostridia (0.5%). These results could provide important guidance for the improvement of MBBR or other tradition wastewater treatment process, and could also enrich our theoretical understanding of microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Billet L, Pesce S, Martin-Laurent F, et al (2022)

Experimental Evidence for Manure-Borne Bacteria Invasion in Soil During a Coalescent Event: Influence of the Antibiotic Sulfamethazine.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The fertilization of agricultural soil by organic amendment that may contain antibiotics, like manure, can transfer bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria to soil communities. However, the invasion by manure-borne bacteria in amended soil remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that this kind of process is both influenced by the soil properties (and those of its microbial communities) and by the presence of contaminants such as antibiotics used in veterinary care. To test that, we performed a microcosm experiment in which four different soils were amended or not with manure at an agronomical dose and exposed or not to the antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMZ). After 1 month of incubation, the diversity, structure, and composition of bacterial communities of the soils were assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The invasion of manure-borne bacteria was still perceptible 1 month after the soil amendment. The results obtained with the soil already amended in situ with manure 6 months prior to the experiment suggest that some of the bacterial invaders were established in the community over the long term. Even if differences were observed between soils, the invasion was mainly attributable to some of the most abundant OTUs of manure (mainly Firmicutes). SMZ exposure had a limited influence on soil microorganisms but our results suggest that this kind of contaminant can enhance the invasion ability of some manure-borne invaders.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Lanza M, Scuderi SA, Filippone A, et al (2022)

The role of SCFAs on microbiota composition in a mouse model of NTG-induced migraine.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 36 Suppl 1:.

BACKGROUND: Based on global burden of headache reports, migraine is a prevalent disorder that affect approximately 15% of the adult population. Generally migraine attacks are sporadic, however, some individuals develop a chronic disease form. To date, several researches have shown that migraine is associated with some gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and celiac disease (CD). However, the mechanisms explaining how the gut and the brain may interact in patients with migraine are not entirely clear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as sodium propionate (SP) and sodium butyrate (SB) as mediators and modulators of host intestinal microbial ecology, in regulating the pathophysiology of migraine in a mouse model induced by nitroglycerine (NTG).

METHODS: Mice were orally administered with SB and SP at the dose of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, 5 min after NTG intraperitoneal injections. Histological and molecular analysis were performed on the whole brain and small intestine and behavioral tests after 4 h from migraine induction. The composition of the intestinal microbiota was extracted from frozen fecal samples and prepared for sequencing according to the protocol for Illumina Miseq System. However, the expression of inflammatory and oxidative markers were detected by Western blot. Tail flick, hot plate, orofacial formalin and photophobia tests were used to evaluate migraine-like pain and migraine-related light sensitivity.

RESULTS: SP and SB treatment notably reduced histological damage in whole brain and small intestine in NTG-injected mice. Treatments with both SCFAs decreased the markers of inflammation and increased the protective antioxidant enzymes, suggesting an important role of SCFAs to exercise neuromodulatory action. Moreover, SCFAs reduced the headache modifying the intestinal microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: These results provided the evidence that SCFAs exerts a protective effect on central sensitization induced by NTG through a modulation of intestinal microbiota, suggesting a new insight into the potential application of SCFAs as novel supportive therapies for migraine.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Petersen C, Adhini Kuppuswami SB, Wankhade U, et al (2022)

Dietary Blueberries Improve Vascular Inflammation and Alter the Composition of the Gut Microbiome in Aged Mice.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 36 Suppl 1:.

BACKGROUND: Aging is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which are major causes of disability and mortality in the elderly. Endothelial dysfunction and an imbalanced gut microbial ecology play a pivotal role in aging-associated vascular complications. Dietary change may be an effective strategy to improve vascular health. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary blueberries ameliorate vascular complications and gut dysbiosis in aged mice.

METHODS: Aged mice (17-month-old C57BL/6J male, Jackson Laboratory) were fed a control diet (O) or freeze-dried wild blueberry powder supplemented diet (3.8% in diet) (OB) for 15 weeks. Young mice (2-month-old) consumed a control diet (Y) or blueberry supplemented diet (YB) for an identical duration. Based on normalization to body surface area, the blueberry dose is equivalent to 1.5 human servings of blueberry (~240 g) per day. Metabolic parameters, vascular function and vascular inflammation were assessed at the end of the treatment period. Vascular inflammation was assessed by measuring the binding of fluorescent labelled mouse monocytic WEHI78/24 cells to the vascular endothelium. Mesenteric arteries were used to assess vascular function using isometric procedures. Microbial profiling was done using 16s rRNA amplification.

RESULTS: Metabolic parameters such as body weight, food intake and blood glucose were similar among the groups. Old mice (O) exhibited improved glucose tolerance compared to young mice (Y). Blueberry supplementation did not alter glucose tolerance in young (YB) or old mice (OB). O vs Y had increased monocyte binding to vascular endothelium indicating enhanced vascular inflammation, but this was reduced by blueberry supplementation in OB vs O. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside were similar among the groups. Microbial profiling indicated changes in the composition of gut microbiome among the groups. α-diversity indices such as Chao and observed species were similar at the phylum level but were different at the genus level among groups. β-diversity, which represents compositional differences among groups, was different at the phylum and genus levels. Further, the relative abundance of gut microbes at different taxa levels were altered between O vs Y and OB vs O mice. Importantly, the relative abundance of genera Candidatus Saccharimonas and Enterorhabdus were decreased whereas Muribaculum was increased in O vs Y mice. Blueberry supplementation improved the relative abundance of these three genera in OB vs O mice.

CONCLUSION: Blueberry supplementation improves aging induced vascular inflammation in C57BL/6J mice without altering the metabolic milieu indicating the direct effect of blueberries on vasculature. Our study also provides evidence for changes in the composition of gut microbiome which might mediate some of the effects of blueberry supplementation in aged mice.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Newcombe G, Marlin M, Barge E, et al (2022)

Plant Seeds Commonly Host Bacillus spp., Potential Antagonists of Phytopathogens.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In agriculture, horticulture and plantation forestry, Bacillus species are the most commonly applied antagonists and biopesticides, targeting plant pathogens and insect pests, respectively. Bacillus isolates are also used as bacterial plant biostimulants, or BPBs. Such useful isolates of Bacillus are typically sourced from soil. Here, we show that Bacillus - and other antagonistic microbes - can be sourced from a broad range of plant seeds. We found that culturable Bacillus isolates are common in the seeds of 98 plant species representing 39 families (i.e., 87% of the commonly cultured bacteria belonged to Bacillales). We also found that 83% of the commonly cultured fungi from the seeds of the 98 plant species belonged to just three orders of fungi-Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Eurotiales-that are also associated with antagonism. Furthermore, we confirmed antagonism potential in agaro with seed isolates of Bacillus from Pinus monticola as a representative case. Eight isolates each of seed Bacillus, seed fungi, and foliar fungi, all from P. monticola, were paired in a total of 384 possible pair-wise interactions (with seed and foliar fungi as the targets). Seed Bacillus spp. were the strongest antagonists of the seed and foliar fungi, with a mean interaction strength 2.8 times greater than seed fungi (all either Eurotiales or Hypocreales) and 3.2 times greater than needle fungi. Overall, our study demonstrates that seeds host a taxonomically narrow group of culturable, antagonistic bacteria and fungi.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Chauvet M, Monjot A, Moné A, et al (2022)

Single Cell Analysis Reveals a New Microsporidia-Host Association in a Freshwater Lake.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microsporidia are a large group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites. Recent studies suggest that their diversity can be huge in freshwater lake ecosystems especially in the < 150-µm size fraction. However, little is known about their hosts and therefore their impact on the trophic food web functioning. In this study, single cell analysis and fluorescence microscopy were used to detect new host-parasite association within rotifer communities in lake Aydat (France). Our analysis showed the existence of a potential new species belonging to the Crispospora genus able of infecting the rotifer Kellicottia with a high prevalence (42.5%) suggesting that Microsporidia could have a great impact on the rotifer populations' regulation in lakes.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Samara J, Moossavi S, Alshaikh B, et al (2022)

Supplementation with a probiotic mixture accelerates gut microbiome maturation and reduces intestinal inflammation in extremely preterm infants.

Cell host & microbe, 30(5):696-711.e5.

Probiotics are increasingly administered to premature infants to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal sepsis. However, their effects on gut microbiome assembly and immunity are poorly understood. Using a randomized intervention trial in extremely premature infants, we tested the effects of a probiotic product containing four strains of Bifidobacterium species autochthonous to the infant gut and one Lacticaseibacillus strain on the compositional and functional trajectory of microbiome. Daily administration of the mixture accelerated the transition into a mature, term-like microbiome with higher stability and species interconnectivity. Besides infant age, Bifidobacterium strains and stool metabolites were the best predictors of microbiome maturation, and structural equation modeling confirmed probiotics as a major determinant for the trajectory of microbiome assembly. Bifidobacterium-driven microbiome maturation was also linked to an anti-inflammatory intestinal immune milieu. This demonstrates that Bifidobacterium strains are ecosystem engineers that lead to an acceleration of microbiome maturation and immunological consequences in extremely premature infants.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Jamnik T, Flasch M, Braun D, et al (2022)

Next-generation biomonitoring of the early-life chemical exposome in neonatal and infant development.

Nature communications, 13(1):2653.

Exposure to synthetic and natural chemicals is a major environmental risk factor in the etiology of many chronic diseases. Investigating complex co-exposures is necessary for a holistic assessment in exposome-wide association studies. In this work, a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was developed and validated. The assay enables the analysis of more than 80 highly-diverse xenobiotics in urine, serum/plasma, and breast milk; with detection limits generally in the pg-ng mL-1 range. In plasma of extremely-premature infants, 27 xenobiotics are identified; including contamination with plasticizers, perfluorinated alkylated substances and parabens. In breast milk samples collected longitudinally over the first 211 days post-partum, 29 analytes are detected, including pyrrolizidine- and tropane alkaloids which have not been identified in this matrix before. A preliminary estimation of daily toxicant intake via breast milk is conducted. In conclusion, we observe significant early-life co-exposure to multiple toxicants, and demonstrate the method's applicability for large-scale exposomics-type cohort studies.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Xu G, Ng HL, Chen C, et al (2022)

Efficient and Complete Detoxification of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments Achieved by Bioaugmentation with Dehalococcoides and Microbial Ecological Insights.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are prevalent environmental pollutants, but bioremediation of PBDEs remains to be reported. Here we report accelerated remediation of a penta-BDE mixture in sediments by bioaugmentation with Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains CG1 and TZ50. Bioaugmentation with different amounts of each Dehalococcoides strain enhanced debromination of penta-BDEs compared with the controls. The sediment microcosm spiked with 6.8 × 106 cells/mL strain CG1 showed the highest penta-BDEs removal (89.9 ± 7.3%) to diphenyl ether within 60 days. Interestingly, co-contaminant tetrachloroethene (PCE) improved bioaugmentation performance, resulting in faster and more extensive penta-BDEs debromination using less bioinoculants, which was also completely dechlorinated to ethene by introducing D. mccartyi strain 11a. The better bioaugmentation performance in sediments with PCE could be attributed to the boosted growth of the augmented Dehalococcoides and capability of the PCE-induced reductive dehalogenases to debrominate penta-BDEs. Finally, ecological analyses showed that bioaugmentation resulted in more deterministic microbial communities, where the augmented Dehalococcoides established linkages with indigenous microorganisms but without causing obvious alterations of the overall community diversity and structure. Collectively, this study demonstrates that bioaugmentation with Dehalococcoides is a feasible strategy to completely remove PBDEs in sediments.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

McElhinney JMWR, Catacutan MK, Mawart A, et al (2022)

Interfacing Machine Learning and Microbial Omics: A Promising Means to Address Environmental Challenges.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:851450.

Microbial communities are ubiquitous and carry an exceptionally broad metabolic capability. Upon environmental perturbation, microbes are also amongst the first natural responsive elements with perturbation-specific cues and markers. These communities are thereby uniquely positioned to inform on the status of environmental conditions. The advent of microbial omics has led to an unprecedented volume of complex microbiological data sets. Importantly, these data sets are rich in biological information with potential for predictive environmental classification and forecasting. However, the patterns in this information are often hidden amongst the inherent complexity of the data. There has been a continued rise in the development and adoption of machine learning (ML) and deep learning architectures for solving research challenges of this sort. Indeed, the interface between molecular microbial ecology and artificial intelligence (AI) appears to show considerable potential for significantly advancing environmental monitoring and management practices through their application. Here, we provide a primer for ML, highlight the notion of retaining biological sample information for supervised ML, discuss workflow considerations, and review the state of the art of the exciting, yet nascent, interdisciplinary field of ML-driven microbial ecology. Current limitations in this sphere of research are also addressed to frame a forward-looking perspective toward the realization of what we anticipate will become a pivotal toolkit for addressing environmental monitoring and management challenges in the years ahead.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Merlin BL, Moraes GJ, FL Cônsoli (2022)

The Microbiota of a Mite Prey-Predator System on Different Host Plants Are Characterized by Dysbiosis and Potential Functional Redundancy.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiota has diverse roles in the life cycles of their hosts, affecting their growth, development, behavior, and reproduction. Changes in physiological conditions of the host can also impact the assemblage of host-associated microorganisms. However, little is known of the effects of host plant-prey-predatory mite interactions on mite microbiota. We compared the microbial communities of eggs and adult females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and of adult females of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on four different host plants (cotton, maize, pinto bean, and tomato) by metabarcoding sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA), using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Only the egg microbiota of T. urticae was affected by the host plant. The microbiota of the predatory mite N. californicus was very different from that of its prey, and the predator microbiota was unaffected by the different host plant-prey systems tested. Only the microbiota of the eggs of T. urticae carried Serratia as a high fidelity-biomarker, but their low abundance in T. urticae adult females suggests that the association between Serratia and T. urticae is accidental. Biomarker bacteria were also detected in the microbiota of adult females of T. urticae and N. californicus, with different biomarkers in each host plant species. The microbiota associated with eggs and adult females of T. urticae and adult females of N. californicus differed in their functional potential contributions to the host mite.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Zhang H, Zhao Z, Chen S, et al (2018)

Geographical patterns of denitrifying bacterial communities associated with different urban lakes.

RSC advances, 8(31):17079-17090 pii:c8ra01295d.

The geographical variation of denitrifying bacterial communities and water quality parameters in urban lakes distributed across nine provinces in China were determined. The Illumina sequencing data of the denitrifying encoding gene nirS was examined in the samples collected from nine localities (pairwise geographical distance: 200-2600 km). The results showed that fundamental differences in water quality were observed among different urban lakes. The highest nitrate (2.02 mg L-1) and total nitrogen (3.82 mg L-1) concentrations were observed in Pingzhuang (P < 0.01). The algal cell concentration ranged from 1.29 × 108 to 3.0 × 109 cell per L. The sequencing data generated a total of 421058 high quality nirS gene reads that resulted in 6369 OTUs (97% cutoff), with Proteobacteria and Firmicutes being the dominant taxa. A co-occurrence network analysis indicated that the top five genera identified as keystone taxa were Dechlorospirillum sp., Alicycliphilus sp., Dechloromonas sp., Pseudogulbenkiania sp., and Paracoccus sp. A redundancy analysis (RDA) further revealed that distinct denitrifying bacterial communities inhabited the different urban lakes, and influenced by urban lake water ammonia nitrogen, manganese and algal cell concentrations. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) also showed that geographic location was more important than water quality factors in structuring the denitrifying bacterial communities. Together, these results provide new insight into understanding of denitrifying bacterial communities associated with geographically distributed urban lakes on a larger scale, and these results also expand our exploration of aquatic microbial ecology in freshwater bodies.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Patrono LV, Vrancken B, Budt M, et al (2022)

Archival influenza virus genomes from Europe reveal genomic variability during the 1918 pandemic.

Nature communications, 13(1):2314.

The 1918 influenza pandemic was the deadliest respiratory pandemic of the 20th century and determined the genomic make-up of subsequent human influenza A viruses (IAV). Here, we analyze both the first 1918 IAV genomes from Europe and the first from samples prior to the autumn peak. 1918 IAV genomic diversity is consistent with a combination of local transmission and long-distance dispersal events. Comparison of genomes before and during the pandemic peak shows variation at two sites in the nucleoprotein gene associated with resistance to host antiviral response, pointing at a possible adaptation of 1918 IAV to humans. Finally, local molecular clock modeling suggests a pure pandemic descent of seasonal H1N1 IAV as an alternative to the hypothesis of origination through an intrasubtype reassortment.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Xu N, Zhang Z, Shen Y, et al (2022)

Compare the performance of multiple binary classification models in microbial high-throughput sequencing datasets.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)02904-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The development of machine learning and deep learning provided solutions for predicting microbiota response on environmental change based on microbial high-throughput sequencing. However, there were few studies specifically clarifying the performance and practical of two types of binary classification models to find a better algorithm for the microbiota data analysis. Here, for the first time, we evaluated the performance, accuracy and running time of the binary classification models built by three machine learning methods - random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), and one deep learning method - back propagation neural network (BPNN). The built models were based on the microbiota datasets that removed low-quality variables and solved the class imbalance problem. Additionally, we optimized the models by tuning. Our study demonstrated that dataset pre-processing was a necessary process for model construction. Among these 4 binary classification models, BPNN and RF were the most suitable methods for constructing microbiota binary classification models. Using these 4 models to predict multiple microbial datasets, BPNN showed the highest accuracy and the most robust performance, while the RF method was ranked second. We also constructed the optimal models by adjusting the epochs of BPNN and the n_estimators of RF for six times. The evaluation related to performances of models provided a road map for the application of artificial intelligence to assess microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Knapp BD, KC Huang (2022)

The Effects of Temperature on Cellular Physiology.

Annual review of biophysics, 51:499-526.

Temperature impacts biological systems across all length and timescales. Cells and the enzymes that comprise them respond to temperature fluctuations on short timescales, and temperature can affect protein folding, the molecular composition of cells, and volume expansion. Entire ecosystems exhibit temperature-dependent behaviors, and global warming threatens to disrupt thermal homeostasis in microbes that are important for human and planetary health. Intriguingly, the growth rate of most species follows the Arrhenius law of equilibrium thermodynamics, with an activation energy similar to that of individual enzymes but with maximal growth rates and over temperature ranges that are species specific. In this review, we discuss how the temperature dependence of critical cellular processes, such as the central dogma and membrane fluidity, contributes to the temperature dependence of growth. We conclude with a discussion of adaptation to temperature shifts and the effects of temperature on evolution and on the properties of microbial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Lu S, Zhang W, Li X, et al (2022)

Skin bacterial richness and diversity in ICU patients with severe pneumonia.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(22)00268-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Patients with severe pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have a high risk of mortality, and the microbiome is likely to affect the outcome of ICU patients with severe pneumonia; however, the skin microbiota in ICU patients with severe pneumonia remains unclear. In this study, based on 16S rRNA sequencing, we explored the difference in skin bacterial richness and diversity between the group of ICU patients with severe pneumonia (PG) and the group of healthy controls (CG).

METHODS: The diversity index and taxonomic distribution of skin bacteria were analyzed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology bioinformatics pipeline. Blood, endotracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from the same subjects of PG for culture.

RESULTS: Compared to CG, the diversity of skin bacteria in PG decreased significantly; Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Enterococcus, Halomonas, and Brevibacillus were differentially abundant in PG, most of which were also identified in the cultures of upper respiratory tract samples of the same PG.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that healthcare-associated infection in ICU patients with severe pneumonia is strongly associated with skin microbiota, which necessitates the prevention and control of skin bacterial pathogens for these patients.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Van Bonn W, Oliaro FJ, LJ Pinnell (2022)

Ultraviolet light alters experimental aquarium water microbial communities.

Zoo biology [Epub ahead of print].

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, alone and in combination with CO2 exposure, on the water microbial community composition was tested in replicate experimental aquaria using source water from an established Amazon-themed exhibit housing mixed species of fishes. Total bacterial abundance, α-diversity metrics, and β-diversity metrics were determined 3 weeks and 1 week before, and weekly during 8 weeks of continuous treatment. The UV treatment significantly lowered the overall bacterial abundance while CO2 treatment had no effect. However, the UV exposure effect was variable across phyla. Some phyla were decreased while others were increased, including some of potential clinical significance. At the genus level, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of Mycobacteria between treatments and an increase in the relative abundance of Aeromonas spp. with UV light treatment. Further work is needed to determine if the observed effects are dose-dependent or if different exposure doses produce different results.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Yan Y, Du Z, Zhang L, et al (2019)

Identification of parameters needed for optimal anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover.

RSC advances, 9(51):29609-29618 pii:c9ra05556h.

While studies have shown that anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) is an efficient method to treat these agricultural wastes, the microbial ecology of these systems and optimal parameters for the digestion process are yet to be determined. In this study, the effects of different initial substrate concentrations and CS : CM mixture ratios on co-digestion and microbial community structure were evaluated. Results demonstrated that both the highest cumulative methane yields and methane production rates were obtained from reactors with a CS : CM ratio of 1 : 1 during hemi-solid-state anaerobic digestion (HSS-AD). Cumulative methane yields and methane production rates were 24.8% and 42% lower in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors using the same CS : CM ratios. Analysis of microbial community structures revealed that cellulolytic bacteria and a diversity of syntrophic microorganisms capable of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and hydrogen interspecies transfer (HIT) were enriched in the best-performing reactors. Methanosarcina species also dominated during HSS-AD, and their presence was positively correlated with methane production in the reactors.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Na N, Qili M, Wu N, et al (2022)

Bacterial Community and Fermentation Quality of Ensiling Alfalfa With Commercial Lactic Acid Bacterial Additives.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:836899.

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of six common commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives [A1, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. buchneri, and Enterococcus faecalis; A2, L. plantarum and L. casei; A3, L. plantarum and L. buchneri; A4, L. plantarum, L. buchneri, L. casei, and Pediococcus acidilactici; A5, L. plantarum (producing feruloyl esterase); and A6, L. buchneri, P. acidilactici, β-glucanase, and xylanase] on the bacterial community and fermentation quality of alfalfa silage. Alfalfa was harvested at the squaring stage, wilted in the field for 24 h, and ensiled without any additives (Control) or with A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, or A6. Microbial counts, bacterial community, fermentation parameters, and nutritional composition were determined after ensiling for 90 days. The total abundance of LAB genera on alfalfa pre-ensiling was 0.38% in bacterial community. The abundances of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus in the Control silage were 42.18, 40.18, and 8.09% of abundance, respectively. The abundances of Lactobacillus in A1-, A2-, A3-, A4-, and A5-treatments were 89.32, 92.93, 92.87, 81.12, and 80.44%, respectively. The abundances of Pediococcus and Lactobacillus in A6-treatment were 70.14 and 24.86%, respectively. Compared with Control silage, LAB-treated silage had lower pH and less ammonia nitrogen and water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations (p < 0.05). Further, the A5- and A6-treatments contained lower neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose than other treatments (p < 0.05). Overall, LAB genera were presented as minor taxa in alfalfa pre-ensiling and as dominant taxa in alfalfa silage. Adding LAB additives improved the fermentation quality and altered the bacterial community of alfalfa silage. The main bacterial genera in Control silage were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. Lactobacillus dominated the bacterial communities of A1-, A2-, A3-, A4-, and A5-treatments, while Pediococcus and Lactobacillus were dominant bacterial genera in A6-treatment. Inoculating A5 and A6 degraded the fiber in alfalfa silage. It is necessary to ensile alfalfa with LAB inoculants.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Franzino T, Boubakri H, Cernava T, et al (2022)

Implications of carbon catabolite repression for plant-microbe interactions.

Plant communications, 3(2):100272 pii:S2590-3462(21)00186-3.

Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) plays a key role in many physiological and adaptive responses in a broad range of microorganisms that are commonly associated with eukaryotic hosts. When a mixture of different carbon sources is available, CCR, a global regulatory mechanism, inhibits the expression and activity of cellular processes associated with utilization of secondary carbon sources in the presence of the preferred carbon source. CCR is known to be executed by completely different mechanisms in different bacteria, yeast, and fungi. In addition to regulating catabolic genes, CCR also appears to play a key role in the expression of genes involved in plant-microbe interactions. Here, we present a detailed overview of CCR mechanisms in various bacteria. We highlight the role of CCR in beneficial as well as deleterious plant-microbe interactions based on the available literature. In addition, we explore the global distribution of known regulatory mechanisms within bacterial genomes retrieved from public repositories and within metatranscriptomes obtained from different plant rhizospheres. By integrating the available literature and performing targeted meta-analyses, we argue that CCR-regulated substrate use preferences of microorganisms should be considered an important trait involved in prevailing plant-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Qing JB, Song WZ, Li CQ, et al (2022)

The Diagnostic and Predictive Significance of Immune-Related Genes and Immune Characteristics in the Occurrence and Progression of IgA Nephropathy.

Journal of immunology research, 2022:9284204.

Objective: To investigate the potential diagnostic and predictive significance of immune-related genes in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and discover the abnormal glomerular inflammation in IgAN.

Methods: GSE116626 was used as a training set to identify different immune-related genes (DIRGs) and establish machine learning models for the diagnosis of IgAN; then, a nomogram model was generated based on GSE116626, and GSE115857 was used as a test set to evaluate its clinical value. Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) analysis was also performed to explore the changing trend of DIRGs with the progression of IgAN lesions. GSE141344 was used with DIRGs to establish the ceRNA network associated with IgAN progression. Finally, ssGSEA analysis was performed on the GSE141295 dataset to discover the abnormal inflammation in IgAN.

Results: Machine learning (ML) performed excellently in diagnosing IgAN using six DIRGs. A nomogram model was constructed to predict IgAN based on the six DIRGs. Three trends related to IgAN lesions were identified using STEM analysis. A ceRNA network associated with IgAN progression which contained 8 miRNAs, 14 lncRNAs, and 3 mRNAs was established. A higher macrophage ratio and lower CD4+ T cell ratio in IgAN compared to controls were observed, and the correlation between macrophages and monocytes in the glomeruli of IgAN patients was inverse compared to controls.

Conclusion: This study reveals the diagnostic and predictive significance of DIRGs in IgAN and finds that the imbalance between macrophages and CD4+ immune cells may be an important pathomechanism of IgAN. These results provide potential directions for the treatment and prevention of IgAN.

RevDate: 2022-05-08

Zhang X, Jin Z, Shen M, et al (2022)

Accumulation of polyethylene microplastics induces oxidative stress, microbiome dysbiosis and immunoregulation in crayfish.

Fish & shellfish immunology pii:S1050-4648(22)00239-X [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics have become a worldwide pollutant, widely discovered in soil, air and aquatic environment. Microplastics have been found in habitats where crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) cultivated, but the impact of microplastics on crayfish remains unclear. In this study, after 21-day dietary exposure, polyethylene (PE) particles were found to accumulate in intestine, hepatopancreas, gills and hemolymph of crayfish. Furthermore, PE particles can still be detected in these tissues after a 7-day depuration in clean water. PE retained in these tissues caused oxidative stress responses, as indicated by the change of oxidative-stress-related index, such as the increase of H2O2 level and SOD activity. PE exposure also caused hemocytic encapsulation in crayfish hepatopancreas and increase of mucus secretion in intestine. Moreover, PE exposure affected the microbiota balance in crayfish, by reducing the total microbiota abundance and altering the proportions of many bacterial families. Interestingly, results showed that PE exposure led to of lower numbers of hemocytes and declination of phenoloxidase activity. Finally, PE exposure induced the expression of immune-related genes, including transcription factors and antimicrobial peptides. Taken these together, we conclude that PE microplastics exert considerable toxic effects on crayfish and are a potential threat to crayfish aquaculture and consumption. This study provides basic toxicological data toward quantifying and illuminating the impact of PE microplastics on freshwater animals.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

da Silva JL, Mendes LW, Rocha SMB, et al (2022)

Domestication of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Changes the Microbial Communities in the Rhizosphere.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants modulate the soil microbiota and select a specific microbial community in the rhizosphere. However, plant domestication reduces genetic diversity, changes plant physiology, and could have an impact on the associated microbiome assembly. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess the microbial community in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of wild, semi-domesticated, and domesticated genotypes of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), to investigate the effect of plant domestication on microbial community assembly. In general, rhizosphere communities were more diverse than bulk soil, but no differences were found among genotypes. Our results showed that the microbial community's structure was different from wild and semi-domesticated as compared to domesticated genotypes. The community similarity decreased 57.67% from wild to domesticated genotypes. In general, the most abundant phyla were Actinobacteria (21.9%), Proteobacteria (20.7%), Acidobacteria (14%), and Firmicutes (9.7%). Comparing the different genotypes, the analysis showed that Firmicutes (Bacillus) was abundant in the rhizosphere of the wild genotypes, while Acidobacteria dominated semi-domesticated plants, and Proteobacteria (including rhizobia) was enriched in domesticated P. lunatus rhizosphere. The domestication process also affected the microbial community network, in which the complexity of connections decreased from wild to domesticated genotypes in the rhizosphere. Together, our work showed that the domestication of P. lunatus shaped rhizosphere microbial communities from taxonomic to a functional level, changing the abundance of specific microbial groups and decreasing the complexity of interactions among them.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Zhang Z, Wang Y, Chen B, et al (2022)

Xenobiotic pollution affects transcription of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in aquatic microcosms.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)00610-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors (VFs) are critical threats to human health. Their abundance in aquatic ecosystems is maintained and enhanced via selection driven by environmental xenobiotics. However, their activity and expression in these environments under xenobiotic stress remains unknown. Here ARG and VF expression profiles were examined in aquatic microcosms under ciprofloxacin, glyphosate and sertraline hydrochloride treatment. Ciprofloxacin increased total expression of ARGs, particularly multidrug resistance factors. Total expression of ARGs and VFs decreased significantly under glyphosate and sertraline treatments. However, in opportunistic human pathogens, these agents increased expression of both ARGs and VFs. Xenobiotic pollutants, such as the compounds we tested here, have the potential to disrupt microbial ecology, promote resistance, and increase risk to human health. This study systematically evaluated the effects of environmental xenobiotics on transcription of ARGs and VFs, both of which have direct relevance to human health. Transcription of such genes has been overlooked in previous studies.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Palacios OA, Espinoza-Hicks JC, Camacho-Dávila AA, et al (2022)

Differences in Exudates Between Strains of Chlorella sorokiniana Affect the Interaction with the Microalga Growth-Promoting Bacteria Azospirillum brasilense : Differences in Exudates Between Strains of Chlorella sorokiniana Affect the Interaction with the Microalga Growth-Promoting Bacteria Azospirillum brasilense.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria (MGPB) Azospirillum brasilense have a mutualistic interaction that can begin within the first hours of co-incubation; however, the metabolites participating in this initial interaction are not yet identified. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used in the present study to characterize the metabolites exuded by two strains of C. sorokiniana (UTEX 2714 and UTEX 2805) and A. brasilense Cd when grown together in an oligotrophic medium. Lactate and myo-inositol were identified as carbon metabolites exuded by the two strains of C. sorokiniana; however, only the UTEX 2714 strain exuded glycerol as the main carbon compound. In turn, A. brasilense exuded uracil when grown on the exudates of either microalga, and both microalga strains were able to utilize uracil as a nitrogen source. Interestingly, although the total carbohydrate content was higher in exudates from C. sorokiniana UTEX 2805 than from C. sorokiniana UTEX 2714, the growth of A. brasilense was greater in the exudates from the UTEX 2714 strain. These results highlight the fact that in the exuded carbon compounds differ between strains of the same species of microalgae and suggest that the type, rather than the quantity, of carbon source is more important for sustaining the growth of the partner bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Sun Y, Shi X, He LY, et al (2022)

Biosynthetic Profile in the Co-culture of Aspergillus sydowii and Bacillus subtilis to Produce Novel Benzoic Derivatives.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial co-culture simulates the natural ecosystem through the combination of artificial microbes. This approach has been widely applied in the study of activating silent genes to reveal novel secondary metabolites. However, there are still challenges in determining the biosynthetic pathways. In this study, the effects of microbial co-culture on the morphology of the microbes were verified by the morphological observation. Subsequently, through the strategy combining substrate feeding, stable isotope labeling, and gene expression analysis, the biosynthetic pathways of five benzoic acid derivatives N1-N4 and N7 were demonstrated: the secondary metabolite 10-deoxygerfelin of A. sydowii acted as an inducer to induce B. subtilis to produce benzoic acid, which was further converted into 3-OH-benzoic acid by A. sydowii. Subsequently, A. sydowii used 3-OH-benzoic acid as the substrate to synthesize the new compound N2, and then N1, N3, N4, and N7 were biosynthesized upon the upregulation of hydrolase, hydroxylase, and acyltransferase during co-culture. The plate zone analysis suggested that the biosynthesis of the newly induced compounds N1-N4 was mainly attributed to A. sydowii, and both A. sydowii and B. subtilis were indispensable for the biosynthesis of N7. This study provides an important basis for a better understanding of the interactions among microorganisms, providing new ideas for studying the biosynthetic pathways of the newly induced secondary metabolites in co-culture.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Haag KL, Caesar L, da Silveira Regueira-Neto M, et al (2022)

Temporal Changes in Gut Microbiota Composition and Pollen Diet Associated with Colony Weakness of a Stingless Bee.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Compared to honeybees and bumblebees, the effect of diet on the gut microbiome of Neotropical corbiculate bees such as Melipona spp. is largely unknown. These bees have been managed for centuries, but recently an annual disease is affecting M. quadrifasciata, an endangered species kept exclusively by management in Southern Brazil. Here we report the results of a longitudinal metabarcoding study involving the period of M. quadrifasciata colony weakness, designed to monitor the gut microbiota and diet changes preceding an outbreak. We found increasing amounts of bacteria associated to the gut of forager bees 2 months before the first symptoms have been recorded. Simultaneously, forager bees showed decreasing body weight. The accelerated growth of gut-associated bacteria was uneven among taxa, with Bifidobacteriaceae dominating, and Lactobacillaceae decreasing in relative abundance within the bacterial community. Dominant fungi such as Candida and Starmerella also decreased in numbers, and the stingless bee obligate symbiont Zygosaccharomyces showed the lowest relative abundance during the outbreak period. Such changes were associated with pronounced diet shifts, i.e., the rise of Eucalyptus spp. pollen amount in forager bees' guts. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between the amount of Eucalyptus pollen in diets and the abundance of some bacterial taxa in the gut-associated microbiota. We conclude that diet and subsequent interactions with the gut microbiome are key environmental components of the annual disease and propose the use of diet supplementation as means to sustain the activity of stingless bee keeping as well as native bee pollination services.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Bulgarelli RG, Leite MFA, de Hollander M, et al (2022)

Eucalypt species drive rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community assembly but soil phosphorus availability rearranges the microbiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)02763-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil phosphorus (P) availability may limit plant growth and alter root-soil interactions and rhizosphere microbial community composition. The composition of the rhizosphere microbial community can also be shaped by plant genotype. In this study, we examined the rhizosphere microbial communities of young plants of 24 species of eucalypts (22 Eucalyptus and two Corymbia species) under low or sufficient soil P availability. The taxonomic diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities was assessed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The taxonomic modifications in response to low P availability were evaluated by principal component analysis, and co-inertia analysis was performed to identify associations between bacterial and fungal community structures and parameters related to plant growth and nutritional status under low and sufficient soil P availability. The sequencing results showed that while both soil P availability and eucalypt species influenced the microbial community assembly, eucalypt species was the stronger determinant. However, when the plants are subjected to low P-availability, the rhizosphere selection became strongest. In response to low P, the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of some species showed significant changes, whereas in others remained relatively constant under low and sufficient P. Co-inertia analyses revealed a significant co-dependence between plant nutrient contents and bacterial and fungal community composition only under sufficient P. By contrast, under low P, bacterial community composition was related to plant biomass production. In conclusion, our study shows that eucalypt species identity was the main factor modulating rhizosphere microbial community composition; significant shifts due to P availability were observed only for some eucalypt species.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Bloxham B, Lee H, J Gore (2022)

Diauxic lags explain unexpected coexistence in multi-resource environments.

Molecular systems biology, 18(5):e10630.

How the coexistence of species is affected by the presence of multiple resources is a major question in microbial ecology. We experimentally demonstrate that differences in diauxic lags, which occur as species deplete their own environments and adapt their metabolisms, allow slow-growing microbes to stably coexist with faster-growing species in multi-resource environments despite being excluded in single-resource environments. In our focal example, an Acinetobacter species (Aci2) competitively excludes Pseudomonas aurantiaca (Pa) on alanine and on glutamate. However, they coexist on the combination of both resources. Experiments reveal that Aci2 grows faster but Pa has shorter diauxic lags. We establish a tradeoff between Aci2's fast growth and Pa's short lags as their mechanism for coexistence. We model this tradeoff to accurately predict how environmental changes affect community composition. We extend our work by surveying a large set of competitions and observe coexistence nearly four times as frequently when the slow-grower is the fast-switcher. Our work illustrates a simple mechanism, based entirely on supplied-resource growth dynamics, for the emergence of multi-resource coexistence.

RevDate: 2022-05-04

McLain NK, Gomez MY, EW Gachomo (2022)

Acetaminophen Levels Found in Recycled Wastewater Alter Soil Microbial Community Structure and Functional Diversity.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The practice of using recycled wastewater (RWW) has been successfully adopted to address the growing demand for clean water. However, chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) including pharmaceutical products remain in the RWW even after additional cleaning. When RWW is used to irrigate crops or landscapes, these chemicals can enter these and adjacent environments. Unfortunately, the overall composition and concentrations of CECs found in different RWW sources vary, and even the same source can vary over time. Therefore, we selected one compound that is found frequently and in high concentrations in many RWW sources, acetaminophen (APAP), to use for our study. Using greenhouse grown eggplants treated with APAP concentrations within the ranges found in RWW effluents, we investigated the short-term impacts of APAP on the soil bacterial population under agricultural settings. Using Illumina sequencing-based approaches, we showed that APAP has the potential to cause shifts in the microbial community most likely by positively selecting for bacteria that are capable of metabolizing the breakdown products of APAP such as glycosides and carboxylic acids. Community-level physiological profiles of carbon metabolism were evaluated using Biolog EcoPlate as a proxy for community functions. The Biolog plates indicated that the metabolism of amines, amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and polymers was significantly higher in the presence of APAP. Abundance of microorganisms of importance to plant health and productivity was altered by APAP. Our results indicate that the soil microbial community and functions could be altered by APAP at concentrations found in RWW. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to guide policies regulating RWW reuse in agriculture and also highlight the need to further investigate the effects of CECs found in RWW on soil microbiomes.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Li H, Miller T, Lu J, et al (2022)

Nitrogen fixation contribution to nitrogen cycling during cyanobacterial blooms in Utah Lake.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)01277-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N) cycling is an essential process in lake systems and N-fixation is an important component of it. Recent studies have also found that nitrate reduction through heterotrophic denitrification in lake systems did not prevent harmful cyanobacterial blooms, but instead, may have favored the dominance of N2-fixing cyanobacteria. The overall objective of this study was to estimate nitrogen fixation rates and the expressions of associated nitrogenase (nif gene) functional gene at several sites at different occasions in freshwater Utah Lake. For comparison purposes, one time sampling was also conducted in the brackish Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake (GSL). The microbial ecology of the top 20-cm of surface water was investigated to assess the dominant cyanobacterial communities and N-related metabolisms. Our study revealed that Dolichospermum and Nodularia were potential N2-fixers for Utah Lake and brackish Farmington Bay, respectively. The in situ N2-fixation rates were 0-0.73 nmol N hr-1L-1 for Utah Lake and 0-0.85 nmol N hr-1L-1 for Farmington Bay, and these rates positively correlated with the abundance and expressions of the nif gene. In addition, nitrate reduction was measured in sediment (0.002-0.094 mg N VSS-1 hr-1). Significantly positive correlations were found among amoA, nirS and nirK abundance (R = 0.56-0.87, p < 0.05, Spearman) in both lakes. An exception was the lower nirK gene abundance detected at one site in Farmington Bay where high ammonium retentions were also detected. Based on a mass balance approach, we concluded that the amount of inorganic N loss through denitrification still exceeded the N input by N2-fixation, much like in most lakes, rivers, and marine ecosystems. This indicates that N cycling processes such as denitrification mediated by heterotrophic bacteria contributes to N-export from the lakes resulting in N limitations.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Lee M, Liang G, Holland SI, et al (2022)

Dehalobium species implicated in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin dechlorination in the contaminated sediments of Sydney Harbour Estuary.

Marine pollution bulletin, 179:113690 pii:S0025-326X(22)00372-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) are some of the most environmentally recalcitrant and toxic compounds. They occur naturally and as by-products of anthropogenic activity. Sydney Harbour Estuary (Sydney, Australia), is heavily contaminated with PCDD/F. Analysis of sediment cores revealed that the contamination source area in Homebush Bay continues to have one of the highest levels of PCDD/F contamination in the world (5207 pg WHO-TEQ g-1) with >50% of the toxicity attributed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), the most toxic PCDD/F congener. Comparison of congener profiles at the contamination source area with surrounding bays and historical data provided evidence for the attenuation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and other congeners at the source area. This finding was supported by the detection of di-, mono- and unchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin. Microbial community analysis of sediments by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed an abundance of lineages from the class Dehalococcoidia (up to 15% of the community), including the genus Dehalobium (up to 0.5%). Anaerobic seawater enrichment cultures using perchloroethene as more biologically available growth substrate enriched the Dehalobium population by more than six-fold. The enrichment culture then proved capable of reductively dechlorinating 2,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7-TriCDD and octachlorodibenzo-p-dibenzodioxin (OCDD) to hepta and hexa congeners. This work is the first to show microbial reductive dehalogenation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD with a bacterium from outside the Dehalococcoides genus, and one of only a few that demonstrates PCDD/F dechlorination in a marine environment.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Dick JM, J Tan (2022)

Chemical Links Between Redox Conditions and Estimated Community Proteomes from 16S rRNA and Reference Protein Sequences.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental influences on community structure are often assessed through multivariate analyses in order to relate microbial abundances to separately measured physicochemical variables. However, genes and proteins are themselves chemical entities; in combination with genome databases, differences in microbial abundances directly encode for chemical variability. We predicted that the carbon oxidation state of estimated community proteomes, obtained by combining taxonomic abundances from published 16S rRNA gene sequencing datasets with reference microbial proteomes from the NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database, would reflect environmental oxidation-reduction conditions. Analysis of multiple datasets confirms the geobiochemical predictions for environmental redox gradients in hydrothermal systems, stratified lakes and marine environments, and shale gas wells. The geobiochemical signal is largest for the steep redox gradients associated with hydrothermal systems and between injected water and produced fluids from shale gas wells, demonstrating that microbial community composition can be a chemical proxy for environmental redox gradients. Although estimates of oxidation state from 16S amplicon and metagenomic sequences are correlated, the 16S-based estimates show stronger associations with redox gradients in some environments.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Laveilhé A, Fochesato S, Lalaouna D, et al (2022)

Phytobeneficial traits of rhizobacteria under the control of multiple molecular dialogues.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonads play crucial roles in plant growth promotion and control of plant diseases. However, under natural conditions, other microorganisms competing for the same nutrient resources in the rhizosphere may exert negative control over their phytobeneficial characteristics. We assessed the expression of phytobeneficial genes involved in biocontrol, biostimulation and iron regulation such as, phlD, hcnA, acdS, and iron-small regulatory RNAs prrF1 and prrF2 in Pseudomonas brassicacearum co-cultivated with three phytopathogenic fungi, and two rhizobacteria in the presence or absence of Brassica napus, and in relation to iron availability. We found that the antifungal activity of P. brassicacearum depends mostly on the production of DAPG and not on HCN whose production is suppressed by fungi. We have also shown that the two-competing bacterial strains modulate the plant growth promotion activity of P. brassicacearum by modifying the expression of phlD, hcnA and acdS according to iron availability. Overall, it allows us to better understand the complexity of the multiple molecular dialogues that take place underground between microorganisms and between plants and its rhizosphere microbiota and to show that synergy in favour of phytobeneficial gene expression may exist between different bacterial species.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Qing J, Song W, Tian L, et al (2022)

Potential Small Molecules for Therapy of Lupus Nephritis Based on Genetic Effect and Immune Infiltration.

BioMed research international, 2022:2259164.

Lupus nephritis (LN) is the most common and significant complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) due to its poor prognosis and mortality rates in SLE patients. There is a critical need for new drugs as the pathogenesis of LN remains to be elucidated and immunosuppressive therapy comes with many deficiencies. In this study, 23 hub genes (IFI6, PLSCR1, XAF1, IFI16, IFI44, MX1, IFI44L, IFIT3, IFIT2, IFI27, DDX58, EIF2AK2, IFITM1, RTP4, IFITM3, TRIM22, PARP12, IFIH1, OAS1, HERC6, RSAD2, DDX60, and MX2) were identified through bioinformatics and network analysis and are closely related to interferon production and function. Interestingly, immune cell infiltration analysis and correlation analysis demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression of 23 hub genes and monocyte infiltration in glomeruli and M2 macrophage infiltration in the tubulointerstitium of LN patients. Additionally, the CTD database, DsigDB database, and DREIMT database were used to explore the bridging role of genes in chemicals and LN as well as the potential influence of these chemicals on immune cells. After comparison and discussion, six small molecules (Acetohexamide, Suloctidil, Terfenadine, Prochlorperazine, Mefloquine, and Triprolidine) were selected for their potential ability in treating lupus nephritis.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Liu Y, Zhang B, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

Organic Matter Decomposition in River Ecosystems: Microbial Interactions Influenced by Total Nitrogen and Temperature in River Water.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes contribute to the organic matter decomposition (OMD) in river ecosystems. This study considers two aspects of OMD in river ecosystems which have not been examined in scientific studies previously, and these are the microbial interactions in OMD and the influence of environmental factors on microbial interactions. Cotton strip (CS), as a substitute for organic matter, was introduced to Luanhe River Basin in China. The results of CS assay, microbial sequencing, and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that CS selectively enriched bacterial and fungal groups related to cellulose decomposition, achieving cotton strip decomposition (CSD). Bacterial phylum Proteobacteria and fungal phyla Rozellomycota and Ascomycota were the dominant groups associated with CSD. Network analysis and Mantel test results indicated that bacteria and fungi on CS cooperatively formed an interaction network to achieve the CSD. In the network, modules 2 and 4 were significantly positively associated with CSD, which were considered as the key modules in this study. The key modules were mainly composed of phyla Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, indicating that microbes in key modules were the effective decomposers of CS. Although keystone taxa were not directly associated with CSD, they may regulate the genera in key modules to achieve the CSD, since some keystone taxa were linked with the microbial genera associated with CSD in the key modules. Total nitrogen (TN) and temperature in water were the dominant environmental factors positively influenced CSD. The key modules 2 and 4 were positively influenced by water temperature and TN in water, respectively, and two keystone taxa were positively associated with TN. This profoundly revealed that water temperature and TN influenced the OMD through acting on the keystone taxa and key modules in microbial interactions. The research findings help us to understand the microbial interactions influenced by environmental factors in OMD in river ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Gómez-Muñoz B, Efthymiou A, Dubey M, et al (2022)

Cellulose amendment promotes P solubilization by Penicillium aculeatum in non-sterilized soil.

Fungal biology, 126(5):356-365.

Successful application of microbial biofertilizers, such as phosphorus (P) solubilizing fungi to agroecosystems, is constrained from the lack of knowledge about their ecology; for example in terms of how they respond to an external input of carbon (C) to get established in the soil. In two soil incubation experiments we examined the performance of the P solubilizing fungus Penicillium aculeatum in non-sterile and semi-sterile (γ-irradiated) soil with different C and P sources. Results from the first experiment with C sources showed that starch and cellulose generally improved P solubilization by P. aculeatum measured as water extractable P (Pwep), though only significantly in non-sterile soil. This coincided with an increased population density of P. aculeatum measured with a hygromycin B resistant strain of this fungus. Soil respiration used to measure soil microbial activity was overall much higher in treatments with C compounds than without C in both non-sterile and semi-sterile soil. However, soil respiration was highest with cellulose in semi-sterile soil, especially in combination with P. aculeatum. Hence, for the second experiment with P sources (tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and sewage sludge ash) cellulose was used as a C source for P. aculeatum growth in all treatments. Main results showed that P. aculeatum in combination with cellulose soil amendment increased soil Pwep independent of soil sterilization and P source treatments. Soil resin P (Pres) and microbial P (Pmic), which represents stocks of potentially plant available P, were also affected from P. aculeatum inoculation. Increased soil Pres from TCP and sewage sludge ash was observed with P. aculeatum independent of soil type. On the other hand soil Pmic was higher after P. aculeatum inoculation only in semi-sterile soil. Population density of P. aculeatum measured with qPCR was maintained or increased in non-sterile and semi-sterile soil, respectively, compared to the original inoculum load of P. aculeatum. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of C source addition for P. aculeatum if used as a biofertilizer. For this, cellulose seems to be a promising option promoting P. aculeatum growth and P solubilization also in non-sterilized soil.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Anderson KE, Ricigliano VA, Copeland DC, et al (2022)

Social Interaction is Unnecessary for Hindgut Microbiome Transmission in Honey Bees: The Effect of Diet and Social Exposure on Tissue-Specific Microbiome Assembly.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Honey bees are a model for host-microbial interactions with experimental designs evolving towards conventionalized worker bees. Research on gut microbiome transmission and assembly has examined only a fraction of factors associated with the colony and hive environment. Here, we studied the effects of diet and social isolation on tissue-specific bacterial and fungal colonization of the midgut and two key hindgut regions. We found that both treatment factors significantly influenced early hindgut colonization explaining similar proportions of microbiome variation. In agreement with previous work, social interaction with older workers was unnecessary for core hindgut bacterial transmission. Exposure to natural eclosion and fresh stored pollen resulted in gut bacterial communities that were taxonomically and structurally equivalent to those produced in the natural colony setting. Stressed diets of no pollen or autoclaved pollen in social isolation resulted in decreased fungal abundance and bacterial diversity, and atypical microbiome structure and tissue-specific variation of functionally important core bacteria. Without exposure to the active hive environment, the abundance and strain diversity of keystone ileum species Gilliamella apicola was markedly reduced. These changes were associated with significantly larger ileum microbiotas suggesting that extended exposure to the active hive environment plays an antibiotic role in hindgut microbiome establishment. We conclude that core hindgut microbiome transmission is facultative horizontal with 5 of 6 core hindgut species readily acquired from the built hive structure and natural diet. Our findings contribute novel insights into factors influencing assembly and maintenance of honey bee gut microbiota and facilitate future experimental designs.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Rahlff J, Bornemann TLV, Lopatina A, et al (2022)

Host-Associated Phages Disperse across the Extraterrestrial Analogue Antarctica.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Extreme Antarctic conditions provide one of the closest analogues of extraterrestrial environments. Since air and snow samples, especially from polar regions, yield DNA amounts in the lower picogram range, binning of prokaryotic genomes is challenging and renders studying the dispersal of biological entities across these environments difficult. Here, we hypothesized that dispersal of host-associated bacteriophages (adsorbed, replicating, or prophages) across the Antarctic continent can be tracked via their genetic signatures, aiding our understanding of virus and host dispersal across long distances. Phage genome fragments (PGFs) reconstructed from surface snow metagenomes of three Antarctic stations were assigned to four host genomes, mainly Betaproteobacteria, including Ralstonia spp. We reconstructed the complete genome of a temperate phage with nearly complete alignment to a prophage in the reference genome of Ralstonia pickettii 12D. PGFs from different stations were related to each other at the genus level and matched similar hosts. Metagenomic read mapping and nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed a wide dispersal of highly identical PGFs, 13 of which were detected in seawater from the Western Antarctic Peninsula at a distance of 5,338 km from the snow sampling stations. Our results suggest that host-associated phages, especially of Ralstonia sp., disperse over long distances despite the harsh conditions of the Antarctic continent. Given that 14 phages associated with two R. pickettii draft genomes isolated from space equipment were identified, we conclude that Ralstonia phages are ideal mobile genetic elements to track dispersal and contamination in ecosystems relevant for astrobiology. IMPORTANCE Host-associated phages of the bacterium Ralstonia identified in snow samples can be used to track microbial dispersal over thousands of kilometers across the Antarctic continent, which functions as an extraterrestrial analogue because of its harsh environmental conditions. Due to the presence of these bacteria carrying genome-integrated prophages on space-related equipment and the potential for dispersal of host-associated phages demonstrated here, our work has implications for planetary protection, a discipline in astrobiology interested in preventing contamination of celestial bodies with alien biomolecules or forms of life.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Di Martino P (2022)

Antimicrobial agents and microbial ecology.

AIMS microbiology, 8(1):1-4 pii:microbiol-08-01-001.

Antimicrobials are therapeutic substances used to prevent or treat infections. Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents applied to non-living surfaces. Every year, several thousand tonnes of antimicrobials and their by-products are released into the environment and in particular into the aquatic environment. This type of xenobiotic has ecological consequences in the natural environment but also in technological environments such as wastewater treatment plants and methane fermentation sewage sludge treatment plants. The constant exposure of microbial communities not only to high concentrations but also to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics is a key element in the development of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments and in soils. The future of antimicrobials lies in the development of biosourced or bioinspired molecules. The observation and deciphering of interactions between living organisms is the key to this development.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Nagar S, Talwar C, Motelica-Heino M, et al (2022)

Microbial Ecology of Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycling at a Mesothermal Hot Spring Atop Northern Himalayas, India.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:848010.

Sulfur related prokaryotes residing in hot spring present good opportunity for exploring the limitless possibilities of integral ecosystem processes. Metagenomic analysis further expands the phylogenetic breadth of these extraordinary sulfur (S) metabolizing microorganisms as well as their complex metabolic networks and syntrophic interactions in environmental biosystems. Through this study, we explored and expanded the microbial genetic repertoire with focus on S cycling genes through metagenomic analysis of S contaminated hot spring, located at the Northern Himalayas. The analysis revealed rich diversity of microbial consortia with established roles in S cycling such as Pseudomonas, Thioalkalivibrio, Desulfovibrio, and Desulfobulbaceae (Proteobacteria). The major gene families inferred to be abundant across microbial mat, sediment, and water were assigned to Proteobacteria as reflected from the reads per kilobase (RPKs) categorized into translation and ribosomal structure and biogenesis. An analysis of sequence similarity showed conserved pattern of both dsrAB genes (n = 178) retrieved from all metagenomes while other S disproportionation proteins were diverged due to different structural and chemical substrates. The diversity of S oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with conserved (r)dsrAB suggests for it to be an important adaptation for microbial fitness at this site. Here, (i) the oxidative and reductive dsr evolutionary time-scale phylogeny proved that the earliest (but not the first) dsrAB proteins belong to anaerobic Thiobacillus with other (rdsr) oxidizers, also we confirm that (ii) SRBs belongs to δ-Proteobacteria occurring independent lateral gene transfer (LGT) of dsr genes to different and few novel lineages. Further, the structural prediction of unassigned DsrAB proteins confirmed their relatedness with species of Desulfovibrio (TM score = 0.86, 0.98, 0.96) and Archaeoglobus fulgidus (TM score = 0.97, 0.98). We proposed that the genetic repertoire might provide the basis of studying time-scale evolution and horizontal gene transfer of these genes in biogeochemical S cycling.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Rangel F, Enes P, Gasco L, et al (2022)

Differential Modulation of the European Sea Bass Gut Microbiota by Distinct Insect Meals.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:831034.

The aquaculture industry is one of the fastest-growing sectors in animal food production. However, farming of carnivorous fish strongly relies on the use of wild fish-based meals, a practice that is environmentally and economically unsustainable. Insect-based diets constitute a strong candidate for fishmeal substitution, due to their high nutritional value and low environmental footprint. Nevertheless, data on the impact of insect meal (IM) on the gut microbiome of farmed fish are so far inconclusive, and very scarce in what concerns modulation of microbial-mediated functions. Here we use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to evaluate the impact of different IMs on the composition and chitinolytic potential of the European sea bass gut digesta- and mucosa-associated communities. Our results show that insect-based diets of distinct origins differently impact the gut microbiota of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We detected clear modulatory effects of IM on the gut microbiota, which were more pronounced in the digesta, where communities differed considerably among the diets tested. Major community shifts were associated with the use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, HM) and pupal exuviae (HEM) feeds and were characterized by an increase in the relative abundance of the Firmicutes families Bacillaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae and the Actinobacteria family Actinomycetaceae, which all include taxa considered beneficial for fish health. Modulation of the digesta community by HEM was characterized by a sharp increase in Paenibacillus and a decrease of several Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidota members. In turn, a mealworm larvae-based diet (Tenebrio molitor, TM) had only a modest impact on microbiota composition. Further, using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate that shifts induced by HEM were accompanied by an increase in copy number of chitinase ChiA-encoding genes, predominantly originating from Paenibacillus species with effective chitinolytic activity. Our study reveals an HEM-driven increase in chitin-degrading taxa and associated chitinolytic activity, uncovering potential benefits of adopting exuviae-supplemented diets, a waste product of insect rearing, as a functional ingredient.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Guéneau V, Plateau-Gonthier J, Arnaud L, et al (2022)

Positive biofilms to guide surface microbial ecology in livestock buildings.

Biofilm, 4:100075 pii:S2590-2075(22)00009-0.

The increase in human consumption of animal proteins implies changes in the management of meat production. This is followed by increasingly restrictive regulations on antimicrobial products such as chemical biocides and antibiotics, used in particular to control pathogens that can spread zoonotic diseases. Aligned with the One Health concept, alternative biological solutions are under development and are starting to be used in animal production. Beneficial bacteria able to form positive biofilms and guide surface microbial ecology to limit microbial pathogen settlement are promising tools that could complement existing biosecurity practices to maintain the hygiene of livestock buildings. Although the benefits of positive biofilms have already been documented, the associated fundamental mechanisms and the rationale of the microbial composition of these new products are still sparce. This review provides an overview of the envisioned modes of action of positive biofilms used on livestock building surfaces and the resulting criteria for the selection of the appropriate microorganisms for this specific application. Limits and advantages of this biosecurity approach are discussed as well as the impact of such practices along the food chain, from farm to fork.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Kumar D, Sharma SR, Adegoke A, et al (2022)

Recently Evolved Francisella-Like Endosymbiont Outcompetes an Ancient and Evolutionarily Associated Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont in the Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum) Linked to the Alpha-Gal Syndrome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:787209.

Background: Ticks are hematophagous arthropods that transmit various bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens of public health significance. The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an aggressive human-biting tick that transmits bacterial and viral pathogens, and its bites are suspected of eliciting the alpha-gal syndrome, a newly emerged delayed hypersensitivity following consumption of red meat in the United States. While ongoing studies have attempted to investigate the contribution of different tick-inherent factors to the induction of alpha-gal syndrome, an otherwise understudied aspect is the contribution of the tick microbiome and specifically obligate endosymbionts to the establishment of the alpha-gal syndrome in humans.

Materials and Methods: Here we utilized a high-throughput metagenomic sequencing approach to cataloging the entire microbial communities residing within different developmental stages and tissues of unfed and blood-fed ticks from laboratory-maintained ticks and three new geographical locations in the United States. The Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2) pipeline was used to perform data analysis and taxonomic classification. Moreover, using a SparCC (Sparse Correlations for Compositional data) network construction model, we investigated potential interactions between members of the microbial communities from laboratory-maintained and field-collected ticks.

Results: Overall, Francisellaceae was the most dominant bacteria identified in the microbiome of both laboratory-raised and field-collected Am. americanum across all tissues and developmental stages. Likewise, microbial diversity was seen to be significantly higher in field-collected ticks compared with laboratory-maintained ticks as seen with a higher number of both Operational Taxonomic Units and measures of species richness. Several potential positive and negative correlations were identified from our network analysis. We observed a strong positive correlation between Francisellaceae, Rickettsiaceae, and Midichloriaceae in both developmental stages and tissues from laboratory-maintained ticks, whereas ovarian tissues had a strong positive correlation of bacteria in the family Xanthobacteraceae and Rhizobiaceae. A negative interaction was observed between Coxiellaceae and Francisellaceae in Illinois, and all the bacteria detected from ticks from Delaware were negatively correlated.

Conclusion: This study is the first to catalog the microbiome of Am. americanum throughout its developmental stages and different tissue niches and report the potential replacement of Coxiellaceae by Francisellaceae across developmental stages and tissues tested except in ovarian tissues. These unique and significant findings advance our knowledge and open a new avenue of research to further understand the role of tick microbiome in tick-borne diseases and develop a holistic strategy to control alpha-gal syndrome.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Zhang M, Whiteley M, GR Lewin (2022)

Polymicrobial Interactions of Oral Microbiota: a Historical Review and Current Perspective.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The oral microbiota is enormously diverse, with over 700 microbial species identified across individuals that play a vital role in the health of our mouth and our overall well-being. In addition, as oral diseases such as caries (cavities) and periodontitis (gum disease) are mediated through interspecies microbial interactions, this community serves as an important model system to study the complexity and dynamics of polymicrobial interactions. Here, we review historical and recent progress in our understanding of the oral microbiome, highlighting how oral microbiome research has significantly contributed to our understanding of microbial communities, with broad implications in polymicrobial diseases and across microbial community ecology. Further, we explore innovations and challenges associated with analyzing polymicrobial systems and suggest future directions of study. Finally, we provide a conceptual framework to systematically study microbial interactions within complex communities, not limited to the oral microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Rajarajan A, Wolinska J, Walser JC, et al (2022)

Host-Associated Bacterial Communities Vary Between Daphnia galeata Genotypes but Not by Host Genetic Distance.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Host genotype may shape host-associated bacterial communities (commonly referred to as microbiomes). We sought to determine (a) whether bacterial communities vary among host genotypes in the water flea Daphnia galeata and (b) if this difference is driven by the genetic distance between host genotypes, by using D. galeata genotypes hatched from sediments of different time periods. We used 16S amplicon sequencing to profile the gut and body bacterial communities of eight D. galeata genotypes hatched from resting eggs; these were isolated from two distinct sediment layers (dating to 1989 and 2009) of a single sediment core of the lake Greifensee, and maintained in a common garden in laboratory cultures for 5 years. In general, bacterial community composition varied in both the Daphnia guts and bodies; but not between genotypes from different sediment layers. Specifically, genetic distances between host genotypes did not correlate with beta diversity of bacterial communities in Daphnia guts and bodies. Our results indicate that Daphnia bacterial community structure is to some extent determined by a host genetic component, but that genetic distances between hosts do not correlate with diverging bacterial communities.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Bacha L, de Rezende CE, Cosenza C, et al (2022)

Letter to Microbial Ecology.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Câmara PEAS, Bones FLV, Lopes FAC, et al (2022)

DNA Metabarcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity in Forest Soils on the Isolated Brazilian Trindade Island, South Atlantic.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Located 1140 km from the South American coastline in the South Atlantic Ocean and with an age of 4 million years, Trindade Island is the most recent volcanic component of Brazilian territory. Its original native vegetation has been severely damaged by human influence, in particular through the introduction of exotic grazing animals such as goats. However, since the complete eradication of goats and other feral animals in the late 1990s, the island's vegetation has been recovering, and even some endemic species that had been considered extinct have been rediscovered. In this study, we set out to characterize the contemporary cryptic diversity in soils of the recovering native forest of Trindade Island using metabarcoding by high throughput sequencing (HTS). The sequence diversity obtained was dominated by microorganisms, including three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) and five kingdoms (Fungi, Metazoa, Protozoa, Chromista, and Viridiplantae). Bacteria were represented by 20 phyla and 116 taxa, with Archaea by only one taxon. Fungi were represented by seven phyla and 250 taxa, Viridiplantae by five phyla and six taxa, Protozoa by five phyla and six taxa, Metazoa by three phyla and four taxa and Chromista by two phyla and two taxa. Even after the considerable anthropogenic impacts and devastation of the island's natural forest, our sequence data reveal the presence of a rich and complex diversity of microorganisms, invertebrates, and plants and provide important baseline biodiversity information that will contribute to ecological restoration efforts on the island.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Carrizo D, Vignale FA, Sánchez-García L, et al (2022)

Ecological variability based on lipid biomarkers in astrobiologically interesting wetlands from the Argentinian central Andes.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6575537 [Epub ahead of print].

Andean wetlands hold extremophilic communities adapted to live in harsh conditions. Here, we investigated the microbial ecology of three high-altitude hypersaline ponds from La Puna region (Argentina) showing an increasing extent of desiccation by analyzing their lipid sedimentary record. We recreated the microbial community structure and the carbon metabolisms in each lacustrine system based on the molecular distribution of lipid biomarkers and their compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures. We detected lipid compounds considered to be biomarkers of cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and archaea in the three Andean ponds, as well as diatoms in the intermediate salinity system. The relative abundance of purple sulfur and sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased with salinity, whereas cyanobacteria and archaea decreased their relative abundance in the mid-saline pond to increase it again and became both prevailing at the highest salinity. Carbon fixation in the three ponds was driven by a combination of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, and the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. This work is the first to describe molecular and isotopic lipid fingerprints in wetlands from the central Andean Puna, and serves as a basis for further biogeochemical studies in the area.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Alemany I, Pérez-Cembranos A, Pérez-Mellado V, et al (2022)

Faecal Microbiota Divergence in Allopatric Populations of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis, Two Lizard Species Endemic to the Balearic Islands.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbial communities provide essential functions to their hosts and are known to influence both their ecology and evolution. However, our knowledge of these complex associations is still very limited in reptiles. Here we report the 16S rRNA gene faecal microbiota profiles of two lizard species endemic to the Balearic archipelago (Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis), encompassing their allopatric range of distribution through a noninvasive sampling, as an alternative to previous studies that implied killing specimens of these IUCN endangered and near-threatened species, respectively. Both lizard species showed a faecal microbiome composition consistent with their omnivorous trophic ecology, with a high representation of cellulolytic bacteria taxa. We also identified species-specific core microbiota signatures and retrieved lizard species, islet ascription, and seasonality as the main factors in explaining bacterial community composition. The different Balearic Podarcis populations are characterised by harbouring a high proportion of unique bacterial taxa, thus reinforcing their view as unique and divergent evolutionary entities.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Xing L, Zhi Q, Hu X, et al (2022)

Influence of Association Network Properties and Ecological Assembly of the Foliar Fugal Community on Crop Quality.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:783923.

Revealing community assembly and their impacts on ecosystem service is a core issue in microbial ecology. However, what ecological factors play dominant roles in phyllosphere fungal community assembly and how they link to crop quality are largely unknown. Here, we applied internal transcriptional spacer high-throughput sequencing to investigate foliar fungal community assembly across three cultivars of a Solanaceae crop (tobacco) and two planting regions with different climatic conditions. Network analyses were used to reveal the pattern in foliar fungal co-occurrence, and phylogenetic null model analysis was used to elucidate the ecological assembly of foliar fungal communities. We found that the sensory quality of crop leaves and the composition of foliar fungal community varied significantly across planting regions and cultivars. In Guangcun (GC), a region with relatively high humidity and low precipitation, there was a higher diversity and more unique fungal species than the region of Wuzhishan (WZS). Further, we found that the association network of foliar fungal communities in GC was more complex than that in WZS, and the network properties were closely related to the sensory quality of crop. Finally, the results of the phylogenetic analyses show that the stochastic processes played important roles in the foliar fungal community assembly, and their relative importance was significantly correlated with the sensory quality of crop leaves, which implies that ecological assembly processes could affect crop quality. Taken together, our results highlight that climatic conditions, and plant cultivars play key roles in the assembly of foliar fungal communities and crop quality, which enhances our understanding of the connections between the phyllosphere microbiome and ecosystem services, especially in agricultural production.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Clough SE, Jousset A, Elphinstone JG, et al (2022)

Combining in vitro and in vivo screening to identify efficient Pseudomonas biocontrol strains against the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

MicrobiologyOpen, 11(2):e1283.

Although plant pathogens are traditionally controlled using synthetic agrochemicals, the availability of commercial bactericides is still limited. One potential control strategy could be the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to suppress pathogens via resource competition or the production of antimicrobial compounds. This study aimed to conduct in vitro and in vivo screening of eight Pseudomonas strains against Ralstonia solanacearum (the causative agent of bacterial wilt) and to investigate underlying mechanisms of potential pathogen suppression. We found that inhibitory effects were Pseudomonas strain-specific, with strain CHA0 showing the highest pathogen suppression. Genomic screening identified 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, and orfamides A and B secondary metabolite clusters in the genomes of the most inhibitory strains, which were investigated further. Although all these compounds suppressed R. solanacearum growth, only orfamide A was produced in the growth media based on mass spectrometry. Moreover, orfamide variants extracted from Pseudomonas cultures showed high pathogen suppression. Using the "Micro-Tom" tomato cultivar, it was found that CHA0 could reduce bacterial wilt disease incidence with one of the two tested pathogen strains. Together, these findings suggest that a better understanding of Pseudomonas-Ralstonia interactions in the rhizosphere is required to successfully translate in vitro findings into agricultural applications.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

Alvarado V, Hsu SC, Wu Z, et al (2022)

Roadmap from Microbial Communities to Individuality Modeling for Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological models describing anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge have been widely applied to test various control and operation strategies. Anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) provides a generic platform that includes the main processes of AD, excluding homoacetogenesis and the microbial structure. Homoacetogenic bacteria have been identified as important competitors for hydrogen consumption and acetate production. Although recent advances in meta-omics techniques have improved our characterization of AD microbial communities, conventional models treat functional groups as homogeneous and overlook the physiology and behavior of microbial individuality, limiting insights into mechanisms governing process performance. A novel microbial individuality model (MIM) that integrates kinetics, energetics, and agent-based modeling to describe a microbiome's behavior as heterogenic populations, including homoacetogenesis, was developed. The MIM was validated with two datasets from previous studies through daily biogas production, methane content, compound concentrations, and microbial relative abundance changes. The MIM identified the emergence of Methanosaeta at low concentrations of acetate. Moreover, this simulation supports experimental studies confirming that the overlooked homoacetogenesis is an important hydrogen sink in AD. Validated MIMs are expected to provide insights into syntrophic and competitive interactions among microbiomes in AD systems while testing different operational parameters in a virtual environment. The MIM offers a methodological framework to other biological treatment systems and their microbial community dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

Xu Z, Li Z, Ren F, et al (2022)

The genome of Corydalis reveals the evolution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Ranunculales.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Species belonging to the order Ranunculales have attracted much attention because of their phylogenetic position as a sister group to all other eudicot lineages and their ability to produce unique yet diverse benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). The Papaveraceae family in Ranunculales is often used as a model system for studying BIA biosynthesis. Here, we report the chromosome-level genome assembly of Corydalis tomentella, a species of Fumarioideae-one of the two subfamilies of Papaveraceae. Based on the comparisons of sequenced Ranunculalean species, we present clear evidence of a shared whole-genome duplication (WGD) event that has occurred before the divergence of Ranunculales but after its divergence from other eudicot lineages. The C. tomentella genome enabled us to integrate isotopic labelling and comparative genomics to reconstruct the BIA biosynthetic pathway for both sanguinarine biosynthesis shared by papaveraceous species and the cavidine biosynthesis specific to Corydalis. Also, our comparative analysis revealed that gene duplications, especially tandem gene duplications, underlie the diversification of BIA biosynthetic pathways in Ranunculales. In particular, tandemly duplicated berberine bridge enzyme-like genes appear to be involved in cavidine biosynthesis. In conclusion, our study of the C. tomentella genome provides important insights into the occurrence of WGDs during the early evolution of eudicots as well as into the evolution of BIA biosynthesis in Ranunculales.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

Znidersic E, DM Watson (2022)

Acoustic restoration: Using soundscapes to benchmark and fast-track recovery of ecological communities.

Ecology letters [Epub ahead of print].

We introduce a new approach-acoustic restoration-focusing on the applied utility of soundscapes for restoration, recognising the rich ecological and social values they encapsulate. Broadcasting soundscapes in disturbed areas can accelerate recolonisation of animals and the microbes and propagules they carry; long duration recordings are also ideal sources of data for benchmarking restoration initiatives and evocative engagement tools.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

S R S, H P S, Prakash I, et al (2022)

Microbial ecology and functional coffee fermentation dynamics with Pichia kudriavzevii.

Food microbiology, 105:104012.

Specialty coffee can be developed by the application of explicit microorganisms or starters to obtain desired fermentation. In the present study, natural fermentation (NF) of Arabica coffee was carried out spontaneously, the other set was inoculated with Pichia kudriavzevii (Y) starter culture (isolated, identified and mass cultured). The effect of microbial fermentation, metagenomics, production of functional metabolites, volatiles and their sensorial aspects were studied. The bioprocess illustrated cohesive interface of coffee nutrients and microbial communities like Mycobacterium, Acinetobacter, Gordonia, etc., in NF, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were prevailing in Y. The Pichia and Rhodotorula dominated in both the groups. The bioactivity of bacteria and fungi induced complex changes in physicochemical features like pH (4.2-5.2), Brix° (9.5-3.0), and metabolic transition in sugar (3.0-0.7%), alcohol (1.4-2.7%), organic acids modulating flavour precursors and organoleptics in the final brew. In the roasted bean, Y exhibited higher sugar (42%), protein (25%), polyphenol (3.5%), CGA (2.5%), caffeine (17.2%), and trigonelline (2.8%) than NF. The volatile profile exhibited increased flavour molecules like furans, ketones, and pyrazines in Y, besides lactone complexes. The organoleptics in Y were highlighted with honey, malt and berry notes. P. kudriavzevii coffee fermentation could be beneficial in specialty coffee production and enhancement of distinct characteristic flavours.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

Seki D, Schauberger C, Hausmann B, et al (2022)

Individuality of the Extremely Premature Infant Gut Microbiota Is Driven by Ecological Drift.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The initial contact between humans and their colonizing gut microbiota after birth is thought to have expansive and long-lasting consequences for physiology and health. Premature infants are at high risk of suffering from lifelong impairments, due in part to aberrant development of gut microbiota that can contribute to early-life infections and inflammation. Despite their importance to health, the ecological assembly and succession processes governing gut microbiome composition in premature infants remained incompletely understood. Here, we quantified these ecological processes in a spatiotemporally resolved 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data set of 60 extremely premature neonates using an established mathematical framework. We found that gut colonization during the first months of life is predominantly stochastic, whereby interindividual diversification of microbiota is driven by ecological drift. Dispersal limitations are initially small but have increasing influence at later stages of succession. Furthermore, we find similar trends in a cohort of 32 healthy term-born infants. These results suggest that the uniqueness of individual gut microbiota of extremely premature infants is largely due to stochastic assembly. IMPORTANCE Our knowledge concerning the initial gut microbiome assembly in human neonates is limited, and scientific progression in this interdisciplinary field is hindered due to the individuality in composition of gut microbiota. Our study addresses the ecological processes that result in the observed individuality of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract between extremely premature and term-born infants. We find that initial assembly is mainly driven by neutral ecological processes. Interestingly, while this progression is predominantly random, limitations to the dispersal of microbiota between infants become increasingly important with age and are concomitant features of gut microbiome stability. This indicates that while we cannot predict gut microbiota assembly due to its random nature, we can expect the establishment of certain ecological features that are highly relevant for neonatal health.

RevDate: 2022-04-26

Jangid A, Fukuda S, Suzuki Y, et al (2022)

Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed the prebiotic potential of a grain-based diet in mice.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6748.

In the present study, we elucidated the effect of grain-based (GB) diet containing both soluble and insoluble fibers and purified ingredients-based (PIB) diet containing only insoluble fiber, namely cellulose on mice gut microbiome using whole shotgun based metagenomic sequencing. Although the fiber content in both diet types is the same (5%) the presence of soluble fiber only in the GB diet differentiates it from the PIB diet. The taxonomic analysis of sequenced reads reveals a significantly higher enrichment of probiotic Lactobacilli in the GB group as compared to the PIB group. Further, the enhancement of energy expensive cellular processes namely, cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning, and transcription is observed in the GB group which could be due to the metabolization of the soluble fiber for faster energy production. In contrast, a higher abundance of cellulolytic bacterial community namely, the members of family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and the metabolism functions are found in the PIB group. The PIB group shows a significant increase in host-derived oligosaccharide metabolism functions indicating that they might first target the host-derived oligosaccharides and self-stored glycogen in addition to utilising the available cellulose. In addition to the beneficial microbial community variations, both the groups also exhibited an increased abundance of opportunistic pathobionts which could be due to an overall low amount of fiber in the diet. Furthermore, backtracing analysis identified probiotic members of Lactobacillus, viz., L. crispatus ST1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, L. gasseri ATCC 33323, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri 100-23 in the GB group, while Bilophila wadsworthia 3_1_6, Desulfovibrio piger ATCC 29098, Clostridium symbiosum WAL-14163, and Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 in the PIB group. These data suggest that Lactobacilli, a probiotic community of microorganisms, are the predominant functional contributors in the gut of GB diet-fed mice, whereas pathobionts too coexisted with commensals in the gut microbiome of the PIB group. Thus at 5% fiber, GB modifies the gut microbial ecology more effectively than PIB and the inclusion of soluble fiber in the GB diet may be one of the primary factors responsible for this impact.

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Petrin S, Mancin M, Losasso C, et al (2022)

Effect of pH and Salinity on the Ability of Salmonella Serotypes to Form Biofilm.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:821679.

Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne infections in Europe, and the majority of human infections are caused by only a few serotypes, among them are Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis (hereafter Salmonella Enteritidis), Salmonella Typhimurium, and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium. The reason for this is not fully understood, but could include virulence factors as well as increased ability to transfer via the external environment. Formation of biofilm is considered an adaptation strategy used by bacteria to overcome environmental stresses. In order to assess the capability of different Salmonella serotypes to produce biofilm and establish whether this is affected by pH and salinity, 88 Salmonella isolates collected from animal, food, and human sources and belonging to 15 serotypes, including those most frequently responsible for human infections, were tested. Strains were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB), TSB with 4% NaCl pH 4.5, TSB with 10% NaCl pH 4.5, TSB with 4% NaCl pH 7, or TSB with 10% NaCl pH 7, and biofilm production was assessed after 24 h at 37°C using crystal violet staining. A linear mixed effect model was applied to compare results from the different experimental conditions. Among the tested serotypes, S. Dublin showed the greatest ability to form biofilm even at pH 4.5, which inhibited biofilm production in the other tested serotypes. Salmonella Senftenberg and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium showed the highest biofilm production in TSB with 10% NaCl pH 7. In general, pH had a high influence on the ability to form biofilm, and most of the tested strains were not able to produce biofilm at pH 4.5. In contrast, salinity only had a limited influence on biofilm production. In general, serotypes causing the highest number of human infections showed a limited ability to produce biofilm in the tested conditions, indicating that biofilm formation is not a crucial factor in the success of these clones.

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Haber M, Roth Rosenberg D, Lalzar M, et al (2022)

Spatiotemporal Variation of Microbial Communities in the Ultra-Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:867694.

Marine microbial communities vary seasonally and spatially, but these two factors are rarely addressed together. In this study, the temporal and spatial patterns of the bacterial and archaeal community were studied along a coast-to-offshore transect in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) over six cruises, in three seasons of 2 consecutive years. Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts was performed to determine presence and activity, respectively. The ultra-oligotrophic status of the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea was reflected in the microbial community composition dominated by oligotrophic bacterial groups such as SAR11, even at the most coastal station sampled, throughout the year. Seasons significantly affected the microbial communities, explaining more than half of the observed variability. However, the same few taxa dominated the community over the 2-year sampling period, varying only in their degree of dominance. While there was no overall effect of station location on the microbial community, the most coastal site (16 km offshore) differed significantly in community structure and activity from the three further offshore stations in early winter and summer. Our data on the microbial community compositions and their seasonality support previous notions that the EMS behaves like an oceanic gyre.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )