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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 27 Jul 2021 at 01:34 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: "microbial ecology" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-07-22

Do H, Kim SH, Cho G, et al (2021)

Investigation of Fungal Strains Composition in Fruit Pollens for Artificial Pollination.

Mycobiology, 49(3):249-257 pii:1893137.

Plants pollination are conducted through various pollinators such as wind, animals, and insects. Recently, the necessity for artificial pollination is drawing attention as the proportion of natural pollinators involved is decreasing over the years. Likewise, the trade in pollen for artificial pollination is also increasing worldwide. Through these imported pollens, many unknown microorganisms can flow from foreign countries. Among them, spores of various fungi present in the particles of pollen can be dispersed throughout the orchard. Therefore, in this study, the composition of fungal communities in imported pollen was revealed, and potential ecological characteristics of the fungi were investigated in four types of imported pollen. Top 10 operational taxonomic unit (OTU) of fungi were ranked among the following groups: Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., and Didymella glomerata which belong to many pathogenic species. Through FUNGuild analysis, the proportion of OTUs, which is assumed to be potentially plant pathogens, was higher than 50%, except for apple pollen in 2018. Based on this study of fungal structure, this information can suggest the direction of the pollen quarantine process and contribute to fungal biology in pollen.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Harlow BE, Flythe MD, Klotz JL, et al (2021)

Effect of biochanin A on the rumen microbial community of Holstein steers consuming a high fiber diet and subjected to a subacute acidosis challenge.

PloS one, 16(7):e0253754 pii:PONE-D-20-30834.

Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) occurs when highly fermentable carbohydrates are introduced into the diet, decreasing pH and disturbing the microbial ecology of the rumen. Rumen amylolytic bacteria rapidly catabolize starch, fermentation acids accumulate in the rumen and reduce environmental pH. Historically, antibiotics (e.g., monensin, MON) have been used in the prevention and treatment of SARA. Biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense), mitigates changes associated with starch fermentation ex vivo. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of BCA on amylolytic bacteria and rumen pH during a SARA challenge. Twelve rumen fistulated steers were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: HF CON (high fiber control), SARA CON, MON (200 mg d-1), or BCA (6 g d-1). The basal diet consisted of corn silage and dried distiller's grains ad libitum. The study consisted of a 2-wk adaptation, a 1-wk HF period, and an 8-d SARA challenge (d 1-4: 40% corn; d 5-8: 70% cracked corn). Samples for pH and enumeration were taken on the last day of each period (4 h). Amylolytic, cellulolytic, and amino acid/peptide-fermenting bacteria (APB) were enumerated. Enumeration data were normalized by log transformation and data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The SARA challenge increased total amylolytics and APB, but decreased pH, cellulolytics, and in situ DMD of hay (P < 0.05). BCA treatment counteracted the pH, microbiological, and fermentative changes associated with SARA challenge (P < 0.05). Similar results were also observed with MON (P < 0.05). These results indicate that BCA may be an effective alternative to antibiotics for mitigating SARA in cattle production systems.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Santschi PH, Chin WC, Quigg A, et al (2021)

Marine Gel Interactions with Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Pollutants.

Gels (Basel, Switzerland), 7(3): pii:gels7030083.

Microgels play critical roles in a variety of processes in the ocean, including element cycling, particle interactions, microbial ecology, food web dynamics, air-sea exchange, and pollutant distribution and transport. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) from various marine microbes are one of the major sources for marine microgels. Due to their amphiphilic nature, many types of pollutants, especially hydrophobic ones, have been found to preferentially associate with marine microgels. The interactions between pollutants and microgels can significantly impact the transport, sedimentation, distribution, and the ultimate fate of these pollutants in the ocean. This review on marine gels focuses on the discussion of the interactions between gel-forming EPS and pollutants, such as oil and other hydrophobic pollutants, nanoparticles, and metal ions.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Schloss PD (2021)

Amplicon Sequence Variants Artificially Split Bacterial Genomes into Separate Clusters.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) have been proposed as an alternative to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for analyzing microbial communities. ASVs have grown in popularity, in part because of a desire to reflect a more refined level of taxonomy since they do not cluster sequences based on a distance-based threshold. However, ASVs and the use of overly narrow thresholds to identify OTUs increase the risk of splitting a single genome into separate clusters. To assess this risk, I analyzed the intragenomic variation of 16S rRNA genes from the bacterial genomes represented in an rrn copy number database, which contained 20,427 genomes from 5,972 species. As the number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene increased in a genome, the number of ASVs also increased. There was an average of 0.58 ASVs per copy of the 16S rRNA gene for full-length 16S rRNA genes. It was necessary to use a distance threshold of 5.25% to cluster full-length ASVs from the same genome into a single OTU with 95% confidence for genomes with 7 copies of the 16S rRNA, such as Escherichia coli. This research highlights the risk of splitting a single bacterial genome into separate clusters when ASVs are used to analyze 16S rRNA gene sequence data. Although there is also a risk of clustering ASVs from different species into the same OTU when using broad distance thresholds, these risks are of less concern than artificially splitting a genome into separate ASVs and OTUs. IMPORTANCE 16S rRNA gene sequencing has engendered significant interest in studying microbial communities. There has been tension between trying to classify 16S rRNA gene sequences to increasingly lower taxonomic levels and the reality that those levels were defined using more sequence and physiological information than is available from a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, the naming of bacterial taxa reflects the biases of those who name them. One motivation for the recent push to adopt ASVs in place of OTUs in microbial community analyses is to allow researchers to perform their analyses at the finest possible level that reflects species-level taxonomy. The current research is significant because it quantifies the risk of artificially splitting bacterial genomes into separate clusters. Far from providing a better representation of bacterial taxonomy and biology, the ASV approach can lead to conflicting inferences about the ecology of different ASVs from the same genome.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Mafla-Endara PM, Arellano-Caicedo C, Aleklett K, et al (2021)

Microfluidic chips provide visual access to in situ soil ecology.

Communications biology, 4(1):889.

Microbes govern most soil functions, but investigation of these processes at the scale of their cells has been difficult to accomplish. Here we incubate microfabricated, transparent 'soil chips' with soil, or bury them directly in the field. Both soil microbes and minerals enter the chips, which enables us to investigate diverse community interdependences, such as inter-kingdom and food-web interactions, and feedbacks between microbes and the pore space microstructures. The presence of hyphae ('fungal highways') strongly and frequently increases the dispersal range and abundance of water-dwelling organisms such as bacteria and protists across air pockets. Physical forces such as water movements, but also organisms and especially fungi form new microhabitats by altering the pore space architecture and distribution of soil minerals in the chip. We show that soil chips hold a large potential for studying in-situ microbial interactions and soil functions, and to interconnect field microbial ecology with laboratory experiments.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Xu R, Tao W, Lin H, et al (2021)

Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) on Soil Microbial Community.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The extensive application of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) causes their frequent detection in various environments. In this work, two typical PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are selected to investigate their effects on soil microorganisms. Microbial community structure and microbe-microbe relationships were investigated by high-throughput sequencing and co-occurrence network analysis. Under 90 days of exposure, the alpha-diversity of soil microbial communities was increased with the PFOS treatment, followed by the PFOA treatment. The exposure of PFASs substantially changed the compositions of soil microbial communities, leading to the enrichment of more PFASs-tolerant bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Rhodocyclales. Comparative co-occurrence networks were constructed to investigate the microbe-microbe interactions under different PFASs treatments. The majority of nodes in the PFOA and PFOS networks were associated with the genus Azospirillum and Hydrogenophaga, respectively. The LEfSe analysis further identified a set of biomarkers in the soil microbial communities, such as Azospirillum, Methyloversatilis, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Fusibacter. The relative abundances of these biomarkers were also changed by different PFASs treatments. Functional gene prediction suggested that the microbial metabolism processes, such as nucleotide transport and metabolism, cell motility, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, and secondary metabolites biosynthesis transport and catabolism, might be inhibited under PFAS exposure, which may further affect soil ecological services.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Cruz-Loya M, Tekin E, Kang TM, et al (2021)

Antibiotics Shift the Temperature Response Curve of Escherichia coli Growth.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Temperature variation-through time and across climatic gradients-affects individuals, populations, and communities. Yet how the thermal response of biological systems is altered by environmental stressors is poorly understood. Here, we quantify two key features-optimal temperature and temperature breadth-to investigate how temperature responses vary in the presence of antibiotics. We use high-throughput screening to measure growth of Escherichia coli under single and pairwise combinations of 12 antibiotics across seven temperatures that range from 22°C to 46°C. We find that antibiotic stress often results in considerable changes in the optimal temperature for growth and a narrower temperature breadth. The direction of the optimal temperature shifts can be explained by the similarities between antibiotic-induced and temperature-induced damage to the physiology of the bacterium. We also find that the effects of pairs of stressors in the temperature response can often be explained by just one antibiotic out of the pair. Our study has implications for a general understanding of how ecological systems adapt and evolve to environmental changes. IMPORTANCE The growth of living organisms varies with temperature. This dependence is described by a temperature response curve that is described by an optimal temperature where growth is maximized and a temperature range (termed breadth) across which the organism can grow. Because an organism's temperature response evolves or acclimates to its environment, it is often assumed to change over only evolutionary or developmental timescales. Counter to this, we show here that antibiotics can quickly (over hours) change the optimal growth temperature and temperature breadth for the bacterium Escherichia coli. Moreover, our results suggest a shared-damage hypothesis: when an antibiotic damages similar cellular components as hot (or cold) temperatures do, this shared damage will combine and compound to more greatly reduce growth when that antibiotic is administered at hot (or cold) temperatures. This hypothesis could potentially also explain how temperature responses are modified by stressors other than antibiotics.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Wasmund K, Pelikan C, Schintlmeister A, et al (2021)

Publisher Correction: Genomic insights into diverse bacterial taxa that degrade extracellular DNA in marine sediments.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

De Vrieze J, Heyer R, Props R, et al (2021)

Triangulation of microbial fingerprinting in anaerobic digestion reveals consistent fingerprinting profiles.

Water research, 202:117422 pii:S0043-1354(21)00620-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The anaerobic digestion microbiome has been puzzling us since the dawn of molecular methods for mixed microbial community analysis. Monitoring of the anaerobic digestion microbiome can either take place via a non-targeted holistic evaluation of the microbial community through fingerprinting or by targeted monitoring of selected taxa. Here, we compared four different microbial community fingerprinting methods, i.e., amplicon sequencing, metaproteomics, metabolomics and cytomics, in their ability to characterise the full-scale anaerobic digestion microbiome. Cytometric fingerprinting through cytomics reflects a, for anaerobic digestion, novel, single cell-based approach of direct microbial community fingerprinting by flow cytometry. Three different digester types, i.e., sludge digesters, digesters treating agro-industrial waste and dry anaerobic digesters, each reflected different operational parameters. The α-diversity analysis yielded inconsistent results, especially for richness, across the different methods. In contrast, β-diversity analysis resulted in comparable profiles, even when translated into phyla or functions, with clear separation of the three digester types. In-depth analysis of each method's features i.e., operational taxonomic units, metaproteins, metabolites, and cytometric traits, yielded certain similar features, yet, also some clear differences between the different methods, which was related to the complexity of the anaerobic digestion process. In conclusion, cytometric fingerprinting through flow cytometry is a reliable, fast method for holistic monitoring of the anaerobic digestion microbiome, and the complementary identification of key features through other methods could give rise to a direct interpretation of anaerobic digestion process performance.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Zhou D, Wang R, Li X, et al (2021)

Genetic Diversity and Azole Resistance Among Natural Aspergillus fumigatus Populations in Yunnan, China.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence and spread of azole resistance alleles in clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus is a global human health concern and endangers the "One Health" approach in our fight against antifungal resistance (AFR) in this pathogen. A major challenge to combat AFR in A. fumigatus is the massive aerial dispersal ability of its asexual spores. Our recent fine-scale survey of greenhouse populations of A. fumigatus near Kunming, Yunnan, China, suggested that the use of azole fungicides for plant protection was likely a major driver of the high-frequency azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) in greenhouses. Here, we investigated the potential spread of those ARAF and the structure of geographic populations of A. fumigatus by analyzing 452 isolates from 19 geographic locations across Yunnan. We found lower frequencies of ARAF in these outdoor populations than those in greenhouses near Kunming, but there were abundant new alleles and new genotypes, including those associated with azole resistance, consistent with multiple independent origins of ARAF across Yunnan. Interestingly, among the four ecological niches, the sediments of a large lake near Kunming were found to have the highest frequency of ARAF (~ 43%). While most genetic variations were observed within the 19 local populations, statistically significant genetic differentiations were found between many subpopulations within Yunnan. Furthermore, similar to greenhouse populations, these outdoor populations of A. fumigatus in Yunnan were significantly different from those in other parts of the world. Our results call for increased attention to local and regional studies of this fungal pathogen to help develop targeted control strategies against ARAF.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Adomako MO, Xue W, Du DL, et al (2021)

Soil Microbe-Mediated N:P Stoichiometric Effects on Solidago canadensis Performance Depend on Nutrient Levels.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Both soil microbes and soil N:P ratios can affect plant growth, but it is unclear whether they can interact to alter plant growth and whether such an interactive effect depends on nutrient levels. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil microbes can ameliorate the negative effects of nutrient imbalance caused by low or high N:P ratios on plant growth and that such an ameliorative effect of soil microbes depends on nutrient supply levels. We grew individuals of six populations of the clonal plant Solidago canadensis at three N:P ratios (low (1.7), intermediate (15), and high (135)), under two nutrient levels (low versus high) and in the presence versus absence of soil microbes. The presence of soil microbes significantly increased biomass of S. canadensis at all three N:P ratios and under both nutrient levels. Under the low-nutrient level, biomass, height, and leaf number of S. canadensis did not differ significantly among the three N:P ratio treatments in the absence of soil microbes, but they were higher at the high than at the low and the intermediate N:P ratio in the presence of soil microbes. Under the high-nutrient level, by contrast, biomass, height, and leaf number of S. canadensis were significantly higher at the low than at the high and the intermediate N:P ratio in the absence of soil microbes, but increased with increasing the N:P ratio in the presence of soil microbes. In the presence of soil microbes, number of ramets (asexual individuals) and the accumulation of N and P in plants were significantly higher at the high than at the low and the intermediate N:P ratio under both nutrient levels, whereas in the absence of soil microbes, they did not differ significantly among the three N:P ratio regardless of the nutrient levels. Our results provide empirical evidence that soil microbes can alter effects of N:P ratios on plant performance and that such an effect depends on nutrient availability. Soil microbes may, therefore, play a role in modulating ecosystem functions such as productivity and carbon and nutrient cycling via modulating nutrient imbalance caused by low and high N:P ratios.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Calatayud M, Van den Abbeele P, Ghyselinck J, et al (2021)

Comparative Effect of 22 Dietary Sources of Fiber on Gut Microbiota of Healthy Humans in vitro.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:700571.

Human gut microbiota has a fundamental role in human health, and diet is one of the most relevant factors modulating the gut microbial ecosystem. Fiber, fat, proteins, and micronutrients can shape microbial activity and structure. Much information is available on the role of defined prebiotic fibers on gut microbiota, but less known are the effects of intact dietary fiber sources on healthy gut ecosystems. This research investigated in vitro the short-term effect of 22 commercially available food sources of dietary fiber on gut microbiota activity [pH, gas, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched fatty acids (BCFA), lactate] and specific composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli populations. More than 80% (19 of 22) of the products were highly fermentable and induced SCFAs production, with specific product differences. In general, all the whole grain cereals had a similar effect on gut microbiota modulation, inducing acetate and butyrate production and increasing bifidobacteria levels. Incorporating and comparing a large variety of products, including "non-conventional" fiber sources, like konjac, bamboo fiber, or seeds fiber, about which there is little information, contributes to our knowledge on the modulatory activity of diverse food fiber sources on human gut microbiota, and therefore potential health promotion through dietary fiber diversification.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Larroya A, Pantoja J, Codoñer-Franch P, et al (2021)

Towards Tailored Gut Microbiome-Based and Dietary Interventions for Promoting the Development and Maintenance of a Healthy Brain.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 9:705859.

Mental health is determined by a complex interplay between the Neurological Exposome and the Human Genome. Multiple genetic and non-genetic (exposome) factors interact early in life, modulating the risk of developing the most common complex neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), with potential long-term consequences on health. To date, the understating of the precise etiology underpinning these neurological alterations, and their clinical management pose a challenge. The crucial role played by diet and gut microbiota in brain development and functioning would indicate that modulating the gut-brain axis may help protect against the onset and progression of mental-health disorders. Some nutritional deficiencies and gut microbiota alterations have been linked to NDDs, suggesting their potential pathogenic implications. In addition, certain dietary interventions have emerged as promising alternatives or adjuvant strategies for improving the management of particular NDDs, at least in particular subsets of subjects. The gut microbiota can be a key to mediating the effects of other exposome factors such as diet on mental health, and ongoing research in Psychiatry and Neuropediatrics is developing Precision Nutrition Models to classify subjects according to a diet response prediction based on specific individual features, including microbiome signatures. Here, we review current scientific evidence for the impact of early life environmental factors, including diet, on gut microbiota and neuro-development, emphasizing the potential long-term consequences on health; and also summarize the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying diet and gut microbiota influence on the brain-gut axis. Furthermore, we describe the evidence supporting the key role played by gut microbiota, diet and nutrition in neurodevelopment, as well as the effectiveness of certain dietary and microbiome-based interventions aimed at preventing or treating NDDs. Finally, we emphasize the need for further research to gain greater insight into the complex interplay between diet, gut microbiome and brain development. Such knowledge would help towards achieving tailored integrative treatments, including personalized nutrition.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Yoshiura CA, Venturini AM, Braga LPP, et al (2021)

Responses of Low-Cost Input Combinations on the Microbial Structure of the Maize Rhizosphere for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Plant Biomass Production.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:683658.

The microbial composition of the rhizosphere and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the most common input combinations in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivated in Brazil have not been characterized yet. In this study, we evaluated the influence of maize stover coverage (S), urea-topdressing fertilization (F), and the microbial inoculant Azospirillum brasilense (I) on soil GHG emissions and rhizosphere microbial communities during maize development. We conducted a greenhouse experiment and measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soil cultivated with maize plants under factorial combinations of the inputs and a control treatment (F, I, S, FI, FS, IS, FIS, and control). Plant biomass was evaluated, and rhizosphere soil samples were collected at V5 and V15 stages and DNA was extracted. The abundance of functional genes (mcrA, pmoA, nifH, and nosZ) was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the structure of the microbial community was assessed through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our results corroborate with previous studies which used fewer input combinations and revealed different responses for the following three inputs: F increased N2O emissions around 1 week after application; I tended to reduce CH4 and CO2 emissions, acting as a plant growth stimulator through phytohormones; S showed an increment for CO2 emissions by increasing carbon-use efficiency. IS and FIS treatments presented significant gains in biomass that could be related to Actinobacteria (19.0%) and Bacilli (10.0%) in IS, and Bacilli (9.7%) in FIS, which are the microbial taxa commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation. Comparing all factors, the IS (inoculant + maize stover) treatment was considered the best option for plant biomass production and GHG mitigation since FIS provides small gains toward the management effort of F application.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Liu J, Su J, Zhang M, et al (2021)

Bacterial Community Spacing Is Mainly Shaped by Unique Species in the Subalpine Natural Lakes of China.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:669131.

Bacterial communities have been described as early indicators of both regional and global climatic change and play a critical role in the global biogeochemical cycle. Exploring the mechanisms that determine the diversity patterns of bacterial communities and how they share different habitats along environmental gradients are, therefore, a central theme in microbial ecology research. We characterized the diversity patterns of bacterial communities in Pipahai Lake (PPH), Mayinghai Lake (MYH), and Gonghai Lake (GH), three subalpine natural lakes in Ningwu County, Shanxi, China, and analyzed the distribution of their shared and unique taxa (indicator species). Results showed that the species composition and structure of bacterial communities were significantly different among the three lakes. Both the structure of the entire bacterial community and the unique taxa were significantly influenced by the carbon content (TOC and IC) and space distance; however, the structure of the shared taxa was affected by conductivity (EC), pH, and salinity. The structure of the entire bacterial community and unique taxa were mainly affected by the same factors, suggesting that unique taxa may be important in maintaining the spatial distribution diversity of bacterial communities in subalpine natural freshwater lakes. Our results provide new insights into the diversity maintenance patterns of the bacterial communities in subalpine lakes, and suggest dispersal limitation on bacterial communities between adjacent lakes, even in a small local area. We revealed the importance of unique taxa in maintaining bacterial community structure, and our results are important in understanding how bacterial communities in subalpine lakes respond to environmental change in local habitats.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Ntagia E, Chatzigiannidou I, Carvajal-Arroyo JM, et al (2021)

Continuous H2/CO2 fermentation for acetic acid production under transient and continuous sulfide inhibition.

Chemosphere, 285:131536 pii:S0045-6535(21)02008-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Waste gas fermentation powered by renewable H2 is reaching kiloton scale. The presence of sulfide, inherent to many waste gases, can cause inhibition, requiring additional gas treatment. In this work, acetogenesis and methanogenesis inhibition by sulfide were studied in a 10-L mixed-culture fermenter, supplied with CO2 and connected with a water electrolysis unit for electricity-powered H2 supply. Three cycles of inhibition (1.3 mM total dissolved sulfide (TDS)) and recovery were applied, then the fermenter was operated at 0.5 mM TDS for 35 days. During operation at 0.5 mM TDS the acetate production rate reached 7.1 ± 1.5 mmol C L-1 d-1. Furthermore, 43.7 ± 15.6% of the electrons, provided as H2, were distributed to acetate and 7.7 ± 4.1% to butyrate, the second most abundant fermentation product. Selectivity of sulfide as inhibitor was demonstrated by a 7 days lag-phase of methanogenesis recovery, compared to 48 h for acetogenesis and by the less than 1% electrons distribution to CH4, under 0.5 mM TDS. The microbial community was dominated by Eubacterium, Proteiniphilum and an unclassified member of the Eggerthellaceae family. The taxonomic diversity of the community decreased and conversely the phenotypic diversity increased, during operation. This work illustrated the scale-up potential of waste gas fermentations, by elucidating the effect of sulfide as a common gas impurity, and by demonstrating continuous, potentially renewable supply of electrons.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Lu Y, Zhang Y, Wang J, et al (2021)

Dynamics in Bacterial Community Affected by Mesoscale Eddies in the Northern Slope of the South China Sea.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Mesoscale eddies are common oceanographic processes that can enhance primary productivity by transporting nutrients to the euphotic zone. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), eddies were frequently found to promote the exchange between the nutrient-rich shelf water and the oligotrophic water at the slope area. However, the response of bacterial community to eddy perturbations remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the variation of bacterial community under the impact of eddies in early spring and summer. The results showed that both the summer cyclonic eddy and spring anticyclonic eddy enhanced the bacterial abundance in surface water. The bacterial community composition and their functional potentials of surface samples were also influenced by the summer cyclonic eddy, while no significant change was observed in the case of spring anticyclonic eddy. Salinity and nutrients, which varied between the inside and outside of the eddies, were the significant factors explaining the differentiation of the community composition and related functions. Taken together, the results of our present study reveal the effects of mesoscale eddies on the bacterial community and associated metagenomes, providing a better understanding of the dynamics of bacteria in the slope ecosystem of the SCS.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Paul P, Das S, Chatterjee S, et al (2021)

1,4-Naphthoquinone disintegrates the pre-existing biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus by accumulating reactive oxygen species.

Archives of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus causes several nosocomial and community-acquired infections in human host involving biofilm. Thus, strategies need to be explored to curb biofilm threats by either inhibiting the formation of biofilm or disintegrating the pre-existing biofilm. Towards this direction, we had already revealed the biofilm inhibiting properties of 1,4-naphthoquinone against S. aureus. In this study, we have investigated whether this compound can act on pre-existing biofilm. Hence, biofilm of S. aureus was developed first and challenged further with 1,4-naphthoquinone. Experiments such as crystal violet assay, fluorescence microscopy, and estimation of total biofilm protein were performed to confirm the biofilm disintegration properties of 1,4-naphthoquinone. The disintegration of pre-existing biofilm could be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To investigate further, we observed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was found to play an important role in holding the biofilm network as DNaseI treatment could cause an efficient disintegration of the same. To examine the effect of ROS on the eDNA, we exposed pre-existing biofilm to either 1,4-naphthoquinone or a combination of both 1,4-naphthoquinone and ascorbic acid for different length of time. Post-incubation, ROS generation and the amount of eDNA associated with the biofilm were determined wherein an inversely proportional relationship was observed between them. The result indicated that with the increase of ROS generation, the amount of eDNA associated with biofilm got decreased substantially. Thus, the results indicated that the generation of ROS could degrade the eDNA thereby compromising the integrity of biofilm which lead to the disintegration of pre-existing biofilm.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Martínez-Reyes CM, Rodríguez-Zaragoza S, Cabirol N, et al (2021)

Effect of Predation by Colpoda sp. in Nitrogen Fixation Rate of Two Free-Living Bacteria.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological nitrogen fixation is limited to several groups of prokaryotes, some of them reduce nitrogen as free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Protozoa predation on these latter releases sequestered nitrogen that may enhance the formation of new bacterial biomass and possibly increase nitrogen fixation within soil microbial communities. We aim to evaluate the predation effect of Colpoda sp. on two nitrogen fixers: Azospirillum lipoferum and Stenotrophomonas sp. during their lag, early exponential, and exponential phases. The kinetics of bacterial population growth was determined in the predators' presence or absence and the effect of predation on the rate of N fixation was evaluated through the reduction of acetylene to ethylene technique. Colpoda sp. showed a non-significant difference in preferences between the two species offered as prey. Consequently, the abundance of A. lipoferum and Stenotrophomonas sp. decreased significantly due to predator's pressure and both species responded by increasing their specific growth rate. Likewise, predation promoted greater nitrogen fixation rate by CFU during the lag phase in A. lipoferum (0.20 nM/CFU with predation vs 0.09 nM/CFU without predation) and Stenotrophomonas sp. (0.22 nM/CFU vs 0.09 nM/CFU respectively). During early exponential phase (29 h), the rate diminished to 0.13 and 0.05 nM/CFU in A. lipoferum and to 0.09 nM/CFU and 0.05 nM/CFU in Stenotrophomonas sp. Finally, during the exponential phase (52 h), only A. lipoferum without predation produced 0.003 nM/CFU of ethylene. Thus, the nitrogenase activity was higher in the lag and the early exponential phases when predator activity was involved.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Đurović G, Van Neerbos FAC, Bossaert S, et al (2021)

The Pupal Parasitoid Trichopria drosophilae Is Attracted to the Same Yeast Volatiles as Its Adult Host.

Journal of chemical ecology [Epub ahead of print].

There is increasing evidence that microorganisms, particularly fungi and bacteria, emit volatile compounds that mediate the foraging behaviour of insects and therefore have the potential to affect key ecological relationships. However, to what extent microbial volatiles affect the olfactory response of insects across different trophic levels remains unclear. Adult parasitoids use a variety of chemical stimuli to locate potential hosts, including those emitted by the host's habitat, the host itself, and microorganisms associated with the host. Given the great capacity of parasitoids to utilize and learn odours to increase foraging success, parasitoids of eggs, larvae, or pupae may respond to the same volatiles the adult stage of their hosts use when locating their resources, but compelling evidence is still scarce. In this study, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that Trichopria drosophilae, a pupal parasitoid of Drosophila species, is attracted to the same yeast volatiles as their hosts in the adult stage, i.e. acetate esters. Parasitoids significantly preferred the odour of S. cerevisiae over the blank medium in a Y-tube olfactometer. Deletion of the yeast ATF1 gene, encoding a key acetate ester synthase, decreased attraction of T. drosophilae, while the addition of synthetic acetate esters to the fermentation medium restored parasitoid attraction. Bioassays with individual compounds revealed that the esters alone were not as attractive as the volatile blend of S. cerevisiae, suggesting that other volatile compounds also contribute to the attraction of T. drosophilae. Altogether, our results indicate that pupal parasitoids respond to the same volatiles as the adult stage of their hosts, which may aid them in locating oviposition sites.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Lin YC, Chin CP, Yang JW, et al (2021)

How Communities of Marine Stramenopiles Varied with Environmental and Biological Variables in the Subtropical Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

MArine STramenopiles (MASTs) have been recognized as parts of heterotrophic protists and contribute substantially to protist abundances in the ocean. However, little is known about their spatiotemporal variations with respect to environmental and biological factors. The objectives of this study are to use canonical correspondence analysis to investigate how MASTs communities are shaped by environmental variables, and co-occurrence networks to examine their potential interactions with prokaryotic communities. Our dataset came from the southern East China Sea (sECS) in the subtropical northwestern Pacific, and involved 14 cruises along a coastal-oceanic transect, each of which sampled surface water from 4 to 7 stations. MASTs communities were revealed by metabarcoding of 18S rDNA V4 region. Most notably, MAST-9 had a high representation in warm waters in terms of read number and diversity. Subclades of MAST-9C and -9D showed slightly different niches, with MAST-9D dominating in more coastal waters where concentrations of nitrite and Synechococcus were higher. MAST-1C was a common component of colder water during spring. Overall, canonical correspondence analysis showed that MASTs communities were significantly influenced by temperature, nitrite and Synechococcus concentrations. The co-occurrence networks showed that certain other minor prokaryotic taxa can influence MAST communities. This study provides insight into how MASTs communities varied with environmental and biological variables.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Chen F, Chen Z, Chen M, et al (2021)

Reduced stress-associated FKBP5 DNA methylation together with gut microbiota dysbiosis is linked with the progression of obese PCOS patients.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):60.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease in females that is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of PCOS are still unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the bacterial, stress status, and metabolic differences in the gut microbiomes of healthy individuals and patients with high body mass index (BMI) PCOS (PCOS-HB) and normal BMI PCOS (PCOS-LB), respectively. Here, we compared the gut microbiota characteristics of PCOS-HB, PCOS-LB, and healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) DNA methylation and plasma metabolite determination. Clinical parameter comparisons indicated that PCOS patients had higher concentrations of total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone, and HOMA-IR while lower FKBP5 DNA methylation. Significant differences in bacterial diversity and community were observed between the PCOS and healthy groups but not between the PCOS-HB and PCOS-LB groups. Bacterial species number was negatively correlated with insulin concentrations (both under fasting status and 120 min after glucose load) and HOMA-IR but positively related to FKBP5 DNA methylation. Compared to the healthy group, both PCOS groups had significant changes in bacterial genera, including Prevotella_9, Dorea, Maihella, and Slackia, and plasma metabolites, including estrone sulfate, lysophosphatidyl choline 18:2, and phosphatidylcholine (22:6e/19:1). The correlation network revealed the complicated interaction of the clinical index, bacterial genus, stress indices, and metabolites. Our work links the stress responses and gut microbiota characteristics of PCOS disease, which might afford perspectives to understand the progression of PCOS.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Amini S, Arsova B, Gobert S, et al (2021)

Transcriptional regulation of ZIP genes is independent of local zinc status in Brachypodium shoots upon zinc deficiency and resupply.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

The biological processes underlying zinc homeostasis are targets for genetic improvement of crops to counter human malnutrition. Detailed phenotyping, ionomic, RNA-Seq analyses and flux measurements with 67 Zn isotope revealed whole plant molecular events underlying zinc homeostasis upon varying zinc supply and during zinc resupply to starved Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) plants. Although both zinc deficiency and excess hindered Brachypodium growth, accumulation of biomass and micronutrients into roots and shoots differed depending on zinc supply. The zinc resupply dynamics involved 1893 zinc-responsive genes. Multiple ZIP transporter genes and dozens of other genes were rapidly and transiently down-regulated in early stages of zinc resupply, suggesting a transient zinc shock, sensed locally in roots. Notably, genes with identical regulation were observed in shoots without zinc accumulation, pointing to root-to-shoot signals mediating whole plant responses to zinc resupply. Molecular events uncovered in the grass model Brachypodium are useful for the improvement of staple monocots. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

González-Dominici LI, Saati-Santamaría Z, P García-Fraile (2021)

Correction to: Genome Analysis and Genomic Comparison of the Novel Species Arthrobacter ipis Reveal Its Potential Protective Role in Its Bark Beetle Host.

A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01811-x.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Leinberger J, Holste J, Bunk B, et al (2021)

High Potential for Secondary Metabolite Production of Paracoccus marcusii CP157, Isolated From the Crustacean Cancer pagurus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:688754.

Secondary metabolites are key components in microbial ecology by mediating interactions between bacteria and their environment, neighboring species or host organisms. Bioactivities can be beneficial for both interaction partners or provide a competitive advantage only for the producer. Colonizers of confined habitats such as biofilms are known as prolific producers of a great number of bioactive secondary metabolites and are a potential source for novel compounds. We investigated the strain Paracoccus marcusii CP157, which originates from the biofilm on the carapace of a shell disease-affected Cancer pagurus specimen, for its potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Its closed genome contains 22 extrachromosomal elements and several gene clusters potentially involved in biosynthesis of bioactive polyketides, bacteriocins, and non-ribosomal peptides. Culture extracts of CP157 showed antagonistic activities against bacteria from different phyla, but also against microalgae and crustacean larvae. Different HPLC-fractions of CP157 culture extracts had antibacterial properties, indicating that several bioactive compounds are produced by CP157. The bioactive extract contains several small, antibacterial compounds that partially withstand elevated temperatures, extreme pH values and exposure to proteolytic enzymes, providing high stability toward environmental conditions in the natural habitat of CP157. Further, screening of 17 Paracoccus spp. revealed that antimicrobial activity, hemolysis and production of N-acyl homoserine lactones are common features within the genus. Taking into account the large habitat diversity and phylogenetic distance of the tested strains, we hypothesize that bioactive secondary metabolites play a central role in the ecology of Paracoccus spp. in their natural environments.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Yang Q, Wang Q, Wu J, et al (2021)

Distinct dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus populations in two farming models.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Despite the recent prosperity of shrimp cultivation in China, very little is known about how different shrimp farming models influence the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus populations and the antibiotic resistance of this bacterium.

METHODS AND RESULTS: To this end, we conducted continuous surveillance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on four farms over three years, two traditional shrimp farms with daily water exchange, and two farms operated in the recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). No antibiotics were used in these farms to exclude the potential impacts of antibiotics on the emergence of antibacterial resistance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was utilized to characterize the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus populations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted to determine the representative sequence types (STs) at each farm. Results revealed that the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus remained stable over time in both RAS farms, with only nine and four STs observed at each. In contrast, annual replacement of V. parahaemolyticus populations was observed in traditional farms with 26 and 28 STs identified in rearing water. WGS of 50 isolates divided them into five clusters, of which ST917a isolates harbored a genomic island that disrupted the gene recA. Pair-wised genomic comparison of isolates from the same STs showed that they were genetically related but belonged to different clones associated with geographical distribution.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that RAS presented a specific ecological niche by minimizing the water exchanges with the external environment. In contrast, traditional farming might pose a food safety issue by introducing new V. parahaemolyticus populations with antibiotic resistance genes.

Our results expose the potential food safety issue associated with conventional agriculture and should encourage the development of preventive strategies to reduce the emergence of resistant V. parahaemolyticus populations.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Carpio LE, Sanz Y, Gozalbes R, et al (2021)

Computational strategies for the discovery of biological functions of health foods, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals: a review.

Molecular diversity [Epub ahead of print].

Scientific and consumer interest in healthy foods (also known as functional foods), nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals has increased in the recent years, leading to an increased presence of these products in the market. However, the regulations across different countries that define the type of claims that may be made, and the degree of evidence required to support these claims, are rather inconsistent. Moreover, there is also controversy on the effectiveness and biological mode of action of many of these products, which should undergo an exhaustive approval process to guarantee the consumer rights. Computational approaches constitute invaluable tools to facilitate the discovery of bioactive molecules and provide biological plausibility on the mode of action of these products. Indeed, methodologies like QSAR, docking or molecular dynamics have been used in drug discovery protocols for decades and can now aid in the discovery of bioactive food components. Thanks to these approaches, it is possible to search for new functions in food constituents, which may be part of our daily diet, and help to prevent disorders like diabetes, hypercholesterolemia or obesity. In the present manuscript, computational studies applied to this field are reviewed to illustrate the potential of these approaches to guide the first screening steps and the mechanistic studies of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional foods.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Pavlova ON, Izosimova ON, Chernitsyna SM, et al (2021)

Anaerobic oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons in enrichment cultures from sediments of the Gorevoy Utes natural oil seep under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

This article presents the first experimental data on the ability of microbial communities from sediments of the Gorevoy Utes natural oil seep to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions. Like in marine ecosystems associated with oil discharge, available electron acceptors, in particular sulfate ions, affect the composition of the microbial community and the degree of hydrocarbon conversion. The cultivation of the surface sediments under sulfate-reducing conditions led to the formation of a more diverse bacterial community and greater loss of n-alkanes (28%) in comparison to methanogenic conditions (6%). Microbial communities of both surface and deep sediments are more oriented to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to which the degree of the PAH conversion testifies (up to 46%) irrespective of the present electron acceptors. Microorganisms with the uncultured closest homologues from thermal habitats, sediments of mud volcanoes, and environments contaminated with hydrocarbons mainly represented microbial communities of enrichment cultures. The members of the phyla Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and Caldiserica (OP5), as well as the class Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, were mostly found in enrichment cultures. The influence of gas-saturated fluids may be responsible for the presence in the bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of the sequences of "rare taxa": Planctomycetes, Ca. Atribacteria (OP9), Ca. Armatimonadetes (OP10), Ca. Latescibacteria (WS3), Ca. division (AC1), Ca. division (OP11), and Ca. Parcubacteria (OD1), which can be involved in hydrocarbon oxidation.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Harrison JG, Randolph GD, CA Buerkle (2021)

Characterizing Microbiomes via Sequencing of Marker Loci: Techniques To Improve Throughput, Account for Cross-Contamination, and Reduce Cost.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

New approaches to characterizing microbiomes via high-throughput sequencing provide impressive gains in efficiency and cost reduction compared to approaches that were standard just a few years ago. However, the speed of method development has been such that staying abreast of the latest technological advances is challenging. Moreover, shifting laboratory protocols to include new methods can be expensive and time consuming. To facilitate adoption of new techniques, we provide a guide and review of recent advances that are relevant for single-locus sequence-based study of microbiomes-from extraction to library preparation-including a primer regarding the use of liquid-handling automation in small-scale academic settings. Additionally, we describe several amendments to published techniques to improve throughput, track contamination, and reduce cost. Notably, we suggest adding synthetic DNA molecules to each sample during nucleic acid extraction, thus providing a method of documenting incidences of cross-contamination. We also describe a dual-indexing scheme for Illumina sequencers that allows multiplexing of many thousands of samples with minimal PhiX input. Collectively, the techniques that we describe demonstrate that laboratory technology need not impose strict limitations on the scale of molecular microbial ecology studies. IMPORTANCE New methods to characterize microbiomes reduce technology-imposed limitations to study design, but many new approaches have not been widely adopted. Here, we present techniques to increase throughput and reduce contamination alongside a thorough review of current best practices.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Wan T, Liu Z, Leitch IJ, et al (2021)

The Welwitschia genome reveals a unique biology underpinning extreme longevity in deserts.

Nature communications, 12(1):4247.

The gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis belongs to the ancient, enigmatic gnetophyte lineage. It is a unique desert plant with extreme longevity and two ever-elongating leaves. We present a chromosome-level assembly of its genome (6.8 Gb/1 C) together with methylome and transcriptome data to explore its astonishing biology. We also present a refined, high-quality assembly of Gnetum montanum to enhance our understanding of gnetophyte genome evolution. The Welwitschia genome has been shaped by a lineage-specific ancient, whole genome duplication (~86 million years ago) and more recently (1-2 million years) by bursts of retrotransposon activity. High levels of cytosine methylation (particularly at CHH motifs) are associated with retrotransposons, whilst long-term deamination has resulted in an exceptionally GC-poor genome. Changes in copy number and/or expression of gene families and transcription factors (e.g. R2R3MYB, SAUR) controlling cell growth, differentiation and metabolism underpin the plant's longevity and tolerance to temperature, nutrient and water stress.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Fournier E, Roussel C, Dominicis A, et al (2021)

In vitro models of gut digestion across childhood: current developments, challenges and future trends.

Biotechnology advances pii:S0734-9750(21)00102-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The human digestion is a multi-step and multi-compartment process essential for human health, at the heart of many issues raised by academics, the medical world and industrials from the food, nutrition and pharma fields. In the first years of life, major dietary changes occur and are concomitant with an evolution of the whole child digestive tract anatomy and physiology, including colonization of gut microbiota. All these phenomena are influenced by child exposure to environmental compounds, such as drugs (especially antibiotics) and food pollutants, but also childhood infections. Due to obvious ethical, regulatory and technical limitations, in vivo approaches in animal and human are more and more restricted to favor complementary in vitro approaches. This review summarizes current knowledge on the evolution of child gut physiology from birth to 3 years old regarding physicochemical, mechanical and microbial parameters. Then, all the available in vitro models of the child digestive tract are described, ranging from the simplest static mono-compartmental systems to the most sophisticated dynamic and multi-compartmental models, and mimicking from the oral phase to the colon compartment. Lastly, we detail the main applications of child gut models in nutritional, pharmaceutical and microbiological studies and discuss the limitations and challenges facing this field of research.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Doll EV, Staib L, Huptas C, et al (2021)

Facklamia lactis sp. nov., isolated from raw milk.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 71(7):.

Two strains of a Gram-staining-positive species were isolated from German bulk tank milk. On the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences they were affiliated to the genus Facklamia but could not be assigned to any species with a validly published name. Facklamia miroungae ATCC BAA-466T (97.3 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Facklamia languida CCUG 37842T (96.9 %), and Facklamia hominis CCUG 36813T (96.6 %) are the closest relatives. In the 16S rRNA phylogeny and in the core-genome phylogeny strains WS 5301T and WS 5302 form a well-supported, separate lineage. Pairwise average nucleotide identity calculated using MUMmer (ANIm) between WS 5301T and type strains of other Facklamia species is well below the species cut-off (95 %) and ranges from 83.4 to 87.7 %. The DNA G+C content of the type strain is 36.4 mol% and the assembly size of the genome is 2.2 Mb. Cells of WS 5301T are non-motile, non-endospore-forming, oxidase-negative, catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic cocci. The fastidious species grows at 10-40 °C and with up to 7.0 % (w/v) NaCl in BHI supplemented with 5 g l-1 yeast extract. Major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two glycolipids. Predominant fatty acids are C16 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω9c. On the basis of their genomic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics the strains examined in this study represent the same, hitherto unknown species. We propose the name Facklamia lactis sp. nov. for which WS 5301T (=DSM 111018T=LMG 31861T) is the type strain and WS 5302 (=DSM 111019=LMG 31862) is an additional strain of this novel species.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Nguyen MP, Lehosmaa K, Martz F, et al (2021)

Host species shape the community structure of culturable endophytes in fruits of wild berry species (Vaccinium myrtillus L., Empetrum nigrum L., and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.).

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6319499 [Epub ahead of print].

Wild berries are interesting research subjects due to their rich sources of health-beneficial phenolic compounds. However, the internal microbial communities, endophytes, associated with the wild berry fruits are currently unknown. Endophytes are bacteria or fungi inhabiting inside plant tissues, and their functions vary depending on the host species and environmental parameters. The present study aimed to examine community composition of fungal and bacterial endophytes in fruits of three wild berry species (bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L., lingonberry V. vitis-idaea L., and crowberry Empetrum nigrum L.) and the effects of host plant species and their growth sites on shaping the endophytic communities. We found that the endophytic community structures differed between the berry species, and fungi were predominant over bacteria in the total endophytic taxa. We identified previously unknown endophytic fungal taxa including Angustimassarina, Dothidea, Fellozyma, Pseudohyphozyma, Hannaella coprosmae, and Oberwinklerozyma straminea. A role of soluble phenolic compounds, the intracellular components in wild berry fruits, in shaping the endophytic communities is proposed. Overall, our study demonstrates that each berry species harbors a unique endophytic community of microbes.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Collins SM, Gibson GR, Kennedy OB, et al (2021)

Development of a prebiotic blend to influence in vitro fermentation effects, with a focus on propionate, in the gut.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6319498 [Epub ahead of print].

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from the human gut microbiota, and in particular propionate, may beneficially influence metabolic processes such as appetite regulation. Development of prebiotics that induce high propionate levels during fermentation is desirable. Eleven candidate prebiotics were screened to investigate their fermentation characteristics, with a focus on propionate production in mixed anaerobic batch culture of faecal bacteria. Further to this, a continuous 3-stage colonic fermentation model (simulating the human colon) was used to evaluate changes in microbial ecology, lactate and SCFA production of three 50:50 blends, comprising both slow and rapidly fermented prebiotics. In mixed batch culture: xylo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and α-gluco-oligosaccharide were associated with the greatest increase in propionate. Polydextrose, α-gluco-oligosaccharide, β-1,4 glucan and oat fibre induced the greatest reductions in the acetate to propionate ratio. The most bifidogenic prebiotics were the oligosaccharides. Fermentation of a 50:50 blend of inulin and arabinoxylan, through the continuous 3-stage colonic fermentation model, induced a substantial and sustained release of propionate. The sustained release of propionate through the colon, if replicable in vivo, could potentially influence blood glucose, blood lipids and appetite regulation, however, dietary intervention studies are needed. Bifidogenic effects were also observed for the inulin and arabinoxylan blend and an increase synthesis of butyrate and lactate, thus indicating wider prebiotic potential.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Priest T, Orellana LH, Huettel B, et al (2021)

Microbial metagenome-assembled genomes of the Fram Strait from short and long read sequencing platforms.

PeerJ, 9:e11721.

The impacts of climate change on the Arctic Ocean are manifesting throughout the ecosystem at an unprecedented rate. Of global importance are the impacts on heat and freshwater exchange between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. An expanding Atlantic influence in the Arctic has accelerated sea-ice decline, weakened water column stability and supported the northward shift of temperate species. The only deep-water gateway connecting the Arctic and North Atlantic and thus, fundamental for these exchange processes is the Fram Strait. Previous research in this region is extensive, however, data on the ecology of microbial communities is limited, reflecting the wider bias towards temperate and tropical latitudes. Therefore, we present 14 metagenomes, 11 short-read from Illumina and three long-read from PacBio Sequel II, of the 0.2-3 µm fraction to help alleviate such biases and support future analyses on changing ecological patterns. Additionally, we provide 136 species-representative, manually refined metagenome-assembled genomes which can be used for comparative genomics analyses and addressing questions regarding functionality or distribution of taxa.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Kaur J, J Sharma (2021)

Orchid Root Associated Bacteria: Linchpins or Accessories?.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:661966.

Besides the plant-fungus symbiosis in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) plants, many endorhizal and rhizosphere bacteria (Root Associated Bacteria, or RAB) also enhance plant fitness, diversity, and coexistence among plants via bi- or tripartite interactions with plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi. Assuming that bacterial associations are just as important for the obligate mycorrhizal plant family Orchidaceae, surprisingly little is known about the RAB associated with orchids. Herein, we first present the current, underwhelming state of RAB research including their interactions with fungi and the influence of holobionts on plant fitness. We then delineate the need for novel investigations specifically in orchid RAB ecology, and sketch out questions and hypotheses which, when addressed, will advance plant-microbial ecology. We specifically discuss the potential effects of beneficial RAB on orchids as: (1) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), (2) Mycorrhization Helper Bacteria (MHB), and (3) constituents of an orchid holobiont. We further posit that a hologenomic view should be considered as a framework for addressing co-evolution of the plant host, their obligate Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi (OMF), and orchid RAB. We conclude by discussing implications of the suggested research for conservation of orchids, their microbial partners, and their collective habitats.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Jakus N, Mellage A, Höschen C, et al (2021)

Anaerobic Neutrophilic Pyrite Oxidation by a Chemolithoautotrophic Nitrate-Reducing Iron(II)-Oxidizing Culture Enriched from a Fractured Aquifer.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Neutrophilic microbial pyrite (FeS2) oxidation coupled to denitrification is thought to be an important natural nitrate attenuation pathway in nitrate-contaminated aquifers. However, the poor solubility of pyrite raises questions about its bioavailability and the mechanisms underlying its oxidation. Here, we investigated direct microbial pyrite oxidation by a neutrophilic chemolithoautotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing culture enriched from a pyrite-rich aquifer. We used pyrite with natural abundance (NA) of Fe isotopes (NAFe-pyrite) and 57Fe-labeled siderite to evaluate whether the oxidation of the more soluble Fe(II)-carbonate (FeCO3) can indirectly drive abiotic pyrite oxidation. Our results showed that in setups where only pyrite was incubated with bacteria, direct microbial pyrite oxidation contributed ca. 26% to overall nitrate reduction. The rest was attributed to the oxidation of elemental sulfur (S0), present as a residue from pyrite synthesis. Pyrite oxidation was evidenced in the NAFe-pyrite/57Fe-siderite setups by maps of 56FeO and 32S obtained using a combination of SEM with nanoscale secondary ion MS (NanoSIMS), which showed the presence of 56Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides that could solely originate from 56FeS2. Based on the fit of a reaction model to the geochemical data and the Fe-isotope distributions from NanoSIMS, we conclude that anaerobic oxidation of pyrite by our neutrophilic enrichment culture was mainly driven by direct enzymatic activity of the cells. The contribution of abiotic pyrite oxidation by Fe3+ appeared to be negligible in our experimental setup.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Fall F, Sanguin H, Fall D, et al (2021)

Changes in Intraspecific Diversity of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community Involved in Plant-Plant Interactions Between Sporobolus robustus Kunth and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC Along an Environmental Gradient.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The intensification of biological processes coping with salt stress became a major issue to mitigate land degradation. The Sine-Saloum Delta in Senegal is characterized by salt-affected soils with vegetation dominated by salt-tolerant grass Sporobolus robustus and shrubs like Prosopis juliflora. Plant experiments in controlled conditions suggested that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi might be the key actors of facilitation process observed between S. robustus and P. juliflora, but the AM fungal community determinants are largely unknown. The current field-based study aimed at (1) characterizing the environmental drivers (rhizosphere physico-chemical properties, plant type and season) of the AM fungal community along an environmental gradient and (2) identifying the AM fungal taxa that might explain the S. robustus-mediated benefits to P. juliflora. Glomeraceae predominated in the two plants, but a higher richness was observed for S. robustus. The pH and salinity were the main drivers of AM fungal community associated with the two plants, negatively impacting richness and diversity. However, while a negative impact was also observed on mycorrhizal colonization for S. robustus, P. juliflora showed opposite colonization patterns. Furthermore, no change was observed in terms of AM fungal community dissimilarity between the two plants along the environmental gradient as would be expected according to the stress-gradient and complementary hypotheses when a facilitation process occurs. However, changes in intraspecific diversity of shared AM fungal community between the two plants were observed, highlighting 23 AM fungal OTUs associated with both plants and the highest salinity levels. Consequently, the increase of their abundance and frequency along the environmental gradient might suggest their potential role in the facilitation process that can take place between the two plants. Their use in ecological engineering could also represent promising avenues for improving vegetation restoration in saline Senegalese's lands.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Rosado D, Pérez-Losada M, Severino R, et al (2021)

Monitoring Infection and Antibiotic Treatment in the Skin Microbiota of Farmed European Seabass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fingerlings.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiota of fish skin, the primary barrier against disease, is highly dynamic and modulated by several factors. In fish aquaculture, disease outbreaks occur mainly during early-life stages, with associated high economic losses. Antibiotic treatments sometimes remain the best option to control bacterial diseases, despite many reported negative impacts of its use on fish and associated microbiota. Notwithstanding, studies monitoring the effects of disease and antibiotic treatment on the microbiota of fingerlings are scarce. We sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA V4 gene region using a metabarcoding approach to assess the impact of a mixed infection with Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida and Vibrio harveyi and subsequent antibiotic treatment with flumequine, on the skin microbiota of farmed seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings. Both infection and antibiotic treatment led to a significant increase in bacterial diversity and core microbial communities and impacted microbiome structure. Dysbiosis was confirmed by changes in the abundance of potential pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial taxa. Skin bacterial metabolic function was also significantly affected by flumequine administration, suggesting a detriment to fish skin health. Our results add to an increasing body of literature, showing how fish microbiome response to infection and antibiotics cannot be easily predicted.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Delgado-Baquerizo M, Eldridge DJ, Liu YR, et al (2021)

Global homogenization of the structure and function in the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces.

Science advances, 7(28): pii:7/28/eabg5809.

The structure and function of the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces remain largely undetermined. We conducted a global field survey in urban greenspaces and neighboring natural ecosystems across 56 cities from six continents, and found that urban soils are important hotspots for soil bacterial, protist and functional gene diversity, but support highly homogenized microbial communities worldwide. Urban greenspaces had a greater proportion of fast-growing bacteria, algae, amoebae, and fungal pathogens, but a lower proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi than natural ecosystems. These urban ecosystems also showed higher proportions of genes associated with human pathogens, greenhouse gas emissions, faster nutrient cycling, and more intense abiotic stress than natural environments. City affluence, management practices, and climate were fundamental drivers of urban soil communities. Our work paves the way toward a more comprehensive global-scale perspective on urban greenspaces, which is integral to managing the health of these ecosystems and the well-being of human populations.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Favere J, Waegenaar F, Boon N, et al (2021)

Online microbial monitoring of drinking water: How do different techniques respond to contaminations in practice?.

Water research, 202:117387 pii:S0043-1354(21)00585-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Safeguarding the microbial water quality remains a challenge for drinking water utilities, and because of population growth and climate change, new issues arise regularly. To overcome these problems, biostable drinking water production and water reuse will become increasingly important. In this respect, high-resolution online microbial monitoring during treatment and distribution could prove essential. Here, we present the first scientific and practical comparison of multiple online microbial monitoring techniques in which six commercially available devices were set up in a full-scale drinking water production plant. Both the devices' response towards operational changes and contaminations, as well as their detection limit for different contaminations were evaluated and compared. During normal operation, all devices were able to detect abrupt operational changes such as backwashing of activated carbon filters and interruption of the production process in a fast and sensitive way. To benchmark their response to contaminations, the calculation of a dynamic baseline for sensitive separation between noise and events is proposed. In order of sensitivity, enzymatic analysis, ATP measurement, and flow cytometric fingerprinting were the most performant for detection of rain- and groundwater contaminations (0.01 - 0.1 v%). On the other hand, optical classification and flow cytometric cell counts showed to be more robust techniques, requiring less maintenance and providing direct information about the cell concentration, even though they were still more sensitive than plate counting. The choice for a certain technology will thus depend on the type of application and is a balance between sensitivity, price and maintenance. All things considered, a combination of several devices and use of advanced data analysis such as fingerprinting may be of added value. In general, the strategic implementation of online microbial monitoring as early-warning system will allow for intensive quality control by high-frequency sampling as well as a short event response timeframe.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Thompson RS, Gaffney M, Hopkins S, et al (2021)

Ruminiclostridium 5, Parabacteroides distasonis, and bile acid profile are modulated by prebiotic diet and associate with facilitated sleep/clock realignment after chronic disruption of rhythms.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(21)00270-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic disruption of rhythms (CDR) impacts sleep and can result in circadian misalignment of physiological systems, which in turn is associated with increased disease risk. Exposure to repeated or severe stressors also disturbs sleep and diurnal rhythms. Prebiotic nutrients produce favorable changes in gut microbial ecology, the gut metabolome, and reduce several negative impacts of acute severe stressor exposure, including disturbed sleep, core body temperature rhythmicity, and gut microbial dysbiosis. In light of previous compelling evidence that prebiotic diet broadly reduces negative impacts of acute, severe stressors, we hypothesize that prebiotic diet will also effectively mitigate the negative impacts of chronic disruption of circadian rhythms on physiology and sleep/wake behavior. Male, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets enriched in prebiotic substrates or calorically matched control chow. After 5 weeks on diet, rats were exposed to CDR (12h light/dark reversal, weekly for 8 weeks) or remained on undisturbed normal light/dark cycles (NLD). Sleep EEG, core body temperature, and locomotor activity were recorded via biotelemetry in freely moving rats. Fecal samples were collected on experimental days -33, 0 (day of onset of CDR), and 42. Taxonomic identification and relative abundances of gut microbes were measured in fecal samples using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics. Fecal primary, bacterially modified secondary, and conjugated bile acids were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Prebiotic diet produced rapid and stable increases in the relative abundances of Parabacteroides distasonis and Ruminiclostridium 5. Shotgun metagenomics analyses confirmed reliable increases in relative abundances of Parabacteroides distasonis and Clostridium leptum, a member of the Ruminiclostridium genus. Prebiotic diet also modified fecal bile acid profiles; and based on correlational and step-wise regression analyses, Parabacteroides distasonis and Ruminiclostridium 5 were positively associated with each other and negatively associated with secondary and conjugated bile acids. Prebiotic diet, but not CDR, impacted beta diversity. Measures of alpha diversity evenness were decreased by CDR and prebiotic diet prevented that effect. Rats exposed to CDR while eating prebiotic, compared to control diet, more quickly realigned NREM sleep and core body temperature (ClockLab) diurnal rhythms to the altered light/dark cycle. Finally, both cholic acid and Ruminiclostridium 5 prior to CDR were associated with time to realign CBT rhythms to the new light/dark cycle after CDR; whereas both Ruminiclostridium 5 and taurocholic acid prior to CDR were associated with NREM sleep recovery after CDR. These results support our hypothesis and suggest that ingestion of prebiotic substrates is an effective strategy to increase the relative abundance of health promoting microbes, alter the fecal bile acid profile, and facilitate the recovery and realignment of sleep and diurnal rhythms after circadian disruption.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Tuganbaev T, K Honda (2021)

Non-zero-sum microbiome immune system interactions.

European journal of immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Fundamental asymmetries between the host and its microbiome in enzymatic activities and nutrient storage capabilities have promoted mutualistic adaptations on both sides. As a result, the enteric immune system has evolved so as not to cause a zero-sum sterilization of non-self, but rather achieve a non-zero-sum self-reinforcing cooperation with its evolutionary partner the microbiome. In this review we attempt to integrate the accumulated knowledge of immune - microbiome interactions into an evolutionary framework and trace the pattern of positive immune - microbiome feedback loops across epithelial, enteric nervous system, innate and adaptive immune circuits. Indeed, the immune system requires commensal signals for its development and function, and reciprocally protects the microbiome from nutrient shortage and pathogen outgrowth. In turn, a healthy microbiome is the result of immune system curatorship as well as microbial ecology. The paradigms of host-microbiome asymmetry and the cooperative nature of their interactions identified in the gut are applicable across all tissues influenced by microbial activities. Incorporation of immune system influences into models of microbiome ecology will be a step forward towards defining what constitutes a healthy human microbiome and guide discoveries of novel host-microbiome mutualistic adaptations that may be harnessed for promotion of human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Ahmad T, Farooq S, Mirza DN, et al (2021)

Insights into the Endophytic Bacterial Microbiome of Crocus sativus: Functional Characterization Leads to Potential Agents that Enhance the Plant Growth, Productivity, and Key Metabolite Content.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The study was undertaken to unravel the culturable endophytic bacterial microbiome of Crocus sativus L. (saffron crocus) and consequently obtain potential leads to develop plant growth-promoting and biocontrol agents for increased productivity and sustainable cultivation. The endophytes formed 47 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), spanning over 28 genera. The host was preferentially colonized by the genus Bacillus, followed by Burkholderia and Pantoea, respectively. Several endophytes possessed potential plant growth-promoting properties and inhibitory activities against the specific fungal pathogens of saffron. The endophytes, except for Microbacterium oxydans, did not cause any disease symptoms in the pot experiments. The selected cultures, Burkholderia gladioli, Streptomyces achromogenes, and three species of Bacillus, enhanced the host plant growth significantly. Based on the pot experiment results, two isolates, Bacillus mojavensis CS4EB32 and Burkholderia gladioli E39CS3, were selected for the field experiments. We obtained an increase of 67.5%, 69.8%, and 68.3% in the production of flowers with the individual and collective treatments, respectively. The treatments also enhanced the biomass of the plant and the length and weight of stigmas significantly. The endophyte treatments induced the expression of the pathway genes, resulting in a marked increase in the concentration of apocarotenoids. The study indicates that the dominant endophytes support plant growth and development in nature and present an opportunity for developing microbial formulations for the sustainability of saffron cultivation.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Shi Y, Wang J, Ao Y, et al (2021)

Responses of soil N2 O emissions and their abiotic and biotic drivers to altered rainfall regimes and co-occurring wet N deposition in a semi-arid grassland.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Global change factors such as changed rainfall regimes and nitrogen (N) deposition contribute to increases in the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) from the soil. In previous research, N deposition has often been simulated by using a single or a series of N addition events over the course of a year, but wet N deposition actually co-occurs with rainfall. How soil N2 O emissions respond to altered rainfall amount and frequency, wet N deposition, and their interactions is still not fully understood. We designed a three-factor fully factorial experiment with factors of rainfall amounts (ambient, -30%) rainfall frequency (ambient, ±50%) and wet N deposition (with/without) co-occurring with rainfall in semi-arid grassland mesocosms, and measured N2 O emissions and their possible biotic and abiotic drivers. Across all treatments, reduced rainfall amount and N deposition increased soil N2 O emissions by 35% and 28%, respectively. A significant interactive effect was observed between rainfall amount and N deposition, and to a lesser extent between rainfall frequency and N deposition. Without N deposition, reduced rainfall amount and altered rainfall frequency indirectly affected soil N2 O emissions by changing the abundance of nirK and soil net N mineralization, and the changes in nirK abundance were indirectly driven by soil N availability rather than directly by soil moisture. With N deposition, both the abundance of nirK and the level of soil water filled pore space contributed to changes in N2 O emissions in response to altered rainfall regimes, and the changes in the abundance of nirK were indirectly driven by plant N uptake and nitrifier (AOB) abundance. Our results imply that unlike wetter grassland ecosystems, reduced precipitation may increase N2 O emissions and N deposition may only slightly increase N2 O emissions in arid and semi-arid N-limited ecosystems that are dominated by grasses with high soil N uptake capacity.

RevDate: 2021-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Schweyer L, L Pougnet (2021)

[Microbial ecology, the understanding of the invisible living].

Revue de l'infirmiere, 70(272):25-26.

Microorganisms are invisible to the naked eye. Hospital hygiene practices are therefore based on the representation that caregivers have of them. This difficulty can generate irrational behavior and fear of blame. Conversely, a better knowledge of the specificities of this invisible living world favors a rationalization of care practices. To do this, caregivers will be able to appropriate the major concepts of microbiology, particularly microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Oberman K, Hovens I, de Haan J, et al (2021)

Acute pre-operative ibuprofen improves cognition in a rat model for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 18(1):156.

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is considered a key factor in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Therefore, we hypothesized that pre-operative anti-inflammatory treatment with ibuprofen would inhibit POCD in our rat-model.

METHODS: Male Wistar rats of 3 or 23 months old received a single injection of ibuprofen (15 mg/kg i.p.) or were control handled before abdominal surgery. Timed blood and fecal samples were collected for analyses of inflammation markers and gut microbiome changes. Behavioral testing was performed from 9 to 14 days after surgery, in the open field, novel object- and novel location-recognition tests and Morris water maze. Neuroinflammation and neurogenesis were assessed by immune histochemistry after sacrifice on postoperative day 14.

RESULTS: Ibuprofen improved short-term spatial memory in the novel location recognition test, and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. However, these effects were associated with increased hippocampal microglia activity. Whereas plasma cytokine levels (IL1-β, IL6, IL10, and TNFα) were not significantly affected, VEGF levels increased and IFABP levels decreased after ibuprofen. Long-term memory in the Morris water maze was not significantly improved by ibuprofen. The gut microbiome was neither significantly affected by surgery nor by ibuprofen treatment. In general, effects in aged rats appeared similar to those in young rats, though less pronounced.

CONCLUSION: A single injection of ibuprofen before surgery improved hippocampus-associated short-term memory after surgery and increased neurogenesis. However, this favorable outcome seemed not attributable to inhibition of (neuro)inflammation. Potential contributions of intestinal and blood-brain barrier integrity need further investigation. Although less pronounced compared to young rats, effects in aged rats indicate that even elderly individuals could benefit from ibuprofen treatment.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Buysse M, Binetruy F, Leibson R, et al (2021)

Ecological Contacts and Host Specificity Promote Replacement of Nutritional Endosymbionts in Ticks.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiosis with vitamin-provisioning microbes is essential for the nutrition of animals with some specialized feeding habits. While coevolution favors the interdependence between symbiotic partners, their associations are not necessarily stable: Recently acquired symbionts can replace ancestral symbionts. In this study, we demonstrate successful replacement by Francisella-like endosymbionts (-LE), a group of B-vitamin-provisioning endosymbionts, across tick communities driven by horizontal transfers. Using a broad collection of Francisella-LE-infected tick species, we determined the diversity of Francisella-LE haplotypes through a multi-locus strain typing approach and further characterized their phylogenetic relationships and their association with biological traits of their tick hosts. The patterns observed showed that Francisella-LE commonly transfer through similar ecological networks and geographic distributions shared among different tick species and, in certain cases, through preferential shuffling across congeneric tick species. Altogether, these findings reveal the importance of geographic, ecological, and phylogenetic proximity in shaping the replacement pattern in which new nutritional symbioses are initiated.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Ossowicki A, Raaijmakers JM, P Garbeva (2021)

Disentangling soil microbiome functions by perturbation.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Soil biota contribute to diverse soil ecosystem services such as greenhouse gas mitigation, carbon sequestration, pollutant degradation, plant disease suppression and nutrient acquisition for plant growth. Here, we provide detailed insight into different perturbation approaches to disentangle soil microbiome functions and to reveal the underlying mechanisms. By applying perturbation, one can generate compositional and functional shifts of complex microbial communities in a controlled way. Perturbations can reduce microbial diversity, diminish the abundance of specific microbial taxa and thereby disturb the interactions within the microbial consortia and with their eukaryotic hosts. Four different microbiome perturbation approaches, namely selective heat, specific biocides, dilution-to-extinction and genome editing are the focus of this mini-review. We also discuss the potential of perturbation approaches to reveal the tipping point at which specific soil functions are lost and to link this change to key microbial taxa involved in specific microbiome-associated phenotypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Viana TA, Barbosa WF, Jojoa LLB, et al (2021)

A Genetically Modified Anti-Plasmodium Bacterium Is Harmless to the Foragers of the Stingless Bee Partamona helleri.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Paratransgenesis consists of genetically engineering an insect symbiont to control vector-borne diseases. Biosafety assessments are a prerequisite for the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Assessments rely on the measurement of the possible impacts of GMOs on different organisms, including beneficial organisms, such as pollinators. The bacterium Serratia AS1 has been genetically modified to express anti-Plasmodium effector proteins and does not impose a fitness cost on mosquitoes that carry it. In the present study, we assessed the impact of this bacterium on the native bee Partamona helleri (Meliponini), an ecologically important species in Brazil. Serratia eGFP AS1 (recombinant strain) or a wild strain of Serratia marcescens were suspended in a sucrose solution and fed to foragers, followed by measurements of survival, feeding rate, and behavior (walking and flying). These bacteria did not change any of the variables measured at 24, 72, and 144 h after the onset of the experiment. Recombinant and wild bacteria were detected in the homogenates of digestive tract during the 144 h period analyzed, but their numbers decreased with time. The recombinant strain was detected in the midgut at 24 h and in the hindgut at 72 h and 144 h after the onset of the experiment under the fluorescent microscope. As reported for mosquitoes, Serratia eGFP AS1 did not compromise the foragers of P. helleri, an ecologically relevant bee.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Rizwan T, Kothidar A, Meghwani H, et al (2021)

Comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 envelope viroporin mutations from COVID-19 deceased and surviving patients revealed implications on its ion-channel activities and correlation with patient mortality.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

One major obstacle in designing a successful therapeutic regimen to combat COVID-19 pandemic is the frequent occurrence of mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 resulting in patient to patient variations. Out of the four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 namely, spike, envelope, nucleocapsid and membrane, envelope protein governs the virus pathogenicity and induction of acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome which is the major cause of death in COVID-19 patients. These effects are facilitated by the viroporin (ion-channel) like activities of the envelope protein. Our current work reports metagenomic analysis of envelope protein at the amino acid sequence level through mining all the available SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the GISAID and coronapp servers. We found majority of mutations in envelope protein were localized at or near PDZ binding motif. Our analysis also demonstrates that the acquired mutations might have important implications on its structure and ion-channel activity. A statistical correlation between specific mutations (e.g. F4F, R69I, P71L, L73F) with patient mortalities were also observed, based on the patient data available for 18,691 SARS-CoV-2-genomes in the GISAID database till 30 April 2021. Albeit, whether these mutations exist as the cause or the effect of co-infections and/or co-morbid disorders within COVID-19 patients is still unclear. Moreover, most of the current vaccine and therapeutic interventions are revolving around spike protein. However, emphasizing on envelope protein's (1) conserved epitopes, (2) pathogenicity attenuating mutations, and (3) mutations present in the deceased patients, as reported in our present study, new directions to the ongoing efforts of therapeutic developments against COVID-19 can be achieved by targeting envelope viroporin.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Agustí A, Campillo I, Balzano T, et al (2021)

Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Modulates the Brain Reward Response to Reduce Binge Eating and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rat.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Food addiction (FA) is characterized by behavioral and neurochemical changes linked to loss of food intake control. Gut microbiota may influence appetite and food intake via endocrine and neural routes. The gut microbiota is known to impact homeostatic energy mechanisms, but its role in regulating the reward system is less certain. We show that the administration of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 (B. uniformis) in a rat FA model impacts on the brain reward response, ameliorating binge eating and decreasing anxiety-like behavior. These effects are mediated, at least in part, by changes in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the nucleus accumbens and in the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex and intestine. B. uniformis reverses the fasting-induced microbiota changes and increases the abundance of species linked to healthy metabolotypes. Our data indicate that microbiota-based interventions might help to control compulsive overeating by modulating the reward response.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

de Menezes GCA, Câmara PEAS, Pinto OHB, et al (2021)

Fungi in the Antarctic Cryosphere: Using DNA Metabarcoding to Reveal Fungal Diversity in Glacial Ice from the Antarctic Peninsula Region.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

We assessed fungal diversity present in glacial from the Antarctic Peninsula using DNA metabarcoding through high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We detected a total of 353,879 fungal DNA reads, representing 94 genera and 184 taxa, in glacial ice fragments obtained from seven sites in the north-west Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands. The phylum Ascomycota dominated the sequence diversity, followed by Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota. Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicillium atrovenetum, Epicoccum nigrum, Pseudogymnoascus sp. 1, Pseudogymnoascus sp. 2, Phaeosphaeriaceae sp. and Xylaria grammica were the most dominant taxa, respectively. However, the majority of the fungal diversity comprised taxa of rare and intermediate relative abundance, predominately known mesophilic fungi. High indices of diversity and richness were calculated, along with moderate index of dominance, which varied among the different sampling sites. Only 26 (14%) of the total fungal taxa detected were present at all sampling sites. The identified diversity was dominated by saprophytic taxa, followed by known plant and animal pathogens and a low number of symbiotic fungi. Our data suggest that Antarctic glacial ice may represent a hotspot of previously unreported fungal diversity; however, further studies are required to integrate HTS and culture approaches to confirm viability of the taxa detected.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

McDaniel EA, Moya-Flores F, Keene Beach N, et al (2021)

Metabolic Differentiation of Co-occurring Accumulibacter Clades Revealed through Genome-Resolved Metatranscriptomics.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Natural microbial communities consist of closely related taxa that may exhibit phenotypic differences and inhabit distinct niches. However, connecting genetic diversity to ecological properties remains a challenge in microbial ecology due to the lack of pure cultures across the microbial tree of life. "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) is a polyphosphate-accumulating organism that contributes to the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) biotechnological process for removing excess phosphorus from wastewater and preventing eutrophication from downstream receiving waters. Distinct Accumulibacter clades often coexist in full-scale wastewater treatment plants and laboratory-scale enrichment bioreactors and have been hypothesized to inhabit distinct ecological niches. However, since individual strains of the Accumulibacter lineage have not been isolated in pure culture to date, these predictions have been made solely on genome-based comparisons and enrichments with varying strain compositions. Here, we used genome-resolved metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to explore the activity of coexisting Accumulibacter strains in an engineered bioreactor environment. We obtained four high-quality genomes of Accumulibacter strains that were present in the bioreactor ecosystem, one of which is a completely contiguous draft genome scaffolded with long Nanopore reads. We identified core and accessory genes to investigate how gene expression patterns differed among the dominating strains. Using this approach, we were able to identify putative pathways and functions that may confer distinct functions to Accumulibacter strains and provide key functional insights into this biotechnologically significant microbial lineage. IMPORTANCE "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" is a model polyphosphate-accumulating organism that has been studied using genome-resolved metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics to understand the EBPR process. Within the Accumulibacter lineage, several similar but diverging clades are defined by the shared sequence identity of the polyphosphate kinase (ppk1) locus. These clades are predicted to have key functional differences in acetate uptake rates, phage defense mechanisms, and nitrogen-cycling capabilities. However, such hypotheses have largely been made based on gene content comparisons of sequenced Accumulibacter genomes, some of which were obtained from different systems. Here, we performed time series genome-resolved metatranscriptomics to explore gene expression patterns of coexisting Accumulibacter clades in the same bioreactor ecosystem. Our work provides an approach for elucidating ecologically relevant functions based on gene expression patterns between closely related microbial populations.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Trojan D, Garcia-Robledo E, Meier DV, et al (2021)

Microaerobic Lifestyle at Nanomolar O2 Concentrations Mediated by Low-Affinity Terminal Oxidases in Abundant Soil Bacteria.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

High-affinity terminal oxidases (TOs) are believed to permit microbial respiration at low oxygen (O2) levels. Genes encoding such oxidases are widespread, and their existence in microbial genomes is taken as an indicator for microaerobic respiration. We combined respiratory kinetics determined via highly sensitive optical trace O2 sensors, genomics, and transcriptomics to test the hypothesis that high-affinity TOs are a prerequisite to respire micro- and nanooxic concentrations of O2 in environmentally relevant model soil organisms: acidobacteria. Members of the Acidobacteria harbor branched respiratory chains terminating in low-affinity (caa3-type cytochrome c oxidases) as well as high-affinity (cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases and/or bd-type quinol oxidases) TOs, potentially enabling them to cope with varying O2 concentrations. The measured apparent Km (Km(app)) values for O2 of selected strains ranged from 37 to 288 nmol O2 liter-1, comparable to values previously assigned to low-affinity TOs. Surprisingly, we could not detect the expression of the conventional high-affinity TO (cbb3 type) at micro- and nanomolar O2 concentrations but detected the expression of low-affinity TOs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of microaerobic respiration imparted by low-affinity TOs at O2 concentrations as low as 1 nM. This challenges the standing hypothesis that a microaerobic lifestyle is exclusively imparted by the presence of high-affinity TOs. As low-affinity TOs are more efficient at generating ATP than high-affinity TOs, their utilization could provide a great benefit, even at low-nanomolar O2 levels. Our findings highlight energy conservation strategies that could promote the success of Acidobacteria in soil but might also be important for as-yet-unrevealed microorganisms. IMPORTANCE Low-oxygen habitats are widely distributed on Earth, ranging from the human intestine to soils. Microorganisms are assumed to have the capacity to respire low O2 concentrations via high-affinity terminal oxidases. By utilizing strains of a ubiquitous and abundant group of soil bacteria, the Acidobacteria, and combining respiration kinetics, genomics, and transcriptomics, we provide evidence that these microorganisms use the energetically more efficient low-affinity terminal oxidases to respire low-nanomolar O2 concentrations. This questions the standing hypothesis that the ability to respire traces of O2 stems solely from the activity of high-affinity terminal oxidases. We propose that this energetically efficient strategy extends into other, so-far-unrevealed microbial clades. Our findings also demonstrate that physiological predictions regarding the utilization of different O2 concentrations based solely on the presence or absence of terminal oxidases in bacterial genomes can be misleading.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Tan MH, Loke S, Croft LJ, et al (2021)

Correction to: First Genome of Labyrinthula sp., an Opportunistic Seagrass Pathogen, Reveals Novel Insight into Marine Protist Phylogeny, Ecology and CAZyme Cell-Wall Degradation.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Stothart MR, AEM Newman (2021)

Shades of grey: host phenotype dependent effect of urbanization on the bacterial microbiome of a wild mammal.

Animal microbiome, 3(1):46.

BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbiota are integral to the ecology of their host and may help wildlife species cope with rapid environmental change. Urbanization is a globally replicated form of severe environmental change which we can leverage to better understand wildlife microbiomes. Does the colonization of separate cities result in parallel changes in the intestinal microbiome of wildlife, and if so, does within-city habitat heterogeneity matter? Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we quantified the effect of urbanization (across three cities) on the microbiome of eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). Grey squirrels are ubiquitous in rural and urban environments throughout their native range, across which they display an apparent coat colour polymorphism (agouti, black, intermediate).

RESULTS: Grey squirrel microbiomes differed between rural and city environments; however, comparable variation was explained by habitat heterogeneity within cities. Our analyses suggest that operational taxonomic unit (OTU) community structure was more strongly influenced by local environmental conditions (rural and city forests versus human built habitats) than urbanization of the broader landscape (city versus rural). The bacterial genera characterizing the microbiomes of built-environment squirrels are thought to specialize on host-derived products and have been linked in previous research to low fibre diets. However, despite an effect of urbanization at fine spatial scales, phylogenetic patterns in the microbiome were coat colour phenotype dependent. City and built-environment agouti squirrels displayed greater phylogenetic beta-dispersion than those in rural or forest environments, and null modelling results indicated that the phylogenetic structure of urban agouti squirrels did not differ greatly from stochastic expectations.

CONCLUSIONS: Squirrel microbiomes differed between city and rural environments, but differences of comparable magnitude were observed between land classes at a within-city scale. We did not observe strong evidence that inter-environmental differences were the result of disparate selective pressures. Rather, our results suggest that microbiota dispersal and ecological drift are integral to shaping the inter-environmental differences we observed. However, these processes were partly mediated by squirrel coat colour phenotype. Given a well-known urban cline in squirrel coat colour melanism, grey squirrels provide a useful free-living system with which to study how host genetics mediate environment x microbiome interactions.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Jiao L, Kourkoumpetis T, Hutchinson D, et al (2021)

Spatial Characteristics of Colonic Mucosa-Associated Gut Microbiota in Humans.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Limited data exist on the spatial distribution of the colonic bacteria in humans. We collected the colonic biopsies from five segments of 27 polyp-free adults and collected feces from 13 of them. We sequenced the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq platform. The sequencing data were assigned to the amplicon sequence variant (ASV) using SILVA. Biodiversity and the relative abundance of the ASV were compared across the colonic segments and between the rectal and fecal samples. Bacterial functional capacity was assessed using Tax4fun. Each individual had a unique bacterial community composition (Weighted Bray-Curtis P value = 0.001). There were no significant differences in richness, evenness, community composition, and the taxonomic structure across the colon segments in all the samples. Firmicutes (47%), Bacteroidetes (39%), and Proteobacteria (6%) were the major phyla in all segments, followed by Verrucomicrobia, Fusobacteria, Desulfobacterota, and Actinobacteria. There were 15 genera with relative abundance > 1%, including Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Escherichia/Shigella, Sutterella, Akkermansia, Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Lachnoclostridium, Alistipes, Fusobacterium, Erysipelatoclostridium, and four Lachnospiraceae family members. Intra-individually, the community compositional dissimilarity was the greatest between the cecum and the rectum. There were significant differences in biodiversity and the taxonomic structure between the rectal and fecal bacteria. The bacterial community composition and structure were homogeneous across the large intestine in adults. The inter-individual variability of the bacteria was greater than inter-segment variability. The rectal and fecal bacteria differed in the community composition and structure.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Smercina DN, Bailey VL, KS Hofmockel (2021)

Micro on a macroscale: relating microbial-scale soil processes to global ecosystem function.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 97(7):.

Soil microorganisms play a key role in driving major biogeochemical cycles and in global responses to climate change. However, understanding and predicting the behavior and function of these microorganisms remains a grand challenge for soil ecology due in part to the microscale complexity of soils. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding the microbial perspective is vital to accurately predicting global processes. Here, we discuss the microbial perspective including the microbial habitat as it relates to measurement and modeling of ecosystem processes. We argue that clearly defining and quantifying the size, distribution and sphere of influence of microhabitats is crucial to managing microbial activity at the ecosystem scale. This can be achieved using controlled and hierarchical sampling designs. Model microbial systems can provide key data needed to integrate microhabitats into ecosystem models, while adapting soil sampling schemes and statistical methods can allow us to collect microbially-focused data. Quantifying soil processes, like biogeochemical cycles, from a microbial perspective will allow us to more accurately predict soil functions and address long-standing unknowns in soil ecology.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Ceron-Chafla P, Chang YT, Rabaey K, et al (2021)

Directional Selection of Microbial Community Reduces Propionate Accumulation in Glycerol and Glucose Anaerobic Bioconversion Under Elevated pCO2.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:675763.

Volatile fatty acid accumulation is a sign of digester perturbation. Previous work showed the thermodynamic limitations of hydrogen and CO2 in syntrophic propionate oxidation under elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Here we study the effect of directional selection under increasing substrate load as a strategy to restructure the microbial community and induce cross-protection mechanisms to improve glucose and glycerol conversion performance under elevated pCO2. After an adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) process, viable cell density increased and predominant microbial groups were modified: an increase in Methanosaeta and syntrophic propionate oxidizing bacteria (SPOB) associated with the Smithella genus was found with glycerol as the substrate. A modest increase in SPOB along with a shift in the predominance of Methanobacterium toward Methanosaeta was observed with glucose as the substrate. The evolved inoculum showed affected diversity within archaeal spp. under 5 bar initial pCO2; however, higher CH4 yield resulted from enhanced propionate conversion linked to the community shifts and biomass adaptation during the ALE process. Moreover, the evolved inoculum attained increased cell viability with glucose and a marginal decrease with glycerol as the substrate. Results showed differences in terms of carbon flux distribution using the evolved inoculum under elevated pCO2: glucose conversion resulted in a higher cell density and viability, whereas glycerol conversion led to higher propionate production whose enabled conversion reflected in increased CH4 yield. Our results highlight that limited propionate conversion at elevated pCO2 resulted from decreased cell viability and low abundance of syntrophic partners. This limitation can be mitigated by promoting alternative and more resilient SPOB and building up biomass adaptation to environmental conditions via directional selection of microbial community.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Jani K, Bandal J, Shouche Y, et al (2021)

Extended Ecological Restoration of Bacterial Communities in the Godavari River During the COVID-19 Lockdown Period: a Spatiotemporal Meta-analysis.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on human health worldwide. Whilst national and international COVID-19 lockdown and travel restriction measures have had widespread negative impact on economies and mental health, they may have beneficial effect on the environment, reducing air and water pollution. Mass bathing events (MBE) also known as Kumbh Mela are known to cause perturbations of the ecosystem affecting resilient bacterial populations within water of rivers in India. Lockdowns and travel restrictions provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of minimum anthropogenic activity on the river water ecosystem and changes in bacterial populations including antibiotic-resistant strains. We performed a spatiotemporal meta-analysis of bacterial communities of the Godavari River, India. Targeted metagenomics revealed a 0.87-fold increase in the bacterial diversity during the restricted activity of lockdown. A significant increase in the resilient phyla, viz. Proteobacteria (70.6%), Bacteroidetes (22.5%), Verrucomicrobia (1.8%), Actinobacteria (1.2%) and Cyanobacteria (1.1%), was observed. There was minimal incorporation of allochthonous bacterial communities of human origin. Functional profiling using imputed metagenomics showed reduction in infection and drug resistance genes by - 0.71-fold and - 0.64-fold, respectively. These observations may collectively indicate the positive implications of COVID-19 lockdown measures which restrict MBE, allowing restoration of the river ecosystem and minimise the associated public health risk.

RevDate: 2021-07-04

Németh JB, Knapp DG, Kósa A, et al (2021)

Micro-scale Experimental System Coupled with Fluorescence-based Estimation of Fungal Biomass to Study Utilisation of Plant Substrates.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The degradation capacity and utilisation of complex plant substrates are crucial for the functioning of saprobic fungi and different plant symbionts with fundamental functions in ecosystems. Measuring the growth capacity and biomass of fungi on such systems is a challenging task. We established a new micro-scale experimental setup using substrates made of different plant species and organs as media for fungal growth. We adopted and tested a reliable and simple titration-based method for the estimation of total fungal biomass within the substrates using fluorescence-labelled lectin. We found that the relationship between fluorescence intensity and fungal dry weight was strong and linear but differed among fungi. The effect of the plant organ (i.e. root vs. shoot) used as substrate on fungal growth differed among plant species and between root endophytic fungal species. The novel microscale experimental system is useful for screening the utilisation of different substrates, which can provide insight into the ecological roles and functions of fungi. Furthermore, our fungal biomass estimation method has applications in various fields. As the estimation is based on the fungal cell wall, it measures the total cumulative biomass produced in a certain environment.

RevDate: 2021-07-04

Huang YM, Straub D, Kappler A, et al (2021)

A Novel Enrichment Culture Highlights Core Features of Microbial Networks Contributing to Autotrophic Fe(II) Oxidation Coupled to Nitrate Reduction.

Microbial physiology pii:000517083 [Epub ahead of print].

Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction (NRFO) has been described for many environments. Yet very few autotrophic microorganisms catalysing NRFO have been cultivated and their diversity, as well as their mechanisms for NRFO in situ remain unclear. A novel autotrophic NRFO enrichment culture, named culture BP, was obtained from freshwater sediment. After more than 20 transfers, culture BP oxidized 8.22 mM of Fe(II) and reduced 2.42 mM of nitrate within 6.5 days under autotrophic conditions. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic analyses to culture BP to identify the microorganisms involved in autotrophic NRFO and to unravel their metabolism. Overall, twelve metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were constructed, including a dominant Gallionellaceae sp. MAG (≥71% relative abundance). Genes and transcripts associated with potential Fe(II) oxidizers in culture BP, identified as a Gallionellaceae sp., Noviherbaspirillum sp., and Thiobacillus sp., were likely involved in metal oxidation (e.g., cyc2, mtoA), denitrification (e.g., nirK/S, norBC), carbon fixation (e.g., rbcL), and oxidative phosphorylation. The putative Fe(II)-oxidizing protein Cyc2 was detected for the Gallionellaceae sp. Overall, a complex network of microbial interactions among several Fe(II) oxidizers and denitrifiers was deciphered in culture BP that might resemble NRFO mechanisms in situ. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from environmental samples revealed 36 distinct Gallionellaceae taxa, including the key player of NRFO from culture BP (approx. 0.13% relative abundance in situ). Since several of these in situ-detected Gallionellaceae taxa were closely related to the key player in culture BP, this suggests that the diversity of organisms contributing to NRFO might be higher than currently known.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Desiderio TM, Stacy NI, Ossiboff RJ, et al (2021)

Identification of a novel mortality-associated Helicobacter species in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), qPCR test development and validation, and correlation with mortality in a wildlife rehabilitation population.

Veterinary microbiology, 259:109136.

The genus Helicobacter includes spiral-shaped bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria, class Epsilonproteobacteria, order Campylobacteriales, that have been associated with disease in animals, including reptiles. Three wild gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) index cases presented between 2012 and 2019 with nasal discharge, lethargy, and weight loss. Cytological examination of nasal discharge from all 3 tortoises identified marked heterophilic and mild histiocytic rhinitis with abundant extracellular and phagocytized spiral shaped bacteria that stained positive with Warthin-Starry stain. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed this to be a novel Helicobacter species. Two tortoises died despite treatment attempts, and the third was moribund and was euthanized. Histological examination of the nasal mucosa (n = 3) showed granulocytic to lymphocytic rhinitis with variable mucosal hyperplasia, erosion, and ulceration; Warthin-Starry staining highlighted the presence of spiral bacteria in the untreated tortoise. Genus-specific primers were designed, and the gyrA and groEL genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this organism and other previously characterized Helicobacter from tortoises form a clade. Development and cross-validation of two qPCR diagnostic assays for the gyrA and groEL genes showed significant correlation of the results of two assays (P < 0.0001). These assays were used to survey nasal wash samples from 31 rehabilitating gopher tortoises. Mortality of tortoises significantly correlated with higher Helicobacter loads detected by qPCR (P = 0.028). Appropriate quarantine protocols for tortoises during rehabilitation should consider this organism. Upper respiratory disease in tortoises may involve complex microbial ecology; factors beyond Mycoplasmopsis (Mycoplasma) agassizii should be taken into account.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Gyeong H, Hyun CU, Kim SC, et al (2021)

Contrasting early successional dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in recently deglaciated soils of the maritime Antarctic.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Although microorganisms are the very first colonizers of recently deglaciated soils even prior to plant colonization, the drivers and patterns of microbial community succession at early-successional stages remain poorly understood. The successional dynamics and assembly processes of bacterial and fungal communities were compared on a glacier foreland in the maritime Antarctic across the ~10-year soil-age gradient from bare soil to sparsely vegetated area. Bacterial communities shifted more rapidly than fungal communities in response to glacial retreat; species turnover (primarily the transition from glacier- to soil-favoring taxa) contributed greatly to bacterial beta diversity, but this pattern was less clear in fungi. Bacterial communities underwent more predictable (more deterministic) changes along the soil-age gradient, with compositional changes paralleling the direction of changes in soil physicochemical properties following deglaciation. In contrast, the compositional shift in fungal communities was less associated with changes in deglaciation-induced changes in soil geochemistry and most fungal taxa displayed mosaic abundance distribution across the landscape, suggesting that the successional dynamics of fungal communities are largely governed by stochastic processes. A co-occurrence network analysis revealed that biotic interactions between bacteria and fungi are very weak in early succession. Taken together, these results collectively suggest that bacterial and fungal communities in recently deglaciated soils are largely decoupled from each other during succession and exert very divergent trajectories of succession and assembly under different selective forces.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Kiesewetter KN, ME Afkhami (2021)

Microbiome-mediated effects of habitat fragmentation on native plant performance.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

●Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of biodiversity and ecosystem function loss in the Anthropocene. Despite the importance of plant-microbiome interactions to ecosystem productivity, we have limited knowledge of how fragmentation affects microbiomes and even less knowledge of its consequences for microbial interactions with plants. ●Combining field surveys, microbiome sequencing, manipulative experiments, and random forest models, we (1) investigated fragmentation legacy effects on soil microbiomes in imperiled Pine Rocklands, (2) tested how compositional shifts across 14 fragmentation-altered soil microbiomes affected performance and resource allocation of three native plant species, and (3) identified fragmentation-responding microbial families underpinning plant performance. ●Legacies of habitat fragmentation were associated with significant changes in microbial diversity and composition (across three of four community axes). Experiments showed plants often strongly benefited from the microbiome's presence, but fragmentation-associated changes in microbiome composition also significantly affected plant performance and resource allocation across all seven metrics examined. Finally, random forest models identified ten fungal and six bacterial families important for plant performance that changed significantly with fragmentation. ●Our findings not only support the existence of significant fragmentation effects on natural microbiomes, but also demonstrate for the first time that fragmentation-associated changes in microbiomes can have meaningful consequences for native plant performance and investment.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Hugoni M, Galland W, Lecomte S, et al (2021)

Effects of the Denitrification Inhibitor "Procyanidins" on the Diversity, Interactions, and Potential Functions of Rhizosphere-Associated Microbiome.

Microorganisms, 9(7): pii:microorganisms9071406.

Some plant secondary metabolites, such as procyanidins, have been demonstrated to cause biological denitrification inhibition (BDI) of denitrifiers in soils concomitantly with a gain in plant biomass. The present work evaluated whether procyanidins had an impact on the diversity of nontarget microbial communities that are probably involved in soil fertility and ecosystem services. Lettuce plants were grown in two contrasting soils, namely Manziat (a loamy sand soil) and Serail (a sandy clay loam soil) with and without procyanidin amendment. Microbial diversity was assessed using Illumina sequencing of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS regions. We used a functional inference to evaluate the putative microbial functions present in both soils and reconstructed the microbial interaction network. The results showed a segregation of soil microbiomes present in Serail and Manziat that were dependent on specific soil edaphic variables. For example, Deltaproteobacteria was related to total nitrogen content in Manziat, while Leotiomycetes and Firmicutes were linked to Ca2+ in Serail. Procyanidin amendment did not affect the diversity and putative activity of microbial communities. In contrast, microbial interactions differed according to procyanidin amendment, with the results showing an enrichment of Entotheonellaeota and Mucoromycota in Serail soil and of Dependentiae and Rozellomycetes in Manziat soil.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Vanwijnsberghe S, Peeters C, De Ridder E, et al (2021)

Genomic Aromatic Compound Degradation Potential of Novel Paraburkholderia Species: Paraburkholderia domus sp. nov., Paraburkholderia haematera sp. nov. and Paraburkholderia nemoris sp. nov.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(13):.

We performed a taxonomic and comparative genomics analysis of 67 novel Paraburkholderia isolates from forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis of the recA gene revealed that these isolates formed a coherent lineage within the genus Paraburkholderia that also included Paraburkholderiaaspalathi, Paraburkholderiamadseniana, Paraburkholderiasediminicola, Paraburkholderiacaffeinilytica, Paraburkholderiasolitsugae and Paraburkholderiaelongata and four unidentified soil isolates from earlier studies. A phylogenomic analysis, along with orthoANIu and digital DNA-DNA hybridization calculations revealed that they represented four different species including three novel species and P. aspalathi. Functional genome annotation of the strains revealed several pathways for aromatic compound degradation and the presence of mono- and dioxygenases involved in the degradation of the lignin-derived compounds ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. This co-occurrence of multiple Paraburkholderia strains and species with the capacity to degrade aromatic compounds in pristine forest soil is likely caused by the abundant presence of aromatic compounds in decomposing plant litter and may highlight a diversity in micro-habitats or be indicative of synergistic relationships. We propose to classify the isolates representing novel species as Paraburkholderia&nbsp;domus with LMG 31832T (=CECT 30334) as the type strain, Paraburkholderia&nbsp;nemoris with LMG 31836T (=CECT 30335) as the type strain and Paraburkholderia&nbsp;haematera with LMG 31837T (=CECT 30336) as the type strain and provide an emended description of Paraburkholderia sediminicola Lim et al. 2008.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Inui T, Hanley B, Tee ES, et al (2021)

The Role of Micronutrients in Ageing Asia: What Can Be Implemented with the Existing Insights.

Nutrients, 13(7): pii:nu13072222.

Life expectancy as a measure of population health does not reflect years of healthy life. The average life expectancy in the Asia-Pacific region has more than doubled since 1900 and is now above 70 years. In the Asia-Pacific region, the proportion of aged people in the population is expected to double between 2017 and 2050. Increased life expectancy leads to an increase in non-communicable diseases, which consequently affects quality of life. Suboptimal nutritional status is a contributing factor to the prevalence and severity of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular, cognitive, musculoskeletal, immune, metabolic and ophthalmological functions. We have reviewed the published literature on nutrition and healthy ageing as it applies to the Asia-Pacific region, focusing on vitamins, minerals/trace elements and omega-3 fatty acids. Optimal nutritional status needs to start before a senior age is reached and before the consequences of the disease process are irreversible. Based on the nutritional status and health issues in the senior age in the region, micronutrients of particular importance are vitamins A, D, E, C, B-12, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids. The present paper substantiates the creation of micronutrient guidelines and proposes actions to support the achievement of optimal nutritional status as contribution to healthy ageing for Asia-Pacific populations.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Abellan-Schneyder I, Siebert A, Hofmann K, et al (2021)

Full-Length SSU rRNA Gene Sequencing Allows Species-Level Detection of Bacteria, Archaea, and Yeasts Present in Milk.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Full-length SSU rRNA gene sequencing allows species-level identification of the microorganisms present in milk samples. Here, we used bulk-tank raw milk samples of two German dairies and detected, using this method, a great diversity of bacteria, archaea, and yeasts within the samples. Moreover, the species-level classification was improved in comparison to short amplicon sequencing. Therefore, we anticipate that this approach might be useful for the detection of possible mastitis-causing species, as well as for the control of spoilage-associated microorganisms. In a proof of concept, we showed that we were able to identify several putative mastitis-causing or mastitis-associated species such as Streptococcusuberis, Streptococcusagalactiae, Streptococcusdysgalactiae, Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus, as well as several Candida species. Overall, the presented full-length approach for the sequencing of SSU rRNA is easy to conduct, able to be standardized, and allows the screening of microorganisms in labs with Illumina sequencing machines.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Lopes LD, Chai YN, Marsh EL, et al (2021)

Sweet Sorghum Genotypes Tolerant and Sensitive to Nitrogen Stress Select Distinct Root Endosphere and Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

The belowground microbiomes have many beneficial functions that assist plant growth, including nutrient cycling, acquisition and transport, as well as alleviation of stresses caused by nutrient limitations such as nitrogen (N). Here we analyzed the root endosphere, rhizosphere and soil bacterial communities of seven sweet sorghum genotypes differing in sensitivity to N-stress. Sorghum genotypes were grown in fields with no (low-N) or sufficient (high-N) N. The dry shoot weight ratio (low-N/high-N) was used to determine N-stress sensitivity. Our hypothesis was that genotypes tolerant and sensitive to N-stress select distinct bacterial communities. The endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial community structure were significantly different between the N-stress sensitive and tolerant genotypes in the high-N field, but not in the low-N field. However, significant changes in the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa were observed in both fields. Streptomyces, a bacterial genus known to alleviate plant abiotic stresses, was enriched in the endosphere and rhizosphere of the tolerant genotypes in the low-N field. Our study indicates that sweet sorghum genotypes tolerant to N-stress select taxa that can potentially mitigate the N-stress, suggesting that the interactions between N-stress tolerant lines and the root-associated microbiome might be vital for coping with N-stress.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Van Gerrewey T, El-Nakhel C, De Pascale S, et al (2021)

Root-Associated Bacterial Community Shifts in Hydroponic Lettuce Cultured with Urine-Derived Fertilizer.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Recovery of nutrients from source-separated urine can truncate our dependency on synthetic fertilizers, contributing to more sustainable food production. Urine-derived fertilizers have been successfully applied in soilless cultures. However, little is known about the adaptation of the plant to the nutrient environment. This study investigated the impact of urine-derived fertilizers on plant performance and the root-associated bacterial community of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Shoot biomass, chlorophyll, phenolic, antioxidant, and mineral content were associated with shifts in the root-associated bacterial community structures. K-struvite, a high-performing urine-derived fertilizer, supported root-associated bacterial communities that overlapped most strongly with control NPK fertilizer. Contrarily, lettuce performed poorly with electrodialysis (ED) concentrate and hydrolyzed urine and hosted distinct root-associated bacterial communities. Comparing the identified operational taxonomic units (OTU) across the fertilizer conditions revealed strong correlations between specific bacterial genera and the plant physiological characteristics, salinity, and NO3-/NH4+ ratio. The root-associated bacterial community networks of K-struvite and NPK control fertilized plants displayed fewer nodes and node edges, suggesting that good plant growth performance does not require highly complex ecological interactions in hydroponic growth conditions.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Rilling JI, Maruyama F, Sadowsky MJ, et al (2021)

CRISPR loci-PCR as Tool for Tracking Azospirillum sp. Strain B510.

Microorganisms, 9(7): pii:microorganisms9071351.

Azospirillum-based plant and soil inoculants are widely used in agriculture. The inoculated Azospirillum strains are commonly tracked by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, which are time-consuming or expensive. In this context, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci structure is unique in the bacterial genome, including some Azospirillum species. Here, we investigated the use of CRISPR loci to track specific Azospirillum strains in soils systems by PCR. Primer sets for Azospirillum sp. strain B510 were designed and evaluated by colony and endpoint PCR. The CRISPRloci-PCR approach was standardized for Azospirillum sp. strain B510, and its specificity was observed by testing against 9 different Azospirillum strains, and 38 strains of diverse bacterial genera isolated from wheat plants. The CRISPRloci-PCR approach was validated in assays with substrate and wheat seedlings. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 was detected after of two weeks of inoculation in both sterile and nonsterile substrates as well as rhizosphere grown in sterile substrate. The CRISPRloci-PCR approach was found to be a useful molecular tool for specific tracking of Azospirillum at the strain level. This technique can be easily adapted to other microbial inoculants carrying CRISPR loci and can be used to complement other microbiological techniques.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Lai CC, Ko CY, Austria E, et al (2021)

Extreme Weather Events Enhance DOC Consumption in a Subtropical Freshwater Ecosystem: A Multiple-Typhoon Analysis.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Empirical evidence suggests that the frequency/intensity of extreme weather events might increase in a warming climate. It remains unclear how these events quantitatively impact dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a pool approximately equal to CO2 in the atmosphere. This study conducted a weekly-to-biweekly sampling in a deep subtropical reservoir in the typhoon-prevailing season (June to September) from 2004 to 2009, at which 33 typhoons with distinctive precipitation (<1~362 mm d-1) had passed the study site. Our analyses indicated that the phosphate (i.e., DIP; <10~181 nMP) varied positively with the intensity of the accumulated rainfall 2-weeks prior; bacteria growth rate (0.05~3.68 d-1) behaved as a positive function of DIP, and DOC concentrations (54~119 µMC) changed negatively with bacterial production (1.2~26.1 mgC m-3 d-1). These implied that the elevated DIP-loading in the hyperpycnal flow induced by typhoons could fuel bacteria growth and cause a significant decline of DOC concentrations. As the typhoon's intensity increases, many mineral-limited lentic freshwater ecosystems might become more like a CO2 source injecting more CO2 back to the atmosphere, creating a positive feedback loop that might generate severer extreme weather events.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Blanchette ML, MA Lund (2021)

Aquatic Ecosystems of the Anthropocene: Limnology and Microbial Ecology of Mine Pit Lakes.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Mine pit lakes ('pit lakes') are new aquatic ecosystems of the Anthropocene. Potentially hundreds of meters deep, these lakes are prominent in the landscape and in the public consciousness. However, the ecology of pit lakes is underrepresented in the literature. The broad goal of this research was to determine the environmental drivers of pelagic microbe assemblages in Australian coal pit lakes. The overall experimental design was four lakes sampled three times, top and bottom, in 2019. Instrument chains were installed in lakes and measurements of in situ water quality and water samples for metals, metalloids, nutrients and microbe assemblage were collected. Lakes were monomictic and the timing of mixing was influenced by high rainfall events. Water quality and microbial assemblages varied significantly across space and time, and most taxa were rare. Lakes were moderately saline and circumneutral; Archeans were not prevalent. Richness also varied by catchment. Microbial assemblages correlated to environmental variables, and no one variable was consistently significant, spatially or temporally. Study lakes were dominated by 'core' taxa exhibiting temporal turnover likely driven by geography, water quality and interspecific competition, and the presence of water chemistry associated with an artificial aquifer likely influenced microbial community composition. Pit lakes are deceptively complex aquatic ecosystems that host equally complex pelagic microbial communities. This research established links between microbial assemblages and environmental variables in pit lakes and determined core communities; the first steps towards developing a monitoring program using microbes.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Clocchiatti A, Hannula SE, Rizaludin MS, et al (2021)

Impact of Cellulose-Rich Organic Soil Amendments on Growth Dynamics and Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Cellulose-rich amendments stimulate saprotrophic fungi in arable soils. This may increase competitive and antagonistic interactions with root-infecting pathogenic fungi, resulting in lower disease incidence. However, cellulose-rich amendments may also stimulate pathogenic fungi with saprotrophic abilities, thereby increasing plant disease severity. The current study explores these scenarios, with a focus on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Saprotrophic growth of R. solani on cellulose-rich materials was tested in vitro. This confirmed paper pulp as a highly suitable substrate for R. solani, whereas its performance on wood sawdusts varied with tree species. In two pot experiments, the effects of amendment of R. solani-infected soil with cellulose-rich materials on performance of beetroot seedlings were tested. All deciduous sawdusts and paper pulp stimulated soil fungal biomass, but only oak, elder and beech sawdusts reduced damping-off of beetroot. Oak sawdust amendment gave a consistent stimulation of saprotrophic Sordariomycetes fungi and of seedling performance, independently of the time between amendment and sowing. In contrast, paper pulp caused a short-term increase in R. solani abundance, coinciding with increased disease severity for beet seedlings sown immediately after amendment. However, damping-off of beetroot was reduced if plants were sown two or four weeks after paper pulp amendment. Cellulolytic bacteria, including Cytophagaceae, responded to paper pulp during the first two weeks and may have counteracted further spread of R. solani. The results showed that fungus-stimulating, cellulose-rich amendments have potential to be used for suppression of R. solani. However, such amendments require a careful consideration of material choice and application strategy.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Šulčius S, Alzbutas G, Juknevičiūtė V, et al (2021)

Exploring Viral Diversity in a Gypsum Karst Lake Ecosystem Using Targeted Single-Cell Genomics.

Genes, 12(6):.

Little is known about the diversity and distribution of viruses infecting green sulfur bacteria (GSB) thriving in euxinic (sulfuric and anoxic) habitats, including gypsum karst lake ecosystems. In this study, we used targeted cell sorting combined with single-cell sequencing to gain insights into the gene content and genomic potential of viruses infecting sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Chlorobium clathratiforme, obtained from water samples collected during summer stratification in gypsum karst Lake Kirkilai (Lithuania). In total, 82 viral contigs were bioinformatically identified in 62 single amplified genomes (SAGs) of C. clathratiforme. The majority of viral gene and protein sequences showed little to no similarity with phage sequences in public databases, uncovering the vast diversity of previously undescribed GSB viruses. We observed a high level of lysogenization in the C. clathratiforme population, as 87% SAGs contained intact prophages. Among the thirty identified auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), two, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (TST) and thioredoxin-dependent phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase (cysH), were found to be involved in the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds, suggesting that viruses can influence the metabolism and cycling of this essential element. Finally, the analysis of CRISPR spacers retrieved from the consensus C. clathratiforme genome imply persistent and active virus-host interactions for several putative phages prevalent among C. clathratiforme SAGs. Overall, this study provides a glimpse into the diversity of phages associated with naturally occurring and highly abundant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Rizaludin MS, Stopnisek N, Raaijmakers JM, et al (2021)

The Chemistry of Stress: Understanding the 'Cry for Help' of Plant Roots.

Metabolites, 11(6):.

Plants are faced with various biotic and abiotic stresses during their life cycle. To withstand these stresses, plants have evolved adaptive strategies including the production of a wide array of primary and secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites can have direct defensive effects, while others act as chemical cues attracting beneficial (micro)organisms for protection. Similar to aboveground plant tissues, plant roots also appear to have evolved "a cry for help" response upon exposure to stress, leading to the recruitment of beneficial microorganisms to help minimize the damage caused by the stress. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that microbial recruitment to the plant roots is, at least in part, mediated by quantitative and/or qualitative changes in root exudate composition. Both volatile and water-soluble compounds have been implicated as important signals for the recruitment and activation of beneficial root-associated microbes. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of belowground chemical communication, particularly how stressed plants shape its protective root microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Yuan H, Yuan J, You Y, et al (2021)

Simultaneous ammonium and sulfate biotransformation driven by aeration: Nitrogen/sulfur metabolism and metagenome-based microbial ecology.

The Science of the total environment, 794:148650 pii:S0048-9697(21)03722-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The present study aimed to clarify the effect of oxygen respiration on biotransformation of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) underlying the simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate in a single aerated sequencing batch reactor. Complete nitrification was achieved in feast condition, while denitrification was carried out in both feast and famine conditions when aeration intensity (AI) was higher than 0.22 L/(L·min). Reactors R1 [0.56 L/(L·min)], R2 [0.22 L/(L·min)], and R3 [0.08 L/(L·min)] achieved 72.39% sulfate removal efficiency in feast condition, but H2S release occurred in R3. Following exogenous substrate depletion, sulfate concentration increased again and exceeded the influent value in R1, indicating that sulfate transformation was affected by oxygen intrusion. Metagenomic analysis showed that a higher AI promoted sulfate reduction by switching from dissimilatory to assimilatory pathway. Lower AI-acclimated microorganisms (R3) produced H2S and ammonium, while higher AI-acclimated microorganisms (R1) accumulated nitrite, which confirmed that biotransformation of N and S was strongly regulated by redox imbalance driven by aeration. This implied that respiration control, a microbial self-regulation mechanism, was linked to the dynamic imbalance between electron donors and electron acceptors. Aerobic nitrate (sulfate) reduction, as one of the effects of respiration control, could be used as an alternative strategy to compensate for dynamic imbalance, when supported by efficient endogenous metabolism. Moderate aeration induced microorganisms to change their energy conservation and survival strategy through respiration control and inter-genus protection of respiratory activity among keystone taxa (including Azoarcus in R1, Thauera in R2, and Thiobacillus, Ottowia, and Geoalkalibacter in R3) to form an optimal niche in response to oxygen intrusion and achieve benign biotransformation of C, N, and S without toxic intermediate accumulation. This study clarified the biotransformation mechanism of ammonium and sulfate driven by aeration and provided theoretical guidance for optimizing existing aeration-based techniques.

RevDate: 2021-07-01

McGirr S, Clarke D, Kilcoyne J, et al (2021)

Co-localisation of Azaspiracid Analogs with the Dinoflagellate Species Azadinium spinosum and Amphidoma languida in the Southwest of Ireland.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Phytoplankton and biotoxin monitoring programmes have been implemented in many countries to protect human health and to mitigate the impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on the aquaculture industry. Several amphidomatacean species have been confirmed in Irish coastal waters, including the azaspiracid-producing species Azadinium spinosum and Amphidoma languida. Biogeographic distribution studies have been hampered by the fact that these small, armoured dinoflagellates share remarkably similar morphologies when observed by light microscopy. The recent releases of species-specific molecular detection assays have, in this context, been welcome developments. A survey of the south west and west coasts of Ireland was carried out in August 2017 to investigate the late summer distribution of toxic amphidomataceans and azaspiracid toxins. Azadinium spinosum and Am. languida were detected in 83% of samples in the southwest along the Crease Line and Bantry Bay transects between 20 and 70 m depth, with maximal cell concentrations of 7000 and 470,000 cells/L, respectively. Azaspiracid concentrations were well aligned with the distributions of Az. spinosum and Am. languida, up to 1.1 ng/L and 4.9 ng/L for combined AZA-1, -2, -33, and combined AZA-38, -39, respectively. Although a snapshot in time, this survey provides new insights in the late summer prominence of AZAs and AZA-producing species in the southwest of Ireland, where major shellfish aquaculture operations are located. Results showed a substantial overlap in the distribution of amphidomatacean species in the area and provide valuable baseline information in the context of ongoing monitoring efforts of toxigenic amphidomataceans in the region.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Vadaq N, Schirmer M, Tunjungputri RN, et al (2021)

Untargeted plasma metabolome and gut microbiome profiling provide novel insights in the regulation of platelet reactivity in healthy individuals.

Thrombosis and haemostasis [Epub ahead of print].

Background Considerable variation exists in platelet reactivity to stimulation among healthy individuals. Various metabolites and metabolic pathways influence platelet reactivity, but a comprehensive overview of these associations is missing. The gut microbiome has a strong influence on the plasma metabolome. Here, we investigated the association of platelet reactivity with results of untargeted plasma metabolomics and gut microbiome profiling. Methods We used data of a cohort of 534 healthy adult Dutch volunteers (500FG study).Platelet activation and reactivity were measured by the expression of the alpha-granule protein P-selectin and the binding of fibrinogen to the activated integrin αIIbβ3, both in unstimulated blood as well as after ex vivo stimulation with platelet agonists. Plasma metabolome was measured using an untargeted metabolic profiling approach by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Gut microbiome data were measured by shotgun metagenomic sequencing from stool samples. Results Untargeted metabolomics yielded 1979 metabolites, of which 422 were identified to play a role in a human metabolic pathway. Overall, 92/422 (21.8%) metabolites were significantly associated with at least one readout of platelet reactivity. The majority of associations involved lipids, especially members of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Dietary-derived polyphenols were also found to inhibit platelet reactivity. Validation of metabolic pathways with functional microbial profiles revealed two overlapping metabolic pathways ('alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism' and 'arginine biosynthesis') that were associated with platelet reactivity. Conclusions This comprehensive overview is an important resource for understanding the regulation of platelet reactivity by the plasma metabolome and the possible contribution of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Li P, Li K, Xu P, et al (2021)

Treatment of wastewater with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio using a waterfall aeration biofilm reactor combined with sequencing batch reactor: Microbial community structure and metabolism analysis.

Bioresource technology, 337:125450 pii:S0960-8524(21)00790-2 [Epub ahead of print].

A low-cost and high-efficiency waterfall aeration biofilm reactor (WABR) combined with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was established to treat wastewater with a C/N ratio of 50. Three WABR-SBR systems with different fillers were used. In the stable operation phase, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand was R1 (approximately 99%), R2 (97-99%), and R3 (96-99%); the effluent concentration of NH4+-N was 0.5 mg/L without nitrite or nitrate accumulation. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the dominant phyla in the microbial community structure were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify the nitrification and denitrification gene expressions (Nitrobacter, nirS, and nirK) to evaluate the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes. Both anammox and denitrifying bacteria were abundant. Metagenomic annotation of genes that revealed the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and the two dominant enzymes (GH and GT) provide valuable information for microbial ecology analysis.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Paolinelli M, Escoriaza G, Cesari C, et al (2021)

Characterization of Grapevine Wood Microbiome Through a Metatranscriptomic Approach.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Grapevine trunk diseases threaten wine and table grape production worldwide, primarily by reducing yields and, in its advanced stages, causing plant death. Among those diseases, the complex etiology disease known as hoja de malvón (HDM) significantly concerns Argentinian and Uruguayan viticulture. At least four different fungi are associated with this disease, but their role and interactions with other wood microorganisms are understudied. In this sense, analyzing grapevine wood microbiome composition could help understand microbial interactions occurring in HDM onset. Hence, a metatranscriptomic study was performed for the microbiome characterization of mature field-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec, leaf-symptomatic or leaf-asymptomatic. The microbiome was mainly represented by Dothideomycetes and Actinobacteria. In the plant with more marked symptoms, higher levels of the Basidiomycota Arambarria destruens and Phellinus laevigatus were detected. Despite this particular difference, discriminating symptomatic from asymptomatic plants based on the presence or abundance of HDM pathogens was not possible. Alpha diversity and rank-abundance curve analyses indicated that plants with foliar symptoms have lower microbial evenness than asymptomatic plants. The co-occurrence network modeled microbial interkingdom interactions. Molecular data generated in this study will help develop future targeted molecular quantification for specific taxa.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Sadiq FA, Wenwei L, Heyndrickx M, et al (2021)

Synergistic interactions prevail in multispecies biofilms formed by the human gut microbiota on mucin.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6311811 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial species in the human gut predominantly exist in the form of mixed-species biofilms on mucosal surfaces. In this study, the biofilm-forming ability of many human gut bacterial strains (133 strains recovered from human faeces) on mucin-coated and non-coated polystyrene surfaces was determined. A significant variation (P < 0.05) in the biofilm-forming ability of many bacterial species on both surfaces was noticed. Based on some preliminary trials, four bacterial species were selected (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Parabacteroides distasonis, and Bacteroides ovatus), which could not form any abundant biofilm individually under the in vitro conditions investigated, but produced abundant biofilms when co-cultured in different combinations of two, three, and four species, giving an evidence of synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilm formation. There was a 4.74-fold increase in the biofilm mass when all strains developed a biofilm together. Strain-specific qPCR analysis showed that B. bifidum was the most dominant species (56%) in the four-species biofilm after 24 h, followed by B. longum subsp. infantis (36.2%). Study involving cell free supernatant of the cooperating strains showed that cell viability as well as physical presence of cooperating cells were prerequisites for the observed synergy in biofilms. The molecular mechanism behind these interactions and subsequent effects on the functionality of the strains involved were not determined in our study but merit further work.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Barnes EM, Kutos S, Naghshineh N, et al (2021)

Assembly of the amphibian microbiome is influenced by the effects of land-use change on environmental reservoirs.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

A growing focus in microbial ecology is understanding how beneficial microbiome function is created and maintained through various assembly mechanisms. This study explores the role of both the environment and disease in regulating the composition of microbial species in the soil and on amphibian hosts. We compared the microbial communities of Plethodon cinereus salamanders along a land-use gradient in the New York metropolitan area and paired these with associated soil cores. Additionally, we characterized the diversity of bacterial and fungal symbionts that putatively inhibit the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We predicted that variation in skin microbial community composition would correlate with changes seen in the soil which functions as the regional species pool. We found that salamanders and soil share many microbial taxa but that these two communities exhibit differences in the relative abundances of the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria and the fungal phyla Ascomycota and genus Basidiobolus. Microbial community composition varies with changes in land-use associated factors creating site-specific compositions. By employing a quantitative, null-based assembly model, we identified that dispersal limitation, variable selection, and drift guide assembly of microbes onto their skin, creating high dissimilarity between individuals with likely consequences in disease preventative function.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Duysburgh C, Van den Abbeele P, Morera M, et al (2021)

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii supplementation exert protective effects on human gut microbiome following antibiotic administration in vitro.

Beneficial microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of the microbial community has been associated with several gastrointestinal symptoms. The impact of repeated administration of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (CNCM-I-4798) (formerly known as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (CNCM-I-1079) and their combination (associated in Smebiocta/Smectaflora Protect®) in supporting recovery of gut microbiota functionality and composition during and following amoxicillin:clavulanic acid administration was evaluated in vitro. Antibiotic dosage negatively affected SCFA production, coinciding with detrimental effects on Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Bifidobacterium spp. in the simulated proximal colon, while Akkermansia muciniphila was significantly reduced in the distal colon. L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii were able to thrive in both colon regions upon dosing, with S. boulardii even showing protective effects on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG during antibiotic administration. The impact of the probiotic strains on microbiome recovery revealed that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG and/or S. boulardii resulted in a stimulating effect on the most abundant bacterial groups within the bacterial community of each donor. For one of the donors tested, co-dosing of L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii resulted in superior short-chain fatty acid recovery accompanied by a stronger increase in abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae. Overall, the current study provides first evidence that combined supplementation of L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii might be an interesting candidate in limiting detrimental effects of amoxicillin:clavulanic acid on the human gut microbiome, though further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Wang X, Shang Y, Wei Q, et al (2021)

Comparative Analyses of the Gut Microbiome of Two Fox Species, the Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) and Corsac Fox (Vulpes Corsac), that Occupy Different Ecological Niches.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is integral for the host's living and environmental adaptation and crucially important for understanding host adaptive mechanisms. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dominates a wider ecological niche and more complicated habitat than that of the corsac fox (V. corsac). However, the adaptive mechanisms (in particular, the gut microbiome responsible for this kind of difference) are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the gut microbiome of these two species in the Hulunbuir grassland, China, and evaluated their microbiome composition, function, and adaptive mechanisms. We profiled the gut microbiome and metabolism function of red and corsac foxes via 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequencing. The foxes harbored species-specific microbiomes and functions that were related to ecological niche and habitat. The red fox had abundant Bacteroides, which leads to significant enrichment of metabolic pathways (K12373 and K21572) and enzymes related to chitin and carbohydrate degradation that may help the red fox adapt to a wider niche. The corsac fox harbored large proportions of Blautia, Terrisporobacter, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (K01990, K02003, and K06147) that can help maintain corsac fox health, allowing it to live in harsh habitats. These results indicate that the gut microbiome of the red and corsac foxes may have different abilities which may provide these species with differing capabilities to adapt to different ecological niches and habitats, thus providing important microbiome data for understanding the mechanisms of host adaptation to different niches and habitats.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Jiao S, Zhang B, Zhang G, et al (2021)

Stochastic community assembly decreases soil fungal richness in arid ecosystems.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Uncovering the linkages between community assembly and species diversity is a fundamental issue in microbial ecology. In this study, a large-scale (transect intervals of 1257.6 km) cross-biome soil survey was conducted, which ranged over agricultural fields, forests, wetlands, grasslands and desert, in the arid regions of northwest China. The aim was to investigate the biogeographic distribution, community assembly and species co-occurrence of soil fungi. The fungal communities in agricultural soils exhibited a steeper distance-decay slope and wider niche breadths, and were more strongly affected by stochastic assembly processes, than fungi in other natural habitats. A strong relationship was revealed between soil fungal richness and community assembly in arid ecosystems, with the influence of stochastic assembly processes decreasing with increasing fungal richness. Moreover, aridity was the most important environmental factor influencing fungal richness, β-diversity and species co-occurrence patterns. Specifically, the predicted increase in arid conditions will probably reduce fungal richness and network complexity. These findings represent a considerable advance in linking fungal richness to mechanisms underlying the biogeographic patterns and assembly processes of fungal communities in arid ecosystems. These results can thus be used to forecast species co-occurrence and diversities pattern of soil fungi under climate aridity and land-use change scenarios.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Savoie ER, Lanclos VC, Henson MW, et al (2021)

Ecophysiology of the Cosmopolitan OM252 Bacterioplankton (Gammaproteobacteria).

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Among the thousands of species that comprise marine bacterioplankton communities, most remain functionally obscure. One key cosmopolitan group in this understudied majority is the OM252 clade of Gammaproteobacteria. Although frequently found in sequence data and even previously cultured, the diversity, metabolic potential, physiology, and distribution of this clade has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined these features of OM252 bacterioplankton using a newly isolated strain and genomes from publicly available databases. We demonstrated that this group constitutes a globally distributed novel genus ("Candidatus Halomarinus"), sister to Litoricola, comprising two subclades and multiple distinct species. OM252 organisms have small genomes (median, 2.21 Mbp) and are predicted obligate aerobes capable of alternating between chemoorganoheterotrophic and chemolithotrophic growth using reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors. Subclade I genomes encode genes for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for carbon fixation. One representative strain of subclade I, LSUCC0096, had extensive halotolerance and a mesophilic temperature range for growth, with a maximum rate of 0.36 doublings/h at 35°C. Cells were curved rod/spirillum-shaped, ∼1.5 by 0.2 μm. Growth yield on thiosulfate as the sole electron donor under autotrophic conditions was roughly one-third that of heterotrophic growth, even though calculations indicated similar Gibbs energies for both catabolisms. These phenotypic data show that some "Ca. Halomarinus" organisms can switch between serving as carbon sources or sinks and indicate the likely anabolic cost of lithoautotrophic growth. Our results thus provide new hypotheses about the roles of these organisms in global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulfur. IMPORTANCE Marine microbial communities are teeming with understudied taxa due to the sheer numbers of species in any given sample of seawater. One group, the OM252 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, has been identified in gene surveys from myriad locations, and one isolated organism has even been genome sequenced (HIMB30). However, further study of these organisms has not occurred. Using another isolated representative (strain LSUCC0096) and publicly available genome sequences from metagenomic and single-cell genomic data sets, we examined the diversity within the OM252 clade and the distribution of these taxa in the world's oceans, reconstructed the predicted metabolism of the group, and quantified growth dynamics in LSUCC0096. Our results generate new knowledge about the previously enigmatic OM252 clade and point toward the importance of facultative chemolithoautotrophy for supporting some clades of ostensibly "heterotrophic" taxa.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Murareanu BM, Sukhdeo R, Qu R, et al (2021)

Generation of a Microsporidia Species Attribute Database and Analysis of the Extensive Ecological and Phenotypic Diversity of Microsporidia.

mBio, 12(3):e0149021.

Microsporidia are a large group of fungus-related obligate intracellular parasites. Though many microsporidia species have been identified over the past 160 years, depiction of the full diversity of this phylum is lacking. To systematically describe the characteristics of these parasites, we created a database of 1,440 species and their attributes, including the hosts they infect and spore characteristics. We find that microsporidia have been reported to infect 16 metazoan and 4 protozoan phyla, with smaller phyla being underrepresented. Most species are reported to infect only a single host, but those that are generalists are also more likely to infect a broader set of host tissues. Strikingly, polar tubes are threefold longer in species that infect tissues besides the intestine, suggesting that polar tube length is a determinant of tissue specificity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades which each contain microsporidia that infect hosts from all major habitats. Although related species are more likely to infect similar hosts, we observe examples of changes in host specificity and convergent evolution. Taken together, our results show that microsporidia display vast diversity in their morphology and the hosts they infect, illustrating the flexibility of these parasites to evolve new traits. IMPORTANCE Microsporidia are a large group of parasites that cause death and disease in humans and many agriculturally important animal species. To fully understand the diverse properties of these parasites, we curated species reports from the last 160 years. Using these data, we describe when and where microsporidia were identified and what types of animals and host tissues these parasites infect. Microsporidia infect hosts using a conserved apparatus known as the polar tube. We observe that the length of this tube is correlated with the tissues that are being infected, suggesting that the polar tube controls where within the animals that the parasite infects. Finally, we show that microsporidia species often exist in multiple environments and are flexible in their ability to evolve new traits. Our study provides insight into the ecology and evolution of microsporidia and provides a useful resource to further understand these fascinating parasites.

RevDate: 2021-07-01

Suleiman M, Choffat Y, Daugaard U, et al (2021)

Large and interacting effects of temperature and nutrient addition on stratified microbial ecosystems in a small, replicated, and liquid-dominated Winogradsky column approach.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(3):e1189.

Aquatic ecosystems are often stratified, with cyanobacteria in oxic layers and phototrophic sulfur bacteria in anoxic zones. Changes in stratification caused by the global environmental change are an ongoing concern. Increasing understanding of how such aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities, and associated abiotic conditions, respond to multifarious environmental changes is an important endeavor in microbial ecology. Insights can come from observational and experimental studies of naturally occurring stratified aquatic ecosystems, theoretical models of ecological processes, and experimental studies of replicated microbial communities in the laboratory. Here, we demonstrate a laboratory-based approach with small, replicated, and liquid-dominated Winogradsky columns, with distinct oxic/anoxic strata in a highly replicable manner. Our objective was to apply simultaneous global change scenarios (temperature, nutrient addition) on this micro-ecosystem to report how the microbial communities (full-length 16S rRNA gene seq.) and the abiotic conditions (O2 , H2 S, TOC) of the oxic/anoxic layer responded to these environmental changes. The composition of the strongly stratified microbial communities was greatly affected by temperature and by the interaction of temperature and nutrient addition, demonstrating the need of investigating global change treatments simultaneously. Especially phototrophic sulfur bacteria dominated the water column at higher temperatures and may indicate the presence of alternative stable states. We show that the establishment of such a micro-ecosystem has the potential to test global change scenarios in stratified eutrophic limnic systems.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Hoogenkamp MA, Brandt BW, Laheij AMGA, et al (2021)

16S rDNA sequencing and metadata of Dutch dental unit water.

Data in brief, 37:107221.

Dental practices were approached to fill out a questionnaire on the infection control protocols in use to control biofilm growth in the dental unit and to send two types of water sample. Sampling of the dental units had to be performed prior to any infection control measures and on the second day of operation, to avoid residual effects of biofilm disinfection protocols performed in the weekend. Instructions were given on how to sample the units. Only samples, accompanied with a completed questionnaire and returned within two days by regular mail, were analysed. Samples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, 16S (V4) rDNA microbiome sequencing and q-PCR for the concentration of bacterial 16S rDNA, fungal 18S rDNA, Legionella spp. and the presence of amoeba. The files contain the metadata needed to interpret and analyse the microbiome data. This dataset can be used by other scientists, members of infection control units, (trainee) bioinformaticians and policy makers. This dataset can provide leads to further unexplored parameters which could influence the microbial ecology of the dental unit.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Tláskal V, Pylro VS, Žifčáková L, et al (2021)

Ecological Divergence Within the Enterobacterial Genus Sodalis: From Insect Symbionts to Inhabitants of Decomposing Deadwood.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:668644.

The bacterial genus Sodalis is represented by insect endosymbionts as well as free-living species. While the former have been studied frequently, the distribution of the latter is not yet clear. Here, we present a description of a free-living strain, Sodalis ligni sp. nov., originating from decomposing deadwood. The favored occurrence of S. ligni in deadwood is confirmed by both 16S rRNA gene distribution and metagenome data. Pangenome analysis of available Sodalis genomes shows at least three groups within the Sodalis genus: deadwood-associated strains, tsetse fly endosymbionts and endosymbionts of other insects. This differentiation is consistent in terms of the gene frequency level, genome similarity and carbohydrate-active enzyme composition of the genomes. Deadwood-associated strains contain genes for active decomposition of biopolymers of plant and fungal origin and can utilize more diverse carbon sources than their symbiotic relatives. Deadwood-associated strains, but not other Sodalis strains, have the genetic potential to fix N2, and the corresponding genes are expressed in deadwood. Nitrogenase genes are located within the genomes of Sodalis, including S. ligni, at multiple loci represented by more gene variants. We show decomposing wood to be a previously undescribed habitat of the genus Sodalis that appears to show striking ecological divergence.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Selari PJRG, Olchanheski LR, Ferreira AJ, et al (2021)

Short-Term Effect in Soil Microbial Community of Two Strategies of Recovering Degraded Area in Brazilian Savanna: A Pilot Case Study.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:661410.

The Brazilian Cerrado is a highland tropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot with many endemic species of plants and animals. Over the years, most of the native areas of this biome became arable areas, and with inadequate management, some are nowadays at varying levels of degradation stage. Crop-livestock integrated systems (CLIS) are one option for the recovery of areas in degradation, improving the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the soil while increasing income and mitigating risks due to product diversification. Little is known about the effect of CLIS on the soil microbial community. Therefore, we perform this pilot case study to support further research on recovering degraded areas. The bacterial and fungal soil communities in the area with CLIS were compared to an area under moderate recovery (low-input recovering - LI) and native savanna (NS) area. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by 16S and ITS rRNA gene sequencing (deep rRNA sequencing). Ktedonobacteraceae and AD3 families were found predominantly in LI, confirming the relationship of the members of the Chloroflexi phylum in challenging environmental conditions, which can be evidenced in LI. The CLIS soil presented 63 exclusive bacterial families that were not found in LI or NS and presented a higher bacterial richness, which can be related to good land management. The NS area shared 21 and 6 families with CLIS and LI, respectively, suggesting that the intervention method used in the analyzed period brings microbial diversity closer to the conditions of the native area, demonstrating a trend of approximation between NS and CLIS even in the short term. The most abundant fungal phylum in NS treatment was Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota, whereas Ascomycota predominated in CLIS and LI. The fungal community needs more time to recover and to approximate from the native area than the bacterial community. However, according to the analysis of bacteria, the CLIS area behaved differently from the LI area, showing that this treatment induces a faster response to the increase in species richness, tending to more accelerated recovery. Results obtained herein encourage CLIS as a sustainable alternative for recovery and production in degraded areas.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Zhang W, Zhang YC, Wang ZG, et al (2021)

The Diversity of Viral Community in Invasive Fruit Flies (Bactrocera and Zeugodacus) Revealed by Meta-transcriptomics.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

RNA viruses are extremely diverse and rapidly evolving in various organisms. Our knowledge on viral evolution with interacted hosts in the manner of ecology is still limited. In the agricultural ecosystem, invasive insect species are posing a great threat to sustainable crop production. Among them, fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae Bactrocera and Zeugodacus) are destructive to fruits and vegetables, which are also closely related and often share similar ecological niches. Thus, they are ideal models for investigating RNA virome dynamics in host species. Using meta-transcriptomics, we found 39 viral sequences in samples from 12 fly species. These viral species represented the diversity of the viromes including Dicistroviridae, negev-like virus clades, Thika virus clades, Solemoviridae, Narnaviridae, Nodaviridae, Iflaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Bunyavirales, Partitiviridae, and Reoviridae. In particular, dicistrovirus, negev-like virus, orthomyxovirus, and orbivirus were common in over four of the fly species, which suggests a positive interaction between fly viromes that exist under the same ecological conditions. For most of the viruses, the virus-derived small RNAs displayed significantly high peaks in 21 nt and were symmetrically distributed throughout the viral genome. These results suggest that infection by these viruses can activate the host's RNAi immunity. Our study provides RNA virome diversity and evidence on their infection activity in ecologically associated invasive fruit fly species, which could help our understanding of interactions between complex species and viruses.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Mamet SD, Jimmo A, Conway A, et al (2021)

Soil Buffering Capacity Can Be Used To Optimize Biostimulation of Psychrotrophic Hydrocarbon Remediation.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Effective bioremediation of hydrocarbons requires innovative approaches to minimize phosphate precipitation in soils of different buffering capacities. Understanding the mechanisms underlying sustained stimulation of bacterial activity remains a key challenge for optimizing bioremediation-particularly in northern regions. Positron emission tomography (PET) can trace microbial activity within the naturally occurring soil structure of intact soils. Here, we use PET to test two hypotheses: (1) optimizing phosphate bioavailability in soil will outperform a generic biostimulatory solution in promoting hydrocarbon remediation and (2) oligotrophic biostimulation will be more effective than eutrophic approaches. In so doing, we highlight the key bacterial taxa that underlie aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in subarctic soils. In particular, we showed that (i) optimized phosphate bioavailability outperformed generic biostimulatory solutions in promoting hydrocarbon degradation, (ii) oligotrophic biostimulation is more effective than eutrophic approaches, and (iii) optimized biostimulatory solutions stimulated specific soil regions and bacterial consortia. The knowledge gleaned from this study will be crucial in developing field-scale biodegradation treatments for sustained stimulation of bacterial activity in northern regions.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Cobo-Díaz JF, Legrand F, Le Floch G, et al (2021)

Influence of Maize Residues in Shaping Soil Microbiota and Fusarium spp. Communities.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small grain cereals including wheat. Causal fungal agents colonize various components of the field during their life cycle including previous crop residues, soil, and grains. Although soil and residues constitute the main inoculum source, these components have received much less attention than grains. This study aimed at disentangling the role of previous crop residues in shaping soil microbiota, including Fusarium spp. communities, in fields under wheat-maize rotation. Such knowledge may contribute to better understand the complex interactions between Fusarium spp. and soil microbiota. Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities, with a special focus on Fusarium spp., were monitored in soils at 3 time points: during wheat cultivation (April 2015 and 2017) and after maize harvest (November 2016) and in maize residues taken from fields after harvest. Shifts in microbiota were also evaluated under mesocosm experiments using soils amended with maize residues. Fusarium graminearum and F. avenaceum were predominant on maize residues but did not remain in soils during wheat cultivation. Differences in soil bacterial diversity and compositions among years were much lower than variation between fields, suggesting that bacterial communities are field-specific and more conserved over time. In contrast, soil fungal diversity and compositions were more influenced by sampling time. Maize residues, left after harvest, led to a soil enrichment with several fungal genera, including Epicoccum, Fusarium, Vishniacozyma, Papiliotrema, Sarocladium, Xenobotryosphaeria, Ramularia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, and Bullera, but not with bacterial genera. Likewise, under mesocosm conditions, the addition of maize residues had a stronger influence on fungal communities than on bacterial communities. In particular, addition of maize significantly increased soil fungal richness, while bacteria were much less prone to changes. Based on co-occurrence networks, OTUs negatively correlated to Fusarium spp. were identified, such as those assigned to Epicoccum and Vishniacozyma. Altogether, our results allowed to gain a deeper insight into the complex microbiota interactions in soils, with bacteria and fungi responding differently to environmental disturbances.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Djemai K, Drancourt M, M Tidjani Alou (2021)

Bacteria and Methanogens in the Human Microbiome: a Review of Syntrophic Interactions.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Methanogens are microorganisms belonging to the Archaea domain and represent the primary source of biotic methane. Methanogens encode a series of enzymes which can convert secondary substrates into methane following three major methanogenesis pathways. Initially recognized as environmental microorganisms, methanogens have more recently been acknowledged as host-associated microorganisms after their detection and initial isolation in ruminants in the 1950s. Methanogens have also been co-detected with bacteria in various pathological situations, bringing their role as pathogens into question. Here, we review reported associations between methanogens and bacteria in physiological and pathological situations in order to understand the metabolic interactions explaining these associations. To do so, we describe the origin of the metabolites used for methanogenesis and highlight the central role of methanogens in the syntrophic process during carbon cycling. We then focus on the metabolic abilities of co-detected bacterial species described in the literature and infer from their genomes the probable mechanisms of their association with methanogens. The syntrophic interactions between bacteria and methanogens are paramount to gut homeostasis. Therefore, any dysbiosis affecting methanogens might impact human health. Thus, the monitoring of methanogens may be used as a bio-indicator of dysbiosis. Moreover, new therapeutic approaches can be developed based on their administration as probiotics. We thus insist on the importance of investigating methanogens in clinical microbiology.

RevDate: 2021-07-03

Gan L, Xu WH, Xiong Y, et al (2021)

Probiotics: their action against pathogens can be turned around.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13247.

Probiotics when applied in complex evolving (micro-)ecosystems, might be selectively beneficial or detrimental to pathogens when their prophylactic efficacies are prone to ambient interactions. Here, we document a counter-intuitive phenomenon that probiotic-treated zebrafish (Danio rerio) were respectively healthy at higher but succumbed at lower level of challenge with a pathogenic Vibrio isolate. This was confirmed by prominent dissimilarities in fish survival and histology. Based upon the profiling of the zebrafish microbiome, and the probiotic and the pathogen shared gene orthogroups (genetic niche overlaps in genomes), this consequently might have modified the probiotic metabolome as well as the virulence of the pathogen. Although it did not reshuffle the architecture of the commensal microbiome of the vertebrate host, it might have altered the probiotic-pathogen inter-genus and intra-species communications. Such in-depth analyses are needed to avoid counteractive phenomena of probiotics and to optimise their efficacies to magnify human and animal well-being. Moreover, such studies will be valuable to improve the relevant guidelines published by organisations such as FAO, OIE and WHO.

RevDate: 2021-07-04

Qian X, Gunturu S, Sun W, et al (2021)

Long-read sequencing revealed cooccurrence, host range, and potential mobility of antibiotic resistome in cow feces.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(25):.

While it is well recognized that the environmental resistome is global, diverse, and augmented by human activities, it has been difficult to assess risk because of the inability to culture many environmental organisms, and it is difficult to evaluate risk from current sequence-based environmental methods. The four most important criteria to determine risk are whether the antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are a complete, potentially functional complement; if they are linked with other resistances; whether they are mobile; and the identity of their host. Long-read sequencing fills this important gap between culture and short sequence-based methods. To address these criteria, we collected feces from a ceftiofur-treated cow, enriched the samples in the presence of antibiotics to favor ARG functionality, and sequenced long reads using Nanopore and PacBio technologies. Multidrug-resistance genes comprised 58% of resistome abundance, but only 0.8% of them were plasmid associated; fluroquinolone-, aminoglycoside-, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS)-, and β-lactam-resistance genes accounted for 2.7 to 12.3% of resistome abundance but with 19 to 78% located on plasmids. A variety of plasmid types were assembled, some of which share low similarity to plasmids in current databases. Enterobacteriaceae were dominant hosts of antibiotic-resistant plasmids; physical linkage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (CTX-M, TEM, CMY, and CARB) was largely found with aminoglycoside-, MLS-, tetracycline-, trimethoprim-, phenicol-, sulfonamide-, and mercury-resistance genes. A draft circular chromosome of Vagococcus lutrae was assembled; it carries MLS-, tetracycline- (including tetM and tetL on an integrative conjugative element), and trimethoprim-resistance genes flanked by many transposase genes and insertion sequences, implying that they remain transferrable.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )