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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Sep 2022 at 02:00 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-09-24

White MG, JA Wargo (2022)

The Microbiome in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Gastroenterology clinics of North America, 51(3):667-680.

The human microbiome has been recognized as increasingly important to health and disease. This is especially prescient in the development of various cancers, their progression, and the microbiome's modulation of various anticancer therapeutics. Mechanisms behind these interactions have been increasingly well described through modulation of the host immune system as well as induction of genetic changes and local inactivation of cancer therapeutics. Here, we review these associations for a variety of gastrointestinal malignancies as well as contemporary strategies proposed to leverage these associations to improve cancer treatment outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Dedousis N, Teng L, Kanshana JS, et al (2022)

A single-day mouse mesenteric lymph surgery in mice: an updated approach to study dietary lipid absorption, chylomicron secretion, and lymphocyte dynamics.

Journal of lipid research pii:S0022-2275(22)00117-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The intestine plays a crucial role in regulating whole-body lipid metabolism through its unique function of absorbing dietary fat. In the small intestine, absorptive epithelial cells emulsify hydrophobic dietary triglycerides (TAG) prior to secreting them into mesenteric lymphatic vessels as chylomicrons. Except for short- and medium-chain fatty acids, which are directly absorbed from the intestinal lumen into portal vasculature, the only way for an animal to absorb dietary TAG is through the chylomicron/mesenteric lymphatic pathway. Isolating intestinal lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, is extremely difficult in vivo because of the dilution of post-prandial lymph in the peripheral blood. In addition, once post-prandial lymph enters the circulation, chylomicron TAG are rapidly hydrolyzed. To enhance isolation of large quantities of pure, post-prandial chylomicrons, we have modified the Tso group's highly reproducible, gold-standard double-cannulation technique in rats to enable single day surgery and lymph collection in mice. Our technique has a significantly higher survival rate than the traditional 2-day surgical model and allows for the collection of greater than 400 μl of chylous lymph with high post-prandial TAG concentrations. Using this approach, we show that after an intraduodenal lipid bolus, the mesenteric lymph contains naïve CD4+ T cell populations which can be quantified by flow cytometry. In conclusion, this experimental approach represents a quantitative tool for determining dietary lipid absorption, intestinal lipoprotein dynamics, and mesenteric immunity. Our model may also be a powerful tool for studies of antigens, the microbiome, pharmacokinetics, and dietary compound absorption.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Zhang Y, Huang H, Zhan J, et al (2022)

Indigenous rhizosphere microbial community characteristics of the phytostabilizer Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in a Pb/Zn mine tailing.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)03045-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant rhizosphere microbiome usually changes dramatically in adaptation to the mine environment to endure high heavy metal concentration, which in turn improves the process of revegetation and phytostabilization of mine tailing and deserves deep investigation. A field study was conducted to investigate the indigenous microbial community of a mining ecotype (ME) of the phytostabilizer Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in a Pb/Zn mine tailing and a corresponding non-mining ecotype (NME) grown in an uncontaminated adjacent site. Our study found a slight difference in microbial α-diversity between the ME and NME, and no significant difference between the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Both bacterial and fungal community compositions differed between the ME and NME, for which the differences were mainly driven by pH and metal contaminants. The ME harbored a unique microbial community in the rhizosphere soils different from the bulk soil and NME counterparts. The dominant phyla in the ME rhizosphere were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Ascomycota. Several genera from Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Ascomycota were more abundant in the ME rhizosphere than in the NME rhizosphere. Network analysis revealed that keystone taxa were different in the two sites. Some keystone taxa from Gemmatimonadaceae, and Burkholderiaceae and Ascomycota played a critical role in microbial interactions within the mine tailing network. The unique microbial community with high tolerance in the rhizosphere soils of ME may show great benefit for plant growth and metal tolerance of the ME and thereby contributing to the process of revegetation and phytostabilization of mine tailings.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

He X, Yan C, Zhao S, et al (2022)

The preventive effects of probiotic Akkermansia muciniphila on D-galactose/AlCl3 mediated Alzheimer's disease-like rats.

Experimental gerontology pii:S0531-5565(22)00267-4 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: We induced the AD-like rat models injected by AlCl3 and D-galactose, to explore the effects of an oral treatment of A. muciniphila on AD-like rats with periodontitis and its possible mechanism.

MAIN METHODS: Use Morris water maze test and micro-CT to assess the cognitive impairment and bone loss; Aβ1-42 deposition was tested by IHC; Serum LPS level and TG, HDL-C and AST/ALT levels were detected by LAL Test and biochemical tests; The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequence.

KEY FINDINGS: We found that A. muciniphila could alleviate AD-like rats' cognitive impairment and mitigated ligature-induced periodontitis. Furthermore, A. muciniphila reduced Aβ1-42 deposition in the cortex and regions of the rats' brain, and had nearly little ability to change circulating LPS level and cross the blood-brain barrier but altered TG, HDL-C and AST/ALT levels. Notably, A. muciniphila treatment could improve the abundance of some short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing or neurotransmitter-producing gut microbiome such as Blautia, Staphylococcus and Lactococcus, while the abundance of pathogenic Aerococcus and Streptococcus, which was associated inflammation, were decreased.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggested that A. muciniphila has a remissive effect on AD-like pathologies, potentially by regulating gut-brain axis through altering composition and function of gut microbial community or moderating peripheral circulation metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Corander J, Hanage WP, J Pensar (2022)

Causal discovery for the microbiome.

The Lancet. Microbe pii:S2666-5247(22)00186-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Measurement and manipulation of the microbiome is generally considered to have great potential for understanding the causes of complex diseases in humans, developing new therapies, and finding preventive measures. Many studies have found significant associations between the microbiome and various diseases; however, Koch's classical postulates remind us about the importance of causative reasoning when considering the relationship between microbes and a disease manifestation. Although causal discovery in observational microbiome data faces many challenges, methodological advances in causal structure learning have improved the potential of data-driven prediction of causal effects in large-scale biological systems. In this Personal View, we show the capability of existing methods for inferring causal effects from metagenomic data, and we highlight ways in which the introduction of causal structures that are more flexible than existing structures offers new opportunities for causal reasoning. Our observations suggest that microbiome research can further benefit from tools developed in the past 5 years in causal discovery and learn from their applications elsewhere.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Liao X, Zhao P, Hou L, et al (2022)

Network analysis reveals significant joint effects of microplastics and tetracycline on the gut than the gill microbiome of marine medaka.

Journal of hazardous materials, 442:129996 pii:S0304-3894(22)01790-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics could accumulate and enrich antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Despite this, the joint effects of microplastics and antibiotics on aquatic organisms are not clear. Here, we investigated the changes of microbial interactions in both gill and gut of marine medaka exposed to polystyrene microbeads (PS) and/or tetracycline for 30 days by using co-occurrence network analysis based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences. We found that the single and combined effects of PS and tetracycline were more profound on the gut than on the gill microbiome. SourceTracker analysis showed that the relative contributions from the gill microbiome to the gut microbiome increased under combined exposure. Moreover, the combined exposure reduced the complexity and stability of the gut microbial network more than those induced by any single exposure, suggesting the synergistic effects of PS and tetracycline on the gut microbiome. The PS and tetracycline combined exposure also caused a shift in the keystone taxa of the gut microbial network. However, no similar pattern was found for gill microbial networks. Furthermore, single and combined exposure to PS and/or tetracycline altered the associations between the gut network taxa and indicator liver metabolites. Altogether, these findings enhanced our understanding of the hazards of the co-occurring environmental microplastics and antibiotics to the fish commensal microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Poudel B, Shterzer N, Sbehat Y, et al (2022)

Characterizing the chicken gut colonization ability of a diverse group of bacteria.

Poultry science, 101(11):102136 pii:S0032-5791(22)00425-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The development of probiotics for chickens is a rapidly expanding field. The main approach to probiotics is to administer the probiotic strain throughout the bird's life, usually through incorporation in the feed. However, probiotics which would utilize bacterial strains capable of permanently colonizing the gut after a single exposure are likely to have a greater impact on the developing gut community as well as on the host, would simplify probiotic use and also reduce costs in an industrial setting. Finally, very limited and conflicting information about the colonization ability of different bacterial strains has been reported. Here we report 2 colonization experiments using 14 different bacterial strains from diverse phylogenetic groups. In both experiments, groups of chicks were orally inoculated on the day of hatch with different bacterial strains that had been previously isolated from adult heavy breeders. In the first experiment, colonization of the bacterial strains in broiler chicks was determined 7 d after treatment. In the second experiment, colonization was followed in layer chicks until d 17. Ten of the bacterial strains, including Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales strains, were able to colonize chicks after a single exposure for the duration of the experiment. For a few of these strains, exposure had little effect compared to non-treated chicks due to natural background colonization. Only 4 strains failed to colonize the chicks. Moreover, it is shown that fecal samples are useful to identify and provide a dynamic view of colonization. We further analyzed the effects of artificial colonization on microbiota composition. Some of the strains used in this research were found to reduce Enterobacteriaceae family abundance, implying that they might be useful in reducing relevant pathogen levels. To conclude, our results show that the development of single exposure based probiotics is possible.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Ghadiri F, Ebadi Z, Asadollahzadeh E, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis-related cognitive impairment.

Multiple sclerosis and related disorders, 67:104165 pii:S2211-0348(22)00671-X [Epub ahead of print].

Cognition is one of the most evaluated neurologic subjects with which the gut microbiome is supposed to be associated. Cognitive impairment is a prevalent finding in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we are about to study the current evidence on the effect of gut microbiota on cognition and MS. Although no direct evidence is in hand, putting all indirect research together, one could think of the hypothetical benefit of brain-gut axis interventions (possibly diet changes, probiotic administration, microbiota transplant) to solve the drastic problem of cognitive impairment in MS. Hence, researchers are encouraged to scan this horizon in order to fill the knowledge gaps in the field.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Weingarten EA, CR Jackson (2022)

Microbial Composition of Freshwater Marsh Sediment Responds more Strongly to Microcosm Seawater Addition than Simulated Nitrate or Phosphate Eutrophication.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

As sea level rise impacts coastal wetlands, saltmarsh will overtake coastal freshwater marsh in many areas, but changes in the sediment microbiome in response to saltwater intrusion are difficult to predict. Coastal freshwater marsh sediment was exposed to ambient, brackish, and saline conditions as well as to elevated nitrate and phosphate to model the combined stresses of saltwater intrusion and coastal eutrophication. Initially, sediment prokaryotic composition was similar to prior studies of freshwater marsh but diverged over time, reflecting the magnitude of increase in saltwater. There was no observed effect of nutrient amendment, potentially ranking seawater intrusion as a higher-importance compositional driver. Although the previously described loss of methanogenic populations and promotion of sulfate reducers in response to saltwater exposure was observed, taxonomic distribution was not similar to typical meso-polyhaline wetlands. Without colonization by marine taxa, such a community may be short-lived naturally, ultimately equilibrating with more common saltmarsh species. However, the recapitulation of salinity concentration by freshwater sediment microbial composition demonstrates the overwhelming nature of saltwater intrusion relative to other drivers like eutrophication.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Pedro N, Brucato N, Cavadas B, et al (2022)

First insight into oral microbiome diversity in Papua New Guineans reveals a specific regional signature.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The oral microbiota is a highly complex and diversified part of the human microbiome. Being located at the interface between the human body and the exterior environment, this microbiota can deepen our understanding of the environmental impacts on the global status of human health. This research topic has been well addressed in Westernized populations, but these populations only represent a fraction of human diversity. Papua New Guinea hosts very diverse environments and one of the most unique human biological diversities worldwide. In this work we performed the first known characterization of the oral microbiome in 85 Papua New Guinean individuals living in different environments, using a qualitative and quantitative approach. We found a significant geographical structure of the Papua New Guineans oral microbiome, especially in the groups most isolated from urban spaces. In comparison to other global populations, two bacterial genera related to iron absorption were significantly more abundant in Papua New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians, which suggests a shared oral microbiome signature. Further studies will be needed to confirm and explore this possible regional-specific oral microbiome profile.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Cook J, M Prinz (2022)

Regulation of microglial physiology by the microbiota.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2125739.

The mammalian gut contains a large, complex community of microorganisms collectively termed the microbiota. It is increasingly appreciated that gut microbes are closely integrated into mammalian physiology, participating in metabolic symbiosis, promoting immune function and signaling to a wide variety of distant cells, including the brain, via circulating metabolites. Recent advances indicate that microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, are influenced by microbial metabolites at all stages of life, under both physiological and pathological conditions. The pathways by which microbiota regulate microglial function are therefore of interest for investigating links between neurological disorders and gut microbiome changes. In this review, we discuss the effects and mechanisms of microbiota-microglia signaling in steady state, as well as evidence for the involvement of this signaling axis in CNS pathologies.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Begum N, Harzandi A, Lee S, et al (2022)

Host-mycobiome metabolic interactions in health and disease.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2121576.

Fungal communities (mycobiome) have an important role in sustaining the resilience of complex microbial communities and maintenance of homeostasis. The mycobiome remains relatively unexplored compared to the bacteriome despite increasing evidence highlighting their contribution to host-microbiome interactions in health and disease. Despite being a small proportion of the total species, fungi constitute a large proportion of the biomass within the human microbiome and thus serve as a potential target for metabolic reprogramming in pathogenesis and disease mechanism. Metabolites produced by fungi shape host niches, induce immune tolerance and changes in their levels prelude changes associated with metabolic diseases and cancer. Given the complexity of microbial interactions, studying the metabolic interplay of the mycobiome with both host and microbiome is a demanding but crucial task. However, genome-scale modelling and synthetic biology can provide an integrative platform that allows elucidation of the multifaceted interactions between mycobiome, microbiome and host. The inferences gained from understanding mycobiome interplay with other organisms can delineate the key role of the mycobiome in pathophysiology and reveal its role in human disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Maciel-Guerra A, Baker M, Hu Y, et al (2022)

Dissecting microbial communities and resistomes for interconnected humans, soil, and livestock.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

A debate is currently ongoing as to whether intensive livestock farms may constitute reservoirs of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance (AMR), thus posing a threat to surrounding communities. Here, combining shotgun metagenome sequencing, machine learning (ML), and culture-based methods, we focused on a poultry farm and connected slaughterhouse in China, investigating the gut microbiome of livestock, workers and their households, and microbial communities in carcasses and soil. For both the microbiome and resistomes in this study, differences are observed across environments and hosts. However, at a finer scale, several similar clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and similar associated mobile genetic elements were found in both human and broiler chicken samples. Next, we focused on Escherichia coli, an important indicator for the surveillance of AMR on the farm. Strains of E. coli were found intermixed between humans and chickens. We observed that several ARGs present in the chicken faecal resistome showed correlation to resistance/susceptibility profiles of E. coli isolates cultured from the same samples. Finally, by using environmental sensing these ARGs were found to be correlated to variations in environmental temperature and humidity. Our results show the importance of adopting a multi-domain and multi-scale approach when studying microbial communities and AMR in complex, interconnected environments.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Sarmikasoglou E, Ferrell J, Vinyard JR, et al (2022)

Effects of ruminal lipopolysaccharides on growth and fermentation end products of pure cultured bacteria.

Scientific reports, 12(1):15932.

Elevated levels of ruminal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been linked to ruminal acidosis; however, they result in reduced endotoxicity compared to LPS derived from species like Escherichia coli. Additionally, there is a knowledge gap on the potential effect of LPS derived from ruminal microbiome on ruminal bacteria species whose abundance is associated with ruminal acidosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of LPS-free anaerobic water (CTRL), E. coli-LPS (E. COLI), ruminal-LPS (RUM), and a 1:1 mixture of E. coli and ruminal-LPS (MIX) on the growth characteristics and fermentation end products of lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis JB1, Selenomonas ruminantium HD4) and lactate-utilizing bacterium (Megasphaera elsdenii T81). The growth characteristics were predicted based on the logistic growth model, the ammonia concentration was determined by the phenolic acid/hypochlorite method and organic acids were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicate that, compared to the CTRL, the maximum specific growth rate of S. bovis JB1 decreased by approximately 19% and 23% when RUM and MIX were dosed, respectively. In addition, acetate and lactate concentrations in Se. ruminantium HD4 were reduced by approximately 30% and 18%; respectively, in response to MIX dosing. Compared to CTRL, lactate concentration from S. bovis JB1 was reduced approximately by 31% and 22% in response to RUM and MIX dosing; respectively. In summary, RUM decreased the growth and lactate production of some lactate-producing bacteria, potentially mitigating the development of subacute ruminal acidosis by restricting lactate availability to some lactate-utilizing bacteria that metabolize lactate into VFAs thus further contributing to the development of acidosis. Also, RUM did not affect Megasphaera elsdenii T81 growth.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Dekkers KF, Sayols-Baixeras S, Baldanzi G, et al (2022)

An online atlas of human plasma metabolite signatures of gut microbiome composition.

Nature communications, 13(1):5370.

Human gut microbiota produce a variety of molecules, some of which enter the bloodstream and impact health. Conversely, dietary or pharmacological compounds may affect the microbiota before entering the circulation. Characterization of these interactions is an important step towards understanding the effects of the gut microbiota on health. In this cross-sectional study, we used deep metagenomic sequencing and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography linked to mass spectrometry for a detailed characterization of the gut microbiota and plasma metabolome, respectively, of 8583 participants invited at age 50 to 64 from the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study. Here, we find that the gut microbiota explain up to 58% of the variance of individual plasma metabolites and we present 997 associations between alpha diversity and plasma metabolites and 546,819 associations between specific gut metagenomic species and plasma metabolites in an online atlas (https://gutsyatlas.serve.scilifelab.se/). We exemplify the potential of this resource by presenting novel associations between dietary factors and oral medication with the gut microbiome, and microbial species strongly associated with the uremic toxin p-cresol sulfate. This resource can be used as the basis for targeted studies of perturbation of specific metabolites and for identification of candidate plasma biomarkers of gut microbiota composition.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Suzzi AL, Stat M, MacFarlane GR, et al (2022)

Legacy metal contamination is reflected in the fish gut microbiome in an urbanised estuary.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01436-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Estuaries are critical habitats subject to a range of stressors requiring effective management. Microbes are gaining recognition as effective environmental indicators, however, the response of host associated communities to stressors remains poorly understood. We examined microbial communities from seawater, sediments and the estuarine fish Pelates sexlineatus, in Australia's largest urbanised estuary, and hypothesised that anthropogenic contamination would be reflected in the microbiology of these sample types. The human faecal markers Lachno3 and HF183 were not detected, indicating negligible influence of sewage, but a gradient in copy numbers of the class 1 integron (intI-1), which is often used as a marker for anthropogenic contamination, was observed in sediments and positively correlated with metal concentrations. While seawater communities were not strongly driven by metal contamination, shifts in the diversity and composition of the fish gut microbiome were observed, with statistical links to levels of metal contamination (F2, 21 = 1.536, p < 0.01). Within the fish gut microbiome, we further report increased relative abundance of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs; single inferred DNA sequences obtained in sequencing) identified as metal resistant and potentially pathogenic genera, as well as those that may have roles in inflammation. These results demonstrate that microbial communities from distinct habitats within estuarine systems have unique response to stressors, and alterations of the fish gut microbiome may have implications for the adaptation of estuarine fish to legacy metal contamination.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

McMahan RH, Hulsebus HJ, Najarro KM, et al (2022)

Changes in gut microbiome correlate with intestinal barrier dysfunction and inflammation following a 3-day ethanol exposure in aged mice.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) pii:S0741-8329(22)00095-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Alcohol use among older adults is on the rise. This increase is clinically relevant as older adults are at risk for increased morbidity and mortality from many alcohol-related chronic diseases compared to younger patients. However, little is known regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol and age. There is intriguing data suggesting that aging may lead to impaired intestinal barrier integrity and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome, which could increase susceptibility to alcohol's negative effects. To study the effects of alcohol in age we exposed aged and young mice to 3-days of moderate ethanol and evaluated changes in gut parameters. We found that these levels of drinking do not have obvious effects in young mice but cause significant alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in aged mice. Ethanol-induced down regulation of expression of the gut-protective antimicrobial peptides Defa-rs1, Reg3b and Reg3g was observed in aged, but not young mice. Analysis of the fecal microbiome revealed age associated shifts in microbial taxa which correlated with intestinal and hepatic inflammatory gene expression. Taken together these data demonstrate that age drives microbiome dysbiosis while ethanol exposure in age induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial genes important for separating these potentially damaging microbes from the intestinal lumen. These changes highlight potential mechanistic targets for prevention of the age-related exacerbation of effects of ethanol on the gut.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wang L, Yang J, Su H, et al (2022)

Endometrial microbiota from endometrial cancer and paired pericancer tissues in postmenopausal women: differences and clinical relevance.

Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 29(10):1168-1175.

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postmenopausal endometrial cancer (EC) is rising, and the uterine microbiota has recently been suggested to be an etiology of EC. However, the differences in microbiota profiles in paired EC and the adjacent non-EC endometrium, and the functional microbiota of clinical relevance remain largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the differences in microbiota profiles between EC and non-EC endometrium and investigated their clinical relevance to EC.

METHODS: Twenty-eight EC-affected postmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy were enrolled. Endometrial microbiome from paired EC and adjacent non-EC tissue samples were detected using 16S rRNA sequencing, and the data were analyzed using R language software.

RESULTS: The α diversity and evenness of the endometrial bacterial community significantly increased in EC tissues than those in pericancer tissues (P < 0.05 for all variables). Lactobacillus and Gardnerella were the main bacterial genera present in both EC and adjacent non-EC-invading endometrium, whereas Prevotella, Atopobium, Anaerococcus, Dialister, Porphyromonas, and Peptoniphilus were more commonly enriched in the EC endometrium (corrected P < 0.05 for all variables). Finally, the abundance of some observed endometrial bacteria was associated with clinical aspects, particularly the vaginal pH, vaginal Lactobacillus abundance, and EC clinical stage.

CONCLUSIONS: Paired EC and adjacent non-EC endometrium harbor different endometrial microbiota, and the functional bacteria residing in the endometrium are clinically relevant but require further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Weber T, Tatzl E, Kashofer K, et al (2022)

Fibromyalgia-associated hyperalgesia is related to psychopathological alterations but not to gut microbiome changes.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274026 pii:PONE-D-22-04068.

Fibromyalgia-syndrome (FMS) is a complex disease characterized by chronic widespread pain and additional symptoms including depression, cognitive dysfunction ("fibro-fog") and maldigestion. Our research team examined whether FMS-related pain parameters assessed by quantitative sensory testing (QST) and psychological disturbances are accompanied by alterations of the fecal microbiome. We recruited 25 patients with FMS and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Medical background, food habits, psychopathology and quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Stool samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. QST was performed according to the protocol of the German Network for Neuropathic Pain. QST showed that both lemniscal and spinothalamic afferent pathways are altered in FMS patients relative to healthy controls and that peripheral as well as central pain sensitization processes are manifest. Psychometric assessment revealed enhanced scores of depression, anxiety and stress. In contrast, neither the composition nor the alpha- and beta-diversity of the fecal microbiome was changed in FMS patients. FMS patients segregate from healthy controls in various parameters of QST and psychopathology, but not in terms of composition and diversity of the fecal microbiome. Despite consideration of several confounding factors, we conclude that the contribution of the gut microbiome to the pathophysiology of FMS is limited.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zhang L, Chen L, Yu XA, et al (2022)

MicrobiomeCensus estimates human population sizes from wastewater samples based on inter-individual variability in gut microbiomes.

PLoS computational biology, 18(9):e1010472 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-22-00130 [Epub ahead of print].

The metagenome embedded in urban sewage is an attractive new data source to understand urban ecology and assess human health status at scales beyond a single host. Analyzing the viral fraction of wastewater in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has shown the potential of wastewater as aggregated samples for early detection, prevalence monitoring, and variant identification of human diseases in large populations. However, using census-based population size instead of real-time population estimates can mislead the interpretation of data acquired from sewage, hindering assessment of representativeness, inference of prevalence, or comparisons of taxa across sites. Here, we show that taxon abundance and sub-species diversisty in gut-associated microbiomes are new feature space to utilize for human population estimation. Using a population-scale human gut microbiome sample of over 1,100 people, we found that taxon-abundance distributions of gut-associated multi-person microbiomes exhibited generalizable relationships with respect to human population size. Here and throughout this paper, the human population size is essentially the sample size from the wastewater sample. We present a new algorithm, MicrobiomeCensus, for estimating human population size from sewage samples. MicrobiomeCensus harnesses the inter-individual variability in human gut microbiomes and performs maximum likelihood estimation based on simultaneous deviation of multiple taxa's relative abundances from their population means. MicrobiomeCensus outperformed generic algorithms in data-driven simulation benchmarks and detected population size differences in field data. New theorems are provided to justify our approach. This research provides a mathematical framework for inferring population sizes in real time from sewage samples, paving the way for more accurate ecological and public health studies utilizing the sewage metagenome.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Calcaterra V, Mameli C, Rossi V, et al (2022)

What we know about the relationship between autoimmune thyroid diseases and gut microbiota: a perspective on the role of probiotics on pediatric endocrinology.

Minerva pediatrics pii:S2724-5276.22.06873-2 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune diseases account for a cumulative overall prevalence of about 3-5% worlwide. Among them, autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are the most common and comprise two main entities: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves-Basedow disease (GD). The pathogenesis of ATDs remains not fully elucidated, however the role of microbioma has been proposed. Gut microbiota exert an important influence on the intestinal barrier, nutrient metabolism and immune system development and functions.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this narrative review, we describe on the main features of ATDs in pediatrics, focusing on the reciprocal influence between gut microbiota, thyroid hormone metabolism and thyroid autoimmunity and consider the role of probiotics and other microbiotatargeted therapies in thyroid diseases with a perspective on pediatric endocrinology.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Microbiome affects both endogenous and exogenous thyroid hormone metabolism and influences the absorption of minerals important to the thyroid function, which are iodine, selenium, zinc and iron. The alteration of the gut microbiota, with the consequent modifications in the barrier function and the increased gut permeability, seems involved in the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ATDs. The supplementation with probiotics showed beneficial effects on the thyroid hormone and thyroid function because this strategy could restore the intestinal eubiosis and the good strain microorganism proliferation.

CONCLUSIONS: Eventhough the evidence about the interaction between microbiota and ATDs in pediatric patients is limited, the promising results obtained in the adult population, and in other autoimmune disorders affecting children, highlight the need of for further research in the pediatric field.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Kirschen GW, S Ge (2022)

Editorial: Changes in metabolic processes affecting brain development.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:1002010.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

International BR (2022)

Expression of Concern on "A Review on Role of Microbiome in Obesity and Antiobesity Properties of Probiotic Supplements".

BioMed research international, 2022:9836248.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zhu W, Fu L, Xu C, et al (2022)

Enoxacin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome by promoting the browning of white adipose tissue and restoring gut dysbiosis.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:978019 pii:978019.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder syndrome characterized by polycystic ovary, ovulation disorder and hyperandrogenemia, and is often accompanied by metabolic disorders. Enoxacin has been reported to protect against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by promoting fat thermogenesis. However, the function of enoxacin in PCOS remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the enoxacin on the regulation of PCOS mouse model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here, we found that reproductive endocrine disorder, glucose intolerance, and ovarian dysfunction in PCOS mice induced by DHEA were attenuated by enoxacin treatment. Mechanistically, we identified that enoxacin can promote white fat browning and improve metabolic disorders, thus ameliorating DHEA-induced reproductive dysfunction. Moreover, these beneficial effects might be associated with the restoration of gut dysbiosis. These findings provide a novel therapeutic target for enoxacin in the treatment of PCOS.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

He Q, Shi Y, Xing H, et al (2022)

Modulating effect of Xuanfei Baidu granule on host metabolism and gut microbiome in rats.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:922642 pii:922642.

Xuanfei Baidu granule (XFBD) is a recommended patented drug for the prevention and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is approved by the National Medical Products Administration. XFBD suppresses the over-activated immune response caused by inflammatory factor storms in COVID-19 infection. The intestine plays a crucial role in the immune system. The mass spectrometry based fecal metabolomics with 16S rDNA sequencing were combined to evaluate the effects of XFBD on host metabolism and gut microbiome. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents in fecal matter were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plasma samples were used to detect immune and inflammatory levels. The results were verified with a rat model of intestinal disorder. Results indicated that XFBD could increase the immune level of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p < 0.05). The OPLS-DA analysis results showed that a total of 271 differential metabolites (178 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated) were identified based on the VIP ≥1, p < 0.05, FC ≥ 2 and FC ≤ 0.5. The metabolic pathways mainly involved D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, Arginine biosynthesis, Biotin metabolism, et al. XFBD modified the gut bacteria structure according to the principal component analysis (PCA), that is, 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, 11 families and 14 genera were significantly different based on taxonomic assignment. In addition, it could partially callback the relative abundance of intestinal microflora in bacterial disorder rats caused by antibiotics. It is suggested that the intervention mechanism of XFBD might be related to the regulation of intestinal flora composition. The evidence obtained in the study provides a useful reference for understanding the mechanism of XFBD.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Yao D, Yu Q, Xu L, et al (2022)

Wheat supplement with buckwheat affect gut microbiome composition and circulate short-chain fatty acids.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:952738.

Buckwheat has beneficial effects on human intestinal health, which is often compounded with wheat to make food. Therefore, the effect of cereals mixture via in vitro fermentation on gut microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were investigated in this study. The mixture of wheat and tartary buckwheat (WT) produced more lactate and acetate, and the mixture of wheat and sweet buckwheat (WE) produced more propionate and butyrate. Compared with wheat (WA), the relative abundance of some beneficial bacteria significantly increased, such as Sutterella in WT and Faecalibacterium in WE. Cereals mixture also affected the expression of functional genes, involved in metabolic pathways and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that modulated SCFAs generation. This study provides new insights into the effects of sweet and tartary buckwheat on intestinal function, which is beneficial to applying both types of buckwheat in practical.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Hesse RD, Roach M, Kerr EN, et al (2022)

Phage Diving: An Exploration of the Carcharhinid Shark Epidermal Virome.

Viruses, 14(9): pii:v14091969.

The epidermal microbiome is a critical element of marine organismal immunity, but the epidermal virome of marine organisms remains largely unexplored. The epidermis of sharks represents a unique viromic ecosystem. Sharks secrete a thin layer of mucus which harbors a diverse microbiome, while their hydrodynamic dermal denticles simultaneously repel environmental microbes. Here, we sampled the virome from the epidermis of three shark species in the family Carcharhinidae: the genetically and morphologically similar Carcharhinus obscurus (n = 6) and Carcharhinus galapagensis (n = 10) and the outgroup Galeocerdo cuvier (n = 15). Virome taxonomy was characterized using shotgun metagenomics and compared with a suite of multivariate analyses. All three sharks retain species-specific but highly similar epidermal viromes dominated by uncharacterized bacteriophages which vary slightly in proportional abundance within and among shark species. Intraspecific variation was lower among C. galapagensis than among C. obscurus and G. cuvier. Using both the annotated and unannotated reads, we were able to determine that the Carcharhinus galapagensis viromes were more similar to that of G. cuvier than they were to that of C. obscurus, suggesting that behavioral niche may be a more prominent driver of virome than host phylogeny.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Yutin N, Rayko M, Antipov D, et al (2022)

Varidnaviruses in the Human Gut: A Major Expansion of the Order Vinavirales.

Viruses, 14(9): pii:v14091842.

Bacteriophages play key roles in the dynamics of the human microbiome. By far the most abundant components of the human gut virome are tailed bacteriophages of the realm Duplodnaviria, in particular, crAss-like phages. However, apart from duplodnaviruses, the gut virome has not been dissected in detail. Here we report a comprehensive census of a minor component of the gut virome, the tailless bacteriophages of the realm Varidnaviria. Tailless phages are primarily represented in the gut by prophages, that are mostly integrated in genomes of Alphaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and belong to the order Vinavirales, which currently consists of the families Corticoviridae and Autolykiviridae. Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid proteins (MCP) suggests that at least three new families should be established within Vinavirales to accommodate the diversity of prophages from the human gut virome. Previously, only the MCP and packaging ATPase genes were reported as conserved core genes of Vinavirales. Here we report an extended core set of 12 proteins, including MCP, packaging ATPase, and previously undetected lysis enzymes, that are shared by most of these viruses. We further demonstrate that replication system components are frequently replaced in the genomes of Vinavirales, suggestive of selective pressure for escape from yet unknown host defenses or avoidance of incompatibility with coinfecting related viruses. The results of this analysis show that, in a sharp contrast to marine viromes, varidnaviruses are a minor component of the human gut virome. Moreover, they are primarily represented by prophages, as indicated by the analysis of the flanking genes, suggesting that there are few, if any, lytic varidnavirus infections in the gut at any given time. These findings complement the existing knowledge of the human gut virome by exploring a group of viruses that has been virtually overlooked in previous work.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Fox BE, Vilander AC, Gilfillan D, et al (2022)

Oral Vaccination Using a Probiotic Vaccine Platform Combined with Prebiotics Impacts Immune Response and the Microbiome.

Vaccines, 10(9): pii:vaccines10091465.

Unique to mucosal vaccination is the reciprocal influence of the microbiome and mucosal immune responses, where the immune system is constantly balancing between the clearance of pathogens and the tolerance of self-antigen, food, and the microbiota. Secretory IgA plays a major role in maintaining the homeostasis of a healthy gut microbiome. Natural polyreactive IgA often coats members of the commensal microbiota to aid in their colonization, while high-affinity specific IgA binds to pathogens resulting in their clearance. We developed a probiotic-based mucosal vaccination platform using the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus (rLA) with the potential to influence this balance in the IgA coating. In this study, we sought to determine whether repeated administration of rLA alters the host intestinal microbial community due to the immune response against the rLA vaccine. To address this, IgA-seq was employed to characterize shifts in IgA-bound bacterial populations. Additionally, we determined whether using rice bran as a prebiotic would influence the immunogenicity of the vaccine and/or IgA-bound bacterial populations. Our results show that the prebiotic influenced the kinetics of rLA antibody induction and that the rLA platform did not cause lasting disturbances to the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Shabana YM, Ghoneem KM, Rashad YM, et al (2022)

Distribution and Biodiversity of Seed-Borne Pathogenic and Toxigenic Fungi of Maize in Egypt and Their Correlations with Weather Variables.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:plants11182347.

Studies of the biodiversity of plant pathogenic and toxigenic fungi are attracting great attention to improve the predictability of their epidemics and the development of their control programs. Two hundred maize grain samples were gathered from 25 maize-growing governorates in Egypt and 189 samples were processed for the isolation and identification of seed-borne fungal microbiome. Twenty-six fungal genera comprising 42 species were identified according to their morphological characteristics and ITS DNA sequence analysis. Occurrence and biodiversity indicators of these fungal species were calculated. Ustilago maydis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Fusarium verticillioides were the highly frequent (>90% for each), recording the highest relative abundance (˃50%). Al-Menia governorate showed the highest species diversity and richness, followed by Sohag, Al-Nobaria and New Valley governorates. Correlations of 18 fungal species with temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and solar radiation were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that relative humidity, temperature, and wind speed, respectively, were the most impactful weather variables. However, the occurrence and distribution of these fungi were not clearly grouped into the distinctive climatic regions in which maize crops are grown. Monitoring the occurrence and distribution of the fungal pathogens of maize grains in Egypt will play an important role in predicting their outbreaks and developing appropriate future management strategies. The findings in this study may be useful to other maize-growing countries that have similar climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Antoine D, Singh PK, Tao J, et al (2022)

Neonatal Morphine Results in Long-Lasting Alterations to the Gut Microbiome in Adolescence and Adulthood in a Murine Model.

Pharmaceutics, 14(9): pii:pharmaceutics14091879.

Despite the many advancements in the field of pain management, the use of intravenous opioids, such as morphine, in neonates is still a challenge for clinicians and researchers, as the available evidence concerning the long-term consequences of such an early exposure is limited. In particular, little is known concerning the long-term consequences of neonatal morphine exposure on the gut microbiome, which has been identified as a key modulator of health and diseases. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate those long-term consequences of neonatal morphine on the gut microbiome. Newborn mice were exposed to either morphine (5 mg/kg/day) or saline for a duration of 7 ± 2 days. Fecal samples were collected during adolescence and adulthood to longitudinally assess the gut microbiome. DNA extracted from the stool samples were sent out for 16s rRNA sequencing. During adolescence, neonatal morphine resulted in a significant increase of α-diversity and an overall decrease in the abundance of several commensal genera. During adulthood, β-diversity revealed a significantly different microbial composition of the neonatally morphine-exposed mice than that of the controls. The results demonstrate that morphine exposure during this critical developmental period resulted in long-lasting changes, particularly a reduction in several commensal bacteria. Thus, an adjunct therapeutic intervention with probiotics could potentially be used along with opioids to manage pain while attenuating the long-term co-morbidities of neonatal morphine later in life.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Huang YH, Wu YH, Tang HY, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Bile Acids Mediate the Clinical Benefits of YH1 in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Observational Study.

Pharmaceutics, 14(9): pii:pharmaceutics14091857.

Our previous clinical trial showed that a novel concentrated herbal extract formula, YH1 (Rhizoma coptidis and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San), improved blood glucose and lipid control. This pilot observational study investigated whether YH1 affects microbiota, plasma, and fecal bile acid (BA) compositions in ten untreated male patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperlipidemia, and a body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2. Stool and plasma samples were collected for microbiome, BA, and biochemical analyses before and after 4 weeks of YH1 therapy. As previous studies found, the glycated albumin, 2-h postprandial glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved after YH1 treatment. Gut microbiota revealed an increased abundance of the short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Anaerostipes and Escherichia/Shigella. Furthermore, YH1 inhibited specific phylotypes of bile salt hydrolase-expressing bacteria, including Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides caccae. Stool tauro-conjugated BA levels increased after YH1 treatment. Plasma total BAs and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a BA synthesis indicator, were elevated. The reduced deconjugation of BAs and increased plasma conjugated BAs, especially tauro-conjugated BAs, led to a decreased glyco- to tauro-conjugated BA ratio and reduced unconjugated secondary BAs. These results suggest that YH1 ameliorates T2D and hyperlipidemia by modulating microbiota constituents that alter fecal and plasma BA compositions and promote liver cholesterol-to-BA conversion and glucose homeostasis.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Rocchi G, Giovanetti M, Benedetti F, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and COVID-19: Potential Implications for Disease Severity.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:pathogens11091050.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection trough the binding of the virus with the ACE-2 cell receptor located on the surface of the alveolar epithelial cells. Notably, ACE-2 cell receptors are also expressed in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract (GI). Recent data showed that the microbial communities of the GI might act as local and systematic inflammatory modulators. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, are frequently observed in infected individuals, and recent released data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 may also spread by fecal-oral transmission. Moreover, the gut microbiota's ecosystem can regulate and be regulated by invading pathogens, including viruses, facilitating an effective immune response, which in turn results in less severe diseases. In this regard, increased SARS-CoV-2 mortality and morbidities appear to be frequently observed in elderly immunocompromised patients and in people with essential health problems, such as diabetes, who, indeed, tend to have a less diverse gut microbiota (dysbiosis). Therefore, it is important to understand how the interaction between the gut microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 might shape the intensity of the infection and different clinical outcomes. Here, we provide insights into the current knowledge of dysbiosis during SARS-CoV-2 infection and methods that may be used to re-establish a more correct microbiota composition.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ryan MP, Sevjahova L, Gorman R, et al (2022)

The Emergence of the Genus Comamonas as Important Opportunistic Pathogens.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:pathogens11091032.

Comamonas spp. are non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli. They were first discovered in 1894, and since then, twenty-four species have been characterized. The natural habitat of these bacteria is soil, wastewater/sludge, fresh water such as ponds and rivers, and the animal intestinal microbiome. They were also isolated from industrial settings, such as activated sludge and polluted soil, and from the hospital environment and clinical samples, such as urine, pus, blood, feces, and kidney. Comamonas spp. are associated with environmental bioremediation and are considered an important environmental bacterium rather than a human pathogen. However, in the 1980s, they became a concern when several human infections associated with these species were reported. Here, the Comamonas genus was examined in terms of its members, identification techniques, and pathogenicity. Seventy-seven infection cases associated with these microorganisms that have been discussed in the literature were identified and investigated in this project. All relevant information regarding year of infection, country of origin, patient information such as age, sex, underlying medical conditions if any, type of infection caused by the Comamonas species, antibiotic susceptibility testing, treatment, and outcomes for the patient were extracted from case reports. The findings suggest that even though Comamonas spp. are thought of as being of low virulence, they have caused harmful health conditions in many healthy individuals and even death in patients with underlying conditions. Antimicrobial treatment of infections associated with these species, in general, was not very difficult; however, it can become an issue in the future because some strains are already resistant to different classes of antibiotics. Therefore, these pathogens should be considered of such importance that they should be included in the hospital screening programs.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Kim HM, Rothenberger CM, ME Davey (2022)

Cortisol Promotes Surface Translocation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9): pii:pathogens11090982.

Studies are showing that the stress hormone cortisol can reach high levels in the gingival sulcus and induce shifts in the metatranscriptome of the oral microbiome. Interestingly, it has also been shown that cortisol can influence expression levels of Type IX Secretion System (T9SS) genes involved in gliding motility in bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidota. The objective of this study was to determine if cortisol impacts gene expression and surface translocation of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W50. To conduct these experiments, P. gingivalis was stabbed to the bottom of soft agar plates containing varying cortisol concentrations (0 μM, 0.13 μM, 1.3 μM, and 13 μM), and surface translocation on the subsurface was observed after 48 h of incubation. The results show that when grown with certain nutrients, i.e., in rich medium with the addition of sheep blood, lactate, or pyruvate, cortisol promotes migration of P. gingivalis in a concentration-dependent manner. To begin to examine the underlying mechanisms, quantitative PCR was used to evaluate differential expression of genes when P. gingivalis was exposed to cortisol. In particular, we focused on differential expression of T9SS-associated genes, including mfa5, since it was previously shown that Mfa5 is required for cell movement and cell-to-cell interactions. The data show that mfa5 is significantly up-regulated in the presence of cortisol. Moreover, an mfa5 deletion mutant showed less surface translocation compared to the wild-type P. gingivalis in the presence of cortisol, and the defects of the mfa5 deletion mutant were restored by complementation. Overall, cortisol can stimulate P. gingivalis surface translocation and this coincides with higher expression levels of T9SS-associated genes, which are known to be essential to gliding motility. Our findings support a high possibility that the stress hormone cortisol from the host can promote surface translocation and potentially virulence of P. gingivalis.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Smith MM, J Melrose (2022)

Xylan Prebiotics and the Gut Microbiome Promote Health and Wellbeing: Potential Novel Roles for Pentosan Polysulfate.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 15(9): pii:ph15091151.

This narrative review highlights the complexities of the gut microbiome and health-promoting properties of prebiotic xylans metabolized by the gut microbiome. In animal husbandry, prebiotic xylans aid in the maintenance of a healthy gut microbiome. This prevents the colonization of the gut by pathogenic organisms obviating the need for dietary antibiotic supplementation, a practice which has been used to maintain animal productivity but which has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria that are passed up the food chain to humans. Seaweed xylan-based animal foodstuffs have been developed to eliminate ruminant green-house gas emissions by gut methanogens in ruminant animals, contributing to atmospheric pollution. Biotransformation of pentosan polysulfate by the gut microbiome converts this semi-synthetic sulfated disease-modifying anti-osteoarthritic heparinoid drug to a prebiotic metabolite that promotes gut health, further extending the therapeutic profile and utility of this therapeutic molecule. Xylans are prominent dietary cereal components of the human diet which travel through the gastrointestinal tract as non-digested dietary fibre since the human genome does not contain xylanolytic enzymes. The gut microbiota however digest xylans as a food source. Xylo-oligosaccharides generated in this digestive process have prebiotic health-promoting properties. Engineered commensal probiotic bacteria also have been developed which have been engineered to produce growth factors and other bioactive factors. A xylan protein induction system controls the secretion of these compounds by the commensal bacteria which can promote gut health or, if these prebiotic compounds are transported by the vagal nervous system, may also regulate the health of linked organ systems via the gut-brain, gut-lung and gut-stomach axes. Dietary xylans are thus emerging therapeutic compounds warranting further study in novel disease prevention protocols.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Clemente-Suárez VJ, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Martín-Rodríguez A, et al (2022)

The Burden of Carbohydrates in Health and Disease.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183809.

Foods high in carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet, since they provide the body with glucose to support bodily functions and physical activity. However, the abusive consumption of refined, simple, and low-quality carbohydrates has a direct implication on the physical and mental pathophysiology. Then, carbohydrate consumption is postulated as a crucial factor in the development of the main Western diseases of the 21st century. We conducted this narrative critical review using MedLine (Pubmed), Cochrane (Wiley), Embase, and CinAhl databases with the MeSH-compliant keywords: carbohydrates and evolution, development, phylogenetic, GUT, microbiota, stress, metabolic health, consumption behaviors, metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, mental disease, anxiety, depression, cancer, chronic kidney failure, allergies, and asthma in order to analyze the impact of carbohydrates on health. Evidence suggests that carbohydrates, especially fiber, are beneficial for the well-being and growth of gut microorganisms and consequently for the host in this symbiotic relationship, producing microbial alterations a negative effect on mental health and different organic systems. In addition, evidence suggests a negative impact of simple carbohydrates and refined carbohydrates on mood categories, including alertness and tiredness, reinforcing a vicious circle. Regarding physical health, sugar intake can affect the development and prognosis of metabolic disease, as an uncontrolled intake of refined carbohydrates puts individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and subsequently developing metabolic disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Overbeeke A, Lang M, Hausmann B, et al (2022)

Impaired Mucosal Homeostasis in Short-Term Fiber Deprivation Is Due to Reduced Mucus Production Rather Than Overgrowth of Mucus-Degrading Bacteria.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183802.

The gut mucosal environment is key in host health; protecting against pathogens and providing a niche for beneficial bacteria, thereby facilitating a mutualistic balance between host and microbiome. Lack of dietary fiber results in erosion of the mucosal layer, suggested to be a result of increased mucus-degrading gut bacteria. This study aimed to use quantitative analyses to investigate the diet-induced imbalance of mucosal homeostasis. Seven days of fiber-deficiency affected intestinal anatomy and physiology, seen by reduced intestinal length and loss of the colonic crypt-structure. Moreover, the mucus layer was diminished, muc2 expression decreased, and impaired mucus secretion was detected by stable isotope probing. Quantitative microbiome profiling of the gut microbiota showed a diet-induced reduction in bacterial load and decreased diversity across the intestinal tract, including taxa with fiber-degrading and butyrate-producing capabilities. Most importantly, there was little change in the absolute abundance of known mucus-degrading bacteria, although, due to the general loss of taxa, relative abundance would erroneously indicate an increase in mucus degraders. These findings underscore the importance of using quantitative methods in microbiome research, suggesting erosion of the mucus layer during fiber deprivation is due to diminished mucus production rather than overgrowth of mucus degraders.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Scarpina F, Turroni S, Mambrini S, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Fear Processing in Women Affected by Obesity: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183788.

The microbiota-gut-brain axis extends beyond visceral perception, influencing higher-order brain structures, and ultimately psychological functions, such as fear processing. In this exploratory pilot study, we attempted to provide novel experimental evidence of a relationship between gut microbiota composition and diversity, and fear-processing in obesity, through a behavioral approach. Women affected by obesity were enrolled and profiled for gut microbiota, through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Moreover, we tested their ability to recognize facial fearful expressions through an implicit-facial-emotion-recognition task. Finally, a traditional self-report questionnaire was used to assess their temperamental traits. The participants exhibited an unbalanced gut microbiota profile, along with impaired recognition of fearful expressions. Interestingly, dysbiosis was more severe in those participants with altered behavioral performance, with a decrease in typically health-associated microbes, and an increase in the potential pathobiont, Collinsella. Moreover, Collinsella was related to a lower expression of the persistence temperamental trait, while a higher expression of the harm-avoidance temperament, related to fear-driven anxiety symptoms, was linked to Lactobacillus. Once confirmed, our findings could pave the way for the design of innovative microbiome-based strategies for the treatment of psychological and emotional difficulties by mitigating obesity-related consequences and behaviors.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Memmola R, Petrillo A, Di Lorenzo S, et al (2022)

Correlation between Olive Oil Intake and Gut Microbiota in Colorectal Cancer Prevention.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183749.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a mainstay of the Mediterranean diet with its excellent balance of fats and antioxidant bioactive compounds. Both the phenolic and lipid fractions of EVOO contain a variety of antioxidant and anticancer substances which might protect from the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The function of the intestinal microbiome is essential for the integrity of the intestinal epithelium, being protective against pathogens and maintaining immunity. Indeed, dysbiosis of the microbiota alters the physiological functions of the organ, leading to the onset of different diseases including CRC. It is known that some factors, including diet, could deeply influence and modulate the colon microenvironment. Although coming from animal models, there is increasing evidence that a diet rich in EVOO is linked to a significant reduction in the diversity of gut microbiome (GM), causing a switch from predominant bacteria to a more protective group of bacteria. The potential beneficial effect of the EVOO compounds in the carcinogenesis of CRC is only partially known and further trials are needed in order to clarify this issue. With this narrative review, we aim at discussing the available evidence on the effect of olive oil consumption on GM in the prevention of CRC.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zhang WQ, Quan KY, Feng CJ, et al (2022)

The Lactobacillus gasseri G098 Strain Mitigates Symptoms of DSS-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Mice.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183745.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a recurring inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology, but it is thought to be related to factors like immune abnormalities and gut microbial dysbiosis. Probiotics can regulate host immunity and gut microbiota; thus, we investigated the alleviation effect and mechanism of the strain Lactobacillus gasseri G098 (G098) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Three groups of mice (n = 8 per group) were included: normal control (NC), DSS-induced colitis mice (DSS), and colitis mice given strain (G098). Our results showed that administering G098 effectively reversed DSS-induced colitis-associated symptoms (mitigating weight loss, reducing disease activity index and pathology scores; p < 0.05 in all cases) and prevented DSS-induced mortality (62.5% in DSS group; 100% in G098 group). The mortality rate and symptom improvement by G098 administration was accompanied by a healthier serum cytokine balance (significant decreases in serum pro-inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)-6 [p < 0.05], IL-1β [p < 0.01], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [p < 0.001], and significant increase in the serum anti-inflammatory factor IL-13 [p < 0.01], compared with DSS group) and gut microbiome modulation (characterized by a higher gut microbiota diversity [p < 0.05], significantly more Firmicutes and Lachnoclostridium [p < 0.05], significantly fewer Bacteroidetes [p < 0.05], and significant higher gene abundances of sugar degradation-related pathways [p < 0.05], compared with DSS-treated group). Taken altogether, our results suggested that G098 intake could mitigate DSS-induced colitis through modulating host immunity and gut microbiome, and strain treatment is a promising strategy for managing IBD.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Chang C, Yuan X, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Multiple Health Outcomes: Umbrella Review.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183726.

In recent years, there has been growing concern about the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiome on human health outcomes. To clarify the evidence for a link between the gastrointestinal microbiome and a variety of health outcomes in humans, we conducted an all-encompassing review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews that included 195 meta-analyses containing 950 unique health outcomes. The gastrointestinal microbiome is related to mortality, gastrointestinal disease, immune and metabolic outcomes, neurological and psychiatric outcomes, maternal and infant outcomes, and other outcomes. Existing interventions for intestinal microbiota (such as probiotics, fecal microbiota transplant, etc.) are generally safe and beneficial to a variety of human health outcomes, but the quality of evidence is not high, and more detailed and well-designed randomized controlled trials are necessary.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Pan R, Wang L, Xu X, et al (2022)

Crosstalk between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Motility in Chronic Constipation: Potential Mechanisms and Microbiota Modulation.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183704.

Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence highlights the link between imbalances in the gut microbiome and constipation. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiome and microbial metabolites affect gut movement remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the alteration in the gut microbiota in patients with CC and the effectiveness of probiotics in treating gut motility disorder. We highlight the mechanisms that explain how the gut microbiome and its metabolism are linked to gut movement and how intestinal microecological interventions may counteract these changes based on the enteric nervous system, the central nervous system, the immune function, and the ability to modify intestinal secretion and the hormonal milieu. In particular, microbiota-based approaches that modulate the levels of short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan catabolites or that target the 5-hydroxytryptamine and Toll-like receptor pathways may hold therapeutic promise. Finally, we discuss the existing limitations of microecological management in treating constipation and suggest feasible directions for future research.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Park M, Joung M, Park JH, et al (2022)

Role of Postbiotics in Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183701.

Although the prevalence of metabolic disorders has progressively increased over the past few decades, metabolic disorders can only be effectively treated with calorie restriction and improved physical activity. Recent research has focused on altering the gut microbiome using prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics because various metabolic syndromes are caused by gut microbial dysbiosis. Postbiotics, substances produced or released by microorganism metabolic activities, play an important role in maintaining and restoring host health. Because postbiotics have a small amount of literature on their consumption, there is a need for more experiments on short- and long-term intake. This review discusses current postbiotic research, categories of postbiotics, positive roles in metabolic syndromes, and potential therapeutic applications. It covers postbiotic pleiotropic benefits, such as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive qualities, that could aid in the management of metabolic disorders. Postbiotics are promising tools for developing health benefits and therapeutic goals owing to their clinical, technical, and economic properties. Postbiotic use is attractive for altering the microbiota; however, further studies are needed to determine efficacy and safety.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Pang L, Zhi Q, Jian W, et al (2022)

The Oral Microbiome Impacts the Link between Sugar Consumption and Caries: A Preliminary Study.

Nutrients, 14(18): pii:nu14183693.

BACKGROUND: The excessive and frequent intake of refined sugar leads to caries. However, the relationship between the amount of sugar intake and the risk of caries is not always consistent. Oral microbial profile and function may impact the link between them. This study aims to identify the plaque microbiota characteristics of caries subjects with low (CL) and high (CH) sugar consumption, and of caries-free subjects with low (FL) and high sugar (FH) consumption.

METHODS: A total of 40 adolescents were enrolled in the study, and supragingival plaque samples were collected and subjected to metagenomic analyses. The caries status, sugar consumption, and oral-health behaviors of the subjects were recorded.

RESULTS: The results indicate that the CL group showed a higher abundance of several cariogenic microorganisms Lactobacillus, A. gerencseriae, A. dentails, S. mutans, C. albicans, S. wiggsiae and P. acidifaciens. C. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis, which were enriched in the FH group. In terms of gene function, the phosphotransferase sugar uptake system, phosphotransferase system, and several two-component responses-regulator pairs were enriched in the CL group.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our data suggest the existence of an increased cariogenic microbial community and sugar catabolism potential in the CL group, and a healthy microbial community in the FH group, which had self-stabilizing functional potential.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Lin XQ, Chen W, Ma K, et al (2022)

Akkermansia muciniphila Suppresses High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders in Beagles.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(18): pii:molecules27186074.

Obesity is one of the prevalent chronic diseases in human and companion animals usually associated with several metabolic disorders. The gut commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is known for its therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders and inflammations. Here, we isolated the A. muciniphila AKK2 strain from the feces of interferon-inducible protein 204-/- (IFI204-/-) mice and further evaluated its anti-obesity effects on high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice and beagles. The results showed that it effectively controlled weight gain. Microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that HFD alters gut microbiota composition and A. muciniphila AKK2 increases the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio in beagles. Furthermore, we prepared microcapsules containing A. muciniphila AKK2, and tolerance tests showed the encapsulation maintained high viability and stability in an aerobic environment and simulated the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids. Overall, this study widens the spectrum of A. muciniphila applications to prevent obesity.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wu C, Zheng T, Chen H, et al (2022)

Effect and Mechanism of Pharmaceutical Excipients on Berberine to Alleviate Ulcerative Colitis via Regulating Gut Microbiota.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(18): pii:molecules27185997.

BACKGROUND: Various potential effect of drugs on alleviating diseases by regulating intestinal microbiome as well as the pharmaceutical excipients on gut microbiota has been revealed. However, the interaction between them is rarely investigated.

METHODS: Histological analysis, immunohistochemistry analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, RT-qPCR, and 16S rRNA analysis were utilized to explore the effect mechanism of the five excipients including hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) F4M, Eudragit (EU) S100, chitosan (CT), pectin (PT), and rheum officinale polysaccharide (DHP) on berberine (BBR) to cure UC.

RESULTS: The combined BBR with PT and DHP group exhibited better therapeutic efficacy of UC with significantly increased colon length, and decreased hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) scores than other groups. Furthermore, the expression of tight junction ZO-1 and occludin in colon tissue were upregulated, and claudin-2 was downregulated. Ultimately, the serum content of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 was decreased. Moreover, the combined BBR with PT significantly promoted the restoration of gut microbiota. The relative abundance of Firmicutes and Lactobacillus was significantly increased by the supplement of PT and DHP, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was downregulated.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study may provide a new perspective that the selection of pharmaceutical excipients could be a crucial factor affecting the drugs' therapeutic efficiency outcome.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Vakhrusheva TV, Moroz GD, Basyreva LY, et al (2022)

Effects of Medicinal Leech-Related Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides on Human Blood Cells and Plasma.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(18): pii:molecules27185848.

Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are considered as next-generation antibiotics with a lower probability of developing bacterial resistance. In view of potential clinical use, studies on CAMP biocompatibility are important. This work aimed to evaluate the behavior of synthetic short CAMPs (designed using bioinformatic analysis of the medicinal leech genome and microbiome) in direct contact with blood cells and plasma. Eight CAMPs were included in the study. Hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the potency to disrupt erythrocyte, neutrophil and mononuclear cell membranes descended in the order pept_1 > pept_3 ~ pept_5 > pept_2 ~ pept_4. Pept_3 caused both cell lysis and aggregation. Blood plasma and albumin inhibited the CAMP-induced hemolysis. The chemiluminescence method allowed the detection of pept_3-mediated neutrophil activation. In plasma coagulation assays, pept_3 prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (at 50 μM by 75% and 320%, respectively). Pept_3 was also capable of causing fibrinogen aggregation. Pept_6 prolonged APTT (at 50 μM by 115%). Pept_2 was found to combine higher bactericidal activity with lower effects on cells and coagulation. Our data emphasize the necessity of investigating CAMP interaction with plasma.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Tang Q, Liu R, Chu G, et al (2022)

A Comprehensive Analysis of Microflora and Metabolites in the Development of Ulcerative Colitis into Colorectal Cancer Based on the Lung-Gut Correlation Theory.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(18): pii:molecules27185838.

The lungs and large intestine can co-regulate inflammation and immunity through the lung-gut axis, in which the transportation of the gut microbiota and metabolites is the most important communication channel. In our previous study, not only did the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolites related to inflammation change significantly during the transition from ulcerative colitis (UC) to colorectal cancer (CRC), but the lung tissues also showed corresponding inflammatory changes, which indicated that gastrointestinal diseases can lead to pulmonary diseases. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of this lung-gut axis, metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were detected using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technology, while microbiome characterization was performed in BALF using 16S rDNA sequencing. The levels of pulmonary metabolites changed greatly during the development of UC to CRC. Among these changes, the concentrations of linoleic acid and 7-hydroxy-3-oxocholic acid gradually increased during the development of UC to CRC. In addition, the composition of the pulmonary microbiota also changed significantly, with an increase in the Proteobacteria and an obvious decrease in the Firmicutes. These changes were consistent with our previous studies of the gut. Collectively, the microbiota and metabolites identified above might be the key markers related to lung and gut diseases, which can be used as an indication of the transition of diseases from the gut to the lung and provide a scientific basis for clinical treatment.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Abdul Razak S, Valentine S, Marsh T, et al (2022)

Compositional Dynamics of Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiomes Associated with Dietary Transition and Feeding Cessation in Lake Sturgeon Larvae.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091872.

Compromised nutritional conditions associated with dietary transitions and feeding cessation in the wild and during fish aquaculture operations are common and can impact growth and survival. These effects are especially prevalent during early ontogenetic stages. We quantified phenotypic and GI tract microbial community responses with an emphasis on protease-producing bacteria of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) larvae, a species of aquacultural and conservational importance. To quantify responses associated with experimental food transition and feeding cessation, we performed a 36-day feeding experiment using two treatments: control and diet transition. However, larvae in the diet transition treatment failed to undergo transition and ceased feeding. Larvae in the diet transition treatment exhibited lower growth (total length and body weight) and survival than control larvae. Treatment had a greater effect than ontogenetic changes on taxonomic composition and diversity of the GI tract microbial community. Proteobacteria dominated the GI tract microbial community of the diet transition larvae whereas Firmicutes dominated the GI tracts of control larvae. Most of the 98 identified protease-producing isolates in both treatments were from genera Pseudomonas and Aeromonas: taxonomic groups that include known fish pathogens. Overall, failing to transition diets affected responses in growth and GI tract microbiome composition and diversity, with the later dysbiosis being an indicator of morbidity and mortality in larval lake sturgeon. Thus, microbiological interrogations can characterize responses to dietary regimes. The results can inform fish culturalists and microbiologists of the importance of dietary practices consistent with the establishment and maintenance of healthy GI tract microbiota and optimal growth during early ontogeny.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Iqbal H, Kim GL, Kim JH, et al (2022)

Pep27 Mutant Immunization Inhibits Caspase-14 Expression to Alleviate Inflammatory Bowel Disease via Treg Upregulation.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091871.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a highly prevalent gut inflammatory disorder. Complicated clinical outcomes prolong the use of conventional therapy and often lead to compromised immunity followed by adverse events and high relapse rates. Thus, a profound medical intervention is required. Previously, intranasal immunization of pneumococcal pep27 mutant (Δpep27) exhibited long-lasting protection against immune-related disorders. System biology analysis has predicted an inverse correlation between Δpep27 immunization and gastroenteritis. Recently, we established that Δpep27-elicited Tregs repressed Wnt5a expression and enhanced barrier integrity, suggesting the restoration of immunological tolerance. Therefore, we evaluated whether Δpep27 can alleviate IBD. Δpep27 dose-dependent response was analyzed in dextran sulfate sodium-induced mice using transcriptome analysis. Pro- and anti-inflammatory signatures were cross-correlated by quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. To address the hierarchy regulating the activity of caspase-14, an undefined marker in IBD, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), antibody-based neutralization studies were conducted. Fecal microbiome profiles were analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Δpep27 significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium-induced oxidative stress parameters, proinflammatory cytokines, caspase-14 expression level, and upregulated tight junction, anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and TGF-β1 via upregulation of Tregs to restore healthy gut microbiota. Neutralization studies unveiled that ∆pep27 had a remedial effect via Treg upregulation. Caspase-14, being an important mediator in the pathogenesis of IBD, can be an alternate therapeutic target in IBD. ∆pep27-increased Tregs repressed caspase-14 expression and reversed gut microbial dysbiosis, aiding to re-establish immunological tolerance.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Siddiqui R, Mungroo MR, Alharbi AM, et al (2022)

The Use of Gut Microbial Modulation Strategies as Interventional Strategies for Ageing.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091869.

Gut microbial composition codevelops with the host from birth and is influenced by several factors, including drug use, radiation, psychological stress, dietary changes and physical stress. Importantly, gut microbial dysbiosis has been clearly associated with several diseases, including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, and is known to affect human health and performance. Herein, we discuss that a shift in the gut microbiota with age and reversal of age-related modulation of the gut microbiota could be a major contributor to the incidence of numerous age-related diseases or overall human performance. In addition, it is suggested that the gut microbiome of long-lived animals such as reptiles should be investigated for their unique properties and contribution to the potent defense system of these species could be extrapolated for the benefit of human health. A range of techniques can be used to modulate the gut microbiota to have higher abundance of "beneficial" microbes that have been linked with health and longevity.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Syromyatnikov M, Nesterova E, Gladkikh M, et al (2022)

Characteristics of the Gut Bacterial Composition in People of Different Nationalities and Religions.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091866.

High-throughput sequencing has made it possible to extensively study the human gut microbiota. The links between the human gut microbiome and ethnicity, religion, and race remain rather poorly understood. In this review, data on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and the nationality of people and their religion were generalized. The unique gut microbiome of a healthy European (including Slavic nationality) is characterized by the dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Among the African population, the typical members of the microbiota are Bacteroides and Prevotella. The gut microbiome of Asians is very diverse and rich in members of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum, Coprococcus, Collinsella, Megasphaera, Bifidobacterium, and Phascolarctobacterium. Among Buddhists and Muslims, the Prevotella enterotype is characteristic of the gut microbiome, while other representatives of religions, including Christians, have the Bacteroides enterotype. Most likely, the gut microbiota of people of different nationalities and religions are influenced by food preferences. The review also considers the influences of pathologies such as obesity, Crohn's disease, cancer, diabetes, etc., on the bacterial composition of the guts of people of different nationalities.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Miral A, Kautsky A, Alves-Carvalho S, et al (2022)

Rhizocarpon geographicum Lichen Discloses a Highly Diversified Microbiota Carrying Antibiotic Resistance and Persistent Organic Pollutant Tolerance.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091859.

As rock inhabitants, lichens are exposed to extreme and fluctuating abiotic conditions associated with poor sources of nutriments. These extreme conditions confer to lichens the unique ability to develop protective mechanisms. Consequently, lichen-associated microbes disclose highly versatile lifestyles and ecological plasticity, enabling them to withstand extreme environments. Because of their ability to grow in poor and extreme habitats, bacteria associated with lichens can tolerate a wide range of pollutants, and they are known to produce antimicrobial compounds. In addition, lichen-associated bacteria have been described to harbor ecological functions crucial for the evolution of the lichen holobiont. Nevertheless, the ecological features of lichen-associated microbes are still underestimated. To explore the untapped ecological diversity of lichen-associated bacteria, we adopted a novel culturomic approach on the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. We sampled R. geographicum in French habitats exposed to oil spills, and we combined nine culturing methods with 16S rRNA sequencing to capture the greatest bacterial diversity. A deep functional analysis of the lichen-associated bacterial collection showed the presence of a set of bacterial strains resistant to a wide range of antibiotics and displaying tolerance to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Our study is a starting point to explore the ecological features of the lichen microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Seo H, Kwon CO, Park JH, et al (2022)

Dietary Efficacy Evaluation by Applying a Prediction Model Using Clinical Fecal Microbiome Data of Colorectal Disease to a Controlled Animal Model from an Obesity Perspective.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091833.

Obesity associated with a Western diet such as a high-fat diet (HFD) is a known risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to develop fecal microbiome data-based deep learning algorithms for the risk assessment of colorectal diseases. The effects of a HFD and a candidate food (Nypa fruticans, NF) on IBD and CRC risk reduction were also evaluated. Fecal microbiome data were obtained from 109 IBD patients, 111 CRC patients, and 395 healthy control (HC) subjects by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. IBD and CRC risk assessment prediction models were then constructed by deep learning algorithms. Dietary effects were evaluated based on fecal microbiome data from rats fed on a regular chow diet (RCD), HFD, and HFD plus ethanol extracts or water extracts of NF. There were significant differences in taxa when IBD and CRC were compared with HC. The diagnostic performance (area under curve, AUC) of the deep learning algorithm was 0.84 for IBD and 0.80 for CRC prediction. Based on the rat fecal microbiome data, IBD and CRC risks were increased in HFD-fed rats versus RCD-fed rats. Interestingly, in the HFD-induced obesity model, the IBD and CRC risk scores were significantly lowered by the administration of ethanol extracts of NF, but not by the administration of water extracts of NF. In conclusion, changes in the fecal microbiome of obesity by Western diet could be important risk factors for the development of IBD and CRC. The risk prediction model developed in this study could be used to evaluate dietary efficacy.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ayayee PA, Currie A, JA Peterson (2022)

Different Gut Microbiomes of Developmental Stages of Field-Collected Native and Invasive Western Bean Cutworm, Striacosta albicosta, in Western Nebraska.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091828.

While insects harbor gut microbial associates that perform various functions for the host, lepidopterans have not been considered as prime examples of having such relationships. The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is native to North America and has historically been a significant corn pest in its western distribution. It is currently expanding eastwards and is invasive in these new regions. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing data, this study focused on characterizing the microbiota associated with field-collected eggs, larvae, adults, and host plant materials of S. albicosta in its native range. The diversity of microbiomes varied significantly among S. albicosta eggs, larvae, adults, and the host plant materials. Microbial diversity was highest in adult stages relative to other insect stages. Furthermore, S. albicosta eggs, larvae, and adults harbored very distinct microbial communities, indicative of stage-specific microbiomes possibly performing different functions. Bacterial taxa underscoring these differences in composition identified four phyla and thirty families across samples. Members of the Firmicutes (Unassigned Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Moraxellaceae), Bacteroidota (Weeksellaceae), and Chloroflexi dominated across all developmental stages. In addition, cellulose-degrading Lactobacillales (phylum: Firmicutes) dominated larval microbiomes, indicative of larval plant diet. This taxon was comparatively negligible in eggs and adults. Members of Proteobacteria dominated egg and host leaf microbiomes, while members of Bacteroidota dominated nectar-feeding adult gut microbiomes. Our results suggest a possible diet-dependent stage-specific microbiome composition and the potential for using stage-specific microbes as potential biological control tools against this important pest moving forward.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Keelaghan AP, Charania R, JR Mead (2022)

The Effect of Short-Chain Fatty Acids on Growth of Cryptosporidium parvum In Vitro.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091822.

In a previous study, we observed an increase in the severity of cryptosporidial infection corresponding to decreased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Therefore, we decided to examine the effect of SCFAs on Cryptosporidium growth in human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HTC-8) cells. HTC-8 cells were infected with 1 × 105&nbsp;C. parvum oocysts. After 48 h of incubation with selected SCFAs, cells were fixed and labeled with monoclonal antibody directed to all intracellular stages, and the number of parasites was quantitated using a fluorescent microscope. Acetate, butyrate, propionate and valproate significantly inhibited growth, with an EC50 between 4 and 10 mM. Additionally, when combined, butyrate, acetate and propionate showed increased efficacy. Butyrate also inhibited growth when incubated with sporozoites prior to infection of host cell monolayers. In addition, we looked at possible mechanisms of action of inhibition. A combination of C. parvum infection and butyrate treatment led to increases in apoptosis and certain inflammatory cytokines. We conclude that acetate, propionate and butyrate have direct inhibitory activities in host cells against C. parvum, and butyrate can also affect sporozoite infectivity directly. While not preventing infection, SCFAs may help in keeping the infection low or in check.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

El Menofy NG, Ramadan M, Abdelbary ER, et al (2022)

Bacterial Compositional Shifts of Gut Microbiomes in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Association with Disease Activity.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091820.

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disabling autoimmune disorder. Little is known regarding the association between the gut microbiome and etiopathogenesis of RA. We aimed to dissect the differences in gut microbiomes associated with RA in comparison to healthy individuals and, in addition, to identify the shifts in the bacterial community in association with disease activity; Methods: In order to identify compositional shifts in gut microbiomes of RA patients, V3-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. In total, sixty stool samples were collected from 45 patients with RA besides 15 matched healthy subjects; Results: Notably, RA microbiomes were significantly associated with diverse bacterial communities compared with healthy individuals. Likewise, a direct association between bacterial diversity and disease activity was detected in RA patients (Kruskal Wallis; p = 0.00047). In general, genus-level analysis revealed a positive coexistence between RA and Megasphaera, Adlercreutzia, Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Collinsella, and Acidaminococcus. Furthermore, Spearman correlation analysis significantly stratified the most dominant genera into distinct clusters that were mainly based on disease activity (r ≥ 0.6; p ≤ 0.05). The predictive metabolic profile of bacterial communities associated with RA could support the potential impact of gut microbiomes in either the development or recovery of RA; Conclusions: The overall shifts in bacterial composition at different disease statuses could confirm the cross-linking of certain genera either to causation or progression of RA.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Esposito AM, Esposito MM, A Ptashnik (2022)

Phylogenetic Diversity of Animal Oral and Gastrointestinal Viromes Useful in Surveillance of Zoonoses.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091815.

Great emphasis has been placed on bacterial microbiomes in human and animal systems. In recent years, advances in metagenomics have allowed for the detection and characterization of more and more native viral particles also residing in these organisms. The digestive tracts of animals and humans-from the oral cavity, to the gut, to fecal excretions-have become one such area of interest. Next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses have uncovered vast phylogenetic virome diversity in companion animals, such as dogs and cats, as well as farm animals and wildlife such as bats. Zoonotic and arthropod-borne illnesses remain major causes of worldwide outbreaks, as demonstrated by the devastating COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the increasing need to identify and study animal viromes to prevent such disastrous cross-species transmission outbreaks in the coming years. Novel viruses have been uncovered in the viromes of multiple organisms, including birds, bats, cats, and dogs. Although the exact consequences for public health have not yet become clear, many analyses have revealed viromes dominated by RNA viruses, which can be the most problematic to human health, as these genomes are known for their high mutation rates and immune system evasion capabilities. Furthermore, in the wake of worldwide disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic, it is evident that proper surveillance of viral biodiversity is crucial. For instance, gut viral metagenomic analysis in dogs has shown close relationships between the highly abundant canine coronavirus and human coronavirus strains 229E and NL63. Future studies and vigilance could potentially save many lives.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Rustanti N, Murdiati A, Juffrie M, et al (2022)

Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 on Metabolic Profiles and Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091806.

Several pathways link type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus to the gut microbiome. By modifying the gut microbiota (GM), probiotics may be useful in the treatment of T2D. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 is an indigenous Indonesian probiotic strain that has colonized the digestive tracts of healthy Indonesian adults. Furthermore, the GM of Indonesians is dominated by L. plantarum. The probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 is likely suitable for Indonesians. This study aimed to assess the effect of the probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 on metabolic profiles and GM of women with T2D in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Twenty women from each group of forty T2D patients received either a probiotic or a placebo. The probiotic group consumed 1 g skim milk powder containing 1010 CFU/g L. plantarum daily for 11 weeks. The placebo group received 1 g skim milk powder only daily for 11 weeks. At the start and end of the experiment, anthropometric measures, dietary intake surveys, blood samples, and fecal samples were obtained. The GM analysis of all samples was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and Illumina Novaseq was applied to the selected samples from each group at the beginning and end of the trial. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed with gas chromatography. The level of HbA1c in the probiotic group (n:10) significantly decreased from 9.34 ± 2.79% to 8.32 ± 2.04%. However, in comparison with the placebo (n:8), L. plantarum Dad-13 supplementation did not significantly decrease the HbA1c level. No significant change was observed in the fasting blood sugar and total cholesterol levels in either group. The GM analysis showed that L. plantarum Dad-13 supplementation resulted in a considerable increase in the L. plantarum number. No significant changes were observed in the Bifidobacterium and Prevotella populations. In addition, no significant change was observed in the fecal pH and SCFA (e.g., acetic acid, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA) after supplementation with L. plantarum Dad-13.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

An C, Chon H, Ku W, et al (2022)

Bile Acids: Major Regulator of the Gut Microbiome.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091792.

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol and play an important role in regulating intestinal microflora. The different degrees of hydrophobicity and acidity of individual bile acids may affect their antimicrobial properties. We examined the antimicrobial effects of different bile acids on various microorganisms in vitro and confirmed whether these remain consistent in vivo. Using human bile acids, including ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid, a disc diffusion test was performed, and a rodent model was created to determine the antimicrobial effects of each bile acid. The fecal bacterial population was analyzed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Each bile acid showed different microbial inhibitory properties. The inhibitory activity of bile acids against microbiota which normally resides in the gastrointestinal tract and biliary system, was low; however, normal flora of other organs was significantly inhibited. Changes in microbial counts after bile acid administration in a rodent model differed in the colon and cecum. The in vivo and in vitro results show that the antimicrobial effects of bile acids against intestinal microbiota were similar. In conclusion, bile acids could be a novel treatment strategy to regulate gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wu H, Ganguly S, TO Tollefsbol (2022)

Modulating Microbiota as a New Strategy for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091727.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the United States. There has been an increasing incidence and decreasing mortality rate of BC cases over the past several decades. Many risk factors are associated with BC, such as diet, aging, personal and family history, obesity, and some environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that healthy individuals and BC patients have different microbiota composition, indicating that microbiome is a new risk factor for BC. Gut and breast microbiota alterations are associated with BC prognosis. This review will evaluate altered microbiota populations in gut, breast tissue, and milk of BC patients, as well as mechanisms of interactions between microbiota modulation and BC. Probiotics and prebiotics are commercially available dietary supplements to alleviate side-effects of cancer therapies. They also shape the population of human gut microbiome. This review evaluates novel means of modulating microbiota by nutritional treatment with probiotics and prebiotics as emerging and promising strategies for prevention and treatment of BC. The mechanistic role of probiotic and prebiotics partially depend on alterations in estrogen metabolism, systematic immune regulation, and epigenetics regulation.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Simpson AC, Suzuki T, Miller DR, et al (2022)

Microbial Burden Estimation of Food Items, Built Environments, and the International Space Station Using Film Media.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091714.

The use of film media involves considerably less preparation, waste, and incubator space than conventional agar-media-based assays and has proven in past studies to provide counts of cultivable microbes similar to those of traditional agar media. Film media also have the advantage of allowing sample volumes similar to those used in pour plates and, therefore, are well-suited for cultivable microbial counts in extremely low-biomass environments such as clean rooms or space habitats, particularly where the subsequent isolation of colonies is necessary. As the preparation of film media plates relies on water cohesion/adhesion rather than manual spreading, they may have future applications in low- or microgravity settings. In this study, cultivable microbial count performance was compared between agar media and film media in three kinds of samples: food items, surfaces in built environments on Earth (homes), and on the environmental surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS). Easy Plates (Kikkoman Corporation) and Petrifilm (3M) were compared with traditional agar plating for food and home surfaces, while only Easy Plates were compared with agar for ISS samples. For both food items and built environments on Earth, both types of film media performed comparably to agar media for bacterial counts, with R2 values of 0.94-0.96. Fungal counts for built-environment samples had a lower correlation between film and agar counts, with R2 values of 0.72-0.73. Samples from the ISS, which ranged from below detection to 103 CFU per 100 cm2, had R2 values of 0.80 for bacterial counts and 0.73 for fungal counts, partially due to multiple samples recording below the detection limit for agar or too numerous to count, and the growth of fungal species on R2A medium. The species compositions of isolates picked from agar vs. film media plates were similar; however, further phylogenetic analysis is needed to confirm the differential microbial diversity composition. Overall, film media such as Easy Plates and Petrifilm are viable alternatives to agar plates for low-biomass built environments as well as for food samples, and the two brands tested in this study performed equally well.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Distaso MA, Bargiela R, Johnson B, et al (2022)

Microbial Diversity of a Disused Copper Mine Site (Parys Mountain, UK), Dominated by Intensive Eukaryotic Filamentous Growth.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091694.

The Parys Mountain copper mine (Wales, UK) contains a wide range of discrete environmental microniches with various physicochemical conditions that shape microbial community composition. Our aim was to assess the microbial community in the sediments and overlying water column in an acidic mine drainage (AMD) site containing abundant filamentous biogenic growth via application of a combination of chemical analysis and taxonomic profiling using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our results were then compared to previously studied sites at Parys Mt. Overall, the sediment microbiome showed a dominance of bacteria over archaea, particularly those belonging to Proteobacteria (genera Acidiphilium and Acidisphaera), Acidobacteriota (subgroup 1), Chloroflexota (AD3 cluster), Nitrospirota (Leptospirillum) and the uncultured Planctomycetota/CPIa-3 termite group. Archaea were only present in the sediment in small quantities, being represented by the Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeota Group (TMEG), Thermoplasmatales and Ca. Micrarchaeota (Ca. Micracaldota). Bacteria, mostly of the genera Acidiphilium and Leptospirillum, also dominated within the filamentous streamers while archaea were largely absent. This study found pH and dissolved solutes to be the most important parameters correlating with relative proportions of bacteria to archaea in an AMD environment and revealed the abundance patterns of native acidophilic prokaryotes inhabiting Parys Mt sites and their niche specificities.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Gumber HK, Louyakis AS, Sarma T, et al (2022)

Effect of a Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice on Biofilm Composition, Gene Expression and Biomechanical Properties.

Microorganisms, 10(9): pii:microorganisms10091691.

An in situ study was conducted to examine the mode of action of a 0.454% stannous fluoride (SnF2)-containing dentifrice in controlling the composition and properties of oral biofilm. Thirteen generally healthy individuals participated in the study. Each participant wore an intra-oral appliance over a 48-h period to measure differences in the resulting biofilm's architecture, mechanical properties, and bacterial composition after using two different toothpaste products. In addition, metatranscriptomics analysis of supragingival plaque was conducted to identify the gene pathways influenced. The thickness and volume of the microcolonies formed when brushing with the SnF2 dentifrice were dramatically reduced compared to the control 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP)-containing toothpaste. Similarly, the biophysical and nanomechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated a significant reduction in biofilm adhesive properties. Metatranscriptomic analysis identified pathways associated with biofilm formation, cell adhesion, quorum sensing, and N-glycosylation that are significantly downregulated with SnF2. This study provides a clinically relevant snapshot of how the use of a stabilized, SnF2 toothpaste formulation can change the spatial organization, nanomechanical, and gene expression properties of bacterial communities.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Breuninger TA, Wawro N, Freuer D, et al (2022)

Fecal Bile Acids and Neutral Sterols Are Associated with Latent Microbial Subgroups in the Human Gut.

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090846.

Bile acids, neutral sterols, and the gut microbiome are intricately intertwined and each affects human health and metabolism. However, much is still unknown about this relationship. This analysis included 1280 participants of the KORA FF4 study. Fecal metabolites (primary and secondary bile acids, plant and animal sterols) were analyzed using a metabolomics approach. Dirichlet regression models were used to evaluate associations between the metabolites and twenty microbial subgroups that were previously identified using latent Dirichlet allocation. Significant associations were identified between 12 of 17 primary and secondary bile acids and several of the microbial subgroups. Three subgroups showed largely positive significant associations with bile acids, and six subgroups showed mostly inverse associations with fecal bile acids. We identified a trend where microbial subgroups that were previously associated with "healthy" factors were here inversely associated with fecal bile acid levels. Conversely, subgroups that were previously associated with "unhealthy" factors were positively associated with fecal bile acid levels. These results indicate that further research is necessary regarding bile acids and microbiota composition, particularly in relation to metabolic health.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

De Giuseppe R, Loperfido F, Cerbo RM, et al (2022)

LIMIT: LIfestyle and Microbiome InTeraction Early Adiposity Rebound in Children, a Study Protocol.

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090809.

Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of adult obesity with health and economic consequences for individuals and society. Adiposity rebound (AR) is a rise in the Body Mass Index occurring between 3 and 7 years. Early adiposity rebound (EAR) occurs at a median age of 2 years and predisposes to a later onset of obesity. Since obesity has been associated with intestinal dysbiosis, we hypothesize that EAR could be related to early microbiome changes due to maternal/lifestyle changes and environmental exposures, which can increase the unhealthy consequences of childhood obesity. LIMIT is a prospective cohort study that aims at identifying the longitudinal interplay between infant gut microbiome, infant/maternal lifestyle, and environmental variables, in children with EAR vs. AR. Methods. The study evaluated 272 mother-infant pairs, enrolled at an Italian neonatal unit, at different time points (T0, at delivery; T1, 1 month; T2, 6 months; T3, 12 months; T4, 24 months; T5, 36 months after birth). The variables that were collected include maternal/infant anthropometric measurements, lifestyle habits, maternal environmental endocrine disruptor exposure, as well as infant AR. The LIMIT results will provide the basis for early identification of those maternal and infant modifiable factors on which to act for an effective and personalized prevention of childhood obesity.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Dualib PM, Taddei CR, Fernandes G, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota across Normal Gestation and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cohort Analysis.

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090796.

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global public health concern. The mechanism that leads to glucose tolerance beyond normal physiological levels to pathogenic conditions remains incompletely understood, and it is speculated that the maternal microbiome may play an important role. This study analyzes the gut microbiota composition in each trimester of weight-matched women with and without GDM and examines possible bacterial genera associations with GDM. This study followed 56 pregnant women with GDM and 59 without admitted to the outpatient clinic during their first/second or third trimester of gestation. They were submitted to a standardized questionnaire, dietary recalls, clinical examination, biological sample collection, and molecular profiling of fecal microbiota. Women with GDM were older and had a higher number of pregnancies than normal-tolerant ones. There was no difference in alpha diversity, and the groups did not differ regarding the overall microbiota structure. A higher abundance of Bacteroides in the GDM group was found. A positive correlation between Christensenellaceae and Intestinobacter abundances with one-hour post-challenge plasma glucose and a negative correlation between Enterococcus and two-hour plasma glucose levels were observed. Bifidobacterium and Peptococcus abundances were increased in the third gestational trimester for both groups. The gut microbiota composition was not dependent on the presence of GDM weight-matched women throughout gestation. However, some genera abundances showed associations with glucose metabolism. Our findings may therefore encourage a deeper understanding of physiological and pathophysiological changes in the microbiota throughout pregnancy, which could have further implications for diseases prevention.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Li-Gao R, Grubbs K, Bertoni AG, et al (2022)

The Roles of Gut Microbiome and Plasma Metabolites in the Associations between ABO Blood Groups and Insulin Homeostasis: The Microbiome and Insulin Longitudinal Evaluation Study (MILES).

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090787.

Non-O blood groups are associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and risk of type 2 diabetes. A recent study pinpointed the associations between ABO blood groups and gut microbiome, which may serve as potential mediators for the observed increased disease risks. We aimed to characterize associations between ABO haplotypes and insulin-related traits as well as potential mediating pathways. We assessed insulin homeostasis in African Americans (AAs; n = 109) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 210) from the Microbiome and Insulin Longitudinal Evaluation Study. The ABO haplotype was determined by six SNPs located in the ABO gene. Based on prior knowledge, we included 21 gut bacteria and 13 plasma metabolites for mediation analysis. In the white study cohort (60 ± 9 years, 42% male), compared to the O1 haplotype, A1 was associated with a higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, while a lower relative abundance of Bacteroides massiliensis and lactate levels. Lactate was a likely mediator of this association but not Bacteroides massiliensis. In the AAs group (57 ± 8 years, 33% male), we found no association between any haplotype and insulin-related traits. In conclusion, the A1 haplotype may promote healthy insulin sensitivity in non-Hispanic whites and lactate likely play a role in this process but not selected gut bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Bone C, EJ Squires (2022)

Nuclear Receptor Pathways Mediating the Development of Boar Taint.

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090785.

The nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, and FXR are activated by various ligands and function as transcription factors to control the expression of genes that regulate the synthesis and metabolism of androstenone and skatole. These compounds are produced in entire male pigs and accumulate in the fat to cause the development of a meat quality issue known as boar taint. The extent of this accumulation is influenced by the synthesis and hepatic clearance of androstenone and skatole. For this reason, PXR, CAR, and FXR-mediated signaling pathways have garnered interest as potential targets for specialized treatments designed to reduce the development of boar taint. Recent research has also identified several metabolites produced by gut microbes that act as ligands for these nuclear receptors (e.g., tryptophan metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids); however, the connection between the gut microbiome and boar taint development is not clear. In this review, we describe the nuclear receptor signaling pathways that regulate the synthesis and metabolism of boar taint compounds and outline the genes involved. We also discuss several microbial-derived metabolites and dietary additives that are known or suspected nuclear receptor ligands and suggest how these compounds could be used to develop novel treatments for boar taint.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wu C, Fei J, Xu Q, et al (2022)

Interaction between Plasma Metabolomics and Intestinal Microbiome in db/db Mouse, an Animal Model for Study of Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Metabolites, 12(9): pii:metabo12090775.

Evidence has demonstrated that either metabolites or intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). To explore the interaction between plasma metabolomics and intestinal microbiome in the progress of T2D-DKD, in the current study, we analyzed metabolomics in the plasma of db/db mice with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and also examined intestinal prokaryotes and entire gut microbiome dysbiosis at the genus level with both 16S rDNA and metagenomic sequencing techniques. We found that Negativibacillus and Rikenella were upregulated, while Akkermansia, Candidatus, Erysipelatoclostridium and Ileibacterium were downregulated in the colon of db/db mice compared with non-diabetic controls. In parallel, a total of 91 metabolites were upregulated, while 23 were downregulated in the plasma of db/db mice. The top five upregulated metabolites included D-arabinose 5-phosphate, estrone 3-sulfate, L-theanine, 3'-aenylic acid and adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and the five most significantly downregulated metabolites were aurohyocholic acid sodium salt, calcium phosphorylcholine chloride, tauro-alpha-muricholic acid sodium salt, galactinol and phosphocholine. These plasma metabolites were interacted with intestinal microbiomes, which are mainly involved in the pathways related to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid elongation, steroid biosynthesis, and D-arginine and D-ornithine metabolism. In the differential metabolites, N-acetyl-L-ornithine, ornithine and L-kyn could be metabolized by the correspondingly differential ontology genes in the intestinal metagenome. The current study thereby provides evidence for a gut-metabolism-kidney axis in the metabolism of db/db mice, in which the gut microbiome and circulating metabolomics interact, and suggests that information from this axis may contribute to our understanding of T2D and DKD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Asensio EM, Ortega-Azorín C, Barragán R, et al (2022)

Association between Microbiome-Related Human Genetic Variants and Fasting Plasma Glucose in a High-Cardiovascular-Risk Mediterranean Population.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 58(9): pii:medicina58091238.

Background and Objectives: The gut microbiota has been increasingly recognized as a relevant factor associated with metabolic diseases. However, directly measuring the microbiota composition is a limiting factor for several studies. Therefore, using genetic variables as proxies for the microbiota composition is an important issue. Landmark microbiome-host genome-wide association studies (mbGWAS) have identified many SNPs associated with gut microbiota. Our aim was to analyze the association between relevant microbiome-related genetic variants (Mi-RSNPs) and fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population, exploring the interaction with Mediterranean diet adherence. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in a high-cardiovascular-risk Mediterranean population (n = 1020), analyzing the association of Mi-RSNPs (from four published mbGWAS) with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes. A single-variant approach was used for fitting fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes to a multivariable regression model. In addition, a Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple variants was performed as a sub-study. Results: We obtained several associations between Mi-RSNPs and fasting plasma glucose involving gut Gammaproteobacteria_HB, the order Rhizobiales, the genus Rumminococcus torques group, and the genus Tyzzerella as the top ranked. For type 2 diabetes, we also detected significant associations with Mi-RSNPs related to the order Rhizobiales, the family Desulfovibrionaceae, and the genus Romboutsia. In addition, some Mi-RSNPs and adherence to Mediterranean diet interactions were detected. Lastly, the formal Mendelian randomization analysis suggested combined effects. Conclusions: Although the use of Mi-RSNPs as proxies of the microbiome is still in its infancy, and although this is the first study analyzing such associations with fasting plasma glucose and type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population, some interesting associations, as well as modulations, with adherence to the Mediterranean diet were detected in these high-cardiovascular-risk subjects, eliciting new hypotheses.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Li Pomi F, Di Bartolomeo L, Vaccaro M, et al (2022)

Malassezia Folliculitis following Triple Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 58(9): pii:medicina58091204.

Triple-combination therapy with elexacaftor, tezacaftor and ivacaftor has been recently approved for cystic fibrosis patients with at least one F508del mutation in the transmembrane conductance regulator of the cystic fibrosis gene. Among the adverse events of elexacaftor, tezacaftor and ivacaftor, the cutaneous ones have been rarely reported, mainly dealing with urticarial-like rashes. On this topic, we report two cases of Malassezia folliculitis following triple therapy administration in two young females. In the first patient, a papulopustular rush appeared before the folliculitis while in the second patient it was not preceded by other skin manifestations. The diagnosis was confirmed both by dermoscopy and histology. The prompt response to systemic antimycotic drugs provided further evidence for the causative role of Malassezia, requiring no discontinuation of cystic fibrosis therapy. We could hypothesize that the triple regimen treatment may induce changes in the skin microbiome, potentially able to favor colonization and proliferation of Malassezia species. Physicians should be aware of such associations to allow prompt diagnosis and early interventions, avoiding useless drug removal.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Grzegorczyk M, Pogorzelski S, Janowicz P, et al (2022)

Micron-Scale Biogeography of Seawater Biofilm Colonies at Submersed Solid Substrata Affected by Organic Matter and Microbiome Transformation in the Baltic Sea.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(18): pii:ma15186351.

The aim of this research was to determine temporal and spatial evolution of biofilm architecture formed at model solid substrata submersed in Baltic sea coastal waters in relation to organic matter transformation along a one-year period. Several materials (metals, glass, plastics) were deployed for a certain time, and the collected biofilm-covered samples were studied with a confocal microscopy technique using the advanced programs of image analysis. The geometric and structural biofilm characteristics: biovolume, coverage fraction, mean thickness, spatial heterogeneity, roughness, aggregation coefficient, etc., turned out to evolve in relation to organic matter transformation trends, trophic water status, microbiome evolution, and biofilm micro-colony transition from the heterotrophic community (mostly bacteria) to autotrophic (diatom-dominated) systems. The biofilm morphology parameters allowed the substratum roughness, surface wettability, chromatic organisms colony adaptation to substrata, and quorum sensing or cell to cell signaling effects to be quantitatively evaluated. In addition to the previous work, the structural biofilm parameters could become further novel trophic state indicators.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Olunoiki E, Rehner J, Bischoff M, et al (2022)

Characteristics of the Skin Microbiome in Selected Dermatological Conditions: A Narrative Review.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:life12091420.

The skin is the largest and outermost organ of the human body. The microbial diversity of the skin can be influenced by several variable factors such as physiological state, lifestyle, and geographical locations. Recent years have seen increased interest in research aiming at an improved understanding of the relationship between the human microbiota and several diseases. Albeit understudied, interesting correlations between the skin microbiota and several dermatological conditions have been observed. Studies have shown that a decrease or increase in the abundance of certain microbial communities can be implicated in several dermatological pathologies. This narrative review (i) examines the role of the skin microbiota in the maintenance of skin homeostasis and health, (ii) provides examples on how some common skin diseases (acne inversa, candidiasis, psoriasis) are associated with the dysbiosis of microbial communities, and (iii) describes how recent research approaches used in skin microbiome studies may lead to improved, more sensitive diagnostics and individual therapeutics in the foreseeable future.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Johnston-Monje D, Gutiérrez JP, LA Becerra Lopez-Lavalle (2022)

Stochastic Inoculum, Biotic Filtering and Species-Specific Seed Transmission Shape the Rare Microbiome of Plants.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:life12091372.

A plant's health and productivity is influenced by its associated microbes. Although the common/core microbiome is often thought to be the most influential, significant numbers of rare or uncommon microbes (e.g., specialized endosymbionts) may also play an important role in the health and productivity of certain plants in certain environments. To help identify rare/specialized bacteria and fungi in the most important angiosperm plants, we contrasted microbiomes of the seeds, spermospheres, shoots, roots and rhizospheres of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tomato, coffee, common bean, cassava, soybean, switchgrass, sunflower, Brachiaria, barley, sorghum and pea. Plants were grown inside sealed jars on sterile sand or farm soil. Seeds and spermospheres contained some uncommon bacteria and many fungi, suggesting at least some of the rare microbiome is vertically transmitted. About 95% and 86% of fungal and bacterial diversity inside plants was uncommon; however, judging by read abundance, uncommon fungal cells are about half of the mycobiome, while uncommon bacterial cells make up less than 11% of the microbiome. Uncommon-seed-transmitted microbiomes consisted mostly of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, which most heavily colonized shoots, to a lesser extent roots, and least of all, rhizospheres. Soil served as a more diverse source of rare microbes than seeds, replacing or excluding the majority of the uncommon-seed-transmitted microbiome. With the rarest microbes, their colonization pattern could either be the result of stringent biotic filtering by most plants, or uneven/stochastic inoculum distribution in seeds or soil. Several strong plant-microbe associations were observed, such as seed transmission to shoots, roots and/or rhizospheres of Sarocladium zeae (maize), Penicillium (pea and Phaseolus), and Curvularia (sugarcane), while robust bacterial colonization from cassava field soil occurred with the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya into Arabidopsis and Panicum roots, and Streptomyces into cassava roots. Some abundant microbes such as Sakaguchia in rice shoots or Vermispora in Arabidopsis roots appeared in no other samples, suggesting that they were infrequent, stochastically deposited propagules from either soil or seed (impossible to know based on the available data). Future experiments with culturing and cross-inoculation of these microbes between plants may help us better understand host preferences and their role in plant productivity, perhaps leading to their use in crop microbiome engineering and enhancement of agricultural production.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Baranova E, Druzhinin V, Matskova L, et al (2022)

Sputum Microbiome Composition in Patients with Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:life12091365.

BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that the host microbiome can have a significant impact on the development of lung cancer by inducing an inflammatory response, causing dysbiosis, and generating genome damage. The aim of this study was to search for bacterial communities specifically associated with squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).

METHODS: In this study, the taxonomic composition of the sputum microbiome of 40 men with untreated LUSC was compared with that of 40 healthy controls. Next-Generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the taxonomic composition of the respiratory microbiome.

RESULTS: There were no differences in alpha diversity between the LUSC and control groups. Meanwhile, differences in the structure of bacterial communities (β diversity) among patients and controls differed significantly in sputum samples (pseudo-F = 1.53; p = 0.005). Genera of Streptococcus, Bacillus, Gemella, and Haemophilus were found to be significantly enriched in patients with LUSC compared to the control subjects, while 19 bacterial genera were significantly reduced, indicating a decrease in beta diversity in the microbiome of patients with LUSC.

CONCLUSIONS: Among other candidates, Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) emerges as the most likely LUSC biomarker, but more research is needed to confirm this assumption.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Carvalheira M, Amorim CL, Oliveira AC, et al (2022)

Valorization of Brewery Waste through Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production Supported by a Metabolic Specialized Microbiome.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:life12091347.

Raw brewers' spent grain (BSG), a by-product of beer production and produced at a large scale, presents a composition that has been shown to have potential as feedstock for several biological processes, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production. Although the high interest in the PHA production from waste, the bioconversion of BSG into PHA using microbial mixed cultures (MMC) has not yet been explored. This study explored the feasibility to produce PHA from BSG through the enrichment of a mixed microbial culture in PHA-storing organisms. The increase in organic loading rate (OLR) was shown to have only a slight influence on the process performance, although a high selectivity in PHA-storing microorganisms accumulation was reached. The culture was enriched on various PHA-storing microorganisms, such as bacteria belonging to the Meganema, Carnobacterium, Leucobacter, and Paracocccus genera. The enrichment process led to specialization of the microbiome, but the high diversity in PHA-storing microorganisms could have contributed to the process stability and efficiency, allowing for achieving a maximum PHA content of 35.2 ± 5.5 wt.% (VSS basis) and a yield of 0.61 ± 0.09 CmmolPHA/CmmolVFA in the accumulation assays. Overall, the production of PHA from fermented BSG is a feasible process confirming the valorization potential of the feedstock through the production of added-value products.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Shama S, Qaisar R, Khan NA, et al (2022)

The Role of 4-Phenylbutyric Acid in Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in a Mouse Model of Simulated Microgravity.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:life12091301.

The altered gut microbes of astronauts during space travel may contribute to health issues after their return to Earth. Previously, an association between the elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and gut microbial dysbiosis has been described. Herein, we induced gut microbial changes in mice under a simulated microgravity environment in an established model of hindlimb unloaded (HU) mice. The intestinal metabolomic profiles under microgravity conditions using the HU model were examined, along with the potential role of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a potent ER stress inhibitor. For a microgravity environment, the mice were suspended in special cages individually for three weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and gut dissections were performed, followed by amplicon sequencing analysis of bacterial species via DNA extraction and 16S rRNA analysis. The results indicate that the gut bacterial communities of mice differed under gravity and microgravity conditions. Principal component analyses revealed differences in the bacterial community structure in all groups. Around 434 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were specific to mice seen in controls, while 620 OTUs were specific to HU mice. Additionally, 321 bacterial OTUs were specific to HU mice treated with 4-PBA. When the relative abundance of taxa was analyzed, Bacteroidetes dominated the gut of control and HU mice treated with 4-PBA.. In contrast, the untreated HU mice were dominated by Firmicutes. At the genus level, a reduction in beneficial species of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus was observed in HU but not the unloaded-treated and control mice. Furthermore, an increase in the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Enterorhabdus, associated with inflammation, was observed in HUmice but not in controls and unloaded-treated mice. Following treatment with 4-PBA, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was restored in unloaded-treated mice, comparable to controls. Of note, beneficial microbes such as Akkermansia and Lactobacillus were observed in unloaded-treated mice but not or in lesser relative abundance in HU mice. Nonetheless, microbial diversity was reduced in unloaded-treated mice compared to controls, and future studies are needed to mitigate this finding. These may comprise the addition of pre-/pro- and postbiotic species in the diet to increase microbial diversity. Overall, the findings suggest that 4-PBA, a potent ER stress inhibitor, may have therapeutic value in treating patients on prolonged bed rest or astronauts during spaceflight.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Laterza L, I Mignini (2022)

The Microbiome Revolution: New Insights for Personalized Medicine.

Journal of personalized medicine, 12(9): pii:jpm12091520.

The availability of new culture-independent techniques to study microbes led to the explosion of the gut microbiota revolution in recent decades [...].

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Reider S, Watschinger C, Längle J, et al (2022)

Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Prebiotic Intervention with Polyphenols Extracted from European Black Elderberry-Sustained Expansion of Akkermansia spp.

Journal of personalized medicine, 12(9): pii:jpm12091479.

(1) Background: The intestinal microbiome has emerged as a central factor in human physiology and its alteration has been associated with disease. Therefore, great hopes are placed in microbiota-modulating strategies. Among various approaches, prebiotics, substrates with selective metabolization conferring a health benefit to the host, are promising candidates. Herein, we studied the prebiotic properties of a purified extract from European black elderberries, with a high and standardized content of polyphenols and anthocyanins. (2) Methods: The ELDERGUT trial represents a 9-week longitudinal intervention study divided into 3 distinct phases, namely a baseline, an intervention and a washout period, three weeks each. The intervention consisted of capsules containing 300 mg elderberry extract taken twice a day. Patient-reported outcomes and biosamples were collected weekly. Microbiome composition was assessed using 16S amplicon metagenomics. (3) Results: The supplementation was well tolerated. Microbiome trajectories were highly individualized with a profound shift in diversity indices immediately upon initiation and after termination of the compound. This was accompanied by corresponding changes in species abundance over time. Of particular interest, the relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. continued to increase in a subset of participants even beyond the supplementation period. Associations with participant metadata were detected.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Yang X, Xiu WB, Wang JX, et al (2022)

CO2 Is Beneficial to Gut Microbiota Homeostasis during Colonoscopy: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(18): pii:jcm11185281.

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported minor complications and disturbance of the gut microbiota after colonoscopy. Compared with air, carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation could decrease minor complications, but its impact on gut microbiota remains unknown.

METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects were assessed and twenty were randomized to receive either CO2 or air insufflation during colonoscopy. Neither the participants nor the staff involved in the follow-up knew which gas was used. Minor complications were assessed using symptom scores. Fecal samples were collected at eight time-points for microbiome analysis by full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The recovery of minor complications after colonoscopy was faster in the CO2 group (the day of the colonoscopy) than in the air group (the day after the colonoscopy). There was no significant reduction in alpha diversity (species richness) of the first stool after colonoscopy in the CO2 group (115.0 ± 32.81 vs. 97.4 ± 42.31, p = 0.28) compared with the air group (123.8 ± 37.25 vs. 84.8 ± 31.67, p = 0.04). However, there were no differences in beta diversity between the groups. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis indicated that anaerobic probiotics such as Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides finegoldii and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were more abundant in the CO2 group than in the air group within 14 days after colonoscopy. On the contrary, the content of Escherichiacoli, Ruminococcus torques and Ruminococcus guavus was higher in the air group.

CONCLUSIONS: CO2 is beneficial to gut microbiota homeostasis during colonoscopy in healthy subjects. The effects in patients with different diseases need to be further studied.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Guidetti C, Salvini E, Viri M, et al (2022)

Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study for Evaluating a Probiotic Mixture on Gastrointestinal and Behavioral Symptoms of Autistic Children.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(18): pii:jcm11185263.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a diagnostic challenge with a still partially uncertain etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors have now been assessed. Among the hypotheses underlying the involvement of biological and environmental factors, the gut-brain axis is of particular interest in autism spectrum disorders. Several studies have highlighted the related incidence of particular gastrointestinal symptoms (GISs) in children suffering from ASDs. Probiotics have shown success in treating several gastrointestinal dysbiotic disorders; therefore, it is plausible to investigate whether they can alleviate behavioral symptoms as well. On these bases, a randomized double-blind crossover study with a placebo was conducted, evaluating the effects of a mixture of probiotics in a group of 61 subjects aged between 24 months and 16 years old with a diagnosis of ASD. Behavioral evaluation was performed through the administration of a questionnaire including a Parenting Stress Index (PSI) test and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS). The Psycho-Educational Profile and the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) were also evaluated. Microbial composition analyses of fecal samples of the two groups was also performed. The study showed significant improvements in GISs, communication skills, maladaptive behaviors, and perceived parental stress level after the administration of probiotics. Microbiome alpha diversity was comparable between treatment arms and no significant differences were found, although beta diversity results were significantly different in the treatment group between T0 and T1 time points. Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius species were identified as some of the most discriminant taxa positively associated with T1 samples. This preliminary study corroborates the relationship between intestinal microbiota and ASD recently described in the literature.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Binmama S, Dang CP, Visitchanakun P, et al (2022)

Beta-Glucan from S. cerevisiae Protected AOM-Induced Colon Cancer in cGAS-Deficient Mice Partly through Dectin-1-Manipulated Macrophage Cell Energy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810951.

Although the impacts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on cancers are mentioned, data on its use in mice with cyclic GMP-AMP synthase deficiency (cGAS-/-) are even rarer. Here, 12 weeks of oral administration of S. cerevisiae protected cGAS-/- mice from azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancers, partly through dysbiosis attenuation (fecal microbiome analysis). In parallel, a daily intralesional injection of a whole glucan particle (WGP; the beta-glucan extracted from S. cerevisiae) attenuated the growth of subcutaneous tumor using MC38 (murine colon cancer cell line) in cGAS-/- mice. Interestingly, the incubation of fluorescent-stained MC38 with several subtypes of macrophages, including M1 (using Lipopolysaccharide; LPS), M2 (IL-4), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM; using MC38 supernatant activation), could not further reduce the tumor burdens (fluorescent intensity) compared with M0 (control culture media). However, WGP enhanced tumoricidal activities (fluorescent intensity), the genes of M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization (IL-1β and iNOS), and Dectin-1 expression and increased cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in M0, M2, and TAM. In M1, WGP could not increase tumoricidal activities, Dectin-1, and glycolysis activity, despite the upregulated IL-1β. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of colon cancers through dysbiosis attenuation and macrophage energy activation, partly through Dectin-1 stimulation. Our data support the use of S. cerevisiae for colon cancer protection.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Finnicum CT, Rahal Z, Hassane M, et al (2022)

Pathogenesis of Tobacco-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Is Closely Coupled with Changes in the Gut and Lung Microbiomes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810930.

Microbial dysbiosis has emerged as a modulator of oncogenesis and response to therapy, particularly in lung cancer. Here, we investigate the evolution of the gut and lung microbiomes following exposure to a tobacco carcinogen. We performed 16S rRNA-Seq of fecal and lung samples collected prior to and at several timepoints following (nicotine-specific nitrosamine ketone/NNK) exposure in Gprc5a-/- mice that were previously shown to exhibit accelerated lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) development following NNK exposure. We found significant progressive changes in human-relevant gut and lung microbiome members (e.g., Odoribacter, Alistipes, Akkermansia, and Ruminococus) that are closely associated with the phenotypic development of LUAD and immunotherapeutic response in human lung cancer patients. These changes were associated with decreased short-chain fatty acids (propionic acid and butyric acid) following exposure to NNK. We next sought to study the impact of Lcn2 expression, a bacterial growth inhibitor, given our previous findings on its protective role in LUAD development. Indeed, we found that the loss of Lcn2 was associated with widespread gut and lung microbiome changes at all timepoints, distinct from those observed in our Gprc5a-/- mouse model, including a decrease in abundance and diversity. Our overall findings apprise novel cues implicating microbial phenotypes in the development of tobacco-associated LUAD.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zheng HH, Du CT, Yu C, et al (2022)

The Relationship of Tumor Microbiome and Oral Bacteria and Intestinal Dysbiosis in Canine Mammary Tumor.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810928.

Canine mammary tumor (CMT) is the most common tumor in dogs, with 50% of malignant cases, and lacks an effective therapeutic schedule, hence its early diagnosis is of great importance to achieve a good prognosis. Microbiota is believed to play important roles in systemic diseases, including cancers. In this study, 91 tumors, 21 oral and fecal samples in total were collected from dogs with CMTs, and 31 oral and 21 fecal samples from healthy dogs were collected as control. The intratumoral, oral and gut bacterial community of dogs with CMTs and healthy dogs was profiled by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic methods. The predominant intratumoral microbes were Ralstonia, Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, unidentified_Chloroplast and Bacteroides at the genus level. In addition, our findings demonstrated striking changes in the composition of the oral and gut bacterium community in the dogs suffered from CMTs compared to the healthy dogs, with a significant increase of Bacteroides which also was the significant microbial biomarker in the oral and gut bacterium community. It showed that the Bacteroides was shared in the intratumoral, oral and intestinal bacterial microbiomes, confirming that microbiota might travel from the mouth to the intestine and finally to the distant mammary tumor tissue. This study provides a new microbiological idea for the treatment of canine mammary tumors, and also provides a theoretical basis for the study of human breast cancer.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Mayorga L, Serrano-Gómez G, Xie Z, et al (2022)

Intercontinental Gut Microbiome Variances in IBD.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810868.

The development of biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosis would be relevant in a generalized context. However, intercontinental investigation on these microbial biomarkers remains scarce. We examined taxonomic microbiome variations in IBD using published DNA shotgun metagenomic data. For this purpose, we used sequenced data from our previous Spanish Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) cohort, downloaded sequence data from a Chinese CD cohort, and downloaded taxonomic and functional profiling tables from a USA CD and UC cohort. At the global level, geographical location and disease phenotype were the main explanatory covariates of microbiome variations. In healthy controls (HC) and UC, geography turned out to be the most important factor, while disease intestinal location was the most important one in CD. Disease severity correlated with lower alpha-diversity in UC but not in CD. Across geography, alpha-diversity was significantly different independently of health status, except for CD. Despite recruitment from different countries and with different disease severity scores, CD patients may harbor a very similar microbial taxonomic profile. Our study pointed out that geographic location, disease activity status, and other environmental factors are important contributing factors in microbiota changes in IBD. We therefore strongly recommend taking these factors into consideration for future IBD studies to obtain globally valid and reproducible biomarkers.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ibal JC, Park YJ, Park MK, et al (2022)

Review of the Current State of Freely Accessible Web Tools for the Analysis of 16S rRNA Sequencing of the Gut Microbiome.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810865.

Owing to the emergence and improvement of high-throughput technology and the associated reduction in costs, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has made large-scale sampling and sequencing possible. With the large volume of data produced, the processing and downstream analysis of data are important for ensuring meaningful results and interpretation. Problems in data analysis may be encountered if researchers have little experience in using programming languages, especially if they are clinicians and beginners in the field. A strategy for solving this problem involves ensuring easy access to commercial software and tools. Here, we observed the current status of free web-based tools for microbiome analysis that can help users analyze and handle microbiome data effortlessly. We limited our search to freely available web-based tools and identified MicrobiomeAnalyst, Mian, gcMeta, VAMPS, and Microbiome Toolbox. We also highlighted the various analyses that each web tool offers, how users can analyze their data using each web tool, and noted some of their limitations. From the abovementioned list, gcMeta, VAMPS, and Microbiome Toolbox had several issues that made the analysis more difficult. Over time, as more data are generated and accessed, more users will analyze microbiome data. Thus, the availability of free and easily accessible web tools can enable the easy use and analysis of microbiome data, especially for those users with less experience in using command-line interfaces.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Vrzalová A, Pečinková P, Illés P, et al (2022)

Mixture Effects of Tryptophan Intestinal Microbial Metabolites on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810825.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays pivotal roles in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology. Intestinal AHR is activated by numerous dietary, endogenous, and microbial ligands. Whereas the effects of individual compounds on AHR are mostly known, the effects of real physiological mixtures occurring in the intestine have not been studied. Using reporter gene assays and RT-PCR, we evaluated the combinatorial effects (3520 combinations) of 11 microbial catabolites of tryptophan (MICTs) on AHR. We robustly (n = 30) determined the potencies and relative efficacies of single MICTs. Synergistic effects of MICT binary mixtures were observed between low- or medium-efficacy agonists, in particular for combinations of indole-3-propionate and indole-3-lactate. Combinations comprising highly efficacious agonists such as indole-3-pyruvate displayed rather antagonist effects, caused by saturation of the assay response. These synergistic effects were confirmed by RT-PCR as CYP1A1 mRNA expression. We also tested mimic multicomponent and binary mixtures of MICTs, prepared based on the metabolomic analyses of human feces and colonoscopy aspirates, respectively. In this case, AHR responsiveness did not correlate with type of diet or health status, and the indole concentrations in the mixtures were determinative of gross AHR activity. Future systematic research on the synergistic activation of AHR by microbial metabolites and other ligands is needed.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Guo X, Sha Y, Pu X, et al (2022)

Coevolution of Rumen Epithelial circRNAs with Their Microbiota and Metabolites in Response to Cold-Season Nutritional Stress in Tibetan Sheep.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810488.

This study explores the effects of the coevolution of the host genome (the first genome) and gut microbiome (the second genome) on nutrition stress in Tibetan sheep during the cold season. The rumen epithelial tissue of six Tibetan sheep (Oula-type) was collected as experimental samples during the cold and warm seasons and the study lasted for half a year. The cDNA library was constructed and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The circRNAs with significant differential expression were identified through bioinformatics analysis and functional prediction, and verified by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that a total of 56 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs of rumen epithelial tissue were identified using RNA-seq technology, among which 29 were significantly upregulated in the cold season. The circRNA-miRNA regulatory network showed that DE circRNAs promoted the adaptation of Tibetan sheep in the cold season by targeting miR-150 and oar-miR-370-3p. The results of correlation analysis among circRNAs, microbiota, and metabolites showed that the circRNA NC_040275.1:28680890|28683112 had a very significant positive correlation with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) (p < 0.01), and had a significant positive correlation with Ruminococcus-1 (p < 0.05). In addition, circRNA NC_040256.1:78451819|78454934 and metabolites were enriched in the same KEGG pathway biosynthesis of amino acids (ko01230). In conclusion, the host genome and rumen microbiome of Tibetan sheep co-encoded a certain glycoside hydrolase (β-glucosidase) and coevolved efficient VFA transport functions and amino acid anabolic processes; thus, helping Tibetan sheep adapt to nutrient stress in the cold season in high-altitude areas.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Duarte SMB, Stefano JT, Franco LAM, et al (2022)

Synbiotic Supplementation Modulates Gut Microbiota, Regulates β-Catenin Expression and Prevents Weight Gain in ob/ob Mice: Preliminary Findings.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810483.

BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the main health problems in the world today, and dysbiosis seems to be one of the factors involved. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of synbiotic supplementation on obesity and the microbiota in ob/ob mice. Twenty animals were divided into four groups: obese treated (OT), obese control (OC), lean treated (LT) and lean control (LC). All animals received a standard diet for 8 weeks. The treated groups received a synbiotic (Simbioflora-Invictus Farmanutrição Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil) in water, while the nontreated groups received only water. After 8 weeks, all animals were sacrificed, and gut tissue and stool samples were collected for mRNA isolation and microbiota analysis, respectively. β-Catenin, occludin, cadherin and zonulin in the gut tissue were analyzed via RT-qPCR. Microbiome DNA was extracted from stool samples and sequenced using an Ion PGM Torrent platform.

RESULTS: Synbiotic supplementation reduced body weight gain in the OT group compared with the OC group (p = 0.0398) and was associated with an increase in Enterobacteriaceae (p = 0.005) and a decrease in Cyanobacteria (p = 0.047), Clostridiaceae (p = 0.026), Turicibacterales (p = 0.005) and Coprococcus (p = 0.047). On the other hand, a significant reduction in Sutterella (p = 0.009) and Turicibacter (p = 0.005) bacteria was observed in the LT group compared to the LC group. Alpha and beta diversities were different among all treated groups. β-Catenin gene expression was significantly decreased in the gut tissue of the OT group (p ≤ 0.0001) compared to the other groups. No changes were observed in occludin, cadherin or zonulin gene expression in the gut tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: Synbiotic supplementation prevents excessive weight gain, modulates the gut microbiota, and reduces β-catenin expression in ob/ob mice.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Graziano S, Caldara M, Gullì M, et al (2022)

A Metagenomic and Gene Expression Analysis in Wheat (T. durum) and Maize (Z. mays) Biofertilized with PGPM and Biochar.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810376.

Commodity crops, such as wheat and maize, are extremely dependent on chemical fertilizers, a practice contributing greatly to the increase in the contaminants in soil and water. Promising solutions are biofertilizers, i.e., microbial biostimulants that when supplemented with soil stimulate plant growth and production. Moreover, the biofertilizers can be fortified when (i) provided as multifunctional consortia and (ii) combined with biochar with a high cargo capacity. The aim of this work was to determine the molecular effects on the soil microbiome of different biofertilizers and delivery systems, highlight their physiological effects and merge the data with statistical analyses. The measurements of the physiological parameters (i.e., shoot and root biomass), transcriptomic response of genes involved in essential pathways, and characterization of the rhizosphere population were analyzed. The results demonstrated that wheat and maize supplemented with different combinations of selected microbial consortia and biochar have a positive effect on plant growth in terms of shoot and root biomass; the treatments also had a beneficial influence on the biodiversity of the indigenous rhizo-microbial community, reinforcing the connection between microbes and plants without further spreading contaminants. There was also evidence at the transcriptional level of crosstalk between microbiota and plants.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Del Chierico F, Conta G, Matteoli MC, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota Functional Traits, Blood pH, and Anti-GAD Antibodies Concur in the Clinical Characterization of T1D at Onset.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810256.

Alterations of gut microbiota have been identified before clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes (T1D). To identify the associations amongst gut microbiome profile, metabolism and disease markers, the 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling and 1H-NMR metabolomic analysis were performed on stool samples of 52 T1D patients at onset, 17 T1D siblings and 57 healthy subjects (CTRL). Univariate, multivariate analyses and classification models were applied to clinical and -omic integrated datasets. In T1D patients and their siblings, Clostridiales and Dorea were increased and Dialister and Akkermansia were decreased compared to CTRL, while in T1D, Lachnospiraceae were higher and Collinsella was lower, compared to siblings and CTRL. Higher levels of isobutyrate, malonate, Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, were associated to T1D compared to CTRL. Patients with higher anti-GAD levels showed low abundances of Roseburia, Faecalibacterium and Alistipes and those with normal blood pH and low serum HbA1c levels showed high levels of purine and pyrimidine intermediates. We detected specific gut microbiota profiles linked to both T1D at the onset and to diabetes familiarity. The presence of specific microbial and metabolic profiles in gut linked to anti-GAD levels and to blood acidosis can be considered as predictive biomarker associated progression and severity of T1D.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Borroni D, Paytuví-Gallart A, Sanseverino W, et al (2022)

Exploring the Healthy Eye Microbiota Niche in a Multicenter Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(18): pii:ijms231810229.

PURPOSE: This study aims to explore and characterize healthy eye microbiota.

METHODS: Healthy subjects older than 18 years were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Samples were collected with an eSwab with 1 mL of Liquid Amies Medium (Copan Brescia, Italy). Following DNA extraction, libraries preparation, and amplification, PCR products were purified and end-repaired for barcode ligation. Libraries were pooled to a final concentration of 26 pM. Template preparation was performed with Ion Chef according to Ion 510, Ion 520, and Ion 530 Kit-Chef protocol. Sequencing of the amplicon libraries was carried out on a 520 or 530 chip using the Ion Torrent S5 system (Thermo Fisher; Waltham, MA, USA). Raw reads were analyzed with GAIA (v 2.02).

RESULTS: Healthy eye microbiota is a low-diversity microbiome. The vast majority of the 137 analyzed samples were highly enriched with Staphylococcus, whereas only in a few of them, other genera such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium predominate. We found an average of 88 genera with an average Shannon index of 0.65.

CONCLUSION: We identified nine different ECSTs. A better understanding of healthy eye microbiota has the potential to improve disease diagnosis and personalized regimens to promote health.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

D'Agostino S, Ferrara E, Valentini G, et al (2022)

Exploring Oral Microbiome in Healthy Infants and Children: A Systematic Review.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(18): pii:ijerph191811403.

Recent advances in the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, such as the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, have enabled significant progress in characterizing the architecture of the oral microbiome. Understanding the taxonomic and functional components of the oral microbiome, especially during early childhood development, is becoming critical for identifying the interactions and adaptations of bacterial communities to dynamic conditions that may lead to the dysfunction of the host environment, thereby contributing to the onset and/or progression of a wide range of pathological conditions. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the most recent evidence from studies of the oral microbiome of infants and young children, focusing on the development of oral microbiome in the window of birth to 18 years, focusing on infants. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, WOS, and the WHO clinical trial website for relevant articles published between 2006 to 2022 to identify studies that examined genome-wide transcriptome of the oral microbiome in birth, early childhood, and adolescence performed via 16s rRNA sequence analysis. In addition, the references of selected articles were screened for other relevant studies. This systematic review was performed in accordance PRISMA guidelines. Data extraction and quality assessment were independently conducted by two authors, and a third author resolved discrepancies. Overall, 34 studies were included in this systematic review. Due to a considerable heterogeneity in study population, design, and outcome measures, a formal meta-analysis was not carried out. The current evidence indicates that a core microbiome is present in newborns, and it is stable in species number. Disparity about delivery mode influence are found. Further investigations are needed.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Salazar-Flores J, Lomelí-Martínez SM, Ceja-Gálvez HR, et al (2022)

Impacts of Pesticides on Oral Cavity Health and Ecosystems: A Review.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(18): pii:ijerph191811257.

Pesticides are chemical substances used to control, prevent, or destroy agricultural, domestic, and livestock pests. These compounds produce adverse changes in health, and they have been associated with the development of multiple chronic diseases. This study aimed to present a detailed review of the effect of pesticides on the oral cavity and the oral microbiome. In the oral cavity, pesticides alter and/or modify tissues and the microbiome, thereby triggering imbalance in the ecosystem, generating an inflammatory response, and activating hydrolytic enzymes. In particular, the imbalance in the oral microbiome creates a dysbiosis that modifies the number, composition, and/or functions of the constituent microorganisms and the local response of the host. Pesticide exposure alters epithelial cells, and oral microbiota, and disrupts the homeostasis of the oral environment. The presence of pesticides in the oral cavity predisposes the appearance of pathologies such as caries, periodontal diseases, oral cancer, and odontogenic infections. In this study, we analyzed the effect of organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, bipyridyls, and triazineson oral cavity health and ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Mu Y, Huang J, Zhou R, et al (2022)

Effects of Daqu Attributes on Distribution and Assembly Patterns of Microbial Communities and Their Metabolic Function of Artificial Pit Mud.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:foods11182922.

Daqu provides functional microbiota and various nutrients for artificial pit mud (APM) cultivation. However, little is known about whether its attributes affect the microbiome and metabolome of APM. Here, two types of APM were manufactured by adding fortified Daqu (FD) and conventional Daqu (CD); they were comprehensively compared by polyphasic detection methods after being used for two years. The results showed that FD altered the prokaryotic communities rather than the fungal ones, resulting in increased archaea and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12 and decreased eubacteria and Lactobacillus. Correlation analysis suggested that these variations in community structure promoted the formation of hexanoic acid, butyric acid, and the corresponding ethyl esters, whereas they inhibited that of lactic acid and ethyl lactate and thus improved the flavor quality of the APM. Notably, pH was the main driving factor for the bacterial community variation, and the total acid mediated the balance between the stochastic and the deterministic processes. Furthermore, the results of the network analysis and PICRUSt2 indicated that FD also enhanced the modularity and robustness of the co-occurrence network and the abundance of enzymes related to hexanoic acid and butyric acid production. Our study highlights the importance of Daqu attributes in APM cultivation, which are of great significance for the production of high-quality strong-flavor Baijiu.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Yang H, Qu Y, Gao Y, et al (2022)

Research Progress on the Correlation between the Intestinal Microbiota and Food Allergy.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:foods11182913.

The increasing incidence of food allergy is becoming a substantial public health concern. Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota play a part in the development of food allergy. Additionally, the application of probiotics to correct gut microbiota imbalances and regulate food allergy has become a research hotspot. However, the mechanism by which the gut microbiota regulates food allergy and the efficacy of probiotics are still in the preliminary exploration stage, and there are no clear and specific conclusions. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding the immune mechanism underlying food allergy, the correlation between the intestinal microbiota and food allergy, a detailed description of causation, and mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota regulates food allergy. Subsequently, we highlight how probiotics modulate the gut microbiome-immune axis to alleviate food allergy. This study will contribute to the dovetailing of bacterial therapeutics with immune system in allergic individuals to prevent food allergy and ameliorate food allergy symptoms.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Xiong RG, Zhou DD, Wu SX, et al (2022)

Health Benefits and Side Effects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:foods11182863.

The gut microbiota and their metabolites could play an important role in health and diseases of human beings. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are mainly produced by gut microbiome fermentation of dietary fiber and could also be produced by bacteria of the skin and vagina. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are three major SCFAs, and their bioactivities have been widely studied. The SCFAs have many health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anticancer, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities. This paper summarizes health benefits and side effects of SCFAs with a special attention paid to the mechanisms of action. This paper provides better support for people eating dietary fiber as well as ways for dietary fiber to be developed into functional food to prevent diseases.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zannini E, Sahin AW, EK Arendt (2022)

Resistant Protein: Forms and Functions.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:foods11182759.

Several global health risks are related to our dietary lifestyle. As a consequence of the overconsumption of ultra-processed and highly digestible protein (150-200% of the recommended value), excess dietary proteins reach the colon, are hydrolysed to peptides and amino acids by bacterial proteases and fermented to various potentially toxic end products. A diet reformulation strategy with reduced protein content in food products appears to be the most effective approach. A potential approach to this challenge is to reduce food digestibility by introducing resistant protein into the diet that could positively influence human health and gut microbiome functionality. Resistant protein is a dietary constituent not hydrolysed by digestive enzymes or absorbed in the human small intestine. The chemical conformation and the amino acid composition strictly influence its structural stability and resistance to in vivo proteolysis and denaturation. Responding to the important gap in our knowledge regarding the digestibility performance of alternative proteins, we hypothesise that resistant proteins can beneficially alter food functionality via their role in improving metabolic properties and health benefits in human nutrition, similar to fibres and resistant starches. A multidisciplinary investigation of resistant protein will generate tremendous scientific impact for other interlinked societal, economic, technological and health and wellbeing aspects of human life.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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