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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2023 at 01:53 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-12-06

Satheesh Babu AK, Petersen C, Paz HA, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiota Depletion Using Antibiotics to Investigate Diet-Derived Microbial Metabolites: An Efficient Strategy.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Gut microbiota depletion using antibiotics in drinking water is a valuable tool to investigate the role of gut microbes and microbial metabolites in health and disease. However, there are challenges associated with this model. Animals avoid drinking water because of the antibiotic bitterness, which affects their metabolic health. The present study develops an efficient strategy to deplete gut microbes without affecting metabolic parameters.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice (7 weeks old) are fed a control (C) or high-fat (HF) diet. Subgroups of C and HF mice receive an antibiotic cocktail in drinking water (CA and HA). The antibiotic dosage is gradually increased so that the animals adapt to the taste of antibiotics. Metabolic parameters, gut microbiome, and microbial metabolites are assessed after 12 weeks treatment. Culture methods and 16s rRNA amplification confirm the depletion of gut microbes in antibiotic groups (CA and HA). Further, antibiotic treatment does not alter metabolic parameters (body weight, body fat, lean body mass, blood glucose, and glucose/insulin tolerance), whereas it suppresses the production of diet-derived microbial metabolites (trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide).

CONCLUSION: This strategy effectively depletes gut microbes and suppresses the production of microbial metabolites in mice without affecting their metabolic health.

RevDate: 2023-12-06

Kim S, Jung Y, Lee SB, et al (2023)

Gut microbial signatures in clinically stable ulcerative colitis according to the mucosal state and associated symptoms.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The gut microbiome of patients with clinically stable ulcerative colitis (UC) differs from that of healthy individuals depending on the state of the colonic mucosa, especially with or without advanced scarring; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Therefore, this study examined the gut microbiome compositional signatures in patients with significant mucosal scarring and UC-related symptoms.

METHODS: Stool samples for gut microbiome analysis were prospectively collected from 57 patients with clinically stable UC between January 1 and December 31, 2022. Data from 57 individuals without inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) paired by age and sex were selected from our previous study as the control group. The fecal samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Associations between gut microbiome profiles and clinical or colonoscopic assessments were examined using diversity and differential abundance analyses.

RESULTS: Gut microbiome compositions between the patients with clinically stable UC and non-IBD controls differed significantly. Furthermore, gut microbiome compositions varied between the preserved and altered mucosa groups identified based on mucosal changes in the UC group. Differential abundance test of patients with UC for symptomatic remission based on stool frequency from the two-item patient-reported outcome identified several overlapping taxa specified as gut microbiome signatures, including the Enterobacteriaceae unknown genera (Enterobacteriaceae_g), Klebsiella, and several Lachnospiraceae spp. both in mucosal and symptom change analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome can change with mucosal changes, even in clinically stable UC, and some gut microbial signatures may explain the symptom manifestations in patients with UC showing significant mucosal changes.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Du L, Dong X, Song J, et al (2023)

Temporal and spatial differences in the vaginal microbiome of Chinese healthy women.

PeerJ, 11:e16438.

BACKGROUND: Up the reproductive tract, there are large differences in the composition of vaginal microbes. Throughout the menstrual cycle, the structure of the vaginal microbiome shifts. Few studies have examined both in combination. Our study was designed to explore trends in the microbiome of different parts of the vagina in healthy women over the menstrual cycle.

METHODS: We performed metagenomic sequencing to characterize the microbiome differences between the cervical orifice and mid-vagina throughout the menstrual cycle.

RESULTS: Our results showed the vaginal microbiome of healthy women in the cervical orifice and the mid-vagina was similar during the periovulatory and luteal phases, with Lactobacillus being the dominant bacteria. In the follicular phase, Acinetobacter was detected in the cervical orifice. From the follicular phase to the luteal phase, the community state types (all five community status types were defined as CSTs) in samples No. 10 and No. 11 changed from CST III to CST I. In addition, the composition of the vaginal microbiome in healthy women from different regions of China was significantly different. We also detected viruses including Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) during periovulatory phase.

CONCLUSION: This study is valuable for understanding whether the microbial composition of the vagina is consistent in different parts of the menstrual cycle.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Wang ZY, Zheng YX, Xu F, et al (2023)

Epidermal keratinocyte-specific STAT3 deficiency aggravated atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation in mice through TSLP upregulation.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1273182.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases with complex pathogenesis involving epidermal barrier dysfunction, skin microbiome abnormalities and type-2-skewed immune dysregulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that plays critical roles in various biological processes. However, the role of STAT3 in epidermal keratinocytes in AD remains unclear. In this study, we generated an epidermal keratinocyte-specific Stat3-deficient mouse strain (termed Stat3 cKO mice). After topical 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) treatment, Stat3 cKO mice developed worsened AD-like skin inflammation with increased Ki67[+] cells, decreased filaggrin and loricrin expression, and downregulated S100A9 and LL37. The dominant microbial population in Stat3 cKO mice changed from Ralstonia to Staphylococcus. DNCB-treated Stat3 cKO mice displayed more infiltrating type-2 inflammatory cells, including mast cells, eosinophils, and CD4[+]T cells, accompanied by increased skin IL-4 and serum IgE levels. Moreover, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), mainly produced by keratinocytes, was highly expressed in the ear skin of Stat3 cKO mice and chemoattracted more TSLPR[+] cells. TSLP blockade significantly alleviated DNCB-induced AD-like skin inflammation in Stat3 cKO mice. Thus, epidermal keratinocyte-specific STAT3 deficiency can aggravate AD-like skin inflammation in mice, possibly through TSLP dysregulation.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Maust BS, Petkov S, Herrera C, et al (2023)

Bacterial microbiome and host inflammatory gene expression in foreskin tissue.

Heliyon, 9(11):e22145.

The penile epithelial microbiome remains underexplored. We sequenced human RNA and a segment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from the foreskin tissue of 144 adolescents from South Africa and Uganda collected during penile circumcision after receipt of 1-2 doses of placebo, emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or emtricitabine + tenofovir alafenamide to investigate the microbiome of foreskin tissue and its potential changes with antiretroviral use. We identified a large number of anaerobic species, including Corynebacterium acnes, which was detected more frequently in participants from South Africa than Uganda. Bacterial populations did not differ by treatment received, and no differentially abundant taxa were identified between placebo versus active drug recipients. The relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa was negatively correlated with expression of genes downstream of the innate immune response to bacteria and regulation of inflammation. Our results show no difference in the tissue microbiome of the foreskin with short-course antiretroviral use but that bacterial taxa were largely inversely correlated with inflammatory gene expression, consistent with commensal colonization.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Dai W, Liu Y, Zhang X, et al (2023)

16S rDNA profiling of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicus) fed with soybean fermented powder intestinal flora in response to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infection.

Heliyon, 9(11):e22369.

Soybean fermentation has a balancing effect on the regulation of intestinal flora. Relative research between fermented soybeans and intestinal microbiota is limited. Our aim was to explore the effects of soybean fermented fowder on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced intestinal microflora and corresponding functions in loach. 16S rDNA high-throughout sequencing was applied to estimate differences in the intestinal microbiota and predict genes function. Analysis of the overall of sequencing data showed that the ratio of Effective Tags in both the control group and the treatment group was greater than 80 %. Based on six major classifications involved in the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, we acquired the changes in the composition of intestinal microorganisms after the supplement of soybean fermented powder. These results showed that the dominant bacteria in the two groups were basically distinct at different levels. Alpha diversity analysis indicated that the microbial richness and uniformity of soybean fermented powder decreased compared to the control group. PICRUSt and Taxfun tools analysis of intestinal flora illustrated the functional genes of the six groups were mainly involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, cellular processes, environmental information processing, and human diseases at the level 1. These data clearly demonstrated the effect of soybean fermented powder on the gut microbiome. Not only that, it provides new ideas and insights for achieving high-quality utilization of soybean fermented powder. The potential mechanisms of soybean fermented powder to alter gut flora and intestinal microbiome function can further be explored.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Sharma S, Bakht A, Jahanzaib M, et al (2023)

Characterization of bacterial species and antibiotic resistance observed in Seoul, South Korea's popular Gangnam-gu area.

Heliyon, 9(11):e21751.

Public transportation facilities, especially road crossings, which raise the pathogenic potential of urban environments, are the most conducive places for the transfer of germs between people and the environment. It is necessary to study the variety of the microbiome and describe its unique characteristics to comprehend these relationships. In this investigation, we used 16 S rRNA gene sample sequencing to examine the biological constituents and inhalable, thoracic, and alveolar particles in aerosol samples collected from busy areas in the Gangnam-gu district of the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile vehicle. We also conducted a comparison analysis of these findings with the previously published data and tested for antibiotic resistance to determine the distribution of bacteria related to the human microbiome and the environment. Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes were the top five phyla in the bacterial 16 S rRNA libraries, accounting for >90 % of all readings across all examined locations. The most prevalent classes among the 12 found bacterial classes were Bacilli (45.812 %), Gammaproteobacteria (25.238 %), Tissierellia (13.078 %), Clostridia (5.697 %), and Alphaproteobacteria (5.142 %). The data acquired offer useful information on the variety of bacterial communities and their resistance to antibiotic drugs on the streets of Gangnam-gu, one of the most significant social centers in the Seoul metropolitan area. This work emphasizes the relevance of biological particles and particulate matter in the air, and it suggests more research is needed to perform biological characterization of the ambient particulate matter.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Xia W, Li S, Li L, et al (2023)

Role of anthraquinones in combating insulin resistance.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 14:1275430.

Insulin resistance presents a formidable public health challenge that is intricately linked to the onset and progression of various chronic ailments, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Effectively addressing insulin resistance is paramount in preventing and managing these metabolic disorders. Natural herbal remedies show promise in combating insulin resistance, with anthraquinone extracts garnering attention for their role in enhancing insulin sensitivity and treating diabetes. Anthraquinones are believed to ameliorate insulin resistance through diverse pathways, encompassing activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, restoration of insulin signal transduction, attenuation of inflammatory pathways, and modulation of gut microbiota. This comprehensive review aims to consolidate the potential anthraquinone compounds that exert beneficial effects on insulin resistance, elucidating the underlying mechanisms responsible for their therapeutic impact. The evidence discussed in this review points toward the potential utilization of anthraquinones as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat insulin resistance and its associated metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Ma L, La X, Zhang B, et al (2023)

Total Astragalus saponins can reverse type 2 diabetes mellitus-related intestinal dysbiosis and hepatic insulin resistance in vivo.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1190827.

OBJECTIVE: Intestinal flora homeostasis in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was evaluated to explore the effects of total Astragalus saponins (TAS) on hepatic insulin resistance (IR).

METHODS: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat and high-sugar diet for 4 weeks and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce T2DM, and they were then randomly divided into control, model, metformin, and TAS groups. Stool, serum, colon, and liver samples were collected after 8 weeks of drug administration for relevant analyses.

RESULTS: TAS reduced fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, area under the curve of oral glucose tolerance test, glycated serum protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in T2DM rats but increased insulin, C-peptide, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, TAS improved the morphology and structure of liver and colon tissues and improved the composition of the intestinal microbiome and bacterial community structure at different taxonomic levels. In addition, TAS increased the protein expression of hepatic IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, and p-AKT and decreased the protein expression of p-GSK-3β. Meanwhile, TAS increased the mRNA expression of liver PDK1, PI3K, and GS and decreased the mRNA expression of GSK-3β.

CONCLUSION: TAS can ameliorate T2DM-related abnormal glucose and blood lipid metabolism, intestinal dysbiosis, and IR.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Lawrence P, Padamsee M, Lee K, et al (2023)

Soil microbial functional gene dataset associated with Agathis australis.

Data in brief, 51:109791.

Agathis australis (New Zealand kauri) is a significant and iconic native tree of Aotearoa New Zealand. Currently, Phytophthora agathidicida that causes kauri-dieback disease is killing kauri trees. Only 1% of the New Zealand virgin kauri forest remains [1,2]. Recent studies revealed that many soil-borne microorganisms had been found to systemically boost the defensive capacity of the trees by providing competition to pathogens for nutrient intake, thus preventing pathogen colonization and modulating plant immunity [3,4]. In addition, the root microbiome consists of an entire complex rhizosphere-associated microbes with their genetic elements and interactions that have influenced plant health. To date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the microorganisms in the kauri soil and possible environmental drivers. To characterize the functional gene profile in relation to soil microbial diversity of the kauri trees at Auckland Botanic Gardens (ABG), Auckland, New Zealand the GeoChip 5.0 M (Glomics Inc. USA), a microarray-based metagenomics tool, was used. GeoChip 5.0 M comprises of 162,000 probes from 365,000 target genes (coding DNA sequence - CDS), which covers all taxonomic groups (archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists, algae, and viruses) [5]. The ABG has kauri trees that are approximately 20 years old, located in three distinct man-made environments: Native Forest, Kauri Grove, and Rose Garden. We selected two trees from the Native Forest and two from the Kauri Grove for our experiment. Soil samples were collected from the four cardinal points of each tree, at 10 cm depth. Pooled environmental DNA was sent to Glomics (USA) and the data were preprocessed using GeoChip data analysis pipeline described in Based on the GeoChip data generated from the soil samples, we have detected a total of 946 genes, 4342 taxa, 102 phyla, and 995 genera. The data presented here provide an overview of functional genes associated with kauri soil, which can serve as baseline for other kauri soil microbiome analysis at forest-scale studies. The raw data has been uploaded to Mendeley Data

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Zuo Z, Pei L, Liu T, et al (2023)

Investigation of Gut Microbiota Disorders in Sepsis and Sepsis Complicated with Acute Gastrointestinal Injury Based on 16S rRNA Genes Illumina Sequencing.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:7389-7403.

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by the host's dysfunctional response to infection, which can cause acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI). The gut microbiota is dynamic and plays a role in the immune and metabolic. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition and function of gut microbiota in patients with sepsis, as well as the gut microbiome that may be involved in the occurrence of AGI.

METHODS: A total of 23 stool samples from healthy control individuals and 41 stool samples from sepsis patients were collected. Patients with sepsis were followed up for one week to observe whether AGI has occurred. Finally, 41 patients included 21 sepsis complicated with AGI (referred to as Com-AGI) and 20 sepsis without complicated with AGI (referred to as No-AGI). The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, followed by composition analysis, difference analysis, correlation analysis, functional prediction analysis.

RESULTS: The diversity and evenness of gut microbiota were decreased in patients with sepsis. Compared with No-AGI, the gut microbiota of Com-AGI has higher community diversity, richness, and phylogenetic diversity. Escherichia-Shigella, Blautia and Enterococcus may be important indicators of sepsis. The correlation analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Barnesiella have the most significant positive correlation. Moreover, Clostridium_innocuum_group, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Eubacterium were all significantly correlated with LAC and DAO. Clostridium_innocuum_group, Barnesiella, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Eubacterium may play important roles in the occurrence of AGI in sepsis. PICRUSt analysis revealed multiple functional pathways involved in the relationship between gut microbiota and sepsis, including starch degradation V, glycogen degradation I (bacterial), Lipoic acid metabolism and Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis. BugBase analysis showed that the gut microbiota with Aerobic phenotype may play an important role in sepsis.

CONCLUSION: Dysfunction of gut microbiota was associated with sepsis and AGI in patients with sepsis.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Jiang X, Deng S, Lu N, et al (2023)

Fecal microbial composition associated with testosterone in the development of Meishan male pigs.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1257295.

INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota closely relates to host health, whereas the relationship between gut microbiota and testosterone during the development of Meishan male pigs remains unclear. This study investigated the fecal microbiota composition and testosterone level during development in Meishan male pigs.

METHODS: Fresh fecal samples of 20 healthy Meishan male pigs were individually collected at 10 and 22 weeks (wk) of age for testosterone content detection and bacteria pyrosequencing analysis. Anaerobic culture experiment of fecal bacteria in vitro was performed for bacteria pyrosequencing analysis.

RESULTS: The fecal testosterone content increased significantly from 10 weeks (wk) to 22 wk of age (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the boars at 22 wk had a lower abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and genus Alloprevotella, Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, and Streptococcus in the fecal microbiota composition (P < 0.05). but higher proportions of the phylum Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Kiritimatiellaeota, and Tenericutes, and genus Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Muribaculaceae and Terrisporobacter than that at 10 wk (P < 0.05), and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was higher at 22 wk than 10 wk (P < 0.05). Moreover, the fecal testosterone level significantly correlated with the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Tencuteseri, and genus Alloprevotella, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Muribaculaceae, Prevotella_1 and Streptococcus. Furthermore, the in vitro experiments indicated that the abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and genus Escherichia-Shigella reduced with the increase of supplemental testosterone level. In contrast, the proportion of Firmicutes phylum increased with additional testosterone levels.

DISCUSSION: Testosterone could modulate the microflora structure. Meanwhile, the bacteria could degrade the testosterone in a dose testosterone-dependent manner. These results provide us with new insights into the relationship between the gut microbiome and testosterone and the contributions of the gut microbiome in physiological regulation in response to gonad development.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Zhou YM, Yuan JJ, Xu YQ, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota as a predictor of acupuncture responses in patients with postpartum depressive disorder.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1228940.

BACKGROUND: There are several clinical and molecular predictors of responses to antidepressant therapy. However, these markers are either too subjective or complex for clinical use. The gut microbiota could provide an easily accessible set of biomarkers to predict therapeutic efficacy, but its value in predicting therapy responses to acupuncture in patients with depression is unknown. Here we analyzed the predictive value of the gut microbiota in patients with postpartum depressive disorder (PPD) treated with acupuncture.

METHODS: Seventy-nine PPD patients were enrolled: 55 were treated with acupuncture and 24 did not received any treatment. The 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD-17) was used to assess patients at baseline and after eight weeks. Patients receiving acupuncture treatment were divided into an acupuncture-responsive group or non-responsive group according to HAMD-17 scores changes. Baseline fecal samples were obtained from the patients receiving acupuncture and were analyzed by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the gut microbiome.

RESULTS: 47.27% patients responded to acupuncture treatment and 12.5% patients with no treatment recovered after 8-week follow-up. There was no significant difference in α-diversity between responders and non-responders. The β-diversity of non-responders was significantly higher than responders. Paraprevotella and Desulfovibrio spp. were significantly enriched in acupuncture responders, and these organisms had an area under the curve of 0.76 and 0.66 for predicting responder patients, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Paraprevotella and Desulfovibrioare may be useful predictive biomarkers to predict PPD patients likely to respond to acupuncture. Larger studies and validation in independent cohorts are now needed to validate our findings.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Hammad MI, Conrads G, MMH Abdelbary (2023)

Isolation, identification, and significance of salivary Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., and Prevotella salivae in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1278582.

The global prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is on the rise, prompting significant attention from researchers worldwide. IBD entails chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract, characterized by alternating flares and remissions. Through high-throughput sequencing, numerous studies have unveiled a potential microbial signature for IBD patients showing intestinal enrichment of oral-associated bacteria. Simultaneously, the oral microbiome can be perturbed by intestinal inflammation. Our prior investigation, based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, underscored elevated abundance of Veillonella spp. and Prevotella spp. in the salivary microbiomes of IBD patients. Noteworthy, Prevotella salivae emerged as a distinct species significantly associated with IBD. P. salivae is an under-recognized pathogen that was found to play a role in both oral and systemic diseases. In this study, we delve deeper into the salivary microbiomes of both IBD patients and healthy controls. Employing diverse cultivation techniques and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR), we gauged the prevalence and abundance of Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., and P. salivae. Our isolation efforts yielded 407 and 168 strains of Veillonella spp., as well as 173 and 90 strains of Prevotella spp., from the saliva samples of IBD patients and healthy controls, respectively. Veillonella-vancomycin agar emerged as the discerning choice for optimal Veillonella spp. cultivation, while Schaedler kanamycin-vancomycin agar proved to be the most suitable medium for cultivating Prevotella spp. strains. Comparing our RT-qPCR findings to the previous 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data, the results corroborated the higher abundance of Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., and P. salivae in the saliva of IBD patients compared to healthy controls. However, it's worth noting that in contrast to RT-qPCR, the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data revealed greater absolute abundance of all three bacterial groups in both IBD patients and controls.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Prioux C, Tignat-Perrier R, Gervais O, et al (2023)

Unveiling microbiome changes in Mediterranean octocorals during the 2022 marine heatwaves: quantifying key bacterial symbionts and potential pathogens.

Microbiome, 11(1):271.

BACKGROUND: Climate change has accelerated the occurrence and severity of heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea and poses a significant threat to the octocoral species that form the foundation of marine animal forests (MAFs). As coral health intricately relies on the symbiotic relationships established between corals and microbial communities, our goal was to gain a deeper understanding of the role of bacteria in the observed tissue loss of key octocoral species following the unprecedented heatwaves in 2022.

RESULTS: Using amplicon sequencing and taxon-specific qPCR analyses, we unexpectedly found that the absolute abundance of the major bacterial symbionts, Spirochaetaceae (C. rubrum) and Endozoicomonas (P. clavata), remained, in most cases, unchanged between colonies with 0% and 90% tissue loss. These results suggest that the impairment of coral health was not due to the loss of the main bacterial symbionts. However, we observed a significant increase in the total abundance of bacterial opportunists, including putative pathogens such as Vibrio, which was not evident when only their relative abundance was considered. In addition, there was no clear relation between bacterial symbiont loss and the intensity of thermal stress, suggesting that factors other than temperature may have influenced the differential response of octocoral microbiomes at different sampling sites.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tissue loss in octocorals is not directly caused by the decline of the main bacterial symbionts but by the proliferation of opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria. Our findings thus underscore the significance of considering both relative and absolute quantification approaches when evaluating the impact of stressors on coral microbiome as the relative quantification does not accurately depict the actual changes in the microbiome. Consequently, this research enhances our comprehension of the intricate interplay between host organisms, their microbiomes, and environmental stressors, while offering valuable insights into the ecological implications of heatwaves on marine animal forests. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Costa LSAS, de Faria MR, Chiaramonte JB, et al (2023)

Repeated exposure of wheat to the fungal root pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana modulates rhizosphere microbiome assembly and disease suppressiveness.

Environmental microbiome, 18(1):85.

BACKGROUND: Disease suppressiveness of soils to fungal root pathogens is typically induced in the field by repeated infections of the host plant and concomitant changes in the taxonomic composition and functional traits of the rhizosphere microbiome. Here, we studied this remarkable phenomenon for Bipolaris sorokiniana in two wheat cultivars differing in resistance to this fungal root pathogen.

RESULTS: The results showed that repeated exposure of the susceptible wheat cultivar to the pathogen led to a significant reduction in disease severity after five successive growth cycles. Surprisingly, the resistant wheat cultivar, initially included as a control, showed the opposite pattern with an increase in disease severity after repeated pathogen exposure. Amplicon analyses revealed that the bacterial families Chitinophagaceae, Anaerolineaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were associated with disease suppressiveness in the susceptible wheat cultivar; disease suppressiveness in the resistant wheat cultivar was also associated with Chitinophagaceae and a higher abundance of Comamonadaceae. Metagenome analysis led to the selection of 604 Biosynthetic Gene Clusters (BGCs), out of a total of 2,571 identified by AntiSMASH analysis, that were overrepresented when the soil entered the disease suppressive state. These BGCs are involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes, non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, aryl polyenes and post-translationally modified peptides.

CONCLUSION: Combining taxonomic and functional profiling we identified key changes in the rhizosphere microbiome during disease suppression. This illustrates how the host plant relies on the rhizosphere microbiome as the first line of defense to fight soil-borne pathogens. Microbial taxa and functions identified here can be used in novel strategies to control soil-borne fungal pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Wang J, Wu S, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Correlation between gut microbiome and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

BMC nephrology, 24(1):360.

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has demonstrated that patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) are more likely to experience cognitive impairment than patients with non-dialysis end-stage renal disease (ESRD); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the role and predictive significance of gut microbiome alterations in PD-associated cognitive impairment.

METHODS: A total of 29 non-dialysis ESRD patients and 28 PD patients were enrolled in this study and divided into subgroups according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Faecal samples were analyzed using 16 S rRNA. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and MoCA scores were used to assess the degree of cognitive impairment in patients.

RESULTS: The 16 S rRNA analysis demonstrated differences in gut microbiome abundance and structure between PD and non-dialysis ESRD patients and between PD patients with cognitive impairment (PCI) and PD patients with normal cognition (PNCI). At family and genus levels, Prevotellaceae exhibited the greatest structure difference, while Lactobacillus exhibited the greatest abundance difference between PCI and PNCI. Altered microbiota abundance significantly correlated with cognitive function and serum indicators in PD. In addition, different modules related to fatty acid, lipid, pantothenate, and coenzyme A biosynthesis, and tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism were inferred from 16 S rRNA data between PCI and PNCI. Both groups could be distinguished using models based on the abundance of Lactobacillaceae (Area under curve [AUC] = 0.83), Actinomycetaceae (AUC = 0.798), and Prevotellaceae (AUC = 0.778) families and Lactobacillus (AUC = 0.848) and Actinomyces (AUC = 0.798) genera.

CONCLUSION: Gut microbiome evaluation could aid early cognitive impairment diagnosis in patients undergoing PD.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Tom A, Kumar NP, Kumar A, et al (2023)

Interactions between Leishmania parasite and sandfly: a review.

Parasitology research, 123(1):6.

Leishmaniasis transmission cycles are maintained and sustained in nature by the complex crosstalk of the Leishmania parasite, sandfly vector, and the mammalian hosts (human, as well as zoonotic reservoirs). Regardless of the vast research on human host-parasite interaction, there persists a substantial knowledge gap on the parasite's development and modulation in the vector component. This review focuses on some of the intriguing aspects of the Leishmania-sandfly interface, beginning with the uptake of the intracellular amastigotes from an infected host to the development of the parasite within the sandfly's alimentary canal, followed by the transmission of infective metacyclic stages to another potential host. Upon ingestion of the parasite, the sandfly hosts an intricate repertoire of immune barriers, either to evade the parasite or to ensure its homeostatic coexistence with the vector gut microbiome. Sandfly salivary polypeptides and Leishmania exosomes are co-egested with the parasite inoculum during the infected vector bite. This has been attributed to the modulation of the parasite infection and subsequent clinical manifestation in the host. While human host-based studies strive to develop effective therapeutics, a greater understanding of the vector-parasite-microbiome and human host interactions could help us to identify the targets and to develop strategies for effectively preventing the transmission of leishmaniasis.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Singh A, Schurman SH, Bektas A, et al (2023)

Aging and Inflammation.

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine pii:cshperspect.a041197 [Epub ahead of print].

Aging can be conceptualized as the progressive disequilibrium between stochastic damage accumulation and resilience mechanisms that continuously repair that damage, which eventually cause the development of chronic disease, frailty, and death. The immune system is at the forefront of these resilience mechanisms. Indeed, aging is associated with persistent activation of the immune system, witnessed by a high circulating level of inflammatory markers and activation of immune cells in the circulation and in tissue, a condition called "inflammaging." Like aging, inflammaging is associated with increased risk of many age-related pathologies and disabilities, as well as frailty and death. Herein we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms leading to inflammaging and the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune function that occurs with aging. We focus on the underlying mechanisms of chronic inflammation, in particular the role of NF-κB and recent studies targeting proinflammatory mediators. We further explore the dysregulation of the immune response with age and immunosenescence as an important mechanistic immune response to acute stressors. We examine the role of the gastrointestinal microbiome, age-related dysbiosis, and the integrated stress response in modulating the inflammatory "response" to damage accumulation and stress. We conclude by focusing on the seminal question of whether reducing inflammation is useful and the results of related clinical trials. In summary, we propose that inflammation may be viewed both as a clinical biomarker of the failure of resilience mechanisms and as a causal factor in the rising burden of disease and disabilities with aging. The fact that inflammation can be reduced through nonpharmacological interventions such as diet and exercise suggests that a life course approach based on education may be a successful strategy to increase the health span with few adverse consequences.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Nenu I, Baldea I, Coadă CA, et al (2023)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic treatment modulates gut and liver inflammatory pathways in a hepatocellular carcinoma murine model. A preliminary study.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association pii:S0278-6915(23)00716-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing global concern with an increasing incidence rate. The intestinal microbiota has been identified as a potential culprit in modulating the effects of antitumoral drugs. We aimed to assess the impact of adding Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic to regorafenib in mice with HCC.

METHODS: Cirrhosis and HCCs were induced in 56 male Swiss mice via diethylnitrosamine injection and carbon tetrachloride administration. Mice were divided into four groups: treated with vehicle (VC), regorafenib (Rego), L. rhamnosus probiotic, and a combination of regorafenib and probiotic (Rego-Pro). After 3 weeks of treatment, liver and intestinal fragments were collected for analysis.

RESULTS: Regorafenib elevated gut permeability, an effect mitigated by probiotic intervention, which exhibited a notable correlation with reduced inflammation (p < 0.01). iNOS levels were also reduced by adding the probiotic with respect to the mice treated with regorafenib only (p < 0.001). Notably, regorafenib substantially increased IL-6, TNF-a and TLR4 in intestinal fragments (p < 0.01). The administration of the probiotic effectively restored IL-6 to its initial levels (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Reducing systemic and intestinal inflammation by administering L. rhamnosus probiotic may alleviate tumoral resistance and systemic adverse effects.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Dalton KR, Lee M, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Occupational farm work activities influence workers' indoor home microbiome.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)02623-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Farm work entails a heterogeneous mixture of exposures that vary considerably across farms and farmers. Farm work is associated with various health outcomes, both adverse and beneficial. One mechanism by which farming exposures can impact health is through the microbiome, including the indoor home environment microbiome. It is unknown how individual occupational exposures shape the microbial composition in workers' homes.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between farm work activities, including specific tasks and pesticide use, and the indoor microbiome in the homes of 468 male farmers.

METHODS: Participants were licensed pesticide applicators, mostly farmers, enrolled in the Agricultural Lung Health Study from 2008 to 2011. Vacuumed dust from participants' bedrooms underwent whole-genome shotgun sequencing for indoor microbiome assessment. Using questionnaire data, we evaluated 6 farm work tasks (processing of either hay, silage, animal feed, fertilizer, or soy/grains, and cleaning grain bins) and 19 pesticide ingredients currently used in the past year, plus 7 banned persistent pesticide ingredients ever used.

RESULTS: All 6 work tasks were associated with increased microbial diversity levels, with a positive dose-response for the total number of tasks performed (P = 0.001). All tasks were associated with altered microbial compositions (weighted UniFrac P = 0.001) and with higher abundance of specific microbes, including soil-based commensal microbes such as Haloterrigena. Among the 19 pesticides, current use of glyphosate and past use of lindane were associated with increased microbial diversity (P = 0.02-0.04). Ten currently used pesticides and all 7 banned pesticides were associated with altered microbial composition (P = 0.001-0.04). Six pesticides were associated with differential abundance of certain microbes.

DISCUSSION: Different farm activities and exposures can uniquely impact the dust microbiome inside homes. Our work suggests that changes to the home microbiome could serve as one pathway for how occupational exposures impact the health of workers and their cohabitating family members, offering possible future intervention targets.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Fernández Miyakawa ME, Casanova NA, MH Kogut (2023)

How did antibiotic growth promoters increase growth and feed efficiency in poultry?.

Poultry science, 103(2):103278 pii:S0032-5791(23)00797-6 [Epub ahead of print].

It has been hypothesized that reducing the bioenergetic costs of gut inflammation as an explanation for the effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on animal efficiency, framing some observations but not explaining the increase in growth rate or the prevention of infectious diseases. The host's ability to adapt to alterations in environmental conditions and to maintain health involves managing all physiological interactions that regulate homeostasis. Thus, metabolic pathways are vital in regulating physiological health as the energetic demands of the host guides most biological functions. Mitochondria are not only the metabolic heart of the cell because of their role in energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, but also a central hub of signal transduction pathways that receive messages about the health and nutritional states of cells and tissues. In response, mitochondria direct cellular and tissue physiological alterations throughout the host. The endosymbiotic theory suggests that mitochondria evolved from prokaryotes, emphasizing the idea that these organelles can be affected by some antibiotics. Indeed, therapeutic levels of several antibiotics can be toxic to mitochondria, but subtherapeutic levels may improve mitochondrial function and defense mechanisms by inducing an adaptive response of the cell, resulting in mitokine production which coordinates an array of adaptive responses of the host to the stressor(s). This adaptive stress response is also observed in several bacteria species, suggesting that this protective mechanism has been preserved during evolution. Concordantly, gut microbiome modulation by subinhibitory concentration of AGPs could be the result of direct stimulation rather than inhibition of determined microbial species. In eukaryotes, these adaptive responses of the mitochondria to internal and external environmental conditions, can promote growth rate of the organism as an evolutionary strategy to overcome potential negative conditions. We hypothesize that direct and indirect subtherapeutic AGP regulation of mitochondria functional output can regulate homeostatic control mechanisms in a manner similar to those involved with disease tolerance.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Haraoui LP, MJ Blaser (2023)

The Microbiome and Infectious Diseases.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S441-S446.

Our perception of microbes has considerably changed since the recognition of their pathogenic potential in the 19th century. The discovery of antibiotics and their subsequent widespread adoption have substantially altered the landscape of medicine, providing us with treatment options for many infectious diseases and enabling the deployment of previously risky interventions (eg, surgical procedures and chemotherapy), while also leading to the rise of AMR. The latter is commonly viewed as the predominant downside of antibiotic use. However, with the increasing recognition that all metazoan organisms rely on a community of microbes (the microbiota) for normal development and for most physiologic processes, the negative impacts of antibiotic use now extend well beyond AMR. Using the iceberg as a metaphor, we argue that the effects of antibiotics on AMR represent the tip of the iceberg, with much greater repercussions stemming from their role in the rise of so-called noncommunicable diseases (including obesity, diabetes, allergic and autoimmune diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, and certain cancers). We highlight some of the emerging science around the intersection of the microbiome, antibiotic use, and health (including biological costs and future therapeutic avenues), and we advocate a more nuanced approach in evaluating the impacts of proposed antibiotic use, especially in the setting of preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Gonzales-Luna AJ, Carlson TJ, KW Garey (2023)

Review Article: Safety of Live Biotherapeutic Products Used for the Prevention of Clostridioides difficile Infection Recurrence.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S487-S496.

Live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) represent a new class of therapeutics indicated to prevent the recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in adults. However, microbiota-based therapies have been used in CDI management before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designated this new drug class. The regulation of these microbiome-based therapies has varied, and several safety concerns have arisen over time. Requirements established by the FDA regarding the development of LBPs minimizes many of these prior concerns, and phase III trials have proven the safety and efficacy of 2 stool donor-derived LBPs: fecal microbiota, live-jslm (Rebyota™; formerly RBX2660) and fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk (Vowst™; formerly SER-109). Mild gastrointestinal side effects are common, but no severe drug-related adverse events have been reported with their use to date. A third LBP entering phase III clinical trials, VE303, follows a novel approach by sourcing bacterial strains from clonal cell banks and has demonstrated a similarly favorable safety profile.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Anderson SM, CL Sears (2023)

The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Cancer: A Review, With Special Focus on Colorectal Neoplasia and Clostridioides difficile.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S471-S478.

The gut microbiome has coevolved with humans to aid in physiologic functions and prevent disease. An increasing prevalence of gut dysbiosis in modern society exists and has strong linkages to multiple disease processes common in the developed world. Mechanisms for microbiome-human interactions that impact host homeostasis include bacterial metabolite/toxin production, biofilm formation with mucous layer infiltration, and host immune system modulation. Most of this crosstalk occurs at the epithelial layer of the gut, and as such the role of these interactions in the induction of colorectal cancer-a highly prevalent disease globally and one undergoing significant epidemiologic shifts-is under increasing scrutiny. Although multiple individual gut bacteria have been hypothesized as possible driver organisms in the oncogenic process, no bacterium has been definitively identified as a causal agent of colorectal cancer, suggesting that host lifestyle factors, microbiome community interactions, and the mucosal and/or systemic immune response may play a critical role in the process. Recent evidence has emerged implicating the ubiquitous human pathogen Clostridioides difficile as a possible promoter of colorectal cancer through chronic toxin-mediated cellular changes. Although much remains to be defined regarding the natural history of infections caused by this pathogen and its potential for oncogenesis, it provides a strong model for the role of both individual bacteria and of the gut microbial community as a whole in the development of colorectal cancer.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Reveles KR, Strey KA, Abdul-Mutakabbir JC, et al (2023)

Infectious Inequity: How the Gut Microbiome and Social Determinants of Health May Contribute to Clostridioides difficile Infection Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S455-S462.

Infectious diseases are a leading contributor to death in the United States, and racial differences in clinical outcomes have been increasingly reported. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a growing public health concern, as it causes nearly half a million infections per year and considerable excess hospital costs. Concurrent with other infectious diseases, recent literature denotes racial disparities in CDI incidence rates, mortality, and associated morbidity. Of note, investigations into CDI and causative factors suggest that inequities in health-related social needs and other social determinants of health (SDoH) may cause disruption to the gut microbiome, thereby contributing to the observed deleterious outcomes in racially and ethnically minoritized individuals. Despite these discoveries, there is limited literature that provides context for the recognized racial disparities in CDI, particularly the influence of structural and systemic barriers. Here, we synthesize the available literature describing racial inequities in CDI outcomes and discuss the interrelationship of SDoH on microbiome dysregulation. Finally, we provide actionable considerations for infectious diseases professionals to aid in narrowing CDI equity gaps.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Kelly CR, JR Allegretti (2023)

Review Article: Gastroenterology and Clostridium difficile Infection: Past, Present, and Future.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S463-S470.

Research and innovation around Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been a multidisciplinary endeavor since discovery of the organism in 1978. The field of gastroenterology has contributed to our understanding of CDI as a disease caused by disruptions in the gut microbiome and led to advances in therapeutic manipulation of gut microbiota, including fecal microbiota transplantation. The high incidence of CDI in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and treatment of the infection in this population have been of particular interest to gastroenterologists. The emergence of standardized, approved live biotherapeutic products for treatment of recurrent CDI is an inflection point in our management of this difficult clinical problem, and real-world performance of these therapies will inform optimal treatment algorithms.

RevDate: 2023-12-07
CmpDate: 2023-12-07

Anonymous (2023)

Video Introduction to "The Microbiome and Human Health Perspective".

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):e1.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Nhu NTQ, VB Young (2023)

The Relationship Between the Microbiome and Antimicrobial Resistance.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S479-S486.

Antibiotics have benefitted human health since their introduction nearly a century ago. However, the rise of antibiotic resistance may portend the dawn of the "post-antibiotic age." With the narrow pipeline for novel antimicrobials, we need new approaches to deal with the rise of multidrug resistant organisms. In the last 2 decades, the role of the intestinal microbiota in human health has been acknowledged and studied widely. Of the various activities carried out by the gut microbiota, colonization resistance is a key function that helps maintain homeostasis. Therefore, re-establishing a healthy microbiota is a novel strategy for treating drug resistance organisms. Preliminary studies suggest that this is a viable approach. However, the extent of their success still needs to be examined. Herein, we will review work in this area and suggest where future studies can further investigate this method for dealing with the threat of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Lavoie T, Appaneal HJ, KL LaPlante (2023)

Advancements in Novel Live Biotherapeutic Products for Clostridioides difficile Infection Prevention.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(Supplement_6):S447-S454.

The profound impact of the human microbiome on health and disease has captivated the interest of clinical and scientific communities. The human body hosts a vast array of microorganisms collectively forming the human microbiome, which significantly influences various physiological processes and profoundly shapes overall well-being. Notably, the gut stands out as an exceptional reservoir, harboring the most significant concentration of microorganisms, akin to an organ in itself. The gut microbiome's composition and function are influenced by genetics, environment, age, underlying conditions, and antibiotic usage, leading to dysbiosis and pathogenesis, such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Conventional CDI treatment, involving antibiotics like oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin, fails to address dysbiosis and may further disrupt gut microbial communities. Consequently, emerging therapeutic strategies are focused on targeting dysbiosis and restoring gut microbiota to advance CDI therapeutics. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent CDI by transferring processed stool from a healthy donor to a recipient, restoring gut dysbiosis and enhancing bacterial diversity. Moreover, 2 newer Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved live biotherapeutic products (LBP), namely, Fecal Microbiota Live-JSLM and Fecal Microbiota Spores Live-BRPK, have shown promise in preventing CDI recurrence. This review explores the role of the gut microbiota in preventing and treating CDI, with an emphasis on gut-based interventions like FMT and fecal microbiota-based products that hold potential for gut restoration and prevention of CDI recurrence. Understanding the microbiome's impact on CDI prevention and treatment offers valuable insights for advancing future CDI therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

O'Dwyer DN, Kim JS, Ma SF, et al (2023)

Commensal Oral Microbiota, Disease Severity and Mortality in Fibrotic Lung Disease.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Oral microbiota associate with diseases of the mouth and serve as a source of lung microbiota. However, the role of oral microbiota in lung disease is unknown.

OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between oral microbiota and disease severity and death in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing data of buccal swabs from 511 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the multicenter CleanUP-IPF trial. Buccal swabs were collected from usual care, and antimicrobial cohorts. Microbiome data was correlated with measures of disease severity using principal component analysis and linear regression models. Associations between the buccal microbiome and mortality were determined using Cox additive models, Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Greater buccal microbial diversity associated with lower forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline [mean diff -3.60: 95% CI -5.92 to -1.29 percent predicted FVC per 1 unit increment]. The buccal proportion of Streptococcus correlated positively with FVC [mean diff 0.80: 95% CI 0.16-1.43 percent predicted per 10% increase] (n=490). Greater microbial diversity was associated with an increased risk of death [HR 1.73: 95% CI 1.03-2.90] while a greater proportion of Streptococcus was associated with a reduced risk of death [HR 0.85: 95% CI 0.73 to 0.99]. The Streptococcus genus was mainly comprised of Streptococcus mitis species.

CONCLUSIONS: Increasing buccal microbial diversity predicts disease severity and death in IPF. The oral commensal Streptococcus mitis spp associates with preserved lung function and improved survival.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Rubio-Garcia A, Zomer AL, Guo R, et al (2023)

Characterising the gut microbiome of stranded harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in rehabilitation.

PloS one, 18(12):e0295072 pii:PONE-D-23-20135.

Animal rehabilitation centres provide a unique opportunity to study the microbiome of wild animals because subjects will be handled for their treatment and can therefore be sampled longitudinally. However, rehabilitation may have unintended consequences on the animals' microbiome because of a less varied and suboptimal diet, possible medical treatment and exposure to a different environment and human handlers. Our study describes the gut microbiome of two large seal cohorts, 50 pups (0-30 days old at arrival) and 23 weaners (more than 60 days old at arrival) of stranded harbour seals admitted for rehabilitation at the Sealcentre Pieterburen in the Netherlands, and the effect of rehabilitation on it. Faecal samples were collected from all seals at arrival, two times during rehabilitation and before release. Only seals that did not receive antimicrobial treatment were included in the study. The average time in rehabilitation was 95 days for the pups and 63 days for the weaners. We observed that during rehabilitation, there was an increase in the relative abundance of some of the Campylobacterota spp and Actinobacteriota spp. The alpha diversity of the pups' microbiome increased significantly during their rehabilitation (p-value <0.05), while there were no significant changes in alpha diversity over time for weaners. We hypothesize that aging is the main reason for the observed changes in the pups' microbiome. At release, the sex of a seal pup was significantly associated with the microbiome's alpha (i.e., Shannon diversity was higher for male pups, p-value <0.001) and beta diversity (p-value 0.001). For weaners, variation in the microbiome composition (beta diversity) at release was partly explained by sex and age of the seal (p-values 0.002 and 0.003 respectively). We mainly observed variables known to change the gut microbiome composition (e.g., age and sex) and conclude that rehabilitation in itself had only minor effects on the gut microbiome of seal pups and seal weaners.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Hou T, Wang Q, Dai H, et al (2023)

Interactive association between gut microbiota and thyroid cancer.

Endocrinology pii:7458951 [Epub ahead of print].

CONTEXT: The association between the gut microbiota and thyroid cancer remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically investigate the interactive causal relationships between the abundance and metabolism pathways of gut microbiota and thyroid cancer.

METHODS: We leveraged genome-wide association studies for the abundance of 211 microbiota taxa from the MiBioGen study (N = 18,340), 205 microbiota metabolism pathways from the Dutch Microbiome Project (N = 7738), and thyroid cancer from the Global Biobank Meta-analysis Initiative (N cases = 6699 and N participants = 1,620,354). We performed a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causality from microbiota taxa and metabolism pathways to thyroid cancer, and vice versa. We performed a systematic review of previous observational studies and compared MR results with observational findings.

RESULTS: Eight taxa and twelve metabolism pathways had causal effects on thyroid cancer, where RuminococcaceaeUCG004 genus (P = 0.001), Streptococcaceae family (P = 0.016), Olsenella genus (P = 0.029), ketogluconate metabolism pathway (P = 0.003), pentose phosphate pathway (P = 0.016), and L-arginine degradation II in AST pathway (P = 0.0007) were supported by sensitivity analyses. Conversely, thyroid cancer had causal effects on three taxa and two metabolism pathways, where the Holdemanella genus (P = 0.015) was supported by sensitivity analyses. The Proteobacteria phylum, Streptococcaceae family, Ruminococcus2 genus, and Holdemanella genus were significantly associated with thyroid cancer in both the systematic review and MR, while the other 121 significant taxa in observational results were not supported by MR.

DISCUSSIONS: These findings implicated the potential role of host-microbiota crosstalk in thyroid cancer, while the discrepancy among observational studies calls for further investigations.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Jo J, Hu C, Begum K, et al (2023)

Fecal Pharmacokinetics and Gut Microbiome Effects of Oral Omadacycline versus Vancomycin in Healthy Volunteers.

The Journal of infectious diseases pii:7458919 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection is a common healthcare-associated infection with limited treatment options. Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline tetracycline, has potent in vitro activity against C. difficile and a low propensity to cause Clostridioides difficile infection in clinical trials.

OBJECTIVES: To assess fecal pharmacokinetics and gut microbiome effects of oral omadacycline compared to oral vancomycin in healthy adults.

METHODS: This was a phase 1, non-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted in healthy volunteers aged 18-40 years. Subjects received a 10-day course of omadacycline or vancomycin. Stool samples were collected at baseline, daily during therapy, and at follow up visits. Omadacycline and vancomycin stool concentrations were assessed, and microbiome changes were compared.

RESULTS: Sixteen healthy volunteers aged 26±5 years (male: 63%; body mass index: 23.5±4.0 kg/m2) were enrolled. Omadacycline was well tolerated with no safety signal differences between the two antibiotics. A rapid initial increase in fecal concentrations of omadacycline was observed compared to vancomycin, with maximum concentrations achieved within 48 hours. A significant difference in alpha diversity was observed following therapy in both omadacycline and vancomycin groups (p<0.05). Bacterial abundance and beta diversity analysis showed differing microbiome changes in subjects who received omadacycline versus vancomycin.

CONCLUSIONS: Subjects given omadacycline had high fecal concentrations with a distinct microbiome profile compared to vancomycin. These pharmacokinetic and microbiome properties may help explain its low risk to cause Clostridioides difficile infection and warrant further research into its development as an antibiotic for Clostridioides difficile treatment.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Paintsil EK, Masanta WO, Dreyer A, et al (2023)

Campylobacter in Africa - A specific viewpoint.

European journal of microbiology & immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Campylobacter infections and campylobacteriosis-associated post-infectious sequelae are a significant global health burden that needs to be addressed from a specific African perspective. We conducted a comprehensive literature search on NCBI PubMed to compile a comprehensive narrative review article on Campylobacter infections in Africa, focusing on key aspects in human and veterinary medicine as well as food hygiene. We specifically focused on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Campylobacter spp. in sub-Saharan and North Africa considering antimicrobial susceptibility. The most significant sequela resulting from molecular mimicry to Campylobacter surface structures is the Guillain-Barré syndrome, which was mainly examined in the context of limited studies conducted in African populations. A dedicated subsection is allocated to the limited research on the veterinary medically important species Campylobacter fetus. There are significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiome, especially in rural areas, which affect the colonization with Campylobacter spp. and the manifestation of campylobacteriosis. There may be a problem of overdiagnosis due to asymptomatic colonization, particularly in the detection of Campylobacter using molecular biological techniques. To reduce the colonization and infection rate of Campylobacter, we propose implementing several control measures and urge further research to improve the current understanding of the peculiarities of campylobacteriosis in Africa.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Klementiev AD, Garg N, M Whiteley (2023)

Identification of a glutathione transporter in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes produce a large array of extracellular molecules, which serve as signals and cues to promote polymicrobial interactions and alter the function of microbial communities. This has been particularly well studied in the human oral microbiome, where key metabolites have been shown to impact both health and disease. Here, we used an untargeted mass spectrometry approach to comprehensively assess the extracellular metabolome of the pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the commensal Streptococcus gordonii during mono- and co-culture. We generated and made publicly available a metabolomic data set that includes hundreds of potential metabolites and leveraged this data set to identify an operon important for glutathione secretion in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Custer GF, Mealor BA, Fowers B, et al (2023)

Failure to recover Pseudomonas fluorescens D7 supports claims of ineffectiveness as biocontrol agent of Bromus tectorum.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Cheatgrass is one of North America's most problematic invasive species. Invasion by this annual grass alters ecosystem structure and function and has proven very challenging to remove with traditional approaches. Commercially available bioherbicides, like P. fluorescens D7, are applied with the goal of providing lasting control from a single application. However, experimental results suggest that this bioherbicide has limited efficacy under field conditions. Potential explanations for variable efficacy include a failure of this bioherbicide to establish in the soil microbiome. However, to our knowledge, no data exist to support or refute this hypothesis. Here, we use a deep-sequencing approach to better understand the effects of this bioherbicide on the soil microbiome and screen for P. fluorescens D7 at 18 months post-application.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Yang L, Liang H, Wu Q, et al (2023)

Biochar alleviated the toxic effects of microplastics-contaminated geocarposphere soil on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) pod development: roles of pod nutrient metabolism and geocarposphere microbial modulation.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of microplastics in agricultural soil poses a threat to the sustainability of agriculture, impacting crop growth and soil health. Due to the geocarpy feature of peanut, geocarposphere soil environment is critical to pod development and its nutritional quality. While the effects of microplastics in the rhizosphere have been studied, their impact on peanut pod in the geocarposphere remains unknown. Biochar has emerged as a potential soil agents with the ability to remediate soil contamination. However, the mechanisms of biochar mitigated the toxic effects of microplastics-contaminated geocarposphere soil on peanut pod development remain largely unexplored.

RESULTS: We evaluated the peanut pod performance and microbiome when facing microplastics contamination and biochar amendment in geocarposphere soil. The results showed that microplastics present in geocarposphere soil could directly enter into the peanut pod, cause pod developmental disorder and exert adverse effects on nutritional quality. Aberrant expressions of key genes associated with amino acid metabolism, lipid synthesis, and auxin and ethylene signaling pathways were the underlying molecular mechanisms of microplastics-induced peanut pod developmental inhibition. However, these expression abnormalities could be reversed by biochar application. In addition, peanut geocarposphere microbiome results showed that biochar application could restore the diversity of microbial communities inhibited by microplastics contamination and promote the relative abundance of bacteria correlated with pathogen-resistance and nitrogen cycle of geocarposphere soil, further promoting peanut pod development.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that biochar application is an effective strategy to mitigate the toxic effects of microplastics-contaminated geocarposphere soil on pod development and nutritional quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-12-06
CmpDate: 2023-12-06

Byanova KL, Abelman R, North CM, et al (2023)

COPD in People with HIV: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Management, and Prevention Strategies.

International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 18:2795-2817.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder characterized by airflow limitation and persistent respiratory symptoms. People with HIV (PWH) are particularly vulnerable to COPD development; PWH have demonstrated both higher rates of COPD and an earlier and more rapid decline in lung function than their seronegative counterparts, even after accounting for differences in cigarette smoking. Factors contributing to this HIV-associated difference include chronic immune activation and inflammation, accelerated aging, a predilection for pulmonary infections, alterations in the lung microbiome, and the interplay between HIV and inhalational toxins. In this review, we discuss what is known about the epidemiology and pathobiology of COPD among PWH and outline screening, diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Khor AHP, Koguchi T, Liu H, et al (2023)

Regulation of the innate immune response and gut microbiome by p53.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

p53 is a key tumor suppressor mutated in half of human cancers. In recent years, p53 was shown to regulate a wide variety of functions. From the transcriptome analysis of 24 tissues of irradiated mice, we identified 553 genes markedly induced by p53. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis found that the most associated biological process was innate immunity. 16S rRNA-seq analysis revealed that Akkermansia, which has anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in the regulation of intestinal barrier integrity, was decreased in p53-knockout (p53[-/-]) mice after radiation. p53[-/-] mice were susceptible to radiation-induced GI toxicity and had a significantly shorter survival time than p53-wild-type (p53[+/+]) mice following radiation. However, administration of antibiotics resulted in a significant improvement in survival and protection against GI toxicity. Mbl2 and Lcn2, which have antimicrobial activity, were identified to be directly transactivated by p53 and secreted by liver into the circulatory system. We also found the expression of MBL2 and LCN2 was decreased in liver cancer tissues with p53 mutations compared with those without p53 mutations. These results indicate that p53 is involved in shaping the gut microbiome through its downstream targets related to the innate immune system, thus protecting the intestinal barrier.

RevDate: 2023-12-06
CmpDate: 2023-12-06

Zhu Y, Ma G, Ren W, et al (2023)

Effect of oral probiotics on clinical efficacy and intestinal flora in elderly severe pneumonia patients.

Medicine, 102(48):e36320.

Complex microbial ecosystems in both gastrointestinal and respiratory systems have been found to have a significant impact on human health. Growing evidence has demonstrated that intestinal dysbiosis can increase vulnerability to pulmonary infections. However, changes in the composition and activity of the intestinal flora after probiotic supplementation may alter the disease state of the host. The effects of probiotics on the improvement of diseases, such as severe pneumonia (SP), in intensive care units (ICUs) remain controversial. We retrospectively included 88 patients diagnosed with severe pneumonia between April 2021 and June 2022. The patients were divided into 2 groups: a probiotic group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 48). In addition, changes in CRP, PCT, WBC, IL-6, Clostridium difficile toxin, and PSI pneumonia scores were assessed. Changes in the gut microbiome of the patients were assessed using amplicon sequencing. Compared to the control group, a significant reduction in the incidence of length of hospital stay was observed in the probiotic group, but there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, duration of fever, diarrhea, and constipation. After probiotic treatment, CRP, PCT, WBC, and PSI score were significantly lower than before, and better clinical efficacy was achieved in the probiotic group for the duration of antibiotic therapy. Gut microbiota analysis revealed that the abundance of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Massilia) increased remarkably at the genus level in the control group, and a significant increase in Erysipelotrichaceae_ge was observed after probiotic intervention. The control group showed an increase in opportunistic pathogens (Citrobacter, Massilia) during the antibiotic treatment. Probiotics interventions inhibit the growth of opportunistic pathogens. In addition, we found that the population of butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g., Ruminococcaceae UCG-005) increased following probiotic treatment.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Zhu J, Sun C, Li M, et al (2023)

Compared to histamine-2 receptor antagonist, proton pump inhibitor induces stronger oral-to-gut microbial transmission and gut microbiome alterations: a randomised controlled trial.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2023-330168 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare the effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) on the gut microbiota through longitudinal analysis.

DESIGN: Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either PPI (n=23) or H2RA (n=26) daily for seven consecutive days. We collected oral (saliva) and faecal samples before and after the intervention for metagenomic next-generation sequencing. We analysed intervention-induced alterations in the oral and gut microbiome including microbial abundance and growth rates, oral-to-gut transmissions, and compared differences between the PPI and H2RA groups.

RESULTS: Both interventions disrupted the gut microbiota, with PPIs demonstrating more pronounced effects. PPI usage led to a significantly higher extent of oral-to-gut transmission and promoted the growth of specific oral microbes in the gut. This led to a significant increase in both the number and total abundance of oral species present in the gut, including the identification of known disease-associated species like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus anginosus. Overall, gut microbiome-based machine learning classifiers could accurately distinguish PPI from non-PPI users, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.924, in contrast to an AUROC of 0.509 for H2RA versus non-H2RA users.

CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that PPIs have a greater impact on the gut microbiome and oral-to-gut transmission than H2RAs, shedding light on the mechanism underlying the higher risk of certain diseases associated with prolonged PPI use.


RevDate: 2023-12-06

Schäffer DE, Li W, Elbasir A, et al (2023)

Microbial gene expression analysis of healthy and cancerous esophagus uncovers bacterial biomarkers of clinical outcomes.

ISME communications, 3(1):128.

Local microbiome shifts are implicated in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancers, and in particular, esophageal carcinoma (ESCA), which is among the most aggressive malignancies. Short-read RNA sequencing (RNAseq) is currently the leading technology to study gene expression changes in cancer. However, using RNAseq to study microbial gene expression is challenging. Here, we establish a new tool to efficiently detect viral and bacterial expression in human tissues through RNAseq. This approach employs a neural network to predict reads of likely microbial origin, which are targeted for assembly into longer contigs, improving identification of microbial species and genes. This approach is applied to perform a systematic comparison of bacterial expression in ESCA and healthy esophagi. We uncover bacterial genera that are over or underabundant in ESCA vs healthy esophagi both before and after correction for possible covariates, including patient metadata. However, we find that bacterial taxonomies are not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Strikingly, in contrast, dozens of microbial proteins were significantly associated with poor patient outcomes and in particular, proteins that perform mitochondrial functions and iron-sulfur coordination. We further demonstrate associations between these microbial proteins and dysregulated host pathways in ESCA patients. Overall, these results suggest possible influences of bacteria on the development of ESCA and uncover new prognostic biomarkers based on microbial genes. In addition, this study provides a framework for the analysis of other human malignancies whose development may be driven by pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-12-06
CmpDate: 2023-12-06

Baig Y, Ma HR, Xu H, et al (2023)

Autoencoder neural networks enable low dimensional structure analyses of microbial growth dynamics.

Nature communications, 14(1):7937.

The ability to effectively represent microbiome dynamics is a crucial challenge in their quantitative analysis and engineering. By using autoencoder neural networks, we show that microbial growth dynamics can be compressed into low-dimensional representations and reconstructed with high fidelity. These low-dimensional embeddings are just as effective, if not better, than raw data for tasks such as identifying bacterial strains, predicting traits like antibiotic resistance, and predicting community dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate that essential dynamical information of these systems can be captured using far fewer variables than traditional mechanistic models. Our work suggests that machine learning can enable the creation of concise representations of high-dimensional microbiome dynamics to facilitate data analysis and gain new biological insights.

RevDate: 2023-12-06
CmpDate: 2023-12-06

Mantegazza G, Duncan R, Telesca N, et al (2024)

Lactic acid bacteria naturally associated with ready-to-eat rocket salad can survive the human gastrointestinal transit.

Food microbiology, 118:104418.

It was theorized that modernization and the decline in harmless microbial populations associated with food have altered the gut microbiota, impacting host metabolism and immunity. Western dietary patterns, characterized by processed foods and preservation methods, may significantly reduce the microbial population associated with food. To mitigate the consequences of bacterial deprivation, the integration of these diets with fermented foods is commonly proposed. Nonetheless, non-fermented food consumed raw may also be an important source of viable microbial cells for the human microbiome. This study investigates whether salad-associated LAB can survive the gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and contribute to the gut microbiota. LAB strains were quantified and isolated from rocket salad (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa), and their survival through GIT was assessed via intervention trials in healthy adults and in vitro. Moreover, bacterial communities in fecal samples were analyzed after three days of rocket salad consumption. Washing with a sodium hypochlorite solution drastically reduced total bacterial load and eliminated viable LAB. The quantity of LAB introduced through salads did not significantly alter the gut microbiota composition. Rocket salads harbored Weissella and Leuconostoc species. A significant increase in Weissella spp. but not in Leuconostoc spp. was observed after the consumption of rocket salad. Simulated GIT experiments suggested that the food matrix and the initial number of ingested viable bacteria may have been important in determining survival. These findings propose that plant products could serve as sources of live LAB for the human gut. Further research with diverse vegetables and longer interventions is needed, encouraging studies on raw, non-fermented foods and their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Jia Q, Wang H, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Investigation of the mechanism of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis: The role of lung microbiota dysbiosis and the LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)07577-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The widespread manufacture of silica and its extensive use, and potential release of silica into the environment pose a serious human health hazard. Silicosis, a severe global public health issue, is caused by exposure to silica, leading to persistent inflammation and fibrosis of the lungs. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of silicosis remain elusive. Lung microbiota dysbiosis is associated with the development of inflammation and fibrosis. However, limited information is currently available regarding the role of lung microbiota in silicosis. The study therefore is designed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the role of lung microbiota dysbiosis and establish a basis for future investigations into the potential mechanisms underlying silicosis. Here, the pathological and biochemical parameters were used to systematically assessed the degree of inflammation and fibrosis following silica exposure and treatment with combined antibiotics. The underlying mechanisms were studied via integrative multi-omics analyses of the transcriptome and microbiome. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed dysbiosis of the microbial community in silicosis, characterized by a predominance of gram-negative bacteria. Exposure to silica has been shown to trigger lung inflammation and fibrosis, leading to an increased concentration of lipopolysaccharides in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 4 was identified as a key molecule in the lung microbiota dysbiosis associated with silica-induced lung fibrosis. All of these outcomes can be partially controlled through combined antibiotic administration. The study findings demonstrate that the dysbiosis of lung microbiota enhances silica-induced fibrosis associated with the lipopolysaccharides/Toll-like receptor 4 pathway and provided a promising target for therapeutic intervention of silicosis.

RevDate: 2023-12-06

Che H, Wang X, He S, et al (2023)

Orally administered selenium-containing α-D-1,6-glucan and α-D-1,6-glucan relief early cognitive deficit in APP/PS1 mice.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 257(Pt 1):128539 pii:S0141-8130(23)05438-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, progressive and deadly disorder that exhibits various typical pathological characteristics. Till now no effective treatment has been found that can prevent or reverse AD. Here, the effects of 2 months of treatment with α-D-1,6-glucan (CPA) and selenium-containing α-D-1,6-glucan (Se-CPA) on early cognitive dysfunction and neuropathology were explored in the 3-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mouse. The results of the Morris water maze and open-field test revealed that Se-CPA exerted more significant effects than CPA in improving cognitive function and depressive-like behavior by attenuating the oxidative stress, decreasing serum LPS level, downregulating the inflammation of astrocytes and microglia through inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, mitigating neuronal cells loss and improving synaptic plasticity. Moreover, Se-CPA exerted beneficial effects on reshaping gut microbiome by increasing the microbial α-diversity, enhancing the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia muciniphila and promoting the SCFAs concentration. These findings provide evidence that Se-CPA might be a potentially viable compound for AD prevention.

RevDate: 2023-12-06

Zhao K, Wu X, Han G, et al (2023)

Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) derived polysaccharide with enhanced glycolipid metabolism regulation and mice gut microbiome.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 257(Pt 1):128588 pii:S0141-8130(23)05487-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study focuses on the characterization and regulation of glycolipid metabolism of polysaccharides derived from biomass of Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) root (PNr). The extracts from dilute hydrochloric acid, hot water, and 2 % sodium hydroxide solution were characterized through molecular weight, gel permeation chromatography, monosaccharides, Fourier transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses. Polysaccharide from alkali extraction and molecular sieve purification (named as: PNS2A) exhibited optimal inhibitory of 3T3-L1 cellular differentiation and lowered insulin resistance. The PNS2A is made of a hemicellulose-like main chain of →4)-β-D-Xylp-(1→ that was connected by branches of 4-O-Me-α-GlcAp-(1→, T-α-D-Galp-(1→, T-α-L-Araf-(1→, →2)-α-L-Araf-(1→, as well as β-D-Glcp-(1→4-β-D-Glcp-(1→ fragments. Oral delivery of PNS2A in diabetes mice brought down blood glucose and cholesterol levels and regulated glucose and lipid metabolism. PNS2A alleviated diabetes symptoms and body weight and protected liver and kidney function in model animals by altering the gut microbiome. Polysaccharides can be a new approach to develop bamboo resources.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Hocquigny A, Hugerot H, Ghanem R, et al (2023)

Mucoactive drugs and multiple applications in pulmonary disease therapy.

European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V pii:S0939-6411(23)00321-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Mucus is a complex polymeric hydrogel that serves as a critical defense in several organs. In the lungs, it provides a formidable barrier against inhaled particles such as microorganisms. In addition, mucus is essential for normal lung physiology, as it promotes immune tolerance and facilitates a normal commensal pulmonary microbiome. Hypersecretion of airway mucus is a characteristic of numerous respiratory diseases, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Cystic Fibrosis (CF), and creates pulmonary obstruction, limiting the effectiveness of inhaled therapies. Due to those alterations, therapeutic strategies must be optimal to limit airway obstruction and restore pulmonary function. Mucoactive drugs are common therapeutic options and are classified into different groups depending on their modes of action, i.e., expectorants, mucokinetics, mucoregulators and mucolytics. This review focuses on mucoactive drugs and their modes of action. A special focus will be made on two challenging pulmonary pathologies: COPD and CF, and on their clinical studies conducted with mucoactive drugs.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Lan W, Liu H, Weng R, et al (2023)

Microbial community of municipal drinking water in Hangzhou using metagenomic sequencing.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)02068-7 [Epub ahead of print].

While traditional culture-dependent methods can effectively detect certain microorganisms, the comprehensive composition of the municipal drinking water (DW) microbiome, including bacteria, archaea, and viruses, remains unknown. Metagenomic sequencing has opened the door to accurately determine and analyze the entire microbial community of DW, providing a comprehensive understanding of DW species diversity, especially in the context of public health concerns during the COVID-19 era. In this study, we found that most of the culturable bacteria and some fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were non-culturable using culture-dependent methods in all samples. However, metagenomic analysis showed that the predominant bacterial species in the DW samples belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Notably, the genus Methylobacterium was the most abundant in all water samples, followed by Sphingomonas, Gemmata, and Azospirilum. While low levels of virulence-associated factors, such as the Esx-5 type VII secretion system (T7SS) and DevR/S, were detected, only the erythromycin resistance gene erm(X), an rRNA methyltransferase, was identified at low abundance in one sample. Hosts corresponding to virulence and resistance genes were identified in some samples, including Mycobacterium spp. Archaeal DNA (Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota) was found in trace amounts in some DW samples. Viruses such as rotavirus, coxsackievirus, human enterovirus, and SARS-CoV-2 were negative in all DW samples using colloidal gold and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‒PCR) methods. However, DNA encoding a new order of reverse-transcribing viruses (Ortervirales) and Herpesvirales was found in some DW samples. The metabolic pathways of the entire microbial community involve cell‒cell communication and signal secretion, contributing to cooperation between different microbial populations in the water. This study provides insight into the microbial community and metabolic process of DW in Hangzhou, China, utilizing both culture-dependent methods and metagenomic sequencing combined with bioinformatics tools during the COVID-19 pandemic era.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Pamanji R, Kumareshan TN, Priya S L, et al (2023)

Exploring the impact of antibiotics, microplastics, nanoparticles, and pesticides on zebrafish gut microbiomes: Insights into composition, interactions, and health implications.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)03137-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This reviewdu addresses the impact of various chemical entities like pesticides, antibiotics, nanoparticles and microplastic on gut microbiota of zebrafish. Gut microbiota plays a vital role in metabolic regulation in every organism. As majority of metabolic pathways coordinated by microbiota, small alterations associated with mild to serious outcomes. Because of their unstoppable usage in day-to-day life, the present-day research on gut microbiota is mostly comprising aforementioned chemicals. It is better to understand how gut microbiome is dysbiosed by various environmental factors, to keep our microbiota safe. We tried to delineate the natural flora of zebrafish gut microbiome and the metabolic and other pathways associated and what are the common flora that was dysbiosed during the treatment. Based on the existing literature, we reviewed pesticides like Imazalil, Difenoconazole, Chlorpyrifos, Metamifop, Carbendazim, Imidacloprid, Phoxim, Niclosamide, Dieldrin, and antibiotics like Oxytetracycline, Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Sulfamethoxazole, Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Doxycycline, and in the category of nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), Abalone viscera hydrolysates decorated silver nanoparticles (AVH-AgNPs), Lead-halide perovskite nanoparticles (LHP NPs), Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and microplastic types like polyethylene and polystyrene microplastic. Other studies with miscellaneous chemical entities on zebrafish gut microbiome include Ferulic acid, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Cadmium, Disinfection by-products, Triclosan, microcystin-LR, Fluoride, and Amitriptyline.

RevDate: 2023-12-06
CmpDate: 2023-12-06

Winter SE, AJ Bäumler (2023)

Gut dysbiosis: Ecological causes and causative effects on human disease.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(50):e2316579120.

The gut microbiota plays a role in many human diseases, but high-throughput sequence analysis does not provide a straightforward path for defining healthy microbial communities. Therefore, understanding mechanisms that drive compositional changes during disease (gut dysbiosis) continues to be a central goal in microbiome research. Insights from the microbial pathogenesis field show that an ecological cause for gut dysbiosis is an increased availability of host-derived respiratory electron acceptors, which are dominant drivers of microbial community composition. Similar changes in the host environment also drive gut dysbiosis in several chronic human illnesses, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms informs approaches to causatively link compositional changes in the gut microbiota to an exacerbation of symptoms. The emerging picture suggests that homeostasis is maintained by host functions that control the availability of resources governing microbial growth. Defining dysbiosis as a weakening of these host functions directs attention to the underlying cause and identifies potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

RevDate: 2023-12-05
CmpDate: 2023-12-05

Fu P, Wu Y, Zhang Z, et al (2023)

VIGA: a one-stop tool for eukaryotic virus identification and genome assembly from next-generation-sequencing data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 25(1):.

Identification of viruses and further assembly of viral genomes from the next-generation-sequencing data are essential steps in virome studies. This study presented a one-stop tool named VIGA (available at for eukaryotic virus identification and genome assembly from NGS data. It was composed of four modules, namely, identification, taxonomic annotation, assembly and novel virus discovery, which integrated several third-party tools such as BLAST, Trinity, MetaCompass and RagTag. Evaluation on multiple simulated and real virome datasets showed that VIGA assembled more complete virus genomes than its competitors on both the metatranscriptomic and metagenomic data and performed well in assembling virus genomes at the strain level. Finally, VIGA was used to investigate the virome in metatranscriptomic data from the Human Microbiome Project and revealed different composition and positive rate of viromes in diseases of prediabetes, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Overall, VIGA would help much in identification and characterization of viromes, especially the known viruses, in future studies.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Chen S, He F, X Cheng (2023)

Analysis of subgingival bacterial and fungal diversity in patients with peri-implantitis based on 16sRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequencing.

Future microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: To analyze subgingival fungal diversity in peri-implant inflammation patients and their relationship with bacteria. Methods: We collected saliva samples from four groups. 16sRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequencing was performed preceded by quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Analyses were done using R and Cytoscape software. Results: Significant differences were observed in the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator (ACE) index between control and peri-implantitis samples. Basidiomycota was the dominant fungal species, while Firmicutes dominated the bacteria. The most abundant fungal and bacterial species were 's_unclassified g Apiotrichum' and 's_unclassified g Streptococcus', respectively. Dothiorella was strongly associated with immunoglobulin G levels, with positive correlations between specific microorganisms and peri-implantitis in Q-PCR. Conclusion: Our findings have significant clinical implications, suggesting specific fungal and bacterial taxa roles in peri-implant inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Shankar A, Deal CK, McCahon S, et al (2023)

SAD rats: Effects of short photoperiod and carbohydrate consumption on sleep, liver steatosis, and the gut microbiome in diurnal grass rats.

Chronobiology international [Epub ahead of print].

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recurrent depression triggered by exposure to short photoperiods, with a subset of patients reporting hypersomnia, increased appetite, and carbohydrate craving. Dysfunction of the microbiota - gut - brain axis is frequently associated with depressive disorders, but its role in SAD is unknown. Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) are potentially useful for exploring the pathophysiology of SAD, as they are diurnal and have been found to exhibit anhedonia and affective-like behavior in response to short photoperiods. Further, given grass rats have been found to spontaneously develop metabolic syndrome, they may be particularly susceptible to environmental triggers of metabolic dysbiosis. We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment to test the effects of short photoperiod (4 h:20 h Light:Dark (LD) vs. neutral 12:12 LD), access to a high concentration (8%) sucrose solution, and the interaction between the two, on activity, sleep, liver steatosis, and the gut microbiome of grass rats. We found that animals on short photoperiods maintained robust diel rhythms and similar subjective day lengths as controls in neutral photoperiods but showed disrupted activity and sleep patterns (i.e. a return to sleep after an initial bout of activity that occurs ~ 13 h before lights off). We found no evidence that photoperiod influenced sucrose consumption. By the end of the experiment, some grass rats were overweight and exhibited signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with micro- and macro-steatosis. However, neither photoperiod nor access to sucrose solution significantly affected the degree of liver steatosis. The gut microbiome of grass rats varied substantially among individuals, but most variation was attributable to parental effects and the microbiome was unaffected by photoperiod or access to sucrose. Our study indicates short photoperiod leads to disrupted activity and sleep in grass rats but does not impact sucrose consumption or exacerbate metabolic dysbiosis and NAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Archer D, Perez-Muñoz ME, Tollenaar S, et al (2023)

The importance of the timing of microbial signals for perinatal immune system development.

Microbiome research reports, 2(2):11.

Background: Development and maturation of the immune system begin in utero and continue throughout the neonatal period. Both the maternal and neonatal gut microbiome influence immune development, but the relative importance of the prenatal and postnatal periods is unclear. Methods: In the present study, we characterized immune cell populations in mice in which the timing of microbiome colonization was strictly controlled using gnotobiotic methodology. Results: Compared to conventional (CONV) mice, germ-free (GF) mice conventionalized at birth (EC mice) showed few differences in immune cell populations in adulthood, explaining only 2.36% of the variation in immune phenotypes. In contrast, delaying conventionalization to the fourth week of life (DC mice) affected seven splenic immune cell populations in adulthood, including dendritic cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), explaining 29.01% of the variation in immune phenotypes. Early life treatment of DC mice with Limosilactobacillus reuteri restored splenic dendritic cells and Tregs to levels observed in EC mice, and there were strain-specific effects on splenic CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD11c+ F4/80+ mononuclear phagocytes. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the early postnatal period, compared to the prenatal period, is relatively more important for microbial signals to influence immune development in mice. Our findings further show that targeted microbial treatments in early life can redress adverse effects on immune development caused by the delayed acquisition of the neonatal gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Ladeira R, Tap J, M Derrien (2023)

Exploring Bifidobacterium species community and functional variations with human gut microbiome structure and health beyond infancy.

Microbiome research reports, 2(2):9.

Aim: The human gut Bifidobacterium community has been studied in detail in infants and following dietary interventions in adults. However, the variability of the distribution of Bifidobacterium species and intra-species functions have been little studied, particularly beyond infancy. Here, we explore the ecology of Bifidobacterium communities in a large public dataset of human gut metagenomes, mostly corresponding to adults. Methods: We selected 9.515 unique gut metagenomes from curatedMetagenomicData. Samples were partitioned by applying Dirichlet's multinomial mixture to Bifidobacterium species. A functional analysis was performed on > 2.000 human-associated Bifidobacterium metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) paired with participant gut microbiome and health features. Results: We identified several Bifidobacterium-based partitions in the human gut microbiome differing in terms of the presence and abundance of Bifidobacterium species. The partitions enriched in both B. longum and B. adolescentis were associated with gut microbiome diversity and a higher abundance of butyrate producers and were more prevalent in healthy individuals. B. bifidum MAGs harboring a set of genes potentially related to phages were more prevalent in partitions associated with a lower gut microbiome diversity and were genetically more closely related. Conclusion: This study expands our knowledge of the ecology and variability of the Bifidobacterium community, particularly in adults, and its specific association with the gut microbiota and health. Its findings may guide the rational selection of Bifidobacterium strains for gut microbiome complementation according to the individual's endogenous Bifidobacterium community. Our results also suggest that gut microbiome stratification for particular genera may be relevant for studies of variations of species and associations with the gut microbiome and health.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Candeliere F, Musmeci E, Amaretti A, et al (2023)

Profiling of the intestinal community of Clostridia: taxonomy and evolutionary analysis.

Microbiome research reports, 2(2):13.

Aim: Clostridia are relevant commensals of the human gut due to their major presence and correlations to the host. In this study, we investigated intestinal Clostridia of 51 healthy subjects and reconstructed their taxonomy and phylogeny. The relatively small number of intestinal Clostridia allowed a systematic whole genome approach based on average amino acid identity (AAI) and core genome with the aim of revising the current classification into genera and determining evolutionary relationships. Methods: 51 healthy subjects' metagenomes were retrieved from public databases. After the dataset's validation through comparison with Human Microbiome Project (HMP) samples, the metagenomes were profiled using MetaPhlAn3 to identify the population ascribed to the class Clostridia. Intestinal Clostridia genomes were retrieved and subjected to AAI analysis and core genome identification. Phylogeny investigation was conducted with RAxML and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) algorithms, and SplitsTree for split decomposition. Results: 225 out of 406 bacterial taxonomic units were ascribed to Bacillota [Firmicutes], among which 124 were assigned to the class Clostridia. 77 out of the 124 taxonomic units were referred to a species, altogether covering 87.7% of Clostridia abundance. According to the lowest AAI genus boundary set at 55%, 15 putative genera encompassing more than one species (G1 to G15) were identified, while 19 species did not cluster with any other one and each appeared to belong to a diverse genus. Phylogenetic investigations highlighted that most of the species clustered into three main evolutive clades. Conclusion: This study shed light on the species of Clostridia colonizing the gut of healthy adults and pinpointed several gaps in knowledge regarding the taxonomy and the phylogeny of Clostridia.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Shetty SA, Kool J, S Fuentes (2023)

A tool to assess the mock community samples in 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota profiling studies.

Microbiome research reports, 2(2):14.

Inclusion and investigation of technical controls in microbiome sequencing studies is important for understanding technical biases and errors. Here, we present chkMocks, a general R-based tool that allows researchers to compare the composition of mock communities that are processed along with samples to their theoretical composition. A visual comparison between experimental and theoretical community composition and their correlation is provided for researchers to assess the quality of their sample processing workflows.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Fremin BJ, Bhatt AS, NC Kyrpides (2023)

Identification of over ten thousand candidate structured RNAs in viruses and phages.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:5630-5639.

Structured RNAs play crucial roles in viruses, exerting influence over both viral and host gene expression. However, the extensive diversity of structured RNAs and their ability to act in cis or trans positions pose challenges for predicting and assigning their functions. While comparative genomics approaches have successfully predicted candidate structured RNAs in microbes on a large scale, similar efforts for viruses have been lacking. In this study, we screened over 5 million DNA and RNA viral sequences, resulting in the prediction of 10,006 novel candidate structured RNAs. These predictions are widely distributed across taxonomy and ecosystem. We found transcriptional evidence for 206 of these candidate structured RNAs in the human fecal microbiome. These candidate RNAs exhibited evidence of nucleotide covariation, indicative of selective pressure maintaining the predicted secondary structures. Our analysis revealed a diverse repertoire of candidate structured RNAs, encompassing a substantial number of putative tRNAs or tRNA-like structures, Rho-independent transcription terminators, and potentially cis-regulatory structures consistently positioned upstream of genes. In summary, our findings shed light on the extensive diversity of structured RNAs in viruses, offering a valuable resource for further investigations into their functional roles and implications in viral gene expression and pave the way for a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between viruses and their hosts at the molecular level.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Galaz J, Romero R, Greenberg JM, et al (2023)

Host-microbiome interactions in distinct subsets of preterm labor and birth.

iScience, 26(12):108341.

Preterm birth, the leading cause of perinatal morbidity, often follows premature labor, a syndrome whose prevention remains a challenge. To better understand the relationship between premature labor and host-microbiome interactions, we conducted a mechanistic investigation using three preterm birth models. We report that intra-amniotic delivery of LPS triggers inflammatory responses in the amniotic cavity and cervico-vaginal microenvironment, causing vaginal microbiome changes and signs of active labor. Intra-amniotic IL-1α delivery causes a moderate inflammatory response in the amniotic cavity but increasing inflammation in the cervico-vaginal space, leading to vaginal microbiome disruption and signs of active labor. Conversely, progesterone action blockade by RU-486 triggers local immune responses accompanying signs of active labor without altering the vaginal microbiome. Preterm labor facilitates ascension of cervico-vaginal bacteria into the amniotic cavity, regardless of stimulus. This study provides compelling mechanistic insights into the dynamic host-microbiome interactions within the cervico-vaginal microenvironment that accompany premature labor and birth.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Procaccianti G, Roggiani S, Conti G, et al (2023)

Bifidobacterium in anticancer immunochemotherapy: friend or foe?.

Microbiome research reports, 2(3):24.

The gut microbiome has received a crescendo of attention in recent years due to myriad influences on human pathophysiology, including cancer. Anticancer therapy research is constantly looking for new hints to improve response to therapy while reducing the risk of relapse. In this scenario, Bifidobacterium, which inhabits the gut microbial ecosystem (especially that of children) and is considered a health-associated microbe, has emerged as a key target to assist anticancer treatments for a better prognosis. However, some researchers have recently hypothesized an unfavorable role of Bifidobacterium spp. in anticancer immunochemotherapy, leading to some confusion in the field. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of Bifidobacterium spp. in relation to anticancer treatments, discussing the pros and cons of its presence in the gut microbiome of cancer patients. The current intervention strategies based on the administration of probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are then discussed. Finally, the need to conduct further studies, especially functional ones, is underlined to provide robust experimental evidence, especially on the underlying molecular mechanisms, and thus resolve the controversies on this microbe for the long-term success of immunochemotherapy.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Martin AJM, Serebrinsky-Duek K, Riquelme E, et al (2023)

Microbial interactions and the homeostasis of the gut microbiome: the role of Bifidobacterium.

Microbiome research reports, 2(3):17.

The human gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that influence several aspects of our health. This dense microbial community targets almost all dietary polysaccharides and releases multiple metabolites, some of which have physiological effects on the host. A healthy equilibrium between members of the gut microbiota, its microbial diversity, and their metabolites is required for intestinal health, promoting regulatory or anti-inflammatory immune responses. In contrast, the loss of this equilibrium due to antibiotics, low fiber intake, or other conditions results in alterations in gut microbiota composition, a term known as gut dysbiosis. This dysbiosis can be characterized by a reduction in health-associated microorganisms, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, enrichment of a small number of opportunistic pathogens, or a reduction in microbial diversity. Bifidobacterium species are key species in the gut microbiome, serving as primary degraders and contributing to a balanced gut environment in various ways. Colonization resistance is a fundamental property of gut microbiota for the prevention and control of infections. This community competes strongly with foreign microorganisms, such as gastrointestinal pathogens, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or even probiotics. Resistance to colonization is based on microbial interactions such as metabolic cross-feeding, competition for nutrients, or antimicrobial-based inhibition. These interactions are mediated by metabolites and metabolic pathways, representing the inner workings of the gut microbiota, and play a protective role through colonization resistance. This review presents a rationale for how microbial interactions provide resistance to colonization and gut dysbiosis, highlighting the protective role of Bifidobacterium species.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Mancabelli L, Milani C, Fontana F, et al (2023)

A pilot study to disentangle the infant gut microbiota composition and identification of bacteria correlates with high fat mass.

Microbiome research reports, 2(3):23.

Background: At birth, the human intestine is colonized by a complex community of microorganisms known as gut microbiota. These complex microbial communities that inhabit the gut microbiota are thought to play a key role in maintaining host physiological homeostasis. For this reason, correct colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in the early stages of life could be fundamental for human health. Furthermore, alterations of the infant microbiota are correlated with the development of human inflammatory diseases and disorders. In this context, the possible relationships between intestinal microbiota and body composition during infancy are of great interest. Methods: In this study, we have performed a pilot study based on 16S rRNA gene profiling and metagenomic approaches on repeatedly measured data on time involving a cohort of 41 Italian newborns, which is aimed to investigate the possible correlation between body fat mass percentage (FM%) and the infant gut microbiota composition. Results and conclusion: The taxonomical analysis of the stool microbiota of each infant included in the cohort allowed the identification of a specific correlation between intestinal bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Veillonella, and the increase in FM%. Moreover, the analysis of the infant microbiome's metabolic capabilities suggested that the intestinal microbiome functionally impacts the human host and its possible influence on host physiology.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Roggiani S, Mengoli M, Conti G, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota resilience and recovery after anticancer chemotherapy.

Microbiome research reports, 2(3):16.

Although research on the role of the gut microbiota (GM) in human health has sharply increased in recent years, what a "healthy" gut microbiota is and how it responds to major stressors is still difficult to establish. In particular, anticancer chemotherapy is known to have a drastic impact on the microbiota structure, potentially hampering its recovery with serious long-term consequences for patients' health. However, the distinguishing features of gut microbiota recovery and non-recovery processes are not yet known. In this narrative review, we first investigated how gut microbiota layouts are affected by anticancer chemotherapy and identified potential gut microbial recovery signatures. Then, we discussed microbiome-based intervention strategies aimed at promoting resilience, i.e., the rapid and complete recovery of a healthy gut microbial network associated with a better prognosis after such high-impact pharmacological treatments.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Sane F, Piva F, MB Romond (2023)

Free lipoproteins from Bifidobacterium longum alleviate osteoarthritis through modulation of the gut microbiome.

Microbiome research reports, 2(3):18.

Aim: The "gut-joint" axis is suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aims at investigating the potential of lipoproteins (Lpps) secreted by Bifidobacterium longum to alleviate OA progression in the rat. Methods: Experimental OA was induced in rats harbouring Schaedler Flora maintained in SPF conditions. Two weeks post-injection, 20 rats were randomized to water (n = 10) or 0.3 mg/L Lpps solution (n = 10). Weight and food intake were monitored for 6 weeks. At sacrifice, joints were scored using macroscopic and histological criteria. Serum LPS, Schaedler flora as well as selected intestinal bacteria were analyzed. Results: Lpps intake prevents OA progression. The protected rats showed a significant increase in lactobacilli along the intestine as well as in Mucispirillum schaedleri in the colon and a significant decrease in Parabacteroides goldsteini and Akkermansia in caecum and colon, respectively. There was no significant difference in serum lipopolysaccharide or bacteria translocating in Peyer's patches. Labelled Lpps were not detected in bone marrow of the OA joint. The principal component analysis points out that OA prevention is primarily associated with bacteria involved in the tryptophane degradation pathway and SCFA formation. Conclusion: In rats deprived of bifidobacteria, intake of B.longum Lpps prevented OA development and modulated the intestinal microbiome with a possible impact on the bacterial end-products. The link between Lpps and the gut microbial metabolome warrants further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Oliver A, Kay M, DG Lemay (2023)

TaxaHFE: a machine learning approach to collapse microbiome datasets using taxonomic structure.

Bioinformatics advances, 3(1):vbad165.

MOTIVATION: Biologists increasingly turn to machine learning models not just to predict, but to explain. Feature reduction is a common approach to improve both the performance and interpretability of models. However, some biological datasets, such as microbiome data, are inherently organized in a taxonomy, but these hierarchical relationships are not leveraged during feature reduction. We sought to design a feature engineering algorithm to exploit relationships in hierarchically organized biological data.

RESULTS: We designed an algorithm, called TaxaHFE, to collapse information-poor features into their higher taxonomic levels. We applied TaxaHFE to six previously published datasets and found, on average, a 90% reduction in the number of features (SD = 5.1%) compared to using the most complete taxonomy. Using machine learning to compare the most resolved taxonomic level (i.e. species) against TaxaHFE-preprocessed features, models based on TaxaHFE features achieved an average increase of 3.47% in receiver operator curve area under the curve. Compared to other hierarchical feature engineering implementations, TaxaHFE introduces the novel ability to consider both categorical and continuous response variables to inform the feature set collapse. Importantly, we find TaxaHFE's ability to reduce hierarchically organized features to a more information-rich subset increases the interpretability of models.

TaxaHFE is available as a Docker image and as R code at

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Ahmad S, Sands M, Greenberg E, et al (2023)

Mucosal DNA methylome alteration in Crohn's disease: surgical and non-surgical groups.

Frontiers in genetics, 14:1244513.

Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized as a chronic, relapsing, and progressive disorder with a complex etiology involving interactions between host, microbiome, and the external environment. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) suggest several genetic variations in the diseased individuals but that explains only a small proportion of susceptibility to disease conditions. This indicates the possible role of epigenome which links environmental factors to the genetic variation in the disease etiology. The current study is focused on the DNA methylome evolution with disease progression. We performed Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) to analyze differential DNA methylation in the diseased and healthy mucosal tissues of 2 different groups of CD patients: non-surgical and surgical, categorized based on the severity of disease and standard of care needed. Patients in both groups have unique DNA methylation signature compared to the healthy tissue. After removing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1,671 differentially methylated loci were found in the non-surgical and 3,334 in the surgical group of which only 206 were found overlapping in both groups. Furthermore, differential DNA methylation was noted in some of the GWAS associated genes implicated in CD. Also, functional enrichment analysis showed high representation of several key pathways where differential methylations were observed, and these can be implicated in CD pathogenesis. We identified specific DNA methylation patterns in the mucosal DNA of surgical and non-surgical CD patients which indicates evolution of the methylome as the disease progresses from initial to the advance stage. These unique patterns can be used as DNA methylation signatures to identify different stages of the disease.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Mengoli M, Conti G, Fabbrini M, et al (2023)

Microbiota-gut-brain axis and ketogenic diet: how close are we to tackling epilepsy?.

Microbiome research reports, 2(4):32.

The microbiota-gut-brain axis refers to the intricate bidirectional communication between commensal microorganisms residing in the digestive tract and the central nervous system, along neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune, and inflammatory pathways. This axis has been suggested to play a role in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy, paving the way for microbiome-based intervention strategies for the mitigation and treatment of symptoms. Epilepsy is a multifaceted neurological condition affecting more than 50 million individuals worldwide, 30% of whom do not respond to conventional pharmacological therapies. Among the first-hand microbiota modulation strategies, nutritional interventions represent an easily applicable option in both clinical and home settings. In this narrative review, we summarize the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-gut-brain axis involvement in epilepsy, discuss the impact of antiepileptic drugs on the gut microbiome, and then the impact of a particular dietary pattern, the ketogenic diet, on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in epileptic patients. The investigation of the microbiota response to non-pharmacological therapies is an ever-expanding field with the potential to allow the design of increasingly accessible and successful intervention strategies.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Al KF, Allen L, Bedell S, et al (2023)

Assessing the impact of pregnancy and birth factors on the maternal and infant microbiota.

Microbiome research reports, 2(4):29.

Background: The microbiota acquired at birth is known to play an intimate role in later life health and disease and has been shown to be affected by the mode of birth. There has been recent interest in microbiota correction by maternal vaginal seeding in Cesarean section-born infants; however, the safety of this practice has been debated. The aim of this study was to assess how other factors, such as timing of sampling, maternal obesity, vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonization (GBS), and antibiotic exposure, affect the maternal and infant microbiota. Methods: Maternal vaginal and saliva samples were collected at three time periods: 35-37 weeks gestation (prenatal), within 24-36 hours after birth (birth), and at ~6 weeks postpartum. Infant saliva and stool samples were collected at ~6 weeks postpartum. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was utilized to assess the taxonomic and inferred functional compositions of the bacterial communities from both mothers and infants. Results: Samples from 36 mothers and 32 infants were obtained. Gestational age, breastfeeding, mode of birth, and gravidity were associated with taxonomic alterations in the infant samples, while obesity, antibiotic use, and GBS status were not. Maternal samples were predominantly affected by time, whereby significant alterations including increased microbial diversity were seen at birth and persisted to 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion: This study provides information on the relationship between health and delivery factors and changes in vaginal and infant microbiota. These results may better direct clinicians and mothers in optimizing the infant microbiota towards health during infancy and later life.

RevDate: 2023-12-05
CmpDate: 2023-12-05

Munjoma PT, Chandiwana P, Wyss J, et al (2023)

Immune activation and inflammation in lactating women on combination antiretroviral therapy: role of gut dysfunction and gut microbiota imbalance.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1280262.

INTRODUCTION: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively controls HIV; however, chronic low-level viremia and gut microbiota dysbiosis remain significant drivers of gut and systemic inflammation. In this study, we explored the relationship between gut microbiota composition, intestinal inflammation, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation in women on cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

METHODS: We conducted a study in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected lactating women followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum in Harare, Zimbabwe. We used 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) sequencing and MesoScale Discovery V-Plex assays to examine the gut microbiome and to quantify plasma inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. In addition, we measured fecal calprotectin, plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess gut inflammation, microbial translocation, and monocyte/macrophage activation.

RESULTS: A group of 77 lactating women were studied, of which 35% were HIV-infected. Fecal calprotectin levels were similar by HIV status at both follow-up time points. In the HIV-infected group at 6 weeks postpartum, fecal calprotectin was elevated: median (interquartile range) [158.1 µg/g (75.3-230.2)] in women who had CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts <350 cells/µL compared with those with ≥350 cells/µL [21.1 µg/g (0-58.4)], p = 0.032. Plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher in the HIV-infected group at both 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, p < 0.001. Plasma LBP levels were similar, but higher levels were observed in HIV-infected women with elevated fecal calprotectin. We found significant correlations between fecal calprotectin, LBP, and sCD14 with proinflammatory cytokines. Gut microbial alpha diversity was not affected by HIV status and was not affected by use of antibiotic prophylaxis. HIV significantly affected microbial beta diversity, and significant differences in microbial composition were noted. The genera Slackia and Collinsella were relatively more abundant in the HIV-infected group, whereas a lower relative abundance of Clostriduim sensu_stricto_1 was observed. Our study also found correlations between gut microbial taxa abundance and systemic inflammatory biomarkers.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: HIV-infected lactating women had increased immune activation and increased microbial translocation associated with increased gut inflammation. We identified correlations between the gut inflammation and microbial composition, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation. The interplay of these parameters might affect the health of this vulnerable population.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Brüssow H (2023)

The human microbiome project at ten years - some critical comments and reflections on "our third genome", the human virome.

Microbiome research reports, 2(1):7.

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has raised great expectations claiming the far-reaching influence of the microbiome on human health and disease ranging from obesity and malnutrition to effects going well beyond the gut. So far, with the notable exception of fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridioides difficile infection, practical application of microbiome intervention has only achieved modest clinical effects. It is argued here that we need criteria for the link between microbiome and disease modelled on the links between pathogens and infectious disease in Koch's postulates. The most important question is whether the microbiome change is a cause of the given disease or a consequence of a pathology leading to disease where the microbiome change is only a parallel event without a causal connection to the disease - in philosophical parlance, an epiphenomenon. Also discussed here is whether human virome research is a necessary complement to the microbiome project with a high potential for practical applications.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Sabater C, Iglesias-Gutiérrez E, Ruiz L, et al (2023)

Next-generation sequencing of the athletic gut microbiota: a systematic review.

Microbiome research reports, 2(1):5.

Aim: There is growing evidence that physical activity modulates gut microbiota composition through complex interactions between diet and microbial species. On the other hand, next-generation sequencing techniques include shotgun metagenomics and 16S amplicon sequencing. These methodologies allow a comprehensive characterisation of microbial communities of athletes from different disciplines as well as non-professional players and sedentary adults exposed to training. This systematic review summarises recent applications of next-generation sequencing to characterise the athletic gut microbiome. Methods: A systematic review of microbiome research was performed to determine the association of microbiota composition profiles with sports performance. Results: Bibliographic analysis revealed the importance of a novel research trend aiming at deciphering the associations between individual microbial species and sports performance. In addition, literature review highlighted the role of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Anaerostipes hadrus, Clostridium bolteae, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and unidentified species belonging to Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Subdoligranulum species in gut health and sports performance across several disciplines. Interestingly, metabolic activities of Prevotella copri and Veillonella atypica involved in branched amino acid and lactate metabolism may contribute to reducing muscular fatigue. Other microbial metabolic pathways of interest involved in carbohydrate metabolism showed increased proportions in athletes´ metagenomes. Conclusion: Future research will aim at developing personalised nutrition interventions to modulate key species associated with certain components of exercise.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Lind AL, McDonald NA, Gerrick ER, et al (2023)

Hybrid assemblies of microbiome Blastocystis protists reveal evolutionary diversification reflecting host ecology.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.20.567959.

The most prevalent microbial eukaryote in the human gut is Blastocystis , an obligate commensal protist also common in many other vertebrates. Blastocystis is descended from free-living stramenopile ancestors; how it has adapted to thrive within humans and a wide range of hosts is unclear. Here, we cultivated six Blastocystis strains spanning the diversity of the genus and generated highly contiguous, annotated genomes with long-read DNA-seq, Hi-C, and RNA-seq. Comparative genomics between these strains and two closely related stramenopiles with different lifestyles, the lizard gut symbiont Proteromonas lacertae and the free-living marine flagellate Cafeteria burkhardae , reveal the evolutionary history of the Blastocystis genus. We find substantial gene content variability between Blastocystis strains. Blastocystis isolated from an herbivorous tortoise has many plant carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, some horizontally acquired from bacteria, likely reflecting fermentation within the host gut. In contrast, human- isolated Blastocystis have gained many heat shock proteins, and we find numerous subtype- specific expansions of host-interfacing genes, including cell adhesion and cell surface glycan genes. In addition, we observe that human-isolated Blastocystis have substantial changes in gene structure, including shortened introns and intergenic regions, as well as genes lacking canonical termination codons. Finally, our data indicate that the common ancestor of Blastocystis lost nearly all ancestral genes for heterokont flagella morphology, including cilia proteins, microtubule motor proteins, and ion channel proteins. Together, these findings underscore the huge functional variability within the Blastocystis genus and provide candidate genes for the adaptations these lineages have undergone to thrive in the gut microbiomes of diverse vertebrates.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Olm MR, Spencer SP, Silva EL, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Immunoglobulin Sequencing (MIG-Seq) Exposes Patterns of IgA Antibody Binding in the Healthy Human Gut Microbiome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.21.568153.

IgA, the most highly produced human antibody, is continually secreted into the gut to shape the intestinal microbiota. Methodological limitations have critically hindered defining which microbial strains are targeted by IgA and why. Here, we develop a new technique, Metagenomic Immunoglobulin Sequencing (MIG-Seq), and use it to determine IgA coating levels for thousands of gut microbiome strains in healthy humans. We find that microbes associated with both health and disease have higher levels of coating, and that microbial genes are highly predictive of IgA binding levels, with mucus degradation genes especially correlated with high binding. We find a significant reduction in replication rates among microbes bound by IgA, and demonstrate that IgA binding is more correlated with host immune status than traditional microbial abundance measures. This study introduces a powerful technique for assessing strain-level IgA binding in human stool, paving the way for deeper understanding of IgA-based host microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Do K, Mehta S, Wagner R, et al (2023)

A novel clinical metaproteomics workflow enables bioinformatic analysis of host-microbe dynamics in disease.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.21.568121.

Clinical metaproteomics has the potential to offer insights into the host-microbiome interactions underlying diseases. However, the field faces challenges in characterizing microbial proteins found in clinical samples, which are usually present at low abundance relative to the host proteins. As a solution, we have developed an integrated workflow coupling mass spectrometry-based analysis with customized bioinformatic identification, quantification and prioritization of microbial and host proteins, enabling targeted assay development to investigate host-microbe dynamics in disease. The bioinformatics tools are implemented in the Galaxy ecosystem, offering the development and dissemination of complex bioinformatic workflows. The modular workflow integrates MetaNovo (to generate a reduced protein database), SearchGUI/PeptideShaker and MaxQuant (to generate peptide-spectral matches (PSMs) and quantification), PepQuery2 (to verify the quality of PSMs), and Unipept and MSstatsTMT (for taxonomy and functional annotation). We have utilized this workflow in diverse clinical samples, from the characterization of nasopharyngeal swab samples to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Here, we demonstrate its effectiveness via analysis of residual fluid from cervical swabs. The complete workflow, including training data and documentation, is available via the Galaxy Training Network, empowering non-expert researchers to utilize these powerful tools in their clinical studies.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Wang T, Fu Y, Shuai M, et al (2023)

Microbiome-based correction of nutrient profiles derived from self-reported dietary assessments.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.21.568102.

Since dietary intake is hard to directly measure in large-scale cohort studies, we often rely on self-reported instruments (e.g., food frequency questionnaires, diet recall surveys, and diet diary methods) developed in nutritional epidemiology. Those self-reported instruments are prone to measurement errors. The measurement errors eventually lead to inaccuracies in the calculation of nutrient profiles. Currently, there is a lack of computational methods to address this problem. To fill the gap, we introduce a deep-learning approach --- M icrobiom e -based nu t rient p r of i le c orrector (METRIC), which leverages gut microbial compositions to correct the errors in nutrient profiles due to measurement errors in self-reported dietary assessments. We demonstrate the excellent performance of METRIC in minimizing the simulated random errors in both synthetic and three real-world datasets. METRIC has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of self-reported dietary assessments and hence facilitate the research of nutritional epidemiology.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Mudbhari S, Lofgren L, Appidi MR, et al (2023)

Decoding the chemical language of Suillus fungi: genome mining and untargeted metabolomics uncover terpene chemical diversity.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.20.567897.

UNLABELLED: Ectomycorrhizal fungi establish mutually beneficial relationships with trees, trading nutrients for carbon. Suillus are ectomycorrhizal fungi that are critical to the health of boreal and temperate forest ecosystems. Comparative genomics has identified a high number of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and terpene biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC) potentially involved in fungal competition and communication. However, the functionality of these BGCs is not known. This study employed co-culture techniques to activate BGC expression and then used metabolomics to investigate the diversity of metabolic products produced by three Suillus species (S. hirtellus EM16, S. decipiens EM49, and S. cothurnatus VC1858), core members of the Pine microbiome. After 28 days of growth on solid media, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified a diverse range of extracellular metabolites (exometabolites) along the interaction zone between Suillus co-cultures. Prenol lipids were among the most abundant chemical classes. Out of the 62 unique terpene BGCs predicted by genome mining, 116 putative terpenes were identified across the three Suillus species using metabolomics. Notably, some terpenes were significantly more abundant in co-culture conditions. For example, we identified a metabolite matching to isomers isopimaric acid, sandaracopimaric acid, and abietic acid, which can be found in pine resin and play important roles in host defense mechanisms and Suillus spore germination. This research highlights the importance of combining genomics and metabolomics to advance our understanding of the chemical diversity underpinning fungal signaling and communication.

IMPORTANCE: Using a combination of genomics and metabolomics, this study's findings offer new insights into the signaling and communication of Suillus fungi, which serve a critical role in forest ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Ventura M, van Sinderen D, F Turroni (2022)

New research frontiers pertaining to the infant gut microbiota.

Microbiome research reports, 1(4):24.

The human gut microbiota is believed to be responsible for multiple health-impacting host effects. The influence of gut microorganisms on the human host begins immediately after birth, having long-lasting health effects, while the gut microbiota itself continues to develop throughout the host's entire life. The purported health-associated effects of the gut microbiota have fueled extensive and ongoing research efforts. Nonetheless, the precise mode of action of functionalities exerted by microbial colonizers of the infant intestine is still largely unknown. The current perspective intends to illustrate major future investigative directions concerning the human gut microbiota with a specific focus on infant-associated gut microbes.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Sanozky-Dawes R, R Barrangou (2022)

Lactobacillus, glycans and drivers of health in the vaginal microbiome.

Microbiome research reports, 1(3):18.

A microbiome consists of microbes and their genomes, encompassing bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea, and eukaryotes. These elements interact dynamically in the specific environment in which they reside and evolve. In the past decade, studies of various microbiomes have been prevalent in the scientific literature, accounting for the shift from culture-dependent to culture-independent identification of microbes using new high-throughput sequencing technologies that decipher their composition and sometimes provide insights into their functions. Despite tremendous advances in understanding the gut microbiome, relatively little attention has been devoted to the vaginal environment, notably regarding the ubiquity and diversity of glycans which denote the significant role they play in the maintenance of homeostasis. Hopefully, emerging technologies will aid in the determination of what is a healthy vaginal microbiome, and provide insights into the roles of Lactobacillus, glycans and microbiome-related drivers of health and disease.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Aguanno D, Metwaly A, Coleman OI, et al (2022)

Modeling microbiota-associated human diseases: from minimal models to complex systems.

Microbiome research reports, 1(3):17.

Alterations in the intestinal microbiota are associated with various human diseases of the digestive system, including obesity and its associated metabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and colorectal cancer (CRC). All three diseases are characterized by modifications of the richness, composition, and metabolic functions of the human intestinal microbiota. Despite being multi-factorial diseases, studies in germ-free animal models have unarguably identified the intestinal microbiota as a causal driver of disease pathogenesis. However, for an increased mechanistic understanding of microbial signatures in human diseases, models require detailed refinement to closely mimic the human microbiota and reflect the complexity and range of dysbiosis observed in patients. The transplantation of human fecal microbiota into animal models represents a powerful tool for studying the causal and functional role of the dysbiotic human microbiome in a pathological context. While human microbiota-associated models were initially employed to study obesity, an increasing number of studies have applied this approach in the context of IBD and CRC over the past decade. In this review, we discuss different approaches that allow the functional validation of the bacterial contribution to human diseases, with emphasis on obesity and its associated metabolic diseases, IBD, and CRC. We discuss the utility of simple models, such as in vitro fermentation systems of the human microbiota and ex vivo intestinal organoids, as well as more complex whole organism models. Our focus here lies on human microbiota-associated mouse models in the context of all three diseases, as well as highlighting the advantages and limitations of this approach.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Narduzzi L, Agulló V, Favari C, et al (2022)

(Poly)phenolic compounds and gut microbiome: new opportunities for personalized nutrition.

Microbiome research reports, 1(3):16.

For decades, (poly)phenols have been linked to cardiometabolic health, but population heterogeneity limits their apparent efficacy and the development of tailored, practical protocols in dietary interventions. This heterogeneity is likely determined by the existence of different metabotypes, sub-populations of individuals metabolizing some classes of (poly)phenols differently. The gut microbiota plays a major role in this process. The impact of microbiota-related phenolic metabotypes on cardiometabolic health is becoming evident, although the picture is still incomplete, and data are absent for some classes of (poly)phenols. The lack of a complete understanding of the main microbial actors involved in the process complicates the picture. Elucidation of the mechanisms behind phenolic metabotypes requires novel experimental designs that can dissect the inter-individual variability. This paper, in addition to providing an overview on the current state-of-the-art, proposes wider metabotyping approaches as a means of paving the way towards effective personalized nutrition with dietary (poly)phenols.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Strain R, Stanton C, RP Ross (2022)

Effect of diet on pathogen performance in the microbiome.

Microbiome research reports, 1(2):13.

Intricate interactions among commensal bacteria, dietary substrates and immune responses are central to defining microbiome community composition, which plays a key role in preventing enteric pathogen infection, a dynamic phenomenon referred to as colonisation resistance. However, the impact of diet on sculpting microbiota membership, and ultimately colonisation resistance has been overlooked. Furthermore, pathogens have evolved strategies to evade colonisation resistance and outcompete commensal microbiota by using unique nutrient utilisation pathways, by exploiting microbial metabolites as nutrient sources or by environmental cues to induce virulence gene expression. In this review, we will discuss the interplay between diet, microbiota and their associated metabolites, and how these can contribute to or preclude pathogen survival.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Linehan K, Dempsey EM, Ryan CA, et al (2022)

First encounters of the microbial kind: perinatal factors direct infant gut microbiome establishment.

Microbiome research reports, 1(2):10.

The human gut microbiome harbors a diverse range of microbes that play a fundamental role in the health and well-being of their host. The early-life microbiome has a major influence on human development and long-term health. Perinatal factors such as maternal nutrition, antibiotic use, gestational age and mode of delivery influence the initial colonization, development, and function of the neonatal gut microbiome. The perturbed early-life gut microbiome predisposes infants to diseases in early and later life. Understanding how perinatal factors guide and shape the composition of the early-life microbiome is essential to improving infant health. The following review provides a synopsis of perinatal factors with the most decisive influences on initial microbial colonization of the infant gut.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Lugli GA, M Ventura (2022)

A breath of fresh air in microbiome science: shallow shotgun metagenomics for a reliable disentangling of microbial ecosystems.

Microbiome research reports, 1(2):8.

Next-generation sequencing technologies allow accomplishing massive DNA sequencing, uncovering the microbial composition of many different ecological niches. However, the various strategies developed to profile microbiomes make it challenging to retrieve a reliable classification that is able to compare metagenomic data of different studies. Many limitations have been overcome thanks to shotgun sequencing, allowing a reliable taxonomic classification of microbial communities at the species level. Since numerous bioinformatic tools and databases have been implemented, the sequencing methodology is only the first of many choices to make for classifying metagenomic data. Here, we discuss the importance of choosing a reliable methodology to achieve consistent information in uncovering microbiomes.

RevDate: 2023-12-05

Turroni F, van Sinderen D, M Ventura (2021)

Bifidobacteria: insights into the biology of a key microbial group of early life gut microbiota.

Microbiome research reports, 1(1):2.

The establishment and development of the human gut microbiota constitutes a dynamic and non-random process, which involves positive and negative interactions between key microbial taxa and their host. Remarkably, these early life microbiota-host communications include key events with long-term health consequences. Bifidobacteria arguably represent the most emblematic microbial taxon of the infant gut microbiota. In this context, the interactions among bifidobacteria, their human host, and other members of the human gut microbiota are far from completely understood, despite the crucial role they play in the development and maintenance of human physiology and immune system. Here, we highlight the ecological as well as genetic and functional features of bifidobacteria residing in the human gut using genomic and ecology-based information.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Salamzade R, LR Kalan (2023)

skDER: microbial genome dereplication approaches for comparative and metagenomic applications.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.27.559801.

skDER ( combines recent advances to efficiently estimate average nucleotide identity (ANI) between thousands of microbial genomes by skani [1] with two low-memory methods for genomic dereplication. The first method implements a dynamic algorithm to determine a concise set of representative genomes. This approach is well-suited for selecting reference genomes to align metagenomic reads onto for tracking strain presence across related microbiome samples. This is because fewer representative genomes should alleviate the concern that reads belonging to the same strain get falsely partitioned across closely related genomes. The other method, which uses a greedy approach, is better suited for use in comparative genomics, where users might be overwhelmed with the high number of genomes available for certain taxa and aim to reduce redundancy and, therefore, computational requirements for downstream analytics. This method selects a larger number of representative genomes to comprehensively sample the pangenome space for the taxon of interest. To further aid usage for comparative genomics studies, skDER also features an option to automatically download genomes classified as a particular species or genus in the Genome Taxonomy Database [2-4] and we provide precomputed representative genomes for commonly studied bacterial taxa [5] .

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Chatman CC, Olson EG, Freedman AJ, et al (2023)

Co-exposure to Polyethylene Fiber and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Alters Microbiome and Metabolome of in vitro Chicken Cecal Mesocosms.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.22.568320.

UNLABELLED: Humans and animals encounter a summation of exposures during their lifetime (the exposome). In recent years, the scope of the exposome has begun to include microplastics. Microplastics (MPs) have increasingly been found in locations where there could be an interaction with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, one of the commonly isolated serovars from processed chicken. In this study, the microbiota response to a 24-hour co-exposure to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and/or low-density polyethylene (PE) microplastics in an in vitro broiler cecal model was determined using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (Illumina) and untargeted metabolomics. Community sequencing results indicated that PE fiber with and without S. Typhimurium yielded a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio compared to other treatment groups, which is associated with poor gut health, and overall had greater changes to the cecal microbial community composition. However, changes in the total metabolome were primarily driven by the presence of S. Typhimurium. Additionally, the co-exposure to PE Fiber and S . Typhimurium caused greater cecal microbial community and metabolome changes than either exposure alone. Our results indicate that polymer shape is an important factor in effects resulting from exposure. It also demonstrates that microplastic-pathogen interactions cause metabolic alterations to the chicken cecal microbiome in an in vitro chicken cecal model.

IMPORTANCE: Researching the exposome, a summation of exposure of one's lifespan, will aid in determining the environmental factors that contribute to disease states. There is an emerging concern that microplastic-pathogen interactions in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens may lead to an increase in Salmonella infection across flocks and eventually increased incidence of human salmonellosis cases. In this research article, we elucidated the effects of co-exposure to polyethylene microplastics and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on the ceca microbial community. Salmonella presence caused strong shifts in the cecal metabolome but not the microbiome. The inverse was true for polyethylene fiber. Polyethylene powder had almost no effect. The co-exposure had worse effects than either alone. This demonstrates that exposure effects to the gut microbial community are contaminant specific. When combined, the interactions between exposures exacerbate changes to the gut environment. The results herein support current Salmonella mitigation efforts and understanding microplastics-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Zhang K, Chen L, Yang J, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids ameliorate methamphetamine-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in a Sigmar-1 receptor-dependent manner.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 13(12):4801-4822.

Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can cause serious mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. The gut microbiota is a crucial contributor to maintaining host mental health. Here, we aim to investigate if microbiota participate in Meth-induced mental disorders, and the potential mechanisms involved. Here, 15 mg/kg Meth resulted in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of mice successfully and suppressed the Sigma-1 receptor (SIGMAR1)/BDNF/TRKB pathway in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, Meth impaired gut homeostasis by arousing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-related colonic inflammation, disturbing the gut microbiome and reducing the microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Moreover, fecal microbiota from Meth-administrated mice mediated the colonic inflammation and reproduced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in recipients. Further, SCFAs supplementation optimized Meth-induced microbial dysbiosis, ameliorated colonic inflammation, and repressed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Finally, Sigmar1 knockout (Sigmar1[-/-]) repressed the BDNF/TRKB pathway and produced similar behavioral phenotypes with Meth exposure, and eliminated the anti-anxiety and -depression effects of SCFAs. The activation of SIGMAR1 with fluvoxamine attenuated Meth-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Our findings indicated that gut microbiota-derived SCFAs could optimize gut homeostasis, and ameliorate Meth-induced mental disorders in a SIGMAR1-dependent manner. This study confirms the crucial role of microbiota in Meth-related mental disorders and provides a potential preemptive therapy.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Medeot DB, Nilson A, Miazzo RD, et al (2023)

Stevia as a natural additive on gut health and cecal microbiota in broilers.

Veterinary and animal science, 22:100322.

Stevia mash (SM), leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant, is an additive used in poultry that enhances growth and health. Objective: to determine the effect of 1 % SM on productive parameters, gut health, and the cecal microbiome in broilers between the first 15 and 21 days old. One hundred sixty male, 1-day-old broilers (48.5 ± 2.5 g) were divided into Control (C) without SM and Treated (T) with 1 % SM on diet, during 15/21 days. Each subgroup had eight broilers/five repetitions/treatment. At day 15 or 21, all broilers were dissected, Fabricius Bursa and Gut removed and processed for histomorphometry, followed by Villi Height/Crypt Deep (VH/CD) ratio. Conversion Index (CI) was determined. The V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified from DNA obtained from pooled cecal contents and sequenced on Illumina Miseq PE 2 × 250 platform. Sequence processing and taxonomic assignments were performed using the SHAMAN pipeline. Both T groups have better VH/CD Ratios than C groups (p ≤ 0.05). In guts, increased plasmatic and goblet cells number and thicker mucus layer were found in T15 and T21. All groups received SM showed early immunological maturity in Fabricius Bursa. IC was similar between all treatments. Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus torques group, and Bacteroides were the major genera modulated by SM addition. At 15 and 21 days old, SM exerts a impact on diversity and evenness of the cecal microbiome. Conclusion: SM (1 %) produced early immunologic maturity on Fabricius Bursa, increased intestinal functionality, and modified the microbiota, increasing beneficial microbial genera and microbial diversity.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Wang L, George TS, G Feng (2023)

Concepts and consequences of the hyphosphere core microbiome for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal fitness and function.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi-associated hyphosphere microbiomes can be considered as the second genome of the mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake pathway. Their composition can be thought of as a stably recurring component of a holobiont, defined by the hyphosphere core microbiome, which is thought to benefit AM fungal fitness. Here, we review evidence indicating the existence of the hyphosphere core microbiome, highlight its functions linked to those functions lacking in AM fungi, and further explore the mechanisms by which different core members ensure their stable coexistence. We conclude that deciphering and utilizing the hyphosphere core microbiome provides an entry point for understanding the complex interactions among plants, AM fungi, and bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Meade S, Liu Chen Kiow J, Massaro C, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome-associated predictors as biomarkers of response to advanced therapies in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2287073.

Loss of response to therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has led to a surge in research focusing on precision medicine. Three systematic reviews have been published investigating the associations between gut microbiota and disease activity or IBD therapy. We performed a systematic review to investigate the microbiome predictors of response to advanced therapy in IBD. Unlike previous studies, our review focused on predictors of response to therapy; so the included studies assessed microbiome predictors before the proposed time of response or remission. We also provide an update of the available data on mycobiomes and viromes. We highlight key themes in the literature that may serve as future biomarkers of treatment response: the abundance of fecal SCFA-producing bacteria and opportunistic bacteria, metabolic pathways related to butyrate synthesis, and non-butyrate metabolomic predictors, including bile acids (BAs), amino acids, and lipids, as well as mycobiome predictors of response.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Xiong D, Zhang L, ZJ Sun (2023)

Targeting the epigenome to reinvigorate T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

Military Medical Research, 10(1):59.

Cancer immunotherapy using immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized the field of cancer treatment; however, ICI efficacy is constrained by progressive dysfunction of CD8[+] tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which is termed T cell exhaustion. This process is driven by diverse extrinsic factors across heterogeneous tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Simultaneously, tumorigenesis entails robust reshaping of the epigenetic landscape, potentially instigating T cell exhaustion. In this review, we summarize the epigenetic mechanisms governing tumor microenvironmental cues leading to T cell exhaustion, and discuss therapeutic potential of targeting epigenetic regulators for immunotherapies. Finally, we outline conceptual and technical advances in developing potential treatment paradigms involving immunostimulatory agents and epigenetic therapies.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Yan Z, Wang Z, Si G, et al (2023)

Bacteria-loaded biochar for the immobilization of cadmium in an alkaline-polluted soil.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The combination of biochar and bacteria is a promising strategy for the remediation of Cd-polluted soils. However, the synergistic mechanisms of biochar and bacteria for Cd immobilization remain unclear. In this study, the experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the combination of biochar and Pseudomonas sp. AN-B15, on Cd immobilization, soil enzyme activity, and soil microbiome. The results showed that biochar could directly reduce the motility of Cd through adsorption and formation of CdCO3 precipitates, thereby protecting bacteria from Cd toxicity in the solution. In addition, bacterial growth further induces the formation of CdCO3 and CdS and enhances Cd adsorption by bacterial cells, resulting in a higher Cd removal rate. Thus, bacterial inoculation significantly enhances Cd removal in the presence of biochar in the solution. Moreover, soil incubation experiments showed that bacteria-loaded biochar significantly reduced soil exchangeable Cd in comparison with other treatments by impacting soil microbiome. In particular, bacteria-loaded biochar increased the relative abundance of Bacillus, Lysobacter, and Pontibacter, causing an increase in pH, urease, and arylsulfatase, thereby passivating soil exchangeable Cd and improving soil environmental quality in the natural alkaline Cd-contaminated soil. Overall, this study provides a systematic understanding of the synergistic mechanisms of biochar and bacteria for Cd immobilization in soil and new insights into the selection of functional strain for the efficient remediation of the contaminated environments by bacterial biochar composite.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Kiran NS, Yashaswini C, A Chatterjee (2023)

Noxious ramifications of cosmetic pollutants on gastrointestinal microbiome: A pathway to neurological disorders.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(23)00946-3 [Epub ahead of print].

On exposure to cosmetic pollutants, gastrointestinal dysbiosis, which is characterised by a disturbance in the gut microbiota, has come into focus as a possible contributor to the occurrence of neurotoxic consequences. It is normal practice to use personal care products that include parabens, phthalates, sulphates, triclosans/triclocarbans and micro/nano plastics. These substances have been found in a variety of bodily fluids and tissues, demonstrating their systemic dispersion. Being exposed to these cosmetic pollutants has been linked in recent research to neurotoxicity, including cognitive decline and neurodevelopmental problems. A vital part of sustaining gut health and general well-being is the gut flora. Increased intestinal permeability, persistent inflammation, and impaired metabolism may result from disruption of the gut microbial environment, which may in turn contribute to neurotoxicity. The link between gastrointestinal dysbiosis and the neurotoxic effects brought on by cosmetic pollutants may be explained by a number of processes, primarily the gut-brain axis. For the purpose of creating preventative and therapeutic measures, it is crucial to comprehend the intricate interactions involving cosmetic pollutants, gastrointestinal dysbiosis, and neurotoxicity. This review provides an in-depth understanding of the various hazardous cosmetic pollutants and its potential role in the occurrence of neurological disorders via gastrointestinal dysbiosis, providing insights into various described and hypothetical mechanisms regarding the complex toxic effects of these industrial pollutants.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Li Y, Li R, Hou J, et al (2023)

Mobilome affect the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of clinical importance into the natural environment.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)02605-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a quintessential One Health issue that threats both human and ecosystem health; however, the source and transmission of ARGs, especially clinically important ARGs (CLIARGs), in the environment has not yet been well studied. In the present study, shotgun metagenomic approaches were used to characterize the microbiome, resistome, and mobilome composition in human feces and six different environment sample types in South China. Overall, the resistome harbored 157 CLIARGs, with specific ARG hotspots (e.g., human feces, wastewater treatment plants, livestock manure and wastewater) excreting significantly higher abundance of CLIARGs compared with the natural environment. A redundancy analysis (RDA) analysis was performed and revealed that the bacterial community compositions and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) explained 55.08% and 34.68% of the variations in ARG abundance, respectively, indicating that both bacterial community and MGEs are key contributors to the maintenance and dissemination of CLIARGs in environment. The network analysis revealed non-random co-occurrence patterns between 200 bacterial genera and 147 CLIARGs, as well as between 135 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and 123 CLIARGs. In addition to numerous co-shared CLIARGs among different sample types, the source tracking program based on the FEAST probabilistic model was used to estimate the relative contributions of the CLIARGs from potential sources to the natural environment. The source tracking analysis results delineated that mobilome, more than microbiome, contributed CLIARG transmission from those ARG hotspots into natural environment, and the MGEs in WWTPs seems to played the most significant role in the spread of CLIARGs to the natural environment (average contribution 32.9%-46.4%). Overall, this study demonstrated the distribution and dissemination of CLIARGs in the environment, and aimed to better inform strategies to control the spread of CLIARGs into the natural environment.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Higo M, Kang DJ, K Isobe (2023)

Root-associated microbial community and diversity in napiergrass across radiocesium-contaminated lands after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)02053-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome derived from soil associated with plant roots help in plant growth and stress resistance. It exhibits potential benefits for soil remediation and restoration of radioactive-cesium ([137]Cs)-contaminated soils. However, there is still limited information about the community and diversity of root-associated microbiome in [137]Cs-contaminated soil after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster. To address this, a comparative analysis of communities and diversity of root-associated microbiomes was conducted in two field types after the FDNPP disaster. In 2013, we investigated the community and diversity of indigenous root-associated microbiome of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in both grassland and paddy fields of [137]Cs-contaminated land-use type within a 30-km radius around the FDNPP. Results showed that the root-associated bacterial communities in napiergrass belonged to 32 phyla, 75 classes, 174 orders, 284 families, and 521 genera, whereas the root-associated fungal communities belonged to 5 phyla, 11 classes, 31 orders, 59 families, and 64 genera. The most frequently observed phylum in both grassland and paddy field was Proteobacteria (47.4% and 55.9%, respectively), followed by Actinobacteriota (23.8% and 27.9%, respectively) and Bacteroidota (10.1% and 11.3%, respectively). The dominant fungal phylum observed in both grassland and paddy field was Basidiomycota (75.9% and 94.2%, respectively), followed by Ascomycota (24.0% and 5.8%, respectively). Land-use type significantly affected the bacterial and fungal communities that colonize the roots of napiergrass. Several [137]Cs-tolerant bacterial and fungal taxa were also identified, which may be potentially applied for the phytoremediation of [137]Cs-contaminated areas around FDNPP. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of microbial communities in [137]Cs-contaminated lands and their long-term ecosystem benefits for phytoremediation efforts.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Sabatino R, Sbaffi T, Corno G, et al (2023)

The diversity of the antimicrobial resistome of lake Tanganyika increases with the water depth.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 342:123065 pii:S0269-7491(23)02067-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the microbiome of freshwater communities is a consequence of thousands of years of evolution but also of the pressure exerted by anthropogenic activities, with potential negative impact on environmental and human health. In this study, we investigated the distribution of ARGs in Lake Tanganyika (LT)'s water column to define the resistome of this ancient lake. Additionally, we compared the resistome of LT with that of Lake Baikal (LB), the oldest known lake with different environmental characteristics and a lower anthropogenic pollution than LT. We found that richness and abundance of several antimicrobial resistance classes were higher in the deep water layers in both lakes. LT Kigoma region, known for its higher anthropogenic pollution, showed a greater richness and number of ARG positive MAGs compared to Mahale. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the antimicrobial resistome of LT and underscore its importance as reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. In particular, the deepest water layers of LT are the main repository of diverse ARGs, mirroring what was observed in LB and in other aquatic ecosystems. These findings suggest that the deep waters might play a crucial role in the preservation of ARGs in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Chen X, Zhu D, Zhang F, et al (2023)

Exposure to triphenyltin impairs gut integrity, disturbs gut microbiota, and alters fecal metabolites.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 269:115753 pii:S0147-6513(23)01257-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Triphenyltin is an environmental contaminant widely used in antifouling paints and can cause toxicity in various organs in living organisms. However, its effects on intestinal function and the microbiome of the gut remain unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the intestinal toxicity of triphenyltin in mice by orally administering 0, 1.875, 3.75, and 7.5 mg/Kg to adult male mice for 8 weeks. Results showed that triphenyltin caused ileum tissue damage, induced oxidative stress, upregulated inflammation-related gene expression and increased serum tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels in mice. Triphenyltin impaired ileum barrier function by downregulating Muc2, ZO-1, Occludin and their protein levels at 3.75 and 7.5 mg/Kg. TPT exposure led to partial inflammation and decreased mucin mRNA expression in the colon. Triphenyltin altered intestinal micro-ecological balance and fecal metabolome in mice. In conclusion, triphenyltin alters the mouse gut microbiota and fecal metabolome.

RevDate: 2023-12-03

Zhou SY, Yang K, Neilson R, et al (2023)

Long-term seawall barriers lead to the formation of an urban coastal lagoon with increased antibiotic resistome.

Journal of environmental management, 351:119721 pii:S0301-4797(23)02509-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Urbanization has increased the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) impacting urban aquatic ecosystems and threatening human health. However, an overview of the antibiotic resistome in artificial coastal lagoons formed by coastal seawall construction is unclear. This study investigated the resistome of sediment in a coastal lagoon, established for over 60 years and found that the composition of the resistome in the lagoon sediments associated with the seawall significantly differed from that of marine sediment external to the seawall. Moreover, the diversity, number, relative abundance, and absolute abundance of the antibiotic resistome in the lagoon sediments were significantly higher compared to marine sediment. Network analyses revealed that more co-occurrences were found in lagoon sediment between bacterial communities, ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) than in marine sediments, suggesting that bacteria in lagoon sediments may be associated with multiple antibiotic resistances. Random forest and structural equation models showed that an increase in the absolute abundance of MGEs had a concomitant effect on the absolute abundance and diversity of ARGs, whereas increasing salinity decreased the absolute abundance of ARGs. This study provides a basis to assess the risk of resistome diffusion and persistence in an artificial coastal lagoon.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )