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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Jun 2023 at 01:49 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-06-07

Song S, Fan M, Wen X, et al (2023)

Integrated network pharmacology and gut microbiome analysis to reveal the mechanism of Qu-Zhuo-Tong-Bi decoction against hyperuricemia and gout.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(23)00604-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Qu-zhuo-tong-bi decoction (QZTBD) is a classic Chinese herbal medicine that has shown therapeutic efficacy in clinical practice against hyperuricemia and gout. However, the potential mechanisms of QZTBD remain poorly investigated.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the therapeutic effects of QZTBD on hyperuricemia and gout and to reveal its mechanisms of action.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Uox-KO mouse model of hyperuricemia and gout was established, and QZTBD was administered at a dosage of 18.0 g/kg/d. Throughout the experimental period, the effects of QZTBD on gout symptoms were monitored and analyzed. The integrated network pharmacology and gut microbiota analysis strategy was conducted to explore the mechanism of QZTBD in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Targeted metabolomic analysis was performed to investigate the variation of amino acids and Spearman's rank correlation analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the discrepant bacterial genera and the altered amino acid. Flow cytometry was utilized to analysis the proportion of Th17 and Treg cells, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by ELISA. qRT-PCR and Western blot assay were applied to detect the expression of mRNA and protein respectively. Autodock vina 1.1.2 was used to evaluate the docking interactions.

RESULTS: QZTBD treatment showed remarkable efficacy against hyperuricemia and gout with respect to attenuation of disease activity metrics through gut microbiome recovery and intestinal immune homeostasis. The administration of QZTBD significantly elevated the abundance of Allobaculum and Candidatus sacchairmonas, corrected the aberrant amino acid patterns, repaired the impaired intestinal barrier, restored the balance of Th17/Treg cells via PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17. Fecal microbiota transplantation from QZTBD treated mice demonstrated convincing evidence of efficacy and mechanism of QZTBD.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study explores the therapeutic mechanism of an effective herbal formula, QZTBD, for gout treatment through remodeling gut microbiome and regulating the differentiation of CD4[+] T cells via PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wu F, Ding X, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into the microbiome and the key geobiochemical potentials on the sandstone of rock-hewn Beishiku Temple in Northwest China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03237-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses were used to determine the microbial diversity and taxon composition, as well as the biochemical potentials of the microbiome on the sandstone of Beishiku Temple located in Northwest China. Taxonomic annotation of the metagenomic dataset revealed the predominant taxa of the stone microbiome on this cave temple with characteristics of resistance to harsh environmental conditions. Meanwhile, there were also taxa in the microbiome that showed sensitivity to environmental factors. The taxa distribution and the metabolic functional distribution patterns by the metagenome and metaproteome, respectively, showed clear differences. The high abundance of energy metabolism represented in the metaproteome suggested that there were active geomicrobiological cycles of elements within the microbiome. The taxa responsible for reactions in the nitrogen cycle from both metagenome and metaproteome supported a metabolically active nitrogen cycle, and the high activity of Comammox bacteria indicated the strong metabolic activity of ammonia oxidation to nitrate in the outdoor site. The SOX-related taxa involved in the sulfur cycle showed higher activity outdoors than indoors, and on the outdoor ground than at the outdoor cliff, as detected through metaproteomic analysis. The development of petrochemical industry in the vicinity resulting in the deposition of sulfur/oxidized sulfur via atmosphere may stimulate the physiological activity of SOX. Our findings provide metagenomic and metaproteomic evidence for microbially driven geobiochemical cycles that result in the biodeterioration of stone monuments.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Huang Y, Jonsson NN, McLaughlin M, et al (2023)

Quantitative TMT-based proteomics revealing host, dietary and microbial proteins in bovine faeces including barley serpin Z4, a prominent component in the head of beer.

Journal of proteomics pii:S1874-3919(23)00130-6 [Epub ahead of print].

There has been little information about the proteome of bovine faeces or about the contribution to the faecal proteome of proteins from the host, the feed or the intestinal microbiome. Here, the bovine faecal proteome and the origin of its component proteins was assessed, while also determining the effect of treating barley, the major carbohydrate in the feed, with either ammonia (ATB) or sodium propionate (PTB) preservative. Healthy continental crossbreed steers were allocated to two groups and fed on either of the barley-based diets. Five faecal samples from each group were collected on Day 81 of the trial and analysed by quantitative proteomics using nLC-ESI-MS/MS after tandem mass tag labelling. In total, 281 bovine proteins, 199 barley proteins, 176 bacterial proteins and 190 archaeal proteins were identified in the faeces. Mucosal pentraxin, albumin and digestive enzymes were among bovine proteins identified. Serpin Z4 a protease inhibitor was the most abundant barley protein identified which is also found in barley-based beer, while numerous microbial proteins were identified, many originating bacteria from Clostridium, while Methanobrevibacter was the dominant archaeal genus. Thirty-nine proteins were differentially abundant between groups, the majority being more abundant in the PTB group compared to the ATB group. SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic examination of faeces is becoming a valuable means to assess the health of the gastro-intestinal tract in several species, but knowledge on the proteins present in bovine faeces is limited. This investigation aimed to characterise the proteome of bovine faecal extracts in order to evaluate the potential for investigations of the proteome as a means to assess the health, disease and welfare of cattle in the future. The investigation was able to identify proteins in bovine faeces that had been (i) produced by the individual cattle, (ii) present in the barley-based feed eaten by the cattle or (iii) produced by bacteria and other microbes in the rumen or intestines. Bovine proteins identified included mucosal pentraxin, serum albumin and a variety of digestive enzymes. Barley proteins found in the faeces included serpin Z4, a protease inhibitor that is also found in beer having survived the brewing process. Bacterial and archaeal proteins in the faecal extracts were related to several pathways related to the metabolism of carbohydrates. The recognition of the range of proteins that can be identified in bovine faeces raises the possibility that non-invasive sample collection of this material could provide a novel diagnostic approach to cattle health and welfare.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wang LC, Chen LH, Chiu YC, et al (2023)

Teleost skin microbiome: An intimate interplay between the environment and the host immunity.

Fish & shellfish immunology pii:S1050-4648(23)00355-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The mucosal microbiome plays a role in regulating host health. The research conducted in humans and mice has governed and detailed the information on microbiome-host immunity interactions. Teleost fish, different from humans and mice, lives in and relies on the aquatic environment and is subjected to environmental variation. The growth of teleost mucosal microbiome studies, the majority in the gastrointestinal tract, has emphasized the essential role of the teleost microbiome in growth and health. However, research in the teleost external surface microbiome, as the skin microbiome, has just started. In this review, we examine the general findings in the colonization of the skin microbiome, how the skin microbiome is subjected to environmental change and the reciprocal regulation with the host immune system, and the current challenges that potential study models can address. The information collected from teleost skin microbiome-host immunity research would help future teleost culturing from the potential parasitic infestation and bacterial infection as foreseeing growing threats.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Xing X, Lyu L, Yan Z, et al (2023)

Self-purification of actual wastewater via microbial-synergy driving of catalyst-surface microelectronic field: A pilot-scale study.

Journal of hazardous materials, 457:131744 pii:S0304-3894(23)01027-0 [Epub ahead of print].

High energy consumption is impedimental for eliminating refractory organics in wastewater by current technologies. Herein, we develop an efficient self-purification process for actual non-biodegradable dyeing wastewater at pilot scale, using N-doped graphene-like (CN) complexed Cu-Al2O3 supported Al2O3 ceramics (HCLL-S8-M) fixed-bed reactor without additional input. About 36% chemical oxygen demand removal was achieved within 20 min empty bed retention time and maintained stability for almost one year. The HCLL-S8-M structure feature and its interface on microbial community structure, functions, and metabolic pathways were analyzed by density-functional theory calculation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, multiomics analysis of metagenome, macrotranscriptome and macroproteome. On the surface of HCLL-S8-M, a strong microelectronic field (MEF) was formed by the electron-rich/poor area due to Cu-π interaction from the complexation between phenolic hydroxy of CN and Cu species, driving the electrons of the adsorbed dye pollutants to the microorganisms through extracellular polymeric substance and the direct transfer of extracellular electrons, causing their degradation into CO2 and intermediates, which was degraded partly via intracellular metabolism. The lower energy feeding for the microbiome produced less adenosine triphosphate, resulting in little sludge throughout reaction. The MEF from electronic polarization is greatly potential to develop low-energy wastewater treatment technology.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Deng F, Qin G, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Multi-omics reveals 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA)-induced hepatotoxicity and the role of the gut-liver axis in rats.

Journal of hazardous materials, 457:131760 pii:S0304-3894(23)01043-9 [Epub ahead of print].

2-Bromo-4, 6-dinitroaniline (BDNA) is a widespread azo-dye-related hazardous pollutant. However, its reported adverse effects are limited to mutagenicity, genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reproductive toxicity. We systematically assessed the hepatotoxicity of BDNA exposure via pathological and biochemical examinations and explored the underlying mechanisms via integrative multi-omics analyses of the transcriptome, metabolome, and microbiome in rats. After 28 days of oral administration, compared with the control group, 100 mg/kg BDNA significantly triggered hepatotoxicity, upregulated toxicity indicators (e.g., HSI, ALT, and ARG1), and induced systemic inflammation (e.g., G-CSF, MIP-2, RANTES, and VEGF), dyslipidemia (e.g., TC and TG), and bile acid (BA) synthesis (e.g., CA, GCA, and GDCA). Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed broad perturbations in gene transcripts and metabolites involved in the representative pathways of liver inflammation (e.g., Hmox1, Spi1, L-methionine, valproic acid, and choline), steatosis (e.g., Nr0b2, Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Dusp1, Plin3, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid), and cholestasis (e.g., FXR/Nr1h4, Cdkn1a, Cyp7a1, and bilirubin). Microbiome analysis revealed reduced relative abundances of beneficial gut microbial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcaceae and Akkermansia muciniphila), which further contributed to the inflammatory response, lipid accumulation, and BA synthesis in the enterohepatic circulation. The observed effect concentrations here were comparable to the highly contaminated wastewaters, showcasing BDNA's hepatotoxic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. These results shed light on the biomolecular mechanism and important role of the gut-liver axis underpinning BDNA-induced cholestatic liver disorders in vivo.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Liu J, Liu J, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Vitamin D deficiency in early life regulates gut microbiome composition and leads to impaired glucose tolerance in adult and offspring rats.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Vitamin D has been found to be involved in glucose metabolism in recent years. Its deficiency is very common, especially in children. Whether vitamin D deficiency in early life affects adult diabetes risk is unknown. In this study, a rat model of early life vitamin D deficiency (F1 Early-VDD) was established by depriving it of vitamin D from the 0 to the 8th week. Further, some rats were switched to normal feeding conditions and sacrificed at the 18th week. Other rats were mated randomly to generate offspring rats (F2 Early-VDD), and F2 rats were fed under normal conditions and sacrificed at the 8th week. Serum 25(OH)D3 level decreased in F1 Early-VDD at the 8th week and returned to normal at the 18th week. Serum 25(OH)D3 level in F2 Early-VDD at the 8th week was also lower than that in control rats. Impaired glucose tolerance was observed in F1 Early-VDD at the 8th week and 18th week and also in F2 Early-VDD at the 8th week. The gut microbiota composition in F1 Early-VDD at the 8th week significantly changed. Among the top ten genera with a rich difference, Desulfovibrio, Roseburia, Ruminiclostridium, Lachnoclostridium, A2, GCA-900066575, Peptococcus, Lachnospiraceae_FCS020_ group, and Bilophila increased owing to vitamin D deficiency, whereas Blautia decreased. There were 108 significantly changed metabolites in F1 Early-VDD at the 8th week, of which 63 were enriched in known metabolic pathways. Correlations between gut microbiota and metabolites were analyzed. Blautia was positively related to 2-picolinic acid, whereas Bilophila was negatively related to indoleacetic acid. Moreover, some of the changes in microbiota, metabolites, and enriched metabolic pathways still existed in F1 Early-VDD rats at the 18th week and F2 Early-VDD rats at the 8th week. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency in early life leads to impaired glucose tolerance in adult and offspring rats. This effect may be partly achieved by regulating gut microbiota and their co-metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Thakkar A, Vora A, Kaur G, et al (2023)

Dysbiosis and Alzheimer's disease: role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics.

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia and the accumulation of amyloid beta in the brain. Recently, microbial dysbiosis has been identified as one of the major factors involved in the onset and progression of AD. Imbalance in gut microbiota is known to affect central nervous system (CNS) functions through the gut-brain axis and involves inflammatory, immune, neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways. An altered gut microbiome is known to affect the gut and BBB permeability, resulting in imbalance in levels of neurotransmitters and neuroactive peptides/factors. Restoration of levels of beneficial microorganisms in the gut has demonstrated promising effects in AD in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The current review enlists the important beneficial microbial species present in the gut, the effect of their metabolites on CNS, mechanisms involved in dysbiosis related to AD and the beneficial effects of probiotics on AD. It also highlights challenges involved in large-scale manufacturing and quality control of probiotic formulations.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Lavallee CM, Bruno A, Ma C, et al (2023)

A review of the role of intermittent fasting in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 16:17562848231171756.

Intermittent fasting (IF) may be a weight management strategy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this short narrative review is to summarize the evidence related to IF in the management of IBD. A literature search of English publications related to IF or time-restricted feeding and IBD, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar. Four publications on studies of IF in IBD were found: three randomized controlled trials in animal models of colitis and one prospective observational study in patients with IBD. The results from animal studies suggest either moderate or no changes in weight but improvements in colitis with IF. These improvements may be mediated through changes in the gut microbiome, decreased oxidative stress and increased colonic short-chain fatty acids. The study in humans was small and uncontrolled, and it did not assess changes in weight, making it difficult to draw conclusions around the effects of IF on changes in weight or disease course. Given that preclinical evidence suggests intermittent fasting may play a beneficial role in IBD, randomized controlled trials in large patients with active disease are warranted to determine whether intermittent fasting could be an integrated therapy for patients with IBD management, either for weight or for disease management. These studies should also explore the potential mechanisms of action related to intermittent fasting.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wei S, He T, Zhao X, et al (2023)

Alterations in the gut microbiota and serum metabolomics of spontaneous cholestasis caused by loss of FXR signal in mice.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 14:1197847.

Background: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic target of bile acids (BAs) and is also a target for drugs against several liver diseases. However, the contribution of FXR in the pathogenesis of cholestasis is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive insight into the metabolic properties of FXR-involved cholestasis in mice. Materials and methods: In this study, an alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis mouse model and FXR[-/-] mice were established to investigate the effect of FXR on cholestasis. The effect of FXR on liver and ileal pathology was evaluated. Simultaneously, Untargeted metabolomics combined with 16s rRNA gene sequencing analysis was applied to reveal the involvement of FXR in the pathogenesis of cholestasis. Results: The results showed that ANIT (75 mg/kg) induced marked cholestasis in WT and FXR -/- mice. It is noteworthy that FXR[-/-] mice developed spontaneous cholestasis. Compared with WT mice, significant liver and ileal tissue damage were found. In addition, 16s rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed gut microbiota dysbiosis in FXR-/- mice and ANIT-induced cholestasis mice. Differential biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis of cholestasis caused by FXR knockout were screened using untargeted metabolomics. Notably, Lactobacillus_ johnsonii_FI9785 has a high correlation with the differential biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis caused by FXR knockout. Conclusion: Our results implied that the disorder of the intestinal flora caused by FXR knockout can also interfere with the metabolism. This study provides novel insights into the FXR-related mechanisms of cholestasis.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Cai Z, Li P, Zhu W, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis reveals gut plasmids as diagnosis markers for colorectal cancer.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1130446.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is linked to distinct gut microbiome patterns. The efficacy of gut bacteria as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC has been confirmed. Despite the potential to influence microbiome physiology and evolution, the set of plasmids in the gut microbiome remains understudied.

METHODS: We investigated the essential features of gut plasmid using metagenomic data of 1,242 samples from eight distinct geographic cohorts. We identified 198 plasmid-related sequences that differed in abundance between CRC patients and controls and screened 21 markers for the CRC diagnosis model. We utilize these plasmid markers combined with bacteria to construct a random forest classifier model to diagnose CRC.

RESULTS: The plasmid markers were able to distinguish between the CRC patients and controls [mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.70)] and maintained accuracy in two independent cohorts. In comparison to the bacteria-only model, the performance of the composite panel created by combining plasmid and bacteria features was significantly improved in all training cohorts (mean AUCcomposite = 0.804 and mean AUCbacteria = 0.787) and maintained high accuracy in all independent cohorts (mean AUCcomposite = 0.839 and mean AUCbacteria = 0.821). In comparison to controls, we found that the bacteria-plasmid correlation strength was weaker in CRC patients. Additionally, the KEGG orthology (KO) genes in plasmids that are independent of bacteria or plasmids significantly correlated with CRC.

CONCLUSION: We identified plasmid features associated with CRC and showed how plasmid and bacterial markers could be combined to further enhance CRC diagnosis accuracy.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wei S, Mai Y, Hu L, et al (2023)

Altered gut microbiota in temporal lobe epilepsy with anxiety disorders.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1165787.

INTRODUCTION: Patients with epilepsy are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of anxiety disorders. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy with anxiety disorders (TLEA) has attracted more attention in epilepsy research. The link between intestinal dysbiosis and TLEA has not been established yet. To gain deeper insight into the link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and factors affecting TLEA, the composition of the gut microbiome, including bacteria and fungi, has been examined.

METHODS: The gut microbiota from 51 temporal lobe epilepsy patients has been subjected to sequencing targeting 16S rDNA (Illumina MiSeq) and from 45 temporal lobe epilepsy patients targeting the ITS-1 region (through pyrosequencing). A differential analysis has been conducted on the gut microbiota from the phylum to the genus level.

RESULTS: TLEA patients' gut bacteria and fungal microbiota exhibited distinct characteristics and diversity as evidenced by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). TLEA patients showed higher abundances of Escherichia-Shigella (genus), Enterobacterales (order), Enterobacteriaceae (family), Proteobacteria (phylum), Gammaproteobacteria (class), and lower abundances of Clostridia (class), Firmicutes, Lachnospiraceae (family), Lachnospirales (order), and Ruminococcus (genus). Among fungi, Saccharomycetales fam. incertae sedis (family), Saccharomycetales (order), Saccharomycetes (class), and Ascomycota (phylum) were significantly more abundant in TLEA patients than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy but without anxiety. Adoption and perception of seizure control significantly affected TLEA bacterial community structure, while yearly hospitalization frequency affected fungal community structures in TLEA patients.

CONCLUSION: Here, our study validated the gut microbiota dysbiosis of TLEA. Moreover, the pioneering study of bacterial and fungal microbiota profiles will help in understanding the course of TLEA and drive us toward preventing TLEA gut microbiota dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Walton MG, Cubillejo I, Nag D, et al (2023)

Advances in cholera research: from molecular biology to public health initiatives.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1178538.

The aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, which has plagued the world for centuries. This pathogen has been the subject of studies in a vast array of fields, from molecular biology to animal models for virulence activity to epidemiological disease transmission modeling. V. cholerae genetics and the activity of virulence genes determine the pathogenic potential of different strains, as well as provide a model for genomic evolution in the natural environment. While animal models for V. cholerae infection have been used for decades, recent advances in this area provide a well-rounded picture of nearly all aspects of V. cholerae interaction with both mammalian and non-mammalian hosts, encompassing colonization dynamics, pathogenesis, immunological responses, and transmission to naïve populations. Microbiome studies have become increasingly common as access and affordability of sequencing has improved, and these studies have revealed key factors in V. cholerae communication and competition with members of the gut microbiota. Despite a wealth of knowledge surrounding V. cholerae, the pathogen remains endemic in numerous countries and causes sporadic outbreaks elsewhere. Public health initiatives aim to prevent cholera outbreaks and provide prompt, effective relief in cases where prevention is not feasible. In this review, we describe recent advancements in cholera research in these areas to provide a more complete illustration of V. cholerae evolution as a microbe and significant global health threat, as well as how researchers are working to improve understanding and minimize impact of this pathogen on vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Lathe R, Schultek NM, Balin BJ, et al (2023)

Establishment of a consensus protocol to explore the brain pathobiome in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Research outline and call for collaboration: Research outline and call for collaboration.

Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial infections of the brain can lead to dementia, and for many decades microbial infections have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, a causal role for infection in AD remains contentious, and the lack of standardized detection methodologies has led to inconsistent detection/identification of microbes in AD brains. There is a need for a consensus methodology; the Alzheimer's Pathobiome Initiative aims to perform comparative molecular analyses of microbes in post mortem brains versus cerebrospinal fluid, blood, olfactory neuroepithelium, oral/nasopharyngeal tissue, bronchoalveolar, urinary, and gut/stool samples. Diverse extraction methodologies, polymerase chain reaction and sequencing techniques, and bioinformatic tools will be evaluated, in addition to direct microbial culture and metabolomic techniques. The goal is to provide a roadmap for detecting infectious agents in patients with mild cognitive impairment or AD. Positive findings would then prompt tailoring of antimicrobial treatments that might attenuate or remit mounting clinical deficits in a subset of patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Sadeghi J, Chaganti SR, DD Heath (2023)

Regulation of host gene expression by gastrointestinal tract microbiota in Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Differences in gut microbiome composition are linked with health, disease and ultimately host fitness; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship are not well characterized. Here, we modified the fish gut microbiota using antibiotic and probiotic feed treatments to address the effect of host microbiome on gene expression patterns. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gut gene expression was evaluated using whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) on hindgut mucosa samples from individuals treated with antibiotic, probiotic and control diets to determine differentially expressed (DE) host genes. Fifty DE host genes were selected for further characterization using nanofluidic qPCR chips. We used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to characterize the rearing water and host gut microbiome (bacterial) communities. Daily administration of antibiotics and probiotics resulted in significant changes in fish gut and aquatic microbiota as well as more than 100 DE genes in the antibiotic and probiotic treatment fish, relative to healthy controls. Normal microbiota depletion by antibiotics mostly led to downregulation of different aspects of immunity and upregulation of apoptotic process. In the probiotic treatment, genes related to post-translation modification and inflammatory responses were up-regulated relative to controls. Our qPCR results revealed significant effects of treatment (antibiotic and probiotic) on rabep2, aifm3, manf, prmt3 gene transcription. Moreover, we found significant associations between members of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae with host gene expression patterns. Overall, our analysis showed that the microbiota had significant impacts on many host signalling pathways, specifically targeting immune, developmental and metabolic processes. Our characterization of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in microbiome-host interactions will help develop new strategies for preventing/ treating microbiome disruption-related diseases.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Yang L, Mai G, Hu Z, et al (2023)

Global transmission of broad-host-range plasmids derived from the human gut microbiome.

Nucleic acids research pii:7191423 [Epub ahead of print].

Broad-host-range (BHR) plasmids in human gut bacteria are of considerable interest for their ability to mediate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) across large phylogenetic distance. However, the human gut plasmids, especially the BHR plasmids, remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the plasmids in the draft genomes of gut bacterial isolates from Chinese and American donors, resulting in 5372 plasmid-like clusters (PLCs), of which, 820 PLCs (comPLCs) were estimated with > 60% completeness genomes and only 155 (18.9%) were classified to known replicon types (n = 37). We observed that 175 comPLCs had a broad host range across distinct bacterial genera, of which, 71 were detected in at least two human populations of Chinese, American, Spanish, and Danish, and 13 were highly prevalent (>10%) in at least one human population. Haplotype analyses of two widespread PLCs demonstrated their spreading and evolutionary trajectory, suggesting frequent and recent exchanges of the BHR plasmids in environments. In conclusion, we obtained a large collection of plasmid sequences in human gut bacteria and demonstrated that a subset of the BHR plasmids can be transmitted globally, thus facilitating extensive HGT (e.g. antibiotic resistance genes) events. This study highlights the potential implications of the plasmids for global human health.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Huang Y, Han Q, Peng X, et al (2023)

Disaggregated Nano-Hydroxyapatite (DnHAP) with Inhibitory Effects on Biofilms and Demineralization.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) is considered a biocompatible agent that promotes the remineralization of dental hard tissue; however, its antibacterial efficacy is under scientific discussion. Therefore, this investigation aimed to specify the inhibitory effects of disaggregated nano-hydroxyapatite (DnHAP) on regrown biofilms and demineralization. Regrown biofilm models of single-species (Streptococcus mutans), dual-species (S. mutans and Candida albicans), and saliva-derived microcosm biofilms were established in vitro. Repeat treatment with DnHAP was applied to biofilms. The viability, lactic acid, biofilm structure, biomass, the inhibitory effect of demineralization, and virulence factors' expression were determined. In addition, the biofilm microbial community was analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. DnHAP inhibited metabolism, lactic acid production, biomass, and water-insoluble polysaccharide production (P < 0.05) of regrown single/dual-species biofilms. Concerning the saliva-derived biofilms, samples treated with DnHAP showed lower biofilm metabolic activity without significant differences from samples treated with sterile deionized water (P > 0.05); in addition, saliva-derived biofilms treated with DnHAP exhibited lower lactic acid production (P < 0.05). The demineralization of bovine enamel was the lowest in the DnHAP group, as detected by transverse microradiography, and the lesion depth and volume decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The application of DnHAP did not change the diversity of regrown saliva-derived microcosm biofilms. In conclusion, this investigation showed that DnHAP could be a promising solution for the management of regrown biofilms to combat dental caries.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Lacroix S, Leblanc N, Abolghasemi A, et al (2023)

Probiotic interventions promote metabolic health in high fat-fed hamsters in association with gut microbiota and endocannabinoidome alterations.

Beneficial microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics represent a promising tool to improve metabolic health, including lipid profiles and cholesterol levels. Modulation of the gut microbiome and the endocannabinoidome - two interrelated systems involved in several metabolic processes influenced by probiotics - has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action. This study establishes the impact of probiotics on metabolic health, gut microbiota composition and endocannabinoidome mediators in an animal model of hypercholesterolaemia. Syrian hamsters were fed either a low-fat low-cholesterol or high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet to induce hypercholesterolaemia and gavaged for 6 weeks with either Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CHOL-200 or a combination of the two. Globally, probiotic interventions ameliorated, at least partially, lipid metabolism in HFHC-fed hamsters. The interventions, especially those including L. acidophilus, modified the gut microbiota composition of the small intestine and caecum in ways suggesting reversal of HFHC-induced dysbiosis. Several associations were observed between changes in gut microbiota composition and endocannabinoidome mediators following probiotic interventions and both systems were also associated with improved metabolic health parameters. For instance, potential connexions between the Eubacteriaceae and Deferribacteraceae families, levels of 2‑palmitoylglycerol, 2‑oleoylglycerol, 2‑linoleoylglycerol or 2‑eicosapentaenoylglycerol and improved lipid profiles were found. Altogether, our results suggest a potential crosstalk between gut microbiota and the endocannabinoidome in driving metabolic benefits associated with probiotics, especially those including L. acidophilus, in an animal model of hypercholesterolaemia.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Strano F, Micaroni V, Thomas T, et al (2023)

Marine heatwave conditions drive carryover effects in a temperate sponge microbiome and developmental performance.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(2000):20222539.

Marine heatwaves are increasingly subjecting organisms to unprecedented stressful conditions, but the biological consequences of these events are still poorly understood. Here we experimentally tested the presence of carryover effects of heatwave conditions on the larval microbiome, settlers growth rate and metamorphosis duration of the temperate sponge Crella incrustans. The microbial community of adult sponges changed significantly after ten days at 21°C. There was a relative decrease in symbiotic bacteria, and an increase in stress-associated bacteria. Sponge larvae derived from control sponges were mainly characterised by a few bacterial taxa also abundant in adults, confirming the occurrence of vertical transmission. The microbial community of sponge larvae derived from heatwave-exposed sponges showed significant increase in the endosymbiotic bacteria Rubritalea marina. Settlers derived from heatwave-exposed sponges had a greater growth rate under prolonged heatwave conditions (20 days at 21°C) compared to settlers derived from control sponges exposed to the same conditions. Moreover, settler metamorphosis was significantly delayed at 21°C. These results show, for the first time, the occurrence of heatwave-induced carryover effects across life-stages in sponges and highlight the potential role of selective vertical transmission of microbes in sponge resilience to extreme thermal events.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Salloum PM, Jorge F, Dheilly NM, et al (2023)

Adoption of alternative life cycles in a parasitic trematode is linked to microbiome differences.

Biology letters, 19(6):20230091.

For parasites with complex multi-host life cycles, the facultative truncation of the cycle represents an adaptation to challenging conditions for transmission. However, why certain individuals are capable of abbreviating their life cycle while other conspecifics are not remains poorly understood. Here, we test whether conspecific trematodes that either follow the normal three-host life cycle or skip their final host by reproducing precociously (via progenesis) in an intermediate host differ in the composition of their microbiomes. Characterization of bacterial communities based on sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S SSU rRNA gene revealed that the same bacterial taxa occur in both normal and progenetic individuals, independent of host identity and temporal variation. However, all bacterial phyla recorded in our study, and two-thirds of bacterial families, differed in abundance between the two morphs, with some achieving higher abundance in the normal morph and others in the progenetic morph. Although the evidence is purely correlative, our results reveal a weak association between microbiome differences and intraspecific plasticity in life cycle pathways. Advances in functional genomics and experimental microbiome manipulation will allow future tests of the significance of these findings.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Rutjens S, Vereecke N, Sauer J, et al (2023)

Cefquinome shows a higher impact on the pig gut microbiome and resistome compared to ceftiofur.

Veterinary research, 54(1):45.

Cephalosporins are licensed for treatment of severe bacterial infections in different species. However, the effect of these antimicrobials on the fecal microbiome and potential spread of resistance-associated genes causes great concern. This highlights the need to understand the impact of cephalosporins on the porcine fecal microbiome and resistome. A combination of long-read 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was applied to investigate the effect of conventional treatment with either ceftiofur (3 mg.kg[-1] intramuscular, 3 consecutive days) or cefquinome (2 mg.kg[-1] intramuscular, 5 consecutive days) on the porcine microbiome and resistome. Fecal samples were collected from 17 pigs (6 ceftiofur treated, 6 cefquinome treated, 5 control pigs) at four different timepoints. Treatment with ceftiofur resulted in an increase in Proteobacteria members on microbiome level, while on resistome level selection in TetQ containing Bacteroides, CfxA6 containing Prevotella and blaTEM-1 containing Escherichia coli was observed. Cefquinome treatment resulted in a decline in overall species richness (α-diversity) and increase in Proteobacteria members. On genus level, administration of cefquinome significantly affected more genera than ceftiofur (18 vs 8). On resistome level, cefquinome resulted in a significant increase of six antimicrobial resistance genes, with no clear correlation with certain genera. For both antimicrobials, the resistome levels returned back to the control levels 21 days post-treatment. Overall, our study provides novel insights on the effect of specific cephalosporins on the porcine gut microbiome and resistome after conventional intramuscular treatment. These results might contribute to better tailoring of the most ideal treatment strategy for some bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Singh P, Elhaj DAI, Ibrahim I, et al (2023)

Maternal microbiota and gestational diabetes: impact on infant health.

Journal of translational medicine, 21(1):364.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy that has been associated with an increased risk of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Pregnancy is accompanied by tightly regulated changes in the endocrine, metabolic, immune, and microbial systems, and deviations from these changes can alter the mother's metabolism resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes and a negative impact on the health of her infant. Maternal microbiomes are significant drivers of mother and child health outcomes, and many microbial metabolites are likely to influence the host health. This review discusses the current understanding of how the microbiota and microbial metabolites may contribute to the development of GDM and how GDM-associated changes in the maternal microbiome can affect infant's health. We also describe microbiota-based interventions that aim to improve metabolic health and outline future directions for precision medicine research in this emerging field.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Zaidi S, Ali K, AU Khan (2023)

It's all relative: analyzing microbiome compositions, its significance, pathogenesis and microbiota derived biofilms: Challenges and opportunities for disease intervention.

Archives of microbiology, 205(7):257.

Concept of microorganisms has largely been perceived from their pathogenic view point. Nevertheless, it is being gradually revisited in terms of its significance to human health and now appears to be the most dominant force that shapes the immune system of the human body and also determines an individual's predisposition to diseases. Human inhabits bacterial diversity (which is predominant among all microbial communities in human body) occupying 0.3% of body mass, known as microbiota. On birth, a part of microbiota that child obtains is essentially a mother's legacy. So, the review was initiated with this critical topic of microbiotal inheritance. Since, each body site has distinct physiological specifications; therefore, they contain discrete microbiome composition that has been separately discussed along with dysbiosis-induced pathologies originating in different body organs. Factors affecting microbiome composition and may cause dysbiosis like antibiotics, delivery, feeding method etc. as well as the strategies that immune system adopts to prevent dysbiosis have been highlighted. We also tried to bring into attention the topic of dysbiosis induced biofilms, that enables cohort to survive stresses, evolve, disseminate and infection resurgence that is still in dormancy. Eventually, we put spotlight on microbiome significance in medical therapeutics. We didn't merely confine article to gut microbiota, that is being studied more extensively. Numerous community forms at diverse body sites are inter-related, and being exposed to awfully variable perturbations appear to be challenging to evaluate perturbation risks holistically. All aspects have been elaborately discussed to achieve a global depiction of human microbiota in order to meet urgent necessity for protocol standardisation. Demonstrates that environmental challenges (antibiotic use, alterations in diet, stress, smoking etc.) might cause dysbiosis i.e. transition of healthy microbiome composition to the one in which pathogenic microorganisms become more abundant, and eventually results in an infected state.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Acharya SM, Yee MO, Diamond S, et al (2023)

Fine scale sampling reveals early differentiation of rhizosphere microbiome from bulk soil in young Brachypodium plant roots.

ISME communications, 3(1):54.

For a deeper and comprehensive understanding of the composition and function of rhizosphere microbiomes, we need to focus at the scale of individual roots in standardized growth containers. Root exudation patterns are known to vary along distinct parts of the root even in juvenile plants giving rise to spatially distinct microbial niches. To address this, we analyzed the microbial community from two spatially distinct zones of the developing primary root (tip and base) in young Brachypodium distachyon grown in natural soil using standardized fabricated ecosystems known as EcoFABs as well as in more conventional pot and tubes. 16S rRNA based community analysis showed a strong rhizosphere effect resulting in significant enrichment of several OTUs belonging to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. However, microbial community composition did not differ between root tips and root base or across different growth containers. Functional analysis of bulk metagenomics revealed significant differences between root tips and bulk soil. The genes associated with different metabolic pathways and root colonization were enriched in root tips. On the other hand, genes associated with nutrient-limitation and environmental stress were prominent in the bulk soil compared to root tips, implying the absence of easily available, labile carbon and nutrients in bulk soil relative to roots. Such insights into the relationships between developing root and microbial communities are critical for judicious understanding of plant-microbe interactions in early developmental stages of plants.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Peppas I, Ford AM, Furness CL, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome immaturity and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Nature reviews. Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood. Here, we map emerging evidence suggesting that children with ALL at the time of diagnosis may have a delayed maturation of the gut microbiome compared with healthy children. This finding may be associated with early-life epidemiological factors previously identified as risk indicators for childhood ALL, including caesarean section birth, diminished breast feeding and paucity of social contacts. The consistently observed deficiency in short-chain fatty-acid-producing bacterial taxa in children with ALL has the potential to promote dysregulated immune responses and to, ultimately, increase the risk of transformation of preleukaemic clones in response to common infectious triggers. These data endorse the concept that a microbiome deficit in early life may contribute to the development of the major subtypes of childhood ALL and encourage the notion of risk-reducing microbiome-targeted intervention in the future.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Mizoguchi R, Karashima S, Miyajima Y, et al (2023)

Impact of gut microbiome on the renin-aldosterone system: Shika-machi Super Preventive Health Examination results.

Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension [Epub ahead of print].

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a regulatory mechanism of the endocrine system and is associated with various diseases, including hypertension and renal and cardiovascular diseases. The gut microbiota (GM) have been associated with various diseases, mainly in animal models. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the relationship between the RAAS and GM in humans. The present study aimed to assess the association between the systemic RAAS and GM genera and their causal relationships. The study participants were 377 members of the general population aged 40 years or older in Shika-machi, Japan. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR), and GM composition were analyzed using the 16S rRNA method. The participants were divided into high and low groups according to the PRA, PAC, and ARR values. U-tests, one-way analysis of covariance, and linear discriminant analysis of effect size were used to identify the important bacterial genera between the two groups, and binary classification modeling using Random Forest was used to calculate the importance of the features. The results showed that Blautia, Bacteroides, Akkermansia, and Bifidobacterium were associated with the RAAS parameters. Causal inference analysis using the linear non-Gaussian acyclic model revealed a causal effect of Blautia on PAC via SBP. These results strengthen the association between the systemic RAAS and GM in humans, and interventions targeting the GM may provide new preventive measures and treatments for hypertension and renal disease.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Li J, Feng S, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Limosilactobacillus mucosae-derived extracellular vesicles modulates macrophage phenotype and orchestrates gut homeostasis in a diarrheal piglet model.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):33.

The diarrheal disease causes high mortality, especially in children and young animals. The gut microbiome is strongly associated with diarrheal disease, and some specific strains of bacteria have demonstrated antidiarrheal effects. However, the antidiarrheal mechanisms of probiotic strains have not been elucidated. Here, we used neonatal piglets as a translational model and found that gut microbiota dysbiosis observed in diarrheal piglets was mainly characterized by a deficiency of Lactobacillus, an abundance of Escherichia coli, and enriched lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Limosilactobacillus mucosae and Limosilactobacillus reuteri were a signature bacterium that differentiated healthy and diarrheal piglets. Germ-free (GF) mice transplanted with fecal microbiota from diarrheal piglets reproduced diarrheal disease symptoms. Administration of Limosilactobacillus mucosae but not Limosilactobacillus reuteri alleviated diarrheal disease symptoms induced by fecal microbiota of diarrheal piglets and by ETEC K88 challenge. Notably, Limosilactobacillus mucosae-derived extracellular vesicles alleviated diarrheal disease symptoms caused by ETEC K88 by regulating macrophage phenotypes. Macrophage elimination experiments demonstrated that the extracellular vesicles alleviated diarrheal disease symptoms in a macrophage-dependent manner. Our findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of diarrheal disease from the perspective of intestinal microbiota and the development of probiotic-based antidiarrheal therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Sabino J, Tarassishin L, Eisele C, et al (2023)

Influence of Early Life Factors, including Breastmilk Composition, on the Microbiome of Infants Born to Mothers with and without Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:7190775 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Herein we analyzed the influence of early life factors, including breastmilk composition on the development of the intestinal microbiota of infants born to mothers with and without IBD.

METHODS: The MECONIUM (Exploring MEChanisms Of disease traNsmission In Utero through the Microbiome) study is a prospective cohort study consisting of pregnant women with or without IBD and their infants. Longitudinal stool samples were collected from babies and analyzed using 16s rRNA sequencing and fecal calprotectin. Breastmilk proteomics was profiled using Olink inflammation panel.

RESULTS: We analyzed gut microbiota of 1,034 fecal samples from 294 infants (80 born to mothers with and 214 to mothers without IBD). Alpha-diversity was driven by maternal IBD status and timepoint. The major influencers of the overall composition of the microbiota were mode of delivery, feeding, and maternal IBD status. Specific taxa were associated with these exposures, and maternal IBD was associated with a reduction in Bifidobacterium. In 312 breastmilk samples (91 from mothers with IBD), mothers with IBD displayed lower abundance of proteins involved in immune regulation such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-12 subunit beta, tumor necrosis factor-beta, and C-C motif chemokine 20, as compared to control mothers (adjusted p=0.0016, 0.049, 0.049, and 0.049, respectively), with negative correlations with baby´s calprotectin, and microbiome at different time points.

CONCLUSION: Maternal IBD diagnosis influences microbiota in their offspring during early life. The proteomic profile of breastmilk of women with IBD differs from that of women without IBD, with distinct time-dependent associations with baby's gut microbiome and fecal calprotectin.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Khatri A, Thakur A, Lepcha A, et al (2023)

IHM-DB: a curated collection of metagenomics data from the Indian Himalayan Region, and automated pipeline for 16S rRNA amplicon-based analysis (AutoQii2).

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2023:.

Indian Himalayan metagenome database (IHM-DB) is a web-based database consisting of information on metagenomic datasets from various databases and publications that are specifically reported from the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). The online interface allows users to view or download the dataset-specific information for the respective states, category-wise, or according to the hypervariable region. The IHM-DB also provides an opportunity for the users to access the metagenomic publications from the IHR as well as upload their microbiome information to the website. Additionally, an open-source 16S rRNA amplicon-based automated bioinformatics pipeline, AutoQii2, allows users to analyze the single-end and paired-end raw reads. AutoQii2 provides an automated approach for performing analysis such as quality check, adapter and chimera removal and exploits the latest ribosomal database project classifier for taxonomic assignments. The source code of the AutoQii2 pipeline is available at https://gitlab.com/khatriabhi2319/autoqii2. Database URL https://ham.ihbt.res.in/ihmdb and https://fgcsl.ihbt.res.in/ihmdb.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Kasahara K, Kerby RL, Zhang Q, et al (2023)

Gut bacterial metabolism contributes to host global purine homeostasis.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(23)00204-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbes and microbial pathways that influence host inflammatory disease progression remain largely undefined. Here, we show that variation in atherosclerosis burden is partially driven by gut microbiota and is associated with circulating levels of uric acid (UA) in mice and humans. We identify gut bacterial taxa spanning multiple phyla, including Bacillota, Fusobacteriota, and Pseudomonadota, that use multiple purines, including UA as carbon and energy sources anaerobically. We identify a gene cluster that encodes key steps of anaerobic purine degradation and that is widely distributed among gut-dwelling bacteria. Furthermore, we show that colonization of gnotobiotic mice with purine-degrading bacteria modulates levels of UA and other purines in the gut and systemically. Thus, gut microbes are important drivers of host global purine homeostasis and serum UA levels, and gut bacterial catabolism of purines may represent a mechanism by which gut bacteria influence health.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Münch PC, Eberl C, Woelfel S, et al (2023)

Pulsed antibiotic treatments of gnotobiotic mice manifest in complex bacterial community dynamics and resistance effects.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(23)00206-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria can evolve to withstand a wide range of antibiotics (ABs) by using various resistance mechanisms. How ABs affect the ecology of the gut microbiome is still poorly understood. We investigated strain-specific responses and evolution during repeated AB perturbations by three clinically relevant ABs, using gnotobiotic mice colonized with a synthetic bacterial community (oligo-mouse-microbiota). Over 80 days, we observed resilience effects at the strain and community levels, and we found that they were correlated with modulations of the estimated growth rate and levels of prophage induction as determined from metagenomics data. Moreover, we tracked mutational changes in the bacterial populations, and this uncovered clonal expansion and contraction of haplotypes and selection of putative AB resistance-conferring SNPs. We functionally verified these mutations via reisolation of clones with increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline from evolved communities. This demonstrates that host-associated microbial communities employ various mechanisms to respond to selective pressures that maintain community stability.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wang YX, Huang HB, Dong YH, et al (2023)

Alterations and clinical relevance of gut microbiota in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: A prospective study.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: In this case-control study we aimed to investigate the intestinal microbiota profile of patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and its association with polyp growth.

METHODS: Thirty-two PJS patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Fecal samples of all participants were collected for gut microbiota analysis via 16S rRNA gene (regions V3-V4) sequencing. SPSS version 22.0 and R software version 3.1.0 were used for the statistical analysis.

RESULTS: The richness was comparable, while the overall structure of the gut microbiota differed significantly between the PJS and control groups (weighted UniFrac, P = 0.001; unweighted UniFrac, P = 0.008). Significantly different abundances of two phyla, seven families, and 18 genera as well as twenty-nine differentially enriched functional modules (false discovery rate, P < 0.05) between the two groups were identified. Morganella was positively associated with the median number of polyps (JPN; r = 0.96, P < 0.001) and number of newly discovered polyps in the jejunum between two recent endoscopic resections (JPNG; r = 0.78, P = 0.04). Desulfovibrio was positively associated with JPNG (r = 0.87, P = 0.01). Blautia was negatively associated with the median maximum size of polyps in the jejunum (JPS). Anaerostipes was negatively associated with JPN, JPNG and JPS. Clostridium XVIII and Fusicatenibacter were negatively associated with JPN and JPS, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: We found remarkably different gut microbiota of patients with PJS compared to healthy individuals and associations between specific fecal bacteria and clinical features of PJS. These findings may provide a new perspective for the management of PJS in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Whitehill JGA, Yuen MMS, J Bohlmann (2021)

Constitutive and insect-induced transcriptomes of weevil-resistant and susceptible Sitka spruce.

Plant-environment interactions (Hoboken, N.J.), 2(3):137-147.

Spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) is a significant pest of regenerating spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) forests in North America. Weevil larvae feed in the bark, phloem, cambium, and outer xylem of apical shoots, causing stunted growth or mortality of young trees. We identified and characterized constitutive and weevil-induced patterns of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) transcriptomes in weevil-resistant (R) and susceptible (S) trees using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and differential expression (DE) analyses. We developed a statistical model for the analysis of RNA-seq data from treatment experiments with a 2 × 3 factorial design to differentiate insect-induced responses from the effects of mechanical damage. Across the different comparisons, we identified two major transcriptome contrasts: A large set of genes that was constitutively DE between R and S trees, and another set of genes that was DE in weevil-induced S-trees. The constitutive transcriptome unique to R trees appeared to be attuned to defense, while the constitutive transcriptome unique to S trees was enriched for growth-related transcripts. Notably, a set of transcripts annotated as "fungal" was detected consistently in the transcriptomes. Fungal transcripts were identified as DE in the comparison of R and S trees and in the weevil-affected DE transcriptome of S trees, suggesting a potential microbiome role in this conifer-insect interaction.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Zamora-Moratalla A, Martínez de Lagrán M, M Dierssen (2021)

Neurodevelopmental disorders: 2021 update.

Free neuropathology, 2:.

One of the current challenges in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is still to determine their underlying aetiology and risk factors. NDDs comprise a diverse group of disorders primarily related to neurodevelopmental dysfunction including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that may present with a certain degree of cognitive dysfunction and high prevalence of neuropsychiatric outcomes. Last year, advances in human genomics have begun to shed light on the genetic architecture of these disorders and large-scale sequencing studies are starting to reveal mechanisms that range from unique genomic DNA methylation patterns (i.e. "episignatures") to highly polygenic conditions. In addition, the contribution of de novo somatic mutations to neurodevelopmental diseases is being recognized. However, progressing from genetic findings to underlying neuropathological mechanisms has proved challenging, due to the increased resolution of the molecular and genetic assays. Advancement in modelling tools is likely to improve our understanding of the origin of neurodevelopmental disorders and provide insight into their developmental mechanisms. Also, combined in vivo editing of multiple genes and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) are bringing us into a new era of understanding the molecular neuropathology of NDDs.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Wesseling P (2021)

Neurooncology: 2021 update.

Free neuropathology, 2:.

This article briefly presents 10 topics that were selected by the author as 'top 10 discoveries' published in 2020 in the broader field of neurooncological pathology including neurosciences as well as clinical neurooncology of interest for neurooncological pathology. The selected topics concern new information on the molecular characteristics of gliomas (infratentorial IDH-mutant diffuse astrocytomas, pediatric low-grade gliomas, infant-type high-grade gliomas, hypermutation in gliomas), the immunological aspects of the brain tumor microenvironment (TME), the impact of the TME on preclinical glioma models, and the importance of lymphatic drainage on brain tumor surveillance. Furthermore, important papers were published on two 'new' genetic syndromes predisposing to medulloblastoma, on liquid biopsy-based diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and on the 'microbiome' in glioblastomas (and other cancers). In the last part of this review, a dozen of papers are given as examples of papers that did not make it to the top 10 list of the author, underscoring the subjective component in the selection process. Acknowledging that 2020 will be remembered as the year in which the world changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the consequences of this pandemic for neurooncological pathology are briefly discussed as well. Hopefully, this review forms an incentive to appreciate the wealth of information provided by the papers that were used as building blocks for the present manuscript.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Kee YJ, Ogawa S, Ichihashi Y, et al (2023)

Strigolactones in rhizosphere communication: multiple molecules with diverse functions.

Plant & cell physiology pii:7190141 [Epub ahead of print].

Strigolactones (SLs) are root-secreted small molecules that influence organisms living in the rhizosphere. While SLs are known as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, and as hyphae branching factors for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, recent studies have also identified them as chemoattractants for parasitic plants, sensors of neighboring plants, and key players in shaping the microbiome community. Furthermore, the discovery of structurally diverged SLs, including so-called canonical and non-canonical SLs in various plant species, raises the question whether the same SLs are responsible for their diverse functions in planta and the rhizosphere or whether different molecules play different roles. Emerging evidence supports the latter, with each SL exhibiting different activities as rhizosphere signals and plant hormones. The evolution of D14/KAI2 receptors has enabled the perception of various SLs or SL-like compounds to control downstream signaling, highlighting the complex interplay between plants and their rhizosphere environment. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the diverse functions of SLs in the rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Suzzi AL, Stat M, Gaston TF, et al (2023)

Spatial patterns in host-associated and free-living bacterial communities across six temperate estuaries.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7189862 [Epub ahead of print].

A major goal of microbial ecology is to establish the importance of spatial and environmental factors in driving community variation. Their relative importance likely varies across spatial scales, but focus has primarily been on free-living communities within well-connected aquatic environments rather than less connected island-like habitats such as estuaries, and key host-associated communities within these systems. Here we sampled both free-living (seawater and sediment) and host-associated (estuarine fish hindgut microbiome, Pelates sexlineatus) communities across six temperate Australian estuaries spanning ∼500 km. We find that spatial and environmental factors have different influences on these communities, with seawater demonstrating strong distance-decay relationships (R = -0.69) and significant associations with a range of environmental variables. Distance-decay relationships were weak for sediment communities but became stronger over smaller spatial scales (within estuaries, R = -0.5) potentially reflecting environmental filtering across biogeochemical gradients or stochastic processes within estuary sediments. Finally, P. sexlineatus hindgut microbiome communities displayed weak distance-decay relationships (R = -0.36) and limited variation explained by environmental variables, indicating the significance of host-related factors in driving community variation. Our findings provide important ecological insights into the spatial distributions and driving forces of both free-living and host-associated bacterial patterns across temperate estuarine systems.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Zhu R, Liu L, Zhang G, et al (2023)

The pathogenesis of gut microbiota in hepatic encephalopathy by the gut-liver-brain axis.

Bioscience reports pii:233121 [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological disease occurring in patients with hepatic insufficiency and/or portal-systemic blood shunting based on cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is not completely clear till now, but it is believed that hyperammonemia is the core of HE. Hyperammonemia caused by increased sources of ammonia and decreased metabolism further causes mental problems through the gut-liver-brain axis. The vagal pathway also plays a bidirectional role in the axis. Intestinal microorganisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of HE through the gut-liver-brain axis. With the progression of cirrhosis to HE, intestinal microbial composition changes gradually. It shows the decrease of potential beneficial taxa and the overgrowth of potential pathogenic taxa. Changes in gut microbiota may lead to a variety of effects, such as reduced production of short-chain fatty acids reduced production of bile acids, increased intestinal barrier permeability, and bacterial translocation. The treatment aim of HE is to decrease intestinal ammonia production and intestinal absorption of ammonia. Prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation can be used to manipulate the gut microbiome to improve hyperammonemia and endotoxemia. Especially the application of fecal microbiota transplantation, it has become a new treated approach to target microbial composition and function. Therefore, restoring intestinal microbial homeostasis can improve the cognitive impairment of HE, which is a potential treatment method.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Ha MV, McCormick TS, Salem I, et al (2023)

Skin and gut microbial associations with squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

Archives of dermatological research [Epub ahead of print].

Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are burdened with a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to the general population. Accumulating evidence suggests the potential influence of microbial dysbiosis on transplant outcomes. Based on these observations, we sought to identify differences in the cutaneous and gut microbiomes of SOTRs with and without a history of SCC. This case-control study collected and analyzed non-lesional skin and fecal samples of 20 SOTRs > 18 years old with either ≥ 4 diagnoses of SCC since most recent transplant (n = 10) or 0 diagnoses of SCC (n = 10). The skin and gut microbiomes were investigated with Next-Generation Sequencing, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey pairwise comparison procedure was used to test for differences in taxonomic relative abundances and microbial diversity indices between the two cohorts. Analyses of the skin microbiome showed increased bacterial and reduced fungal diversity in SOTRs with a history of SCC compared to SOTRs without a history of SCC (bacterial median Shannon diversity index (SDI) = 3.636 and 3.154, p < 0.05; fungal SDI = 4.474 and 6.174, p < 0.05, respectively). Analyses of the gut microbiome showed reduced bacterial and fungal diversity in the SCC history cohort compared to the SCC history-negative cohort (bacterial SDI = 2.620 and 3.300, p < 0.05; fungal SDI = 3.490 and 3.812, p < 0.05, respectively). The results of this pilot study thus show a trend toward the bacterial and fungal communities of the gut and skin being distinct in SOTRs with a history of SCC compared to SOTRs without a history of SCC. It furthermore demonstrates the potential for microbial markers to be used in the prognostication of squamous cell carcinoma risk in solid organ transplant recipients.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Osuna-Prieto FJ, Xu H, Ortiz-Alvarez L, et al (2023)

The relative abundance of fecal bacterial species belonging to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla is related to plasma levels of bile acids in young adults.

Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society, 19(6):54.

BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria play a crucial role in the metabolism of bile acids (BA). Whether an association exists between the fecal microbiota composition and circulating BA levels in humans is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between fecal microbiota diversity and composition with plasma levels of BA in young adults.

METHODS: Fecal microbiota diversity/composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing in 80 young adults (74% women; 21.9 ± 2.2 years old). Plasma levels of BA were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PERMANOVA and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate the association between fecal microbiota parameters and plasma levels of BA.

RESULTS: Fecal microbiota beta (P = 0.025) and alpha diversity indexes of evenness (rho = 0.237, P = 0.033), Shannon (rho = 0.313, P = 0.004), and inverse Simpson (rho = 0.283, P = 0.010) were positively associated with plasma levels of the secondary BA glycolithocholic acid (GLCA). The relative abundance of genera belonging to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla was positively correlated with plasma levels of GLCA (all rho ≥ 0.225, P ≤ 0.049). However, the relative abundance of species from Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla were negatively correlated with plasma levels of primary and secondary BA (all rho ≤ - 0.220, P ≤ 0.045), except for the relative abundance of Bacteroides vulgatus, Alistipes onderdonkii, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens species (Bacteroidetes phylum) that were positively correlated with the plasma levels of GLCA.

CONCLUSIONS: The relative abundance of specific fecal bacteria species is associated with plasma levels of BA in young adults. However, further investigations are required to validate whether the composition of the gut microbiota can regulate the plasma concentrations of BA in humans.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Alwutayd KM, Rawat AA, Sheikh AH, et al (2023)

Microbe-induced drought tolerance by ABA-mediated root architecture and epigenetic reprogramming.

EMBO reports [Epub ahead of print].

The use of beneficial microbes to mitigate drought stress tolerance of plants is of great potential albeit little understood. We show here that a root endophytic desert bacterium, Pseudomonas argentinensis strain SA190, enhances drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transcriptome and genetic analysis demonstrate that SA190-induced root morphogenesis and gene expression is mediated via the plant abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that SA190 primes the promoters of target genes in an epigenetic ABA-dependent manner. Application of SA190 priming on crops is demonstrated for alfalfa, showing enhanced performance under drought conditions. In summary, a single beneficial root bacterial strain can help plants to resist drought conditions.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Gao S, Gao X, Zhu R, et al (2023)

Microbial genes outperform species and SNVs as diagnostic markers for Crohn's disease on multicohort fecal metagenomes empowered by artificial intelligence.

Gut microbes, 15(1):2221428.

Dysbiosis of gut microbial community is associated with the pathogenesis of CD and may serve as a promising noninvasive diagnostic tool. We aimed to compare the performances of the microbial markers of different biological levels by conducting a multidimensional analysis on the microbial metagenomes of CD. We collected fecal metagenomic datasets generated from eight cohorts that altogether include 870 CD patients and 548 healthy controls. Microbial alterations in CD patients were assessed at multidimensional levels including species, gene, and SNV level, and then diagnostic models were constructed using artificial intelligence algorithm. A total of 227 species, 1047 microbial genes, and 21,877 microbial SNVs were identified that differed between CD and controls. The species, gene, and SNV models achieved an average AUC of 0.97, 0.95, and 0.77, respectively. Notably, the gene model exhibited superior diagnostic capability, achieving an average AUC of 0.89 and 0.91 for internal and external validations, respectively. Moreover, the gene model was specific for CD against other microbiome-related diseases. Furthermore, we found that phosphotransferase system (PTS) contributed substantially to the diagnostic capability of the gene model. The outstanding performance of PTS was mainly explained by genes celB and manY, which demonstrated high predictabilities for CD with metagenomic datasets and was validated in an independent cohort by qRT-PCR analysis. Our global metagenomic analysis unravels the multidimensional alterations of the microbial communities in CD and identifies microbial genes as robust diagnostic biomarkers across geographically and culturally distinct cohorts.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Grant ET, Boudaud M, Muller A, et al (2023)

Maternal diet and gut microbiome composition modulate early-life immune development.

EMBO molecular medicine [Epub ahead of print].

In early life, the intestinal mucosa and immune system undergo a critical developmental process to contain the expanding gut microbiome while promoting tolerance toward commensals, yet the influence of maternal diet and microbial composition on offspring immune maturation remains poorly understood. We colonized germ-free mice with a consortium of 14 strains, fed them a standard fiber-rich chow or a fiber-free diet, and then longitudinally assessed offspring development during the weaning period. Unlike pups born to dams fed the fiber-rich diet, pups of fiber-deprived dams demonstrated delayed colonization with Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-foraging bacterium that can also use milk oligosaccharides. The pups of fiber-deprived dams exhibited an enrichment of colonic transcripts corresponding to defense response pathways and a peak in Il22 expression at weaning. Removal of A. muciniphila from the community, but maintenance on the fiber-rich diet, was associated with reduced proportions of RORγt-positive innate and adaptive immune cell subsets. Our results highlight the potent influence of maternal dietary fiber intake and discrete changes in microbial composition on the postnatal microbiome assemblage and early immune development.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Liu L, Wu Q, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota in chronic pain: Novel insights into mechanisms and promising therapeutic strategies.

International immunopharmacology, 115:109685.

Chronic pain remains one of the world's most persistent and unsolved clinical challenges that severely affect patients' quality of life. Presently, considering that the mechanisms underlying chronic pain are not fully understood, there is a lack of effective drugs and interventions to treat chronic pain in clinical practice. Therefore, exploring the pathogenic mechanism of chronic pain and establishing potential targets are the keys to treating chronic pain. Substantial evidence has indicated that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in modulating chronic pain, which has opened up a new frontier for investigating the pathogenesis of chronic pain. The gut microbiota is a pivotal junction point between the neuroimmune-endocrine and the microbiome-gut-brain axes that could directly or indirectly affect chronic pain. Different signaling molecules (such as metabolites, neuromodulators, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters) from the gut microbiota regulate the progress of chronic pain by modulating the peripheral and central sensitization by targeting the corresponding receptors. Furthermore, gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with the progress of different chronic pain disorders, such as visceral pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, migraine, and fibromyalgia. Therefore, the present review attempted to systematically summarize the action of the gut microbiota toward regulating the pathological mechanisms of chronic pain and discussed the beneficial effects of probiotics supplementation or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to restore the gut microbiota in chronic pain patients so as to provide a new strategy for targeting the gut microbiota for alleviating chronic pain issues.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Chen LL, Abbaspour A, Aspvall K, et al (2023)

Longitudinal study of gut microbiome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Brain and behavior [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often have limited exposure to a diverse environment and perform repetitive compulsions such as excessive cleaning and washing, which could lead to altered gut microbiome. Therefore, longitudinal studies that investigate changes in gut microbiome before and after cognitive behavioral therapy based on exposure and response prevention (ERP) are warranted.

METHODS: All study participants (N = 64) underwent a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview prior to inclusion. Nutritional intake was assessed with a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire. Stool samples were collected from OCD patients before ERP (n = 32) and 1 month after completion of ERP (n = 15), as well as from healthy controls (HCs; n = 32). Taxonomic and functional analyses were performed using data from microbiome whole genome sequencing.

RESULTS: Patients with OCD at baseline reported consuming significantly less fiber than HCs (R[2]  = .12, F(2, 59) = 5.2, p ≤ .01). There were no significant differences in α- and β-diversity indices, or taxonomic dissimilarities at the species level between patients with OCD and HCs, or within patients before and after ERP. Functional profiling based on gut microbial gene expression was grouped into 56 gut-brain modules with neuroactive potential. None of the gut-brain modules differed significantly in expression between patients with OCD at baseline and HCs or within patients before and after ERP.

CONCLUSIONS: The diversity, composition, and functional profile of the gut microbiome in patients with OCD did not differ significantly from HCs and remained stable over time, despite behavioral changes.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Ganesan SM, Peter TK, Withanage MHH, et al (2023)

COVID-19 associated oral and oropharyngeal microbiome: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Periodontology 2000 [Epub ahead of print].

Three years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there are still growing concerns with the emergence of different variants, unknown long- and short-term effects of the virus, and potential biological mechanisms underlying etiopathogenesis and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The role of the microbiome in human physiology and the initiation and progression of several oral and systemic diseases have been actively studied in the past decade. With the proof of viral transmission, carriage, and a potential role in etiopathogenesis, saliva and the oral environment have been a focus of COVID-19 research beyond diagnostic purposes. The oral environment hosts diverse microbial communities and contributes to human oral and systemic health. Several investigations have identified disruptions in the oral microbiome in COVID-19 patients. However, all these studies are cross-sectional in nature and present heterogeneity in study design, techniques, and analysis. Therefore, in this undertaking, we (a) systematically reviewed the current literature associating COVID-19 with changes in the microbiome; (b) performed a re-analysis of publicly available data as a means to standardize the analysis, and (c) reported alterations in the microbial characteristics in COVID-19 patients compared to negative controls. Overall, we identified that COVID-19 is associated with oral microbial dysbiosis with significant reduction in diversity. However, alterations in specific bacterial members differed across the study. Re-analysis from our pipeline shed light on Neisseria as the potential key microbial member associated with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Niccolai E, Baldi S, Nannini G, et al (2023)

Breast cancer: the first comparative evaluation of oncobiome composition between males and females.

Biology of sex differences, 14(1):37.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that breast microbiota dysbiosis contributes to cancer initiation, progression, prognosis and treatment efficacy. Anyway, available data are referred only to female patients, and studies on males are completely missing. Male breast cancer (MBC) is 70-100 times less frequent, but the mortality rate adjusted to incidence is higher in men than in females. Currently, MBC diagnostic approaches and treatments have generally been extrapolated from the clinical experience gained in women, while few studies focus on characterizing male cancer biology. Taking into account the rising importance of the oncobiome field and the need of MBC targeted studies, we explored the breast cancer oncobiome of male and female patients.

METHODS: 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed in 20 tumor and 20 non-pathological adjacent FFPE breast tissues from male and female patients.

RESULTS: We documented, for the first time, the presence of a sexually dimorphic breast-associated microbiota, here defined as "breast microgenderome". Moreover, the paired analysis of tumor and non-pathological adjacent tissues suggests the presence of a cancer-associated dysbiosis in male patients, with surrounding tissue conserving a healthier microbiome, whereas in female patients, the entire breast tissue is predisposed to cancer development. Finally, the phylum Tenericutes, especially the genera Mesoplasma and Mycobacterium, could to be involved in breast carcinogenesis, in both sexes, deserving further investigation, not only for its role in cancer development but even as potential prognostic biomarker.

CONCLUSIONS: Breast microbiota characterization can enhance the understanding of male breast cancer pathogenesis, being useful for detection of new prognostic biomarkers and development of innovative personalized therapies, remarking the relevant gender differences.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Adebamowo CA, Morhason-Bello IO, ACCME Research Group as part of the H3Africa Consortium, et al (2023)

Validation of self-report of uterine fibroid diagnosis using a transvaginal ultrasound scan.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9091.

Self-report of uterine fibroids (UF) has been used for epidemiologic research in different environments. Given the dearth of studies on the epidemiology of UF in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), it is valuable to evaluate its performance as a potential tool for much needed research on this common neoplasm in SSA women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of self-report of UF compared with transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis (TVUS) among 486 women who are members of the African Collaborative Center for Microbiome and Genomics Research (ACCME) Study Cohort in central Nigeria. We used log-binomial regression models to compute the classification, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of self-report compared to TVUS, adjusted for significant covariates. The prevalence of UF on TVUS was 45.1% (219/486) compared to 5.4% (26/486) based on self-report of abdominal ultrasound scan and 7.2% (35/486) based on report of healthcare practitioner's diagnosis. Self-report correctly classified 39.5% of the women compared to TVUS in multivariable adjusted models. The multivariable adjusted sensitivity of self-report of healthcare worker diagnosis was 38.8%, specificity was 74.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 55.6%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 59.8%. For self-reported abdominal ultrasound diagnosis, the multivariable adjusted sensitivity was 40.6%, specificity was 75.3%, PPV was 57.4%, and NPV was 60.6%. Self-report significantly underestimates the prevalence of UF and is not accurate enough for epidemiological research on UF. Future studies of UF should use population-based designs and more accurate diagnostic tools such as TVUS.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Vigors S, Flores-Villalva S, KG Meade (2023)

The impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on the faecal and oral microbiome of dairy calves indoors or at pasture.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9111.

Vitamin D (VitD) is emerging as an immune regulator in addition to its established role in metabolism and mineral homeostasis. This study sought to determine if in vivo VitD modulated the oral and faecal microbiome in Holstein-Friesian dairy calves. The experimental model consisted of two control groups (Ctl-In, Ctl-Out) which were fed with a diet containing 6000 IU/Kg of VitD3 in milk replacer and 2000 IU/Kg in feed, and two treatment groups (VitD-In, VitD-Out) with 10,000 IU/Kg of VitD3 in milk replacer and 4000 IU/Kg in feed. One control and one treatment group were moved outdoors post-weaning at approximately 10 weeks of age. Saliva and faecal samples were collected after 7 months of supplementation and analysis of the microbiome was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis identified that both sampling site (oral vs. faecal) and housing (indoor vs. outdoor) had significant influences on the composition of the microbiome. The calves housed outdoors had greater microbial diversity in the faecal samples based on Observed, Chao1, Shannon, Simpson and Fisher measures in comparison to calves housed indoors (P < 0.05). A significant interaction between housing and treatment was observed for the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, CF231 and Paludibacter in faecal samples. The genera Oscillospira and Dorea were increased while Clostridium and Blautia were decreased following VitD supplementation in the faecal samples (P < 0.05). An interaction between VitD supplementation and housing was detected in the abundance of the genera Actinobacillus and Streptococcus in the oral samples. VitD supplementation increased the genera Oscillospira, Helcococcus and reduced the genera Actinobacillus, Ruminococcus, Moraxella, Clostridium, Prevotella, Succinivibrio and Parvimonas. These preliminary data suggest that VitD supplementation alters both the oral and faecal microbiome. Further research will now be conducted to establish the significance of microbial alterations for animal health and performance.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Lee JH, Kim HW, Mustafa B, et al (2023)

The relationships between microbiome diversity and epidemiology in domestic species of malaria-mediated mosquitoes of Korea.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9081.

Microbiota in the mosquito plays an important role in their behavior and vector competence. The composition of their microbiome is strongly influenced by the environment, especially their habitat. The microbiome profiles of adult female Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from malaria hyperendemic and hypoendemic areas in Republic of Korea were compared using 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing. In different epidemiology groups, the alpha and beta diversity analyses were significant. The major bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria. The most abundant species in the microbiome of hyperendemic mosquitoes were the genera Staphylococcus, Erwinia, Serratia, and Pantoea. Notably, a distinct microbiome profile characterized by the dominance of Pseudomonas synxantha was identified in the hypoendemic area, suggesting a potential correlation between the microbiome profiles and the incidence of malaria cases.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Kwoji ID, Aiyegoro OA, Okpeku M, et al (2023)

'Multi-omics' data integration: applications in probiotics studies.

NPJ science of food, 7(1):25.

The concept of probiotics is witnessing increasing attention due to its benefits in influencing the host microbiome and the modulation of host immunity through the strengthening of the gut barrier and stimulation of antibodies. These benefits, combined with the need for improved nutraceuticals, have resulted in the extensive characterization of probiotics leading to an outburst of data generated using several 'omics' technologies. The recent development in system biology approaches to microbial science is paving the way for integrating data generated from different omics techniques for understanding the flow of molecular information from one 'omics' level to the other with clear information on regulatory features and phenotypes. The limitations and tendencies of a 'single omics' application to ignore the influence of other molecular processes justify the need for 'multi-omics' application in probiotics selections and understanding its action on the host. Different omics techniques, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics, used for studying probiotics and their influence on the host and the microbiome are discussed in this review. Furthermore, the rationale for 'multi-omics' and multi-omics data integration platforms supporting probiotics and microbiome analyses was also elucidated. This review showed that multi-omics application is useful in selecting probiotics and understanding their functions on the host microbiome. Hence, recommend a multi-omics approach for holistically understanding probiotics and the microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Kallassy J, Gagnon E, Rosenberg D, et al (2023)

Strains of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its extracts reduce blood glucose levels, percent HbA1c, and improve glucose tolerance without causing hypoglycemic side effects in diabetic and prediabetic mice.

BMJ open diabetes research & care, 11(3):.

INTRODUCTION: The commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a prominent member of the microbiome of animals and humans, and it plays an important role in several physiological processes. Numerous studies have correlated the reduction of F. prausnitzii abundance with many disease states, including irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, obesity, asthma, major depressive disorder, and metabolic diseases in humans. Studies have also correlated F. prausnitzii with diseases in humans involved in altered glucose metabolism, including diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compositions derived from three strains of F. prausnitzii (coined FPZ) on glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J prediabetic and type 2 diabetic mice. The primary endpoints of these studies were measuring changes in fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance (as measured by a glucose tolerance test), and percent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with longer term treatment. Two placebo-controlled trials were carried out using both live cell FPZ and killed cell FPZ and extracts. Two additional placebo-controlled trials were carried out in non-diabetic mice and mice that previously had type 2 diabetes (T2D).

RESULTS: Both trials in prediabetic and diabetic mice revealed that peroral administration of live FPZ or extracts from FPZ lowered fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance compared with control mice. A trial administering longer FPZ treatment also resulted in lowered percent HbA1c compared with control mice. Additionally, trials in non-diabetic mice treated with FPZ demonstrated that FPZ treatment does not lead to hypoglycemia.

CONCLUSIONS: The trial results have shown that treatment with different formulations of FPZ result in lower blood glucose levels, lower percent HbA1c, and improved glucose response in mice compared with control prediabetic/diabetic mice. FPZ is a promising candidate as an orally administered probiotic or postbiotic to manage and improve pre-diabetes and T2D.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Lin YY, Chang PE, Shen SY, et al (2023)

Effects of indoor and outdoor rearing system on geese biochemical parameters and cecal microbial composition.

Poultry science, 102(8):102731 pii:S0032-5791(23)00248-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of indoor and outdoor rearing systems on the biochemistry and microbial composition of White Roman geese, with a particular focus on the gut microbiome. Our results showed that geese reared in an outdoor system had significantly lower serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to those reared indoors, but lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Moreover, the cecal microbiota of geese reared outdoors exhibited higher species evenness and increased alpha diversity, with a significant alteration in the F/B ratios. The bacterial taxonomy composition also differed between the 2 rearing systems, with higher relative abundances of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and lower relative abundances of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in the outdoor system. These findings suggest that rearing systems may play a critical role in shaping the gut microbiome and overall health of geese. Notably, our data demonstrated that indoor rearing was associated with a higher abundance of pathogenic genera and a lower abundance of commensal genera compared to outdoor rearing. Our study supports the hypothesis that rearing systems may alter the physiological functions and microbial composition of geese, and highlights the need for further research to confirm and expand upon these findings. In summary, our study underscores the importance of considering the impact of rearing systems on the gut microbiome and health of geese.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Lin W, Mellinghaus K, Rodriguez-Mateos A, et al (2023)

Identification of nutritional biomarkers through highly sensitive and chemoselective metabolomics.

Food chemistry, 425:136481 pii:S0308-8146(23)01099-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The importance of a healthy diet for humans is known for decades. The elucidation of key molecules responsible for the beneficial and adverse dietary effects is slowly developing as the tools are missing. Carbonyl-containing metabolites are a common bioproducts through conversion of diet by the microbiome. In here, we have utilized our recently developed mass spectrometric methodology based on chemoselective conjugation of carbonyl-metabolites. The method has been applied for urine sample analysis from a dietary (poly)phenol intervention study (N = 78 individuals) for the first time. We have identified a series of carbonyl-metabolites of dietary origin and the chemical structure was validated for 30 metabolites. Our sensitive analysis led to the discovery of four unknown dietary markers with high sensitivity and selectivity (AUC > 0.91). Our chemical metabolomics method has been successfully applied for large-scale analysis and provides the basis for targeted metabolomics to identify unknown nutritional and disease-related biomarkers.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Thompson B, Lu S, Revilla J, et al (2023)

Secondary bile acids function through the vitamin D receptor in myeloid progenitors to promote myelopoiesis.

Blood advances pii:496175 [Epub ahead of print].

Metabolic products of the microbiota can alter hematopoiesis. However, the contribution and site of action of bile acids is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), increase bone marrow myelopoiesis. Treatment of bone marrow cells with DCA and LCA preferentially expanded immunophenotypic and functional (CFU-GM) granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs). DCA treatment of sorted hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) increased CFU-GMs, indicating that direct exposure of HSPCs to DCA sufficed to increase GMPs. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was required for the DCA-induced increase in CFU-GMs and GMPs. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that DCA significantly upregulated genes associated with myeloid differentiation and proliferation in GMPs. The action of DCA on HSPCs to expand GMPs in a VDR-dependent manner suggests microbiome-host interactions may directly impact bone marrow hematopoiesis and potentially the severity of infectious and inflammatory disease.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Munem F, Thianhlun PCK, Anderson PH, et al (2023)

Vitamin D is a potential treatment for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis.

Current opinion in supportive and palliative care pii:01263393-990000000-00039 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Gastrointestinal mucositis (GM) is a severe side effect of cancer treatments, negatively impacting the patient's quality of life, and has limited treatment. GM consists of complex biological processes involving apoptosis and inflammation, leading to damage and ulceration of the gastrointestinal system. Recently, vitamin D has been shown to have multiple roles in the gut, including immunomodulation, epithelial barrier regulation and microbiome regulation. Hence, this review aims to put forth vitamin D as a potential therapeutic due to its protective role in the intestine.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that vitamin D can reduce intestinal inflammation by reducing NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) activation. Vitamin D also targets and maintains the intestinal epithelial barrier via the tight junction protein expression and the inhibition of microbiome translocation. Significant evidence also suggests that vitamin D exerts multiple therapeutic effects through binding to vitamin D receptors (VDRs), and the downregulation of VDR has been associated with the severity of the disease. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency is reported in cancer patients.

SUMMARY: There is a dire need for effective treatment for GM, and recent animal and human studies show that vitamin D may be a potential therapy to prevent or treat GM.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Luo M, Chen Y, Pan X, et al (2023)

E. coli Nissle 1917 ameliorates mitochondrial injury of granulosa cells in polycystic ovary syndrome through promoting gut immune factor IL-22 via gut microbiota and microbial metabolism.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1137089.

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota and its metabolites have regulatory effects on PCOS related ovarian dysfunction and insulin resistance. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a genetically controlled probiotic with an excellent human safety record for improving gut microbiome metabolic disorders and immune system disorders. Here we focused to explore the application and effect of probiotic EcN on the gut microbiota-metabolism-IL-22-mitochondrial damage axis in PCOS.

METHODS: PCOS mice were constructed with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and treated with EcN, FMT or IL-22 inhibitors. Clinically control and PCOS subjects were included for further analysis. Serum and follicular fluid supernatant levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA and biochemical reagents. The pathological changes of ovarian tissues were observed by HE staining. The JC-1 level and COX4 gene expression in granulosa cells was detected by ELISA and RT-qPCR. The expressions of progesterone receptor A (PR-A), LC3II/I, Beclin1, p62 and CytC were detected by western blot. The number of autophagosomes in granulosa cells was observed by electron microscopy. 16S rRNA and LC-MS/MS were used to analyze the changes of gut microbiota and metabolism.

RESULTS: EcN promoted the recovery of sex hormone levels and ovarian tissue morphology, promoted the expression of IL-22, COX4 and PR-A in granulosa cells, and inhibited mitophagy in PCOS mice. EcN decreased the number of gut microbiota, and significantly increased the abundance of Adlercreutzia, Allobaculum, Escherichia-Shigella and Ileibacterium in PCOS mice. EcN improved metabolic disorders in PCOS mice by improving Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathways. IL-22 was positively associated with Ileibacterium, Adlercreutzia and Progesterone, negatively associated with RF39, Luteinizing hormone, Testosterone, N-Acetylglucosamin, L-Fucose and N-Acetylmannosamin. FMT reconfirmed that EcN ameliorated mitochondrial damage in granulosa cells of PCOS mice by gut microbiota, but this process was blocked by IL-22 inhibitor. Clinical trials have further demonstrated reduced IL-22 levels and mitochondrial damage in granulosa cells in PCOS patients.

CONCLUSION: EcN improved IL-22 level and mitochondrial damage of granulosa cells in PCOS mice by promoting the recovery of sex hormone levels and ovarian tissue morphology, inhibiting the amount of gut microbiota, and promoting amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Wang M, Xie X, Zhao S, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1136343.

OBJECTIVE: Whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is effective in improving outcomes remains controversial. We assessed the safety and efficacy of FMT for patients with IBS.

METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the clinicaltrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to February 25, 2022, updated to March 28, 2023. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the stool and capsule FMT with placebo in patients with IBS were included. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed risk of bias. We did meta-analysis with RevMan, and the Stata software was used for sensitivity analysis and meta-regression. The GRADE system was used to assess the quality of evidences. Mean difference (MD) or standardized Mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous data, and risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous data were used with random-effects models. The primary outcomes included the clinical response rate and IBS-SSS score. This study is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42022328377.

RESULTS: Nineteen reports from nine RCTs were included finally. Compared with the placebo, a single stool FMT could significantly decrease the IBS-SSS score at 1 month (MD=-65.75, 95%CI [-129.37, -2.13]), 3 months (MD=-102.11, 95% CI [-141.98, -62.24]), 6 months (MD=-84.38, 95%CI [-158.79, -9.97]), 24 months (MD=-110.41, 95%CI [-145.37, -75.46]), and 36 months (MD=-104.71, 95%CI [-137.78, -71.64]). It also could improve the clinical response rate at 3 months (RR=1.91, 95% [1.12, 3.25]), 24 months (RR=2.97, 95% [1.94, 4.54]), and 36 months (RR=2.48, 95% [1.65, 3.72]), and increase the IBS-QoL score at 3 months, 24 months, and 36 months. FMT did not increase the serious adverse event. The risk of bias was low, and the quality of evidence based on GRADE system was moderate in the stool FMT group. However, we did not find positive effect of capsule FMT on patients with IBS based on the current available data.

CONCLUSION: A single stool FMT is effective and safe for patients with IBS. However, some factors may affect the effectiveness of FMT, and the relationship between the gut microbiome and the effect of FMT for IBS is still unclear.

https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022328377.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Duan G, L Li (2023)

Deciphering the mechanism of jujube vinegar on hyperlipoidemia through gut microbiome based on 16S rRNA, BugBase analysis, and the stamp analysis of KEEG.

Frontiers in nutrition, 10:1160069.

BACKGROUND: Growing data indicate that the gut microbiome may contribute to the rising incidence of hyperlipoidemia. Jujube vinegar lowers lipids, protects the liver, and reduces oxidant capacity, however, it is unknown whether this is due to the gut flora. To further research the role of the gut microbiome in treating hyperlipidemia with jujube vinegar, we looked into whether the action of jujube vinegar is related to the regulation of the gut microbiome.

METHOD: Thirty male ICR mice were used. The control group (CON), the high-fat diet (HFD) group, and the vinegar group (VIN) each consisted of ten female ICR mice fed consistently for eight weeks. For each treatment, we kept track of body mass, liver index, blood lipid levels, and oxidative stress state. We also analyzed mouse feces using high-throughput 16srRNA sequencing to examine the relationship between jujube vinegar's hypolipidemic effect and antioxidant activity and how it affects the gut microbiome.

RESULTS: Jujube vinegar reduced body weight by 19.92%, serum TC, TG, and LDL-C by 25.09%, 26.83%, and 11.66%, and increased HDL-C by 1.44 times, serum AST and ALT decreased by 26.36% and 34.87% respectively, the blood levels of SOD and GSH-Px increased 1.35-fold and 1.60-fold, respectively. While blood MDA decreased 33.21%, the liver's SOD and GSH-Px increased 1.32-fold and 1.60-fold, respectively, and the liver's MDA decreased 48.96% in HFD mice. The gut microbiome analysis revealed that jujube vinegar increased the intestinal microbial ASV count by 13.46%, and the F/B (Firmicutes/Bacteroidota) ratio by 2.08-fold in high-fat diet mice, and the proportion was significantly inversely correlated with TC, TG, and LDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-C. Biomarker bacteria in the vinegar group included Lactobacillaceae and Lactobacillus, which correlated favorably with HDL-C, SOD, and GSH-Px and negatively with LDL-C, TC, and TG. Jujube vinegar increased the abundance of the Aerobic, Contains Mobile Elements, and Facultative Aerobic by 2.84 times, 1.45 times, and 2.40 times, while decreased the abundance of Potential pathogens by 44.72%, according to the BugBase study. The KEGG analysis showed that jujube vinegar was predominantly reflected in the biological process of gene function and related to signal transduction pathways, including glucagon signaling system, HIF-1 signaling pathway, adipocytokine signaling pathway, amino sugar, and nucleotide sugar metabolism, and so forth.

CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, jujube vinegar may reduce hyperlipoidemia by controlling the gut microbiome and enhancing antioxidant capacity.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Du Y, Tu Y, Zhou Z, et al (2023)

Effects of organic and inorganic copper on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in growing rabbits.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1179374.

INTRODUCTION: Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for the growth of rabbits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different Cu sources on intestinal microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in growing rabbits.

METHODS: The experimental animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups, each group comprised eight replicates, with six rabbits (half male and half female) per replicate. And they were fed diets was composed by mixing the basal diet with 20 mg/kg Cu from one of the two inorganic Cu (cupric sulfate and dicopper chloride trihydroxide) or two organic Cu (cupric citrate and copper glycinate). Cecal contents of four rabbits were collected from four experimental groups for 16S rDNA gene amplification sequencing and gas chromatography analysis.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that the organic Cu groups were less variable than the inorganic Cu groups. Compared with the inorganic Cu groups, the CuCit group had a significantly higher relative abundance of Rikenella Tissierella, Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group, Enterococcus, and Paeniclostridium, while the relative abundance of Novosphingobium and Ruminococcus were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The SCFAs level decreased in the organic Cu groups than in the inorganic Cu groups. Among the SCFAs, the butyric acid level significantly decreased in the CuCit group than in the CuSO4 and CuCl2 groups. The relative abundance of Rikenella and Turicibacter genera was significantly negatively correlated with the butyric acid level in the CuCit group compared with both inorganic Cu groups. These results revealed that the organic Cu (CuCit) group had an increased abundance of Rikenella, Enterococcus, Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group, and Turicibacter genera in the rabbit cecum.

DISCUSSION: In summary, this study found that organic Cu and inorganic Cu sources had different effects on cecal microbiota composition and SCFAs in rabbits. The CuCit group had the unique higher relative abundance of genera Rikenella and Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group, which might be beneficial to the lower incidence of diarrhea in rabbits.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Lin Q, Guan SW, HB Yu (2023)

Immuno-oncology-microbiome axis of gastrointestinal malignancy.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 15(5):757-775.

Research on the relationship between the microbiome and cancer has been controversial for centuries. Recent works have discovered that the intratumor microbiome is an important component of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Intratumor bacteria, the most studied intratumor microbiome, are mainly localized in tumor cells and immune cells. As the largest bacterial reservoir in human body, the gut microbiome may be one of the sources of the intratumor microbiome in gastrointestinal malignancies. An increasing number of studies have shown that the gut and intratumor microbiome play an important role in regulating the immune tone of tumors. Moreover, it has been recently proposed that the gut and intratumor microbiome can influence tumor progression by modulating host metabolism and the immune and immune tone of the TME, which is defined as the immuno-oncology-microbiome (IOM) axis. The proposal of the IOM axis provides a new target for the tumor microbiome and tumor immunity. This review aims to reveal the mechanism and progress of the gut and intratumor microbiome in gastrointestinal malignancies such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer by exploring the IOM axis. Providing new insights into the research related to gastrointestinal malignancies.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Guan SW, Lin Q, HB Yu (2023)

Intratumour microbiome of pancreatic cancer.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 15(5):713-730.

Pancreatic cancer is a high mortality malignancy with almost equal mortality and morbidity rates. Both normal and tumour tissues of the pancreas were previously considered sterile. In recent years, with the development of technologies for high-throughput sequencing, a variety of studies have revealed that pancreatic cancer tissues contain small amounts of bacteria and fungi. The intratumour microbiome is being revealed as an influential contributor to carcinogenesis. The intratumour microbiome has been identified as a crucial factor for pancreatic cancer progression, diagnosis, and treatment, chemotherapy resistance, and immune response. A better understanding of the biology of the intratumour microbiome of pancreatic cancer contributes to the establishment of better early cancer screening and treatment strategies. This review focuses on the possible origins of the intratumour microbiome in pancreatic cancer, the intratumour localization, the interaction with the tumour microenvironment, and strategies for improving the outcome of pancreatic cancer treatment. Thus, this review offers new perspectives for improving the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Palanivel JA, GWM Millington (2023)

Obesity-induced immunological effects on the skin.

Skin health and disease, 3(3):e160 pii:SKI2160.

There is an increasing prevalence of obesity globally. Equally, the significance of maintaining a healthy body weight for maintaining a healthy skin homoeostasis is gaining greater attention. On this background, there is growing evidence of an adverse influence of excess body weight on the immune system, which has a resultant detrimental effect on the functioning of the skin. The presence of obesity appears to intensify various inflammatory skin disorders. These immune-dermatological consequences in the obese occur because of multiple adverse changes in the skin physiology, endocrine imbalance, metabolic deviations, alterations in circulation, skin microbiome and immunological disruptions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the profound impact of increased fat deposition on cutaneous immunology and its role in the pathophysiology of various chronic inflammatory dermatological conditions. Understanding these immunological modulations will aid in developing therapies targeting the specific inflammatory mediators in the management of obesity-associated chronic immunological skin disease.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

García-Mateo S, A Lanas (2023)

Editorial: Improving the gut microbiome: applications of fecal transplantation in disease.

Frontiers in medicine, 10:1203448.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Timmusk S, Pall T, Raz S, et al (2023)

The potential for plant growth-promoting bacteria to impact crop productivity in future agricultural systems is linked to understanding the principles of microbial ecology.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1141862.

Global climate change poses challenges to land use worldwide, and we need to reconsider agricultural practices. While it is generally accepted that biodiversity can be used as a biomarker for healthy agroecosystems, we must specify what specifically composes a healthy microbiome. Therefore, understanding how holobionts function in native, harsh, and wild habitats and how rhizobacteria mediate plant and ecosystem biodiversity in the systems enables us to identify key factors for plant fitness. A systems approach to engineering microbial communities by connecting host phenotype adaptive traits would help us understand the increased fitness of holobionts supported by genetic diversity. Identification of genetic loci controlling the interaction of beneficial microbiomes will allow the integration of genomic design into crop breeding programs. Bacteria beneficial to plants have traditionally been conceived as "promoting and regulating plant growth". The future perspective for agroecosystems should be that microbiomes, via multiple cascades, define plant phenotypes and provide genetic variability for agroecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Dutta A, Connors E, Trinh R, et al (2023)

Depth drives the distribution of microbial ecological functions in the coastal western Antarctic Peninsula.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1168507.

The Antarctic marine environment is a dynamic ecosystem where microorganisms play an important role in key biogeochemical cycles. Despite the role that microbes play in this ecosystem, little is known about the genetic and metabolic diversity of Antarctic marine microbes. In this study we leveraged DNA samples collected by the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project to sequence shotgun metagenomes of 48 key samples collected across the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP). We developed an in silico metagenomics pipeline (iMAGine) for processing metagenomic data and constructing metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), identifying a diverse genomic repertoire related to the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles. A novel analytical approach based on gene coverage was used to understand the differences in microbial community functions across depth and region. Our results showed that microbial community functions were partitioned based on depth. Bacterial members harbored diverse genes for carbohydrate transformation, indicating the availability of processes to convert complex carbons into simpler bioavailable forms. We generated 137 dereplicated MAGs giving us a new perspective on the role of prokaryotes in the coastal wAP. In particular, the presence of mixotrophic prokaryotes capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic lifestyles indicated a metabolically flexible community, which we hypothesize enables survival under rapidly changing conditions. Overall, the study identified key microbial community functions and created a valuable sequence library collection for future Antarctic genomics research.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Sekito T, Wada K, Ishii A, et al (2023)

Etiology of recurrent cystitis in postmenopausal women based on vaginal microbiota and the role of Lactobacillus vaginal suppository.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1187479.

BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiota can be altered by uropathogenic bacteria associated with recurrent cystitis (RC), and the vaginal administration of Lactobacillus have suggested certain effects to prevent RC. The relationship between vaginal microbiota and the development of RC has not been elucidated. We aimed to clarify the etiology of RC from vaginal microbiota and importance of vaginal Lactobacillus.

METHODS: Vaginal samples obtained from 39 postmenopausal women were classified into four groups: healthy controls; uncomplicated cystitis; RC; and prevention (prevented RC by Lactobacillus crispatus-containing vaginal suppositories). Principal coordinate analysis and beta-diversity analysis was used to assess 16S rRNA gene sequencing data from the vaginal microbiome.

RESULTS: Cluster analysis divided the vaginal bacterial communities among 129 vaginal samples into three clusters (A, B, and C). Fourteen of 14 (100%) samples from the RC group and 51 of 53 (96%) samples from the prevention group were in clusters B and C, while 29 of 38 (76%) samples from the healthy group and 14 of 24 (58%) samples from the uncomplicated cystitis group were in cluster A. The principal coordinate analysis showed that plots in the uncomplicated cystitis group were similar to the healthy group, indicating a large separation between the RC group and the uncomplicated cystitis group. On beta-diversity analysis, there were significant differences between the healthy group and the uncomplicated cystitis group (p = 0.045), and between the RC group and the uncomplicated cystitis group or the healthy group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the RC group and the prevention group (p = 0.446). The top six taxa were as follows: Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Anaerococcus, and Bifidobacterium. Among patients with RC, Lactobacillus was undetectable before administration of suppositories, while the median relative abundance of Lactobacillus was 19% during administration of suppositories (p = 0.0211), reducing the average cystitis episodes per year (6.3 vs. 2.4, p = 0.0015).

CONCLUSION: The vaginal microbiota of postmenopausal women with RC is differed from healthy controls and uncomplicated cystitis in terms of lack of Lactobacillus and relatively dominant of Enterobacteriaceae. Vaginal administration of Lactobacillus-containing suppositories can prevent RC by stabilizing vaginal dysbiosis and causing a loss of pathogenic bacteria virulence.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Russell MJ (2023)

A self-sustaining serpentinization mega-engine feeds the fougerite nanoengines implicated in the emergence of guided metabolism.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1145915.

The demonstration by Ivan Barnes et al. that the serpentinization of fresh Alpine-type ultramafic rocks results in the exhalation of hot alkaline fluids is foundational to the submarine alkaline vent theory (AVT) for life's emergence to its 'improbable' thermodynamic state. In AVT, such alkaline fluids ≤ 150°C, bearing H2 > CH4 > HS[-]-generated and driven convectively by a serpentinizing exothermic mega-engine operating in the ultramafic crust-exhale into the iron-rich, CO2> > > NO3[-]-bearing Hadean ocean to result in hydrothermal precipitate mounds comprising macromolecular ferroferric-carbonate oxyhydroxide and minor sulfide. As the nanocrystalline minerals fougerite/green rust and mackinawite (FeS), they compose the spontaneously precipitated inorganic membranes that keep the highly contrasting solutions apart, thereby maintaining redox and pH disequilibria. They do so in the form of fine chimneys and chemical gardens. The same disequilibria drive the reduction of CO2 to HCOO[-] or CO, and the oxidation of CH4 to a methyl group-the two products reacting to form acetate in a sequence antedating the 'energy-producing' acetyl coenzyme-A pathway. Fougerite is a 2D-layered mineral in which the hydrous interlayers themselves harbor 2D solutions, in effect constricted to ~ 1D by preferentially directed electron hopping/tunneling, and proton Gröthuss 'bucket-brigading' when subject to charge. As a redox-driven nanoengine or peristaltic pump, fougerite forces the ordered reduction of nitrate to ammonium, the amination of pyruvate and oxalate to alanine and glycine, and their condensation to short peptides. In turn, these peptides have the flexibility to sequester the founding inorganic iron oxyhydroxide, sulfide, and pyrophosphate clusters, to produce metal- and phosphate-dosed organic films and cells. As the feed to the hydrothermal mound fails, the only equivalent sustenance on offer to the first autotrophs is the still mildly serpentinizing upper crust beneath. While the conditions here are very much less bountiful, they do offer the similar feed and disequilibria the survivors are accustomed to. Sometime during this transition, a replicating non-ribosomal guidance system is discovered to provide the rules to take on the incrementally changing surroundings. The details of how these replicating apparatuses emerged are the hard problem, but by doing so the progenote archaea and bacteria could begin to colonize what would become the deep biosphere. Indeed, that the anaerobic nitrate-respiring methanotrophic archaea and the deep-branching Acetothermia presently comprise a portion of that microbiome occupying serpentinizing rocks offers circumstantial support for this notion. However, the inescapable, if jarring conclusion is drawn that, absent fougerite/green rust, there would be no structured channelway to life.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Zhang R, Zhao W, Zhao R, et al (2023)

Causal relationship in gut microbiota and upper urinary urolithiasis using Mendelian randomization.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1170793.

BACKGROUND: Several reports in recent years have found an association between gut microbiota and upper urinary urolithiasis. However, the causal relationship between them remains to be clarified.

METHODS: Genetic variation is used as a tool in Mendelian randomization for inference of whether exposure factors have a causal effect on disease outcomes. We selected summary statistics from a large genome-wide association study of the gut microbiome published by the MiBioGen consortium with a sample size of 18,340 as an exposure factor and upper urinary urolithiasis data from FinnGen GWAS with 4,969 calculi cases and 213,445 controls as a disease outcome. Then, a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis was performed by applying inverse variance-weighted, MR-Egger, maximum likelihood, and weighted median. In addition, heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy were excluded by sensitivity analysis.

RESULTS: IVW results confirmed that class Deltaproteobacteria (OR = 0.814, 95% CI: 0.666-0.995, P = 0.045), order NB1n (OR = 0.833, 95% CI: 0.737-0.940, P = 3.15 × 10[-3]), family Clostridiaceae1 (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.581-0.916, P = 6.61 × 10[-3]), genus Barnesiella (OR = 0.695, 95% CI: 0.551-0.877, P = 2.20 × 10[-3]), genus Clostridium sensu_stricto_1 (OR = 0.777, 95% CI: 0.612-0.986, P = 0.0380), genus Flavonifractor (OR = 0.711, 95% CI: 0.536-0.944, P = 0.0181), genus Hungatella (OR = 0.829, 95% CI: 0.690-0.995, P = 0.0444), and genus Oscillospira (OR = 0.758, 95% CI: 0.577-0.996, P = 0.0464) had a protective effect on upper urinary urolithiasis, while Eubacterium xylanophilum (OR =1.26, 95% CI: 1.010-1.566, P = 0.0423) had the opposite effect. Sensitivity analysis did not find outlier SNPs.

CONCLUSION: In summary, a causal relationship was found between several genera and upper urinary urolithiasis. However, we still need further randomized controlled trials to validate.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Bao Z, Wei R, Zheng X, et al (2023)

Landscapes of gut microbiome and bile acid signatures and their interaction in HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1185993.

INTRODUCTION: Submassive hepatic necrosis (SMHN, defined as necrosis of 15-90% of the entire liver on explant) is a likely characteristic pathological feature of ACLF in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis. We aimed to comprehensively explore microbiome and bile acids patterns across enterhepatic circulation and build well-performing machine learning models to predict SMHN status.

METHODS: Based on the presence or absence of SMHN, 17 patients with HBV-related end-stage liver disease who received liver transplantation were eligible for inclusion. Serum, portal venous blood, and stool samples were collected for comparing differences of BA spectra and gut microbiome and their interactions. We adopted the random forest algorithm with recursive feature elimination (RF-RFE) to predict SMHN status.

RESULTS: By comparing total BA spectrum between SMHN (-) and SMHN (+) patients, significant changes were detected only in fecal (P = 0.015). Compared with the SMHN (+) group, the SMHN (-) group showed that UDCA, 7-KLCA, 3-DHCA, 7-KDCA, ISOLCA and α-MCA in feces, r-MCA, 7-KLCA and 7-KDCA in serum, γ-MCA and 7-KLCA in portal vein were enriched, and TUDCA in feces was depleted. PCoA analysis showed significantly distinct overall microbial composition in two groups (P = 0.026). Co-abundance analysis showed that bacterial species formed strong and broad relationships with BAs. Among them, Parabacteroides distasonis had the highest node degree. We further identified a combinatorial marker panel with a high AUC of 0.92.

DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrated the changes and interactions of intestinal microbiome and BAs during enterohepatic circulation in ACLF patients with SMHN. In addition, we identified a combinatorial marker panel as non-invasive biomarkers to distinguish the SMHN status with high AUC.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Lapidot Y, Maya M, Reshef L, et al (2023)

Relationships of the gut microbiome with cognitive development among healthy school-age children.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 11:1198792.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome might play a role in neurodevelopment, however, evidence remains elusive. We aimed to examine the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and cognitive development of school-age children.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included healthy Israeli Arab children from different socioeconomic status (SES). The microbiome was characterized in fecal samples by implementing 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Cognitive function was measured using Stanford-Binet test, yielding full-scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) score. Sociodemographics and anthropometric and hemoglobin measurements were obtained. Multivariate models were implemented to assess adjusted associations between the gut microbiome and FSIQ score, while controlling for age, sex, SES, physical growth, and hemoglobin levels.

RESULTS: Overall, 165 children (41.2% females) aged 6-9 years were enrolled. SES score was strongly related to both FSIQ score and the gut microbiome. Measures of α-diversity were significantly associated with FSIQ score, demonstrating a more diverse, even, and rich microbiome with increased FSIQ score. Significant differences in fecal bacterial composition were found; FSIQ score explained the highest variance in bacterial β-diversity, followed by SES score. Several taxonomic differences were significantly associated with FSIQ score, including Prevotella, Dialister, Sutterella, Ruminococcus callidus, and Bacteroides uniformis.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant independent associations between the gut microbiome and cognitive development in school-age children.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Pfaff DH, Poschet G, Hell R, et al (2023)

Walking 200 min per day keeps the bariatric surgeon away.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16556.

Exercise and increased physical activity are vital components of the standard treatment guidelines for many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Although strenuous exercise cannot be recommended to people with numerous chronic conditions, walking is something most people can perform. In comparison to high-intensity training, the metabolic consequences of low-intensity walking have been less well studied. We present here a feasibility study of a subject who performed an exercise intervention of low-intensity, non-fatiguing walking on a deskmill/treadmill for 200 min daily, approximately the average time a German spends watching television per day. This low-impact physical activity has the advantages that it can be done while performing other tasks such as reading or watching TV, and it can be recommended to obese patients or patients with heart disease. We find that this intervention led to substantial weight loss, comparable to that of bariatric surgery. To study the metabolic changes caused by this intervention, we performed an in-depth metabolomic profiling of the blood both directly after walking to assess the acute changes, as well as 1.5 days after physical activity to identify the long-term effects that persist. We find changes in acylcarnitine levels suggesting that walking activates fatty acid beta oxidation, and that this mitochondrial reprogramming is still visible 1.5 days post-walking. We also find that walking mildly increases gut permeability, leading to increased exposure of the blood to metabolites from the gut microbiome. Overall, these data provide a starting point for designing future intervention studies with larger cohorts.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Galgaye GG (2023)

Phenology, growth, yield, and yield-related traits of Ethiopian garlic genotypes. A review.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16497.

Garlic is one of the most important medicinal plants and consists of high sulfur concentration compounds like diallyl disulfide, allicin, diallyl trisulfide, and S-allylcysteine. It contributes for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintics, antifungal, liver protection, antioxidants, antistress, and wound healing properties. Therefore, garlic plays a significant role in human life. To popularize this multi-purpose crop in Ethiopia, there are ample opportunities and potential, like a wide agro-ecology and a labor force. However, today's garlic production in Ethiopia is low because of different factors like climate, soil, microbiome and cultural practices. While, mainly due to genotype variation, garlic yield is constrained. Thus, gathering and reviewing the impact of genotypes on phenology, growth, yield, and yield traits is important to summarize and organize. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to show the phenology, growth, yield, and yield-related traits of garlic as influenced by genotype. Finally, this review scoped to reveal phenology, growth, yield and yield traits as influenced by Ethiopian garlic genotypes. Generally, different genotypes influence the phenology, growth, yield, and yield traits of garlic. Therefore, garlic producers should use a high-yielding variety (genotype) in the area.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Rincón Orozco B (2022)

Gut Microbiome and Brain: Scope and Perspectives.

International journal of psychological research, 15(2):6-9.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Robles A, Sundar SV, Mohana Rangan S, et al (2023)

Butanol as a major product during ethanol and acetate chain elongation.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1181983.

Chain elongation is a relevant bioprocess in support of a circular economy as it can use a variety of organic feedstocks for production of valuable short and medium chain carboxylates, such as butyrate (C4), caproate (C6), and caprylate (C8). Alcohols, including the biofuel, butanol (C4), can also be generated in chain elongation but the bioreactor conditions that favor butanol production are mainly unknown. In this study we investigated production of butanol (and its precursor butyrate) during ethanol and acetate chain elongation. We used semi-batch bioreactors (0.16 L serum bottles) fed with a range of ethanol concentrations (100-800 mM C), a constant concentration of acetate (50 mM C), and an initial total gas pressure of ∼112 kPa. We showed that the butanol concentration was positively correlated with the ethanol concentration provided (up to 400 mM C ethanol) and to chain elongation activity, which produced H2 and further increased the total gas pressure. In bioreactors fed with 400 mM C ethanol and 50 mM C acetate, a concentration of 114.96 ± 9.26 mM C butanol (∼2.13 g L[-1]) was achieved after five semi-batch cycles at a total pressure of ∼170 kPa and H2 partial pressure of ∼67 kPa. Bioreactors with 400 mM C ethanol and 50 mM C acetate also yielded a butanol to butyrate molar ratio of 1:1. At the beginning of cycle 8, the total gas pressure was intentionally decreased to ∼112 kPa to test the dependency of butanol production on total pressure and H2 partial pressure. The reduction in total pressure decreased the molar ratio of butanol to butyrate to 1:2 and jolted H2 production out of an apparent stall. Clostridium kluyveri (previously shown to produce butyrate and butanol) and Alistipes (previously linked with butyrate production) were abundant amplicon sequence variants in the bioreactors during the experimental phases, suggesting the microbiome was resilient against changes in bioreactor conditions. The results from this study clearly demonstrate the potential of ethanol and acetate-based chain elongation to yield butanol as a major product. This study also supports the dependency of butanol production on limiting acetate and on high total gas and H2 partial pressures.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Mu C, Zhao Q, Zhao Q, et al (2023)

Multi-omics in Crohn's disease: New insights from inside.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:3054-3072.

Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with complex clinical manifestations such as chronic diarrhea, weight loss and hematochezia. Despite the increasing incidence worldwide, cure of CD remains extremely difficult. The rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology with integrated-omics analyses in recent years has provided a new means for exploring the pathogenesis, mining the biomarkers and designing targeted personalized therapeutics of CD. Host genomics and epigenomics unveil heredity-related mechanisms of susceptible individuals, while microbiome and metabolomics map host-microbe interactions in CD patients. Proteomics shows great potential in searching for promising biomarkers. Nonetheless, single omics technology cannot holistically connect the mechanisms with heterogeneity of pathological behavior in CD. The rise of multi-omics analysis integrates genetic/epigenetic profiles with protein/microbial metabolite functionality, providing new hope for comprehensive and in-depth exploration of CD. Herein, we emphasized the different omics features and applications of CD and discussed the current research and limitations of multi-omics in CD. This review will update and deepen our understanding of CD from integration of broad omics spectra and will provide new evidence for targeted individualized therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Wang Y, Zhuo Z, H Wang (2023)

Epilepsy, gut microbiota, and circadian rhythm.

Frontiers in neurology, 14:1157358.

In recent years, relevant studies have found changes in gut microbiota (GM) in patients with epilepsy. In addition, impaired sleep and circadian patterns are common symptoms of epilepsy. Moreover, the types of seizures have a circadian rhythm. Numerous reports have indicated that the GM and its metabolites have circadian rhythms. This review will describe changes in the GM in clinical and animal studies under epilepsy and circadian rhythm disorder, respectively. The aim is to determine the commonalities and specificities of alterations in GM and their impact on disease occurrence in the context of epilepsy and circadian disruption. Although clinical studies are influenced by many factors, the results suggest that there are some commonalities in the changes of GM. Finally, we discuss the links among epilepsy, gut microbiome, and circadian rhythms, as well as future research that needs to be conducted.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Friedland RP, B Haribabu (2023)

Neurodegenerative diseases: from gut-brain axis to brain microbiome.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 15:1171955.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Liu F, Li R, Zhong Y, et al (2023)

Age-related alterations in metabolome and microbiome provide insights in dietary transition in giant pandas.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

We conducted UPLC-MS-based metabolomics, 16S rRNA, and metagenome sequencing on the fecal samples of 44 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from four age groups (i.e., Cub, Young, Adult, and Old) to comprehensively understand age-related changes in the metabolism and gut microbiota of giant pandas. We characterized the metabolite profiles of giant pandas based on 1,376 identified metabolites, with 152 significantly differential metabolites (SDMs) found across the age groups. We found that the metabolites and the composition/function of the gut microbiota changed in response to the transition from a milk-dominant diet in panda cubs to a bamboo-specific diet in young and adult pandas. Lipid metabolites such as choline and hippuric acid were enriched in the Cub group, and many plant secondary metabolites were significantly higher in the Young and Adult groups, while oxidative stress and inflammatory related metabolites were only found in the Old group. However, there was a decrease in the α-diversity of gut microbiota in adult and old pandas, who exclusively consume bamboo. The abundance of bacteria related to the digestion of cellulose-rich food, such as Firmicutes, Streptococcus, and Clostridium, significantly increased from the Cub to the Adult group, while the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, Sarcina, and Blautia significantly decreased. Notably, several potential pathogenic bacteria had relatively high abundances, especially in the Young group. Metagenomic analysis identified 277 CAZyme genes including cellulose degrading genes, and seven of the CAZymes had abundances that significantly differed between age groups. We also identified 237 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) whose number and diversity increased with age. We also found a significant positive correlation between the abundance of bile acids and gut bacteria, especially Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Our results from metabolome, 16S rRNA, and metagenome data highlight the important role of the gut microbiota-bile acid axis in the regulation of age-related metabolism and provide new insights into the lipid metabolism of giant pandas.IMPORTANCEThe giant panda is a member of the order Carnivora but is entirely herbivorous. The giant panda's specialized diet and related metabolic mechanisms have not been fully understood. It is therefore crucial to investigate the dynamic changes in metabolites as giant pandas grow and physiologically adapt to their herbivorous diet. This study conducted UPLC-MS-based metabolomics 16S rRNA, and metagenome sequencing on the fecal samples of captive giant pandas from four age groups. We found that metabolites and the composition/function of gut microbiota changed in response to the transition from a milk-dominant diet in cubs to a bamboo-specific diet in young and adult pandas. The metabolome, 16S rRNA, and metagenome results highlight that the gut microbiota-bile acid axis has an important role in the regulation of age-related metabolism, and our study provides new insights into the lipid metabolism of giant pandas.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Agrawal S, NA Broderick (2023)

Inside help from the microbiome.

eLife, 12: pii:88873.

Elucidating the role of one of the proteins produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum reveals a new molecule that allows this gut bacterium to support the development of fruit fly larvae.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

McCallum GE, Rossiter AE, Quraishi MN, et al (2023)

Noise reduction strategies in metagenomic chromosome confirmation capture to link antibiotic resistance genes to microbial hosts.

Microbial genomics, 9(6):.

The gut microbiota is a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). With current sequencing methods, it is difficult to assign ARGs to their microbial hosts, particularly if these ARGs are located on plasmids. Metagenomic chromosome conformation capture approaches (meta3C and Hi-C) have recently been developed to link bacterial genes to phylogenetic markers, thus potentially allowing the assignment of ARGs to their hosts on a microbiome-wide scale. Here, we generated a meta3C dataset of a human stool sample and used previously published meta3C and Hi-C datasets to investigate bacterial hosts of ARGs in the human gut microbiome. Sequence reads mapping to repetitive elements were found to cause problematic noise in, and may importantly skew interpretation of, meta3C and Hi-C data. We provide a strategy to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by discarding reads that map to insertion sequence elements and to the end of contigs. We also show the importance of using spike-in controls to quantify whether the cross-linking step in meta3C and Hi-C protocols has been successful. After filtering to remove artefactual links, 87 ARGs were assigned to their bacterial hosts across all datasets, including 27 ARGs in the meta3C dataset we generated. We show that commensal gut bacteria are an important reservoir for ARGs, with genes coding for aminoglycoside and tetracycline resistance being widespread in anaerobic commensals of the human gut.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Cress B, R Barrangou (2023)

Special Issue: Manipulating the Microbiome with CRISPR.

The CRISPR journal, 6(3):185.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Tang K, Tao L, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Temporal Variations in the Gut Microbiota of the Globally Endangered Sichuan Partridge (Arborophila rufipectus): Implications for Adaptation to Seasonal Dietary Change and Conservation.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Host-associated microbiotas are known to influence host health by aiding digestion, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, immune function, and pathogen resistance. Although an increasing number of studies have investigated the avian microbiome, there is a lack of research on the gut microbiotas of wild birds, especially endangered pheasants. Owing to the difficulty of characterizing the dynamics of dietary composition, especially in omnivores, how the gut microbiotas of birds respond to seasonal dietary changes remains poorly understood. The Sichuan partridge (Arborophila rufipectus) is an endangered pheasant species with a small population endemic to the mountains of southwest China. Here, 16S rRNA sequencing and Tax4Fun were used to characterize and compare community structure and functions of the gut microbiota in the Sichuan partridges across three critical periods of their annual life cycle (breeding, postbreeding wandering, and overwintering). We found that the microbial communities were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria throughout the year. Diversity of the gut microbiotas was highest during postbreeding wandering and lowest during the overwintering periods. Seasonal dietary changes and reassembly of the gut microbial community occurred consistently. Composition, diversity, and functions of the gut microbiota exhibited diet-associated variations, which might facilitate host adaptation to diverse diets in response to environmental shifts. Moreover, 28 potential pathogenic genera were detected, and their composition differed significantly between the three periods. Investigation of the wild bird gut microbiota dynamics has enhanced our understanding of diet-microbiota associations over the annual life cycle of birds, aiding in the integrative conservation of this endangered bird. IMPORTANCE Characterizing the gut microbiotas of wild birds across seasons will shed light on their annual life cycle. Due to sampling difficulties and the lack of detailed dietary information, studies on how the gut microbiota adapts to seasonal dietary changes of wild birds are scarce. Based on more detailed dietary composition, we found a seasonal reshaping pattern of the gut microbiota of Sichuan partridges corresponding to their seasonal dietary changes. The variation in diet and gut microbiota potentially facilitated the diversity of dietary niches of this endangered pheasant, revealing a seasonal diet-microbiota association across the three periods of the annual cycle. In addition, identifying a variety of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera aids in managing the health and improving survival of Sichuan partridges. Incorporation of microbiome research in the conservation of endangered species contributes to our comprehensive understanding the diet-host-microbiota relationship in wild birds and refinement of conservation practices.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Miller SE, Colman AS, JR Waldbauer (2023)

Metaproteomics reveals functional partitioning and vegetational variation among permafrost-affected Arctic soil bacterial communities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial activity in Arctic soils controls the cycling of significant stores of organic carbon and nutrients. We studied in situ processes in Alaskan soils using original metaproteomic methods in order to relate important heterotrophic functions to microbial taxa and to understand the microbial response to Arctic greening. Major bacterial groups show strong metabolic specialization in organic topsoils. α-/β-/γ-Proteobacteria specialized in the acquisition of small, soluble compounds, whereas Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and other detritosphere groups specialized in the degradation of plant-derived polymers. α-/β-/γ-Proteobacteria dominated the expression of transporters for common root exudates and limiting nitrogenous compounds, supporting an ecological model of dependence upon plants for carbon and competition with plants for nitrogen. Detritosphere groups specialized in distinct substrates, with Acidobacteria producing the most enzymes for hemicellulose depolymerization. Acidobacteria was the most active group across the three plant ecotypes sampled-the largely nonvascular, lower biomass intertussock and the largely vascular, higher biomass tussock and shrub. Functional partitioning among bacterial groups was stable between plant ecotypes, but certain functions associated with α-/β-/γ-Proteobacteria were more strongly expressed in higher biomass ecotypes. We show that refined metaproteomic approaches can elucidate soil microbial ecology as well as biogeochemical trajectories of major carbon stocks.IMPORTANCEThe Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet, and Arctic soils currently store twice as much carbon as the entire atmosphere-two facts that make understanding how Arctic soil microbial communities are responding to climate change particularly urgent. Greening of vegetation cover across the Arctic landscape is one of the most prominent climate-driven shifts in Arctic terrestrial ecology, with potentially profound effects on biogeochemical cycling by the soil microbiome. Here we use metaproteomics to document microbial metabolic functions that drive soil carbon and nutrient cycling processes in an Arctic tundra landscape. We identify functional roles among bacterial taxonomic groups that are largely stable across vegetation types, with certain functions strongly expressed by rhizosphere groups reflecting a community metabolic response to greening.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Anonymous (2023)

Correction to 'Illuminating the dark metabolome of Pseudo-nitzschia-microbiome associations'.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Claassen-Weitz S, Gardner-Lubbe S, Xia Y, et al (2023)

Succession and determinants of the early life nasopharyngeal microbiota in a South African birth cohort.

Microbiome, 11(1):127.

BACKGROUND: Bacteria colonizing the nasopharynx play a key role as gatekeepers of respiratory health. Yet, dynamics of early life nasopharyngeal (NP) bacterial profiles remain understudied in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where children have a high prevalence of risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection. We investigated longitudinal changes in NP bacterial profiles, and associated exposures, among healthy infants from low-income households in South Africa.

METHODS: We used short fragment (V4 region) 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize NP bacterial profiles from 103 infants in a South African birth cohort, at monthly intervals from birth through the first 12 months of life and six monthly thereafter until 30 months.

RESULTS: Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus were dominant colonizers at 1 month of life; however, these were rapidly replaced by Moraxella- or Haemophilus-dominated profiles by 4 months. This succession was almost universal and largely independent of a broad range of exposures. Warm weather (summer), lower gestational age, maternal smoking, no day-care attendance, antibiotic exposure, or low height-for-age z score at 12 months were associated with higher alpha and beta diversity. Summer was also associated with higher relative abundances of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, or anaerobic gram-negative bacteria, whilst spring and winter were associated with higher relative abundances of Haemophilus or Corynebacterium, respectively. Maternal smoking was associated with higher relative abundances of Porphyromonas. Antibiotic therapy (or isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis) was associated with higher relative abundance of anerobic taxa (Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella) and with lower relative abundances of health associated-taxa Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum. HIV-exposure was associated with higher relative abundances of Klebsiella or Veillonella and lower relative abundances of an unclassified genus within the family Lachnospiraceae.

CONCLUSIONS: In this intensively sampled cohort, there was rapid and predictable replacement of early profiles dominated by health-associated Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum with those dominated by Moraxella and Haemophilus, independent of exposures. Season and antibiotic exposure were key determinants of NP bacterial profiles. Understudied but highly prevalent exposures prevalent in LMICs, including maternal smoking and HIV-exposure, were associated with NP bacterial profiles. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Satoh T (2023)

New prebiotics by ketone donation.

Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM pii:S1043-2760(23)00091-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Integrity of the microbiome is an essential element for human gut health. 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3HB) secreted into the gut lumen has gained attention as a regulator of gut physiology, including stem cell expansion. In this opinion, I propose new prebiotics leading to gut health by use of a ketone (3HB) donor. When exogenous 3HB is supplied through ketone donation, it has the potential to markedly improve gut health by altering the gut microbiome and systemic metabolic status. Poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) donates 3HB and primarily influences microbiota, making it an effective prebiotic for improving the gut environment. Thus, exogenous 3HB donation to the lumen of the gut may aid gut health by maintaining the integrity of microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Kolypetri P, HL Weiner (2023)

Monocyte regulation by gut microbial signals.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(23)00159-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Monocytes are innate immune cells that sense environmental changes and participate in the immunoregulation of autoimmune, neurologic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases as well as cancer. Recent studies have suggested that the gut microbiome shapes the biology of monocytes via microbial signals at extraintestinal sites. Interestingly, in chronic diseases, communication between microbial signals and monocytes can either promote or inhibit disease activity, suggesting that some of these pathways can be harnessed for clinical therapies. In this review, we discuss the newer concepts of regulation of monocyte homeostasis and function by gut microbial signals during steady state and inflammation. We also highlight the therapeutic potential of microbial signal-based approaches for modulation in the context of various diseases.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Zhou Y, Xu X, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Heterogeneous regulation of Staphylococcus aureus by different Staphylococcus epidermidis agr types in atopic dermatitis.

The Journal of investigative dermatology pii:S0022-202X(23)02138-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibits a protective role in skin inflammation; however, the exact functions of S. epidermidis and their mechanisms in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully understood. Here, whole-genome sequencing was conducted on strains of S. epidermidis isolated from pediatric patients with AD and revealed significant strain-level heterogeneity in functional genes. Specific sequence analysis of S. epidermidis identified four types of accessory gene regulator (agr) according to locus variations in the agr operon, which was consistent with the metagenomic data of the contextual microbiota. The number of S. epidermidis agr type I was slightly decreased among AD isolates, while agr type IV was hardly detected in AD isolates. Functional experiments demonstrated that strains of S. epidermidis agr type I and IV, but not type II and III, inhibited the expression of S. aureus agr-mediated virulence factors in vitro, and suppressed S. aureus epidermal colonization and attenuated skin inflammation in a mouse model. The delineation of genome signatures of S. epidermidis at the strain level in AD and the quorum-sensing interference between S. epidermidis agr type IV and S. aureus provide a foundation for the modulation of the skin microbiota and the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Fischer JA, Pei LX, Elango R, et al (2023)

Is a lower dose of more bioavailable iron (18 mg ferrous bisglycinate) non-inferior to 60 mg ferrous sulfate in increasing ferritin concentrations while reducing gut inflammation and enteropathogen detection in Cambodian women? A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

The Journal of nutrition pii:S0022-3166(23)72200-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend untargeted iron supplementation for women in regions of anemia prevalence ≥40%, such as Cambodia. However, the potential harms of untargeted iron on the gut have not been rigorously studied in women and likely vary depending on iron dose and form.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated if a lower dose of a highly bioavailable iron amino acid chelate was as effective as the standard dose of iron salts in increasing ferritin concentrations, and whether any differences were observed in gut inflammation or enteropathogen detection.

DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in Cambodia. Non-pregnant women (n=480, 18-45 years) were randomized to 60 mg ferrous sulfate, 18 mg ferrous bisglycinate, or placebo for 12 weeks. Non-fasting blood and stool specimens were collected at baseline and 12 weeks. Ferritin and fecal calprotectin were measured with an ELISA. A molecular assay was used to detect 11 enteropathogens in a random subset of n=100 women. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the adjusted mean difference in ferritin concentrations at 12 weeks (primary outcome), as compared to our 'a-priori' non-inferiority margin of 20 μg/L.

RESULTS: Baseline anemia and iron deficiency prevalence was low (17% and 6%, respectively). The adjusted mean difference (95% CI) in ferritin concentrations between the iron groups was 14.6 (7.6, 21.6) μg/L. Mean ferritin concentration (95% CI) at 12 weeks was higher in the ferrous sulfate (99 [95, 103] μg/L, p<0.001) than in ferrous bisglycinate (84 [80, 88] μg/L) and placebo groups (78 [74, 82] μg/L). No differences in fecal calprotectin concentrations or enteropathogen detection were observed across groups at 12 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: Ferrous bisglycinate (18 mg) was not as effective as ferrous sulfate (60 mg) in increasing ferritin concentrations and did not differentially influence biomarkers of gut health in this predominantly iron-replete population of Cambodian women.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04017598). URL: https://beta.

CLINICALTRIALS: gov/study/NCT04017598.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Mohanan MM, Shetty R, Bang-Berthelsen CH, et al (2023)

Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Allergy: A Prophylactic Therapy for Future.

Immunology letters pii:S0165-2478(23)00096-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Allergic diseases are broadly classified as IgE-mediated type-I hypersensitivity immune reactions due to exposure to typically harmless substances known as allergens. These allergenic substances activate antigen presenting cells, which further triggers T-helper 2 cells immune response and class switch B-cells for synthesis of allergen-specific IgE, followed by classical activation of inflammatory mast cells and eosinophils, which releases preformed mediators involved in the cascade of allergic symptoms. However, the role of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue repair ability and immunomodulation, makes them as an appropriate tool for treatment of various allergic diseases. Several clinical and preclinical studies show that MSCs could be a promising alternative therapy to allergic diseases. Further, short chain fatty acids, produced from gut microbes by breaking down complex fibre-rich foods, acts through G-coupled receptor mediated activation of MSCs, and their role as key players involved in amelioration of allergic inflammation needs further investigation. Therefore, there is a need for understating the role of SCFAs on the activation of MSCs, which might shed light on the development of new therapeutic regime in allergy treatment. In summary, this review focuses on the underlying of therapeutic role of MSCs in different allergic diseases and the prospects of SCFA and MSC therapy.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Khakisahneh S, Zhang XY, Han SY, et al (2023)

Yijung-tang improves thermogenesis and reduces inflammation associated with gut microbiota in hypothyroid rats.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):32.

Currently, considerable attention is focused on exploring the potential relationship between herbal medicine (HM) and the gut microbiome in terms of thermoregulation, which is an important aspect of human health, in modern system biology. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms of HM in thermoregulation is inadequate. Here, we demonstrate that the canonical herbal formula, Yijung-tang (YJT), protects against hypothermia, hyperinflammation, and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Notably, these properties were associated with alterations in the gut microbiota and signaling crosstalk between the thermoregulatory and inflammatory mediators in the small intestine and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast to the conventional drug L-thyroxine for curing hypothyroidism, YJT has an efficacy for attenuating systematic inflammatory responses, related with depression in intestinal TLR4 and Nod2/Pglyrp1 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that YJT could promote BAT thermogenesis and prevent systemic inflammation in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats, which was associated with its prebiotic effect on modulating of the gut microbiota and gene expression with relevance in the enteroendocrine function and innate immune systems. These findings may strengthen the rationale of the microbiota-gut-BAT axis for a paradigm shift to enable holobiont-centric medicine.

RevDate: 2023-06-05

Kalecký K, T Bottiglieri (2023)

Targeted metabolomic analysis in Parkinson's disease brain frontal cortex and putamen with relation to cognitive impairment.

NPJ Parkinson's disease, 9(1):84.

We performed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis with the targeted metabolomic kit Biocrates MxP Quant 500, in human brain cortex (Brodmann area 9) and putamen, to reveal metabolic changes characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD-related cognitive decline. This case-control study involved 101 subjects (33 PD without dementia, 32 PD with dementia (cortex only), 36 controls). We found changes associated with PD, cognitive status, levodopa levels, and disease progression. The affected pathways include neurotransmitters, bile acids, homocysteine metabolism, amino acids, TCA cycle, polyamines, β-alanine metabolism, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, ceramides, phosphatidylcholines, and several microbiome-derived metabolites. Previously reported levodopa-related homocysteine accumulation in cortex still best explains the dementia status in PD, which can be modified by dietary supplementation. Further investigation is needed to reveal the exact mechanisms behind this pathological change.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Hutchison ER, Kasahara K, Zhang Q, et al (2023)

Dissecting the impact of dietary fiber type on atherosclerosis in mice colonized with different gut microbial communities.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):31.

Dietary fiber consumption has been linked with improved cardiometabolic health, however, human studies have reported large interindividual variations in the observed benefits. We tested whether the effects of dietary fiber on atherosclerosis are influenced by the gut microbiome. We colonized germ-free ApoE[-/-] mice with fecal samples from three human donors (DonA, DonB, and DonC) and fed them diets supplemented with either a mix of 5 fermentable fibers (FF) or non-fermentable cellulose control (CC) diet. We found that DonA-colonized mice had reduced atherosclerosis burden with FF feeding compared to their CC-fed counterparts, whereas the type of fiber did not affect atherosclerosis in mice colonized with microbiota from the other donors. Microbial shifts associated with FF feeding in DonA mice were characterized by higher relative abundances of butyrate-producing taxa, higher butyrate levels, and enrichment of genes involved in synthesis of B vitamins. Our results suggest that atheroprotection in response to FF is not universal and is influenced by the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Gan L, Feng Y, Du B, et al (2023)

Bacteriophage targeting microbiota alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high alcohol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Nature communications, 14(1):3215.

Our previous studies have shown that high alcohol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (HiAlc Kpn) in the intestinal microbiome could be one of the causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Considering antimicrobial resistance of K. pneumoniae and dysbacteriosis caused by antibiotics, phage therapy might have potential in treatment of HiAlc Kpn-induced NAFLD, because of the specificity targeting the bacteria. Here, we clarified the effectiveness of phage therapy in male mice with HiAlc Kpn-induced steatohepatitis. Comprehensive investigations including transcriptomes and metabolomes revealed that treatment with HiAlc Kpn-specific phage was able to alleviate steatohepatitis caused by HiAlc Kpn, including hepatic dysfunction and expression of cytokines and lipogenic genes. In contrast, such treatment did not cause significantly pathological changes, either in functions of liver and kidney, or in components of gut microbiota. In addition to reducing alcohol attack, phage therapy also regulated inflammation, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Our data suggest that phage therapy targeting gut microbiota is an alternative to antibiotics, with potential efficacy and safety, at least in HiAlc Kpn-caused NAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Chaisiri K, Linsuwanon P, BL Makepeace (2023)

The chigger microbiome: big questions in a tiny world.

Trends in parasitology pii:S1471-4922(23)00120-4 [Epub ahead of print].

'Chiggers' (trombiculid mite larvae) are best known as vectors of rickettsial pathogens, Orientia spp., which cause a zoonosis, scrub typhus. However, several other pathogens (e.g., Hantaan orthohantavirus, Dabie bandavirus, Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., and Rickettsia spp.) and bacterial symbionts (e.g., Cardinium, Rickettsiella, and Wolbachia) are being reported from chiggers with increasing frequency. Here, we explore the surprisingly diverse chigger microbiota and potential interactions within this microcosm. Key conclusions include a possible role for chiggers as vectors of viral diseases; the dominance in some chigger populations of unidentified symbionts in several bacterial families; and increasing evidence for vertical transmission of potential pathogens and symbiotic bacteria in chiggers, suggesting intimate interactions and not simply incidental acquisition of bacteria from the environment or host.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Zhu YG, Peng J, Chen C, et al (2023)

Harnessing biological nitrogen fixation in plant leaves.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(23)00167-X [Epub ahead of print].

The importance of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in securing food production for the growing world population with minimal environmental cost has been increasingly acknowledged. Leaf surfaces are one of the biggest microbial habitats on Earth, harboring diverse free-living N2-fixers. These microbes inhabit the epiphytic and endophytic phyllosphere and contribute significantly to plant N supply and growth. Here, we summarize the contribution of phyllosphere-BNF to global N cycling, evaluate the diversity of leaf-associated N2-fixers across plant hosts and ecosystems, illustrate the ecological adaptation of N2-fixers to the phyllosphere, and identify the environmental factors driving BNF. Finally, we discuss potential BNF engineering strategies to improve the nitrogen uptake in plant leaves and thus sustainable food production.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Fardi F, Bahari Khasraghi L, Shahbakhti N, et al (2023)

An interplay between non-coding RNAs and gut microbiota in human health.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(23)00502-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Humans have a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to impact host health and disease broadly. Epigenetic alterations allow host cells to regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. The gut microbiome, offering environmental hints, can influence responses to stimuli by host cells with modifications on their epigenome and gene expression. Recent increasing data suggest that regulatory non-coding RNAs (miRNAs, circular RNAs, and long lncRNA) may affect host-microbe interactions. These RNAs have been suggested as potential host response biomarkers in microbiome-associated disorders, including diabetes and cancer. This article reviews the current understanding of the interplay between gut microbiota and non-coding RNA, including lncRNA, miRNA, and circular RNA. This can lead to a profound understanding of human disease and influence therapy. Furthermore, microbiome engineering as a mainstream strategy for improving human health has been discussed and confirms the hypothesis about a direct cross-talk between microbiome composition and non-coding RNA.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Ho E, Drake VJ, Michels AJ, et al (2023)

Perspective: Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) Science in Session. Optimizing Health with Nutrition - Opportunities, Gaps, and the Future.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:S2161-8313(23)01320-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Achieving optimal health is an aspirational goal for the population, yet the definition of health remains unclear. The role of nutrition in health has evolved beyond correcting malnutrition and specific deficiencies, and has begun to focus more on achieving and maintaining 'optimal' health through nutrition. As such, the Council for Responsible Nutrition held its October 2022 Science in Session conference to advance this concept. Here, we summarize and discuss the findings of their Optimizing Health through Nutrition - Opportunities and Challenges workshop, including several gaps that need to be addressed to advance progress in the field. Defining and evaluating various indices of optimal health will require overcoming these key gaps. For example, there is a strong need to develop better biomarkers of nutrient status, including more accurate markers of food intake, as well as biomarkers of optimal health that account for maintaining resilience - the ability to recover from or respond to stressors without loss to physical and cognitive performance. In addition, there is a need to identify factors that drive individualized responses to nutrition, including genotype, metabotypes and the gut microbiome, and to realize the opportunity of precision nutrition for optimal health. This review outlines hallmarks of resilience, current examples of nutritional factors to optimize cognitive and performance resilience, and overview of various genetic, metabolic and microbiome determinants of individualized responses.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Kong X, Cernava T, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Native fungal community remains resilient during bioremediation of DBP pollution by exogenous Gordonia phthalatica QH-11[T].

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03153-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial bioremediation is a highly effective method to degrade phthalates in the environment. However, the response of native microbial communities to the exogenously introduced microorganism remains unknown. In this study, the native fungal community was monitored by amplicon sequencing of the fungal ITS region during the restoration process of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-contaminated soils with Gordonia phthalatica QH-11[T]. Our results showed that the diversity, composition, and structure of the fungal community in the bioremediation treatment did not differ from the control, and no significant correlations were found between number of Gordonia and variation of fungal community. It was also observed that DBP pollution initially increased the relative abundance of plant pathogens and soil saprotrophs first, but their proportions returned to the initial level. Molecular ecological network analysis showed that DBP pollution increased the network complexity, while the network was not significantly altered by bioremediation. Overall, the introduction of Gordonia was shown to not have a long-term impact on the native soil fungal community. Therefore, this restoration method can be considered safe in terms of soil ecosystem stability. The present study provides a deeper insight into the effect of bioremediation on fungal communities and provides an extended basis to further explore the ecological risks of introducing exogenous microorganisms.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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