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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Oct 2019 at 01:44 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Whitfill T, J Oh (2019)

Recoding the metagenome: microbiome engineering in situ.

Current opinion in microbiology, 50:28-34 pii:S1369-5274(19)30058-X [Epub ahead of print].

Synthetic biology has enabled a new generation of tools for engineering the microbiome, including targeted antibiotics, protein delivery, living biosensors and diagnostics, and metabolic factories. Here, we discuss opportunities and limitations in microbiome engineering, focusing on a new generation of tools for in situ genetic modification of a microbiome that hold particular promise in circumventing these limitations.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Tagle DA (2019)

The NIH microphysiological systems program: developing in vitro tools for safety and efficacy in drug development.

Current opinion in pharmacology, 48:146-154 pii:S1471-4892(19)30058-X [Epub ahead of print].

Approximately 30% of drugs have failed in human clinical trials due to adverse reactions despite promising pre-clinical studies, and another 60% fail due to lack of efficacy. One of the major causes in the high attrition rate is the poor predictive value of current preclinical models used in drug development despite promising pre-clinical studies in 2-D cell culture and animal models. Microphysiological Systems or Tissue Chips are bioengineered microfluidic cell culture systems seeded with primary or stem cells that mimic the histoarchitecture, mechanics and physiological response of functional units of organs and organ systems. These platforms are useful tools for predictive toxicology and efficacy assessments of candidate therapeutics. Implementation of tissue chips in drug development requires effective partnerships with stakeholders, such as regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, patient groups, and other government agencies. Tissue chips are also finding utility in studies in precision medicine, environmental exposures, reproduction and development, infectious diseases, microbiome and countermeasures agents.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Imbs TI, Zvyagintseva TN, SP Ermakova (2019)

Is the transformation of fucoidans in human body possible?.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(19)34120-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Fucoidans are a group of homo-and hetero-polysaccharides, which necessarily contains residues of sulfated α-L-fucose. Fucoidans are found only in brown algae. These polysaccharides exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activity and have a great therapeutic potential. Enzymes capable of catalyzing the degradation of fucoidans are absent in the mammalian enzyme system. The question arises: is the transformation of fucoidan in mammals, particularly in human possible? Studies in vivo (in situ) and in vitro have demonstrated that high molecular weight fucoidans are absorbed across rat intestinal epithelial cells, accumulated by liver macrophages, and characterized by low levels in blood and urine. Using the example of the Okinawa Prefecture (Japan) residents, it was shown that Cladosiphon okamuranus alga is digested and the fucoidan contained in this alga is absorbed in the human body.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Albillos A, Gottardi A, M Rescigno (2019)

The gut-liver axis in liver disease: pathophysiological basis for therapy.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30604-X [Epub ahead of print].

The gut-liver axis refers to the bidirectional relationship between the gut and its microbiota, and the liver, resulting from the integration of signals generated by dietary, genetic and environmental factors. This reciprocal interaction is established through the vascular route of the portal vein that carries gut-derived products directly to the liver, and the liver feed-back route of bile and antibody secretion to the intestine. The intestinal mucosal and vascular barrier is the functional and anatomical structure that serves as a playground for the interactions between the gut and the liver, limiting the systemic dissemination of microbes and toxins while allowing nutrients to access the circulation and to reach the liver. The control of microbial communities is critical to maintain homeostasis of the gut-liver axis, and as part of the two-way communication the liver shapes intestinal microbial communities. Alcohol disrupts the gut-liver axis at multiple interconnected levels, including the gut microbiome, mucus, epithelial barrier and antimicrobial peptides production, which increases the microbial exposure and the pro-inflammatory environment of the liver. Growing evidences indicate the pathogenetic role of microbe-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine, secondary bile acids, SCFA and ethanol, in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis by itself is associated to profound alterations in gut microbiota and damage at the different levels of defense of the intestinal barrier, including the epithelial, the vascular and the immune barriers. The relevance of the severe disturbance of the intestinal barrier in cirrhosis has been linked to translocation of live bacteria, bacterial infections and disease progression. The identification of the elements of the gut-liver axis primarily damaged in each chronic liver disease offers possibilities to intervention. Beyond antibiotics, upcoming therapies centered in the gut include new generations of probiotics, bacterial metabolites (postbiotics), fecal microbial transplantation, and carbon nanoparticles. FXR-agonists target both the gut and the liver and are currently being tested in different liver diseases. Finally, synthetic biotic medicines, phages that target specific bacteria or therapies that create physical barriers between the gut and the liver offer new approaches of treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Van Treuren W, D Dodd (2019)

Microbial Contribution to the Human Metabolome: Implications for Health and Disease.

Annual review of pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The human gastrointestinal tract is home to an incredibly dense population of microbes. These microbes employ unique strategies to capture energy in this largely anaerobic environment. In the process of breaking down dietary- and host-derived substrates, the gut microbiota produce a broad range of metabolic products that accumulate to high levels in the gut. Increasingly, studies are revealing that these chemicals impact host biology, either by acting on cells within the gastrointestinal tract or entering circulation and exerting their effects at distal sites within the body. Given the high level of functional diversity in the gut microbiome and the varied diets that we consume, the repertoire of microbiota-derived molecules within our bodies varies dramatically across individuals. Thus, the microbes in our gut and the metabolic end products they produce represent a phenotypic lever that we can potentially control to develop new therapeutics for personalized medicine. Here, we review current understanding of how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to the molecules within our gut and those that circulate within our bodies. We also highlight examples of how these molecules affect host physiology and discuss potential strategies for controlling their production to promote human health and to treat disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 15 is January 24, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Cuthbertson L, Oo SWC, Cox MJ, et al (2019)

Viral respiratory infections and the oropharyngeal bacterial microbiota in acutely wheezing children.

PloS one, 14(10):e0223990 pii:PONE-D-19-20152.

Acute viral wheeze in children is a major cause of hospitalisation and a major risk factor for the development of asthma. However, the role of the respiratory tract microbiome in the development of acute wheeze is unclear. To investigate whether severe wheezing episodes in children are associated with bacterial dysbiosis in the respiratory tract, oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 109 children with acute wheezing attending the only tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Australia. The bacterial community from these samples was explored using next generation sequencing and compared to samples from 75 non-wheezing controls. No significant difference in bacterial diversity was observed between samples from those with wheeze and healthy controls. Within the wheezing group, attendance at kindergarten or preschool was however, associated with increased bacterial diversity. Rhinovirus (RV) infection did not have a significant effect on bacterial community composition. A significant difference in bacterial richness was observed between children with RV-A and RV-C infection, however this is likely due to the differences in age group between the patient cohorts. The bacterial community within the oropharynx was found to be diverse and heterogeneous. Age and attendance at day care or kindergarten were important factors in driving bacterial diversity. However, wheeze and viral infection were not found to significantly relate to the bacterial community. Bacterial airway microbiome is highly variable in early life and its role in wheeze remains less clear than viral influences.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Yue S, Zhao D, Peng C, et al (2019)

Effects of theabrownin on serum metabolites and gut microbiome in rats with a high-sugar diet.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence has proven that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor contributing to obesity by altering host energy harvest and storage. We performed a high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing association study and serum metabolomics profiling in rats with a high-sugar diet. Our studies revealed that the high sugar diet reduced the diversity of cecal microorganisms, while the combination of theabrownin and the high sugar diet increased the diversity of cecal microorganisms and promoted reproduction of Alloprevotella, Coprostanoligenes_group, Bacteroides, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Desulfovibrio, Intestinimonas, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-010 and Staphylococcus. The combination also inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus, Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1_group and Tyzzerella. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio can be significantly reduced after the intervention of theabrownin in high sugar diet rats, and the reproduction of Bacteroides acidifaciens (BA) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus can be promoted. We found that the obesity-associated gut microbial species were linked to the changes in circulating metabolites. Serum levels of deoxycholic acid, cholic acid, 1H-indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indole acrylic acid and melatonin were negatively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but positively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum and Gut_metagenome. 2-Hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-3-carboxylic acid, l-homoserine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine were positively correlated with BA and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, but negatively correlated with Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, and Gut_metagenome. In a high sugar diet mode, theabrownin reduced the body weight and triglycerides and improved insulin resistance mainly by targeting the reproduction of intestinal microorganisms such as BA, Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, Lactobacillus murinus, Leptum, Gut_metagenome and so on. A strong correlation between cecal microorganisms and serum metabolites, obesity and insulin resistance was observed. Theabrownin has high potential in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Singh H, Torralba MG, Moncera KJ, et al (2019)

Gastro-intestinal and oral microbiome signatures associated with healthy aging.

GeroScience pii:10.1007/s11357-019-00098-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The human oral and gut microbiomes influence health via competition for a distinct niche in the body with pathogens, via metabolic capabilities that increase host digestive capacity and generate compounds engaged in signaling pathways and modulation of immune system functions. Old age alters our metabolic and regenerative capacity. Following recruitment of 65 human subjects in the age range of 70 to 82, we discerned healthy aging (HA) and non-healthy aging (NHA) cohorts discordant in the occurrence of one or more major diseases: (1) cancer, (2) acute or chronic cardiovascular diseases, (3) acute or chronic pulmonary diseases, (4) diabetes, and (5) stroke or neurodegenerative disorders. We analyzed these cohorts' oral microbiomes (saliva) and gut microbiomes (stool) to assess diversity and identify microbial biomarkers for HA. In contrast to the gut microbiome where no change was observed, we found that the saliva microbiome had higher α-diversity in the HA compared with the NHA group. We observed the genus Akkermansia to be significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of the HA group. Akkermansia muciniphila is a colonic mucin-degrading bacterium believed to have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health, particularly in the context of diabetes and obesity. Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003 was a taxon increased in abundance in the HA cohort. Streptococcus was the only genus observed to be significantly decreased in abundance in both the gut and oral microbiomes of the HA cohort compared with the NHA cohort. Our data support the notion that these microbes are potential probiotics to decrease the risks of non-healthy aging.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Tyo A, Welch S, Hennenfent M, et al (2019)

Development and Characterization of an Antimicrobial Polydopamine Coating for Conservation of Humpback Whales.

Frontiers in chemistry, 7:618.

Migration patterns of humpback whales have been monitored using 316L stainless steel (SS) satellite telemetry tags. The potential for tissue infection and necrosis is increased if the bacteria, naturally a part of the diverse microbiome on the skin of humpback whales, can adhere to and colonize the surface of the tags. Polydopamine (pDA) has the potential to prevent the adhesion of one of the most prevalent bacterial strains on the surface of the skin of cetaceans (Psychrobacter) through the release of hydrogen peroxide. The release of hydrogen peroxide from the pDA coatings (40-100 μM) has the ability to induce a bacteriostatic response in E. coli, a commonly used bacteria strain in antimicrobial studies and potentially P. cryohalolentis, a common humpback associated bacteria. The H2O2 dose required to induce bacteriostatic conditions in E. coli is approximately 60 μM and in P. cryohalolentis is 100 μM. Bacterial adhesion on the surface of pDA coated SS coupons was measured first using E. coli. The coating successfully prevented adhesion of E. coli on the surface of SS coupons under certain conditions (60% reduction, p < 0.05) but the same was not seen with P. cryohalolentis. When coating conditions were altered (an increase in pH and temperature) the adhesion of P. cryohalolentis was reduced (80% reduction, p < 0.001). Overall, the pDA coatings have the capacity to generate varying amounts of hydrogen peroxide by altering the coating conditions and have the ability to reduce bacterial adhesion on the surface of satellite telemetry tags, and therefore the potential to increase tag functional service lifetime.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Tung YT, Hsu YJ, Liao CC, et al (2019)

Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Intrinsically High and Low Exercise Capacities Through Multiomics Approaches.

Frontiers in physiology, 10:1201.

Regular exercise prevents lipid abnormalities and conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity; it considerably benefits sedentary individuals. However, individuals exhibit highly variable responses to exercise, probably due to genetic variations. Animal models are typically used to investigate the relationship of intrinsic exercise capacity with physiological, pathological, psychological, behavioral, and metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated differential physiological adaptations caused by intrinsic exercise capacity and explored the regulatory molecules or mechanisms through multiomics approaches. Outbred ICR mice (n = 100) performed an exhaustive swimming test and were ranked based on the exhaustive swimming time to distinguish intrinsically high- and low-capacity groups. Exercise performance, exercise fatigue indexes, glucose tolerance, and body compositions were assessed during the experimental processes. Furthermore, the gut microbiota, transcriptome, and proteome of soleus muscle with intrinsically high exercise capacity (HEC) and low exercise capacity (LEC) were further analyzed to reveal the most influential factors associated with differential exercise capacities. HEC mice outperformed LEC mice in physical activities (exhaustive swimming and forelimb grip strength tests) and exhibited higher glucose tolerance than LEC mice. Exercise-induced peripheral fatigue and the level of injury biomarkers (lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase) were also significantly lower in HEC mice than in LEC mice. Furthermore, the gut of the HEC mice contained significantly more Butyricicoccus than that of the LEC mice. In addition, transcriptome data of the soleus muscle revealed that the expression of microRNAs that are strongly associated with exercise performance-related physiological and metabolic functions (i.e., miR-383, miR-107, miR-30b, miR-669m, miR-191, miR-218, and miR-224) was higher in HEC mice than in LEC mice. The functional proteome data of soleus muscle indicated that the levels of key proteins related to muscle function and carbohydrate metabolism were also significantly higher in HEC mice than in LEC mice. Our study demonstrated that the mice with various intrinsic exercise capacities have different gut microbiome as well as transcriptome and proteome of soleus muscle by using multiomics approaches. The specific bacteria and regulatory factors, including miRNA and functional proteins, may be highly correlated with the adaptation of physiological functions and exercise capacity.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Ahmed S, Busetti A, Fotiadou P, et al (2019)

In vitro Characterization of Gut Microbiota-Derived Bacterial Strains With Neuroprotective Properties.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 13:402.

Neurodegenerative diseases are disabling, incurable, and progressive conditions characterized by neuronal loss and decreased cognitive function. Changes in gut microbiome composition have been linked to a number of neurodegenerative diseases, indicating a role for the gut-brain axis. Here, we show how specific gut-derived bacterial strains can modulate neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes in vitro through the production of specific metabolites and discuss the potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders. A panel of fifty gut bacterial strains was screened for their ability to reduce pro-inflammatory IL-6 secretion in U373 glioblastoma astrocytoma cells. Parabacteroides distasonis MRx0005 and Megasphaera massiliensis MRx0029 had the strongest capacity to reduce IL-6 secretion in vitro. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and both bacterial strains displayed intrinsic antioxidant capacity. While MRx0005 showed a general antioxidant activity on different brain cell lines, MRx0029 only protected differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from chemically induced oxidative stress. MRx0029 also induced a mature phenotype in undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells through upregulation of microtubule-associated protein 2. Interestingly, short-chain fatty acid analysis revealed that MRx0005 mainly produced C1-C3 fatty acids, while MRx0029 produced C4-C6 fatty acids, specifically butyric, valeric and hexanoic acid. None of the short-chain fatty acids tested protected neuroblastoma cells from chemically induced oxidative stress. However, butyrate was able to reduce neuroinflammation in vitro, and the combination of butyrate and valerate induced neuronal maturation, albeit not to the same degree as the complex cell-free supernatant of MRx0029. This observation was confirmed by solvent extraction of cell-free supernatants, where only MRx0029 methanolic fractions containing butyrate and valerate showed an anti-inflammatory activity in U373 cells and retained the ability to differentiate neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our results suggest that the pleiotropic nature of live biotherapeutics, as opposed to isolated metabolites, could be a promising novel drug class in drug discovery for neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Grover S, Patil A, Kaur A, et al (2019)

Probiotics: A Potential Immunotherapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 11(4):321-327.

Probiotics are in use for physiological boosting, health supplement, and for treatment since historical time. Recently, the to-and-fro pathways linking the gut with the brain, explaining the indirect communication via modulation of immune function and levels of various neurotransmitters, have been discovered, but how precisely these modulations alter the levels of neurotransmitters contributing to the cognitive and other symptom improvements in patients with schizophrenia remains a new arena of research for psychiatry and psychology professionals. The germ-free mice experiments have been the game changer in the mechanistic exploration. The antimicrobial usage alters the local gut flora and hence is associated with psychiatric side effects that strengthen the association further. The changes in the genetics of these bacteria with different types of diet and its correlation with neurotransmitters production capacity and the psyche of the individual are indeed an emerging field for schizophrenia research. Redressal of issues such as manufacturing, the shelf life of probiotics, and stability of probiotics in the gut milieu, in the presence of food, secretions, and exact volume needed for particular age group will help in refining the dose duration of probiotic therapy. Clinical trials are underway for evaluating safety and efficacy in schizophrenia. The gut microorganism transplant and pharmacovigilance of probiotics are important areas yet to be addressed accurately. This paper elucidates the pathways, clinical studies, availability of probiotics in the Indian market with their composition, regulatory issues in India about the probiotic use, and future of probiotic research in schizophrenia.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Kopecky J, Samkova Z, Sarikhani E, et al (2019)

Bacterial, archaeal and micro-eukaryotic communities characterize a disease-suppressive or conducive soil and a cultivar resistant or susceptible to common scab.

Scientific reports, 9(1):14883 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51570-6.

Control of common scab disease can be reached by resistant cultivars or suppressive soils. Both mechanisms are likely to translate into particular potato microbiome profiles, but the relative importance of each is not known. Here, microbiomes of bulk and tuberosphere soil and of potato periderm were studied in one resistant and one susceptible cultivar grown in a conducive and a suppressive field. Disease severity was suppressed similarly by both means yet, the copy numbers of txtB gene (coding for a pathogenicity determinant) were similar in both soils but higher in periderms of the susceptible cultivar from conducive soil. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for bacteria (completed by 16S rRNA microarray approach) and archaea, and of 18S rRNA genes for micro-eukarytes showed that in bacteria, the more important was the effect of cultivar and diversity decreased from resistant cultivar to bulk soil to susceptible cultivar. The major changes occurred in proportions of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Proteobacteria. In archaea and micro-eukaryotes, differences were primarily due to the suppressive and conducive soil. The effect of soil suppressiveness × cultivar resistance depended on the microbial community considered, but differed also with respect to soil and plant nutrient contents particularly in N, S and Fe.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Cook RR, Fulcher JA, Tobin NH, et al (2019)

Alterations to the Gastrointestinal Microbiome Associated with Methamphetamine Use among Young Men who have Sex with Men.

Scientific reports, 9(1):14840 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51142-8.

Methamphetamine (MA) use is a major public health problem in the United States, especially among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many MA-induced neurotoxic effects are mediated by inflammation and gut microbiota may play a role in this process, yet the effects of MA on the microbiome have not been adequately explored. Therefore, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on rectal swab samples from 381 men who have sex with men, 48% of whom were PLWH and 41% of whom used MA. We compared microbiome composition between MA users and non-users while testing for potential interactions with HIV and controlling for numerous confounders using inverse probability of treatment weighting. We found that MA use explained significant variation in overall composition (R2 = 0.005, p = 0.008) and was associated with elevated Finegoldia, Parvimonas, Peptoniphilus, and Porphyromonas and reduced Butyricicoccus and Faecalibacterium, among others. Genera including Actinomyces and Streptobacillus interacted with HIV status, such that they were increased in HIV+ MA users. Finegoldia and Peptoniphilus increased with increasing frequency of MA use, among others. In summary, MA use was associated with a microbial imbalance favoring pro-inflammatory bacteria, including some with neuroactive potential and others that have previously been associated with poor HIV outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Fyhrquist N, Muirhead G, Prast-Nielsen S, et al (2019)

Microbe-host interplay in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

Nature communications, 10(1):4703 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-12253-y.

Despite recent advances in understanding microbial diversity in skin homeostasis, the relevance of microbial dysbiosis in inflammatory disease is poorly understood. Here we perform a comparative analysis of skin microbial communities coupled to global patterns of cutaneous gene expression in patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. The skin microbiota is analysed by 16S amplicon or whole genome sequencing and the skin transcriptome by microarrays, followed by integration of the data layers. We find that atopic dermatitis and psoriasis can be classified by distinct microbes, which differ from healthy volunteers microbiome composition. Atopic dermatitis is dominated by a single microbe (Staphylococcus aureus), and associated with a disease relevant host transcriptomic signature enriched for skin barrier function, tryptophan metabolism and immune activation. In contrast, psoriasis is characterized by co-occurring communities of microbes with weak associations with disease related gene expression. Our work provides a basis for biomarker discovery and targeted therapies in skin dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Gasiorek M, Hsieh MH, CS Forster (2019)

The Utility of DNA Next Generation Sequencing and Expanded Quantitative Urine Culture in the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic or Persistent Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

Journal of clinical microbiology pii:JCM.00204-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Many patients suffer from chronic, irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The evaluation and management of these patients has proven difficult with the use of standard diagnostic tools, including urinalysis and urine culture. The growing body of literature on the urinary microbiome has looked at the possible implications of the bladder microbiome and dysbiosis, or perturbations in the microbiome, in conditions associated with chronic LUTS. Disorders such as recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and interstitial cystitis have been studied utilizing 16S ribosomal RNA rapid next-generation gene sequencing (NGS) and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC). In this paper, we first present a brief review of the literature describing the current understanding of the urinary microbiome, and the features and applications of NGS and EQUC. Next, we discuss the conditions most commonly associated with chronic, persistent LUTS, and present the limitations of current diagnostic practices utilized in this patient population. We then review the limited data available surrounding treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes in patients who have been managed based on results provided by these two recently established diagnostic tools (DNA NGS and/or EQUC). Finally, we propose a variety of clinical scenarios in which the use of these two techniques may affect patients' clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Tang HHF, Sly PD, Holt PG, et al (2019)

Systems biology and big data in asthma and allergy - recent discoveries and emerging challenges.

The European respiratory journal pii:13993003.00844-2019 [Epub ahead of print].

Asthma is a common condition caused by immune and respiratory dysfunction, and it is often linked to allergy. A systems perspective may prove helpful in unravelling the complexity of asthma and allergy. Our aim is to give an overview of systems biology approaches used in allergy and asthma research. Specifically, we describe recent "omic"-level findings, and examine how these findings have been systematically integrated to generate further insight.Current research suggests that allergy is driven by genetic and epigenetic factors, in concert with environmental factors such as microbiome and diet, leading to early-life disturbance in immunological development and disruption of balance within key immuno-inflammatory pathways. Variation in inherited susceptibility and exposures causes heterogeneity in manifestations of asthma and other allergic diseases. Machine learning approaches are being used to explore this heterogeneity, and to probe the pathophysiological patterns or "endotypes" that correlate with subphenotypes of asthma and allergy. Mathematical models are being built based on genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data to predict or discriminate disease phenotypes, and to describe the biomolecular networks behind asthma.The use of systems biology in allergy and asthma research is rapidly growing, and has so far yielded fruitful results. However, the scale and multidisciplinary nature of this research means that it is accompanied by new challenges. Ultimately, it is hoped that systems medicine, with its integration of omics data into clinical practice, can pave the way to more precise, personalised and effective management of asthma.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Elokil AA, Magdy M, Melak S, et al (2019)

Faecal microbiome sequences in relation to the egg-laying performance of hens using amplicon-based metagenomic association analysis.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience pii:S1751731119002428 [Epub ahead of print].

Exploring the composition and structure of the faecal microbial community improves the understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the gastrointestinal function and the egg-laying performance of hens. Therefore, detection of hen-microbial interactions can explore a new breeding marker for the selection of egg production due to the important role of the gut microbiome in the host's metabolism and health. Recently, the gut microbiota has been recognised as a regulator of host performance, which has led to investigations of the productive effects of changes in the faecal microbiome in various animals. In the present study, a metagenomics analysis was applied to characterise the composition and structural diversity of faecal microbial communities under two selections of egg-laying performance, high (H, n = 30) and low (L, n = 30), using 16S rRNA-based metagenomic association analysis. The most abundant bacterial compositions were estimated based on the operational classification units among samples and between the groups from metagenomic data sets. The results indicated that Firmicutes phylum has higher significant (P < 0.01) in the H group than in the L group. In addition, higher relative abundance phyla of Bacteroides and Fusobacteria were estimated in the H group than the L group, contrasting the phyla of Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria were more relative abundance in the L group. The families (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae, Lachnoclostridum and Rhodococcus) were more abundant in the H group based on the comparison between the H and L groups. Meanwhile, three types of phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria) and six families (Acinetobacter, Avibacterium, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Helicobacter and Peptoclostridium) were more abundant in the L group (P < 0.01). Overall, the selection of genotypes has enriched a relationship between the gut microbiota and the egg-laying performance. These findings suggest that the faecal microbiomes of chickens with high egg-laying performance have more diverse activities than those of chickens with low egg-laying performance, which may be related to the metabolism and health of the host and egg production variation.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

DeCandia AL, Leverett KN, BM vonHoldt (2019)

Of microbes and mange: consistent changes in the skin microbiome of three canid species infected with Sarcoptes scabiei mites.

Parasites & vectors, 12(1):488 pii:10.1186/s13071-019-3724-0.

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Although it afflicts over 100 mammal species worldwide, sarcoptic mange remains a disease obscured by variability at the individual, population and species levels. Amid this variability, it is critical to identify consistent drivers of morbidity, particularly at the skin barrier.

METHODS: Using culture-independent next generation sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiome of three species of North American canids: coyotes (Canis latrans), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). We compared alpha and beta diversity between mange-infected and uninfected canids using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate analysis of variance with permutation. We used analysis of composition of microbes and gneiss balances to perform differential abundance testing between infection groups.

RESULTS: We found remarkably consistent signatures of microbial dysbiosis associated with mange infection. Across genera, mange-infected canids exhibited reduced microbial diversity, altered community composition and increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens. The primary bacteria comprising secondary infections were Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, previously associated with canid ear and skin infections, and Corynebacterium spp., previously found among the gut flora of S. scabiei mites and hematophagous arthropods.

CONCLUSIONS: This evidence suggests that sarcoptic mange infection consistently alters the canid skin microbiome and facilitates secondary bacterial infection, as seen in humans and other mammals infected with S. scabiei mites. These results provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of mange at the skin barrier of North American canids and can inspire novel treatment strategies. By adopting a "One Health" framework that considers mites, microbes and the potential for interspecies transmission, we can better elucidate the patterns and processes underlying this ubiquitous and enigmatic disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Perez-Fernandez C, Morales M, Guardia-Escote L, et al (2019)

Long-term effects of low doses of Chlorpyrifos exposure at the preweaning developmental stage: A locomotor, pharmacological, brain gene expression and gut microbiome analysis.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association pii:S0278-6915(19)30655-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Development is especially sensitive to Chlorpyrifos (CPF) toxicity, associated with several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders where motor function dysfunction is a core symptom. Amongst the alternative molecular targets to cholinesterases inhibition, developmental CPF alters different components in the most important neurotransmitter systems, although this depends on the exposure period. Exposure during the late postnatal preweaning stage is the least studied by far. This period includes essential neurodevelopmental processes and has an important translational meaning. The present study analyzed the influence of low doses of CPF on this developmental window on locomotor activity and the state of the different neurotransmitter systems by pharmacological challenges. Brain gene expression and microbiome modulation following CPF were also analyzed. CPF exposure long-term increased spontaneous vertical activity, female's activity following acute stress, hyposensitized the cholinergic system and hypersensitized the GABAergic system, up-regulated both muscarinic 2 receptor and GABA-A-α2 receptor subunit in the dorsal striatum and the frontal cortex, respectively and induced gut microbiota dysbiosis at both genus and species levels. The present study supports alternative molecular targets than the ChEs following late postnatal, preweaning exposure to low doses of CPF, focusing on both cholinergic and GABAergic systems and the gut microbiome as an important factor.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Khan AA, Yurkovetskiy L, O'Grady K, et al (2019)

Polymorphic Immune Mechanisms Regulate Commensal Repertoire.

Cell reports, 29(3):541-550.e4.

Environmental influences (infections and diet) strongly affect a host's microbiota. However, host genetics may influence commensal communities, as suggested by the greater similarity between the microbiomes of identical twins compared to non-identical twins. Variability of human genomes and microbiomes complicates the understanding of polymorphic mechanisms regulating the commensal communities. Whereas animal studies allow genetic modifications, they are sensitive to influences known as "cage" or "legacy" effects. Here, we analyze ex-germ-free mice of various genetic backgrounds, including immunodeficient and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) congenic strains, receiving identical input microbiota. The host's polymorphic mechanisms affect the gut microbiome, and both innate (anti-microbial peptides, complement, pentraxins, and enzymes affecting microbial survival) and adaptive (MHC-dependent and MHC-independent) pathways influence the microbiota. In our experiments, polymorphic mechanisms regulate only a limited number of microbial lineages (independently of their abundance). Our comparative analyses suggest that some microbes may benefit from the specific immune responses that they elicit.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Wang C, Schaefer L, Bian F, et al (2019)

Dysbiosis Modulates Ocular Surface Inflammatory Response to Liposaccharide.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 60(13):4224-4233.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of cornea and conjunctiva to topically applied lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice with and without antibiotic (antibiotic cocktail, ABX) induced dysbiosis.

Methods: Dysbiosis was induced by oral antibiotics for 14 days in a group of conventional female C57BL/6J (B6) mice. 16S rRNA sequencing investigated microbiome composition. Intestinal microbiome differences were assessed using 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal pellet DNA. Blood was collected after euthanasia. CD86 expression in draining nodes was examined by flow cytometry. At day 15, a single dose of LPS or vehicle was topically applied to ABX and naïve mice. Corneal epithelium and conjunctiva were obtained after 4 hours and processed for gene expression analysis. A separate group of germ-free (GF) B6 mice was also topically challenged with LPS.

Results: Antibiotic treatment significantly decreased intestinal diversity and increased serum levels of LPS. This was accompanied by a significant increase in CD86+MHC II+CD11c+CD11b+ cells in draining nodes. Compared to vehicle, topically applied LPS increased IL-1β, TNF-α, and CXCL10 mRNA transcripts in cornea and IL-1β, TNF-α, and CXCL10 in the conjunctiva in conventional and antibiotic-treated groups. However, there was higher TNF-α, CXCL10, and IL-12 expression in the cornea of LPS-treated ABX mice compared to LPS-treated mice with intact microbiota. LPS stimulation on GF conjunctiva mirrored the results in ABX mice, although greater IL-12 and IFN-γ expression was observed in GF conjunctiva compared to conventional LPS-treated mice.

Conclusions: Acute depletion of commensals through antibiotics or germ-free environment worsens the inflammatory response to LPS.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Lam KL, PCK Cheung (2019)

Carbohydrate-based Prebiotics in Targeted Modulation of Gut Microbiome.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The Human Microbiome Project has prompted unprecedented advancement to microbiome science. Personalized microbiome modulation with precision (PMMP) is one of the emerging yet challenging field in future microbiome research. Carbohydrate-based prebiotics (CBPs) have been shown to modulate gut microbiome in various extents by their different structural characteristics such as degree of polymerization, branching, glycosidic linkage, monosaccharide profile, and chemical modification. Subsequently, a targeted modulation of microbiome might be achieved by using CBPs with specific structure. A multi-dimensional database can be established based on the structure-microbiome (SMR) and structure-microbial-marker (SMMR) relationships. Such relationships could facilitate the development of synbiotics and PMMP.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Saborío-Montero A, Gutiérrez-Rivas M, García-Rodríguez A, et al (2019)

Structural equation models to disentangle the biological relationship between microbiota and complex traits: Methane production in dairy cattle as a case of study.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie [Epub ahead of print].

The advent of metagenomics in animal breeding poses the challenge of statistically modelling the relationship between the microbiome, the host genetics and relevant complex traits. A set of structural equation models (SEMs) of a recursive type within a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework was proposed here to jointly analyse the host-metagenome-phenotype relationship. A non-recursive bivariate model was set as benchmark to compare the recursive model. The relative abundance of rumen microbes (RA), methane concentration (CH4) and the host genetics was used as a case of study. Data were from 337 Holstein cows from 12 herds in the north and north-west of Spain. Microbial composition from each cow was obtained from whole metagenome sequencing of ruminal content samples using a MinION device from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Methane concentration was measured with Guardian® NG infrared gas monitor from Edinburgh Sensors during cow's visits to the milking automated system. A quarterly average from the methane eructation peaks for each cow was computed and used as phenotype for CH4 . Heritability of CH4 was estimated at 0.12 ± 0.01 in both the recursive and bivariate models. Likewise, heritability estimates for the relative abundance of the taxa overlapped between models and ranged between 0.08 and 0.48. Genetic correlations between the microbial composition and CH4 ranged from -0.76 to 0.65 in the non-recursive bivariate model and from -0.68 to 0.69 in the recursive model. Regardless of the statistical model used, positive genetic correlations with methane were estimated consistently for the seven genera pertaining to the Ciliophora phylum, as well as for those genera belonging to the Euryarchaeota (Methanobrevibacter sp.), Chytridiomycota (Neocallimastix sp.) and Fibrobacteres (Fibrobacter sp.) phyla. These results suggest that rumen's whole metagenome recursively regulates methane emissions in dairy cows and that both CH4 and the microbiota compositions are partially controlled by the host genotype.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Sharma A, Das P, Buschmann M, et al (2019)

The future of microbiome-based therapeutics in clinical applications.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome, a collection of microorganisms, their genomes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, is akin to a human organ, and knowledge is emerging on its role in human health and diseases. The influence of the microbiome in drug response has only been investigated in detail for the last 10 years. The human microbiome is a complex and highly dynamic system, which varies dramatically between individuals, yet there exists a common core microbiome that is heritable and can be transmitted to progeny. Here, we review the role of the human microbiome, which is now widely accepted as a major factor that drives the interpersonal variation in therapeutic response. We describe examples in which the microbiome modifies drug action. Despite its complexity, the microbiome can be readily altered, with the potential to increase the benefits and reduce the toxicity and side-effects associated with pharmaceutical drugs. The potential of new microbiome-based strategies, such as Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT), probiotics and phage therapy as promising medical therapeutics are outlined. We also suggest a combination reductionist and system-level approaches that could be applied to further investigate the role of microbiota in drug metabolism modulation of drug response. Finally, we emphasize the importance of combining microbiome and pharmacology studies, as a novel means to treat disease and reduce side effects.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Dong YQ, Wang W, Li J, et al (2019)

Characterization of microbiota in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis with different disease severities.

World journal of clinical cases, 7(18):2734-2745.

BACKGROUND: Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is one of most serious subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although the pathogenesis of SoJIA remains unclear, several studies have suggested a correlation between gut dysbiosis and JIA. Further understanding of the intestinal microbiome may help to establish alternative ways to treat, or even prevent, the disease.

AIM: To explore alterations in fecal microbiota profiles in SoJIA patients and to evaluate the correlations between microbiota and clinical parameters.

METHODS: We conducted an observational single-center study at the Pediatric Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Children who were diagnosed with SoJIA at our institution and followed for a minimum period of six months after diagnosis were recruited for the study. Healthy children were recruited as a control group (HS group) during the same period. Clinical data and stool samples were collected from SoJIA patients when they visited the hospital.

RESULTS: The SoJIA group included 17 active and 15 inactive consecutively recruited children; the control group consisted of 32 children. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most abundant phyla among the total sample of SoJIA children and controls. There was a significant difference among the three groups in observed species, which was the highest in the Active-SoJIA group, followed by the Inactive-SoJIA group and then HS group (Active-SoJIA vs HS: P = 0.000; and Inactive-SoJIA vs HS: P = 0.005). We observed a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in SoJIA patients (3.28 ± 4.47 in Active-SoJIA, 5.36 ± 8.39 in Inactive-SoJIA, and 5.67 ± 3.92 in HS). We also observed decreased abundances of Ruminococcaceae (14.9% in Active-SoJIA, 17.3% in Inactive-SoJIA, and 22.8% in HS; Active-SoJIA vs HS: P = 0.005) and Faecalibacterium (5.1% in Active-SoJIA, 9.9% in Inactive-SoJIA, and 13.0% in HS; Active-SoJIA vs HS: P = 0.000) in SoJIA compared with HS. By contrast, the abundance of Bacteroidaceae was the highest in the Active-SoJIA group, followed by the Inactive-SoJIA and HS groups (16.5% in Active-SoJIA, 12.8% in Inactive-SoJIA, and 9.7% in HS; Active-SoJIA vs HS: P = 0.03). The Spearman correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between Proteobacteria or Enterobacteriaceae and juvenile arthritis disease activity score on 27 joints (JADAS-27).

CONCLUSION: The composition of the intestinal microbiota is different in SoJIA patients compared with healthy children. The dysbiosis presents partial restoration in inactive status patients.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Li R, Chang L, Hou G, et al (2019)

Colonic Microbiota and Metabolites Response to Different Dietary Protein Sources in a Piglet Model.

Frontiers in nutrition, 6:151.

Dietary protein sources have the potential to affect the colon microbiome of piglets that will subsequently have a large impact on metabolic capabilities and hindgut health. This study explored the effects of different protein sources on the growth performance, diarrhea rate, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP), colonic mucin chemotypes, colonic microbiome, and microbial metabolites of piglets. Twenty-four piglets were randomly divided into four groups that received isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either Palbio 50 RD (P50), Soyppt-50% (S50), concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), or fish meal (FM) as the sole protein source. The experimental diets did not affect the estimated daily gain (EDG), but P50 increased fecal score compared with S50 and CDCP. CDCP increased, but P50 reduced AID of CP in comparison to FM and S50. S50 and CDCP increased the amount of mixed neutral-acidic mucins relative to P50. Venn analysis identified unique OTUs in the P50 (13), CDCP (74), FM (39), and S50 (31) groups. The protein sources did not change the colonic bacterial richness or diversity. High Escherichia abundance in the P50 and FM, great abundant of Lactobacillus in the CDCP, and high Gemmiger abundance in the S50 were found. The CDCP tended to elevate valeric acid and branched chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations compared with the other diets. The P50 and FM groups had greater ammonia nitrogen and methylamine contents than the S50 and CDCP groups. There was a positive correlation between the Escherichia and ammonia nitrogen, the Lactobacillus and short chain fatty acid (SCFA), and a negative correlation between the Gemmige and BCFA. These findings suggested short-term feeding of different protein sources did not affect the piglets' growth, but P50 increased the diarrhea rate. Potential pathogenic bacteria and detrimental metabolites appeared in the colons of piglets fed P50 and FM, whereas, beneficial effects were conferred upon piglets fed CDCP and S50, thus indicating that available plant proteins (cotton seed, soy) added to the diets of piglets enhanced colon health by reducing protein fermentation.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Srivastava D, Baksi KD, Kuntal BK, et al (2019)

"EviMass": A Literature Evidence-Based Miner for Human Microbial Associations.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:849.

The importance of understanding microbe-microbe as well as microbe-disease associations is one of the key thrust areas in human microbiome research. High-throughput metagenomic and transcriptomic projects have fueled discovery of a number of new microbial associations. Consequently, a plethora of information is being added routinely to biomedical literature, thereby contributing toward enhancing our knowledge on microbial associations. In this communication, we present a tool called "EviMass" (Evidence based mining of human Microbial Associations), which can assist biologists to validate their predicted hypotheses from new microbiome studies. Users can interactively query the processed back-end database for microbe-microbe and disease-microbe associations. The EviMass tool can also be used to upload microbial association networks generated from a human "disease-control" microbiome study and validate the associations from biomedical literature. Additionally, a list of differentially abundant microbes for the corresponding disease can be queried in the tool for reported evidences. The results are presented as graphical plots, tabulated summary, and other evidence statistics. EviMass is a comprehensive platform and is expected to enable microbiome researchers not only in mining microbial associations, but also enriching a new research hypothesis. The tool is available free for academic use at https://web.rniapps.net/evimass.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Anderson R, Theron AJ, BL Rapoport (2019)

Immunopathogenesis of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Adverse Events: Roles of the Intestinal Microbiome and Th17 Cells.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2254.

The advent of novel, innovative, and effective anti-cancer immunotherapies has engendered an era of renewed optimism among cancer specialists and their patients. Foremost among these successful immunotherapies are monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which target immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) molecules, most prominently cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its major ligand, PD-L1. These immunotherapeutic agents are, however, often associated with the occurrence of immune-mediated toxicities known as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). The incidence of severe toxicities increases substantially when these agents are used together, particularly with CTLA-4 in combination with PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonists. Accordingly, dissociating the beneficial anti-tumor therapeutic activity of these agents from the emergence of IRAEs represents a significant challenge to attaining the optimum efficacy of ICI-targeted immunotherapy of cancer. This situation is compounded by an increasing awareness, possibly unsurprising, that both the beneficial and harmful effects of ICI-targeted therapies appear to result from an over-reactive immune system. Nevertheless, this challenge may not be insurmountable. This contention is based on acquisition of recent insights into the role of the gut microbiome and its products as determinants of the efficacy of ICI-targeted immunotherapy, as well as an increasing realization of the enigmatic involvement of Th17 cells in both anti-tumor activity and the pathogenesis of some types of IRAEs. Evidence linking the beneficial and harmful activities of ICI-targeted immunotherapy, recent mechanistic insights focusing on the gut microbiome and Th17 cells, as well as strategies to attenuate IRAEs in the setting of retention of therapeutic activity, therefore represent the major thrusts of this review.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Dabrowski AN, Shrivastav A, Conrad C, et al (2019)

Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 4 Limits Bacterial Clearance and Inflammation in Lungs by Control of the Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2106.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Endogenous host defense molecules such as peptidoglycan recognition protein 4 (PGLYRP4) might influence the course of this disease. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the relevance of PGLYRP4 in pneumonia. Therefore, wild type (WT) and PGLYRP4-deficient (PGLYRP4KO) mice were analyzed in an in vivo and in vitro experimental setting to examine the influence of PGLYRP4 on the course of pneumococcal pneumonia. Furthermore, caecal 16S rRNA microbiome analysis was performed, and microbiota were transferred to germfree WT mice to assess the influence of microbiotal communities on the bacterial burden. Mice lacking PGLYRP4 displayed an enhanced bacterial clearance in the lungs, and fewer mice developed bacteremia. In addition, an increased recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and an enhanced bacterial killing by stronger activation of phagocytes could be shown. This may depend partly on the detected higher expression of complement factors, interferon-associated genes, and the higher pro-inflammatory cytokine response in isolated primary PGLYRP4KO vs. WT cells. This phenotype is underlined by changes in the complexity and composition of the caecal microbiota of PGLYRP4KO compared to WT mice. Strikingly, we provided evidence, by cohousing and stable transfer of the respective WT or PGLYRP4KO mice microbiota into germfree WT mice, that the changes of the microbiota are responsible for the improved clearance of S. pneumoniae lung infection. In conclusion, the deficiency of PGLYRP4, a known antibacterial protein, leads to changes in the gut microbiota. Thus, alterations in the microbiota can change the susceptibility to S. pneumoniae lung infection independently of the host genotype.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Zhang JM, Sun YS, Zhao LQ, et al (2019)

SCFAs-Induced GLP-1 Secretion Links the Regulation of Gut Microbiome on Hepatic Lipogenesis in Chickens.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2176.

The impact of gut microbiota and its metabolites on fat metabolism have been widely reported in human and animals. However, the critical mediators and the signal transductions are not well demonstrated. As ovipara, chicken represents a specific case in lipid metabolism that liver is the main site of lipid synthesis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the linkage of gut microbiota and fat synthesis in broiler chickens. The broilers were subjected to dietary treatments of combined probiotics (Animal bifidobacterium: 4 × 108 cfu/kg; Lactobacillus plantarum: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Enterococcus faecalis: 2 × 108 cfu/kg; Clostridium butyrate: 2 × 108 cfu/kg, PB) and guar gum (1 g/kg, GG), respectively. Results showed that dietary supplementation of PB and GG changed the cecal microbiota diversity, altered short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents, and suppressed lipogenesis. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) up-regulated the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, mainly via the phospho - extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and phospho-p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways. GLP-1 suppressed lipid accumulation in primary hepatocytes with the involvement of (AMP)-activated protein kinase/Acetyl CoA carboxylase (AMPK/ACC) signaling. In conclusion, the result suggests that SCFAs-induced GLP-1 secretion via MAPK pathway, which links the regulation of gut microbiota on hepatic lipogenesis in chickens.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Wei L, Li Y, Tang W, et al (2019)

Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress in Rats Induces Colonic Inflammation.

Frontiers in physiology, 10:1228.

Chronic psychological stress is associated with an increased risk for relapse of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and impedes the treatment of this condition. However, the impact of stress on the risk of IBD onset remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to examine whether chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) could initiate or aggravate the onset of colon inflammation in rats which, in turn, would be capable of triggering bowel disease. We found that CUMS exposure increased infiltration of CD-45 positive cells and MPO activity, as well as augmented the expression of the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-6 within the colon of these rats. In addition, CUMS treatment changed the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and enhanced intestinal epithelial permeability, indicating the presence of a defect in the intestinal barrier. This CUMS-induced disruption of mucosal barrier integrity was associated with a reduction in expression of the tight junction protein, occludin 1, and an inhibition in mucosal layer functioning via reductions in goblet cells. Results from bacterial cultures revealed an increased presence of bacterial invasion after CUMS treatment as compared with that observed in controls. Thus, our data indicate that CUMS treatment induces alterations of the fecal microbiome and intestinal barrier defects, which facilitates bacterial invasion into colonic mucosa and further exacerbates inflammatory reactions within the colon. Accordingly, chronic stress may predispose patients to gastrointestinal infection and increase the risk of inflammation-related gut diseases.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Ward TL, Weber BP, Mendoza KM, et al (2019)

Antibiotics and Host-Tailored Probiotics Similarly Modulate Effects on the Developing Avian Microbiome, Mycobiome, and Host Gene Expression.

mBio, 10(5): pii:mBio.02171-19.

The microbiome is important to all animals, including poultry, playing a critical role in health and performance. Low-dose antibiotics have historically been used to modulate food production animals and their microbiome. Identifying alternatives to antibiotics conferring similar modulatory properties has been elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine if a host-tailored probiotic could recapitulate effects of a low-dose antibiotic on host response and the developing microbiome. Over 13 days of life, turkey poults were supplemented continuously with a low-dose antibiotic or oral supplementation of a prebiotic with or without two different probiotics (8 cage units, n = 80 per group). Gastrointestinal bacterial and fungal communities of poults were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 amplicon sequencing. Localized and systemic host gene expression was assessed using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), kinase activity was assessed by avian-specific kinome peptide arrays, and performance parameters were assessed. We found that development of the early-life microbiome of turkey poults was tightly ordered in a tissue- and time-specific manner. Low-dose antibiotic and turkey-tailored probiotic supplementation, but not nontailored probiotic supplementation, elicited similar shifts in overall microbiome composition during development compared to controls. Treatment-induced bacterial changes were accompanied by parallel shifts in the fungal community and host gene expression and enhanced performance metrics. These results were validated in pen trials that identified further additive effects of the turkey-tailored probiotic combined with different prebiotics. Alternative approaches to low-dose antibiotic use in poultry are feasible and can be optimized utilizing the indigenous poultry microbiome. Similar approaches may also be beneficial for humans.IMPORTANCE Alternative approaches are greatly needed to reduce the need for antibiotic use in food animal production. This study utilized a pipeline for the development of a host-tailored probiotic to enhance performance in commercial turkeys and modulate their microbiota, similar to the effects of low-dose antibiotic administration. We determined that a host-tailored probiotic, developed in the context of the commercial turkey gut microbiome, was more effective at modulating these parameters than a nontailored probiotic cocktail. Furthermore, the host-tailored probiotic mimicked many of the effects of a low-dose antibiotic growth promoter. Surprisingly, the effects of the antibiotic growth promoter and host-tailored probiotic were observed across kingdoms, illustrating the coordinated interkingdom effects of these approaches. This work suggests that tailored approaches to probiotic development hold promise for modulating the avian host and its microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Shin JH, Jung S, Kim SA, et al (2019)

Differential Effects of Typical Korean Versus American-Style Diets on Gut Microbial Composition and Metabolic Profile in Healthy Overweight Koreans: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

Nutrients, 11(10): pii:nu11102450.

The Westernized diet has been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, whereas a Korean diet has been reported to exert beneficial effects on health in several studies. However, the effects of Western and Korean diets on the gut microbiome and host metabolome are unclear. To examine the diet-specific effects on microbiome and metabolome, we conducted a randomized crossover clinical trial of typical Korean diet (TKD), typical American diet (TAD), and recommended American diet (RAD). The trial involved a 4-week consumption of an experimental diet followed by a 2-week interval before diet crossover. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis identified 16, 10, and 14 differential bacteria genera specific to TKD, RAD, and TAD, respectively. The Firmucutes-Bacteroidetes ratio was increased by TKD. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolome profiling revealed that TKD enriched branched chain amino acid metabolism, whereas ketone body metabolism was evident in RAD and TAD. Microbiome and metabolome responses to the experimental diets varied with individual enterotypes. These findings provide evidence that the gut microbiome and host metabolome rapidly respond to different cultural diets. The findings will inform clarification of the diet-related communication networks of the gut microbiome and host metabolome in humans.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Seo SH, Unno T, Park SE, et al (2019)

Korean Traditional Medicine (Jakyakgamcho-tang) Ameliorates Colitis by Regulating Gut Microbiota.

Metabolites, 9(10): pii:metabo9100226.

The objective of this study was to examine the anti-colitis activity of Jakyakgamcho-tang (JGT) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explore changes of the gut microbial community using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and metabolomics approaches. It was found that treatment with JGT or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) alleviated the severity of colitis symptoms by suppressing inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. The non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of gut microbiome revealed that JGT groups were clearly separated from the DSS group, suggesting that JGT administration altered gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were decreased by DSS but increased by JGT include Akkermansia and Allobaculum. On the other hand, OTUs that were increased by DSS but decreased by 5-ASA or JGT treatments include Bacteroidales S24-7, Ruminococcaceae, and Rikenellaceae, and the genera Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, and Coprobacillus. After JGT administration, the metabolites, including most amino acids and lactic acid that were altered by colitis induction, became similar to those of the control group. This study demonstrates that JGT might have potential to effectively treat colitis by restoring dysbiosis of gut microbiota and host metabolites.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Odelade KA, OO Babalola (2019)

Bacteria, Fungi and Archaea Domains in Rhizospheric Soil and Their Effects in Enhancing Agricultural Productivity.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(20): pii:ijerph16203873.

The persistent and undiscriminating application of chemicals as means to improve crop growth, development and yields for several years has become problematic to agricultural sustainability because of the adverse effects these chemicals have on the produce, consumers and beneficial microbes in the ecosystem. Therefore, for agricultural productivity to be sustained there are needs for better and suitable preferences which would be friendly to the ecosystem. The use of microbial metabolites has become an attractive and more feasible preference because they are versatile, degradable and ecofriendly, unlike chemicals. In order to achieve this aim, it is then imperative to explore microbes that are very close to the root of a plant, especially where they are more concentrated and have efficient activities called the rhizosphere. Extensive varieties of bacteria, archaea, fungi and other microbes are found inhabiting the rhizosphere with various interactions with the plant host. Therefore, this review explores various beneficial microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea and their roles in the environment in terms of acquisition of nutrients for plants for the purposes of plant growth and health. It also discusses the effect of root exudate on the rhizosphere microbiome and compares the three domains at molecular levels.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Di Meo F, Margarucci S, Galderisi U, et al (2019)

Curcumin, Gut Microbiota, and Neuroprotection.

Nutrients, 11(10): pii:nu11102426.

Curcumin, a nontoxic, naturally occurring polyphenol, has been recently proposed for the management of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. However, a discrepancy exists between the well-documented pharmacological activities that curcumin seems to possess in vivo and its poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profiles that should limit any therapeutic effect. Thus, it is possible that curcumin could exert direct regulative effects primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, where high concentrations of curcumin are present after oral administration. Indeed, a new working hypothesis that could explain the neuroprotective role of curcumin despite its limited availability is that curcumin acts indirectly on the central nervous system by influencing the "microbiota-gut-brain axis", a complex bidirectional system in which the microbiome and its composition represent a factor which preserves and determines brain "health". Interestingly, curcumin and its metabolites might provide benefit by restoring dysbiosis of gut microbiome. Conversely, curcumin is subject to bacterial enzymatic modifications, forming pharmacologically more active metabolites than curcumin. These mutual interactions allow to keep proper individual physiologic functions and play a key role in neuroprotection.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Yue B, Luo X, Yu Z, et al (2019)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Potential Result from the Collusion between Gut Microbiota and Mucosal Immune System.

Microorganisms, 7(10): pii:microorganisms7100440.

Host health depends on the intestinal homeostasis between the innate/adaptive immune system and the microbiome. Numerous studies suggest that gut microbiota are constantly monitored by the host mucosal immune system, and any slight disturbance in the microbial communities may contribute to intestinal immune disruption and increased susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis between microbiota composition and the mucosal immune system is an effective approach to prevent and control IBD. The overall theme of this review is to summarize the research concerning the pathogenesis of IBD, with particular focus on the factors of gut microbiota-mucosal immune interactions in IBD. This is a comprehensive and in-depth report of the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system in IBD pathogenesis, which may provide insight into the further evaluation of the therapeutic strategies for IBD.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Ri JS, Choe SH, Schleusener J, et al (2019)

In vivo Tracking of DNA for Precise Determination of the Stratum Corneum Thickness and Superficial Microbiome Using Confocal Raman Microscopy.

Skin pharmacology and physiology pii:000503262 [Epub ahead of print].

The skin barrier function is mostly provided by the stratum corneum (SC), the uppermost layer of the epidermis. To noninvasively analyze the physiological properties of the skin barrier functionin vivo, it is important to determine the SC thickness. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is widely used for this task. In the present in vivo study, a new method based on the determination of the DNA concentration profile using CRM is introduced for determining the SC thickness. The obtained SC thickness values are compared with those obtained using other CRM-based methods determining the water and lipid depth profiles. The obtained results show almost no significant differences in SC thickness for the utilized methods. Therefore, the results indicate that it is possible to calculate the SC thickness by using the DNA profile in the fingerprint region, which is comparable with the SC thickness calculated by the water depth profiles (ANOVA test p = 0.77) and the lipid depth profile (ANOVA test p = 0.74). This provides the possibility to measure the SC thickness by using the DNA profile, in case the water or lipid profile analyses are influenced by a topically applied formulation. The increase in DNA concentration in the superficial SC (0-2 µm) is related to the DNA presence in the microbiome of the skin, which was not present in the SC depth below 4 µm.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Tan Y, Zhong H, Zhao D, et al (2019)

Succession rate of microbial community causes flavor difference in strong-aroma Baijiu making process.

International journal of food microbiology, 311:108350 pii:S0168-1605(19)30280-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Solid-state fermentation is a dynamic process involved with complex microbiome. Microbial structure and succession significantly affect the yield and quality of fermentation productions. Although the importance of microbial structure was extensively studied, the significance of microbial succession rate remains unclear in solid-state fermentation. To address this gap, we designed an in situ experiment in a typical distillery to characterize the effects of microbial succession rate. In this study, we found the process of strong-aroma Baijiu making could be divided into two stages according to fermentation parameters (starch, moisture, acidity, reducing sugar, alcohol, temperature). The early stage showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher microbial diversity than that of the later stage according to Shannon index. Compared with single cereal fermentation, mixed cereals fermentation showed slower microbial succession rate of stage shift. We found that Lactobacillus could reflect microbial succession rate of stage shift in strong-aroma Baijiu fermentation. Meanwhile, we found fermentation parameters could affect microbial succession rate of stage shift. Microbial diversity was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with fermentation parameters. Moreover, molecular ecological network analysis (MENA) showed that succession rate of microbial community could affect microbial interactions. In addition, fermentation of mix cereals (sorghum, wheat, corn, rice and glutinous rice) increased the enrichment of Clostridiales from pit mud according to results of source tracking. Collectively, succession rate of microbial community could be an important trait to explain differences of microbial diversity and flavor profile from the perspective of microbial decline and enrichment. Our study highlighted the importance of microbial succession rate during strong-aroma Baijiu making process and provided a dynamic perspective to observe solid-state fermentation.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Kautsar SA, Blin K, Shaw S, et al (2019)

MIBiG 2.0: a repository for biosynthetic gene clusters of known function.

Nucleic acids research pii:5587631 [Epub ahead of print].

Fueled by the explosion of (meta)genomic data, genome mining of specialized metabolites has become a major technology for drug discovery and studying microbiome ecology. In these efforts, computational tools like antiSMASH have played a central role through the analysis of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters (BGCs). Thousands of candidate BGCs from microbial genomes have been identified and stored in public databases. Interpreting the function and novelty of these predicted BGCs requires comparison with a well-documented set of BGCs of known function. The MIBiG (Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene Cluster) Data Standard and Repository was established in 2015 to enable curation and storage of known BGCs. Here, we present MIBiG 2.0, which encompasses major updates to the schema, the data, and the online repository itself. Over the past five years, 851 new BGCs have been added. Additionally, we performed extensive manual data curation of all entries to improve the annotation quality of our repository. We also redesigned the data schema to ensure the compliance of future annotations. Finally, we improved the user experience by adding new features such as query searches and a statistics page, and enabled direct link-outs to chemical structure databases. The repository is accessible online at https://mibig.secondarymetabolites.org/.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Maessen SE, Derraik JGB, Binia A, et al (2019)

Perspective: Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Fuel for Childhood Obesity Prevention?.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:5561598 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity begins early but has lifelong consequences for health and well-being. Breastfeeding is thought to be preventive against obesity, but the extent and cause of this association are not well understood. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and not present in commercially available infant formula. These complex sugars are thought to contribute to the development of the infant gut microbiome and immune system. Recently, they have been investigated as a potential link between breastfeeding and lower obesity risk. So far, only a few human studies have examined HMO composition of human milk in association with the infant's concurrent anthropometry or subsequent growth in infancy, with conflicting results. However, HMOs have been shown to modulate the gut microbiome profile by selectively promoting the growth of specific bacteria, such as bifidobacteria. Moreover, there are differences in the gut microbiome of lean and obese humans, and there is some evidence that the early composition of the gut microbiome can predict later obesity. Although it seems that HMOs might have a role in infant growth and adiposity, there is not enough consistent evidence to understand their potential role in obesity prevention. More data, particularly from large or longitudinal studies, are needed to clarify the functions of HMOs and other breast-milk components in determining long-term health.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Wang ZL, Wang TZ, Zhu HF, et al (2019)

Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in brown planthopper at different developmental stages revealed by high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

Insect science [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome associated with brown planthopper (BPH) plays an important role in mediating host health and fitness. Characterization of the microbial community and its structure is prerequisite for understanding the intricate symbiotic relationships between microbes and host insect. Here, we investigated the bacterial and fungal communities of BPH at different developmental stages using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Our results revealed that both the bacterial and fungal communities were diverse and dynamic during BPH development. The bacterial communities were generally richer than fungi in each developmental stage. At 97% similarly, 19 phyla and 278 genera of bacteria were annotated, while five fungal phyla comprising 80 genera were assigned. The highest species richness for the bacterial communities was detected in the nymphal stage. The taxonomic diversity of the fungal communities in female adults was generally at a relative higher level when compared to other developmental stages. The most dominant phylum of bacteria and fungi at each developmental stage all belonged to Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively. A significantly lower abundance of bacterial genus Acinetobacter was recorded in the egg stage when compared to other developmental stages, while the dominant fungal genus Wallemia was more abundant in the nymph and adult stages than in the egg stage. Additionally, the microbial composition differed between male and female adults, suggesting that the microbial communities in BPH were gender dependent. Overall, our study enriches our knowledge on the microbial communities associated with BPH and will provide clues to develop potential biocontrol techniques against this rice pest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Andersen S, Staudacher H, Weber N, et al (2019)

Pilot study investigating the effect of enteral and parenteral nutrition on the gastrointestinal microbiome post-allogeneic transplantation.

British journal of haematology [Epub ahead of print].

Nutrition support is frequently required post-allogeneic haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT); however, the impact of mode of feeding on the gastrointestinal microbiome has not been explored. This study aimed to determine if there is a difference in the microbiome between patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) post-allogeneic HPCT. Twenty-three patients received either early EN or PN when required. Stool samples were collected at 30 days post-transplant and analysed with shotgun metagenomic sequencing. There was no difference in microbial diversity between patients who received predominantly EN (n = 13) vs. PN (n = 10) however patients who received predominantly EN had greater abundance of Faecalibacterium (P < 0·001) and ruminococcus E bromii (P = 0·026). Patients who had minimal oral intake for a longer duration during provision of nutrition support had a different overall microbial profile (P = 0·044), lower microbial diversity (P = 0·004) and lower abundance of faecalibacterium prausnitzii_C (P = 0·030) and Blautia (P = 0·007) compared to patients with greater oral intake. Lower microbial diversity was found in patients who received additional beta lactam antibiotics (P = 0·042) or had a longer length of hospital stay (P = 0·019). Post-HPCT oral intake should be encouraged to maintain microbiota diversity and, if nutrition support is required, EN may promote a more optimal microbiota profile.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Kim WK, Jang YJ, Han DH, et al (2019)

Administration of Lactobacillus fermentum KBL375 Causes Taxonomic and Functional Changes in Gut Microbiota Leading to Improvement of Atopic Dermatitis.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 6:92.

Gut microbiota play an important role in immune responses and energy metabolism. In this study, we evaluated whether administration of Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) KBL375 isolated from healthy Korean feces improves the atopic dermatitis using the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. Administration of L. fermentum KBL375 significantly decreased dermatitis score, ear and dorsal thickness, and serum immunoglobulin E level in AD-induced mice. Significant reductions in mast cells and eosinophils were discovered in skin tissues from L. fermentum KBL375-treated mice. T helper 2 cell-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-31 significantly decreased, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β increased in skin tissues from L. fermentum KBL375-treated mice. In addition to phenotypic changes in skin tissues, L. fermentum KBL375 treatment induced an increase in the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cell population in mesenteric lymph nodes. Taxonomic and functional analyses of gut microbiota showed significantly higher cecum bacterial diversities and abundances including genus Bilophila, Dorea, and Dehalobacterium in L. fermentum KBL375-treated mice. Metabolic analysis of the cecum also showed significant changes in the levels of various amino acids including methionine, phenylalanine, serine, and tyrosine, as well as short chain fatty acids such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate in AD-induced mice due to L. fermentum KBL375 treatment. These altered metabolites in AD-induced mice returned to the levels similar to those in control mice when treated with L. fermentum KBL375. Therefore, L. fermentum KBL375 could be useful for AD treatment by modulating the immune system and inducing various metabolites.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Pulvirenti G, Parisi GF, Giallongo A, et al (2019)

Lower Airway Microbiota.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 7:393.

During the last several years, the interest in the role of microbiota in human health has grown significantly. For many years, the lung was considered a sterile environment, and only recently, with the use of more sophisticated techniques, has it been demonstrated that colonization by a complex population of microorganisms in lower airways also occurs in healthy subjects; a predominance of some species of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes phyla and with a peculiar composition in some disease conditions, such as asthma, have been noted. Lung microbiota derives mainly from the higher airways microbiota. Although we have some information about the role of gut microbiota in modulation of immune system, less it is known about the connection between lung microbiota and local and systemic immunity. There is a correlation between altered microbiota composition and some diseases or chronic states; however, despite this correlation, it has not been clearly demonstrated whether the lung microbiota dysbiosis could be a consequence or a cause of these diseases. We are far from a scientific approach to the therapeutic use of probiotics in airway diseases, but we are only at the starting point of a knowledge process in this fascinating field that could reveal important surprises, and randomized prospective studies in future could reveal more about the clinical possibilities for controlling lung microbiota. This review was aimed at updating the current knowledge in the field of airway microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Araos R, Battaglia T, Ugalde JA, et al (2019)

Fecal Microbiome Characteristics and the Resistome Associated With Acquisition of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms Among Elderly Subjects.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2260.

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The elderly population residing in nursing homes are a major reservoir of MDRO. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome of 82 elderly subjects from 23 nursing homes and compare their resistome to that of healthy young persons. Comparisons of microbiome composition and the resistome between subjects who acquired MDRO or not were analyzed to characterize specific microbiome disruption indices (MDI) associated with MDRO acquisition. An approach based on both 16S rRNA amplicon and whole metagenome shotgun (WMS) sequencing data was used. The microbiome of the study cohort was substantially perturbed, with Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria predominating. Compared to healthy persons, the cohort of elderly persons had an increased number, abundance, and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes. High proportions of study subjects harbored genes for multidrug-efflux pumps (96%) and linezolid resistance (52%). Among the 302 antimicrobial resistance gene families identified in any subject, 60% were exclusively detected within the study cohort, including Class D beta-lactamase genes. Subjects who acquired MDRO or not had significant differences in bacterial taxa; Odoribacter laneus, and Akkermansia muciniphila were significantly greater among subjects who did not acquire MDRO whereas Blautia hydrogenotrophica predominated among subjects who acquired MDRO. These findings suggest that specific MDI may identify persons at high risk of acquiring MDRO.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Singer E, Bonnette J, Woyke T, et al (2019)

Conservation of Endophyte Bacterial Community Structure Across Two Panicum Grass Species.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2181.

Panicum represents a large genus of many North American prairie grass species. These include switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a biofuel crop candidate with wide geographic range, as well as Panicum hallii, a close relative to switchgrass, which serves as a model system for the study of Panicum genetics due to its diploid genome and short growth cycles. For the advancement of switchgrass as a biofuel crop, it is essential to understand host microbiome interactions, which can be impacted by plant genetics and environmental factors inducing ecotype-specific phenotypic traits. We here compared rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial communities of upland and lowland P. virgatum and P. hallii genotypes planted at two sites in Texas. Our analysis shows that sampling site predominantly contributed to bacterial community variance in the rhizosphere, however, impacted root endosphere bacterial communities much less. Instead we observed a relatively large core endophytic microbiome dominated by ubiquitously root-colonizing bacterial genera Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, and Bradyrhizobium. Endosphere communities displayed comparable diversity and conserved community structures across genotypes of both Panicum species. Functional insights into interactions between P. hallii and its root endophyte microbiome could hence inform testable hypotheses that are relevant for the improvement of switchgrass as a biofuel crop.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Chandel D, Sharma M, Chawla V, et al (2019)

Isolation, characterization and identification of antigenotoxic and anticancerous indigenous probiotics and their prophylactic potential in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

Scientific reports, 9(1):14769 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51361-z.

Colorectal cancer, the third most commonly diagnosed cancer, is a lifestyle disease where diet and gut microbiome contribute intricately in its initiation and progression. Prophylactic bio-interventions mainly probiotics offer an alternate approach towards reducing or delaying its progression. Therefore, the present study was designed wherein a robust protocol for the isolation, characterization, and identification of indigenous probiotics having antigenotoxic and anticancerous activity was followed along with their prophylactic potential assessment in early experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Among forty-six isolated lactic acid bacterial strains, only three were selected on the basis of antigenotoxicity against N,N-Dimethyl dihydrazine dihydrochloride and 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide and probiotic attributes. All three selected probiotic strains exhibited anticancerous potential as is evident by the reduced Aberrant Crypt Foci, reduced fecal pH, enhanced fecal lactic acid bacteria and altered fecal enzymes (β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, β-glucosidase) that modulated gut microbiota and microenvironment resulting into restored histoarchitecture of the colon. The results are a clear indicator of the prophylactic potential of selected indigenous probiotics which may be used as an alternative prophylactic biological therapy against colon carcinogenesis particularly in highly susceptible individuals.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Nagata N, Tohya M, Takeuchi F, et al (2019)

Effects of storage temperature, storage time, and Cary-Blair transport medium on the stability of the gut microbiota.

Drug discoveries & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

How long fecal samples can withstand a period of refrigeration or room temperature, and the appropriate preservative, are largely unknown. Cary-Blair transport medium has been used for many years because it is inexpensive and prevents bacterial overgrowth. However, its effectiveness for metagenomic analyses has never been tested. We found that the microbial compositions using a 16S rRNA sequence of samples left at 4°C for 3 or 7 days or at 25°C for 1, 3, or 7 days differed significantly from samples stored at -80°C in no-preservative method. Whereas samples stored in Cary-Blair medium remained unchanged for longer periods. The relative abundances of phylum Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, changed significantly at 25°C, whereas Cary-Blair medium inhibited the reduction in Bacteroidetes and the increase in Actinobacteria. The bacterial survival counts were significantly lower in the RNAlater samples than in the Cary-Blair samples under aerobic and anaerobic culture conditions. In conclusion, storage time and storage temperature significantly affect the gut microbial composition in fecal samples. Given the low cost, inhibitory effect on bacterial changes, and potential utility in bacterial isolation, Cary-Blair medium containers are suitable for large-scale or hospital-based microbiome studies, especially if direct freezing at -80°C is unavailable.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Mori A, Goto A, Kibe R, et al (2019)

Comparison of the effects of four commercially available prescription diet regimens on the fecal microbiome in healthy dogs.

The Journal of veterinary medical science [Epub ahead of print].

The effects of prescription diets on canine intestinal microbiota are unknown. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to investigate the impact of four commercially available prescription diet regimens on the fecal microbiome in six healthy dogs. The diet regimens used were as follows: weight-loss diet, low-fat diet, renal diet, and anallergenic diet. We found a significantly decreased proportion of phylum Actinobacteria with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. There were no significant differences in the proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes between the four diets. The proportion of phylum Firmicutes was significantly decreased with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. The proportion of phylum Fusobacteria was significantly increased with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. There were no significant differences in the proportion of phylum Proteobacteria after consumption of the four diets. We therefore demonstrated that commercial prescription diet influences the fecal microbiome in healthy dogs. These results might be useful when choosing a prescription diet for targeting a disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Velusamy SK, Sampathkumar V, Ramasubbu N, et al (2019)

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans colonization and persistence in a primate model.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1905238116 [Epub ahead of print].

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with aggressive periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss in adolescents. Tooth adherence and biofilm persistence are prerequisites for survival in the oral domain. Here, using a rhesus monkey model, 16S rRNA sequencing, and weighted network analysis, we assessed colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans variants and ascertained microbial interactions in biofilm communities. Variants in A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (ltx) were created, labeled, inoculated, and compared with their progenitor strain for in vivo colonization. Samples of tooth-related plaque were assessed for colonization at baseline and after debridement and inoculation of labeled strains. Null, minimal, and hyper-Ltx-producing strains were created and assessed for hydroxyapatite binding and biofilm formation in vitro. Ltx-hyperproducing strains colonized with greater prevalence and at higher levels than wild type or ltx mutants (P = 0.05). Indigenous and inoculated A. actinomycetemcomitans strains that attached were associated with lactate-producing species (i.e., Leptotrichia, Abiotrophia, and Streptoccocci). A. actinomycetemcomitans was found at 0.13% of the total flora at baseline and at 0.05% 4 wk after inoculation. In vivo data were supported by in vitro results. We conclude that hyper-Ltx production affords these strains with an attachment advantage providing a foothold for competition with members of the indigenous microbiota. Increased attachment can be linked to ltx gene expression and up-regulation of adherence-associated genes. Growth of attached A. actinomycetemcomitans in vivo was enhanced by lactate availability due to consorting species. These associations provide A. actinomycetemcomitans with the constituents required for its colonization and survival in the complex and competitive oral environment.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Guitor AK, Raphenya AR, Klunk J, et al (2019)

Capturing the Resistome: A targeted capture method to reveal antibiotic resistance determinants in metagenomes.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy pii:AAC.01324-19 [Epub ahead of print].

The identification and association of the nucleotide sequences encoding antibiotic resistance elements is critical to improve surveillance and monitor trends in antibiotic resistance. Current methods to study antibiotic resistance in various environments rely on extensive deep sequencing or laborious culturing of fastidious organisms, which are both heavily time-consuming operations. An accurate and sensitive method to identify both rare and common resistance elements in complex metagenomic samples is needed. Referencing the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database, we designed a set of 37,826 probes to specifically target over 2000 nucleotide sequences associated with antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant bacteria. Testing of this probeset on DNA libraries generated from multi-drug resistant bacteria to selectively capture resistance genes reproducibly produced higher reads on-target at greater length of coverage when compared to shotgun sequencing. We also identified additional resistance gene sequences from human gut microbiome samples that sequencing alone was not able to detect. Our method to capture the resistome enables sensitive gene detection in diverse environments where antibiotic resistance represents less than 0.1% of the metagenome.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Duan Y, Prasad R, Feng D, et al (2019)

Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Restore Functional Integrity of the Gut Epithelial and Vascular Barriers in a Model of Diabetes and ACE2 Deficiency.

Circulation research [Epub ahead of print].

Rationale: There is incomplete knowledge of the impact of bone marrow (BM) cells on the gut microbiome and gut barrier function. Objective: We postulated that diabetes and systemic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) deficiency would synergize to adversely impact both the microbiome and gut barrier function. Methods and Results: Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were performed on fecal samples from WT, ACE2-/y, Akita (type 1 diabetic, T1D), and ACE2-/y-Akita mice. Gut barrier integrity was assessed by immunofluorescence, and BM cell extravasation into the small intestine was evaluated by flow cytometry. In the CE2-/y-Akita or Akita mice, the disrupted barrier was associated with reduced levels of myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), but no increase in inflammatory monocytes was observed within the gut parenchyma. Genomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbiome of ACE2-/y-Akita mice demonstrated a marked increase in peptidoglycan (PGN) producing bacteria. When compared to control cohorts treated with saline, intraperitoneal administration of MACs significantly decreased the microbiome gene expression associated with PGN biosynthesis and restored epithelial and endothelial gut barrier integrity. Also indicative of diabetic gut barrier dysfunction, increased levels of PGN and intestinal fatty acid binding protein-2 (FABP-2) were observed in plasma of human subjects with T1D (n=21) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=23) compared to non-diabetic controls (n=23). Using human retinal endothelial cells, we determined that PGN activates a non-canonical Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) associated MyD88-ARNO-ARF6 signaling cascade, resulting in destabilization of p120-catenin and internalization of VE-cadherin as a mechanism of deleterious impact of PGN on the endothelium. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that the defect in gut barrier function and dysbiosis in CE2-/y-Akita mice can be favorably impacted by exogenous administration of MACs.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Finch S, Shoemark A, Dicker AJ, et al (2019)

Pregnancy Zone Protein Is Associated with Airway Infection, Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation, and Disease Severity in Bronchiectasis.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 200(8):992-1001.

Rationale: PZP (pregnancy zone protein) is a broad-spectrum immunosuppressive protein believed to suppress T-cell function during pregnancy to prevent fetal rejection. It has not previously been reported in the airway.Objectives: To characterize PZP in the bronchiectasis airway, including its relationship with disease severity.Methods: Label-free liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed for sputum protein profiling of patients with bronchiectasis confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography. Results for patients with and without Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were compared. Sputum and serum PZP was measured by validated ELISA. Airway infection status was established by culture and 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, and electron microscopy were used to identify the cellular source of PZP in neutrophils treated with multiple stimuli.Measurements and Main Results: Elevated PZP was identified by label-free liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as being associated with P. aeruginosa infection. In a validation study of 124 patients, sputum but not serum concentrations of PZP were significantly associated with the Bronchiectasis Severity Index, the frequency of exacerbations, and symptoms. Airway infection with Proteobacteria such as P. aeruginosa was associated with higher concentrations of PZP. PZP in sputum was directly related to airway bacterial load. Neutrophils induced to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) with phorbol myristate acetate released high concentrations of PZP in vitro, and fluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of PZP in NETs, whereas fluorescence and electron microscopy localized PZP to the cytoplasm and nuclei of neutrophils. Effective antibiotic therapy reduced sputum PZP.Conclusions: PZP is released into NETs. We report a novel link between airway infection, NET formation, and disease severity in bronchiectasis during chronic airway inflammation.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Lee HS (2019)

The interaction between gut microbiome and nutrients on development of human disease through epigenetic mechanisms.

Genomics & informatics, 17(3):e24.

Early environmental exposure is recognized as a key factor for long-term health based on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. It considers that early-life nutrition is now being recognized as a major contributor that may permanently program change of organ structure and function toward the development of diseases, in which epigenetic mechanisms are involved. Recent researches indicate early-life environmental factors modulate the microbiome development and the microbiome might be mediate diet-epigenetic interaction. This review aims to define which nutrients involve microbiome development during the critical window of susceptibility to disease, and how microbiome modulation regulates epigenetic changes and influences human health and future prevention strategies.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Gheorghe CE, Martin JA, Manriquez FV, et al (2019)

Focus on the essentials: tryptophan metabolism and the microbiome-gut-brain axis.

Current opinion in pharmacology, 48:137-145 pii:S1471-4892(18)30127-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, in which serotonin (5-HT) functions as a key neurotransmitter. Recent research has increasingly concentrated on tryptophan, the precursor to 5-HT and on the microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism, with an emphasis on host-microbe control over kynurenine pathway metabolism and microbial-specific pathways that generate bioactive tryptophan metabolites. Here, we critically assess recent progress made towards a mechanistic understanding of the microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism and microbiota-gut-brain axis homeostasis highlighting the role tryptophan metabolism plays in preclinical and clinical neuroscience and in the challenge to improve our understanding of how perturbed tryptophan metabolism contributes to stress-related psychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Van Laar T, Boertien JM, AH Herranz (2019)

Faecal Transplantation, Pro- and Prebiotics in Parkinson's Disease; Hope or Hype?.

Journal of Parkinson's disease pii:JPD191802 [Epub ahead of print].

Faecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) is an attractive technique, because the administration is relatively simple and in general has a mild adverse effect pattern. Moreover, FMT consists of a broad mixture, which could be beneficial, because at this moment it is not known what type of changes in the microbiome are needed. However, except from a few cases no clinical data in PD is available yet. There is some indication that FMT might be beneficial in severe constipated patients, but the clinical data to support this are very scarce. So, actually there are no good data in the public domain to support FMT at this moment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. FMT at this moment is a black box with too many unanswered questions, also with respect to safety concerns. Administration of species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium over a time period of four to twelve weeks has repeatedly proven to be effective in treating constipation in PD. However, no solid clinical data are available about the possible effects of probiotic treatment on motor symptoms or progression of PD. Therefore, also probiotic treatments in PD should wait until better clinical data become available, in order to select the right target populations and to have good estimates of the clinical effects to be expected.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Brudek T (2019)

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Parkinson's Disease.

Journal of Parkinson's disease pii:JPD191729 [Epub ahead of print].

The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is multifactorial, with genetics, aging, and environmental agents all a part of the PD pathogenesis. Widespread aggregation of the α-synuclein protein in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, and degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine neurons are the pathological hallmarks of PD. Inflammatory responses manifested by glial reactions, T cell infiltration, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, as well as other toxic mediators derived from activated glial cells, are currently recognized as prominent features of PD. Experimental, clinical and epidemiological data suggest that intestinal inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of PD, and the increasing number of studies suggests that the condition may start in the gastrointestinal system years before any motor symptoms develop. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing PD compared with non-IBD individuals. Gene association study has found a genetic link between IBD and PD, and an evidence from animal studies suggests that gut inflammation, similar to that observed in IBD, may induce loss of dopaminergic neurons. Based on preclinical models of PD, it is suggested that the enteric microbiome changes early in PD, and gut infections trigger α-synuclein release and aggregation. In this paper, the possible link between IBD and PD is reviewed based on the available literature. Given the potentially critical role of gastrointestinal pathology in PD pathogenesis, there is reason to suspect that IBD or its treatments may impact PD risk. Thus, clinicians should be aware of PD symptoms in IBD patients.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Killinger B, V Labrie (2019)

The Appendix in Parkinson's Disease: From Vestigial Remnant to Vital Organ?.

Journal of Parkinson's disease pii:JPD191703 [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been considered a brain disease, but studies now point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as a potential starting point for PD. In particular, the human vermiform appendix has been implicated in PD. The appendix is a tissue rich in immune cells, serving as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and as a storehouse for the gut microbiome. The functions of the appendix converge with recent evidence demonstrating that gut inflammation and shifts in the microbiome are linked to PD. Some epidemiological studies have linked removal of the appendix to lowered PD risk, though there is controversy among these associations. What is apparent is that there is an abundance of aggregated forms of α-synuclein in the appendix relevant to PD pathology. α-Synuclein pathology is thought to transfer from gut to brain via the vagus nerve, which innervates GI tract locations, including the appendix. Remarkably, α-synuclein aggregates in the appendix occur not only in PD patients, but are also present in healthy individuals. This has led to the proposal that in the appendix α-synuclein aggregates are not unique to PD. Moreover, the molecular events leading to PD and the mechanisms by which α-synuclein aggregates transfers from gut to brain may be identifiable in the human appendix. The influence of the appendix on GI inflammation, autoimmunity, microbiome storage, and lymphatic system may be yet unexplored mechanisms by which the appendix contributes to PD. Overall, the appendix represents a promising tissue site to advance our understanding of PD pathobiology.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Mosquito S, Bertani I, Licastro D, et al (2019)

In planta colonization and role of T6SS in two rice Kosakonia endophytes.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Endophytes live inside plants and are often beneficial. Kosakonia is a novel bacterial genus including many diazotrophic plant-associated isolates. Plant-bacteria studies on two rice endophytic Kosakonia beneficial strains were performed including comparative genomics, secretome profiling, in-planta tests and a field release trial. The strains are efficient rhizoplane and root endosphere colonizers and localized in the root cortex. Secretomics revealed 144 putative secreted proteins including type VI secretory system (T6SS) proteins. A Kosakonia T6SS genomic knock-out mutant showed a significant decrease in rhizoplane and endosphere colonization ability. A field trial using rice seeds inoculated with Kosakonia sp. showed no effect on plant growth promotion upon nitrogen stress and microbiome studies revealed that Kosakonia was significantly more present in the inoculated rice. Comparative genomics evidenced that several protein domains were enriched in plant-associated Kosakonia. This study highlights that Kosakonia is an important recently classified genus involved in plant-bacteria interaction. .

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Zorron Cheng Tao Pu L, Yamamoto K, Honda T, et al (2019)

Microbiota profile is different for early and invasive colorectal cancer; and is consistent throughout the colon.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Microbiota have been associated with several diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to evaluate the microbiota in early/invasive CRC utilising stool and cytological brushes to determine differences in relative abundance (RA).

METHODS: Colonoscopy patients referred for endoscopic submucosal dissection or previous to CRC surgery were prospectively enrolled. Stool was collected pre-bowel preparation; and brush samples were taken during colonoscopy (3 regions). DNA extraction, 16SrRNA next generation sequencing and biostatistics (QIIME and STAMP software packages) followed. Primary outcome was the difference in RA of the Fusobacterium genus between the groups. Secondary outcomes included analyses of other microbiota.

RESULTS: 25 patients were included, of which 14 had invasive cancer (≥1000 micrometres into the submucosa). The three major genera for invasive cancer were Bacterioides, Oribacterium and Fusobacterium whereas for early cancer were Oribacterium, Bacterioides and Prevotella (decreasing order of RA). There was a significantly higher RA of Fusobacterium in the invasive cancer group (9.65% versus 0.95% respectively, p<.001). The RA of all genera was similar throughout the colon. In addition to Fusobacterium, the genera Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Neisseria, Porphyromonas and Sclegelella showed statistically higher RA in the invasive cancer group. Conversely, the genera Oribacterium, Desulfovibrio, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus showed lower RA in the invasive cancer group.

CONCLUSIONS: The RA of Fusobacterium is higher with invasive CRC than in early CRC patients. In addition, 5 other bacteria genera were found to be increased; and 4 decreased in invasive CRC patients. The microbiota per patient was similar throughout the colon.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Klein AH, Ballard KR, Storey KB, et al (2019)

Multi-omics investigations within the Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda: from ecological application to breakthrough phylogenomic studies.

Briefings in functional genomics pii:5586924 [Epub ahead of print].

Gastropods are the largest and most diverse class of mollusc and include species that are well studied within the areas of taxonomy, aquaculture, biomineralization, ecology, microbiome and health. Gastropod research has been expanding since the mid-2000s, largely due to large-scale data integration from next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry in which transcripts, proteins and metabolites can be readily explored systematically. Correspondingly, the huge data added a great deal of complexity for data organization, visualization and interpretation. Here, we reviewed the recent advances involving gastropod omics ('gastropodomics') research from hundreds of publications and online genomics databases. By summarizing the current publicly available data, we present an insight for the design of useful data integrating tools and strategies for comparative omics studies in the future. Additionally, we discuss the future of omics applications in aquaculture, natural pharmaceutical biodiscovery and pest management, as well as to monitor the impact of environmental stressors.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Wen L, You W, Wang Y, et al (2019)

Investigating Alterations in Caecum Microbiota After Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Increasing evidence shows that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain diseases. Several studies also demonstrate that traumatic brain injuries cause changes to the gut microbiota. However, mechanisms underlying the bidirectional regulation of the brain-gut axis remain unknown. Currently, few models exist for studying the changes in gut microbiota after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, the presented study combines protocols for inducing traumatic brain injury using a lateral fluid percussion device and analysis of caecum samples following injury for investigating alterations in the gut microbiome. Alterations of the gut microbiota composition after traumatic brain injury are determined using 16S-rDNA sequencing. This protocol provides an effective method for studying the relationships between enteric microorganisms and traumatic brain injury.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Lilley ECH, Morris AT, JL Silberg (2019)

The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry of Virginia Commonwealth University.

Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies pii:S1832427419000872 [Epub ahead of print].

The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of more than 60,000 twins primarily born or living in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Researchers may utilize the MATR for administration of research services, including study recruitment, data or sample (e.g., DNA) collection, archival dataset creation, as well as data collection through mailed, phone or online surveys. In addition, the MATR houses the MATR Repository, with over 1700 DNA samples primarily from whole blood available for researchers interested in DNA genotyping. For over 40 years MATR twins have participated in research studies with investigators from a range of scientific disciplines and institutions. These studies, which have resulted in numerous publications, explored diverse topics, including substance use, smoking behaviors, developmental psychopathology, bullying, children's health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, the human microbiome, epigenetics of aging, children of twins and sleep homeostasis. Researchers interested in utilizing twins are encouraged to contact the MATR to discuss potential research opportunities.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Amato KR, RM Stumpf (2019)

Moving forward with the primate microbiome: Introduction to a special issue of the American Journal of Primatology.

American journal of primatology [Epub ahead of print].

Primate microbiome research is a quickly growing field with exciting potential for informing our understanding of primate biology, ecology, and evolution as well as host-microbe interactions more broadly. This introductory essay to a special section of the American Journal of Primatology provides a cross-sectional snapshot of current activity in these areas by briefly summarizing the diversity of contributed papers and their relationships to key themes in host-associated microbiome research. It then uses this survey as a foundation for consolidating a set of key research questions to broadly guide future research. It also argues for the importance of methods standardization to facilitate comparative analyses and the identification of generalizable patterns and relationships. While primatology will benefit greatly from the integration of microbial datasets, it is uniquely positioned to address important questions regarding microbiology and macro-ecology and evolution more generally. We are eager to see where the primate microbiome leads us.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Farmakiotis D (2019)

The human microbiome and checkpoint inhibition: potential benefits from antibiotic stewardship.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5586745 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Terry SA, Ribeiro GO, Gruninger RJ, et al (2019)

A Pine Enhanced Biochar Does Not Decrease Enteric CH4 Emissions, but Alters the Rumen Microbiota.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 6:308.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a pine enhanced biochar (EB) on rumen fermentation, apparent total tract digestibility, methane (CH4) emissions, and the rumen and fecal microbiome of Angus × Hereford heifers fed a barley silage-based diet. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 8 ruminally cannulated heifers (565 ± 35 kg initial BW). The basal diet contained 60% barley silage, 35% barley grain and 5% mineral supplement with EB added at 0% (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% (DM basis). Each period lasted 28 days, consisting of 14 days adaptation and 14 days of measurements. Samples for profiling of the microbiome in rumen liquid, solids and feces were collected on d 15 before feeding. Rumen samples for fermentation characterization were taken at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h post feeding. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted from days 18 to 22. Heifers were housed in open-circuit respiratory chambers on days 26-28 to estimate CH4 emissions. Ruminal pH was recorded at 1-min intervals during CH4 measurements using indwelling pH loggers. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and random effects of square, heifer within square and period. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (P = 0.21). Ammonia N concentration and protozoa counts responded quadratically (P = 0.01) to EB in which both were decreased by EB included at 0.5 and 1.0%, compared to the control and 2.0% EB. Minimum pH was increased (P = 0.04), and variation of pH was decreased (P = 0.03) by 2.0% EB. Total tract digestibility, N balance and CH4 production were not affected (P ≥ 0.17) by EB. Enhanced biochar decreased the relative abundance of Fibrobacter (P = 0.05) and Tenericutes (P = 0.01), and increased the relative abundance of Spirochaetaes (P = 0.01), Verrucomicrobia (P = 0.02), and Elusimicrobia (P = 0.02). Results suggest that at the examined concentrations, EB was ineffective at decreasing enteric CH4 emissions, but did alter specific rumen microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Polychronopoulou E, Braconnier P, M Burnier (2019)

New Insights on the Role of Sodium in the Physiological Regulation of Blood Pressure and Development of Hypertension.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 6:136.

A precise maintenance of sodium and fluid balance is an essential step in the regulation of blood pressure and alterations of this balance may lead to the development of hypertension. In recent years, several new advances were made in our understanding of the interaction between sodium and blood pressure regulation. The first is the discovery made possible with by new technology, such as 23Na-MRI, that sodium can be stored non-osmotically in tissues including the skin and muscles particularly when subjects are on a high sodium diet or have a reduced renal capacity to excrete sodium. These observations prompted the refinement of the original model of regulation of sodium balance from a two-compartment model comprising the extracellular fluid within the intravascular and interstitial spaces to a three-compartment model that includes the intracellular space of some tissues, most prominently the skin. In this new model, the immune system plays a role, thereby supporting many previous studies indicating that the immune system is a crucial co-contributor to the maintenance of hypertension through pro-hypertensive effects in the kidney, vasculature, and brain. Lastly, there is now evidence that sodium can affect the gut microbiome, and induce pro-inflammatory and immune responses, which might contribute to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Heydari-Kamjani M, Demory Beckler M, MM Kesselman (2019)

Reconsidering the Use of Minocycline in the Preliminary Treatment Regime of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Cureus, 11(8):e5351.

Strong epidemiologic, clinical, and basic science studies have identified a number of factors that may lead to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) onset and progression, particularly involving the complex interplay between genomics, environmental risk factors, the breakdown of immune self-tolerance, and microbiome dysbiosis. A chronic state of inflammation established by infectious agents has long been suspected to set the stage for the development of RA. The purpose of this article is to review the contribution of the gut, lung, and oral microbiomes to the pathogenesis of RA and consider the importance of supplementing the preliminary treatment regime of RA patients with antibiotics, in particular, minocycline. Minocycline has been used in the treatment of RA due to its bacteriostatic, as well as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Ultimately, a short course of antibiotic treatment with minocycline may eliminate pathogenic organisms contributing to the development and progression of RA.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Shakya M, Lo CC, PSG Chain (2019)

Advances and Challenges in Metatranscriptomic Analysis.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:904.

Sequencing-based analyses of microbiomes have traditionally focused on addressing the question of community membership and profiling taxonomic abundance through amplicon sequencing of 16 rRNA genes. More recently, shotgun metagenomics, which involves the random sequencing of all genomic content of a microbiome, has dominated this arena due to advancements in sequencing technology throughput and capability to profile genes as well as microbiome membership. While these methods have revealed a great number of insights into a wide variety of microbiomes, both of these approaches only describe the presence of organisms or genes, and not whether they are active members of the microbiome. To obtain deeper insights into how a microbial community responds over time to their changing environmental conditions, microbiome scientists are beginning to employ large-scale metatranscriptomics approaches. Here, we present a comprehensive review on computational metatranscriptomics approaches to study microbial community transcriptomes. We review the major advancements in this burgeoning field, compare strengths and weaknesses to other microbiome analysis methods, list available tools and workflows, and describe use cases and limitations of this method. We envision that this field will continue to grow exponentially, as will the scope of projects (e.g. longitudinal studies of community transcriptional responses to perturbations over time) and the resulting data. This review will provide a list of options for computational analysis of these data and will highlight areas in need of development.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Miranda-Ribera A, Ennamorati M, Serena G, et al (2019)

Exploiting the Zonulin Mouse Model to Establish the Role of Primary Impaired Gut Barrier Function on Microbiota Composition and Immune Profiles.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2233.

The balanced interplay between epithelial barrier, immune system, and microbiota maintains gut homeostasis, while disruption of this interplay may lead to inflammation. Paracellular permeability is governed by intercellular tight-junctions (TJs). Zonulin is, to date, the only known physiological regulator of intestinal TJs. We used a zonulin transgenic mouse (Ztm) model characterized by increased small intestinal permeability to elucidate the role of a primary impaired gut barrier on microbiome composition and/or immune profile. Ztm exhibit an altered gene expression profile of TJs in the gut compared to wild-type mice (WT): Claudin-15, Claudin-5, Jam-3, and Myosin-1C are decreased in the male duodenum whereas Claudin-15, Claudin-7, and ZO-2 are reduced in the female colon. These results are compatible with loss of gut barrier function and are paralleled by an altered microbiota composition with reduced abundance of the genus Akkermansia, known to have positive effects on gut barrier integrity and strengthening, and an increased abundance of the Rikenella genus, associated to low-grade inflammatory conditions. Immune profile analysis shows a subtly skewed distribution of immune cell subsets toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype with more IL-17 producing adaptive and innate-like T cells in Ztm. Interestingly, microbiota "normalization" involving the transfer of WT microbiota into Ztm, did not rescue the altered immune profile. Our data suggest that a primary impaired gut barrier causing an uncontrolled trafficking of microbial products leads to a latent pro-inflammatory status, with a skewed microbiota composition and immune profile that, in the presence of an environmental trigger, as we have previously described (1), might promote the onset of overt inflammation and an increased risk of chronic disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Meyer JL, Castellanos-Gell J, Aeby GS, et al (2019)

Microbial Community Shifts Associated With the Ongoing Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease Outbreak on the Florida Reef Tract.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2244.

As many as 22 of the 45 coral species on the Florida Reef Tract are currently affected by stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD). The ongoing disease outbreak was first observed in 2014 in Southeast Florida near Miami and as of early 2019 has been documented from the northernmost reaches of the reef tract in Martin County down to Key West. We examined the microbiota associated with disease lesions and apparently healthy tissue on diseased colonies of Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Dichocoenia stokesii. Analysis of differentially abundant taxa between disease lesions and apparently healthy tissue identified five unique amplicon sequence variants enriched in the diseased tissue in three of the coral species (all except O. faveolata), namely an unclassified genus of Flavobacteriales and sequences identified as Fusibacter (Clostridiales), Planktotalea (Rhodobacterales), Algicola (Alteromonadales), and Vibrio (Vibrionales). In addition, several groups of likely opportunistic or saprophytic colonizers such as Epsilonbacteraeota, Patescibacteria, Clostridiales, Bacteroidetes, and Rhodobacterales were also enriched in SCTLD disease lesions. This work represents the first microbiological characterization of SCTLD, as an initial step toward identifying the potential pathogen(s) responsible for SCTLD.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Moreira-Grez B, Tam K, Cross AT, et al (2019)

The Bacterial Microbiome Associated With Arid Biocrusts and the Biogeochemical Influence of Biocrusts Upon the Underlying Soil.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2143.

Biocrusts are aggregated crusts that exist on the soil surface of arid environments. They are complex microbial communities comprised of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, algae and fungi. Recently, biocrusts have gained significant attention due to their ubiquitous distribution and likely important ecological roles, including soil stabilization, soil moisture retention, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation, as well as microbial engineers for semi-arid ecosystem restoration. Here, we collected three co-occurring types of biocrust (Cyanobacterial crust, Crustose lichen, and Foliose lichen) and their underlying soil from arid zones within Western Australia. Bacterial microbiome composition was determined through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess the extent of microbiome selection within the crusts versus underlying soil and biogeochemical measures performed to determine whether the crusts had significant impact upon the underlying soil for nutrient input. We determined that the bacterial communities of native biocrusts are distinct from those in their underlying soil, where dominant bacterial taxa differed according to crust morphologies. δ15N revealed that N-fixation appeared most evident in Foliose lichen crust (1.73 ± 1.04‰). Consequently, depending upon the crust type, biocrusts contained higher concentrations of organic C (2 to 50 times), total N (4 to 16 times) and available ammonium (2 to 4 times), though this enrichment did not extend to the soils underneath them. These findings demonstrate that biocrust communities are seemingly islands of biological activity in an arid landscape, uniquely different from their surrounding and underlying soil.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Catão ECP, Pollet T, Misson B, et al (2019)

Shear Stress as a Major Driver of Marine Biofilm Communities in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1768.

While marine biofilms depend on environmental conditions and substrate, little is known about the influence of hydrodynamic forces. We tested different immersion modes (dynamic, cyclic and static) in Toulon Bay (north-western Mediterranean Sea; NWMS). The static mode was also compared between Toulon and Banyuls Bays. In addition, different artificial surfaces designed to hamper cell attachment (self-polishing coating: SPC; and fouling-release coating: FRC) were compared to inert plastic. Prokaryotic community composition was affected by immersion mode, surface characteristics and site. Rhodobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae dominated the biofilm community structure, with distinct genera according to surface type or immersion mode. Cell density increased with time, greatly limited by hydrodynamic forces, and supposed to delay biofilm maturation. After 1 year, a significant impact of shear stress on the taxonomic structure of the prokaryotic community developed on each surface type was observed. When surfaces contained no biocides, roughness and wettability shaped prokaryotic community structure, which was not enhanced by shear stress. Conversely, the biocidal effect of SPC surfaces, already major in static immersion mode, was amplified by the 15 knots speed. The biofilm community on SPC was 60% dissimilar to the biofilm on the other surfaces and was distinctly colonized by Sphingomonadaceae ((Alter)Erythrobacter). At Banyuls, prokaryotic community structures were more similar between the four surfaces tested than at Toulon, due possibly to a masking effect of environmental constraints, especially hydrodynamic, which was greater than in Toulon. Finally, predicted functions such as cell adhesion confirmed some of the hypotheses drawn regarding biofilm formation over the artificial surfaces tested here.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Pérez-Pevida B, Escalada J, Miras AD, et al (2019)

Mechanisms Underlying Type 2 Diabetes Remission After Metabolic Surgery.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 10:641.

Type 2 diabetes prevalence is increasing dramatically worldwide. Metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for selected patients with diabetes and/or obesity. When compared to intensive medical therapy and lifestyle intervention, metabolic surgery has shown superiority in achieving glycemic improvement, reducing number of medications and cardiovascular risk factors, which translates in long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying diabetes improvement after metabolic surgery have not yet been clearly understood but englobe a complex interaction among improvements in beta cell function and insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, intestinal gluconeogenesis, changes in glucose utilization, and absorption by the gut and changes in the secretory pattern and morphology of adipose tissue. These are achieved through different mediators which include an enhancement in gut hormones release, especially, glucagon-like peptide 1, changes in bile acids circulation, gut microbiome, and glucose transporters expression. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive appraisal of what is known so far to better understand the mechanisms through which metabolic surgery improves glycemic control facilitating future research in the field.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Gao F, Lv YW, Long J, et al (2019)

Butyrate Improves the Metabolic Disorder and Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Mice Induced by a High-Fat Diet.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 10:1040.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is one of the major causes of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Gut microbiome diversity and its natural fermentation products are not only correlated with MS and CAD, but their correlations also appear to be stronger than the associations with traditional risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a new potential pathway for the natural fermentation product butyrate to improve MS and to examine whether it is associated with serum metabolic profiles and gut flora composition. Methods: C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 400 mg/kg of sodium butyrate for 16 weeks. Blood and fecal samples were collected, and the metabolite concentrations and 16s rRNA were measured with liquid chromatography-MS and Illumina platform, respectively. The plasma differential metabolites and gut microbiome composition were analyzed with XCMS online and QIIME 2, respectively. Results: Gut microbiome-derived butyrate reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, resisting HFD-induced increase in the relative abundance of f_Lachnospiraceae, f_Rikenellaceae, and f_Paraprevotellaceae. Meanwhile, sodium butyrate increased the levels of α-linolenate, all-trans-retinal, resolvin E1, and leukotriene in the plasma, and the differential pathways showed enrichment in mainly resolvin E biosynthesis, histidine degradation, lipoxin biosynthesis, and leukotriene biosynthesis. Moreover, sodium butyrate increased the levels of phosphorylated-adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) in the adipose tissue. Conclusion: Butyrate can induce AMPK activation and GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue, improving cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related metabolic disorder, resisting HFD-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis, and promoting resolvin E1 and lipoxin biosynthesis. Oral supplement of the natural fermentation product butyrate can be a potential strategy for preventing CVD.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Pose E, Napoleone L, Amin A, et al (2019)

Safety of two different doses of simvastatin plus rifaximin in decompensated cirrhosis (LIVERHOPE-SAFETY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology pii:S2468-1253(19)30320-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Statins have beneficial effects on intrahepatic circulation and decrease portal hypertension and rifaximin modulates the gut microbiome and might prevent bacterial translocation in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this drug combination might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, there is concern regarding the safety of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We assessed the safety of two different doses of simvastatin, in combination with rifaximin, in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and moderate-to-severe liver failure from nine university hospitals in six European countries (Italy, France, Holland, Germany, the UK, and Spain). Patients older than 18 years with Child-Pugh class B or C disease were eligible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) to receive either simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, or placebo of both medications for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified according to Child-Pugh class (B vs C) and restricted using blocks of multiples of three. The primary endpoint was development of liver or muscle toxicity, as defined by changes in liver aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphastase, and creatine kinase. The study is registered with the European Union Clinical Trials Register, 2016-004499-23, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03150459.

FINDINGS: The study recruitment period was between July 28, 2017, and Jan 2, 2018. Follow-up finished on March 12, 2018. 50 patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=18), simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=16), or placebo of both medications (n=16). Six patients (two from each group) were excluded. Therefore, the full analysis set included 44 patients (16 in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day group, 14 in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin mg/day group, and 14 in the placebo group). After a safety analyses when the first ten patients completed treatment, treatment was stopped prematurely in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group due to recommendations by the data safety monitoring board. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed a significant increase in AST and ALT compared with the placebo group (mean differences between the groups at the end of treatment for AST 130 IU/L [95% CI 54 to 205; p=0·0009] and for ALT 61 IU/L [22 to 100; p=0·0025]. We observed no significant differences at 12 weeks in AST and ALT between the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin and placebo group (for AST -14 IU/L [-91 to 64; p=0·728] and for ALT -8 IU/L [-49 to 33; p=0·698]). We observed no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase between the the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin or the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin groups compared with placebo. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed an increase in creatine kinase at the end of treatment compared with patients in the placebo group (1009 IU/L [208 to 1809]; p=0·014). We observed no significant changes in creatine kinase in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin group (4·2 IU/L [-804 to 813]; p=0·992). Three (19%) patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day group developed liver and muscle toxicity consistent with rhabdomyolysis. The number of patients who stopped treatment because of adverse events was significantly higher in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group (nine [56%] of 16 patients) compared with the other two groups (two [14%] of 14 for both groups; p=0·017). There were no serious unexpected adverse reactions reported during the study.

INTERPRETATION: Treatment with simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis was associated with a significant increase in adverse events requiring treatment withdrawal, particularly rhabdomyolysis, compared with simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin. We recommend simvastatin 20 mg/day as the dose to be used in studies investigating the role of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

FUNDING: Horizon 20/20 European programme.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Tett A, Huang KD, Asnicar F, et al (2019)

The Prevotella copri Complex Comprises Four Distinct Clades Underrepresented in Westernized Populations.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(19)30427-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Prevotella copri is a common human gut microbe that has been both positively and negatively associated with host health. In a cross-continent meta-analysis exploiting >6,500 metagenomes, we obtained >1,000 genomes and explored the genetic and population structure of P. copri. P. copri encompasses four distinct clades (>10% inter-clade genetic divergence) that we propose constitute the P. copri complex, and all clades were confirmed by isolate sequencing. These clades are nearly ubiquitous and co-present in non-Westernized populations. Genomic analysis showed substantial functional diversity in the complex with notable differences in carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting that multi-generational dietary modifications may be driving reduced prevalence in Westernized populations. Analysis of ancient metagenomes highlighted patterns of P. copri presence consistent with modern non-Westernized populations and a clade delineation time pre-dating human migratory waves out of Africa. These findings reveal that P. copri exhibits a high diversity that is underrepresented in Western-lifestyle populations.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Shi Z, Zou J, Zhang Z, et al (2019)

Segmented Filamentous Bacteria Prevent and Cure Rotavirus Infection.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(19)31079-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Rotavirus (RV) encounters intestinal epithelial cells amidst diverse microbiota, opening possibilities of microbes influencing RV infection. Although RV clearance typically requires adaptive immunity, we unintentionally generated RV-resistant immunodeficient mice, which, we hypothesized, reflected select microbes protecting against RV. Accordingly, such RV resistance was transferred by co-housing and fecal transplant. RV-protecting microbiota were interrogated by heat, filtration, and antimicrobial agents, followed by limiting dilution transplant to germ-free mice and microbiome analysis. This approach revealed that segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) were sufficient to protect mice against RV infection and associated diarrhea. Such protection was independent of previously defined RV-impeding factors, including interferon, IL-17, and IL-22. Colonization of the ileum by SFB induced changes in host gene expression and accelerated epithelial cell turnover. Incubation of RV with SFB-containing feces reduced infectivity in vitro, suggesting direct neutralization of RV. Thus, independent of immune cells, SFB confer protection against certain enteric viral infections and associated diarrheal disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Chu H, Duan Y, Lang S, et al (2019)

The Candida albicans exotoxin Candidalysin promotes alcohol-associated liver disease.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30599-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol-associated liver disease is a leading indication for liver transplantation and leading cause of mortality. Alterations of the gut microbiota contribute to pathogenesis of alcohol-associated liver disease. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have increased proportions of Candida spp. in the fecal mycobiome. However, little is known about the effect of intestinal Candida on alcohol-associated liver disease. Here we evaluated the contributions of Candida albicans and its exotoxin Candidalysin on alcoholic liver disease.

METHODS: C. albicans and ECE1 were analyzed in fecal samples from controls, patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis. Mice colonized with different and genetically manipulated C. albicans strains were subjected to the chronic-plus-binge ethanol diet model. Primary hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with Candidalysin.

RESULTS: The percentages of subjects carrying ECE1 are 0%, 4.76% and 30.77% in non-alcoholic controls, alcohol use disorder patients and alcoholic hepatitis patients, respectively. Candidalysin exacerbates ethanol-induced liver disease and is associated with increased mortality in mice. Candidalysin enhances ethanol-induced liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells, and Candidalysin does not alter gut barrier function. Candidalysin can damage primary hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and is associated with liver disease severity and mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Candidalysin is associated with progression of ethanol-induced liver disease in preclinical models and worse clinical outcomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

LAY SUMMARY: Candidalysin is a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans. Candidalysin enhances alcohol-associated liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells in mice without affecting intestinal permeability. Candidalysin is cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes, indicating a direct role of Candidalysin on ethanol-induced liver disease. Candidalysin might be an effective target for therapy in patients with alcohol-associated liver disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Chen C, Zhang BB, Hu AL, et al (2019)

Protective role of cinnabar and realgar in Hua-Feng-Dan against LPS plus rotenone-induced neurotoxicity and disturbance of gut microbiota in rats.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(19)31429-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Hua-Feng-Dan (HFD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for neurological disorders. HFD contains cinnabar (HgS) and realgar (As4S4). The ethnopharmacological basis of cinnabar and realgar in HFD is not known.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To address the role of cinnabar and realgar in HFD-produced neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases and disturbance of gut microbiota.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus rotenone (ROT)-elicited rat dopaminergic (DA) neuronal damage loss was performed as a Parkinson's disease animal model. Rats were given a single injection of LPS. Four months later, rats were challenged with the threshold dose of ROT. The clinical dose of HFD was administered via feed, starting from ROT administration for 46 days. Behavioral dysfunction was detected by rotarod and Y-maze tests. DA neuron loss and microglial activation were assessed via immunohistochemical staining and western bolt analysis. The colon content was collected to extract bacterial DNA followed by real-time PCR analysis with 16S rRNA primers.

RESULTS: LPS plus ROT induced neurotoxicity, as evidenced by DA neuron loss in substantia nigra, impaired behavioral functions and increased microglial activation. HFD-original (containing 10% cinnabar and 10% realgar) rescued loss of DA neurons, improved behavioral dysfunction and attenuated microglial activation. Compared with HFD-original, HFD-reduced (3% cinnabar and 3% realgar) was also effective, but to be a less extent, while HFD-removed (without cinnabar and realgar) was ineffective. In analysis of gut microbiome, the increased Verrucomicrobiaceae and Lactobacteriaceae, and the decreased Enterobacteeriaceae by LPS plus ROT were ameliorated by HFD-original, and to be the less extent by HFD-reduced.

CONCLUSION: Cinnabar and realgar are active ingredients in HFD to exert beneficial effects in a neurodegenerative model and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Evrensel A, ME Ceylan (2019)

Editorial overview: The gut microbiome: Its role in disorders of the GI tract and metabolic homeostasis.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Dubinsky V, Reshef L, Bar N, et al (2019)

Predominantly Antibiotic-resistant Intestinal Microbiome Persists in Patients With Pouchitis Who Respond to Antibiotic Therapy.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(19)41416-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pouchitis that develops in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis is usually treated with antibiotics. Some patients have recurrence of flares, or become antibiotic dependent, and require repeated courses or prolonged periods of antibiotic therapy. We investigated microbial factors associated with response to antibiotic treatment and development of antibiotic dependence in patients with pouchitis.

METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 49 patients who had undergone pouch surgery at a tertiary center in Israel. Disease activity was determined based on clinical, endoscopic, and histologic criteria. Pouch phenotype was defined as recurrent acute pouchitis (n=6), chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like disease of the pouch (n=27), normal pouch from patient with ulcerative colitis (n=10), and normal pouch from patient with familial adenomatous polyposis (n=6). Fecal samples (n=234) were collected over time during or in the absence of antibiotic treatment (ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole). Thirty-three patients were treated with antibiotics, for a median of 425 days of cumulative antibiotic therapy, during follow up. Calprotectin was measured and fecal DNA was sequenced using shotgun metagenomics and analyzed with specifically designed bioinformatic pipelines. Bacterial strains were isolated from fecal samples. We assessed their ciprofloxacin resistance and ability to induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human intestinal epithelial cells HT-29.

RESULTS: Most antibiotic-treated patients (79%) had a clinical response to each course of antibiotics. However, 89% of those who completed a 4-weeks course relapsed within 3 months. Median calprotectin levels decreased by 40% in response to antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment reduced disease-associated bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae but also beneficial species such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The microbiomes of antibiotic-responsive patients were dominated by facultative anaerobic genera (Escherichia, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus), with multiple ciprofloxacin-resistance mutations in drug target genes and confirmed drug resistance. However, these strains had lower potential for virulence and did not induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells. After antibiotic cessation, patients had an abrupt shift in microbiome composition, with blooms of oral and disease-associated bacteria. In addition, antibiotic treatment enriched for strains that acquired multidrug resistance loci, encoding enzymes that confer resistance to non-related antibiotics including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of antibiotic treatment of pouchitis might be attributed to the establishment of antibiotic-resistant microbiome with low inflammatory potential. This microbiome might provide resistance against colonization by bacteria that promote inflammation. To avoid progression to antibiotic-dependent disease and its consequences, strategies such as short-term alternating antibiotics and nutrition- and microbiome-based interventions should be considered.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Whelan K (2019)

Diet-Microbiome Interactions and the Risk of Pouchitis in Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:5586643 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Liu Y, Shen Z, Yu J, et al (2019)

Comparison of gut bacterial communities and their associations with host diets in four fruit borers.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Microbiota that live in the gut of insects has a wide range of effects on host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. They may shape the adaptation of their hosts to different habitats and lifestyles. To characterize the gut microbiota of fruit borers comprehensively, we compared bacterial communities among Grapholita molesta, Conogethes punctiferalis, Carposina sasakii and Cydia pomonella, which are serious lepidopteran pests. We selected G. molesta as a representative pest to more explicitly test the influence of host dietary niche on the insect gut microbiome, so we also compared the bacterial microbial communities of G. molesta fed different diets (peach shoots and apple) using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology.

RESULTS: The results showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant in their gut microbiota. The C. sasakii had the highest richness values and G. molesta (shoot-feeding) had the highest diversity, whereas C. pomonella and G. molesta (fruit-feeding) held the lowest bacterial richness and diversity, respectively. The ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the structure of gut microbiota among different insects. In addition, G. molesta with different feeding diet had significant differences in gut microbiota composition. PICRUSt analysis indicated that most functional prediction categories were related to metabolism.

CONCLUSION: Our results showed that gut microbiota composition was affected significantly not only by host species but also host diets. An enhanced understanding of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts is essential for understanding of the biology and ecology of the host insect and may offer new possibilities to improve integrated pest-management strategies for efficient control of fruit borers.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Shirazi MSR, Al-Alo KZK, Al-Yasiri MH, et al (2019)

Microbiome Dysbiosis and Predominant Bacterial Species as Human Cancer Biomarkers.

Journal of gastrointestinal cancer pii:10.1007/s12029-019-00311-z [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To evaluate bacterial agents as cancer biomarkers.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Various bacterial species have been demonstrated to involve in human cancers. However, the data is not enough for better understanding of predominant specific species. Application of a rapid and early-diagnostic, cost-effective, non-invasive, and inclusive method is a crucial approach for obtaining valid results. The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric and duodenal cancer has been confirmed. From investigation among previous publications, we attempted to make it clear which bacterial species significantly and specifically increase in various cancer types. It was unraveled that there is significant change in Granulicatella adiacens (G. adiacens) in lung cancer (LC), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in colorectal cancer (CRC), H. pylori and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in pancreatic cancer, and Streptococcus spp. in oral cancer.

CONCLUSION: Alteration in the cell cycle by means of different mechanisms such as inflammation, alteration in cell signaling, invasion and immune evasion, specific niche colonization, induction of DNA damage and mutation, expression of some microRNAs, and enhancing epigenetic effects are the most common mechanisms employed by bacterial species.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Wijarnpreecha K, Werlang ME, Watthanasuntorn K, et al (2019)

Obesity and Risk of Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Digestive diseases and sciences pii:10.1007/s10620-019-05887-x [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have proposed that obesity may be associated with a higher risk of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) although the results were inconsistent. The microbiome has a known metabolic role; its impact on obesity in animal models generated the hypothesis of an association between a dysfunctional microbiome and obesity. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate this possible association by summarizing all available data.

METHODS: A literature search utilizing MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception until August 2019 was conducted. Eligible studies included either cohort studies or cross-sectional studies that consisted of two groups of participants, those with obesity and those without obesity, and compared the prevalence of SIBO between the groups. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) from each study were consolidated by the generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird.

RESULTS: A total of five studies with 515 patients fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of SIBO among individuals with obesity was higher than in individuals without obesity but did not reach statistical significance with a pooled OR of 2.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-5.31; p = 0.12; I2 84%]. Sensitivity analysis including only studies from Western countries increased the pooled OR to 3.41 and reached statistical significance (95% CI 1.21-9.59; p = 0.02; I2 62%).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that the risk of SIBO was about two times higher among individuals with obesity compared to individuals without obesity, although the result did not reach statistical significance. The risk increased to threefold and reached statistical significance when only studies from Western countries were included. These observations may suggest the role of obesity as a predisposing factor for SIBO although more studies are still needed to corroborate these preliminary results.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Kayser BD, Prifti E, Lhomme M, et al (2019)

Elevated serum ceramides are linked with obesity-associated gut dysbiosis and impaired glucose metabolism.

Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society, 15(11):140 pii:10.1007/s11306-019-1596-0.

INTRODUCTION: Low gut microbiome richness is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and ceramides and other sphingolipids are implicated in the development of diabetes.

OBJECTIVES: Determine whether circulating sphingolipids, particularly ceramides, are associated with alterations in the gut microbiome among obese patients with increased diabetes risk.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective analysis of a dietary/weight loss intervention. Fasted serum was collected from 49 participants (41 women) and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS to quantify 45 sphingolipids. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool was performed to profile the gut microbiome.

RESULTS: Confirming the link to deteriorated glucose homeostasis, serum ceramides were positively correlated with fasting glucose, but inversely correlated with fasting and OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Significant associations with gut dysbiosis were demonstrated, with SM and ceramides being inversely correlated with gene richness. Ceramides with fatty acid chain lengths of 20-24 carbons were the most associated with low richness. Diet-induced weight loss, which improved gene richness, decreased most sphingolipids. Thirty-one MGS, mostly corresponding to unidentified bacteria species, were inversely correlated with ceramides, including a number of Bifidobacterium and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Higher ceramide levels were also associated with increased metagenomic modules for lipopolysaccharide synthesis and flagellan synthesis, two pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and decreased enrichment of genes involved in methanogenesis and bile acid metabolism.

CONCLUSION: This study identifies an association between gut microbiota richness, ceramides, and diabetes risk in overweight/obese humans, and suggests that the gut microbiota may contribute to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Hess AL, Benítez-Páez A, Blædel T, et al (2019)

The effect of inulin and resistant maltodextrin on weight loss during energy restriction: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention.

European journal of nutrition pii:10.1007/s00394-019-02099-x [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the additive effects of combining energy restriction with dietary fibres on change in body weight and gut microbiota composition.

METHODS: The study was a 12-week randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel intervention trial. A total of 116 overweight or obese participants were assigned randomly either to 10 g inulin plus 10 g resistant maltodextrin or to 20 g of placebo supplementation through 400 mL of milk a day, while on a - 500 kcal/day energy restricted diet.

RESULTS: Altogether, 86 participants completed the intervention. There were no significant differences in weight loss or body composition between the groups. The fibre supplement reduced systolic (5.35 ± 2.4 mmHg, p = 0.043) and diastolic (2.82 ± 1.3 mmHg, p = 0.047) blood pressure to a larger extent than placebo. Furthermore, a larger decrease in serum insulin was observed in the placebo group compared to the fibre group (- 26.0 ± 9.2 pmol/L, p = 0.006). The intake of fibre induced changes in the composition of gut microbiota resulting in higher abundances of Parabacteroides and Bifidobacteria, compared to placebo. The effects on blood pressure and glucose metabolism were mainly observed in women, and could be attributed to a higher gut microbiota diversity after intervention. Finally, the fibre group experienced a higher degree of gastrointestinal symptoms, which attenuated over time.

CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of inulin and resistant maltodextrin did not provide an additional weight loss during an energy-restricted diet, but reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, the fibre supplement did stimulate the growth of potentially beneficial bacteria genera.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03135041.

RevDate: 2019-10-12

Mackay D, Mollard RC, Granger M, et al (2019)

The Manitoba Personalized Lifestyle Research (TMPLR) study protocol: a multicentre bidirectional observational cohort study with administrative health record linkage investigating the interactions between lifestyle and health in Manitoba, Canada.

BMJ open, 9(10):e023318 pii:bmjopen-2018-023318.

INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical activity and sleep, are associated with the development of many chronic diseases. The objective of The Manitoba Personalized Lifestyle Research study is to understand how these lifestyle factors interact with each other and with other factors, such as an individual's genetics and gut microbiome, to influence health.

METHODS: An observational study of adults, with extensive phenotyping by objective health and lifestyle assessments, and retrospective assessment of early life experiences, with retrospective and prospective utilisation of secondary data from administrative health records.

STUDY POPULATION: A planned non-random convenience sample of 840 Manitobans aged 30-46 recruited from the general population, stratified by sex (equal men and women), body mass index (BMI; 60% of participants with a BMI>25 kg/m2) and geography (25% from rural areas). These stratifications were selected based on Manitoba demographics.

MEASUREMENTS: Lifestyle factors assessed will include dietary pattern, physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and sleep. Factors such as medical history, socioeconomic status, alcohol and tobacco consumption, cognition, stress, anxiety, and early life experiences will also be documented. A maternal survey will be performed. Body composition and bone density will be measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index will be measured on two consecutive days. Chronic disease risk biomarkers will be measured in blood and urine samples. DNA will be extracted for genetic analysis. A faecal sample will be collected for microbiome analysis. Participants may provide their Manitoba personal health information number to link their study data with administrative health records.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board (protocol # HS18951; 05/01/2016). Data analysis, release of results and publication of manuscripts are scheduled to start in early 2019. Additional information at www.TMPLR.ca.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03674957; Pre-results.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Cohen J, E Pennisi (2019)

DNA pushes back the microbiome frontier.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 366(6461):23.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Lynch JB, EY Hsiao (2019)

Microbiomes as sources of emergent host phenotypes.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 365(6460):1405-1409.

Microbial communities associated with animals exert powerful influences on host physiology, regulating metabolism and immune function, as well as complex host behaviors. The importance of host-microbiome interactions for maintaining homeostasis and promoting health raises evolutionarily complicated questions about how animals and their microbiomes have coevolved, and how these relationships affect the ways that animals interact with their environment. Here, we review the literature on the contributions of host factors to microbial community structure and corresponding influences of microbiomes on emergent host phenotypes. We focus in particular on animal behaviors as a basis for understanding potential roles for the microbiome in shaping host neurobiology.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Harris JK, Wagner BD, Zemanick ET, et al (2019)

Changes in Airway Microbiome and Inflammation with Ivacaftor Treatment in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and the G551D Mutation.

Annals of the American Thoracic Society [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Modulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein improves clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and specific CFTR genetic mutations. It remains unclear how improving CFTR function modifies existing airway infection and inflammation.

OBJECTIVE: To compare sputum microbiome and markers of inflammation before and after 6 months of ivacaftor treatment Methods: The study included 31 people with CF, ages 10 and older, with at least one G551D CFTR allele and an FEV1 ≥ 40% predicted who were enrolled in the G551D Observational (GOAL) study. Sputum samples were collected either by induction (n = 14) or by spontaneous expectoration (n = 17) before and 6 months after initiation of ivacaftor. Changes in bacterial community indices by sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, total and specific bacterial load, and a panel of proteases, antiproteases, and inflammatory cytokines were determined.

RESULTS: The cohort that spontaneously expectorated sputum had a lower FEV1, higher proportion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and higher concentrations of sputum inflammatory markers compared with the cohort that provided sputum by induction. While the overall cohort experienced significant improvements in FEV1 and reductions in sweat chloride, no significant changes in bacterial diversity, specific bacterial pathogens, or markers of inflammation were observed in these subjects. Neither total bacterial load nor presence of Pseudomonas changed significantly between paired samples with ivacaftor treatment. Younger patients experienced more shifts in their microbial communities than older patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter cohort, six months of ivacaftor treatment were not associated with significant changes in airway microbial communities or measures of inflammation. These data suggest that concomitant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatments will still be needed to manage airway disease in CF patients treated with highly effective CFTR modulator therapy, especially in older patients with more advanced disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Bletz MC, Bunk B, Spröer C, et al (2019)

Amphibian skin-associated Pigmentiphaga: Genome sequence and occurrence across geography and hosts.

PloS one, 14(10):e0223747 pii:PONE-D-19-14011.

The bacterial communities colonizing amphibian skin have been intensively studied due to their interactions with pathogenic chytrid fungi that are causing drastic amphibian population declines. Bacteria of the family Alcaligenaceae, and more specifically of the genus Pigmentiphaga, have been found to be associated specifically to arboreal frogs. Here we analyze their occurrence in a previously assembled global skin microbiome dataset from 205 amphibian species. Pigmentiphaga made up about 5% of the total number of reads in this global dataset. They were mostly found in unrelated arboreal frogs from Madagascar (Mantellidae and Hyperoliidae), but also occurred at low abundances on Neotropical frogs. Based on their 16S sequences, most of the sequences belong to a clade within Pigmentiphaga not assignable to any type strains of the five described species of the genus. One isolate from Madagascar clustered with Pigmentiphaga aceris (>99% sequence similarity on 16S rRNA gene level). Here, we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium which, based on 16S sequences of >97% similarity, has previously been found on human skin, floral nectar, tree sap, stream sediment and soil. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome with 6,165,255 bp, 5,300 predicted coding sequences, 57 tRNA genes, and three rRNA operons. In comparison with other known Pigmentiphaga genomes it encodes a higher number of genes associated with environmental information processing and cellular processes. Furthermore, it has a biosynthetic gene cluster for a nonribosomal peptide syntethase, and bacteriocin biosynthetic genes can be found, but clusters for β-lactones present in other comparative Pigmentiphaga genomes are lacking.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Darden JE, Scott EM, Arnold C, et al (2019)

Evaluation of the bacterial ocular surface microbiome in clinically normal cats before and after treatment with topical erythromycin.

PloS one, 14(10):e0223859 pii:PONE-D-19-11846.

The ocular surface microbiome of veterinary species has not been thoroughly characterized using next generation sequencing. Furthermore, alterations in the feline ocular surface microbiome over time or following topical antibiotic treatment are unknown. Aims of this study were to further characterize the ocular surface microbiome of healthy cats and to identify whether there are microbial community changes over time and following topical antibiotic use. Twenty-four eyes from twelve adult, research-bred, female spayed domestic shorthaired cats were evaluated. Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment (0.5%) was applied to the ocular surface of one randomly assigned eye per cat three times daily for 7 days, while the fellow eye served as an untreated control. The ocular surface was sampled by swabbing the inferior conjunctival fornix of both eyes prior to initiating treatment (day 0), after 1 week of treatment (day 7), and 4 weeks after concluding treatment (day 35). Genomic DNA was extracted from the swabs and sequenced using primers that target the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. At baseline, the most common bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria (42.4%), Firmicutes (30.0%), Actinobacteria (15.6%), and Bacteroidetes (8.1%). The most abundant bacterial families sequenced were Corynebacteriaceae (7.8%), Helicobacteraceae (7.5%), Moraxellaceae (6.1%), and Comamonadaceae (5.6%). Alpha and beta diversity measurements were largely unchanged in both treatment and control eyes over time. However, univariate and linear discriminant analyses revealed significant and similar changes in the abundance of some bacterial taxa over time in both treatment and control eyes. Overall, the feline ocular surface microbiome remained stable over time and following topical antibiotic therapy.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Campbell S (2019)

Microbial Treatments for the Mind.

IEEE pulse, 10(5):3-7.

For $99, you can obtain a kit that includes two cotton swabs and instructions for properly collecting your own stool sample, along with oral and skin samples. Upon shipping those specimens to the Knight Lab in La Jolla, CA, you will join the ranks of "citizen scientist," becoming a contributor to the world's largest crowd-sourced microbiome research project. In return, should you have accepted this mission, you will receive a report that offers you a "snapshot" of the microbes found in your fecal matter, and compares it to that of the rest of the population.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Slavin M, Li HA, Frankenfeld C, et al (2019)

What is Needed for Evidence-Based Dietary Recommendations for Migraine: A Call to Action for Nutrition and Microbiome Research.

Headache, 59(9):1566-1581.

BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal symptoms of migraine attacks have invited numerous dietary hypotheses for migraine etiology through the centuries. Substantial efforts have been dedicated to identifying dietary interventions for migraine attack prevention, with limited success. Meanwhile, mounting evidence suggests that the reverse relationship may also exist - that the biological mechanisms of migraine may influence dietary intake. More likely, the truth involves some combination of both, where the disease influences food intake, and the foods eaten impact the manifestations of the disease. In addition, the gut's microbiota is increasingly suspected to influence the migraine brain via the gut-brain axis, though these hypotheses remain largely unsubstantiated.

OBJECTIVE: This paper presents an overview of the strength of existing evidence for food-based dietary interventions for migraine, noting that there is frequently evidence to suggest that a dietary risk factor for migraine exists but no evidence for how to best intervene; in fact, our intuitive assumptions on interventions are being challenged with new evidence. We then look to the future for promising avenues of research, notably the gut microbiome.

CONCLUSION: The evidence supports a call to action for high-quality dietary and microbiome research in migraine, both to substantiate hypothesized relationships and build the evidence base regarding nutrition's potential impact on migraine attack prevention and treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Longley R, Benucci GNM, Mills G, et al (2019)

Fungal and bacterial community dynamics in substrates during the cultivation of morels (Morchella rufobrunnea) indoors.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:5585883 [Epub ahead of print].

Morel mushrooms (Morchella, Pezizales) are highly prized edible fungi. Approaches to cultivate morels indoors in pasteurized composted substrates have been successful for Morchella rufobrunnea. We used DNA amplicon sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and 16S ribosomal DNA to follow bacterial and fungal communities in substrates during indoor morel cultivation. Our goal was to determine changes in microbial communities at key stages of morel cultivation, which included primordia development, fundament initiation, differentiation and maturation. Additionally, we compared microbial communities between trays that successfully fruited to those that produced conidia and primordia but aborted before ascocarp formation (non-fruiting). The prokaryotic community was dominated by Firmicutes belonging to Bacillus and Paenibacillus with a lower abundance of Flavobacteria. At earlier stages, the fungal community was dominated by Pezizomycetes including Morchella and other species, whereas, later in the cropping cycle Sordariomycetes dominated. Additionally, differences were observed between trays with successful fruiting, which were dominated by Gilmaniella; compared to trays that did not fruit, which were dominated by Cephalotrichum. Our findings inform understanding of microbial community dynamics during morel cultivation, and show that fungal genera such as Gilmaniella and prokaryotic genera such as Bacillus are abundant in substrates that support M. rufobrunnea fruiting.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Klinger EG, Camp AA, Strange JP, et al (2019)

Bombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Microcolonies as a Tool for Biological Understanding and Pesticide Risk Assessment.

Environmental entomology pii:5585913 [Epub ahead of print].

Bumble bees provide valuable pollination services to many wild and agricultural plants. Populations of some bumble bee species are in decline, prompting the need to better understand bumble bee biology and to develop methodologies for assessing the effects of environmental stressors on these bees. Use of bumble bee microcolonies as an experimental tool is steadily increasing. This review closely examines the microcolony model using peer-reviewed published literature identified by searching three databases through November 2018. Microcolonies have been successfully used for investigating a range of endpoints including behavior, the gut microbiome, nutrition, development, pathogens, chemical biology, and pesticides/xenobiotics. Methods for the initiation and monitoring of microcolonies, as well as the recorded variables were catalogued and described. From this information, we identified a series of recommendations for standardizing core elements of microcolony studies. Standardization is critical to establishing the foundation needed to support use of this model for biological response investigations and particularly for supporting use in pesticide risk assessment.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )