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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:52 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Song Z, Xie Q, Zhou Y, et al (2023)

Effect of Artificial Liver Support Systems on Gut Microbiota in Patients with HBV-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091094.

Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a rare and severe form of end-stage liver disease with high mortality; gut microbes are strongly associated with the development of this severe liver disease but the exact association is unclear. Artificial liver support systems (ALSS) are clinically important in prolonging the waiting time for liver transplantation and in aiding drug therapy to achieve remission. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ALSS on the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut of HBV-ACLF patients. In this study, 109 stool samples were collected from patients with hepatitis B virus-associated acute chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) for 16S rRNA sequencing. Among them, 44 samples were from patients treated with ALSS therapy as an adjunct to standard medical treatment (SMT) and 65 were from patients receiving SMT only. Analysis of the sequencing results suggested that there were significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota between the with-ALSS and without-ALSS groups (p < 0.05). The operational taxonomic units and Shannon indexes indicated that the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiome, while decreasing after the first ALSS treatment, gradually increased after an increase in the number of ALSS therapies. The overall proportion of HBV-ACLF patients with coinfection was 27.59%; the coinfection can reduce the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in the microbiome significantly whereas Proteobacteria were highly enriched. After ALSS therapy, HBV-ACLF patients had a decrease in potentially harmful bacteria, an increase in potentially beneficial bacteria, an increase in the diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal microecological disorders were corrected to a certain extent. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TBIL) levels, as well as the international normalized ratio (INR), showed a decreasing trend whereas plasminogen activity (PTA) increased and the condition of patients with HBV-ACLF progressed in a favorable direction. In addition, the abundance of Blautia and Coprococcus was negatively correlated with TBIL and INR, positively correlated with PTA, and positively correlated with disease recovery. Our study shows that ALSS can alter the composition of the gut microbiota and have an ameliorating effect on the gut microecological imbalance in HBV-ACLF patients. It is worth mentioning that Blautia and Coprococcus may have great potential as biomarkers.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Shalaby N, Samocha-Bonet D, Kaakoush NO, et al (2023)

The Role of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Liver Disease.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091087.

Liver disease is a major global health problem leading to approximately two million deaths a year. This is the consequence of a number of aetiologies, including alcohol-related, metabolic-related, viral infection, cholestatic and immune disease, leading to fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis. No specific registered antifibrotic therapies exist to reverse liver injury, so current treatment aims at managing the underlying factors to mitigate the development of liver disease. There are bidirectional feedback loops between the liver and the rest of the gastrointestinal tract via the portal venous and biliary systems, which are mediated by microbial metabolites, specifically short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secondary bile acids. The interaction between the liver and the gastrointestinal microbiome has the potential to provide a novel therapeutic modality to mitigate the progression of liver disease and its complications. This review will outline our understanding of hepatic fibrosis, liver disease, and its connection to the microbiome, which may identify potential therapeutic targets or strategies to mitigate liver disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fernández-Murga ML, Gil-Ortiz F, Serrano-García L, et al (2023)

A New Paradigm in the Relationship between Gut Microbiota and Breast Cancer: β-glucuronidase Enzyme Identified as Potential Therapeutic Target.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091086.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy and the second cancer-specific cause of mortality in women in developed countries. Over 70% of the total number of BCs are hormone receptor-positive (HR+), and elevated levels of circulating estrogen (E) in the blood have been shown to be a major risk factor for the development of HR+ BC. This is attributable to estrogen's contribution to increased cancer cell proliferation, stimulation of angiogenesis and metastasis, and resistance to therapy. The E metabolism-gut microbiome axis is functional, with subjacent individual variations in the levels of E. It is conceivable that the estrobolome (bacterial genes whose products metabolize E) may contribute to the risk of malignant neoplasms of hormonal origin, including BC, and may serve as a potential biomarker and target. It has been suggested that β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes of the intestinal microbiome participate in the strobolome. In addition, it has been proposed that bacterial GUS enzymes from the gastrointestinal tract participate in hormone BC. In this review, we discuss the latest knowledge about the role of the GUS enzyme in the pathogenesis of BC, focusing on (i) the microbiome and E metabolism; (ii) diet, estrobolome, and BC development; (iii) other activities of the bacterial GUS; and (iv) the new molecular targets for BC therapeutic application.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nemteanu R, Clim A, Hincu CE, et al (2023)

Is There a Time and a Place for the Gluten-Free Diet in Potential Celiac Disease?.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15184064.

Potential celiac disease (PCD) is characterized by the absence of villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies (Marsh 0 or 1) despite positive celiac serology and HLA DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimers. Recent epidemiological studies report that PCD represents one fifth of the total CD diagnoses. Compared to patients with CD, the majority of adult patients with PCD show lower rates of nutrient deficiencies and extraintestinal symptoms at diagnosis. Recommending a gluten-free diet (GFD) to PCD patients depends on whether they have symptoms or not. A significant clinical improvement is reported by symptomatic patients, but for asymptomatic PCD, diet implementation is still a matter of debate. Some questions remain to be answered: does PCD serve as an intermediary phase leading to the progression of true CD? Is it reasonable to hypothesize that PCD and active CD represent different manifestations of the same condition? Is there a potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of CD in those who may have the condition? Additional research is required to address these inquiries and ascertain the specific subset of people with potential progression to overt CD, as well as to determine the potential advantages of early implementation of a GFD for these individuals. The investigation of risk factors in CD warrants examination of variables such as the timing of diagnosis, the genetic profile, the extent of gluten exposure, and the composition of the microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wielgosz-Grochowska JP, Domanski N, ME Drywień (2023)

Influence of Body Composition and Specific Anthropometric Parameters on SIBO Type.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15184035.

Recent observations have shown that Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)affects the host through various mechanisms. While both weight loss and obesity have been reported in the SIBO population due to alterations in the gut microbiome, very little is known about the influence of SIBO type on body composition. This study aimed to evaluate whether there is a link between the three types of SIBO: methane dominant (M+), hydrogen dominant (H+), and methane-hydrogen dominant (H+/M+) and specific anthropometric parameters. This observational study included 67 participants (W = 53, M = 14) with gastrointestinal symptoms and SIBO confirmed by lactulose hydrogen-methane breath tests (LHMBTs) using the QuinTron device. Participants underwent a body composition assessment by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) using the InBody Analyzer. In the H+/M+ group, body weight (p = 0.010), BMI (p = 0.001), body fat in kg (p = 0.009), body fat in % (p = 0.040), visceral fat (p = 0.002), and mineral bone content (p = 0.049) showed an inverse correlation with hydrogen (H2) gas production. These findings suggest that body weight, BMI, body fat, and mineral bone content may be inversely linked to the production of hydrogen and the risk of hydrogen-methane SIBO.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Melsaether C, Høtoft D, Wellejus A, et al (2023)

Seeding the Infant Gut in Early Life-Effects of Maternal and Infant Seeding with Probiotics on Strain Transfer, Microbiota, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Healthy Breastfed Infants.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15184000.

We investigated the effects of two dosing regimens of two multi-strain probiotic products on the gut microbiota of breastfed infants, including the transfer of the dosed strains and clinical outcomes. In forty-seven dyads, infants were either exposed through maternal intake (MS) of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LGG, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Bifin02 from gestational week thirty-three until four weeks after birth (n = 24) or dosed directly (IS) with the same strains except for LA-5 starting within 24 h after birth until day 28 (n = 23). Infant stool samples were collected on day 0, 14, 28, and 42 after birth. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by parents using an electronic diary. Microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA sequencing, and strain recovery was analyzed by qPCR. Notably, 100% of the IS infants were colonized with Bifin02 after 14 days as opposed to only 25% of the MS infants. Mean stool frequency was significantly lower in IS infants compared to MS infants and IS infants had softer stools on day 14, 28, and 42. A significantly steeper slope of progression of inconsolable crying and fussing was observed in MS infants compared to IS infants. In conclusion, direct infant seeding induced a faster increase in fecal bifidobacteria abundancy and Bifin02 recovery compared to dosed through the maternal intake.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Li L, Wu L, Jiang T, et al (2023)

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 124 Modulates Sleep Deprivation-Associated Markers of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Mice in Conjunction with the Regulation of Gut Microbiota.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15184002.

Intestinal diseases caused by sleep deprivation (SD) are severe public health threats worldwide. However, whether or not probiotics attenuate the intestinal damage associated with SD remains unclear. In this study, we used antibiotic pretreatment and fecal microbiota transplantation to investigate the protective role of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) 124 against SD-related intestinal barrier damage in C57BL/6 mice. Compared with those of a normal sleeping mouse, we observed that intestinal antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in sleep deprivation mice with an increasing duration of sleep deprivation. This resulted in decreased tight junction protein expression and increased intestinal barrier permeability. In contrast, intragastric administration with L. plantarum 124 reversed SD-associated intestinal oxidative stress, inflammation, colonic barrier damage, and the dysbiosis of the microbiota in the colon. In addition, L. plantarum 124 restored gut microbiota homeostasis via restoring abundance, including that of Dubosiella, Faecalibaculum, Bacillus, Lachnoclostridium, and Bifidobacterium. Further studies showed that gut microbiota mediated SD-associated intestinal damage and the treatment L. plantarum 124 in SD-associated colonic barrier damage. L. plantarum 124 is a potential candidate for alleviating SD-associated intestinal barrier damage. Overall, L. plantarum 124 consumption attenuates intestinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and intestinal barrier damage in SD-associated mice via the modulation of gut microbes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qu Y, Park SH, DC Dallas (2023)

The Role of Bovine Kappa-Casein Glycomacropeptide in Modulating the Microbiome and Inflammatory Responses of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183991.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder marked by chronic abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular bowel habits. Effective treatments are still actively sought. Kappa-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), a milk-derived peptide, holds promise because it can modulate the gut microbiome, immune responses, gut motility, and barrier functions, as well as binding toxins. These properties align with the recognized pathophysiological aspects of IBS, including gut microbiota imbalances, immune system dysregulation, and altered gut barrier functions. This review delves into GMP's role in regulating the gut microbiome, accentuating its influence on bacterial populations and its potential to promote beneficial bacteria while inhibiting pathogenic varieties. It further investigates the gut microbial shifts observed in IBS patients and contemplates GMP's potential for restoring microbial equilibrium and overall gut health. The anti-inflammatory attributes of GMP, especially its impact on vital inflammatory markers and capacity to temper the low-grade inflammation present in IBS are also discussed. In addition, this review delves into current research on GMP's effects on gut motility and barrier integrity and examines the changes in gut motility and barrier function observed in IBS sufferers. The overarching goal is to assess the potential clinical utility of GMP in IBS management.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yang K, M Song (2023)

New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD): Gut-Liver-Heart Crosstalk.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183970.

Metabolism-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a multifaceted disease that involves complex interactions between various organs, including the gut and heart. It is defined by hepatic lipid accumulation and is related to metabolic dysfunction, obesity, and diabetes. Understanding the intricate interplay of the gut-liver-heart crosstalk is crucial for unraveling the complexities of MAFLD and developing effective treatment and prevention strategies. The gut-liver crosstalk participates in the regulation of the metabolic and inflammatory processes through host-microbiome interactions. Gut microbiota have been associated with the development and progression of MAFLD, and its dysbiosis contributes to insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Metabolites derived from the gut microbiota enter the systemic circulation and influence both the liver and heart, resulting in the gut-liver-heart axis playing an important role in MAFLD. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests that insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic inflammation in MAFLD may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in MAFLD may also lead to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Overall, the crosstalk between the liver and heart involves a complex interplay of molecular pathways that contribute to the development of CVD in patients with MAFLD. This review emphasizes the current understanding of the gut-liver-heart crosstalk as a foundation for optimizing patient outcomes with MAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Luo S, Chen Z, Deng L, et al (2023)

Causal Link between Gut Microbiota, Neurophysiological States, and Bone Diseases: A Comprehensive Mendelian Randomization Study.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183934.

Increasing evidence highlights a robust correlation between the gut microbiota and bone diseases; however, the existence of a causal relationship between them remains unclear. In this study, we thoroughly examined the correlation between gut microbiota and skeletal diseases using genome-wide association studies. Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization were used to probe genetic causality. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of neuropsychological states (i.e., cognition, depression, and insomnia) between the gut microbiota and bone diseases was evaluated using mediation analysis, with genetic colocalization analysis revealing potential targets. These findings suggest a direct causal relationship between Ruminococcaceae and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which appears to be mediated by cognitive performance and insomnia. Similarly, a causal association was observed between Burkholderiales and lumbar pelvic fractures, mediated by cognitive performance. Colocalization analysis identified a shared causal variant (rs2352974) at the TRAF-interacting protein locus for cognitive ability and knee OA. This study provides compelling evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota can enhance cognitive ability, ameliorate insomnia, and potentially reduce the risk of site-specific fractures and OA. Therefore, strategies targeting gut microbiota optimization could serve as novel and effective preventive measures against fractures and OA.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Bianchetti G, De Maio F, Abeltino A, et al (2023)

Unraveling the Gut Microbiome-Diet Connection: Exploring the Impact of Digital Precision and Personalized Nutrition on Microbiota Composition and Host Physiology.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183931.

The human gut microbiome, an intricate ecosystem housing trillions of microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract, holds significant importance in human health and the development of diseases. Recent advances in technology have allowed for an in-depth exploration of the gut microbiome, shedding light on its composition and functions. Of particular interest is the role of diet in shaping the gut microbiome, influencing its diversity, population size, and metabolic functions. Precision nutrition, a personalized approach based on individual characteristics, has shown promise in directly impacting the composition of the gut microbiome. However, to fully understand the long-term effects of specific diets and food components on the gut microbiome and to identify the variations between individuals, longitudinal studies are crucial. Additionally, precise methods for collecting dietary data, alongside the application of machine learning techniques, hold immense potential in comprehending the gut microbiome's response to diet and providing tailored lifestyle recommendations. In this study, we investigated the complex mechanisms that govern the diverse impacts of nutrients and specific foods on the equilibrium and functioning of the individual gut microbiome of seven volunteers (four females and three males) with an average age of 40.9 ± 10.3 years, aiming at identifying potential therapeutic targets, thus making valuable contributions to the field of personalized nutrition. These findings have the potential to revolutionize the development of highly effective strategies that are tailored to individual requirements for the management and treatment of various diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Chen J, Zhu J, Lu W, et al (2023)

Uncovering Predictive Factors and Interventions for Restoring Microecological Diversity after Antibiotic Disturbance.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183925.

Antibiotic treatment can lead to a loss of diversity of gut microbiota and may adversely affect gut microbiota composition and host health. Previous studies have indicated that the recovery of gut microbes from antibiotic-induced disruption may be guided by specific microbial species. We expect to predict recovery or non-recovery using these crucial species or other indices after antibiotic treatment only when the gut microbiota changes. This study focused on this prediction problem using a novel ensemble learning framework to identify a set of common and reasonably predictive recovery-associated bacterial species (p-RABs), enabling us to predict the host microbiome recovery status under broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Our findings also propose other predictive indicators, suggesting that higher taxonomic and functional diversity may correlate with an increased likelihood of successful recovery. Furthermore, to explore the validity of p-RABs, we performed a metabolic support analysis and identified Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides uniformis as potential key supporting species for reconstruction interventions. Experimental results from a C57BL/6J male mouse model demonstrated the effectiveness of p-RABs in facilitating intestinal microbial reconstitution. Thus, we proved the reliability of the new p-RABs and validated a practical intervention scheme for gut microbiota reconstruction under antibiotic disturbance.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Garcia C, Andersen CJ, CN Blesso (2023)

The Role of Lipids in the Regulation of Immune Responses.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183899.

Lipid metabolism plays a major role in the regulation of the immune system. Exogenous (dietary and microbial-derived) and endogenous (non-microbial-derived) lipids play a direct role in regulating immune cell activation, differentiation and expansion, and inflammatory phenotypes. Understanding the complexities of lipid-immune interactions may have important implications for human health, as certain lipids or immune pathways may be beneficial in circumstances of acute infection yet detrimental in chronic inflammatory diseases. Further, there are key differences in the lipid effects between specific immune cell types and location (e.g., gut mucosal vs. systemic immune cells), suggesting that the immunomodulatory properties of lipids may be tissue-compartment-specific, although the direct effect of dietary lipids on the mucosal immune system warrants further investigation. Importantly, there is recent evidence to suggest that lipid-immune interactions are dependent on sex, metabolic status, and the gut microbiome in preclinical models. While the lipid-immune relationship has not been adequately established in/translated to humans, research is warranted to evaluate the differences in lipid-immune interactions across individuals and whether the optimization of lipid-immune interactions requires precision nutrition approaches to mitigate or manage disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which lipids regulate immune responses and the influence of dietary lipids on these processes, highlighting compelling areas for future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

An L, Lu Q, Wang K, et al (2023)

Urolithins: A Prospective Alternative against Brain Aging.

Nutrients, 15(18): pii:nu15183884.

The impact of host-microbiome interactions on cognitive health and disease has received increasing attention. Microbial-derived metabolites produced in the gut are one of crucial mechanisms of the gut-brain axis interaction, showing attractive perspectives. Urolithins (Uros) are gut microbial-derived metabolites of ellagitannins and ellagic acid, whose biotransformation varies considerably between individuals and decreases greatly with age. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Uros may have specific advantages in preventing brain aging including favorable blood-brain barrier permeability, selective brain distribution, and increasingly supporting data from preclinical and clinical studies. However, the usability of Uros in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases remains elusive. In this review, we aim to present the comprehensive achievements of Uros in age-related brain dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases and discuss their prospects and knowledge gaps as functional food, drugs, or biomarkers against brain aging.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hu Q, Hou S, Xiong B, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Effects of Baicalin on Diseases Related to Gut-Brain Axis Dysfunctions.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186501.

The gut-brain axis is an active area of research. Several representative diseases, including central nervous system disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression), metabolic disorders (obesity-related diseases), and intestinal disorders (inflammatory bowel disease and dysbiosis), are associated with the dysfunctional gut-brain axis. Baicalin, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, is reported to exert various pharmacological effects. This narrative review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and potential targets of baicalin in disorders of the gut-brain axis. Baicalin protects the central nervous system through anti-neuroinflammatory and anti-neuronal apoptotic effects, suppresses obesity through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and alleviates intestinal disorders through regulatory effects on intestinal microorganisms and short-chain fatty acid production. The bioactivities of baicalin are mediated through the gut-brain axis. This review comprehensively summarizes the regulatory role of baicalin in gut-brain axis disorders, laying a foundation for future research, although further confirmatory basic research is required.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang L, Liu Y, Zhang D, et al (2023)

Soybean Antigen Protein-Induced Intestinal Barrier Damage by Trigging Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Disordering Gut Microbiota in Weaned Piglets.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186500.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases. Soybean antigenic proteins (β-conglycinin and soy glycinin) induce hypersensitivity reactions and intestinal barrier damage. However, whether this damage is associated with ER stress, autophagy, and the gut microbiome is largely unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with soy glycinin (11S glycinin) and β-conglycinin (7S glycinin) on intestinal ER stress, autophagy, and flora in weaned piglets. Thirty healthy 21-day-old weaned "Duroc × Long White × Yorkshire" piglets were randomly divided into three groups and fed a basic, 7S-supplemented, or 11S-supplemented diet for one week. The results indicated that 7S/11S glycinin disrupted growth performance, damaged intestinal barrier integrity, and impaired goblet cell function in piglets (p < 0.05). Moreover, 7S/11S glycinin induced ER stress and blocked autophagic flux in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and increased the relative abundance of pathogenic flora (p < 0.01) and decreased that of beneficial flora (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 7S/11S glycinin induces intestinal ER stress, autophagic flux blockage, microbiota imbalance, and intestinal barrier damage in piglets.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lederer AK, Rasel H, Kohnert E, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiota in Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis of Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Carcinoma-A Scoping Review.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092363.

Cancers of the biliary tract are more common in Asia than in Europe, but are highly lethal due to delayed diagnosis and aggressive tumor biology. Since the biliary tract is in direct contact with the gut via the enterohepatic circulation, this suggests a potential role of gut microbiota, but to date, the role of gut microbiota in biliary tract cancers has not been elucidated. This scoping review compiles recent data on the associations between the gut microbiota and diagnosis, progression and prognosis of biliary tract cancer patients. Systematic review of the literature yielded 154 results, of which 12 studies and one systematic review were eligible for evaluation. The analyses of microbiota diversity indices were inconsistent across the included studies. In-depth analyses revealed differences between gut microbiota of biliary tract cancer patients and healthy controls, but without a clear tendency towards particular species in the studies. Additionally, most of the studies showed methodological flaws, for example non-controlling of factors that affect gut microbiota. At the current stage, there is a lack of evidence to support a general utility of gut microbiota diagnostics in biliary tract cancers. Therefore, no recommendation can be made at this time to include gut microbiota analyses in the management of biliary tract cancer patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Shah T, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al (2023)

A Comparative Analysis of the Stomach, Gut, and Lung Microbiomes in Rattus norvegicus.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092359.

Urban rats serve as reservoirs for several zoonotic pathogens that seriously endanger public health, destroy stored food, and damage infrastructure due to their close interaction with humans and domestic animals. Here, we characterize the core microbiomes of R. norvegicus's stomach, gut, and lung using 16S rRNA next-generation Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The USEARCH software (v11) assigned the dataset to operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The alpha diversity index was calculated using QIIME1, while the beta diversity index was determined using the Bray-Curtis and Euclidean distances between groups. Principal component analyses visualized variation across samples based on the OTU information using the R package. Linear discriminant analysis, effect sizes (LEfSe), and phylogenetic investigation were used to identify differentially abundant taxa among groups. We reported an abundance of microbiota in the stomach, and they shared some of them with the gut and lung microbiota. A close look at the microbial family level reveals abundant Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae in the stomach, whereas Lactobacillaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae were more abundant in the gut; in contrast, Alcaligenaceae were abundant in the lungs. At the species level, some beneficial bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii, and some potential pathogens, such as Bordetella hinzii, Streptococcus parauberis, Porphyromonas pogonae, Clostridium perfringens, etc., were identified in stomach, gut, and lung samples. Moreover, the alpha and beta diversity indexes revealed significant differences between the groups. Further analysis revealed abundant differential taxonomic biomarkers, i.e., increased Prevotellaceae and Clostridia in the lungs, whereas Campylobacteria and Lachnospirales were richest in the stomachs. In conclusion, we identified many beneficial, opportunistic, and highly pathogenic bacteria, confirming the importance of urban rats for public health. This study recommends a routine survey program to monitor rodent distribution and the pathogens they carry and transmit to humans and other domestic mammals.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Loughrin JH, Parekh RR, Agga GE, et al (2023)

Microbiome Diversity of Anaerobic Digesters Is Enhanced by Microaeration and Low Frequency Sound.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092349.

Biogas is produced by a consortium of bacteria and archaea. We studied how the microbiome of poultry litter digestate was affected by time and treatments that enhanced biogas production. The microbiome was analyzed at six, 23, and 42 weeks of incubation. Starting at week seven, the digesters underwent four treatments: control, microaeration with 6 mL air L[-1] digestate per day, treatment with a 1000 Hz sine wave, or treatment with the sound wave and microaeration. Both microaeration and sound enhanced biogas production relative to the control, while their combination was not as effective as microaeration alone. At week six, over 80% of the microbiome of the four digesters was composed of the three phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, with less than 10% Euryarchaeota and Bacteroidetes. At week 23, the digester microbiomes were more diverse with the phyla Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Verrucomicrobia increasing in proportion and the abundance of Actinobacteria decreasing. At week 42, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla, comprising 27.8%, 21.4%, 17.6%, and 12.3% of the microbiome. Other than the relative proportions of Firmicutes being increased and proportions of Bacteroidetes being decreased by the treatments, no systematic shifts in the microbiomes were observed due to treatment. Rather, microbial diversity was enhanced relative to the control. Given that both air and sound treatment increased biogas production, it is likely that they improved poultry litter breakdown to promote microbial growth.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Prabakaran M, Weible LJ, Champlain JD, et al (2023)

The Gut-Wrenching Effects of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis in Children.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092323.

Cryptosporidium species and Giardia duodenalis are infectious intestinal protozoan pathogens that cause alarming rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children are more likely to have clinical symptoms due to their less developed immune systems and factors such as undernutrition, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The severity of the symptoms and clinical manifestations in children may vary from asymptomatic to life-threatening depending on the Cryptosporidium species/G. duodenalis strains and the resulting complex stepwise interactions between the parasite, the host nutritional and immunologic status, and the gut microbiome profile. Structural damages inflicted by both parasites to epithelial cells in the large and small intestines could severely impair children's gut health, including the ability to absorb nutrients, resulting in stunted growth, diminished neurocognitive development, and other long-term effects. Clinically approved cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis drugs have broad antimicrobial effects that have incomprehensible impacts on growing children's gut health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Li Y, Wu M, Kong M, et al (2023)

Impact of Donepezil Supplementation on Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology and Gut Microbiome in APP/PS1 Mice.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092306.

Based on published information, the occurrence and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are potentially related to gut microbiota changes. Donepezil hydrochloride (DH), which enhances cholinergic activity by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is one of the first-line drugs for AD treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA. However, the potential link between the effects of DH on the pathophysiological processes of AD and the gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, pathological changes in the brain and colon, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and AChE, and changes in intestinal flora were observed. The results showed that Aβ deposition in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of AD mice was significantly decreased, while colonic inflammation was significantly alleviated by DH treatment. Concomitantly, SOD activity was significantly improved, while AChE was significantly reduced after DH administration. In addition, the gut microbiota community composition of AD mice was significantly altered after DH treatment. The relative abundance of Akkermansia in the AD group was 54.8% higher than that in the N group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was increased by 18.3% and 53.8% in the AD_G group and the N_G group, respectively. Interestingly, Akkermansia showed a potential predictive value and might be a biomarker for AD. Molecular docking revealed the binding mode and major forces between DH and membrane proteins of Akkermansia. The overall results suggest a novel therapeutic mechanism for treating AD and highlight the critical role of gut microbiota in AD pathology.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rigas D, Grivas N, Nelli A, et al (2023)

Persistent Dysbiosis, Parasite Rise and Growth Impairment in Aquacultured European Seabass after Oxytetracycline Treatment.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092302.

The use of antibiotics in open-water aquaculture is often unavoidable when faced with pathogens with high mortality rates. In addition, seasonal pathogen surges have become more common and more intense over the years. Apart from the apparent cost of antibiotic treatment, it has been observed that, in aquaculture practice, the surviving fish often display measurable growth impairment. To understand the role of gut microbiota on the observed growth impairment, in this study, we follow the incidence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in a seabass commercial open-water aquaculture setting in Galaxidi (Greece). Fish around 10 months of age were fed with feed containing oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg/day) for twelve days, followed by a twelve-day withdrawal period, and another eighteen days of treatment. The fish were sampled 19 days before the start of the first treatment and one month after the end of the second treatment cycle. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to measure changes in the gut microbiome. Overall, the gut microbiota community, even a month after treatment, was highly dysbiotic and characterized by very low alpha diversity. High abundances of alkalophilic bacteria in the post-antibiotic-treated fish indicated a rise in pH that was coupled with a significant increase in gut parasites. This study's results indicate that oxytetracycline (OTC) treatment causes persistent dysbiosis even one month after withdrawal and provides a more suitable environment for an increase in parasites. These findings highlight the need for interventions to restore a healthy and protective gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Liu P, Zhang H, Fan Y, et al (2023)

Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Steel in Marine Environments: A Review from Mechanisms to Prevention.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092299.

Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a formidable challenge in the marine industry, resulting from intricate interactions among various biochemical reactions and microbial species. Many preventions used to mitigate biocorrosion fail due to ignorance of the MIC mechanisms. This review provides a summary of the current research on microbial corrosion in marine environments, including corrosive microbes and biocorrosion mechanisms. We also summarized current strategies for inhibiting MIC and proposed future research directions for MIC mechanisms and prevention. This review aims to comprehensively understand marine microbial corrosion and contribute to novel strategy developments for biocorrosion control in marine environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qi P, Lv J, Bai LH, et al (2023)

Effects of Hypoxemia by Acute High-Altitude Exposure on Human Intestinal Flora and Metabolism.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092284.

This study examined the effects of hypoxemia caused by acute high-altitude hypoxia (AHAH) exposure on the human intestinal flora and its metabolites. The changes in the intestinal flora, metabolism, and erythropoietin content in the AHAH population under altitude hypoxia conditions were comprehensively analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing, metabonomics, and erythropoietin content. The results showed that compared with those in the control group (C group), the flora and metabolites in the hypoxemia group (D group) were altered. We found alterations in the flora according to the metabolic marker tyrosine through random forest and ROC analyses. Fecal and serum metabonomics analyses revealed that microbial metabolites could be absorbed into the blood and participate in human metabolism. Finally, a significant correlation between tyrosine and erythropoietin (EPO) content was found, which shows that human intestinal flora and its metabolites can help to confront altitude stress by regulating EPO levels. Our findings provide new insights into the adaptive mechanism and prevention of AHAH.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hong SY, Miao LT, Zhang JQ, et al (2023)

Identification of Two Clusters in Renal Pelvis Urobiome of Unilateral Stone Formers Using 2bRAD-M.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092276.

Urolithiasis is a common urological disease with increasing incidence and a high recurrence rate, whose etiology is not fully understood. The application of sequencing and culturomics has revealed that urolithiasis is closely related to the urinary microbiome (urobiome), shedding new light on the pathogenesis of stone formation. In this study, we recruited 30 patients with unilateral stones and collected their renal pelvis urine from both sides. Then, we performed 2bRAD-M, a novel sequencing technique that provides precise microbial identification at the species level, to characterize the renal pelvis urobiome of unilateral stone formers in the both sides. We first found that the urobiome in the stone side could be divided into two clusters (Stone1 and Stone2) based on distance algorithms. Stone2 harbored higher microbial richness and diversity compared to Stone1. The genera Cupriavidus and Sphingomonas were overrepresented in Stone1, whereas Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were overrepresented in Stone2. Meanwhile, differential species were identified between Stone1 and Stone2. We further constructed a random forest model to discriminate two clusters which achieved a powerful diagnostic potential. Moreover, the urobiome of the non-stone side (Control1/2) was compared with that of the stone side (Stone1/2). Stone1 and Control1 showed different microbial community distributions, while Stone2 was similar to Control2 based on diversity analysis. We also identified differentially abundant species among all groups. We assumed that there might be different mechanisms of how microbiota contribute to stone formation in two clusters. Our findings might assist in the selection of suitable medical treatments for urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gîlcă-Blanariu GE, Șchiopu CG, Ștefănescu G, et al (2023)

The Intertwining Roads between Psychological Distress and Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092268.

Inflammatory bowel disease represents one of the most life-altering gastrointestinal pathologies, with its multifactorial nature and unclear physiopathology. The most relevant clinical forms, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, clinically manifest with mild to severe flares and remission periods that alter the patient's social, familial and professional integration. The chronic inflammatory activity of the intestinal wall determines severe modifications of the local environment, such as dysbiosis, enteric endocrine, nervous and immune system disruptions and intestinal wall permeability changes. These features are part of the gastrointestinal ecosystem that modulates the bottom-to-top signaling to the central nervous system, leading to a neurobiologic imbalance and clinical affective and/or behavioral symptoms. The gut-brain link is a bidirectional pathway and psychological distress can also affect the central nervous system, which will alter the top-to-bottom regulation, leading to possible functional digestive symptoms and local inflammatory responses. In the middle of this neuro-gastrointestinal system, the microbiome is a key player, as its activities offer basic functional support for both relays. The present article presents current scientific information that links the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of inflammatory bowel disease and psychiatric symptomatology through the complex mechanism of the gut-brain axis and the modulatory effects of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zhang Y, Xing H, Bolotnikov G, et al (2023)

Enriched Aptamer Libraries in Fluorescence-Based Assays for Rikenella microfusus-Specific Gut Microbiome Analyses.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092266.

Rikenella microfusus is an essential intestinal probiotic with great potential. The latest research shows that imbalance in the intestinal flora are related to the occurrence of various diseases, such as intestinal diseases, immune diseases, and metabolic diseases. Rikenella may be a target or biomarker for some diseases, providing a new possibility for preventing and treating these diseases by monitoring and optimizing the abundance of Rikenella in the intestine. However, the current monitoring methods have disadvantages, such as long detection times, complicated operations, and high costs, which seriously limit the possibility of clinical application of microbiome-based treatment options. Therefore, the intention of this study was to evolve an enriched aptamer library to be used for specific labeling of R. microfusus, allowing rapid and low-cost detection methods and, ultimately the construction of aptamer-based biosensors. In this study, we used Rikenella as the target bacterium for an in vitro whole Cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment) to evolve and enrich specific DNA oligonucleotide aptamers. Five other prominent anaerobic gut bacteria were included in this process for counterselection and served as control cells. The aptamer library R.m-R13 was evolved with high specificity and strong affinity (Kd = 9.597 nM after 13 rounds of selection). With this enriched aptamer library, R. microfusus could efficiently be discriminated from the control bacteria in complex mixtures using different analysis techniques, including fluorescence microscopy or fluorometric suspension assays, and even in human stool samples. These preliminary results open new avenues toward the development of aptamer-based microbiome bio-sensing applications for fast and reliable monitoring of R. microfusus.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Radaic A, Shamir ER, Jones K, et al (2023)

Specific Oral Microbial Differences in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes Are Associated with Distinct Sites When Moving from Healthy Mucosa to Oral Dysplasia-A Microbiome and Gene Profiling Study and Focused Review.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092250.

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are a group of conditions that carry a risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development. Recent studies indicate that periodontal disease-associated pathogenic bacteria may play a role in the transition from healthy mucosa to dysplasia and to OSCC. Yet, the microbial signatures associated with the transition from healthy mucosa to dysplasia have not been established. To characterize oral microbial signatures at these different sites, we performed a 16S sequencing analysis of both oral swab and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) samples. We collected oral swabs from healthy mucosa (from healthy patients), histologically normal mucosa adjacent to dysplasia, and low-grade oral dysplasia. Additionally, FFPE samples from histologically normal mucosa adjacent to OSCC, plus low grade and high-grade oral dysplasia samples were also collected. The collected data demonstrate significant differences in the alpha and beta microbial diversities of different sites in oral mucosa, dysplasia, and OSCC, as well as increased dissimilarities within these sites. We found that the Proteobacteria phyla abundance increased, concurrent with a progressive decrease in the Firmicutes phyla abundance, as well as altered levels of Enterococcus cecorum, Fusobacterium periodonticum, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Fusobacterium canifelinum when moving from healthy to diseased sites. Moreover, the swab sample analysis indicates that the oral microbiome may be altered in areas that are histologically normal, including in mucosa adjacent to dysplasia. Furthermore, trends in specific microbiome changes in oral swab samples preceded those in the tissues, signifying early detection opportunities for clinical diagnosis. In addition, we evaluated the gene expression profile of OSCC cells (HSC-3) infected with either P. gingivalis, T. denticola, F. nucelatum, or S. sanguinis and found that the three periodontopathogens enrich genetic processes related to cancer progression, including skin keratinization/cornification, while the commensal enriched processes related to RNA processing and adhesion. Finally, we reviewed the dysplasia microbiome literature and found a significant decrease in commensal bacteria, such as the Streptococci genus, and a simultaneous increase in pathogenic bacteria, mainly Bacteroidetes phyla and Fusobacterium genus. These findings suggest that features of the oral microbiome can serve as novel biomarkers for dysplasia and OSCC disease progression.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fujihara H, Matsunaga M, Ueda E, et al (2023)

Altered Gut Microbiota Composition Is Associated with Difficulty in Explicit Emotion Regulation in Young Children.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092245.

Executive function (EF) consists of explicit emotion regulation (EER) and cognitive control (CC). Childhood EER in particular predicts mental and physical health in adulthood. Identifying factors affecting EER development has implications for lifelong physical and mental health. Gut microbiota (GM) has attracted attention as a potential biomarker for risk of physical and mental problems in adulthood. Furthermore, GM is related to brain function/structure, which plays a crucial role in emotional processing. However, little is known about how GM compositions are associated with the development of emotion regulation in early childhood. Therefore, in this study, we examined 257 children aged 3-4 to investigate links between GM and risk to EF. EF was measured using the Mother-Reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version. GM composition (alpha/beta diversity and genus abundance) was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and compared between EF-risk and non-risk groups. Our results show that children with EER-risk (an index of inhibitory self-control) had a higher abundance of the genera Actinomyces and Sutterella. Although we have not established a direct link between GM and CC risk, our findings indicate that GM of preschoolers is closely associated with emotional processing and that EERrisk children have more inflammation-related bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Huaiquipán R, Quiñones J, Díaz R, et al (2023)

Review: Effect of Experimental Diets on the Microbiome of Productive Animals.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092219.

The microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for multiple chains of reactions that affect their environment and modify the internal metabolism, their study receives the name of microbiome, which has become more relevant in recent years. In the near future, the challenges related to feeding are anticipated to escalate, encompassing the nutritional needs to sustain an overpopulated world. Therefore, it is expected that a better understanding of the interactions between microorganisms within the digestive tract will allow their modulation in order to provide an improvement in the immune system, feed efficiency or the promotion of nutritional characteristics in production animals, among others. In the present study, the main effects of experimental diets in production animals were described, emphasizing the diversity of the bacterial populations found in response to the diets, ordering them between polygastric and monogastric animals, and then describing the experimental diets used and their effect on the microorganisms. It is hoped that this study will help as a first general approach to the study of the role of the microbiome in production animals under different diets.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dias S, Pheiffer C, S Adam (2023)

The Maternal Microbiome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Cause and Effect.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092217.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing public health concern that affects many pregnancies globally. The condition is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm birth, stillbirth, and fetal growth restriction. In the long-term, mothers and children have an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in the maternal microbiome may play a role in the pathogenesis of GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review describes changes in the maternal microbiome during the physiological adaptations of pregnancy, GDM and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Findings from this review highlight the importance of understanding the link between the maternal microbiome and GDM. Furthermore, new therapeutic approaches to prevent or better manage GDM are discussed. Further research and clinical trials are necessary to fully realize the therapeutic potential of the maternal microbiome and translate these findings into clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yeramilli V, Cheddadi R, Benjamin H, et al (2023)

The Impact of Stress, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Inflammation on Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092206.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of intestinal morbidity and mortality in neonates. A large body of work exists; however, the pathogenesis of NEC remains poorly understood. Numerous predictors have been implicated in the development of NEC, with relatively less emphasis on maternal factors. Utilizing human tissue plays a crucial role in enhancing our comprehension of the underlying mechanisms accountable for this devastating disease. In this review, we will discuss how maternal stress affects the pathogenesis of NEC and how changes in the intestinal microbiome can influence the development of NEC. We will also discuss the results of transcriptomics-based studies and analyze the gene expression changes in NEC tissues and other molecular targets associated with the pathogenesis of NEC.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Efremova I, Maslennikov R, Poluektova E, et al (2023)

Gut Dysbiosis and Hemodynamic Changes as Links of the Pathogenesis of Complications of Cirrhosis.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092202.

The aim was to evaluate the relationship between gut dysbiosis and hemodynamic changes (hyperdynamic circulation) in cirrhosis, and between hemodynamic changes and complications of this disease. This study included 47 patients with cirrhosis. Stool microbiome was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Echocardiography with a simultaneous assessment of blood pressure and heart rate was performed to assess systemic hemodynamics. Patients with hyperdynamic circulation had more severe cirrhosis, lower albumin, sodium and prothrombin levels, higher C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels, and higher incidences of portopulmonary hypertension, ascites, overt hepatic encephalopathy, hypoalbuminemia, hypoprothrombinemia, systemic inflammation, and severe hyperbilirubinemia than patients with normodynamic circulation. Patients with hyperdynamic circulation compared with those with normodynamic circulation had increased abundance of Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacilli, Streptococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Fusobacteria, Micrococcaceae, Intestinobacter, Clostridium sensu stricto, Proteus and Rumicoccus, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidaceae, Holdemanella, and Butyrivibrio. The systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output values correlated with the abundance of Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacilli, Streptococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Micrococcaceae, and Fusobacteria. Heart rate and cardiac output value were negatively correlated with the abundance of Bacteroidetes. The mean pulmonary artery pressure value was positively correlated with the abundance of Proteobacteria and Micrococcaceae, and negatively with the abundance of Holdemanella.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qu H, Long Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Diversity and Abundance of Bacterial and Fungal Communities Inhabiting Camellia sinensis Leaf, Rhizospheric Soil, and Gut of Agriophara rhombata.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092188.

Agriophara rhombata is a tea leaf moth that is considered one of the most destructive pests of Camellia sinensis (tea plant). Several recent studies have shown that many insects acquire part of the microbiome from their host and soil, but the pattern and diversity of their microbiome have not been clearly demonstrated. The present study aimed to investigate the bacterial and fungal communities present in the rhizospheric soil and leaf of tea plant compared to the gut of tea moth at different developmental stages (larvae, pupae, adult female and male) using Illumina MiSeq technology. Alpha diversity (Shannon index) showed higher (p < 0.05) bacterial and fungal diversity in soil samples than in leaf and tea moth larvae, pupae, and adult gut samples. However, during different developmental stages of tea moth, bacterial and fungal diversity did not differ (p > 0.05) between larvae, pupae, female, and male guts. Beta diversity also revealed more distinct bacterial and fungal communities in soil and leaf samples compared with tea moth gut samples, which had a more similar microbiome. Furthermore, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Tenericutes were detected as the dominant bacterial phyla, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota were the most abundant fungal phyla among all groups, but their relative abundance was comparatively higher (p < 0.05) in soil and leaf samples compared to tea moth gut samples. Similarly, Klebsiella, Streptophyta, and Enterococcus were the top three bacterial genera, while Candida, Aureobasidium, and Strelitziana were the top three fungal genera, and their relative abundance varied significantly (p < 0.05) among all groups. The KEGG analysis also revealed significantly higher (p < 0.5) enrichment of the functional pathways of bacterial communities in soil and leaf samples than in tea moth gut samples. Our study concluded that the bacterial and fungal communities of soil and tea leaves were more diverse and were significantly different from the tea moth gut microbiome at different developmental stages. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the gut microbiota of the tea moth and its potential application in the development of pest management techniques.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fuller E, Germaine KJ, DS Rathore (2023)

The Good, the Bad, and the Useable Microbes within the Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa) Microbiome-Potential Bio-Agents to Combat Alder Dieback.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092187.

Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) is a tree species native to Ireland and Europe with high economic and ecological importance. The presence of Alder has many benefits including the ability to adapt to multiple climate types, as well as aiding in ecosystem restoration due to its colonization capabilities within disturbed soils. However, Alder is susceptible to infection of the root rot pathogen Phytophthora alni, amongst other pathogens associated with this tree species. P. alni has become an issue within the forestry sector as it continues to spread across Europe, infecting Alder plantations, thus affecting their growth and survival and altering ecosystem dynamics. Beneficial microbiota and biocontrol agents play a crucial role in maintaining the health and resilience of plants. Studies have shown that beneficial microbes promote plant growth as well as aid in the protection against pathogens and abiotic stress. Understanding the interactions between A. glutinosa and its microbiota, both beneficial and pathogenic, is essential for developing integrated management strategies to mitigate the impact of P. alni and maintain the health of Alder trees. This review is focused on collating the relevant literature associated with Alder, current threats to the species, what is known about its microbial composition, and Common Alder-microbe interactions that have been observed worldwide to date. It also summarizes the beneficial fungi, bacteria, and biocontrol agents, underpinning genetic mechanisms and secondary metabolites identified within the forestry sector in relation to the Alder tree species. In addition, biocontrol mechanisms and microbiome-assisted breeding as well as gaps within research that require further attention are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Iancu MA, Profir M, Roşu OA, et al (2023)

Revisiting the Intestinal Microbiome and Its Role in Diarrhea and Constipation.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092177.

The gut microbiota represents a community of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, archaea, viruses, and protozoa) that colonize the gut and are responsible for gut mucosal structural integrity and immune and metabolic homeostasis. The relationship between the gut microbiome and human health has been intensively researched in the past years. It is now widely recognized that gut microbial composition is highly responsible for the general health of the host. Among the diseases that have been linked to an altered gut microbial population are diarrheal illnesses and functional constipation. The capacity of probiotics to modulate the gut microbiome population, strengthen the intestinal barrier, and modulate the immune system together with their antioxidant properties have encouraged the research of probiotic therapy in many gastrointestinal afflictions. Dietary and lifestyle changes and the use of probiotics seem to play an important role in easing constipation and effectively alleviating diarrhea by suppressing the germs involved. This review aims to describe how probiotic bacteria and the use of specific strains could interfere and bring benefits as an associated treatment for diarrhea and constipation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Choy CT, Siu PLK, Zhou J, et al (2023)

Improvements in Gut Microbiome Composition Predict the Clinical Efficacy of a Novel Synbiotics Formula in Children with Mild to Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092175.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a significant association with various type-2 inflammation-related comorbidities. Ongoing research suggests the crucial involvement of gut microbiome, especially in childhood onset AD, and hence, probiotics have emerged as a potential non-steroid-based therapeutics option to complement existing AD management plans. In order to delineate the impact of probiotics in the gut microbiome of pediatric AD patients from southern China, targeted 16S rRNA sequencing and thorough bioinformatic analysis were performed to analyze the gut microbiome profiles of 24 AD children after taking an orally administered novel synbiotics formula with triple prebiotics for 8 weeks. A notable improvement in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) (p = 0.008) was observed after taking an 8-week course of probiotics, with no adverse effects observed. The relative abundances of key microbial drivers including Bacteroides fragilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were significantly increased at week 8. We also found that the positive responsiveness towards an 8-week course of probiotics was associated with improvements in the gut microbiome profile with a higher relative abundance of probiotic species. Over-represented functional abundance pathways related to vitamin B synthesis and peptidoglycan recycling may imply the underlying mechanism. In summary, our study suggests how the gut microbial landscape shifts upon probiotic supplementation in AD children, and provides preliminary evidence to support targeted probiotic supplementation for the management of childhood AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Coradduzza D, Bo M, Congiargiu A, et al (2023)

Decoding the Microbiome's Influence on Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092170.

The aim is better to understand and critically explore and present the available data from observational studies on the pathogenetic role of the microbiome in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were screened for the relevant literature published in the last ten years. The primary outcomes investigated included the influence of the gut microbiome on the pathogenesis and development of rheumatoid arthritis, exploring the changes in microbiota diversity and relative abundance of microbial taxa in individuals with RA and healthy controls (HCs). The risk of bias in the included literature was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Ten observational studies were identified and included in the qualitative assessment. A total of 647 individuals with RA were represented in the literature, in addition to 16 individuals with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and 247 HCs. The biospecimens comprised fecal samples across all the included literature, with 16S rDNA sequencing representing the primary method of biological analyses. Significant differences were observed in the RA microbiome compared to that of HCs: a decrease in Faecalibacterium, Fusicatenibacter, Enterococcus, and Megamonas and increases in Eggerthellales, Collinsella, Prevotella copri, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Eisenbergiella, and Flavobacterium. There are significant alterations in the microbiome of individuals with RA compared to HCs. This includes an increase in Prevotella copri and Lactobacillus and reductions in Collinsella. Collectively, these alterations are proposed to induce inflammatory responses and degrade the integrity of the intestinal barrier; however, further studies are needed to confirm this relationship.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Colletti A, Pellizzato M, AF Cicero (2023)

The Possible Role of Probiotic Supplementation in Inflammation: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092160.

The fine balance between symbiotic and potentially opportunistic and/or pathogenic microorganisms can undergo quantitative alterations, which, when associated with low intestinal biodiversity, could be responsible for the development of gut inflammation and the so-called "intestinal dysbiosis". This condition is characterized by the disbalance of a fine synergistic mechanism involving the mucosal barrier, the intestinal neuroendocrine system, and the immune system that results in an acute inflammatory response induced by different causes, including viral or bacterial infections of the digestive tract. More frequently, however, dysbiosis is induced slowly and subtly by subliminal causal factors, resulting in a chronic condition related to different diseases affecting the digestive tract and other organs and apparatuses. Studies on animal models, together with studies on humans, highlight the significant role of the gut microbiota and microbiome in the occurrence of inflammatory conditions such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); neurodegenerative, urologic, skin, liver, and kidney pathologies; and premature aging. The blood translocation of bacterial fragments has been found to be one of the processes linked to gut dysbiosis and responsible for the possible occurrence of "metabolic endotoxemia" and systemic inflammation, associated with an increased risk of oxidative stress and related diseases. In this context, supplementation with different probiotic strains has been shown to restore gut eubiosis, especially if administered in long-term treatments. The aim of this review is to describe the anti-inflammatory effects of specific probiotic strains observed in clinical trials and the respective indications, highlighting the differences in efficacy depending on strain, formulation, time and duration of treatment, and dosage used.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ruan M, Hu Z, Zhu Q, et al (2023)

16S rDNA Sequencing-Based Insights into the Bacterial Community Structure and Function in Co-Existing Soil and Coal Gangue.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092151.

Coal gangue is a solid waste emitted during coal production. Coal gangue is deployed adjacent to mining land and has characteristics similar to those of the soils of these areas. Coal gangue-soil ecosystems provide habitats for a rich and active bacterial community. However, co-existence networks and the functionality of soil and coal gangue bacterial communities have not been studied. Here, we performed Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing, symbiotic network and statistical analyses, and microbial phenotype prediction to study the microbial community in coal gangue and soil samples from Shanxi Province, China. In general, the structural difference between the bacterial communities in coal gangue and soil was large, indicating that interactions between soil and coal gangue are limited but not absent. The bacterial community exhibited a significant symbiosis network in soil and coal gangue. The co-occurrence network was primarily formed by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. In addition, BugBase microbiome phenotype predictions and PICRUSt bacterial functional potential predictions showed that transcription regulators represented the highest functional category of symbiotic bacteria in soil and coal gangue. Proteobacteria played an important role in various processes such as mobile element pathogenicity, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm formation. In general, this work provides a theoretical basis and data support for the in situ remediation of acidified coal gangue hills based on microbiological methods.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang Z, Liu J, Xu H, et al (2023)

Core Microbiome and Microbial Community Structure in Coralloid Roots of Cycas in Ex Situ Collection of Kunming Botanical Garden in China.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092144.

Endophytes are essential in plant succession and evolution, and essential for stress resistance. Coralloid root is a unique root structure found in cycads that has played a role in resisting adverse environments, yet the core taxa and microbial community of different Cycas species have not been thoroughly investigated. Using amplicon sequencing, we successfully elucidated the microbiomes present in coralloid roots of 10 Cycas species, representing all four sections of Cycas in China. We found that the endophytic bacteria in coralloid roots, i.e., Cyanobacteria, were mainly composed of Desmonostoc_PCC-7422, Nostoc_PCC-73102 and unclassified_f__Nostocaceae. Additionally, the Ascomycota fungi of Exophiala, Paraboeremia, Leptobacillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Diaporthe were identified as the core fungi taxa. The Ascomycota fungi of Nectriaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, Cordycipitaceae, Helotiaceae, Diaporthaceae, Didymellaceae, Clavicipitaceae and Pleosporaceae were identified as the core family taxa in coralloid roots of four sections. High abundance but low diversity of bacterial community was detected in the coralloid roots, but no significant difference among species. The fungal community exhibited much higher complexity compared to bacteria, and diversity was noted among different species or sections. These core taxa, which were a subset of the microbiome that frequently occurred in all, or most, individuals of Cycas species, represent targets for the development of Cycas conservation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Park J, Woo SJ, Hong Y, et al (2023)

Association between the Respiratory Microbiome and Plasma Microbial Extracellular Vesicles in Intubated Patients.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092128.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate various cellular and immunological functions in human diseases. There is growing interest in the clinical role of microbial EVs in pneumonia. However, there is a lack of research on the correlation between lung microbiome with microbial EVs and the microbiome of other body sites in pneumonia. We investigated the co-occurrence of lung microbiome and plasma microbe-derived EVs (mEVs) in 111 samples obtained from 60 mechanically ventilated patients (41 pneumonia and 19 non-pneumonia cases). The microbial correlation between the two samples was compared between the pneumonia and non-pneumonia cases. Bacterial composition of the plasma mEVs was distinct from that of the lung microbiome. There was a significantly higher correlation between lung microbiome and plasma mEVs in non-pneumonia individuals compared to pneumonia patients. In particular, Acinetobacter and Lactobacillus genera had high correlation coefficients in non-pneumonia patients. This indicates a beneficial effect of mEVs in modulating host lung immune response through EV component transfer.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kohil A, Abdalla W, Ibrahim WN, et al (2023)

The Immunomodulatory Role of Microbiota in Rheumatic Heart Disease: What Do We Know and What Can We Learn from Other Rheumatic Diseases?.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(9): pii:medicina59091629.

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) represents a serious cardiac sequela of acute rheumatic fever, occurring in 30-45% of patients. RHD is multifactorial, with a strong familial predisposition and known environmental risk factors that drive loss of immunological tolerance. The gut and oral microbiome have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of RHD. Disruption of the delicate balance of the microbiome, or dysbiosis, is thought to lead to autoimmune responses through several different mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation. However, data on the microbiomes of RHD patients are scarce. Therefore, in this comprehensive review, we explore the various dimensions of the intricate relationship between the microbiome and the immune system in RHD and other rheumatic diseases to explore the potential effect of microbiota on RHD and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mondal A, Sharma R, Abiha U, et al (2023)

A Spectrum of Solutions: Unveiling Non-Pharmacological Approaches to Manage Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(9): pii:medicina59091584.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty while socializing and communicating and the performance of stereotyped behavior. ASD is thought to have a variety of causes when accompanied by genetic disorders and environmental variables together, resulting in abnormalities in the brain. A steep rise in ASD has been seen regardless of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical therapeutic techniques. Therefore, using complementary and alternative therapies to treat autism could be very significant. Thus, this review is completely focused on non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions which include different diets, supplements, antioxidants, hormones, vitamins and minerals to manage ASD. Additionally, we also focus on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, herbal remedies, camel milk and cannabiodiol. Additionally, we concentrate on how palatable phytonutrients provide a fresh glimmer of hope in this situation. Moreover, in addition to phytochemicals/nutraceuticals, it also focuses on various microbiomes, i.e., gut, oral, and vaginal. Therefore, the current comprehensive review opens a new avenue for managing autistic patients through non-pharmacological intervention.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Singh S, Sarma DK, Verma V, et al (2023)

From Cells to Environment: Exploring the Interplay between Factors Shaping Bone Health and Disease.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(9): pii:medicina59091546.

The skeletal system is an extraordinary structure that serves multiple purposes within the body, including providing support, facilitating movement, and safeguarding vital organs. Moreover, it acts as a reservoir for essential minerals crucial for overall bodily function. The intricate interplay of bone cells plays a critical role in maintaining bone homeostasis, ensuring a delicate balance. However, various factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can disrupt this vital physiological process. These factors encompass genetics, aging, dietary and lifestyle choices, the gut microbiome, environmental toxins, and more. They can interfere with bone health through several mechanisms, such as hormonal imbalances, disruptions in bone turnover, direct toxicity to osteoblasts, increased osteoclast activity, immune system aging, impaired inflammatory responses, and disturbances in the gut-bone axis. As a consequence, these disturbances can give rise to a range of bone disorders. The regulation of bone's physiological functions involves an intricate network of continuous processes known as bone remodeling, which is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors within the organism. However, our understanding of the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the complex interactions between environmental factors and the host elements that affect bone health is still in its nascent stages. In light of this, this comprehensive review aims to explore emerging evidence surrounding bone homeostasis, potential risk factors influencing it, and prospective therapeutic interventions for future management of bone-related disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kaluanga Bwanga P, Tremblay-Lemoine PL, Timmermans M, et al (2023)

The Endometrial Microbiota: Challenges and Prospects.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(9): pii:medicina59091540.

Contrary to popular belief, we have known for many years that the endometrium is not a sterile environment and is considered to be a low-biomass milieu compared to the vagina. Numerous trials and studies have attempted to establish a valid sampling method and assess its physiological composition, but no consensus has been reached. Many factors, such as ethnicity, age and inflammation, can influence the microbiome. Moreover, it possesses a higher alpha-diversity and, therefore, contains more diverse bacteria than the vagina. For instance, Lactobacillus has been shown to be a predominant genus in the vaginal microbiome of healthy women. Consequently, even if a majority of scientists postulate that a predominance of Lactobacillus inside the uterus improves reproductive outcomes, vaginal contamination by these bacteria during sampling cannot be ruled out. Certain pathologies, such as chronic endometritis, have been identified as inflammation perpetrators that hinder the embryo implantation process. This pro-inflammatory climate created by dysbiosis of the endometrial microbiota could induce secondary inflammatory mediators via Toll-like receptors, creating an environment conducive to the development of endometriosis and even promoting carcinogenesis. However, studies to this day have focused on small populations. In addition, there is no clearly defined healthy uterine composition yet. At most, only a few taxa have been identified as pathogenic. As sampling and analysis methods become increasingly precise, we can expect the endometrial microbiota to be incorporated into future diagnostic tools and treatments for women's health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kumareswaran A, Ekeuku SO, Mohamed N, et al (2023)

The Effects of Tocotrienol on Gut Microbiota: A Scoping Review.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091882.

Gut dysbiosis has been associated with many chronic diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Gut dysbiosis triggers these diseases through the activation of the immune system by the endotoxins produced by gut microbiota, which leads to systemic inflammation. In addition to pre-/pro-/postbiotics, many natural products can restore healthy gut microbiota composition. Tocotrienol, which is a subfamily of vitamin E, has been demonstrated to have such effects. This scoping review presents an overview of the effects of tocotrienol on gut microbiota according to the existing scientific literature. A literature search to identify relevant studies was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Only original research articles which aligned with the review's objective were examined. Six relevant studies investigating the effects of tocotrienol on gut microbiota were included. All of the studies used animal models to demonstrate that tocotrienol altered the gut microbiota composition, but none demonstrated the mechanism by which this occurred. The studies induced diseases known to be associated with gut dysbiosis in rats. Tocotrienol partially restored the gut microbiota compositions of the diseased rats so that they resembled those of the healthy rats. Tocotrienol also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects in these animals. In conclusion, tocotrienol could exert anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing inflammation directly or partially by altering the gut microbiota composition, thus achieving its therapeutic effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Taufer CR, PH Rampelotto (2023)

The Role of Bifidobacterium in COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091847.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, mainly causes respiratory and intestinal symptoms and changes in the microbiota of patients. We performed a systematic search in major databases using "Bifidobacterium" and "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" as key terms to assess the relationship of the genus to COVID-19. After the selection steps, 25 articles were analyzed. Of these, eighteen were observational, and seven were interventional articles that evaluated the use of Bifidobacterium alone or in mix as probiotics for additional treatment of patients with COVID-19. All stages and severities were contemplated, including post-COVID-19 patients. Overall, Bifidobacterium was associated with both protective effects and reduced abundance in relation to the disease. The genus has been found to be abundant in some cases and linked to disease severity. The studies evaluating the use of Bifidobacterium as probiotics have demonstrated the potential of this genus in reducing symptoms, improving pulmonary function, reducing inflammatory markers, alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms, and even contributing to better control of mortality. In summary, Bifidobacterium may offer protection against COVID-19 through its ability to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, compete with pathogenic microbes, and maintain gut barrier function. The findings provide valuable insights into the relationship between the disease and the genus Bifidobacterium, highlighting the potential of microbiota modulation in the treatment of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gong X, Li S, Wu Z, et al (2023)

Biochar Enhances Soil Resource Availability and Suppresses Microbial Metabolism Genes in the Rhizosphere of Wheat.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091843.

Despite the well-documented role of biochar in promoting soil quality and crop productivity, the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the effects of straw biochar on soil microbiome in the rhizosphere from wheat using metagenomic sequencing. Our results showed that straw return decreased the yields of wheat, while the straw biochar return increased the wheat yields. Further, both the richness and community composition confirmed different effects of the straw return and straw biochar return. The straw biochar return also resulted in greater rhizosphere effects from wheat, represented by resource availability, including soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The rhizosphere effects from wheat, represented by microbial metabolism genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium cycling, however, were decreased by straw biochar returning. In addition, the rhizosphere effects from nitrogen content and the nitrogen cycling genes showed negative relationships with wheat yields. Together, these results revealed that straw biochar enhanced soil resource availability but suppressed microbial metabolism genes in the rhizosphere from wheat, supporting the idea that straw biochar serves as a nutrient pool for crops.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Menditti D, Santagata M, Imola G, et al (2023)

Personalized Medicine in Oral Oncology: Imaging Methods and Biological Markers to Support Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): A Narrative Literature Review.

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(9): pii:jpm13091397.

For decades, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been one of the most prevalent and mortal cancers worldwide. The gold standard for OSCC diagnosis is still histopathology but this narrative multidisciplinary review has the aim to explore the literature about conventional OSCC prognostic indicators related to the pTNM stage at the diagnosis such as the depth of invasion and the lymphovascular invasion associated with distant metastasis as indicators of poor life expectancy. Despite its multifactorial nature and recognizable precursors, its diagnosis at the early stages is still challenging. We wanted to highlight the importance of the screening as a primary weapon that a stomatologist should consider, intercepting all at-risk conditions and lesions associated with OSCC and its early stages. This narrative review also overviews the most promising imaging techniques, such as CT, MRI, and US-echography, and their application related to clinical and surgical practice, but also the most-investigated prognostic and diagnostic tissue and salivary biomarkers helpful in OSCC diagnosis and prognostic assessment. Our work highlighted remarkable potential biomarkers that could have a leading role in the future. However, we are still far from defining an appropriate and concrete protocol to apply in clinical practice. The hope is that the present and future research will overcome these limitations to benefit patients, clinicians, and welfare.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ciccone MM, Lepera ME, Guaricci AI, et al (2023)

Might Gut Microbiota Be a Target for a Personalized Therapeutic Approach in Patients Affected by Atherosclerosis Disease?.

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(9): pii:jpm13091360.

In recent years, the increasing number of studies on the relationship between the gut microbiota and atherosclerosis have led to significant interest in this subject. The gut microbiota, its metabolites (metabolome), such as TMAO, and gut dysbiosis play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, inflammation, originating from the intestinal tract, adds yet another mechanism by which the human ecosystem is disrupted, resulting in the manifestation of metabolic diseases and, by extension, cardiovascular diseases. The scientific community must understand and elucidate these mechanisms in depth, to gain a better understanding of the relationship between atherosclerosis and the gut microbiome and to promote the development of new therapeutic targets in the coming years. This review aims to present the knowledge acquired so far, to trigger others to further investigate this intriguing topic.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang DQ, Li X, Zhang RY, et al (2023)

Effects of Investigational Moisturizers on the Skin Barrier and Microbiome following Exposure to Environmental Aggressors: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Ex Vivo Analysis.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(18): pii:jcm12186078.

The skin microbiota barrier participates in skin barrier function in addition to the physical, chemical, and immunological protective barriers, and is affected by environmental aggressors and skincare regimens. To better understand the exact effects of real-life environmental conditions on the skin and determine the protective methods, this study investigates the effects of three topical cosmetic moisturizers (water gel moisturizers with/without yeast extract (Moisturizers K and C) and a thick-emulsion cream moisturizer (Moisturizer L)) on clinical and skin microbiome endpoints in the presence of environmental aggressors during an 8-week, randomized controlled, triple-blind clinical trial with 110 participants, and molecular- as well as biomarker-level endpoints on ex vivo skin explants after exposure to simulate urban environmental conditions. The results show that all moisturizers are well-tolerated and improve skin barrier function and surface moisture content from the baseline, and the improvement is maintained at the last analysis point (3 days after trial completion). Compared with the untreated control areas (samples taken from the upper chest), treatment with Moisturizer K prevented a reduction in bacterial and fungal richness, and increased the change ratio of the relative abundance of commensal bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Ralstonia, at the treated sites (samples taken from the forehead). Moreover, Moisturizer K-treated ex vivo skin explants had higher levels of caspase 14 (a marker of skin barrier function), collagen I, and elastin (structure components), and lower levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR; activated by air pollutants) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than those in explants treated with other moisturizers and in the untreated areas of the skin. These results suggest that a skin postbiotic moisturizer with yeast extract supports the regulation of the skin's microbiome balance and may provide a holistic barrier (involving skin microbiome, physical, chemical, and immune barriers) to protect the skin against environmental aggressors.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Baek YJ, Lee YJ, Lee JA, et al (2023)

Role of α-Defensin and the Microbiome in Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(18): pii:jcm12185964.

The utility of α-defensin (AD), leukocyte esterase (LE) levels, and metagenomics sequencing as diagnostic tools for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been suggested, but there are few studies among the Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of various biomarkers for PJI and the role of the microbiome in the synovial fluid of patients with prostheses. Patients with suspected knee PJI were enrolled, and their blood and synovial fluid were collected. The cases were classified into the PJI and non-PJI groups. Significant differences between the two groups were observed in the levels of AD (4698 µg/L vs. 296 µg/L, p < 0.001) and positivity for LE (62.5% vs. 21.1%, p = 0.01). AD had 94.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity for diagnosing PJI, whereas LE had 37.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Microbiome taxonomic profiling showed high sensitivity. The number of operational taxonomic units and the richness of the microbiome in the synovial fluid were higher in the non-PJI than in the PJI group. AD has shown encouraging results in the Asian population as a diagnostic biomarker for PJI, and LE can be used as a diagnostic adjunct. The bacterial richness of the synovial fluid is likely associated with infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Pessôa R, Clissa PB, SS Sanabani (2023)

The Interaction between the Host Genome, Epigenome, and the Gut-Skin Axis Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814322.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. It involves complex interactions among the host immune system, environmental factors (such as skin barrier dysfunction), and microbial dysbiosis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified AD risk alleles; however, the associated environmental factors remain largely unknown. Recent evidence suggests that altered microbiota composition (dysbiosis) in the skin and gut may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Examples of environmental factors that contribute to skin barrier dysfunction and microbial dysbiosis in AD include allergens, irritants, pollution, and microbial exposure. Studies have reported alterations in the gut microbiome structure in patients with AD compared to control subjects, characterized by increased abundance of Clostridium difficile and decreased abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria such as Bifidobacterium. SCFAs play a critical role in maintaining host health, and reduced SCFA production may lead to intestinal inflammation in AD patients. The specific mechanisms through which dysbiotic bacteria and their metabolites interact with the host genome and epigenome to cause autoimmunity in AD are still unknown. By understanding the combination of environmental factors, such as gut microbiota, the genetic and epigenetic determinants that are associated with the development of autoantibodies may help unravel the pathophysiology of the disease. This review aims to elucidate the interactions between the immune system, susceptibility genes, epigenetic factors, and the gut microbiome in the development of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yoshida M, Funasaka Y, Saeki H, et al (2023)

Dietary Fiber Inulin Improves Murine Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814197.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with interleukin (IL)-17-dominated inflammation and hyperproliferation of epidermis. Dietary fiber is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that manifest anti-inflammatory effects. We examined if feeding with an inulin-enriched high-fiber diet (HFD) might improve topical imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice. HFD reduced thickening and total severity scores of imiquimod-induced dermatitis and reduced epidermal thickness, inflammatory infiltrates, including Ly6G+ neutrophils, and epidermal Ki67+ proliferating cells. HFD reduced mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, CXCL1, CXCL2, and keratin 16 and increased those of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A in imiquimod-induced dermatitis. In 16S rRNA sequencing of the gut microbiome, imiquimod increased relative abundance of phylum Firmicutes, while HFD increased that of phylum Bacteroidota and genus Bacteroides. HFD increased serum and fecal concentrations of SCFA propionate. Oral propionate reduced inflammatory infiltrates and epidermal Ki67+ cells and reduced mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17C, IL-22, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1, CCL20 and increased those of TGF-β1and IL-10 in imiquimod-indued dermatitis. Dietary inulin supplementation improves imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis partially via propionate, and may be a promising adjunctive therapy for psoriasis.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Turner F, Drury J, Hapangama DK, et al (2023)

Menstrual Tampons Are Reliable and Acceptable Tools to Self-Collect Vaginal Microbiome Samples.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814121.

Many women report embarrassment as the cause for their avoidance of routine gynaecological screening appointments. Methods of self-collection of bio samples would perhaps encourage women to participate in routine screening programs. The vaginal microbiome plays a key role in women's health and reproductive function. Microbial disturbances can result in the loss of lactobacillus dominance, also known as dysbiosis, associated with an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy complications and infertility. Our primary aim was to determine if vaginal microbiome screening results are comparable between two methods for self-collected sample acquisition: tampons and lower vaginal swabs (LVSs). Secondary aims included the assessment of the effect of pre-analytic storage on the data (to streamline processing), the prevalence of dysbiosis and the acceptability of the tampons to the participants. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the microbiome data, from tampons versus LVSs or fresh versus frozen samples. The prevalence of dysbiosis in this population of healthy volunteers was 42.9%. The questionnaire data revealed that 52.4% of volunteers use tampons every period, and the majority of volunteers rated the tampons as 5 on a 1-5 Likert scale regarding their perceived comfort using tampons. All (100%) of volunteers were happy to provide a tampon as a sample for testing. The findings from this study show that tampons and LVSs were comparable when analysing the vaginal microbiome, with potential superiority of the tampon with regard to patient acceptability. Self-collection of vaginal secretions for gynaecological screening using tampons warrants further research as this could change the screening landscape, ensuring wider participation and increasing efficacy.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Schlegel I, De Goüyon Matignon de Pontourade CMF, Lincke JB, et al (2023)

The Human Ocular Surface Microbiome and Its Associations with the Tear Proteome in Dry Eye Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814091.

Although dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ocular surface diseases worldwide, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood, and treatment options are limited. There is growing evidence that complex interactions between the ocular surface microbiome (OSM) and tear fluid constituents, potentially leading to inflammatory processes, are associated with ocular surface diseases such as DED. In this study, we aimed to find unique compositional and functional features of the OSM associated with human and microbial tear proteins in patients with DED. Applying whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of forty lid and conjunctival swabs, we identified 229 taxa, with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria being the most abundant phyla and Propionibacterium acnes the dominating species in the cohort. When DED patients were compared to controls, the species Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum was more abundant in conjunctival samples, whereas the family Propionibacteriaceae was more abundant in lid samples. Functional analysis showed that genes of L-lysine biosynthesis, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis, and the super pathway of L-threonine biosynthesis were enriched in conjunctival samples of controls. The relative abundances of Acinetobacter johnsonii correlated with seven human tear proteins, including mucin-16. The three most abundant microbial tear proteins were the chaperone protein DnaK, the arsenical resistance protein ArsH, and helicase. Compositional and functional features of the OSM and the tear proteome are altered in patients with DED. Ultimately, this may help to design novel interventional therapeutics to target DED.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Burkovski A (2023)

Latest Review Papers in Molecular Microbiology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813990.

This Special Issue-dedicated to high-quality review papers in molecular microbiology-is highlighting two important developments in the field: (i) the analysis of microbiome data in health and disease and (ii) the search for strategies against bacteria showing antimicrobial resistance [...].

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Huang X, Gao Y, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Strontium Chloride Improves Reproductive Function and Alters Gut Microbiota in Male Rats.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813922.

Strontium (Sr) is an essential trace element in the human body and plays an important role in regulating male reproductive health. Recent studies have shown that gut flora plays a key role in maintaining spermatogenesis, as well as testicular health, through the gut-testis axis. At present, it is unclear whether gut microbiota can mediate the effects of Sr on sperm quality, and what the underlying mechanisms may be. We investigated the effects of different concentrations of strontium chloride (SrCl2) solutions (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW) on reproductive function and gut microbiota in male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks, 250 ± 20 g). All the animals were euthanized after 37 days of treatment. The Sr-50 group significantly increased sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm viability in rats. After Sr treatment, serum and testicular testosterone (T) and Sr levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing Sr concentration. At the same time, we also found that testicular marker enzymes (ACP, LDH) and testosterone marker genes (StAR, 3β-HSD, and Cyp11a1) increased significantly in varying degrees after Sr treatment, while serum NO levels decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation of intestinal flora showed that SrCl2 affected the composition of gut microbiome, but did not affect the richness and diversity of gut microbiota. Sr treatment reduced the number of bacteria with negative effects on reproductive health, such as Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Romboutsia, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_014, Weissella, and Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, and added bacteria with negative effects on reproductive health, such as Jeotgalicoccus. To further explore the Sr and the relationship between the gut microbiota, we conducted a Spearman correlation analysis, and the results showed that the gut microbiota was closely correlated with Sr content in serum and testicular tissue, sex hormone levels, and testicular marker enzymes. Additionally, gut microbiota can also regulate each other and jointly maintain the homeostasis of the body's internal environment. However, we found no significant correlation between intestinal flora and sperm quality in this study, which may be related to the small sample size of our 16S rDNA sequencing. In conclusion, the Sr-50 group significantly increased T levels and sperm quality, and improved the levels of testicular marker enzymes and testosterone marker genes in the rats. Sr treatment altered the gut flora of the rats. However, further analysis of the effects of gut microbiota in mediating the effects of SrCl2 on male reproductive function is needed. This study may improve the current understanding of the interaction between Sr, reproductive health, and gut microbiota, providing evidence for the development of Sr-rich foods and the prevention of male fertility decline.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Guo W, Tang X, Zhang Q, et al (2023)

Mitigation of Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice through Oral Administration of Microbiome-Derived Inosine and Its Underlying Mechanisms.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813852.

BACKGROUND: Colonic and serum inosine are significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

METHODS: This study aimed to explore whether microbiome-derived inosine alleviates colitis and its underlying mechanisms.

RESULTS: An inosine intervention effectively improved the clinical signs in colitis mice, suppressed inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β) by regulating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, and elevated the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) by regulating the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Additionally, the inosine intervention significantly elevated the expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occudin, and claudin-1) in mice with colitis. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the inosine intervention also prevented gut microbiota disorder by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Romboutsia, Marvinbryantia, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, and Bifidobacterium) and reducing the abundance of harmful bacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Tyzzerella) in mice with colitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Inosine played a significant role in mitigating colitis-related intestinal barrier injury and could potentially be used for therapy in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gryaznova M, Kozarenko O, Smirnova Y, et al (2023)

Cervical and Vaginal Microbiomes in Early Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancy with and without Dydrogesterone Usage.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813836.

Emerging evidence suggests that the reproductive tract microbiota is a key modulator of local inflammatory and immune pathways throughout pregnancy and may subsequently impact pregnancy outcomes. In this study, our objective was to analyze the cervical and vaginal microbiomes during early pregnancy among three groups: women with healthy ongoing pregnancies, women undergoing dydrogesterone treatment, and those who experienced miscarriages. The experiment involved 51 women at 8-11 weeks of gestation. The microbiome was examined using 16S rRNA sequencing on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. Across all groups, Lactobacillus iners was predominant, suggesting that the vaginal community type CST III is common among the majority of participants. Notably, our data highlighted the significant roles of Gardnerella vaginalis and Mycoplasma girerdii in the pathogenesis of early miscarriage. Conversely, L. iners and Bifidobacterium longum have a protective effect in early pregnancy. Moreover, dydrogesterone intake appeared to influence notable differences between the cervical and vaginal microbiomes. Overall, our study enhanced our understanding of the cervical and vaginal microbiome composition in the eastern European population during early pregnancy.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mousa WK, Mousa S, Ghemrawi R, et al (2023)

Probiotics Modulate Host Immune Response and Interact with the Gut Microbiota: Shaping Their Composition and Mediating Antibiotic Resistance.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813783.

The consortium of microbes inhabiting the human body, together with their encoded genes and secreted metabolites, is referred to as the "human microbiome." Several studies have established a link between the composition of the microbiome and its impact on human health. This impact spans local gastrointestinal inflammation to systemic autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Autism. Some of these links have been validated by rigorous experiments that identify specific strains as mediators or drivers of a particular condition. Consequently, the development of probiotics to compensate for a missing beneficial microbe(s) has advanced and become popular, especially in the treatment of irritable bowel diseases and to restore disrupted gut flora after antibiotic administration. The widespread use of probiotics is often advocated as a natural ecological therapy. However, this perception is not always accurate, as there is a potential for unexpected interactions when administering live microbial cultures. Here, we designed this research to explore the intricate interactions among probiotics, the host, and microbes through a series of experiments. Our objectives included assessing their immunomodulatory effects, response to oral medications, impact on microbial population dynamics, and mediation of antibiotic resistance. To achieve these goals, we employed diverse experimental protocols, including cell-based enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibiotic susceptibility testing, antimicrobial activity assays, computational prediction of probiotic genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based validation of predicted genes, and survival assays of probiotics in the presence of selected oral medications. Our findings highlight that more than half of the tested probiotics trigger an inflammatory response in the Caco-2 cell line, are influenced by oral medications, exhibit antibacterial activity, and possess genes encoding antimicrobial resistance. These results underscore the necessity for a reevaluation of probiotic usage and emphasize the importance of establishing regulations to govern probiotic testing, approval, and administration.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Aitmanaitė L, Širmonaitis K, G Russo (2023)

Microbiomes, Their Function, and Cancer: How Metatranscriptomics Can Close the Knowledge Gap.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813786.

The interaction between the microbial communities in the human body and the onset and progression of cancer has not been investigated until recently. The vast majority of the metagenomics research in this area has concentrated on the composition of microbiomes, attempting to link the overabundance or depletion of certain microorganisms to cancer proliferation, metastatic behaviour, and its resistance to therapies. However, studies elucidating the functional implications of the microbiome activity in cancer patients are still scarce; in particular, there is an overwhelming lack of studies assessing such implications directly, through analysis of the transcriptome of the bacterial community. This review summarises the contributions of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to the knowledge of the microbial environment associated with several cancers; most importantly, it highlights all the advantages that metatranscriptomics has over metagenomics and suggests how such an approach can be leveraged to advance the knowledge of the cancer bacterial environment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Haș IM, Tit DM, Bungau SG, et al (2023)

Cardiometabolic Risk: Characteristics of the Intestinal Microbiome and the Role of Polyphenols.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813757.

Cardiometabolic diseases like hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and obesity have been associated with changes in the gut microbiota structure, or dysbiosis. The beneficial effect of polyphenols on reducing the incidence of this chronic disease has been confirmed by numerous studies. Polyphenols are primarily known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but they can also modify the gut microbiota. According to recent research, polyphenols positively influence the gut microbiota, which regulates metabolic responses and reduces systemic inflammation. This review emphasizes the prebiotic role of polyphenols and their impact on specific gut microbiota components in patients at cardiometabolic risk. It also analyzes the most recent research on the positive effects of polyphenols on cardiometabolic health. While numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the interaction involving polyphenols and gut microbiota, additional clinical investigations are required to assess this effect in people.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Coradduzza D, Sedda S, Cruciani S, et al (2023)

Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Focus on Microbiome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813680.

Aging is a complex process influenced by genetics and the environment, leading to physiological decline and increased susceptibility to diseases. Cognitive decline is a prominent feature of aging, with implications for different neurodegenerative disorders. The gut microbiome has gained attention for its potential impact on health and disease, including cognitive function. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and cognitive function in the context of aging. Following PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive search strategy was employed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Studies exploring the role of the microbiome in cognition and neurodegenerative disorders, published between 2013 and 2023, were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed. Quantitative synthesis using statistical analyses was performed to examine microbial diversity and relative abundance in various cognitive conditions. Sixteen studies involving a total of 1303 participants were included in the analysis. The gut microbiota's relative abundance was different in individuals with cognitive impairments such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, compared to the healthy controls. The most prevalent phyla affected were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Meta-analyses indicated substantial heterogeneity among studies focusing on Alzheimer's disease. The overall quality of evidence related to microbial analysis was moderate. The gut microbiome's role in cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders warrants investigation. Altered microbial abundance, particularly in specific phyla, is associated with cognitive impairments. However, variations in study findings and methodologies highlight the complexity of the relationship between the gut microbiome and cognitive function. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this connection and its potential implications for aging and cognitive health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hu Y, Satten GA, YJ Hu (2023)

Impact of Experimental Bias on Compositional Analysis of Microbiome Data.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091777.

Microbiome data are subject to experimental bias that is caused by DNA extraction and PCR amplification, among other sources, but this important feature is often ignored when developing statistical methods for analyzing microbiome data. McLaren, Willis, and Callahan (2019) proposed a model for how such biases affect the observed taxonomic profiles; this model assumes the main effects of bias without taxon-taxon interactions. Our newly developed method for testing the differential abundance of taxa, LOCOM, is the first method to account for experimental bias and is robust to the main effect biases. However, there is also evidence for taxon-taxon interactions. In this report, we formulated a model for interaction biases and used simulations based on this model to evaluate the impact of interaction biases on the performance of LOCOM as well as other available compositional analysis methods. Our simulation results indicate that LOCOM remained robust to a reasonable range of interaction biases. The other methods tend to have an inflated FDR even when there were only main effect biases. LOCOM maintained the highest sensitivity even when the other methods could not control the FDR. We thus conclude that LOCOM outperforms the other methods for compositional analysis of microbiome data considered here.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Raber J, Stagaman K, Kasschau KD, et al (2023)

Behavioral and Cognitive Performance Following Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) from Tobacco Products Associated with Oxidative-Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Repair and Disruption of the Gut Microbiome.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091702.

Exposure to second-hand Smoke (SHS) remains prevalent. The underlying mechanisms of how SHS affects the brain require elucidation. We tested the hypothesis that SHS inhalation drives changes in the gut microbiome, impacting behavioral and cognitive performance as well as neuropathology in two-month-old wild-type (WT) mice and mice expressing wild-type human tau, a genetic model pertinent to Alzheimer's disease mice, following chronic SHS exposure (10 months to ~30 mg/m[3]). SHS exposure impacted the composition of the gut microbiome as well as the biodiversity and evenness of the gut microbiome in a sex-dependent fashion. This variation in the composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiome is also associated with several measures of cognitive performance. These results support the hypothesis that the gut microbiome contributes to the effect of SHS exposure on cognition. The percentage of 8-OHdG-labeled cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was also associated with performance in the novel object recognition test, consistent with urine and serum levels of 8-OHdG serving as a biomarker of cognitive performance in humans. We also assessed the effects of SHS on the percentage of p21-labeled cells, an early cellular marker of senescence that is upregulated in bronchial cells after exposure to cigarette smoke. Nuclear staining of p21-labeled cells was more prominent in larger cells of the prefrontal cortex and CA1 hippocampal neurons of SHS-exposed mice than in sham-exposed mice, and there was a significantly greater percentage of labelled cells in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus of SHS than air-exposed mice, suggesting that exposure to SHS may result in accelerated brain aging through oxidative-stress-induced injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Carapeto S, Cunha E, Serrano I, et al (2023)

Effect of the Administration of a Lyophilised Faecal Capsules on the Intestinal Microbiome of Dogs: A Pilot Study.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091676.

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy for modulating the gut microbiome. We aimed to assess the effect of the oral administration of capsules containing lyophilised faeces on dogs with diarrhoea for 2 months as well as evaluate their long-term influence on animals' faecal consistency and intestinal microbiome. This pilot study included five dogs: two used as controls and three with diarrhoea. Animals were evaluated for four months by performing a monthly faecal samples collection and physical examination, which included faecal consistency determination using the Bristol scale. The total number of viable bacteria present in the capsules was quantified and their bacterial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which was also applied to the faecal samples. During the assay, no side effects were reported. Animals' faecal consistency improved and, after ending capsules administration, Bristol scale values remained stable in two of the three animals. The animals' microbiome gradually changed toward a composition associated with a balanced microbiota. After FMT, a slight shift was observed in its composition, but the capsules' influence remained evident during the 4-month period. Capsules administration seems to have a positive effect on the microbiota modulation; however, studies with more animals should be performed to confirm our observations.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Xie H, Chen J, Chen Q, et al (2023)

The Diagnostic Value of Gut Microbiota Analysis for Post-Stroke Sleep Disorders.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182970.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota have been associated with many psychiatric disorders. However, the changes in the composition of gut microbiota in patients with post-stroke sleep disorders (PSSDs) remain unclear. Here, we determined the gut microbial signature of PSSD patients.

METHODS: Fecal samples of 205 patients with ischemic stroke were collected within 24 h of admission and were further analyzed using 16 s RNA gene sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis. The diversity, community composition, and differential microbes of gut microbiota were assessed. The outcome of sleep disorders was determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at 3 months after admission. The diagnostic performance of microbial characteristics in predicting PSSDs was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

RESULTS: Our results showed that the composition and structure of microbiota in patients with PSSDs were different from those without sleep disorders (PSNSDs). Moreover, the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) showed significant differences in gut-associated bacteria, such as species of Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Dielma, Blautia, Paeniclostridium, and Sutterella. We further managed to identify the optimal microbiota signature and revealed that the predictive model with eight operational-taxonomic-unit-based biomarkers achieved a high accuracy in PSSD prediction (AUC = 0.768). Blautia and Streptococcus were considered to be the key microbiome signatures for patients with PSSD.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that a specific gut microbial signature was an important predictor of PSSDs, which highlighted the potential of microbiota as a promising biomarker for detecting PSSD patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Stojic J, Kukla M, I Grgurevic (2023)

The Intestinal Microbiota in the Development of Chronic Liver Disease: Current Status.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182960.

Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a significant global health burden, leading to millions of deaths annually. The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in this context, allowing the transport of gut-derived products directly to the liver, as well as biological compounds from the liver to the intestine. The gut microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining the health of the digestive system. A change in gut microbiome composition as seen in dysbiosis is associated with immune dysregulation, altered energy and gut hormone regulation, and increased intestinal permeability, contributing to inflammatory mechanisms and damage to the liver, irrespective of the underlying etiology of CLD. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and those with CLD, including the factors that affect this composition, the impact of the altered microbiome on the liver, and the mechanisms by which it occurs. Furthermore, this review analyzes the effects of gut microbiome modulation on the course of CLD, by using pharmacotherapy, nutrition, fecal microbiota transplantation, supplements, and probiotics. This review opens avenues for the translation of knowledge about gut-liver interplay into clinical practice as an additional tool to fight CLD and its complications.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lima MDC, do Nascimento HMA, da Silva JYP, et al (2023)

Evidence for the Beneficial Effects of Brazilian Native Fruits and Their By-Products on Human Intestinal Microbiota and Repercussions on Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases-A Review.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183491.

Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) are the most widespread cause of mortality worldwide. Intestinal microbiota balance can be altered by changes in the abundance and/or diversity of intestinal microbiota, indicating a role of intestinal microbiota in NCD development. This review discusses the findings of in vitro studies, pre-clinical studies and clinical trials on the effects of Brazilian native fruits, their by-products, as well as their bioactive compounds on human intestinal microbiota and NCD. The major bioactive compounds in Brazilian native fruits and their by-products, and the impacts of their administration on outcomes linked to intestinal microbiota modulation are discussed. Mechanisms of intestinal microbiota affecting NCD could be linked to the modulation of absorption and energy balance, immune and endocrine systems, and inflammatory response. Brazilian native fruits, such as acerola, açaí, baru, buriti, guava, jabuticaba, juçara, and passion fruit, have several bioactive compounds, soluble and insoluble fibers, and a variety of phenolic compounds, which are capable of changing these key mechanisms. Brazilian native fruits and their by-products can help to promote positive intestinal and systemic health benefits by driving alterations in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, and increasing the production of distinct short-chain fatty acids and phenolic metabolites, thereby enhancing intestinal integrity and homeostasis. Evidence from available literature shows that the modulatory impacts of Brazilian native fruits and their by-products on the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota could improve several clinical repercussions associated with NCD, reinforcing the influence of intestinal microbiota in extra-intestinal outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wen L, Sun L, Chen R, et al (2023)

Metabolome and Microbiome Analysis to Study the Flavor of Summer Black Tea Improved by Stuck Fermentation.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183414.

Tea is the most popular and widely consumed beverage worldwide, especially black tea. Summer tea has a bitter and astringent taste and low aroma compared to spring tea due to the higher content of polyphenols and lower content of amino acids. Microbial fermentation is routinely used to improve the flavor of various foods. This study analyzed the relationship between the quality of black tea, metabolic characteristics, and microbial communities after microbial stuck fermentation in summer black tea. Stuck fermentation decreased the bitterness, astringency sourness, and freshness, and increased the sweetness, mellowness, and smoothness of summer black tea. The aroma also changed from sweet and floral to fungal, with a significant improvement in overall quality. Metabolomics analysis revealed significant changes in 551 non-volatile and 345 volatile metabolites after fermentation. The contents of compounds with bitter and astringent taste were decreased. Sweet flavor saccharides and aromatic lipids, and acetophenone and isophorone that impart fungal aroma showed a marked increase. These changes are the result of microbial activities, especially the secretion of extracellular enzymes. Aspergillus, Pullululanibacillus, and Bacillus contribute to the reduction of bitterness and astringency in summer black teas after stuck fermentation, and Paenibacillus and Basidiomycota_gen_Incertae_sedis contribute positively to sweetness. In addition, Aspergillus was associated with the formation of fungal aroma. In summary, our research will provide a suitable method for the improvement of tea quality and utilization of summer tea, as well as provide a reference for innovation and improvement in the food industry.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yasir M, Alkhaldy AA, Soliman SA, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Insights into the Microbiome and Resistance Genes of Traditional Fermented Foods in Arabia.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183342.

This study uncovered microbial communities and evaluated the microbiological safety of traditional fermented foods consumed in the Arab region. Samples of dairy and non-dairy fermented foods-mish, jibneh, zabadi, and pickles-were collected from local markets in Saudi Arabia. Using the MiSeq system, samples were sequenced using 16S amplicons and shotgun metagenomics. Alpha and beta diversity indicated inter- and intra-variation in the studied fermented foods' bacterial communities. In the case of mish, the replicates were clustered. Twenty-one genera were found to be significantly different (FDR < 0.05) in abundance in pairwise comparison of fermented foods. Five high-quality, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Streptococcus thermophiles, and Lactobacillus acetotolerans were retrieved from the shotgun sequencing representing the dominant taxa in the studied fermented foods. Additionally, 33 genes that cause antimicrobial resistance (ARGs) against ten different antibiotic classes were detected. Metabolic pathways were abundant in the studied metagenomes, such as amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cofactors, and vitamin biosynthesis. Metagenomic evaluation of Arabian fermented foods, including the identification of probiotics, pathogenic bacteria, and ARGs, illustrates the importance of microbiological analysis in evaluating their health effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fratianni F, De Giulio B, d'Acierno A, et al (2023)

In Vitro Prebiotic Effects and Antibacterial Activity of Five Leguminous Honeys.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183338.

Honey is a natural remedy for various health conditions. It exhibits a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiome, including lactobacilli, essential for maintaining gut health and regulating the im-mune system. In addition, monofloral honey can show peculiar therapeutic properties. We in-vestigated some legumes honey's prebiotic properties and potential antimicrobial action against different pathogens. We assessed the prebiotic potentiality of honey by evaluating the antioxidant activity, the growth, and the in vitro adhesion of Lacticaseibacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus intact cells. We also tested the honey's capacity to inhibit or limit the biofilm produced by five pathogenic strains. Finally, we assessed the anti-biofilm activity of the growth medium of probiotics cultured with honey as an energy source. Most probiotics increased their growth or the in vitro adhesion ability to 84.13% and 48.67%, respectively. Overall, alfalfa honey best influenced the probiotic strains' growth and in vitro adhesion properties. Their radical-scavenging activity arrived at 83.7%. All types of honey increased the antioxidant activity of the probiotic cells, except for the less sensitive L. plantarum. Except for a few cases, we observed a bio-film-inhibitory action of all legumes' honey, with percentages up to 81.71%. Carob honey was the most effective in inhibiting the biofilm of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus; it retained almost entirely the ability to act against the bio-film of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus also when added to the bacterial growth medium instead of glucose. On the other hand, alfalfa and astragalus honey exhibited greater efficacy in acting against the biofilm of Acinetobacter baumannii. Indigo honey, whose biofilm-inhibitory action was fragile per se, was very effective when we added it to the culture broth of L. casei, whose supernatant exhibited an anti-biofilm activity against all the pathogenic strains tested. Conclusions: the five kinds of honey in different ways can improve some prebiotic properties and have an inhibitory biofilm effect when consumed.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Motoc GV, Juncar RI, Moca AE, et al (2023)

The Relationship between Age, Gender, BMI, Diet, Salivary pH and Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria in Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092374.

The oral microbiome can be influenced by many factors and its dysbiosis can have negative effects on oral and general health. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intensity of 11 periodontal pathogenic microorganisms identified in the oral cavity of a sample of children and adolescents from Oradea, Romania and to investigate the association of some variables (age, gender, body mass index, diet, and salivary pH) with the identified microorganisms. The cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of clinically healthy patients under the age of 18 years from Oradea, Romania. For the analysis of the periodontal pathogens, the micro-IDent kit was used, which determines 11 bacterial markers for periodontitis and peri-implantitis. The kit is based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial sampling was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. A total of 60 children (23 male, 37 female) were included in this study, and were divided into three different age categories. No statistically significant results were identified for gender. However statistically significant results were obtained for other variables. Positive results for Prevotella intermedia and Bacteroides forsythus were associated with ages between 13 and 18 years, while positive results for Capnocytophaga spp. were associated with ages between 2 and 5 years. Positive results for Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Campylobacter rectus and Eikenella corodens were associated with an overweight BMI. Negative results for Prevotella intermedia and Eikenella corodens were associated with a natural diet in the first 6 months of life. Positive results for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Campylobacter rectus were associated with an acidic salivary pH. In this study, the identified periodontal pathogens were associated with age, body mass index, diet in the first 6 months of life, and salivary pH.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Shakhpazyan N, Mikhaleva L, Bedzhanyan A, et al (2023)

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of the Tumor Stroma in Colorectal Cancer: Insights into Disease Progression and Therapeutic Targets.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092361.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health burden worldwide and is the third most common type of cancer. The early detection and diagnosis of CRC is critical to improve patient outcomes. This review explores the intricate interplay between the tumor microenvironment, stromal interactions, and the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer. The review begins by assessing the gut microbiome's influence on CRC development, emphasizing its association with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The role of the Wnt signaling pathway in CRC tumor stroma is scrutinized, elucidating its impact on disease progression. Tumor budding, its effect on tumor stroma, and the implications for patient prognosis are investigated. The review also identifies conserved oncogenic signatures (COS) within CRC stroma and explores their potential as therapeutic targets. Lastly, the seed and soil hypothesis is employed to contextualize metastasis, accentuating the significance of both tumor cells and the surrounding stroma in metastatic propensity. This review highlights the intricate interdependence between CRC cells and their microenvironment, providing valuable insights into prospective therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-stroma interactions.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Narciso A, Barra Caracciolo A, C De Carolis (2023)

Overview of Direct and Indirect Effects of Antibiotics on Terrestrial Organisms.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091471.

Antibiotics (ABs) have made it possible to treat bacterial infections, which were in the past untreatable and consequently fatal. Regrettably, their use and abuse among humans and livestock led to antibiotic resistance, which has made them ineffective in many cases. The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacteria is not limited to nosocomial environments, but also involves water and soil ecosystems. The environmental presence of ABs and ARGs is a hot topic, and their direct and indirect effects, are still not well known or clarified. A particular concern is the presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems due to the application of agro-zootechnical waste (e.g., manure and biosolids), which can introduce antibiotic residues and ARGs to soils. This review provides an insight of recent findings of AB direct and indirect effects on terrestrial organisms, focusing on plant and invertebrates. Possible changing in viability and organism growth, AB bioaccumulation, and shifts in associated microbiome composition are reported. Oxidative stress responses of plants (such as reactive oxygen species production) to antibiotics are also described.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Smoglica C, Farooq M, Ruffini F, et al (2023)

Microbial Community and Abundance of Selected Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Poultry Litter from Conventional and Antibiotic-Free Farms.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091461.

In this study, a culture-independent approach was applied to compare the microbiome composition and the abundance of the antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) aadA2 for aminoglycosides, tet(A), tet(B), tet(K), and tet(M) for tetracyclines, and mcr-1 for colistin in broiler litter samples collected from conventional and antibiotic-free flocks located in Central Italy. A total of 13 flocks and 26 litter samples, collected at the beginning and at the end of each rearing cycle, were submitted to 16s rRNA sequence analysis and quantitative PCR for targeted ARGs. Firmicutes resulted in the dominant phylum in both groups of flocks, and within it, the Clostridia and Bacilli classes showed a similar distribution. Conversely, in antibiotic-free flocks, a higher frequency of Actinobacteria class and Clostridiaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae families were reported, while in the conventional group, routinely treated with antibiotics for therapeutic purposes, the Bacteroidia class and the Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillaceae families were predominant. All investigated samples were found to be positive for at least one ARG, with the mean values of aadA2 and tet(A) the highest in conventional flocks by a significant margin. The results suggest that antibiotic use can influence the frequency of resistance determinants and the microbial community in poultry flocks, even though other environmental factors should also be investigated more deeply in order to identify additional drivers of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jaroszewski J, Mamun N, K Czaja (2023)

Bidirectional Interaction between Tetracyclines and Gut Microbiome.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091438.

The escalating misuse of antibiotics, particularly broad-spectrum antibiotics, has emerged as a pivotal driver of drug resistance. Among these agents, tetracyclines are widely prescribed for bacterial infections, but their indiscriminate use can profoundly alter the gut microbiome, potentially compromising both their effectiveness and safety. This review delves into the intricate and dynamic interplay between tetracyclines and the gut microbiome, shedding light on their reciprocal influence. By exploring the effects of tetracyclines on the gut microbiome and the impact of gut microbiota on tetracycline therapy, we seek to gain deeper insights into this complex relationship, ultimately guiding strategies for preserving antibiotic efficacy and mitigating resistance development.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kang X, Li XD, Luo CY, et al (2023)

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lacticaseibacillus Chiayiensis AACE3 on Hepatic Antioxidant Capacity, Immune Factors and Gut Microbiology in Nandan Yao Chicks.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091356.

The growing issue of antibiotic resistance has restrained the utilization of antibiotics as growth enhancers in the poultry industry. Probiotics are candidates for replacing antibiotics in the poultry industry. However, probiotics are strain-specific and their efficacy needs to be investigated before applying them. The aim of this study was to assess the positive effects of Lacticaseibacillus chiayiensis AACE3 on the health and gut microbiota of Nandan Yao chicks. The results showed that compared with the blank control (NC) and aureomycin (PC) groups, L. chiayiensis AACE3 increased final body weight (BW), villus height and improved the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in chicken jejunal tissues. L. chiayiensis AACE3 also increased the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and T-AOC) and reduced hepatic oxidative damage (MDA). Furthermore, compared to NC, L. chiayiensis AACE3, the activity of intestinal digestive enzymes (i.e., α-amylase, lipase and trypsin) was increased. L. chiayiensis AACE3 upregulated the production of IgA and IgG and downregulated the production of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in chicken serum. Moreover, supplementation of L. chiayiensis AACE3 enhances the diversity of gut microbes. At the phylum level, the abundance of Actinobacteriota and Proteobacteria decreased with L. chiayiensis AACE3 supplementation, while the abundance of Verrucomicrobiota and Bacteroidetes increased. At the genus level, there was an increase in the abundance of potential probiotics Akkermansia, Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, and Lactobacillus. This study confirms that L. chiayiensis AACE3 is an excellent feed additive as an alternative to aureomycin and offers various advantages for the healthy growth of chickens during the brooding period by positively affecting their gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Baima G, Ribaldone DG, Romano F, et al (2023)

The Gum-Gut Axis: Periodontitis and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancers.

Cancers, 15(18): pii:cancers15184594.

Periodontitis has been linked to an increased risk of various chronic non-communicable diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers. Indeed, dysbiosis of the oral microbiome and immune-inflammatory pathways related to periodontitis may impact the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and its accessory organs through the so-called "gum-gut axis". In addition to the hematogenous spread of periodontal pathogens and inflammatory cytokines, recent research suggests that oral pathobionts may translocate to the gastrointestinal tract through saliva, possibly impacting neoplastic processes in the gastrointestinal, liver, and pancreatic systems. The exact mechanisms by which oral pathogens contribute to the development of digestive tract cancers are not fully understood but may involve dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, chronic inflammation, and immune modulation/evasion, mainly through the interaction with T-helper and monocytic cells. Specifically, keystone periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, are known to interact with the molecular hallmarks of gastrointestinal cancers, inducing genomic mutations, and promote a permissive immune microenvironment by impairing anti-tumor checkpoints. The evidence gathered here suggests a possible role of periodontitis and oral dysbiosis in the carcinogenesis of the enteral tract. The "gum-gut axis" may therefore represent a promising target for the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Piawah S, Kyaw TS, Trepka K, et al (2023)

Associations between the Gut Microbiota, Race, and Ethnicity of Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot and Feasibility Study.

Cancers, 15(18): pii:cancers15184546.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is more prevalent among some racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status populations. Although the gut microbiota is a risk factor for CRC and varies with race and ethnicity, its role in CRC disparities remains poorly understood.

METHODS: We examined the feasibility of recruiting sociodemographically diverse CRC patients for a microbiome study involving a home stool collection. We also explored whether race and ethnicity were associated with gut microbiome composition. We recruited Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and non-Hispanic White patients who were receiving care for active CRC to complete a comprehensive dietary and lifestyle survey, self-collect a stool sample, and complete an exit interview. Gut microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: 30 individuals consented (of 35 who were eligible and contacted) with 5 (17%) Black/African American, 11 (37%) Hispanic/Latino, and 14 (46%) non-Hispanic White. A total of 22 (73%) completed the dietary and lifestyle survey; 18 (63%) returned a stool sample. Even after controlling for socioeconomic, dietary, or treatment-related covariates, microbiome composition was associated with race and ethnicity. Fusobacteriota (a phylum associated with the development and progression of CRC) was significantly higher in the Black/African American group compared to others, and microbial diversity was higher in samples from non-Hispanic White individuals compared to Hispanic/Latino individuals.

CONCLUSION: Our study shows that it is feasible to recruit and collect stool samples from diverse individuals with CRC and found significant associations in gut microbial structure with race and ethnicity.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

An J, Kwon H, YJ Kim (2023)

The Role of Blood Microbiome in the Development of Thyroid Cancer in Breast Cancer Survivors.

Cancers, 15(18): pii:cancers15184492.

Patients diagnosed with breast cancer are likely to be diagnosed with thyroid cancer as a second primary cancer. Similarly, patients with thyroid cancer are likely to develop breast cancer. In this study, we found an association between these two types of cancers in the microbiomes of patients with breast cancer. Blood samples were collected from 96 patients with breast cancer, their bacterial extracellular vesicles were isolated, and their microbiomes were analyzed. After microbiome analysis, researchers performed thyroid function tests, estrogen levels, and thyroid ultrasound results of these patients, and the relationships among these parameters were analyzed. Based on the thyroid ultrasonography results, differences in the microbiome were confirmed in the normal, cyst, nodule, and thyroid lobectomy groups. We investigated the microbiome differences between normal thyroid and thyroid cancer. In particular, the abundance of the genus Bacillus is related to estrogen levels, which could affect thyroid abnormalities and increase thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. This study explains the causes of thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer using microbiomes and serological tests for thyroid hormones and estrogen. These can be used as basic data for preventing thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dadgar N, Edlukudige Keshava V, Raj MS, et al (2023)

The Influence of the Microbiome on Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer.

Cancers, 15(18): pii:cancers15184426.

Immunotherapy has shown promise as a treatment option for gastroesophageal cancer, but its effectiveness is limited in many patients due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) commonly found in gastrointestinal tumors. This paper explores the impact of the microbiome on the TME and immunotherapy outcomes in gastroesophageal cancer. The microbiome, comprising microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract, as well as within malignant tissue, plays a crucial role in modulating immune responses and tumor development. Dysbiosis and reduced microbial diversity are associated with poor response rates and treatment resistance, while specific microbial profiles correlate with improved outcomes. Understanding the complex interactions between the microbiome, tumor biology, and immunotherapy is crucial for developing targeted interventions. Microbiome-based biomarkers may enable personalized treatment approaches and prediction of patient response. Interventions targeting the microbiome, such as microbiota-based therapeutics and dietary modifications, offer the potential for reshaping the gut microbiota and creating a favorable TME that enhances immunotherapy efficacy. Further research is needed to reveal the underlying mechanisms, and large-scale clinical trials will be required to validate the efficacy of microbiome-targeted interventions.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Linde DA, Schokker D, du Toit CJL, et al (2023)

The Effect of a Bacillus Probiotic and Essential Oils Compared to an Ionophore on the Rumen Microbiome Composition of Feedlot Cattle.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182927.

The rising concern of antibiotic growth promoter use in livestock has necessitated the investigation into alternative feed additives. The effect of a probiotic and essential oils to an ionophore on the rumen microbiome composition of Bonsmara bulls raised under feedlot conditions was compared. Forty-eight Bonsmara weaners were allocated to four groups: a group with basal diet (CON) and three groups supplemented with monensin (MON), probiotic (PRO), and essential oils (EO). During the 120 days feeding period, rumen content was collected from four animals per group within each phase via a stomach tube for 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing as well as volatile fatty acid analysis. In the starter phase, MON had a significantly lower acetate to propionate ratio and a higher Succinivibrionaceae abundance. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae was significantly higher in EO compared to MON. In the finisher phase, PRO had a significantly higher bacterial diversity. The alpha diversity did not differ between the fungal populations of the groups. The abundance of Proteobacteria was the lowest in PRO compared to the other groups. Limited variation was observed between the rumen microbiome composition of monensin compared to the other treatment groups, indicating that these alternatives can be considered.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ni J, Wang J, Zhao K, et al (2023)

Vaginal Microbiome Dynamics of Cows in Different Parities.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182880.

At present, there is still room for research on the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and the reproductive health of dairy cows. In this study, high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to explore the differences of bacterial communities of dairy cows of different births, gain a deeper understanding of cow reproductive physiology, and maintain cow health. With the increase in parity, the number of vaginal flora decreased from 3511 to 469, but the number of species increased significantly, and Chao1 increased from 1226.41 ± 345.40 to 1467.76 ± 269.76. There was a significant difference in the number of vaginal microbiome functions between uncounted cows and calving cows. There was no significant difference in microbial diversity in calves. The relative abundance variation of vaginal microbiota in high-parity cows is less than that in low-parity cows. The amino acid metabolism of calves increased, the endocrine function of high-parity cows was enhanced, and the function of the vaginal microbiome increased after the first delivery, which gradually decreased with the increase in parity. This study also found that Methanobacteria and Caviibacter may be involved in amino acid metabolism and endocrine function, and they may play a key role in cow reproduction. This study provides an important theoretical basis for studying changes in vaginal microorganisms in dairy cows, improves the understanding of reproductive health and production performance, and provides a scientific basis for improving the reproductive management of dairy cows.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Huang Q, Chen Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Effects of Phlorotannins from Sargassum on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation, Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profile.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182854.

The fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products are closely associated with human health. Ruminal microbiota play a vital role in modulating rumen biohydrogenation (BH). The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary supplementation with phlorotannins (PTs) extracted from Sargassum on rumen fermentation, fatty acid composition and bacterial communities by an in vitro culture study. The inclusion of PTs in the diet increased dry matter digestibility and gas production, and reduced ammonia-N concentration and pH. PT extract inhibited rumen BH, increasing the content of trans-9 C18:1, cis-9 C18:1, trans-9 and trans-12 C18:2 and reducing C18:0 concentration. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that PTs caused an obvious change in rumen bacterial communities. The presence of Prevotella decreased while carbohydrate-utilizing bacteria such as Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, Ruminococcus, Selenomonas, Ruminobacter and Fibrobacter increased. Correlation analysis between rumen FA composition and the bacterial microbiome revealed that Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, Anaerovorax, Ruminococcus, Ruminobacter, Fibrobacter, Lachnospiraceae_AC2044_group and Clostridia_UCG-014 might have been involved in the BH process. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inclusion of PTs in the diet improved rumen fermentation and FA composition through modulating the rumen bacterial community.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Philipp TM, Scheller AS, Krafczyk N, et al (2023)

Methanethiol: A Scent Mark of Dysregulated Sulfur Metabolism in Cancer.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antiox12091780.

In order to cope with increased demands for energy and metabolites as well as to enhance stress resilience, tumor cells develop various metabolic adaptations, representing a hallmark of cancer. In this regard, the dysregulation of sulfur metabolism that may result in elevated levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in body fluids, breath, and/or excretions of cancer patients has recently gained attention. Besides hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol is the predominant cancer-associated VSC and has been proposed as a promising biomarker for non-invasive cancer diagnosis. Gut bacteria are the major exogenous source of exposure to this foul-smelling toxic gas, with methanethiol-producing strains such as Fusobacterium nucleatum highly abundant in the gut microbiome of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. Physiologically, methanethiol becomes rapidly degraded through the methanethiol oxidase (MTO) activity of selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1). However, SELENBP1, which is considered a tumor suppressor, is often downregulated in tumor tissues, and this has been epidemiologically linked to poor clinical outcomes. In addition to impaired removal, an increase in methanethiol levels may derive from non-enzymatic reactions, such as a Maillard reaction between glucose and methionine, two metabolites enriched in cancer cells. High methionine concentrations in cancer cells may also result in enzymatic methanethiol production in mitochondria. Moreover, enzymatic endogenous methanethiol production may occur through methyltransferase-like protein 7B (METTL7B), which is present at elevated levels in some cancers, including CRC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In conclusion, methanethiol contributes to the scent of cancer as part of the cancer-associated signature combination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are increasingly being exploited for non-invasive early cancer diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Diviccaro S, Cioffi L, Piazza R, et al (2023)

Neuroactive Steroid-Gut Microbiota Interaction in T2DM Diabetic Encephalopathy.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091325.

The pathological consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) also involve the central nervous system; indeed, T2DM patients suffer from learning and memory disabilities with a higher risk of developing dementia. Although several factors have been proposed as possible contributors, how neuroactive steroids and the gut microbiome impact brain pathophysiology in T2DM remain unexplored. On this basis, in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, we studied whether T2DM alters memory abilities using the novel object recognition test, neuroactive steroid levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, hippocampal parameters using molecular assessments, and gut microbiome composition using 16S next-generation sequencing. Results obtained reveal that T2DM worsens memory abilities and that these are correlated with increased levels of corticosterone in plasma and with a decrease in allopregnanolone in the hippocampus, where neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction were reported. Interestingly, our analysis highlighted a small group of taxa strictly related to both memory impairment and neuroactive steroid levels. Overall, the data underline an interesting role for allopregnanolone and microbiota that may represent candidates for the development of therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Vitetta L, Gorgani NN, Vitetta G, et al (2023)

Prebiotics Progress Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiome That Benefits Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091307.

Hypoglycemic medications that could be co-administered with prebiotics and functional foods can potentially reduce the burden of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy of drugs such as metformin and sulfonylureas can be enhanced by the activity of the intestinal microbiome elaborated metabolites. Functional foods such as prebiotics (e.g., oligofructose) and dietary fibers can treat a dysbiotic gut microbiome by enhancing the diversity of microbial niches in the gut. These beneficial shifts in intestinal microbiome profiles include an increased abundance of bacteria such as Faecalibacterium prauznitzii, Akkermancia muciniphila, Roseburia species, and Bifidobacterium species. An important net effect is an increase in the levels of luminal SCFAs (e.g., butyrate) that provide energy carbon sources for the intestinal microbiome in cross-feeding activities, with concomitant improvement in intestinal dysbiosis with attenuation of inflammatory sequalae and improved intestinal gut barrier integrity, which alleviates the morbidity of T2DM. Oligosaccharides administered adjunctively with pharmacotherapy to ameliorate T2DM represent current plausible treatment modalities.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Evans L, Price T, Hubert N, et al (2023)

Emodin Inhibited Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Response to Angiotensin-Induced Hypertension and Altered the Gut Microbiome.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091274.

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that food bioactives affect the epigenome to prevent pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Recently, we showed that emodin, an anthraquinone, attenuated pathological cardiac hypertrophy and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. However, we only examined the cardioprotective effects of emodin's parent compound and not those of emodin metabolites or of emodin-gut microbiome interactions. The microbiome has emerged as a key player in chronic diseases such as metabolic and cardiac disease. Thus, we hypothesized that emodin could reverse hypertension-induced changes in microbial communities.

METHODS: Normo- and hypertensive (angiotensin II) C57/BL6 female mice were randomly assigned to receive a vehicle (Veh; DMSO:PEG 1:1) or emodin (Emod; 30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Body weights were collected pre- and post-treatment, and blood pressure was assessed via tail cuff. At the study's end, the mice were euthanized and assessed for their heart weights. In addition, stool samples and cecal contents were collected to elucidate changes in the microbial populations using 16S rRNA sequencing. Lastly, the tissue was lysed, and RNA was isolated for qPCR. One-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test was performed unless otherwise specified, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: Emodin significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in the female mice. No significant changes were observed in body weight or systolic blood pressure in response to hypertension or emodin. Lastly, analysis suggests that hypertension altered the microbiome in the cecum and cecal content, with additional evidence to support that emodin affects gut microbiota in the feces and colon.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that emodin attenuates pathological hypertrophy in female mice. Future research is needed to dissect if changes in the microbiome contributes to emodin-mediated attenuation in cardiac remodeling.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Patumcharoenpol P, Kingkaw A, Nakphaichit M, et al (2023)

Exploring Longitudinal Gut Microbiome towards Metabolic Functional Changes Associated in Atopic Dermatitis in Early Childhood.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091262.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with changes in gut microbial composition in early life. However, there are limited longitudinal studies examining the gut microbiome in AD. This study aimed to explore taxonomy and metabolic functions across longitudinal gut microbiomes associated with AD in early childhood from 9 to 30 months of age using integrative data analysis within the Thai population. Our analysis revealed that gut microbiome diversity was not different between healthy and AD groups; however, significant taxonomic differences were observed. Key gut bacteria with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production potentials, such as Anaerostipes, Butyricicoccus, Ruminococcus, and Lactobacillus species, showed a higher abundance in the AD group. In addition, metabolic alterations between the healthy and AD groups associated with vitamin production and host immune response, such as biosynthesis of menaquinol, succinate, and (Kdo)2-lipid A, were observed. This study serves as the first framework for monitoring longitudinal microbial imbalances and metabolic functions associated with allergic diseases in Thai children during early childhood.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mioduchowska M, Pawłowska J, Mazanowski K, et al (2023)

Contrasting Marine Microbial Communities of the Fram Strait with the First Confirmed Record of Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus in the Arctic Region.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091246.

The seawater microbiome is crucial in marine ecosystems because of its role in food chains and biogeochemical cycles; thus, we studied the composition of the pelagic marine microbiome collected in the upper 50 m on the opposite sides of Fram Strait: Spitsbergen and Greenland shelves. We found out that it differed significantly, with salinity being the main environmental variable responsible for these differences. The Spitsbergen shelf was dominated by Atlantic Waters, with a rather homogenous water column in terms of salinity and temperature down to 300 m; hence, the marine microbial community was also homogenous at all sampled depths (0, 25, 50 m). On the contrary, stations on the Greenland shelf were exposed to different water masses of both Arctic and Atlantic origin, which resulted in a more diverse microbial community there. Unexpectedly, for the very first time, we identified cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus in Arctic waters (Spitsbergen shelf, 75-77° N). Till now, the distribution of this cyanobacteria in oceans has been described only between 40° N and 40° S. Considering the accelerated rate of climate warming in the Arctic, our results indicated that the seawater microbiome can be viewed as an amplifier of global change and that the Atlantification is in progress.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kaur H, Kaur G, Gupta T, et al (2023)

Integrating Omics Technologies for a Comprehensive Understanding of the Microbiome and Its Impact on Cattle Production.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091200.

Ruminant production holds a pivotal position within the global animal production and agricultural sectors. As population growth escalates, posing environmental challenges, a heightened emphasis is directed toward refining ruminant production systems. Recent investigations underscore the connection between the composition and functionality of the rumen microbiome and economically advantageous traits in cattle. Consequently, the development of innovative strategies to enhance cattle feed efficiency, while curbing environmental and financial burdens, becomes imperative. The advent of omics technologies has yielded fresh insights into metabolic health fluctuations in dairy cattle, consequently enhancing nutritional management practices. The pivotal role of the rumen microbiome in augmenting feeding efficiency by transforming low-quality feedstuffs into energy substrates for the host is underscored. This microbial community assumes focal importance within gut microbiome studies, contributing indispensably to plant fiber digestion, as well as influencing production and health variability in ruminants. Instances of compromised animal welfare can substantially modulate the microbiological composition of the rumen, thereby influencing production rates. A comprehensive global approach that targets both cattle and their rumen microbiota is paramount for enhancing feed efficiency and optimizing rumen fermentation processes. This review article underscores the factors that contribute to the establishment or restoration of the rumen microbiome post perturbations and the intricacies of host-microbiome interactions. We accentuate the elements responsible for responsible host-microbiome interactions and practical applications in the domains of animal health and production. Moreover, meticulous scrutiny of the microbiome and its consequential effects on cattle production systems greatly contributes to forging more sustainable and resilient food production systems, thereby mitigating the adverse environmental impact.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ersanli C, Tzora A, Voidarou CC, et al (2023)

Biodiversity of Skin Microbiota as an Important Biomarker for Wound Healing.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091187.

Cutaneous wound healing is a natural and complex repair process that is implicated within four stages. However, microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) can easily penetrate through the skin tissue from the wound bed, which may lead to disbalance in the skin microbiota. Although commensal and pathogenic bacteria are in equilibrium in normal skin, their imbalance in the wound area can cause the delay or impairment of cutaneous wounds. Moreover, skin microbiota is in constant crosstalk with the immune system and epithelial cells, which has significance for the healing of a wound. Therefore, understanding the major bacteria species in the cutaneous wound as well as their communication with the immune system has gained prominence in a way that allows for the emergence of a new perspective for wound healing. In this review, the major bacteria isolated from skin wounds, the role of the crosstalk between the cutaneous microbiome and immune system to heal wounds, the identification techniques of these bacteria populations, and the applied therapies to manipulate the skin microbiota are investigated.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Villatoro-Castañeda M, Forsburg ZR, Ortiz W, et al (2023)

Exposure to Roundup and Antibiotics Alters Gut Microbial Communities, Growth, and Behavior in Rana berlandieri Tadpoles.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091171.

The gut microbiome is important for digestion, host fitness, and defense against pathogens, which provides a tool for host health assessment. Amphibians and their microbiomes are highly susceptible to pollutants including antibiotics. We explored the role of an unmanipulated gut microbiome on tadpole fitness and phenotype by comparing tadpoles of Rana berlandieri in a control group (1) with tadpoles exposed to: (2) Roundup[®] (glyphosate active ingredient), (3) antibiotic cocktail (enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and penicillin), and (4) a combination of Roundup and antibiotics. Tadpoles in the antibiotic and combination treatments had the smallest dorsal body area and were the least active compared to control and Roundup-exposed tadpoles, which were less active than control tadpoles. The gut microbial community significantly changed across treatments at the alpha, beta, and core bacterial levels. However, we did not find significant differences between the antibiotic- and combination-exposed tadpoles, suggesting that antibiotic alone was enough to suppress growth, change behavior, and alter the gut microbiome composition. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbial communities of tadpoles are sensitive to environmental pollutants, namely Roundup and antibiotics, which may have consequences for host phenotype and fitness via altered behavior and growth.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jesus JG, Máguas C, Dias R, et al (2023)

What If Root Nodules Are a Guesthouse for a Microbiome? The Case Study of Acacia longifolia.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091168.

Acacia longifolia is one of the most aggressive invaders worldwide whose invasion is potentiated after a fire, a common perturbation in Mediterranean climates. As a legume, this species establishes symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria inside root nodules; however, the overall microbial diversity is still unclear. In this study, we addressed root nodules' structure and biodiversity through histology and Next-Generation Sequencing, targeting 16S and 25S-28S rDNA genes for bacteria and fungi, respectively. We wanted to evaluate the effect of fire in root nodules from 1-year-old saplings, by comparing unburnt and burnt sites. We found that although having the same general structure, after a fire event, nodules had a higher number of infected cells and greater starch accumulation. Starch accumulated in uninfected cells can be a possible carbon source for the microbiota. Regarding diversity, Bradyrhizobium was dominant in both sites (ca. 77%), suggesting it is the preferential partner, followed by Tardiphaga (ca. 9%), a non-rhizobial Alphaproteobacteria, and Synechococcus, a cyanobacteria (ca. 5%). However, at the burnt site, additional N-fixing bacteria were included in the top 10 genera, highlighting the importance of this process. Major differences were found in the mycobiome, which was diverse in both sites and included genera mostly described as plant endophytes. Coniochaeta was dominant in nodules from the burnt site (69%), suggesting its role as a facilitator of symbiotic associations. We highlight the presence of a large bacterial and fungal community in nodules, suggesting nodulation is not restricted to nitrogen fixation. Thus, this microbiome can be involved in facilitating A. longifolia invasive success.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Marcozzi S, Bigossi G, Giuliani ME, et al (2023)

Spreading Senescent Cells' Burden and Emerging Therapeutic Targets for Frailty.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182287.

The spreading of senescent cells' burden holds profound implications for frailty, prompting the exploration of novel therapeutic targets. In this perspective review, we delve into the intricate mechanisms underlying senescent cell spreading, its implications for frailty, and its therapeutic development. We have focused our attention on the emerging age-related biological factors, such as microbiome and virome alterations, elucidating their significant contribution to the loss of control over the accumulation rate of senescent cells, particularly affecting key frailty domains, the musculoskeletal system and cerebral functions. We believe that gaining an understanding of these mechanisms could not only aid in elucidating the involvement of cellular senescence in frailty but also offer diverse therapeutic possibilities, potentially advancing the future development of tailored interventions for these highly diverse patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Cunningham KC, Smith DR, Villageliú DN, et al (2023)

Human Alcohol-Microbiota Mice have Increased Susceptibility to Bacterial Pneumonia.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182267.

Preclinical studies have shown that chronic alcohol abuse leads to alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota that are associated with behavior changes, physiological alterations, and immunological effects. However, such studies have been limited in their ability to evaluate the direct effects of alcohol-associated dysbiosis. To address this, we developed a humanized alcohol-microbiota mouse model to systematically evaluate the immunological effects of chronic alcohol abuse mediated by intestinal dysbiosis. Germ-free mice were colonized with human fecal microbiota from individuals with high and low Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and bred to produce human alcohol-associated microbiota or human control-microbiota F1 progenies. F1 offspring colonized with fecal microbiota from individuals with high AUDIT scores had increased susceptibility to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, as determined by increased mortality rates, pulmonary bacterial burden, and post-infection lung damage. These findings highlight the importance of considering both the direct effects of alcohol and alcohol-induced dysbiosis when investigating the mechanisms behind alcohol-related disorders and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhang S, Lu B, G Wang (2023)

The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of postpartum depression.

Annals of general psychiatry, 22(1):36.

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication of pregnancy in women, and its pathogenesis mainly involves disturbances of the neuroendocrine regulation, immune system, neurotransmitters, hormone secretion, and the gut microbiome. Gut microbes play essential physiological and pathological roles in the gut-brain axis' pathways which are involved in various central nervous system (CNS) and psychiatric disorders, including PPD. Numerous studies have identified the fundamental role of the gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis and treatment of PPD patients and also correlates with other pathogenic mechanisms of PPD. Disturbances in gut microbes are associated with the disruption of multiple signaling pathways and systems that ultimately lead to PPD development. This review aimed to elucidate the potential connections between gut microbes and the established PPD network, and this might serve as a guide for the development of new efficient diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic strategies in the management of PPD.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )