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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Jul 2024 at 01:52 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Zhang P, Shi H, Guo R, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis reveals altered gut virome and diagnostic potential in pancreatic cancer.

Journal of medical virology, 96(7):e29809.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis, making early diagnosis crucial for improving patient outcomes. While the gut microbiome, including bacteria and viruses, is believed to be essential in cancer pathogenicity, the potential contribution of the gut virome to PC remains largely unexplored. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the gut viral compositional and functional profiles between PC patients and healthy controls, based on fecal metagenomes from two publicly available data sets comprising a total of 101 patients and 82 healthy controls. Our results revealed a decreasing trend in the gut virome diversity of PC patients with disease severity. We identified significant alterations in the overall viral structure of PC patients, with a meta-analysis revealing 219 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs) showing significant differences in relative abundance between patients and healthy controls. Among these, 65 vOTUs were enriched in PC patients, and 154 were reduced. Host prediction revealed that PC-enriched vOTUs preferentially infected bacterial members of Veillonellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae, while PC-reduced vOTUs were more likely to infect Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Oscillospiraceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae. Furthermore, we constructed random forest models based on the PC-associated vOTUs, achieving an optimal average area under the curve (AUC) of up to 0.879 for distinguishing patients from controls. Through additional 10 public cohorts, we demonstrated the reproducibility and high specificity of these viral signatures. Our study suggests that the gut virome may play a role in PC development and could serve as a promising target for PC diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Future studies should further explore the underlying mechanisms of gut virus-bacteria interactions and validate the diagnostic models in larger and more diverse populations.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Sermsaksasithorn P, Asawanonda P, Phutrakool P, et al (2024)

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabis Transdermal Patch for Alleviating Psoriasis Symptoms: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial (CanPatch).

Medical cannabis and cannabinoids, 7(1):99-110.

INTRODUCTION: Current topical treatments for psoriasis offer limited efficacy and are associated with long-term adverse effects in a subset of patients, highlighting the need for new therapeutic options. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa L., has shown potential in reversing psoriasis pathology through its action on skin receptors in preclinical studies. Given the promising properties of CBD, transdermal patches containing this compound represent a novel approach to psoriasis treatment. However, comprehensive data on their efficacy and safety remain scarce.

METHODS: We outline a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of CBD transdermal patches with minimal tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 60 patients with mild to moderate plaque-type psoriasis at a university hospital in Thailand (n = 60). This study aims to evaluate the changes in the local psoriasis severity index (LPSI), itch score via a visual analog scale, and occurrence of adverse events on day 0, 30, 60, and 90 of the study. Additionally, we will examine the alteration in the skin, gut, and oral microbiome in a subset of participants to explore potential correlations with treatment outcomes. The primary outcome will focus on the difference in LPSI scores at the end of the study period, employing an intention-to-treat analysis. Multivariate logistic regression will be used to identify baseline clinical and microbiological predictors of treatment response.

CONCLUSION: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of CBD transdermal patches in alleviating the symptoms of psoriasis. The results of this study may highlight a novel topical treatment option that reduces suffering in patients with psoriasis. We also designed to provide a holistic evaluation by considering both clinical outcomes and the underlying biological mechanisms, including the interaction with the human microbiome. Through this trial, we aim to contribute valuable insights into personalized psoriasis management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Bashir Z, Hugerth LW, Krog MC, et al (2024)

Investigations of microbiota composition and neuroactive pathways in association with symptoms of stress and depression in a cohort of healthy women.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1324794.

BACKGROUND: Despite mounting evidence of gut-brain involvement in psychiatric conditions, functional data remain limited, and analyses of other microbial niches, such as the vaginal microbiota, are lacking in relation to mental health. This aim of this study was to investigate if the connections between the gut microbiome and mental health observed in populations with a clinical diagnosis of mental illness extend to healthy women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, this study examined the functional pathways of the gut microbiota according to the levels of psychological symptoms. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore potential correlations between the vaginal microbiome and mental health parameters in young women without psychiatric diagnoses.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 160 healthy Danish women (aged 18-40 years) filled out questionnaires with validated scales measuring symptoms of stress and depression and frequency of dietary intake. Fecal and vaginal microbiota samples were collected at the beginning of the menstrual cycle and vaginal samples were also collected at cycle day 8-12 and 18-22. Shotgun metagenomic profiling of the gut and vaginal microbiome was performed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used for functional profiling and 56 Gut Brain Modules were analyzed in the fecal samples.

RESULTS: The relative abundance in the gut of the genera Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Shigella was higher in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Women with high perceived stress showed a tendency of increased abundance of Escherichia, Shigella, and Blautia. Amongst others, the potentially pathogenic genera, Escherichia and Shigella correlate with alterations in the neuroactive pathways such as the glutamatergic, GABAeric, dopaminergic, and Kynurenine pathways. Vaginosis symptoms were more prevalent in women reporting high levels of stress and depressive symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept of a microbiota-associated effect on the neuroactive pathways even in healthy young women. This suggest, that targeting the gut microbiome could be a promising approach for future psychiatric interventions.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Zang X, Du Y, Jiang M, et al (2024)

A thorough investigation into the correlation between migraines and the gut microbiome: an in-depth analysis using Mendelian randomization studies.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1356974.

OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence underscores a significant association between neurological disorders, particularly migraines, and the gut microbiota. However, a research gap persists in understanding the cause-and-effect dynamics between these elements. Therefore, we employed robust methodologies aimed at thoroughly exploring the causal relationship between the gut microbiome and migraines.

METHODS: Employing bidirectional Two Sample Mendelian Randomization (TSMR) analysis, we investigated the causal association between the composition of the gut microbiota and migraines. Data summarizing the relationship between gut microbiota and migraines were extracted from one or more genome-wide association studies. The TSMR analysis employed five methods to assess the correlation between the gut microbiota and migraines, with the inverse variance-weighted method serving as the primary approach for analyzing causal links. Sensitivity analyses were applied to address horizontal pleiotropy and heterogeneity. Simultaneously, a meta-analysis was performed to strengthen the robustness of the findings. Additionally, a reverse TSMR was carried out to explore potential occurrences of reverse causal relationships.

RESULTS: The ongoing TSMR analysis identified a collection of 14 bacterial taxa connected to migraines. Among these, 8 taxa exhibited a protective effect, while 5 taxa had a detrimental impact, and 1 taxon maintained a neutral relationship. The reverse Mendelian randomization analysis highlighted stable outcomes for only one bacterial taxonomic group.

CONCLUSION: The study confirms a causal relationship between the gut microbiota and migraines, offering a new perspective for migraine research. Strategically targeting specific bacterial taxa with dysregulation may be effective in both preventing and treating migraines, thus opening new avenues for therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Alarcón-Sánchez MA (2024)

Influence of obesity on subgingival microbiota composition in subjects with different periodontal status: a systematic review.

Revista cientifica odontologica (Universidad Cientifica del Sur), 12(1):e187.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate the changes in the composition of the subgingival microbiota among subjects with normo-weight, overweight and obesity, in conditions of periodontal health and disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protocol for this study was designed following PRISMA guidelines. Records were identified using different search engines (PubMed/MedLine, Scopus and Web of Science). Observational studies, in human subjects diagnosed with obesity (BMI >30kg/m[2]) and periodontal disease (gingivitis and periodontitis), on the analysis of subgingival microbiota were selected. Eight articles were included.

RESULTS: The subgingival microbiota of 1,229 subjects (n=894 exposure group and n=335 control group) was analyzed. Periodontal pathogens were the most common bacteria detected in subjects with obesity and periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Fusobacterium nucleatum spp. vincentii, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans), as along with some accessory pathogens such as: Streptococcus gordonii, and Veillonella parvula that favor the virulence of late colonizers.

CONCLUSIONS: Although there are evident alterations in the composition of the subgingival microbiota in subjects with obesity and periodontitis, it is still a challenge to identify a specific pattern of microbiota in these subjects. If associations between subgingival plaque microorganisms and obesity are confirmed, microbiome analysis could be a useful tool to improve preventive measures and the management of people with obesity.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Mal S, S Panchal (2024)

Drought and salt stress mitigation in crop plants using stress-tolerant auxin-producing endophytic bacteria: a futuristic approach towards sustainable agriculture.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1422504.

Abiotic stresses, especially drought stress and salt stress in crop plants are accelerating due to climate change. The combined impact of drought and salt is anticipated to lead to the loss of up to 50% of arable land globally, resulting in diminished growth and substantial yield losses threatening food security. Addressing the challenges, agriculture through sustainable practices emerges as a potential solution to achieve Zero Hunger, one of the sustainable development goals set by the IUCN. Plants deploy a myriad of mechanisms to effectively address drought and salt stress with phytohormones playing pivotal roles as crucial signaling molecules for stress tolerance. The phytohormone auxin, particularly indole acetic acid (IAA) emerges as a paramount regulator integral to numerous aspects of plant growth and development. During both drought and salt stress conditions, auxin plays crucial roles for tolerance, but stress-induced processes lead to decreased levels of endogenous free auxin in the plant, leading to an urgent need for auxin production. With an aim to augment this auxin deficiency, several researchers have extensively investigated auxin production, particularly IAA by plant-associated microorganisms, including endophytic bacteria. These endophytic bacteria have been introduced into various crop plants subjected to drought or salt stress and potential isolates promoting plant growth have been identified. However, post-identification, essential studies on translational research to advance these potential isolates from the laboratory to the field are lacking. This review aims to offer an overview of stress tolerant auxin-producing endophytic bacterial isolates while identifying research gaps that need to be fulfilled to utilize this knowledge for the formulation of crop-specific and stress-specific endophyte bioinoculants for the plant to cope with auxin imbalance occurring during these stress conditions.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Almeldin YAR, Eldlebshany AE, Elkhalek EA, et al (2024)

Assessment of dietary supplementation of green iron oxide nanoparticles: impact on growth performance, ammonia emissions, carcass criteria, tissue iron content, and meat quality in broiler chickens under hot climate conditions.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1393335.

BACKGROUND: The potential significance and importance of green iron nanoparticles (Nano-Fe) in poultry production lie in their capability to effectively tackle iron deficiency in poultry. Iron, an indispensable mineral for numerous physiological functions in birds, such as oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and immune response, underscores the critical need for adequate iron levels. Nevertheless, conventional iron supplementation methods frequently face hurdles like limited bioavailability rates in poultry. To enhance performance, and promote sustainable broiler productivity, Nano-Fe showed promise as an efficient feed supplement for broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of green Nano-Fe inclusions in diets on growth, ammonia excretion, carcass criteria, and meat quality in broiler chickens.

METHODS: A total of 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, were assigned to three treatment diets including Nano-Fe oxide at 0, 20, or 40 mg/kg, respectively, for 42 days. Each treatment comprised eight replicates, each with eight broiler chicks. Two phases comprised the 42-day study (0 to 21 days for the starter and 21 to 42 days for the finisher).

RESULTS: In comparison to the control group, the Nano-Fe oxide groups 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg linearly improved (p < 0.05) body weight (R [2] = 0.574) and body weight gain (R [2] = 0.367) under hot climatic conditions at 42 days of age. Furthermore, Nano-Fe oxide to broiler diets, improved (linear, p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (R [2] = 0.424) throughout whole periods. The feed intake did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05) among groups during the experimental periods under hot climatic conditions. The ammonia content of excreta (R [2] = 0.454) was linearly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing Nano-Fe oxide levels in broiler diets compared to control at 21 and 42 days of age under hot climatic conditions. Nano-Fe oxide positively influences cook loss, water-holding capacity, and iron content in various tissues. Moreover, it contributes to a healthier carcass yield and reduced abdominal fat.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, broiler chickens fed diets containing Nano-Fe oxide at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg demonstrated enhanced growth performance, improved meat quality, increased iron content in tissues, higher dressing percentage, and reduced abdominal fat deposition. Future research should explore the impact of green Nano-Fe oxide on additional factors such as the microbiome and gene expression related to immunity and heat stress.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Dravillas CE, Coleman SS, Hoyd R, et al (2024)

The tumor microbiome as a predictor of outcomes in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Cancer research communications pii:746446 [Epub ahead of print].

Emerging evidence supports the important role of the tumor microbiome in oncogenesis, cancer immune phenotype, cancer progression, and treatment outcomes in many malignancies. In this study, we investigated the metastatic melanoma tumor microbiome and potential roles in association with clinical outcomes, such as survival, in patients with metastatic disease treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Baseline tumor samples were collected from 71 patients with metastatic melanoma before treatment with ICIs. Bulk RNA-seq was conducted on the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh frozen (FF) tumor samples. Durable clinical benefit (primary clinical endpoint) following ICIs was defined as overall survival >24 months and no change to the primary drug regimen (responders). We processed RNA-seq reads to carefully identify exogenous sequences using the {exotic} tool. The 71 patients with metastatic melanoma ranged in age from 24 to 83 years, 59% were male, and 55% survived >24 months following the initiation of ICI treatment. Exogenous taxa were identified in the tumor RNA-seq, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. We found differences in gene expression and microbe abundances in immunotherapy responsive versus non-responsive tumors. Responders showed significant enrichment of bacteriophage in the phylum Uroviricota, and non-responders showed enrichment of several bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni. These microbes correlated with immune-related gene expression signatures. Finally, we found that models for predicting prolonged survival with immunotherapy using both microbe abundances and gene expression outperformed models using either dataset alone. Our findings warrant further investigation and potentially support therapeutic strategies to modify the tumor microbiome in order to improve treatment outcomes with ICIs.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Mills M, Mollenkopf D, Wittum T, et al (2024)

One Health Threat of Treated Wastewater Discharge in Urban Ohio Rivers: Implications for Surface Water and Fish Gut Microbiome and Resistome.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be a major disseminating source of antibiotic resistance (AR) to the environment, establishing a crucial connection between human and environmental resistome. The objectives of this study were to determine how wastewater effluents impact microbiome and resistome of freshwater and fish, and identify potential AR-carrying clinically relevant pathogens in these matrices. We analyzed wastewater influent and effluent from four WWTPs in three metropolitan areas of Ohio, USA via shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We also sequenced river water and fish guts from three reaches (upstream, at the WWTP outfall, and downstream). Notably, we observed a decline in microbiome diversity and AR gene abundance from wastewater to the receiving river. We also found significant differences by reach and trophic level (diet) in beta-diversity of the fish gut microbiomes. SourceTracker revealed that 0.443 and 0.248 more of the of the fish gut microbiome was sourced from wastewater effluent in fish from the outfall and downstream locations, respectively, compared to upstream fish. Additionally, AR bacteria of public health concern were annotated in effluent and river water samples, indicating potential concern for human exposure. In summary, our findings show the continued role of wastewater as a significant AR reservoir and underscores the considerable impact of wastewater discharge on aquatic wildlife, which highlights the One Health nature of this issue.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Harmsen N, Vesga P, Glauser G, et al (2024)

Natural plant disease suppressiveness in soils extends to insect pest control.

Microbiome, 12(1):127.

BACKGROUND: Since the 1980s, soils in a 22-km[2] area near Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland have been recognized for their innate ability to suppress the black root rot plant disease caused by the fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola. However, the efficacy of natural disease suppressive soils against insect pests has not been studied.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that natural soil suppressiveness also protects plants from the leaf-feeding pest insect Oulema melanopus. Plants grown in the most suppressive soil have a reduced stress response to Oulema feeding, reflected by dampened levels of herbivore defense-related phytohormones and benzoxazinoids. Enhanced salicylate levels in insect-free plants indicate defense-priming operating in this soil. The rhizosphere microbiome of suppressive soils contained a higher proportion of plant-beneficial bacteria, coinciding with their microbiome networks being highly tolerant to the destabilizing impact of insect exposure observed in the rhizosphere of plants grown in the conducive soils. We suggest that presence of plant-beneficial bacteria in the suppressive soils along with priming, conferred plant resistance to the insect pest, manifesting also in the onset of insect microbiome dysbiosis by the displacement of the insect endosymbionts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that an intricate soil-plant-insect feedback, relying on a stress tolerant microbiome network with the presence of plant-beneficial bacteria and plant priming, extends natural soil suppressiveness from soilborne diseases to insect pests. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Timm FCB, Campos FS, Janssen L, et al (2024)

The virome of bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) tonsils reveals an unreported bubaline polyomavirus.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) farming is increasing in many regions of the world due to the species' ability to thrive in environments where bovine cattle would struggle. Despite water buffaloes being known for their resistance to diseases, there is a lack of data about the diversity of the microbiome of the species. In this study, we examined the virome diversity in palatine tonsils collected from animals from the island of Marajó, northern Pará state, Brazil, which harbors the largest bubaline flock in the country. Tonsil fragments from 60 clinically healthy bubalines were randomly selected from a sample of 293 animals. The samples were purified, extracted, and randomly amplified with phi29 DNA polymerase. After amplification, the products were purified and sequenced. Circular DNA viruses were predominant in the tonsils' virome. Sequences of genome segments representative of members of the genera Alphapolyomavirus (including a previously unreported bubaline polyomavirus genome) and Gemycircularvirus were identified, along with other not yet classified circular virus genomes. As the animals were clinically healthy at the time of sampling, such viruses likely constitute part of the normal tonsillar virome of water buffaloes inhabiting the Ilha do Marajó biome.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Olivier C, L Luies (2024)

Metabolic insights into HIV/TB co-infection: an untargeted urinary metabolomics approach.

Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society, 20(4):78.

INTRODUCTION: Amid the global health crisis, HIV/TB co-infection presents significant challenges, amplifying the burden on patients and healthcare systems alike. Metabolomics offers an innovative window into the metabolic disruptions caused by co-infection, potentially improving diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

AIM: This study uses untargeted metabolomics to investigate the urinary metabolic signature of HIV/TB co-infection, enhancing understanding of the metabolic interplay between these infections.

METHODS: Urine samples from South African adults, categorised into four groups - healthy controls, TB-positive, HIV-positive, and HIV/TB co-infected - were analysed using GCxGC-TOFMS. Metabolites showing significant differences among groups were identified through Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests.

RESULTS: Various metabolites (n = 23) were modulated across the spectrum of health and disease states represented in the cohorts. The metabolomic profiles reflect a pronounced disruption in biochemical pathways involved in energy production, amino acid metabolism, gut microbiome, and the immune response, suggesting a bidirectional exacerbation between HIV and TB. While both diseases independently perturb the host's metabolism, their co-infection leads to a unique metabolic phenotype, indicative of an intricate interplay rather than a simple additive effect.

CONCLUSION: Metabolic profiling revealed a unique metabolic landscape shaped by HIV/TB co-infection. The findings highlight the potential of urinary differential metabolites for co-infection, offering a non-invasive tool for enhancing diagnostic precision and tailoring therapeutic interventions. Future research should focus on expanding sample sizes and integrating longitudinal analyses to build upon these foundational insights, paving the way for metabolomic applications in combating these concurrent pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Xiao S, Yang Z, Yan H, et al (2024)

Gut proinflammatory bacteria is associated with abnormal functional connectivity of hippocampus in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.

Translational psychiatry, 14(1):292.

Accumulating evidence has revealed the gut bacteria dysbiosis and brain hippocampal functional and structural alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the potential relationship between the gut microbiota and hippocampal function alterations in patients with MDD is still very limited. Data of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired from 44 unmedicated MDD patients and 42 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs). Severn pairs of hippocampus subregions (the bilateral cornu ammonis [CA1-CA3], dentate gyrus (DG), entorhinal cortex, hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, and subiculum) were selected as the seeds in the functional connectivity (FC) analysis. Additionally, fecal samples of participants were collected and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was used to identify the altered relative abundance of gut microbiota. Then, association analysis was conducted to investigate the potential relationships between the abnormal hippocampal subregions FC and microbiome features. Also, the altered hippocampal subregion FC values and gut microbiota levels were used as features separately or together in the support vector machine models distinguishing the MDD patients and HCs. Compared with HCs, patients with MDD exhibited increased FC between the left hippocampus (CA2, CA3 and DG) and right hippocampus (CA2 and CA3), and decreased FC between the right hippocampal CA3 and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, we found that the level of proinflammatory bacteria (i.e., Enterobacteriaceae) was significantly increased, whereas the level of short-chain fatty acids producing-bacteria (i.e., Prevotellaceae, Agathobacter and Clostridium) were significantly decreased in MDD patients. Furthermore, FC values of the left hippocampal CA3- right hippocampus (CA2 and CA3) was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in patients with MDD. Moreover, altered hippocampal FC patterns and gut microbiota level were considered in combination, the best discrimination was obtained (AUC = 0.92). These findings may provide insights into the potential role of gut microbiota in the underlying neuropathology of MDD patients.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Sinha A, S Roy (2024)

PROSPECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TARGETS AND RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TREATMENT OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE.

Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) poses a persistent challenge in the realm of gastroenterology, necessitating continual exploration of innovative treatment strategies. The limited efficacy and potential side effects associated with existing therapeutic modalities underscore the urgent need for novel approaches in IBD management. Recent advancements in the understanding of the disease's intricate pathogenesis have unveiled promising therapeutic targets, with a spotlight on the gut microbiome, immune dysregulation, and genetic predispositions. This abstract delves into the pressing demand for new avenues in IBD treatment, examines potential therapeutic targets such as, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, immune system, Tyrosine kinase receptors (TYK), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Modulation of the gut microbiota, Stem cell therapy, Fibrosis Management, interleukins (ILs) regulation and oxidative stress and provides insights into recent breakthroughs that herald a transformative era in the therapeutic landscape for IBD. Advances in precision medicine, biologics, small molecule inhibitors, and the exploration of microbiome modulation techniques stand out as pivotal milestones, offering renewed hope for enhanced efficacy, reduced side effects, and improved patient outcomes in the treatment of IBD.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Tanabe N, Matsumoto H, Morimoto C, et al (2024)

Mucus plugging on computed tomography and the sputum microbiome in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma-COPD overlap.

Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology pii:S1323-8930(24)00055-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical implications, the pathogenesis of mucus plugging in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) remains unclear. We hypothesized that distinct airway microbiomes might affect mucus plugging differently among ACO, asthma, and COPD and among different extents of airway eosinophilic inflammation.

METHODS: The sputum microbiome, sputum cell differential count, and mucus plug score on computed tomography were cross-sectionally evaluated in patients with chronic airflow limitation.

RESULTS: Patients with ACO, asthma, or COPD were enrolled (n = 56, 10, and 25). Higher mucus plug scores were associated with a greater relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria (rho = 0.29) only in patients with ACO and a greater relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria (rho = 0.46) only in patients with COPD. In multivariable models including only patients with ACO, the presence of mucus plugs was associated with a greater relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and the genus Haemophilus, independent of smoking status, airflow limitation, and emphysema severity. Moreover, the mucus score was associated with a greater relative abundance of the genus Streptococcus (rho = 0.46) in patients with a high sputum eosinophil count (n = 22) and with that of the genus Haemophilus (rho = 0.46) in those with a moderate sputum eosinophil count (n = 26).

CONCLUSIONS: The associations between mucus plugging and the microbiome in ACO differed from those in COPD and asthma. Greater relative abundances of the phylum Proteobacteria and genus Haemophilus may be involved in mucus plugging in patients with ACO and moderate airway eosinophilic inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Imaizumi K, Nozaki R, Konishi K, et al (2024)

Investigating the impact of chlorine dioxide in shrimp-rearing water on stomach microbiome, gill transcriptome, and infection-related mortality in shrimp.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7715031 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: This study aimed to assess the effects of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in water on whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei, evaluating its impact on stomach microbiota, gill transcriptome, and pathogens.

METHODS AND RESULTS: ClO2 was added to the aquarium tanks containing the shrimp. The application of ClO2 to rearing water was lethal to shrimp at concentrations above 1.2 ppm. On the other hand, most of the shrimp survived at 1.0 ppm of ClO2. Microbiome analysis showed that ClO2 administration at 1.0 ppm significantly reduced the α-diversity of bacterial community composition in the shrimp stomach, and this condition persisted for at least 7 days. Transcriptome analysis of shrimp gill revealed that ClO2 treatment caused massive change of the gene expression profile including stress response genes. However, after 7 days of the treatment, the gene expression profile was similar to that of shrimp in the untreated control group, suggesting a recovery to the normal state. This 1.0-ppm ClO2 significantly reduced shrimp mortality in artificial challenges with an AHPND-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus, which were added to rearing water.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of ClO2 at appropriate concentrations effectively eliminates a significant portion of the bacteria in the shrimp stomach and pathogens in the water. The results of this study provide fundamental knowledge on the disinfection of pathogens in water using ClO2 and the creation of semi germ-free shrimp, which has significantly decreased microbiome in the stomach.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Yuan X, Li X, Hei G, et al (2024)

Intestinal mycobiota dysbiosis associated inflammation activation in chronic schizophrenia.

Behavioural brain research, 472:115149 pii:S0166-4328(24)00305-X [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome-gut-brain axis is related to schizophrenia (SCZ). The role of intestinal mycobiota in SCZ has been under investigated. We present a half-year follow-up study involving 109 chronic SCZ patients and 77 healthy controls. Intestinal mycobiota was tested by internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to measure fecal metabolites. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Enterotype analysis showed that Candida-type patients exhibited severer positive symptoms and depression factors than Saccharomyces-type patients. Candida and its top species and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were positively correlated with depression factors (all p=0.001). Fecal metabolites analysis showed that upregulated metabolites were associated with chronic inflammation (NF-κB pathway and T helper cell differentiation), downregulated metabolites were associated with glutamate metabolism, serotonergic and dopaminergic synapse. Procrustes analysis revealed significant correlation between intestinal mycobiota and fecal metabolites (M2=0.937, p<0.001). Metabolic module analysis showed that the top module, MEturquoise (associated with Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation), was negatively correlated with SCZ (r=-0.783, p<0.0001), positively correlated with Candida, Aspergillus, Trichosporon and Talaromyces (decreased in SCZ) and negatively correlated with Saccharomyces (increased in SCZ). We also found impairments of intestinal barrier in SCZ, characterized by increased in blood D-lactate (mucosa impairment marker) and decreased in blood mucin 2 (mucosal barrier protective protein). Serum levels of TNF-α was increased and showed stable high levels during treatment. This study suggests that mycobiota dysbiosis-related chronic inflammation and an impaired intestinal mucosal barrier are associated with chronic SCZ.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Urbauer E, Aguanno D, Mindermann N, et al (2024)

Mitochondrial perturbation in the intestine causes microbiota-dependent injury and gene signatures discriminative of inflammatory disease.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(24)00231-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). To understand how microbial-metabolic circuits contribute to intestinal injury, we disrupt mitochondrial function in the epithelium by deleting the mitochondrial chaperone, heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60[Δ/ΔIEC]). This metabolic perturbation causes self-resolving tissue injury. Regeneration is disrupted in the absence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Hsp60[Δ/ΔIEC];AhR[-/-]) involved in intestinal homeostasis or inflammatory regulator interleukin (IL)-10 (Hsp60[Δ/ΔIEC];Il10[-/-]), causing IBD-like pathology. Injury is absent in the distal colon of germ-free (GF) Hsp60[Δ/ΔIEC] mice, highlighting bacterial control of metabolic injury. Colonizing GF Hsp60[Δ/ΔIEC] mice with the synthetic community OMM[12] reveals expansion of metabolically flexible Bacteroides, and B. caecimuris mono-colonization recapitulates the injury. Transcriptional profiling of the metabolically impaired epithelium reveals gene signatures involved in oxidative stress (Ido1, Nos2, Duox2). These signatures are observed in samples from Crohn's disease patients, distinguishing active from inactive inflammation. Thus, mitochondrial perturbation of the epithelium causes microbiota-dependent injury with discriminative inflammatory gene profiles relevant for IBD.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Perdijk O, Butler A, Macowan M, et al (2024)

Antibiotic-driven dysbiosis in early life disrupts indole-3-propionic acid production and exacerbates allergic airway inflammation in adulthood.

Immunity pii:S1074-7613(24)00316-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic use in early life disrupts microbial colonization and increases the risk of developing allergies and asthma. We report that mice given antibiotics in early life (EL-Abx), but not in adulthood, were more susceptible to house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. This susceptibility was maintained even after normalization of the gut microbiome. EL-Abx decreased systemic levels of indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), which induced long-term changes to cellular stress, metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration in the lung epithelium. IPA reduced mitochondrial respiration and superoxide production and altered chemokine and cytokine production. Consequently, early-life IPA supplementation protected EL-Abx mice against exacerbated HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation in adulthood. These results reveal a mechanism through which EL-Abx can predispose the lung to allergic airway inflammation and highlight a possible preventative approach to mitigate the detrimental consequences of EL-Abx.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Kasper C (2024)

Animal board invited review: Heritability of nitrogen use efficiency in fattening pigs: Current state and possible directions.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 18(8):101225 pii:S1751-7311(24)00156-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Pork, an important component of human nutrition worldwide, contributes considerably to anthropogenic nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing the environmental impact of pig production is therefore essential. This can be achieved through system-level strategies, such as optimising resource use, improving manure management and recycling leftovers from human food production, and at the individual animal level by maintaining pig health and fine-tuning dietary protein levels to individual requirements. Breeding, coupled with nutritional strategies, offers a lasting solution to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) - the ratio of nitrogen retained in the body to nitrogen ingested. With a heritability as high as 0.54, incorporating NUE into breeding programmes appears promising. Nitrogen use efficiency involves multiple tissues and metabolic processes, and is influenced by the environment and individual animal characteristics, including its genetic background. Heritable genetic variation in NUE may therefore occur in many different processes, including the central nervous regulation of feed intake, the endocrine system, the gastrointestinal tract where digestion and absorption take place, and the composition of the gut microbiome. An animal's postabsorptive protein metabolism might also harbour important genetic variation, especially in the maintenance requirements of tissues and organs. Precise phenotyping, although challenging and costly, is essential for successful breeding. Various measurement techniques, such as imaging techniques and mechanistic models, are being explored for their potential in genetic analysis. Despite the difficulties in phenotyping, some studies have estimated the heritability and genetic correlations of NUE. These studies suggest that direct selection for NUE is more effective than indirect methods through feed efficiency. The complexity of NUE indicates a polygenic trait architecture, which has been confirmed by genome-wide association studies that have been unable to identify significant quantitative trait loci. Building sufficiently large reference populations to train genomic prediction models is an important next step. However, this will require the development of truly high-throughput phenotyping methods. In conclusion, breeding pigs with higher NUE is both feasible and necessary but will require increased efforts in high-throughput phenotyping and improved genome annotation.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Liu Y, Wang X, Zeng D, et al (2024)

Temporal variation in production performance, biochemical and oxidative stress markers, and gut microbiota in Pekin ducks during the late growth stage.

Poultry science, 103(9):103894 pii:S0032-5791(24)00473-5 [Epub ahead of print].

In the late growth stage of commercial Pekin ducks, a significant increase in feed intake and a decline in body weight gain have been observed, leading to impaired feed conversion efficiency. To address this issue, we investigated alterations in production performance, blood biochemical indices, ileum tissue architecture, and microbial community structure in Pekin ducks. The primary objective was to provide robust data supporting the improvement of meat duck production efficiency during the late growth stage (28-42-days-old). Forty 28-day-old Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates, with five ducks per replicate. The rearing period lasted 14 days, with feed and water provided ad libitum. Our findings indicated a significant increase in Pekin duck body and heart weights with advancing age (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum antioxidant enzyme and high-density lipoprotein concentrations significantly increased, whereas triglyceride levels decreased (P < 0.05). Notably, the height of the ileal villi was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The microbial community structure of the ileum exhibited significant changes as ducks aged, accompanied by a substantial increase in microbial flora diversity, particularly with the formation of more tightly connected microbial network modules. Time-dependent enrichment was observed in microbial gene functions related to energy metabolism pathways. At the genus level, Sphingomonas and Subdoligranulum have emerged as crucial players in microbial differential functional pathways and network formation. These bacteria likely serve as the key driving factors in the dynamic microbial changes that occur in Pekin ducks over time. Overall, our findings suggest a potential decline in the absorption function of the small intestine and fat deposition performance of Pekin ducks during later growth stages, which may be attributed to the maturation and proliferation of the gut microbial community.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Kim J, Park S, Kim SJ, et al (2024)

High-throughput drug screening using a library of antibiotics targeting cancer cell lines that are resistant and sensitive to gemcitabine.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 730:150369 pii:S0006-291X(24)00905-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog widely used as an anticancer agent against several types of cancer. Although gemcitabine sometimes shows excellent effectiveness, cancer cells are often poorly responsive to or resistant to the drug. Recently, specific strains or dysbiosis of the human microbiome were correlated with drug reactivity and resistance acquisition. Therefore, we aimed to identify antibiotic compounds that can modulate the microbiome to enhance the responsiveness to gemcitabine. To achieve this, we confirmed the gemcitabine responsiveness based on public data and conducted drug screening on a set of 250 antibiotics compounds. Subsequently, we performed experiments to investigate whether the selected compounds could enhance the responsiveness to gemcitabine. First, we grouped a total of seven tumor cell lines into resistant and sensitive group based on the IC50 value (1 μM) of gemcitabine obtained from the public data. Second, we performed high-throughput screening with compound treatments, identifying seven compounds from the resistant group and five from the sensitive group based on dose dependency. Finally, the combination of the selected compound, puromycin dihydrochloride, with gemcitabine in gemcitabine-resistant cell lines resulted in extensive cell death and a significant increase in cytotoxic efficacy. Additionally, mRNA levels associated with cell viability and stemness were reduced. Through this study, we screened antibiotics to further improve the efficacy of existing anticancer drugs and overcome resistance. By combining existing anticancer agents and antibiotic substances, we hope to establish various drug combination therapies and ultimately improve cancer treatment efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Horseman TS, Parajuli B, Frank AM, et al (2024)

Microbiome and Inflammasome Alterations Found During Radiation Dose Finding in a Sinclair Minipig Model of Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome.

Shock (Augusta, Ga.) pii:00024382-990000000-00464 [Epub ahead of print].

Both abdominal radiotherapy and a nuclear event can result in gastrointestinal symptoms, including acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). GI-ARS is characterized by compromised intestinal barrier integrity increasing the risk for infectious complications. Physiologically relevant animal models are crucial for elucidating host responses and therapeutic targets. We aimed to determine the radiation dose requirements for creating GI-ARS in the Sinclair minipig. Male, sexually mature swine were randomly divided into sham (n = 6) and three lower hemibody radiation dosage groups of 8, 10, and 12 Gy (n = 5/group) delivered using a linear accelerator-derived X-rays (1.9 Gy/min). Animals were monitored for GI-ARS symptoms for 14 days with rectal swab and blood collection at days 0-3, 7, 10, and 14 followed by necropsy for western blotting and histology. Dose-dependent increases in weight loss, diarrhea severity, and mortality (log-rank test, p = 0.041) were seen. Villi length was significantly reduced in all irradiated animals compared to controls (p < 0.001). Serum citrulline decreased and bacterial translocation increased post-irradiation compared to controls. Increased NLRP3 levels in post-mortem jejunum were seen (p = 0.0043) as well as increased IL-1β levels in the 12 Gy group (p = 0.041). Radiation dose and survival were associated with significant gut microbial community shifts in beta diversity. Moreover, decedents had increased Porphyromonas, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Parvimonas, and decreased Fusobacterium and decreased Aerococcus, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Streptococcus. Our novel Sinclair minipig model showed dose-dependent clinical symptoms of GI-ARS. These findings provide invaluable insights into the intricate interplay between GI-ARS, intestinal inflammation, and gut microbiota alterations offering potential targets for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions after radiation exposure.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Kopp W (2024)

Aging and "Age-Related" Diseases - What Is the Relation?.

Aging and disease pii:AD.2024.0570 [Epub ahead of print].

The study explores the intricate relationship between aging and the development of noncommunicable diseases [NCDs], focusing on whether these diseases are inevitable consequences of aging or primarily driven by lifestyle factors. By examining epidemiological data, particularly from hunter-gatherer societies, the study highlights that many NCDs prevalent in modern populations are rare in these societies, suggesting a significant influence of lifestyle choices. It delves into the mechanisms through which poor diet, smoking, and other lifestyle factors contribute to systemic physiological imbalances, characterized by oxidative stress, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the immune system. The interplay between this pattern and individual factors such as genetic susceptibility, biological variability, epigenetic changes and the microbiome is proposed to play a crucial role in the development of a range of age-related NCDs. Modified biomolecules such as oxysterols and advanced glycation end products also contribute to their development. Specific diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, Parkinson's disease, glaucoma and osteoarthritis are analyzed to illustrate these mechanisms. The study concludes that while aging contributes to the risk of NCDs, lifestyle factors play a crucial role, offering potential avenues for prevention and intervention through healthier living practices. One possible approach could be to try to restore the physiological balance, e.g. through dietary measures [e.g. Mediterranean diet, Okinawan diet or Paleolithic diet] in conjunction with [a combination of] pharmacological interventions and other lifestyle changes.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Tian YQ, Ren X, Wang J, et al (2024)

Berberine hydrochloride alleviates chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome by modifying gut microbiome signaling.

Asian journal of andrology pii:00129336-990000000-00205 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is highly prevalent worldwide and poses a significant threat to men's health, particularly affecting young men. However, the exact causes and mechanisms behind CP/CPPS remain unclear, leading to challenges in its treatment. In this research, a CP/CPPS rat model was established with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and berberine hydrochloride was administered through daily gavage to assess its therapeutic effects. The alterations in the gut microbiome induced by CP/CPPS and berberine hydrochloride were investigated through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of cecum content and colonic epithelial cells. To investigate the impact of the gut microbiome on CP/CPPS, a pseudo germ-free rat model was established, and fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) was performed on these rats. In all, berberine hydrochloride demonstrated effective reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress in the prostate, offering significant therapeutic advantages for CP/CPPS. Through analysis of the gut microbiome using 16S ribosome RNA sequencing, distinct differences were observed between CP/CPPS rats and control rats, and Clostridium butyricum was identified as a key bacteria. Pseudo germ-free rats that underwent FMT from CP/CPPS rats or rats treated with berberine hydrochloride displayed varying levels of inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative stress, and activity of associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, the therapeutic potential of berberine hydrochloride in addressing CP/CPPS is highly significant. The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical factor in the development of CP/CPPS and plays a pivotal role in mediating the therapeutic effects of berberine hydrochloride.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Salazar-Jaramillo L, de la Cuesta-Zuluaga J, Chica LA, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome diversity within Clostridia is negatively associated with human obesity.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Clostridia are abundant in the human gut and comprise families associated with host health such as Oscillospiraceae, which has been correlated with leanness. However, culturing bacteria within this family is challenging, leading to their detection primarily through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, which has a limited ability to unravel diversity at low taxonomic levels, or by shotgun metagenomics, which is hindered by its high costs and complexity. In this cross-sectional study involving 114 Colombian adults, we used an amplicon-based sequencing strategy with alternative markers-gyrase subunit B (gyrB) and DNA K chaperone heat protein 70 (dnaK)-that evolve faster than the 16S rRNA gene. Comparing the diversity and abundance observed with the three markers in our cohort, we found a reduction in the diversity of Clostridia, particularly within Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceae among obese individuals [as measured by the body mass index (BMI)]. Within Lachnospiraceae, the diversity of Ruminococcus_A negatively correlated with BMI. Within Oscillospiraceae, the genera CAG-170 and Vescimonas also exhibited this negative correlation. In addition, the abundance of Vescimonas was negatively correlated with BMI. Leveraging shotgun metagenomic data, we conducted a phylogenetic and genomic characterization of 120 metagenome-assembled genomes from Vescimonas obtained from a larger sample of the same cohort. We identified 17 of the 72 reported species. The functional annotation of these genomes showed the presence of multiple carbohydrate-active enzymes, particularly glycosyl transferases and glycoside hydrolases, suggesting potential beneficial roles in fiber degradation, carbohydrate metabolism, and butyrate production.

IMPORTANCE: The gut microbiota is diverse across various taxonomic levels. At the intra-species level, it comprises multiple strains, some of which may be host-specific. However, our understanding of fine-grained diversity has been hindered by the use of the conserved 16S rRNA gene. While shotgun metagenomics offers higher resolution, it remains costly, may fail to identify specific microbes in complex samples, and requires extensive computational resources and expertise. To address this, we employed a simple and cost-effective analysis of alternative genetic markers to explore diversity within Clostridia, a crucial group within the human gut microbiota whose diversity may be underestimated. We found high intra-species diversity for certain groups and associations with obesity. Notably, we identified Vescimonas, an understudied group. Making use of metagenomic data, we inferred functionality, uncovering potential beneficial roles in dietary fiber and carbohydrate degradation, as well as in short-chain fatty acid production.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Appleberry H, Patel R, Singh K, et al (2024)

Draft genomes of two Enterobacter hormaechei strains isolated from catheterized urine samples from females experiencing overactive bladder symptoms.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we present the draft genome of two Enterobacter hormaechei strains isolated from catheterized urine specimens from females with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Through the sequencing of these E. hormaechei strains, we aim to better understand its presence and putative role in OAB in the female urinary tract.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Jablonska S, Brown H, Appleberry H, et al (2024)

Draft genome sequences for a Staphylococcus aureus and a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate from nasal swab samples from healthy females.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus are common members of the human microbiota, but they are also opportunistic pathogens. To identify antibiotic resistance in healthy individuals, we present the genome sequences of S. aureus 139 N-1 and S. haemolyticus 173 N-3, both isolated from nasal swab samples from asymptomatic female participants.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Wu W-C, Pan Y-F, Zhou W-D, et al (2024)

Meta-transcriptomic analysis of companion animal infectomes reveals their diversity and potential roles in animal and human disease.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Companion animals such as cats and dogs harbor diverse microbial communities that can potentially impact human health due to close and frequent contact. To better characterize their total infectomes and assess zoonotic risks, we characterized the overall infectomes of companion animals (cats and dogs) and evaluated their potential zoonotic risks. Meta-transcriptomic analyses were performed on 239 samples from cats and dogs collected across China, identifying 24 viral species, 270 bacterial genera, and two fungal genera. Differences in the overall microbiome and infectome composition were compared across different animal species (cats or dogs), sampling sites (rectal or oropharyngeal), and health status (healthy or diseased). Diversity analyses revealed that viral abundance was generally higher in diseased animals compared to healthy ones, while differences in microbial composition were mainly driven by sampling site, followed by animal species and health status. Disease association analyses validated the pathogenicity of known pathogens and suggested potential pathogenic roles of previously undescribed bacteria and newly discovered viruses. Cross-species transmission analyses identified seven pathogens shared between cats and dogs, such as alphacoronavirus 1, which was detected in both oropharyngeal and rectal swabs albeit with differential pathogenicity. Further analyses showed that some viruses, like alphacoronavirus 1, harbored multiple lineages exhibiting distinct pathogenicity, tissue, or host preferences. Ultimately, a systematic evolutionary screening identified 27 potential zoonotic pathogens in this sample set, with far more bacterial than viral species, implying potential health threats to humans. Overall, our meta-transcriptomic analysis reveals a landscape of actively transcribing microorganisms in major companion animals, highlighting key pathogens, those with the potential for cross-species transmission, and possible zoonotic threats.

IMPORTANCE: This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the entire community of infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungi) in companion animals like cats and dogs, termed the "infectome." By analyzing hundreds of samples from across China, the researchers identified numerous known and novel pathogens, including 27 potential zoonotic agents that could pose health risks to both animals and humans. Notably, some of these zoonotic pathogens were detected even in apparently healthy pets, highlighting the importance of surveillance. The study also revealed key microbial factors associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in pets, as well as potential cross-species transmission events between cats and dogs. Overall, this work sheds light on the complex microbial landscapes of companion animals and their potential impacts on animal and human health, underscoring the need for monitoring and management of these infectious agents.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Li X, Lippens G, Parrou J-L, et al (2024)

Biochemical characterization of a SusD-like protein involved in β-1,3-glucan utilization by an uncultured cow rumen Bacteroides.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

In ruminants, the rumen is a specialized stomach that is adapted to the breakdown of plant-derived complex polysaccharides through the coordinated activities of a diverse microbial community. Bacteroidota is a major phylum in this bovine rumen microbiota. They contain several clusters of genes called polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) that encode proteins working in concert to capture, degrade, and transport polysaccharides. Despite the critical role of SusD-like proteins for efficient substrate transport, they remain largely unexplored. Here, we present the biochemical characterization of a SusD-like protein encoded by a β-glucan utilization locus from an Escherichia coli metagenomic clone previously isolated by functional screening of the bovine rumen microbiome. In this study, we show that clone 41O1 can grow on laminaritriose, cellotriose, and a mixture of cellobiosyl-cellobiose and glucosyl-cellotriose as sole carbon sources. Based on this, we used various in vitro analyses to investigate the binding ability of 41O1_SusD-like towards these oligosaccharides and the corresponding polysaccharides. We observed a clear binding affinity for β-1,6 branched β-1,3-glucans (laminarins, yeast β-glucan) and laminaritriose. Comparison of the AlphaFold2 model of 41O1_SusD-like with its closest structural homologs highlights a similar pattern of substrate recognition. In particular, three tryptophan residues are shown to be crucial for laminarin recognition. In the context of the cow rumen, we discuss the possible substrates targeted by the 41O1_PUL, such as the (1,3;1,4)-β-d-glucans present in cereal grains or the β-1,3- and (1,3;1,6)-β-d-glucans that are components of the cell wall of ruminal yeasts.IMPORTANCEThe rumen microbiota can majorly impact overall animal health, feed efficiency, and release of harmful substances into the environment. This microbiota is involved in the fermentation of organic matter to provide the host with valuable and assimilable nutrients. Bacteroidota efficiently captures, breaks down, and imports complex polysaccharides through the concerted action of proteins encoded by polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Within this system, SusD-like protein has proven necessary for the active internalization of the substrate. Nevertheless, the vast majority of SusD-like proteins characterized to date originate from cultured bacteria. With regard to the diversity and importance of uncultured bacteria in the rumen, further studies are required to better understand the role of polysaccharide utilization loci in ruminal polysaccharide degradation. Our detailed characterization of the 41O1_SusD-like therefore contributes to a better understanding of the carbohydrate metabolism of an uncultured Bacteroides from the cow rumen.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Kistler W, Villiger M, Villiger B, et al (2024)

Epithelial barrier theory in the context of nutrition and environmental exposure in athletes.

Allergy [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure to toxic substances, introduced into our daily lives during industrialization and modernization, can disrupt the epithelial barriers in the skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, leading to microbial dysbiosis and inflammation. Athletes and physically active individuals are at increased risk of exposure to agents that damage the epithelial barriers and microbiome, and their extreme physical exercise exerts stress on many organs, resulting in tissue damage and inflammation. Epithelial barrier-damaging substances include surfactants and enzymes in cleaning products, laundry and dishwasher detergents, chlorine in swimming pools, microplastics, air pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter, and diesel exhaust. Athletes' high-calorie diet often relies on processed foods that may contain food emulsifiers and other additives that may cause epithelial barrier dysfunction and microbial dysbiosis. The type of the material used in the sport equipment and clothing and their extensive exposure may increase the inflammatory effects. Excessive travel-related stress, sleep disturbances and different food and microbe exposure may represent additional factors. Here, we review the detrimental impact of toxic agents on epithelial barriers and microbiome; bring a new perspective on the factors affecting the health and performance of athletes and physically active individuals.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Zhao J, Both JP, Rodriguez-R LM, et al (2024)

GSearch: ultra-fast and scalable genome search by combining K-mer hashing with hierarchical navigable small world graphs.

Nucleic acids research pii:7714450 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome search and/or classification typically involves finding the best-match database (reference) genomes and has become increasingly challenging due to the growing number of available database genomes and the fact that traditional methods do not scale well with large databases. By combining k-mer hashing-based probabilistic data structures (i.e. ProbMinHash, SuperMinHash, Densified MinHash and SetSketch) to estimate genomic distance, with a graph based nearest neighbor search algorithm (Hierarchical Navigable Small World Graphs, or HNSW), we created a new data structure and developed an associated computer program, GSearch, that is orders of magnitude faster than alternative tools while maintaining high accuracy and low memory usage. For example, GSearch can search 8000 query genomes against all available microbial or viral genomes for their best matches (n = ∼318 000 or ∼3 000 000, respectively) within a few minutes on a personal laptop, using ∼6 GB of memory (2.5 GB via SetSketch). Notably, GSearch has an O(log(N)) time complexity and will scale well with billions of genomes based on a database splitting strategy. Further, GSearch implements a three-step search strategy depending on the degree of novelty of the query genomes to maximize specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, GSearch solves a major bottleneck of microbiome studies that require genome search and/or classification.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Yang C, Du Y, Zhao T, et al (2024)

Consumption of dietary turmeric promotes fat browning and thermogenesis in association with gut microbiota regulation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

This study was designed to verify the anti-obesity effect of dietary turmeric powder (TP) as a traditional cooking spice and its underlying mechanism. The HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were supplemented with or without TP (8%) for 12 weeks. The results indicated that the glucolipid metabolism disorder of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice was significantly ameliorated through the supplementation of TP. The consumption of TP also induced beige-fat development and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived nonshivering thermogenesis in HFD-fed obese mice. 16S rDNA-based microbiota or targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that TP ameliorated the intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and microbial metabolism abnormality caused by HFD, reflected by dramatically increasing the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, and Bifidobacterium and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and succinate. Interestingly, TP-induced BAT thermogenesis and iWAT browning were highly correlated with the reconstruction of the gut microbiome and formation of SCFAs and succinate. Collectively, these findings manifest beneficial actions of TP on the promotion of adipose browning and thermogenesis in association with gut microbiota reconstruction, and our findings may provide a promising way for preventing obesity.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Ribeiro RV, Senior AM, Simpson SJ, et al (2024)

Rapid benefits in older age from transition to whole food diet regardless of protein source or fat to carbohydrate ratio: Arandomised control trial.

Aging cell [Epub ahead of print].

Plant-based diets reduces the risk of chronic conditions. The interaction between protein source and other macronutrients-fat (F) and carbohydrate (C)-has yet to be investigated. The aim was to assess the main and interactive effects of protein-source (plant vs. animal) and F:C (high or low) and the transition from an Australian diet to a whole food diet on various health markers in older individuals. This single-blinded, parallel, randomised experimental trial used a 2 × 2 factorial design to compare pro-vegetarian (70:30 plant to animal) versus omnivorous (50:50 plant to animal) diets at 14% protein and varying fat-to-carbohydrate ratios (high fat ~40% vs. low fat ~30%) over 4 weeks. Study foods were provided, alcohol consumption was discouraged, and dietary intake was determined through food records. Analysis included both RCT and observational data. Changes in appetite, palatability of diets, and dietary intake were assessed. Body composition, muscle strength, function, gut microbiome, and cardiometabolic health parameters were measured. Data from 113 (of the 128 randomised) individuals aged 65-75 years were analysed. Pro-vegetarian diets reduced diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and glucose levels. Moreover, the overall sample exhibited increased short-chain fatty acids and FGF21 levels, as well as improvements in body composition, function, and cardio-metabolic parameters irrespective of dietary treatment. Transitioning to a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, fibre, and moderate protein was associated with improved health markers in older age, with added benefits from pro-vegetarian diets. Further research on long-term effects is needed.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Wu Z, Bian M, Zhang H, et al (2024)

Compositional characteristics of the gut microbiome in patients with uremia.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology pii:00004270-990000000-00234 [Epub ahead of print].

During acute or chronic uremia, the cumulative harmful effects of uremic toxins result in numerous health problems and, ultimately, mortality. Previous research has identified that uremic retention solutes originate from the gut microbiome, indicating that uremia may be closely associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis. To deepen our understanding of the compositional characteristics of the gut microbiome in patients with uremia and thereby promote precision medicine in the treatment of uremia, we conducted a study of the compositional characteristics of the gut microbiome in 20 patients with uremia. The gut microbiome diversity of uremic patients and the control group showed certain differences. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the beta diversity of the gut microbiome of uremic patients was significantly different from that of the healthy control individuals, with a distinct clustering effect in the uremic patient group, and it also showed a similarly distinct clustering effect in the healthy control group. The Chao1 index and Sobs index were significantly lower in the uremic patient group than in the healthy control group (P < 0.05). By analyzing the composition and abundance distribution of the gut microbiome in the uremic patient group and healthy control group, we found that the relative abundance of the gut microbiome constituents Fusobacteriota, Enterobacteriaceae, Oscillospirales, Ruminococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae was significantly increased in the intestines of uremic patients. We also detected the rare taxa Erysipelotrichaceae, which was present only in the uremic patient group. Predictive functional analysis suggested that an increased abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospirales, which are associated with indoxyl sulfate and phenylacetyl glutamine, and an increased abundance of Oscillospirales, which is associated with pyruvate metabolism, in uremic patients may strongly influence the gut environment according to renal function, resulting in dysbiosis associated with uremic toxin production. Rare taxa such as Erysipelotrichaceae have been suggested to be detrimental to intestinal disease. Further research into these gut microbiomes may provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of uremia with the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Cyphert EL, Liu C, Morales AL, et al (2024)

Effects of high dose aspartame-based sweetener on the gut microbiota and bone strength in young and aged mice.

JBMR plus, 8(8):ziae082.

In a recent study examining the effects of manipulating the gut microbiome on bone, a control group of mice in which the microbiome was altered using a non-caloric, aspartame-based sweetener resulted in whole bone strength being 40% greater than expected from geometry alone, implicating enhanced bone tissue strength. However, the study was not designed to detect changes in bone in this control group and was limited to young male mice. Here we report a replication study examining how changes in the gut microbiome caused by aspartame-based sweetener influence bone. Male and female C57Bl/6 J mice were untreated or treated with a high dose of sweetener (10 g/L) in their drinking water from either 1 to 4 mo of age (young cohort; n = 80) or 1 to 22 mo of age (aged cohort; n = 52). Sweetener did not replicate the modifications to the gut microbiome observed in the initial study and did not result in an increase in bone tissue strength in either sex at either age. Aged male mice dosed with sweetener had larger bones (+17% femur section modulus, p<.001) and greater whole bone strength (+22%, p=.006) but the increased whole bone strength was explained by the associated increase in body mass (+9%, p<.001). No differences in body mass, whole bone strength, or femoral geometry were associated with sweetener dosing in males from the young cohort or females at either age. As we were unable to replicate the gut microbiota observed in the initial experiment, it remains unclear if changes in the gut microbiome can enhance bone tissue strength. Although prior work studying gut microbiome-induced changes in bone with oral antibiotics has been highly repeatable, the current study highlights the variability of nutritional manipulations of the gut microbiota in mice.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Ali I, Naz B, Liu Z, et al (2024)

Interplay among manures, vegetable types, and tetracycline resistance genes in rhizosphere microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1392789.

The rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a substantial public health concern. Livestock manure serves as a key reservoir for tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs), serving as a means of their transmission to soil and vegetables upon utilization as a fertilizer, consequently posing a risk to human health. The dynamics and transfer of TRGs among microorganisms in vegetables and fauna are being investigated. However, the impact of different vegetable species on acquisition of TRGs from various manure sources remains unclear. This study investigated the rhizospheres of three vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, and cucumbers) grown with chicken, sheep, and pig manure to assess TRGs and bacterial community compositions via qPCR and high-throughput sequencing techniques. Our findings revealed that tomatoes exhibited the highest accumulation of TRGs, followed by cucumbers and carrots. Pig manure resulted in the highest TRG levels, compared to chicken and sheep manure, in that order. Bacterial community analyses revealed distinct effects of manure sources and the selective behavior of individual vegetable species in shaping bacterial communities, explaining 12.2% of TRG variation. Firmicutes had a positive correlation with most TRGs and the intl1 gene among the dominant phyla. Notably, both the types of vegetables and manures significantly influenced the abundance of the intl1 gene and soil properties, exhibiting strong correlations with TRGs and elucidating 30% and 17.7% of TRG variance, respectively. Our study delineated vegetables accumulating TRGs from manure-amended soils, resulting in significant risk to human health. Moreover, we elucidated the pivotal roles of bacterial communities, soil characteristics, and the intl1 gene in TRG fate and dissemination. These insights emphasize the need for integrated strategies to reduce selection pressure and disrupt TRG transmission routes, ultimately curbing the transmission of tetracycline resistance genes to vegetables.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Petipas RH, Antoch AA, Eaker AA, et al (2024)

Back to the future: Using herbarium specimens to isolate nodule-associated bacteria.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11719.

Herbarium specimens are increasingly being used as sources of information to understand the ecology and evolution of plants and their associated microbes. Most studies have used specimens as a source of genetic material using culture-independent approaches. We demonstrate that herbarium specimens can also be used to culture nodule-associated bacteria, opening the possibility of using specimens to understand plant-microbe interactions at new spatiotemporal scales. We used historic and contemporary nodules of a common legume, Medicago lupulina, to create a culture collection. We were able to recover historic bacteria in 15 genera from three specimens (collected in 1950, 2004, and 2015). This work is the first of its kind to isolate historic bacteria from herbarium specimens. Future work should include inoculating plants with historic strains to see if they produce nodules and if they affect plant phenotype and fitness. Although we were unable to recover any Ensifer, the main symbiont of Medicago lupulina, we recovered some other potential nodulating species, as well as many putative growth-promoting bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Sarkar P, Chintaluri S, Sarkar S, et al (2024)

Evaluation of the Crosstalk Between the Host Mycobiome and Bacteriome in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):603-617.

UNLABELLED: The human microbiome is a diverse consortium of microbial kingdoms that play pivotal roles in host health and diseases. We previously reported a dysbiotic bacteriome in chronic pancreatitis patients with diabetes (CPD) compared with patients with it's nondiabetic (CPND) phenotype. In this study, we extended our exploration to elucidate the intricate interactions between the mycobiome, bacteriome, and hosts' plasma metabolome with the disease phenotypes. A total of 25 participants (CPD, n = 7; CPND, n = 10; healthy control, n = 8) were recruited for the study. We observed elevated species richness in both the bacterial and fungal profiles within the CP diabetic cohort compared to the nondiabetic CP phenotype and healthy control cohorts. Notably, the CP group displayed heterogeneous fungal diversity, with only 40% of the CP nondiabetic patients and 20% of the CP diabetic patients exhibiting common core gut fungal profiles. Specific microbial taxa alterations were identified, including a reduction in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and an increase in the prevalence of Aspergillus penicilloides and Klebsiella sp. in the disease groups. In silico analysis revealed the enrichment of pathways related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), apoptosis, and peptidase, as well as reduced counts of the genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism in the CP groups. Additionally, distinct plasma metabolome signatures were observed, with CPD group exhibiting higher concentrations of sugars and glycerolipids, while the CPND cohort displayed elevated levels of amino acids in their blood. The fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) concentration was notably greater in the CPD group than in the HC group (4.220 vs. 1.10 ng/ml, p = 0.04). Furthermore, compared with healthy controls, disease groups exhibited fewer correlations between key fungal taxa (Aspergillus sp., Candida sp.) and bacterial taxa (Prevotella copri, Bifidobacteria sp., Rumminococcaceae). Our study unveils, for the first time, a dysbiotic mycobiome and emphasizes unique host bacterial-mycobial interactions in CP patient with diabetes, potentially influencing disease severity. These findings provide crucial insights for future mechanistic studies aiming to unravel the determinants of disease severity in this complex clinical context.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12088-024-01207-8.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Jaglan AB, Vashisth M, Sharma P, et al (2024)

Phage Mediated Biocontrol: A Promising Green Solution for Sustainable Agriculture.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):318-327.

UNLABELLED: In the current scenario of growing world population, limited cultivable land resources, plant diseases, and pandemics are some of the major factors responsible for declining global food security. Along with meeting the food demand, the maintenance of food quality is also required to ensure healthy consumption and marketing. In agricultural fields, pest infestations and bacterial diseases are common causes of crop damage, leading to massive yield losses. Conventionally, antibiotics and several pesticides have been used to manage and control these plant pathogens. However, the overuse of antibiotics and pesticides has led to the emergence of resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria. The bacteriophages are the natural predators of bacteria and are host-specific in their action. Therefore, the use of bacteriophages for the biocontrol of pathogenic bacteria is serving as a sustainable and green solution in crop protection and production. In this review, we have discussed the important plant pathogens and their impact on plant health and yield loss. Further, we have abridged the role of bacteriophages in the protection of crops from bacterial disease by discussing various greenhouse and field trials. Finally, we have discussed the impact of bacteriophages on the plant microbiome, phage resistance, and legal challenges in the registration and commercial production of bacteriophage-based biopesticides.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12088-024-01204-x.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Decena BC, TEE Dela Cruz (2024)

Detection of Changes in Soil Microbial Community Physiological Profiles in Relation to Forest Types and Presence of Antibiotics Using BIOLOG EcoPlate.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):773-779.

Soil is home to microbiota with diverse metabolic activities. These microorganisms play vital roles in many ecological processes. Thus, the assessment of microbial functional diversity is an important quality indicator of soil ecosystems. In this study, we collected soil samples from three distinct forest habitats, i.e., an agroforest, a primary forest (PF), and a secondary forest, within the Angat Watershed Reservation in Bulacan, Northern Philippines. Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) was done with the BIOLOG EcoPlate™ to analyze the responses of the soil microbial communities from the three forest habitats in the absence or presence of antibiotics. The BIOLOG EcoPlate represents 31 utilizable carbon sources. Based on the CLPP analysis, soil samples from the PF showed significantly higher utilization of most carbon sources than the other forest types (p < 0.05). Thus, less disturbed forest types constitute more functionally diverse microbial communities. The presence of antibiotics significantly decreased the carbon utilization patterns of the soil microbial communities (p < 0.05), indicating the possible use of CLPP in monitoring contamination in soil.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Saravanan P, Chatterjee A, Kiran KJ, et al (2024)

Exploring Seaweed-Associated Marine Microbes: Growth Impacts and Enzymatic Potential for Sustainable Resource Utilization.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):593-602.

UNLABELLED: Seaweed, a valuable marine resource widely cultivated worldwide, can be vulnerable to stress and microbiome alterations, resulting in the decay of seaweeds and substantial economic losses. To investigate the seaweed-microbiome interaction, our study aimed to isolate marine bacteria and fungi that can cause Ice-Ice disease and evaluate their enzymatic characteristics for potential application in bioethanol production from seaweed biomass. Three red seaweed species (Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus alvarezii, and Eucheuma cottonii) were obtained for our study and placed in separate culture tanks. Among the 18 isolated marine microbial species, 12 tested positive for agar and carrageenan activity: six exhibited both activities, three displayed only agar activity, and three only carrageenan activity. DNA sequencing of the positive microbes identified ten bacteria and two yeast species. The 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) assay results revealed that the identified bacterial Caldibacillus kokeshiiformis strain FJAT-47861 exhibited the highest carrageenase activity (0.76 units/ml), while the yeast Pichia fermentans strain PM79 demonstrated the highest agarase activity (0.52 units/ml). Notably, Pichia fermentans strain PM79 exhibited the highest overall agarase and carrageenase activity, averaging 0.63 units/ml. The average carrageenase activity of all six positive microbes was 1.5 times higher than their agarase activity. These findings suggest that the 12 isolated microbes hold potential for bioethanol production from macroalgae, as their agarase and carrageenase activity indicates their ability to break down seaweed cell wall carbohydrates, causing ice-ice disease. Moreover, these results provide exciting prospects for harnessing the bioconversion capabilities of these microbes, paving the way for sustainable and efficient bioethanol production from seaweed resources.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12088-024-01205-w.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Naziz PS, Das R, S Sen (2024)

Enzyme Activity of Culturable Fungi and Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Agarwood Fermentation Basin Indicate Temporally Significant Lignocellulosic and Lipid Substrate Modulations.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):705-718.

UNLABELLED: Agarwood oil is one of the costliest essential oils used in perfumery, medicine and aroma. Production of the oil traditionally involves a soaking/fermentation step. Studies have indicated a definite role of the diverse microorganisms growing during the open soaking step, and in the emergent aroma of the essential oil. However, the temporal nature of fermentation and a key functional aspect i.e., the enzymatic properties of the microbes from the fermentation basin have not been studied yet. A total of 20 bacteria and 14 fungi isolated from fermentation basins located in Assam, India, at different soaking periods classified as early (0-20 days), medium (20-40 days) and late (40-60 days) clearly pointed towards an early fungal domination followed by succession of bacteria. The physico-chemical transformations of the wood are controlled by enzymatic properties (cellulase, xylanase, amylase and lipase) of the isolates. The results indicated a strong lignocellulosic substrate modulation potential in the four isolates, viz- Purpureocillium lilacinum (0.354 mg/mL), Mucor circinelloides (0.331 mg/mL), Penicillium citrinum (0.324 mg/mL) and Bacillus megaterium (0.152 mg/mL). The highest culturable abundance (CFU/mL) was found in M. circinelloides (2 × 10[9]) among fungi and B. megaterium (4.5 × 10[9]) among bacteria. The highest cellulase activity was shown by P. lilacinum (0.354 mg/mL) while xylanase and lipase by M. circinelloides (0.873 and 0.128 mg/mL). An interesting revelation was that a substantial proportion of the isolates (70% bacteria and 78% fungi) were positive for lipase activity. This is the first report on the "culturable microbiome" of the agarwood fermentation basin from a temporal and functional bioactivity perspective.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12088-024-01257-y.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Jabborova D, Mamarasulov B, Davranov K, et al (2024)

Diversity and Plant Growth Properties of Rhizospheric Bacteria Associated with Medicinal Plants.

Indian journal of microbiology, 64(2):409-417.

Microbes in the rhizosphere play a significant role in the growth, development, and efficiency of plants and trees. The rhizospheric area's microbes are reliant on the soil's characteristics and the substances that the plants release. The majority of previous research on medicinal plants concentrated on their bioactive phytochemicals, but this is changing now that it is understood that a large proportion of phytotherapeutic substances are actually created by related microorganisms or through contact with their host. The roots of medicinal plants secrete a large number of secondary metabolites that determine the diversity of microbial communities in their rhizosphere. The dominant bacteria isolated from a variety of medicinal plants include various species of Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Burkholderia, Enterobacte, Microbacterium, Serratia, Burkholderia, and Beijerinckia. Actinobacteria also colonize the rhizosphere of medicinal plants that release low molecular weight organic solute that facilitate the solubilisation of inorganic phosphate. Root exudates of medicinal plants resist abiotic stress and accumulate in soil to produce autotoxic effects that exhibit strong obstacles to continuous cropping. Although having a vast bioresource that may be used in agriculture and modern medicine, medicinal plants' microbiomes are largely unknown. The purpose of this review is to (i) Present new insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) Provide information about the components of medicinal plants derived from plants and microbes, and (iii) Discuss options for promoting plant growth and protecting plants for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. The scientific community has paid a lot of attention to the use of rhizobacteria, particularly plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), as an alternative to chemical pesticides. By a variety of processes, these rhizobacteria support plant growth, manage plant pests, and foster resilience to a range of abiotic challenges. It also focuses on how PGPR inoculation affects plant growth and survival in stressful environments.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Worsley SF, Davies CS, Lee CZ, et al (2024)

Longitudinal gut microbiome dynamics in relation to age and senescence in a wild animal population.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In humans, gut microbiome (GM) differences are often correlated with, and sometimes causally implicated in, ageing. However, it is unclear how these findings translate in wild animal populations. Studies that investigate how GM dynamics change within individuals, and with declines in physiological condition, are needed to fully understand links between chronological age, senescence and the GM, but have rarely been done. Here, we use longitudinal data collected from a closed population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate how bacterial GM alpha diversity, composition and stability are associated with host senescence. We hypothesised that GM diversity and composition will differ, and become more variable, in older adults, particularly in the terminal year prior to death, as the GM becomes increasingly dysregulated due to senescence. However, GM alpha diversity and composition remained largely invariable with respect to adult age and did not differ in an individual's terminal year. Furthermore, there was no evidence that the GM became more heterogenous in senescent age groups (individuals older than 6 years), or in the terminal year. Instead, environmental variables such as season, territory quality and time of day, were the strongest predictors of GM variation in adult Seychelles warblers. These results contrast with studies on humans, captive animal populations and some (but not all) studies on non-human primates, suggesting that GM deterioration may not be a universal hallmark of senescence in wild animal species. Further work is needed to disentangle the factors driving variation in GM-senescence relationships across different host taxa.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Aydin Ö, Wahlström A, de Jonge PA, et al (2024)

An integrated analysis of bile acid metabolism in humans with severe obesity.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) pii:01515467-990000000-00889 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BA) are vital regulators of metabolism. BAs are AQ6 secreted in the small intestine, reabsorbed, and transported back to the liver, where they can modulate metabolic functions. There is a paucity of data regarding the portal BA composition in humans. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap by investigating portal BA composition and the relation with peripheral and fecal BA dynamics in conjunction with the gut microbiome.

APPROACH AND RESULTS: Thirty-three individuals from the BARIA cohort were included. Portal plasma, peripheral plasma, and feces were collected. BA and C4 levels were measured employing mass spectrometry. FGF19 was measured using ELISA. Gut microbiota composition was determined through metagenomics analysis on stool samples. Considerable diversity in the portal BA composition was observed. The majority (n = 26) of individuals had a 9-fold higher portal than peripheral BA concentration. In contrast, 8 individuals showed lower portal BA concentration compared with peripheral and had higher levels of unconjugated and secondary BA in this compartment, suggesting more distal origin. The altered portal BA profile was associated with altered gut microbiota composition. In particular, taxa within Bacteroides were reduced in abundance in the feces of these individuals.

CONCLUSIONS: Characterization of the portal BA composition in relation to peripheral and fecal BA increased insight into the dynamics of BA metabolism in individuals with obesity. Peripheral BA composition was much more diverse due to microbial metabolism. About 24% of the portal samples was surprisingly low in total BA; the underlying mechanism requires further exploration.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Ketehouli T, Pasche J, Buttrós VH, et al (2024)

The underground world of plant disease: Rhizosphere dysbiosis reduces above-ground plant resistance to bacterial leaf spot and alters plant transcriptome.

Environmental microbiology, 26(7):e16676.

Just as the human gut microbiome is colonized by a variety of microbes, so too is the rhizosphere of plants. An imbalance in this microbial community, known as dysbiosis, can have a negative impact on plant health. This study sought to explore the effect of rhizosphere dysbiosis on the health of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.), using them and the foliar bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas perforans as model organisms. The rhizospheres of 3-week-old tomato plants were treated with either streptomycin or water as a control, and then spray-inoculated with X. perforans after 24 h. Half of the plants that were treated with both streptomycin and X. perforans received soil microbiome transplants from uninfected plant donors 48 h after the streptomycin was applied. The plants treated with streptomycin showed a 26% increase in disease severity compared to those that did not receive the antibiotic. However, the plants that received the soil microbiome transplant exhibited an intermediate level of disease severity. The antibiotic-treated plants demonstrated a reduced abundance of rhizobacterial taxa such as Cyanobacteria from the genus Cylindrospermum. They also showed a down-regulation of genes related to plant primary and secondary metabolism, and an up-regulation of plant defence genes associated with induced systemic resistance. This study highlights the vital role that beneficial rhizosphere microbes play in disease resistance, even against foliar pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Ito T, H Ohno (2024)

[INTESTINAL ENVIRONMENT AND ASTHMA].

Arerugi = [Allergy], 73(5):395-398.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Gronsfeld V, Brutinel F, Egyptien S, et al (2024)

Evaluation of the vaginal and urinary microbiota of healthy cycling bitches.

BMC veterinary research, 20(1):315.

BACKGROUND: While the urogenital microbiota has recently been characterized in healthy male and female dogs, the influence of sex hormones on the urogenital microbiome of bitches is still unknown. A deeper understanding of the cyclic changes in urinary and vaginal microbiota would allow us to compare the bacterial populations in healthy dogs and assess the impact of the microbiome on various urogenital diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and compare the urogenital microbiota during different phases of the estrous cycle in healthy female dogs. DNA extraction, 16 S rDNA library preparation, sequencing and informatic analysis were performed to determine the vaginal and urinary microbiota in 10 healthy beagle dogs at each phase of the estrous cycle.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in alpha and beta diversity of the urinary microbiota across the different cycle phases. Similarly, alpha diversity, richness and evenness of vaginal bacterial populations were not significantly different across the cycle phases. However, there were significant differences in vaginal beta diversity between the different cycle phases, except for between anestrus and diestrus.

CONCLUSION: This study strongly suggests that estrogen influences the abundance of the vaginal microbiota in healthy female dogs, but does not appear to affect the urinary microbiome. Furthermore, our data facilitate a deeper understanding of the native urinary and vaginal microbiota in healthy female dogs.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Ross FC, Patangia D, Grimaud G, et al (2024)

The interplay between diet and the gut microbiome: implications for health and disease.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Diet has a pivotal role in shaping the composition, function and diversity of the gut microbiome, with various diets having a profound impact on the stability, functionality and diversity of the microbial community within our gut. Understanding the profound impact of varied diets on the microbiome is crucial, as it will enable us not only to make well-informed dietary decisions for better metabolic and intestinal health, but also to prevent and slow the onset of specific diet-related diseases that stem from suboptimal diets. In this Review, we explore how geographical location affects the gut microbiome and how different diets shape its composition and function. We examine the mechanisms by which whole dietary regimes, such as the Mediterranean diet, high-fibre diet, plant-based diet, high-protein diet, ketogenic diet and Western diet, influence the gut microbiome. Furthermore, we underscore the need for exhaustive studies to better understand the causal relationship between diet, host and microorganisms for the development of precision nutrition and microbiome-based therapies.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Karpinets TV, Mitani Y, Chang CC, et al (2024)

Intratumoral microbiome of adenoid cystic carcinomas and comparison with other head and neck cancers.

Scientific reports, 14(1):16300.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, usually slow-growing yet aggressive head and neck malignancy. Despite its clinical significance, our understanding of the cellular evolution and microenvironment in ACC remains limited. We investigated the intratumoral microbiomes of 50 ACC tumor tissues and 33 adjacent normal tissues using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This allowed us to characterize the bacterial communities within the ACC and explore potential associations between the bacterial community structure, patient clinical characteristics, and tumor molecular features obtained through RNA sequencing. The bacterial composition in the ACC was significantly different from that in adjacent normal salivary tissue, and the ACC exhibited diverse levels of species richness. We identified two main microbial subtypes within the ACC: oral-like and gut-like. Oral-like microbiomes, characterized by increased diversity and abundance of Neisseria, Leptotrichia, Actinomyces, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella (commonly found in healthy oral cavities), were associated with a less aggressive ACC-II molecular subtype and improved patient outcomes. Notably, we identified the same oral genera in oral cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In both cancers, they were part of shared oral communities associated with a more diverse microbiome, less aggressive tumor phenotype, and better survival that reveal the genera as potential pancancer biomarkers for favorable microbiomes in ACC and other head and neck cancers. Conversely, gut-like intratumoral microbiomes, which feature low diversity and colonization by gut mucus layer-degrading species, such as Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Blautia, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, were associated with poorer outcomes. Elevated levels of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were independently associated with significantly worse survival and positively correlated with tumor cell biosynthesis of glycan-based cell membrane components.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Takeda M, Y Doki (2024)

[The Power of the Gut Microbiome: Exploring New Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer Therapy].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(6):608-612.

The gut microbiome is involved in host physiology, including nutrition, metabolism, and immunity. It was recently known that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been implicated in several human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. It is altered by environmental factors such as diet, habit and lifestyle and has been directly and indirectly linked to the development and progression of colorectal cancer(CRC). Fusobacterium(F.)nucleatum, which causes periodontal disease, has been shown to play an important role in the initiation and development of CRC, although not as clearly as Helicobacter(H.) pylori in gastric cancer. Therefore, gut bacteria hold promise as a potential therapeutic approach to prevent or treat CRC. Although its clinical usefulness has not yet been demonstrated, future research such as metagenomics may open new avenues for CRC treatment with gut bacteria. Here, we reviewed the role of the gut microbial community in the development, progression, and prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Ikenaga N, Hayashi M, Matsuyoshi T, et al (2024)

[Microbiome in the Therapy for the Pancreatic Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(6):603-607.

An association between periodontal disease and the development of pancreatic cancer has been pointed out since before. Advances in genome analysis technology have revealed that a pancreatic cancer-specific microbiome is formed in the intestines and tumors of pancreatic cancer patients and modifies the progression of pancreatic cancer. Disturbance of microbiome(dysbiosis)suppresses anti-tumor immunity against pancreatic cancer, promoting cancer progression. Therefore, attempts are being made to correct dysbiosis by administration of probiotics or transplantation of microbiome, which is especially activating immune checkpoint inhibitors against cancer. In addition, specific intratumor bacteria has been identified that create an immunosuppressive microenvironment through crosstalk with pancreatic cancer cells. In the future, analysis of the microbiome distribution in pancreatic cancers may determine the following treatment strategy as an individualized treatment. We hope that innovations in omics technology will reveal more detailed functions of microbiome and lead to the development of effective treatments for pancreatic cancer.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Shoji F (2024)

[The Role of Gut Microbiota in Lung Carcinogenesis and Cancer Immunotherapy].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(6):597-602.

In recent years, the human microbiota, especially the gut microbiota, has been attracting attention in various fields, and it is one of the topics in the field of oncology. The human microbiota is known to act directly or indirectly on host immunity, and the gut and lung microbiota influence each other through the"gut-lung axis". It has been suggested that dysbiosis, a condition in which the symbiosis of the human microbiota is disrupted, induces lung inflammation and various respiratory diseases, and is also implicated in the immune microenvironment of lung cancer. It is also widely known that the gut microbiota modulates the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, a major pillar of lung cancer treatment, and many clinical trials targeting the gut microbiota, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and biotics intervention, are currently being conducted. In the future, research on lung carcinogenesis mechanisms and lung cancer treatment focusing on the human microbiota will become increasingly active.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Sunakawa Y (2024)

[Gut Microbiota and Gastric Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(6):591-596.

The gut(intestinal)microbiota is said to number about 1,000 species and about 100 trillion, and recent studies have reported that there is an interaction between cancer and the gut microbiota. It has been elucidated that certain gut microbiota affects the occurrence and risk of cancer, and in gastric cancer, an association with Helicobacter Pylori infection has been reported. Studies on multiple cancer types have also reported a correlation between the gut microbiome and the efficacy and toxicity of cancer immunotherapy. The gut microbiome has attracted attention as a promising biomarker for predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy, and interventional trials have been conducted to verify that it increases the efficacy of immunotherapy. Biomarker studies of immunotherapy and gut microbiome in advanced gastric cancer have reported associations between gastric cancer-specific gut microbiota and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Anderson BD, Sepulveda DE, Nachnani R, et al (2024)

High cannabigerol hemp extract moderates colitis and modulates the microbiome in an inflammatory bowel disease model.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics pii:jpet.124.002204 [Epub ahead of print].

Cannabis sativa L. has a long history of medicinal use, particularly for gastrointestinal diseases. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report using cannabis to manage their symptoms, despite little data to support the use of cannabis or cannabis products to treat the disease. In this study, we utilize the well-described dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of colitis in mice to assess the impact of commercially available, non-euphorigenic, high cannabigerol (CBG) hemp extract (20 mg/mL cannabigerol, 20.7 mg/mL cannabidiol, 1 mg/mL cannabichromene) on IBD activity and the colonic microbiome. Mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 5 days, followed by 2 days of regular drinking water. Over the 7 days, mice were dosed daily with either high CBG hemp extract or matched vehicle control. Daily treatment with high CBG hemp extract dramatically reduces the severity of disease at the histological and organismal levels as measured by decreased disease activity index, increased colon length, and decreases in percent colon tissue damage. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the fecal microbiota reveals high CBG hemp extract treatment results in alterations in the microbiota, that may be beneficial for colitis. Finally, using metabolomic analysis of fecal pellets, we find that mice treated with high CBG hemp extract have a normalization of several metabolic pathways, including those involved in inflammation. Taken together these data suggest that high CBG hemp extracts may offer a novel treatment option for patients. Significance Statement Using the DSS model of colitis, we show that treatment with high CBG hemp extract reduces the severity of symptoms associated with colitis. Additionally, we show that treatment modulates both the fecal microbiota and metabolome with potential functional significance.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Reynolds MC, H Cadillo-Quiroz (2024)

Microbial DNA sample preservation and possible artifacts for field-based research in remote tropical peatlands.

Journal of microbiological methods, 224:106997 pii:S0167-7012(24)00109-X [Epub ahead of print].

Surveying bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in host and environmental studies requires the collection and storage of samples. Many studies are conducted in distant locations challenging these prerequisites. The use of preserving buffers is an important alternative when lacking access to cryopreservation, however, its effectivity for samples with challenging chemistry or samples that provide opportunities for fast bacterial or archaeal growth upon exposure to an aerobic environment, like peat samples, requires methodological assessment. Here, in combination with an identified optimal DNA extraction kit for peat soil samples, we test the application of several commercial and a homemade preservation buffer and make recommendations on the method that can most effectively preserve a microbiome reflective of the original state. In treatments with a non-optimal buffer or in the absence, we observed notable community shifts beginning as early as three days post-preservation lowering diversity and community evenness, with growth-driven artifacts from a few specific phyla. However other buffers retain a very close composition relative to the original state, and we described several metrics to understand some variation across them. Due to the chemical effects of preservation buffers, it is critical to test their compatibility and reliability to preserve the original bacterial and archaeal community in different environments.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Réthi-Nagy Z, S Juhász (2024)

Microbiome's Universe: Impact on health, disease and cancer treatment.

Journal of biotechnology pii:S0168-1656(24)00189-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is a diverse ecosystem of microorganisms that reside in the body and influence various aspects of health and well-being. Recent advances in sequencing technology have brought to light microbial communities in organs and tissues that were previously considered sterile. The gut microbiota plays an important role in host physiology, including metabolic functions and immune modulation. Disruptions in the balance of the microbiome, known as dysbiosis, have been linked to diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic disorders. In addition, the administration of antibiotics can lead to dysbiosis by disrupting the structure and function of the gut microbial community. Targeting strategies are the key to rebalancing the microbiome and fighting disease, including cancer, through interventions such as probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and bacteria-based therapies. Future research must focus on understanding the complex interactions between diet, the microbiome and cancer in order to optimize personalized interventions. Multidisciplinary collaborations are essential if we are going to translate microbiome research into clinical practice. This will revolutionize approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Wang Y, Chen GC, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Dietary Acculturation Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiome, Circulating Metabolites, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in US Hispanics and Latinos: Results From HCHS/SOL.

Circulation, 150(3):215-229.

BACKGROUND: Dietary acculturation, or adoption of dominant culture diet by migrant groups, influences human health. We aimed to examine dietary acculturation and its relationships with cardiovascular disease (CVD), gut microbiota, and blood metabolites among US Hispanic and Latino adults.

METHODS: In the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos), US exposure was defined by years in the United States (50 states and Washington, DC) and US nativity. A dietary acculturation pattern was derived from 14 172 participants with two 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline (2008-2011) using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, with food groups as predictors of US exposure. We evaluated associations of dietary acculturation with incident CVD across ≈7 years of follow-up (n=211/14 172 cases/total) and gut microbiota (n=2349; visit 2, 2014 to 2017). Serum metabolites associated with both dietary acculturation-related gut microbiota (n=694) and incident CVD (n=108/5256 cases/total) were used as proxy measures to assess the association of diet-related gut microbiome with incident CVD.

RESULTS: We identified an empirical US-oriented dietary acculturation score that increased with US exposure. Higher dietary acculturation score was associated with higher risk of incident CVD (hazard ratio per SD, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.13-1.57]), adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Sixty-nine microbial species (17 enriched from diverse species, 52 depleted mainly from fiber-utilizing Clostridia and Prevotella species) were associated with dietary acculturation, driven by lower intakes of whole grains, beans, and fruits and higher intakes of refined grains. Twenty-five metabolites, involved predominantly in fatty acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism (eg, branched-chain 14:0 dicarboxylic acid** and glycerophosphoethanolamine), were associated with both diet acculturation-related gut microbiota and incident CVD. Proxy association analysis based on these metabolites suggested a positive relationship between diet acculturation-related microbiome and risk of CVD (r=0.70, P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Among US Hispanic and Latino adults, greater dietary acculturation was associated with elevated CVD risk, possibly through alterations in gut microbiota and related metabolites. Diet and microbiota-targeted interventions may offer opportunities to mitigate CVD burdens of dietary acculturation.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Conn KA, Borsom EM, EK Cope (2024)

Implications of microbe-derived ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in gut and brain barrier integrity and GABAergic signaling in Alzheimer's disease.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2371950.

The gut microbial ecosystem communicates bidirectionally with the brain in what is known as the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Bidirectional signaling occurs through several pathways including signaling via the vagus nerve, circulation of microbial metabolites, and immune activation. Alterations in the gut microbiota are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Perturbations in gut microbial communities may affect pathways within the gut-microbiome-brain axis through altered production of microbial metabolites including ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory mammalian neurotransmitter. GABA has been shown to act on gut integrity through modulation of gut mucins and tight junction proteins and may be involved in vagus nerve signal inhibition. The GABAergic signaling pathway has been shown to be dysregulated in AD, and may be responsive to interventions. Gut microbial production of GABA is of recent interest in neurological disorders, including AD. Bacteroides and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), including Lactobacillus, are predominant producers of GABA. This review highlights how temporal alterations in gut microbial communities associated with AD may affect the GABAergic signaling pathway, intestinal barrier integrity, and AD-associated inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Nasr MA, Aldous A, Daniels J, et al (2024)

Effect of progestin-based contraceptives on HIV-associated vaginal immune biomarkers and microbiome in adolescent girls.

PloS one, 19(7):e0306237.

Adolescent girls bear a disproportionate burden of both the HIV epidemic and unintended pregnancies; yet important questions remain unanswered regarding the effects of hormonal contraceptives on the vaginal immune microenvironment, which can impact HIV susceptibility in this group. Multiple studies report genital immune alterations associated with the progestin-based contraceptive Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in adult women, but there is little available data in adolescents. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate the effects of short-term use of three progestin-based contraceptives, levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), subdermal etonogestrel (ETNG), and injectable DMPA, on HIV-associated vaginal immune biomarkers and microbiome in adolescent girls. Fifty-nine sexually active, HIV-uninfected girls aged 15-19, were recruited from the Washington DC metro area and self-selected into Control (condoms only), combined oral contraceptive pills, LNG-IUD, ETNG and DMPA groups. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline prior to contraceptive use and at 3-month follow-up visit. Vaginal secretions were tested for pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-3α, IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β) and anti-inflammatory/anti-HIV (Serpin-A1, Elafin, Beta-Defensin-2, SLPI) immune biomarkers using ELISA and for anti-HIV activity using TZM-bl assay. Vaginal microbiome was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9. Among the 34 participants who completed both visits, no significant changes in median biomarker concentrations, HIV inhibition and microbiome composition were observed between baseline and follow-up visits for any of the contraceptive groups. IL-8 (p<0.01), MIP-3α (0.02), Elafin (p = 0.03) and RANTES (p<0.01) differed significantly by race whereas IL-6 was significantly different by age (p = 0.03). We conclude that 3-month use of LNG-IUD, ETNG and DMPA have minimal effects on adolescent vaginal immune microenvironment, and therefore unlikely to impact HIV risk. Future studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are recommended to continue to evaluate effects of contraceptives on the lower genital tract immunity and susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

B Abraham S, Al-Marzooq F, Samaranayake L, et al (2024)

Molecular analyses indicate profuse bacterial diversity in primary and post- treatment endodontic infections within a cohort from the United Arab Emirates-A preliminary study.

PloS one, 19(7):e0305537.

OBJECTIVE: Endodontic microbiota appears to undergo evolutionary changes during disease progression from inflammation to necrosis and post-treatment. The aim of this study was to compare microbiome composition and diversity in primary and post-treatment endodontic infections from a cohort of patients from the UAE.

DESIGN: Intracanal samples were collected from primarily infected (n = 10) and post-treatment infected (n = 10) root canals of human teeth using sterile paper points. Bacterial DNA was amplified from seven hypervariable regions (V2-V4 and V6-V9) of the 16S rRNA gene, then sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. The data was analyzed using appropriate bioinformatic tools.

RESULTS: Analyses of all the samples revealed eight major bacterial phyla, 112 genera and 260 species. Firmicutes was the most representative phylum in both groups and was significantly more abundant in the post-treatment (54.4%) than in primary (32.2%) infections (p>0.05). A total of 260 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, of which 126 (48.5%) were shared between the groups, while 83 (31.9%) and 51 (19.6%) disparate species were isolated from primary and post-treatment infections, respectively. A significant difference in beta, but not alpha diversity was noted using several different indices (p< 0.05). Differential abundance analysis indicated that, Prevotella maculosa, Streptococcus constellatus, Novosphigobium sediminicola and Anaerococcus octavius were more abundant in primary infections while Enterrococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium dentium, Olsenella profusa and Actinomyces dentalis were more abundant in post-treatment infections (p <0.05).

CONCLUSION: Significant differences in the microbiome composition and diversity in primary and post-treatment endodontic infections were noted in our UAE cohort. Such compositional differences of microbiota at various stages of infection could be due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors impacting the root canal ecosystem during disease progression, as well as during their therapeutic management. Identification of the key microbiota in primarily and secondarily infected root canals can guide in the management of these infections.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

da Silva RR, Adedoyin V, JL DuBois (2024)

Methods for Cultivation of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Analysis of Heme Metabolism by Mass Spectrometry and Spectroscopic Approaches.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2839:113-130.

Traditional studies of cellular metabolism have relied on the use of radioisotopes. These have clear disadvantages associated with safety and waste generation. Furthermore, detection of the labeled species by scintillation counting provides only a quantification of its presence or absence. The use of stable isotopes, by contrast, allows the application of powerful, orthogonal spectroscopic approaches such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and various mass spectrometric methods. Using stable isotope labeling to study heme metabolism requires integrating methods for (a) generating the heme in labeled forms, (b) cultivating and quantifying the organism of choice in chemically defined media, to which labeled compounds can be added, (c) recovering cellular components and/or spent growth media, and (d) analyzing these materials for the labeled species using spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods. These methods are summarized here in the context of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a generally nonpathogenic anaerobe and heme auxotroph.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Conway JM, Martinez PJ, Wilson ED, et al (2024)

Arabidopsis Root Microbiome Microfluidic (ARMM) Device for Imaging Bacterial Colonization and Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis Roots.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2805:213-228.

Imaging the spatiotemporal dynamics of host-microbiota interactions is of particular interest for augmenting our understanding of these complex systems. This is especially true of plant-microbe interactions happening around, on, and inside plant roots where relatively little is understood about the dynamics of these systems. Over the past decade, a number of microfluidic devices have been developed to grow plants hydroponically in gnotobiotic conditions and image morphogenesis of the root and/or dynamics with fluorescently labeled bacteria from the plant root microbiome. Here we describe the construction and use of our Arabidopsis Root Microbiome Microfluidic (ARMM) device for imaging fluorescent protein expressing bacteria and their colonization of Arabidopsis roots. In contrast to other plant root imaging devices, we designed this device to have a larger chamber for observing Arabidopsis root elongation and plant-microbe interactions with older seedlings (between 1.5 and 4 weeks after germination) and a 200 μm chamber depth to specifically maintain thin Arabidopsis roots within the focal distance of the confocal microscope. Our device incorporates a new approach to growing Arabidopsis seedlings in screw-top tube caps for simplified germination and transfer to the device. We present representative images from the ARMM device including high resolution cross section images of bacterial colonization at the root surface.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Núñez-Muñoz LA, Sánchez-García ME, Calderón-Pérez B, et al (2024)

Metagenomic Analysis of Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Citrus Trees Expressing Phloem-Directed Antimicrobials.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):93.

Huanglongbing, also known as citrus greening, is currently the most devastating citrus disease with limited success in prevention and mitigation. A promising strategy for Huanglongbing control is the use of antimicrobials fused to a carrier protein (phloem protein of 16 kDa or PP16) that targets vascular tissues. This study investigated the effects of genetically modified citrus trees expressing Citrus sinensis PP16 (CsPP16) fused to human lysozyme and β-defensin-2 on the soil microbiome diversity using 16S amplicon analysis. The results indicated that there were no significant alterations in alpha diversity, beta diversity, phylogenetic diversity, differential abundance, or functional prediction between the antimicrobial phloem-overexpressing plants and the control group, suggesting minimal impact on microbial community structure. However, microbiota diversity analysis revealed distinct bacterial assemblages between the rhizosphere soil and root environments. This study helps to understand the ecological implications of crops expressing phloem-targeted antimicrobials for vascular disease management, with minimal impact on soil microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Chew RJJ, Tan KS, Chen T, et al (2024)

Quantifying periodontitis-associated oral dysbiosis in tongue and saliva microbiomes-An integrated data analysis.

Journal of periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is primarily driven by subgingival biofilm dysbiosis. However, the quantification and impact of this periodontal dysbiosis on other oral microbial niches remain unclear. This study seeks to quantify the dysbiotic changes in tongue and salivary microbiomes resulting from periodontitis by applying a clinically relevant dysbiosis index to an integrated data analysis.

METHODS: The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database was searched to identify BioProjects with published studies on salivary and tongue microbiomes of healthy and periodontitis subjects. Raw sequence datasets were processed using a standardized bioinformatic pipeline and categorized by their ecological niche and periodontal status. The subgingival microbial dysbiosis index (SMDI), a dysbiosis index originally developed using the subgingival microbiome, was computed at species and genus levels and customized for each niche. Its diagnostic accuracy for periodontitis was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves.

RESULTS: Four studies, contributing 328 microbiome samples, were included. At both species and genus levels, periodontitis samples had a higher SMDI, but the differences were only significant for subgingival biofilm and saliva (p < 0.001). However, SMDI showed good diagnostic accuracy for periodontitis status for all three niches (area under curve ranging from 0.76 to 0.90, p < 0.05). The dysbiosis index of subgingival biofilm was positively correlated with saliva consistently (p < 0.001) and with the tongue at the genus level (p = 0.036).

CONCLUSIONS: While the impact on the tongue microbiome requires further investigation, periodontitis-associated dysbiosis affects the salivary microbiome and is quantifiable using the dysbiosis index. The diagnostic potential of salivary microbial dysbiosis as a convenient periodontal biomarker for assessing periodontal status has potential public health and clinical applications.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Periodontitis, a severe inflammation of the gums which causes bone loss, is a disease caused by an imbalance of good and bad bacteria under the gums. However, it is unclear how this bacterial imbalance in the gums affects the bacterial balance of other distinct parts of the mouth, such as the saliva and tongue. This study uses bacteria datasets of four previously published studies, contributing a total of 328 bacterial samples. The data were processed using a uniform data analysis workflow, and a bacterial score, the subgingival microbial dysbiosis index (SMDI), previously shown to capture periodontitis-associated bacteria imbalance, was calculated separately for samples from under the gums, the saliva, and the tongue. The SMDI was able to distinguish between health and periodontitis within each oral location, and in general, the scores were higher for periodontitis samples, though this difference was significant only for bacteria under the gums and in saliva. Saliva scores were also consistently correlated with bacteria under the gums. This study shows that periodontitis-associated bacterial imbalances are observed in oral locations beyond just under the gums, particularly the saliva. Thus, saliva bacteria may be used as a convenient biomarker for assessing gum disease, allowing for potential public health and clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Jensen N, Maldonado-Gomez M, Krishnakumar N, et al (2024)

Dietary fiber monosaccharide content alters gut microbiome composition and fermentation.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Members of the mammalian gut microbiota metabolize diverse complex carbohydrates that are not digested by the host, which are collectively labeled "dietary fiber." While the enzymes and transporters that each strain uses to establish a nutrient niche in the gut are often exquisitely specific, the relationship between carbohydrate structure and microbial ecology is imperfectly understood. The present study takes advantage of recent advances in complex carbohydrate structure determination to test the effects of fiber monosaccharide composition on microbial fermentation. Fifty-five fibers with varied monosaccharide composition were fermented by a pooled feline fecal inoculum in a modified MiniBioReactor array system over a period of 72 hours. The content of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose was significantly associated with the reduction of pH during fermentation, which was also predictable from the concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids lactic acid, propionic acid, and the signaling molecule indole-3-acetic acid. Microbiome diversity and composition were also predictable from monosaccharide content and SCFA concentration. In particular, the concentrations of lactic acid and propionic acid correlated with final alpha diversity and were significantly associated with the relative abundance of several of the genera, including Lactobacillus and Dubosiella. Our results suggest that monosaccharide composition offers a generalizable method to compare any dietary fiber of interest and uncover links between diet, gut microbiota, and metabolite production.

IMPORTANCE: The survival of a microbial species in the gut depends on the availability of the nutrients necessary for that species to survive. Carbohydrates in the form of non-host digestible fiber are of particular importance, and the set of genes possessed by each species for carbohydrate consumption can vary considerably. Here, differences in the monosaccharides that are the building blocks of fiber are considered for their impact on both the survival of different species of microbes and on the levels of microbial fermentation products produced. This work demonstrates that foods with similar monosaccharide content will have consistent effects on the survival of microbial species and on the production of microbial fermentation products.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Zhang G, Wang H, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Highly accurate classification and discovery of microbial protein-coding gene functions using FunGeneTyper: an extensible deep learning framework.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 25(4):.

High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies decode tremendous amounts of microbial protein-coding gene sequences. However, accurately assigning protein functions to novel gene sequences remain a challenge. To this end, we developed FunGeneTyper, an extensible framework with two new deep learning models (i.e., FunTrans and FunRep), structured databases, and supporting resources for achieving highly accurate (Accuracy > 0.99, F1-score > 0.97) and fine-grained classification of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factor genes. Using an experimentally confirmed dataset of ARGs comprising remote homologous sequences as the test set, our framework achieves by-far-the-best performance in the discovery of new ARGs from human gut (F1-score: 0.6948), wastewater (0.6072), and soil (0.5445) microbiomes, beating the state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools and sequence alignment-based (F1-score: 0.0556-0.5065) and domain-based (F1-score: 0.2630-0.5224) annotation approaches. Furthermore, our framework is implemented as a lightweight, privacy-preserving, and plug-and-play neural network module, facilitating its versatility and accessibility to developers and users worldwide. We anticipate widespread utilization of FunGeneTyper (https://github.com/emblab-westlake/FunGeneTyper) for precise classification of protein-coding gene functions and the discovery of numerous valuable enzymes. This advancement will have a significant impact on various fields, including microbiome research, biotechnology, metagenomics, and bioinformatics.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Corthésy N, Saleh F, Thomas C, et al (2024)

The effects of clays on bacterial community composition during arthropod decay.

Swiss journal of palaeontology, 143(1):26.

UNLABELLED: Fossilization, or the transition of an organism from the biosphere to the geosphere, is a complex mechanism involving numerous biological and geological variables. Bacteria are one of the most significant biotic players to decompose organic matter in natural environments, early on during fossilization. However, bacterial processes are difficult to characterize as many different abiotic conditions can influence bacterial efficiency in degrading tissues. One potentially important variable is the composition and nature of the sediment on which a carcass is deposited after death. We experimentally examined this by decaying the marine shrimp Palaemon varians underwater on three different clay sediments. Samples were then analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to identify the bacterial communities associated with each clay system. Results show that samples decaying on the surface of kaolinite have a lower bacterial diversity than those decaying on the surface of bentonite and montmorillonite, which could explain the limited decay of carcasses deposited on this clay. However, this is not the only role played by kaolinite, as a greater proportion of gram-negative over gram-positive bacteria is observed in this system. Gram-positive bacteria are generally thought to be more efficient at recycling complex polysaccharides such as those forming the body walls of arthropods. This is the first experimental evidence of sediments shaping an entire bacterial community. Such interaction between sediments and bacteria might have contributed to arthropods' exquisite preservation and prevalence in kaolinite-rich Lagerstätten of the Cambrian Explosion.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13358-024-00324-7.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Guo JY, Wu MC, Wang YH, et al (2024)

Association of maternal constipation and risk of atopic dermatitis in offspring.

International journal of medical sciences, 21(9):1790-1798.

Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing dermatologic disease that can affect individuals of all ages, including children and adults. The prevalence of AD has increased dramatically over the past few decades. AD may affect children's daily activities, increase their parents' stress, and increase health expenditure. Constipation is a worldwide issue and may affect the gut microbiome. Some research has indicated that constipation might be associated with risk of atopic disease. The primary objective of this retrospective cohort study was to extend and to explore the link between maternal constipation and risk of atopic dermatitis in offspring. Methods: Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, a subset of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 138,553 mothers with constipation and 138,553 matched controls between 2005 and 2016. Propensity score analysis was used matching birth year, child's sex, birth weight, gestational weeks, mode of delivery, maternal comorbidities, and antibiotics usage, with a ratio of 1:1. Multiple Cox regression and subgroup analyses were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio of child AD. Results: The incidence of childhood AD was 66.17 per 1,000 person-years in constipated mothers. By adjusting child's sex, birth weight, gestational weeks, mode of delivery, maternal comorbidities, and received antibiotics, it was found that in children whose mother had constipation, there was a 1.26-fold risk of AD compared to the children of mothers without constipation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.26; 95% CI, 1.25-1.28). According to subgroup analyses, children in the maternal constipation group had a higher likelihood of AD irrespective of child's sex, birth weight, gestational weeks, mode of delivery, and with or without comorbidities, as well as usage of antibiotics during pregnancy. Compared to the non-constipated mothers, the aHR for the constipated mothers with laxative prescriptions <12 and ≥12 times within one year before the index date were 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24 -1.28 and 1.40; 95% CI, 1.29-1.52, respectively. Conclusion: Maternal constipation was associated with an elevated risk of AD in offspring. Clinicians should be aware of the potential link to atopic dermatitis in the children of constipation in pregnant women and should treat gut patency issues during pregnancy. More study is needed to investigate the mechanisms of maternal constipation and atopic diseases in offspring.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Hartnett ME, Fickweiler W, Adamis AP, et al (2024)

Rationale of Basic and Cellular Mechanisms Considered in Updating the Staging System for Diabetic Retinal Disease.

Ophthalmology science, 4(5):100521.

PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for early lesions of diabetic retinal disease (DRD). Updating the DRD staging system to incorporate relevant basic and cellular mechanisms pertinent to DRD is necessary to better address early disease, disease progression, the use of therapeutic interventions, and treatment effectiveness.

DESIGN: We sought to review preclinical and clinical evidence on basic and cellular mechanisms potentially pertinent to DRD that might eventually be relevant to update the DRD staging system.

PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable.

METHODS: The Basic and Cellular Mechanisms Working Group (BCM-WG) of the Mary Tyler Moore Vision Initiative carefully and extensively reviewed available preclinical and clinical evidence through multiple iterations and classified these.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Classification was made into evidence grids, level of supporting evidence, and anticipated future relevance to DRD.

RESULTS: A total of 40 identified targets based on pathophysiology and other parameters for DRD were grouped into concepts or evaluated as specific candidates. VEGFA, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha related pathways, plasma kallikrein, and angiopoietin 2 had strong agreement as promising for use as biomarkers in diagnostic, monitoring, predictive, prognostic, and pharmacodynamic responses as well as for susceptibility/risk biomarkers that could underlie new assessments and eventually be considered within an updated DRD staging system or treatment, based on the evidence and need for research that would fit within a 2-year timeline. The BCM-WG found there was strong reason also to pursue the following important concepts regarding scientific research of DRD acknowledging their regulation by hyperglycemia: inflammatory/cytokines, oxidative signaling, vasoprotection, neuroprotection, mitophagy, and nutrients/microbiome.

CONCLUSION: Promising targets that might eventually be considered within an updated DRD staging system or treatment were identified. Although the BCM-WG recognizes that at this stage little can be incorporated into a new DRD staging system, numerous potential targets and important concepts deserve continued support and research, as they may eventually serve as biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets with measurable benefits to patients with diabetes.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES: Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Oyenihi AB, Haines R, Trama J, et al (2024)

Molecular characterization of vaginal microbiota using a new 22-species qRT-PCR test to achieve a relative-abundance and species-based diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1409774.

BACKGROUND: Numerous bacteria are involved in the etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Yet, current tests only focus on a select few. We therefore designed a new test targeting 22 BV-relevant species.

METHODS: Using 946 stored vaginal samples, a new qPCR test that quantitatively identifies 22 bacterial species was designed. The distribution and relative abundance of each species, α- and β-diversities, correlation, and species co-existence were determined per sample. A diagnostic index was modeled from the data, trained, and tested to classify samples into BV-positive, BV-negative, or transitional BV.

RESULTS: The qPCR test identified all 22 targeted species with 95 - 100% sensitivity and specificity within 8 hours (from sample reception). Across most samples, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Gardnerella vaginalis, Fannyhessea (Atopobium) vaginae, Prevotella bivia, and Megasphaera sp. type 1 were relatively abundant. BVAB-1 was more abundant and distributed than BVAB-2 and BVAB-3. No Mycoplasma genitalium was found. The inter-sample similarity was very low, and correlations existed between key species, which were used to model, train, and test a diagnostic index: MDL-BV index. The MDL-BV index, using both species and relative abundance markers, classified samples into three vaginal microbiome states. Testing this index on our samples, 491 were BV-positive, 318 were BV-negative, and 137 were transitional BV. Although important differences in BV status were observed between different age groups, races, and pregnancy status, they were statistically insignificant.

CONCLUSION: Using a diverse and large number of vaginal samples from different races and age groups, including pregnant women, the new qRT-PCR test and MDL-BV index efficiently diagnosed BV within 8 hours (from sample reception), using 22 BV-associated species.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Gandhi UH, Benjamin A, Gajjar S, et al (2024)

Alcohol and Periodontal Disease: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 16(6):e62270.

The scientific literature dealing with alcohol and alcoholic beverages revealed that these drinks possess an adverse impact on periodontal tissues. Additionally, other principal risk factors include tobacco, smoking, poor oral hygiene, etc. It has been observed that among chronic alcoholics, there are further issues, such as mental, social, and physical effects, that promote alcoholism. These people may have weak immunity for defense against pathogenic organisms and bacteria. Thus, chances of gingival bleeding, swollen gums, bad breath, and increased bone loss are there. Different alcoholic beverages in the market cause less salivation; these beverages contain sugars that promote acid production in the oral cavity by pathogens that demineralize the enamel and damage gum and teeth. This chronic alcohol consumption can progress into different types of oral disorders, including cancer, halitosis, and caries, and is also associated with tobacco and smoking. Chronic alcohol consumption can cause alteration of the oral microbiome and increase oral pathogens, which lead to periodontal disease and an environment of inflammation created in the body due to malnutrition, diminished immunity, altered liver condition, brain damage, and gut microbiota alteration. Heavily colored alcoholic beverages produce staining on teeth and, due to less saliva, may cause other toxic effects on the periodontium. Over-dependency on alcohol leads to necrotizing lesions such as necrotizing gingivitis, necrotizing periodontitis, and necrotizing stomatitis. These pathological impairments instigate severe damage to oral structures. Therefore, proper counseling by the attending dental surgeon and related health professionals is urgently required for the patient on the basis that the individual case needs to go away from the regular heavy consumption of alcohol.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Sanzone J, Life M, Reiss D, et al (2024)

Uses of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Neurodegenerative Disease: A Scoping Review.

Cureus, 16(6):e62265.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of fecal bacteria from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient's gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. The relationship between the gut microbiome and the central nervous system, termed the gut-brain axis, has been a frequent topic of gut microbiome studies. Commensal gut bacteria communicate with the central nervous system through various hormones, cytokines, and neural pathways. Therefore, influencing the gut microbiome via FMT may have the potential in treating symptoms of neurodegenerative conditions. This study aims to identify current uses of FMT in treating neurodegenerative diseases and highlight areas of future investigation. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework, a literature search was conducted of peer-reviewed sources on September 27, 2022, from Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central. Search terms were utilized that were related to the application of FMT and neurodegenerative disorders and limited those human studies, those that were published in English, and those that were published between 2017 and 2022. The initial search yielded 450 unique articles, and after the assessment of the title and abstract for inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were identified for full-text review. Studies that focused on either Parkinson's disease (PD) or multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrated improvements in both motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms. FMT was also shown to provide significant relief of constipation and general gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in all conditions studied. The studies related to MS showed the most mixed results with regard to symptomatic improvement. The data on the use of FMT as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is limited; however, studies have shown not only improvement in GI symptoms but also improvement in the cognitive symptoms of PD and dementia. The data on FMT as a treatment to improve the motor symptoms of PD is both more complete and more compelling than the data on the motor symptoms of MS. The studies that were reviewed showed no major adverse effects of FMT and generally promising results. There is a strong case to be made for larger, more well-controlled studies to be done on FMT and its potential use as a treatment not only for GI symptoms but for the motor and cognitive symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Lee CS, Lin CR, Chua HH, et al (2024)

Gut Bifidobacterium longum is associated with better native liver survival in patients with biliary atresia.

JHEP reports : innovation in hepatology, 6(7):101090.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiome plays an important role in liver diseases, but its specific impact on biliary atresia (BA) remains to be explored. We aimed to investigate the microbial signature in the early life of patients with BA and to analyze its influence on long-term outcomes.

METHODS: Fecal samples (n = 42) were collected from infants with BA before and after Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE). The stool microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing and compared with that of age-matched healthy controls (HCs). Shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis was employed to confirm the bacterial composition in 10 fecal samples before KPE. The correlation of the microbiome signature with liver function and long-term outcomes was assessed.

RESULTS: In the 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing analysis of fecal microbiota, the alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed significant differences between HCs and patients with BA before and after KPE. The difference in microbial composition analyzed by linear discriminant analysis and random forest classification revealed that the abundance of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) was significantly lower in patients before and after KPE than in HCs. The abundance of B. longum was negatively correlated with the gamma-glutamyltransferase level after KPE (p <0.05). Patients with early detectable B. longum had significantly lower total and direct bilirubin 3 months after KPE (p <0.005) and had a significantly lower liver transplantation rate (hazard ratio: 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.83, p = 0.029). Shotgun metagenomic sequencing also revealed that patients with BA and detectable B. longum had reduced total and direct bilirubin after KPE.

CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome of patients with BA differed from that of HCs, with a notable abundance of B. longum in early infancy correlating with better long-term outcomes.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) is a beneficial bacterium commonly found in the human gut. It has been studied for its potential impacts on various health conditions. In patients with biliary atresia, we found that a greater abundance of B. longum in the fecal microbiome is associated with improved clinical outcomes. This suggests that early colonization and increasing B. longum levels in the gut could be a therapeutic strategy to improve the prognosis of patients with biliary atresia.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Hu Y, Zhang R, Li J, et al (2024)

Association Between Gut and Nasal Microbiota and Allergic Rhinitis: A Systematic Review.

Journal of asthma and allergy, 17:633-651.

Allergic rhinitis is a chronic non-infectious inflammation of the nasal mucosa mediated by specific IgE. Recently, the human microbiome has drawn broad interest as a potential new target for treating this condition. This paper succinctly summarizes the main findings of 17 eligible studies published by February 2024, involving 1044 allergic rhinitis patients and 954 healthy controls from 5 countries. These studies examine differences in the human microbiome across important mucosal interfaces, including the nasal and intestinal areas, between patients and controls. Overall, findings suggest variations in the gut microbiota between allergic rhinitis patients and healthy individuals, although the specific bacterial taxa that significantly changed were not always consistent across studies. Due to the limited scope of existing research and patient coverage, the relationship between the nasal microbiome and allergic rhinitis remains inconclusive. The article discusses the potential immune-regulating role of the gut microbiome in allergic rhinitis. Further well-designed clinical trials with large-scale recruitment of allergic rhinitis patients are encouraged.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Enagbonma BJ, Fadiji AE, OO Babalola (2024)

Anthropogenic fertilization influences a shift in barley rhizosphere microbial communities.

PeerJ, 12:e17303.

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic mediations contribute a significant role in stimulating positive reactions in soil-plant interactions; however, methodical reports on how anthropogenic activities impact soil microorganism-induced properties and soil health are still inadequate. In this study, we evaluated the influence of anthropogenic fertilization of farmland soil on barley rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity, and the significant impacts on agro-ecosystem productivity. This will help validate the premise that soil amendment with prolonged synthetic fertilizers can lead to a significant reduction in bacterial abundance and diversity, while soils amended with organic fertilizers elicit the succession of the native soil microbial community and favor the growth of copiotrophic bacteria.

METHODS: The total metagenomic DNA was extracted from soils obtained from the barley rhizosphere under chemical fertilization (CB), organic fertilization (OB), and bulk soil (NB). Subsequently, these samples were sequenced using an amplicon-based sequencing approach, and the raw sequence dataset was examined using a metagenomic rast server (MG-RAST).

RESULTS: Our findings showed that all environments (CB, OB, and NB) shared numerous soil bacterial phyla but with different compositions. However, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria predominated in the barley rhizosphere under chemical fertilization, organic fertilization, and bulk soils, respectively. Alpha and beta diversity analysis showed that the diversity of bacteria under organic barley rhizosphere was significantly higher and more evenly distributed than bacteria under chemical fertilization and bulk soil.

CONCLUSION: Understanding the impact of conventional and organic fertilizers on the structure, composition, and diversity of the rhizosphere microbiome will assist in soil engineering to enhance microbial diversity in the agroecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Nurgaziyev M, Issilbayeva A, Bersimbaev R, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome-immune interactions and their role in rheumatoid arthritis development.

PeerJ, 12:e17477.

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to study the impact of gut microbiota and their interactions with diverse immunological markers on the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

METHODS: This study was performed in Astana, Kazakhstan, and included 77 Kazakh female patients older than 18 years, who met the American College of Rheumatology 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 113 healthy controls. The DNA was extracted from fecal samples obtained from all study participants for subsequent sequencing at the 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 locus, facilitating the analysis of the gut microbiome. The Multiplex immunoassay was employed to measure the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and immunoglobulins in both fecal and plasma samples.

RESULTS: Our taxonomic analysis revealed significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiota between the healthy control cohort and the cohort with rheumatoid arthritis RA. Alpha diversity was significantly lower in the RA group. Lachnospiraceae were the most abundant taxon and found to be crucial, showing correlations with immunological markers such as IL5. Additionally, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceae exhibited the most predictable power and distinguished the composition of both study groups.

CONCLUSION: Our study identifies key differences in the gut microbiome of RA patients, revealing distinct microbial patterns and specific taxa abundance. We highlight potential biomarkers in immunological and bacterial pathways, offering insights into RA development and indicating possibilities for personalized treatment.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Reyes G, Andrade B, Betancourt I, et al (2024)

Bacterial communities and signatures in the stomach and intestine of juvenile P enaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease.

Heliyon, 10(12):e33034.

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis (AHPND) is a severe bacterial disease affecting farmed shrimp. Although various pathogenic bacteria associated with AHPND-affected shrimp have been described, little is known about the bacterial signatures in the stomachs and intestines when the disease occurs naturally. In this study, we characterized the microbiome of P. vannamei by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Shrimp samples were collected from a commercial farm and divided into two groups: healthy and affected by AHPND, confirmed by PCR. Stomach and intestine samples were subjected to microbiome analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. PERMANOVA analysis revealed a significant disparity in the bacterial diversity between the stomach and intestine microbiomes of these two health conditions. Our results suggest that the significant abundance of Vibrio brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis in the intestines of affected shrimp plays a role in AHPND infection. This imbalance could be mitigated by the presence of Pseudoalteromonas, Gilvimarinus, and other members of the phylum Pseudomonadota such as Cellvibrionaceae, Psychromonadaceae, and Halieaceae, which showed significant abundance in healthy intestines. This study highlights the significance of the microbial community in the differentiation of specific microbial signatures in different organs of P. vannamei. These findings offer a deeper understanding of the intricate dynamics within the shrimp microbiome under these conditions, enriching our view of AHPND progression and paving the way toward future identification of probiotics tailored for more efficient management of this disease.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Storm MB, Arfaoui EMR, Simelane P, et al (2024)

Diet components associated with specific bacterial taxa shape overall gut community compositions in omnivorous African viverrids.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11486.

Gut bacterial communities provide flexibility to hosts during dietary changes. Despite the increasing number of studies exploring the associations between broader dietary guilds of mammalian hosts and their gut bacteria, it is generally unclear how diversity and variability in consumed diets link to gut bacterial taxa in wild non-primate mammals, particularly in omnivores. Here, we contribute to filling this gap by exploring consumed diets and gut bacterial community compositions with metabarcoding of faecal samples for two African mammals, Civettictis civetta and Genetta spp., from the family Viverridae. For each individual sample, we characterised bacterial communities and identified dietary taxa by sequencing vertebrate, invertebrate and plant markers. This led us to establish diet compositions that diverged from what has previously been found from visual identification methods. Specifically, while the two genera have been categorised into the same dietary guild, we detected more animal dietary items than plant items in C. civetta, while in Genetta spp., we observed the opposite. We further found that individuals with similar diets have similar gut bacterial communities within both genera. This association tended to be driven by specific links between dietary items and gut bacterial genera, rather than communities as a whole, implying diet-driven selection for specific gut microbes in individual wild hosts. Our findings underline the importance of molecular tools for improving characterisations of omnivorous mammalian diets and highlight the opportunities for simultaneously disentangling links between diets and gut symbionts. Such insights can inform robustness and flexibility in host-microbe symbioses to dietary change associated with seasonal and habitat changes.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Sisk-Hackworth L, Akhavan SR, Krutkin DD, et al (2024)

Genetic hypogonadal (Gnrh1 [hpg]) mouse model uncovers influence of reproductive axis on maturation of the gut microbiome during puberty.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.07.01.601610.

The gut microbiome plays a key role in human health and gut dysbiosis is linked to many sex-specific diseases including autoimmune, metabolic, and neurological disorders. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during puberty leads to sexual maturation and development of sex differences through the action of gonadal sex steroids. While the gut microbiome also undergoes sex differentiation, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using a genetic hypogonadal (hpg) mouse model, we sampled the fecal microbiome of male and female wild-type and hpg mutant mice before and after puberty to determine how microbial taxonomy and function are influenced by age, sex, and the HPG axis. We showed that HPG axis activation during puberty is required for sexual maturation of the gut microbiota composition, community structure, and metabolic functions. We also demonstrated that some sex differences in taxonomic composition and amine metabolism developed independently of the HPG axis, indicating that sex chromosomes are sufficient for certain sex differences in the gut microbiome. In addition, we showed that age, independent of HPG axis activation, led to some aspects of pubertal maturation of the gut microbiota community composition and putative functions. These results have implications for microbiome-based treatments, indicating that sex, hormonal status, and age should be considered when designing microbiome-based therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

MacLean F, Tsegaye AT, Graham JB, et al (2024)

Bacterial vaginosis-driven changes in vaginal T cell phenotypes and their implications for HIV susceptibility.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.07.03.601916.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome that is prevalent in reproductive-age women worldwide. Adverse outcomes associated with BV include an increased risk of sexually acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), yet the immunological mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. To investigate BV driven changes to cervicovaginal tract (CVT) and circulating T cell phenotypes, participants with or without BV provided vaginal tract (VT) and ectocervical (CX) tissue biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunofluorescence analysis of genital mucosal tissues revealed a reduced density of CD3 [+] CD4 [+] CCR5 [+] cells in the VT lamina propria of individuals with compared to those without BV (median 243.8 cells/mm [2] BV-vs 106.9 cells/mm [2] BV+, p=0.043). High-parameter flow cytometry of VT biopsies revealed an increased frequency in individuals with compared to those without BV of dysfunctional CD39 [+] conventional CD4 [+] T cells (Tconv) (median frequency 15% BV-vs 30% BV+, p adj =0.0331) and tissue-resident CD69 [+] CD103 [+] Tconv (median frequency 24% BV-vs 38% BV+, p adj =0.0061), previously reported to be implicated in HIV acquisition and replication. Our data suggests that BV elicits diverse and complex VT T cell alterations and expands on potential immunological mechanisms that may promote adverse outcomes including HIV susceptibility.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Morrison ML, Xue KS, NA Rosenberg (2024)

Quantifying compositional variability in microbial communities with FAVA.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.07.03.601929.

UNLABELLED: Microbial communities vary across space, time, and individual hosts, presenting new challenges for the development of statistics measuring the variability of community composition. To understand differences across microbiome samples from different host individuals, sampling times, spatial locations, or experimental replicates, we present FAVA, a new normalized measure for characterizing compositional variability across multiple microbiome samples. FAVA quantifies variability across many samples of taxonomic or functional relative abundances in a single index ranging between 0 and 1, equaling 0 when all samples are identical and equaling 1 when each sample is entirely comprised of a single taxon. Its definition relies on the population-genetic statistic F ST , with samples playing the role of "populations" and taxa playing the role of "alleles." Its convenient mathematical properties allow users to compare disparate data sets. For example, FAVA values are commensurable across different numbers of taxonomic categories and different numbers of samples considered. We introduce extensions that incorporate phylogenetic similarity among taxa and spatial or temporal distances between samples. We illustrate how FAVA can be used to describe across-individual taxonomic variability in ruminant microbiomes at different regions along the gastrointestinal tract. In a second example, a longitudinal analysis of gut microbiomes of healthy human adults taking an antibiotic, we use FAVA to quantify the increase in temporal variability of microbiomes following the antibiotic course and to measure the duration of the antibiotic's influence on microbial variability. We have implemented this tool in an R package, FAVA , which can fit easily into existing pipelines for the analysis of microbial relative abundances.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Studies of microbial community composition across time, space, or biological replicates often rely on summary statistics that analyze just one or two samples at a time. Although these statistics effectively summarize the diversity of one sample or the compositional dissimilarity between two samples, they are ill-suited for measuring variability across many samples at once. Measuring compositional variability among many samples is key to understanding the temporal stability of a community across multiple time points, or the heterogeneity of microbiome composition across multiple experimental replicates or host individuals. Our proposed measure, FAVA, meets the need for a statistic summarizing compositional variability across many microbiome samples all at once.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Ryu EP, Gautam Y, Proctor DM, et al (2024)

Nepali oral microbiomes reflect a gradient of lifestyles from traditional to industrialized.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.07.01.601557.

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle plays an important role in shaping the gut microbiome. However, its contributions to the oral microbiome remains less clear, due to the confounding effects of geography and methodology in investigations of populations studied to date. Furthermore, while the oral microbiome seems to differ between foraging and industrialized populations, we lack insight into whether transitions to and away from agrarian lifestyles shape the oral microbiota. Given the growing interest in so-called 'vanishing microbiomes' potentially being a risk factor for increased disease prevalence in industrialized populations, it is important that we distinguish lifestyle from geography in the study of microbiomes across populations.

RESULTS: Here, we investigate salivary microbiomes of 63 Nepali individuals representing a spectrum of lifestyles: foraging, subsistence farming (individuals that transitioned from foraging to farming within the last 50 years), agriculturalists (individuals that have transitioned to farming for at least 300 years), and industrialists (expatriates that immigrated to the United States within the last 20 years). We characterize the role of lifestyle in microbial diversity, identify microbes that differ between lifestyles, and pinpoint specific lifestyle factors that may be contributing to differences in the microbiomes across populations. Contrary to prevailing views, when geography is controlled for, oral microbiome alpha diversity does not differ significantly across lifestyles. Microbiome composition, however, follows the gradient of lifestyles from foraging through agrarianism to industrialism, supporting the notion that lifestyle indeed plays a role in the oral microbiome. Relative abundances of several individual taxa, including Streptobacillus and an unclassified Porphyromonadaceae genus, also mirror lifestyle. Finally, we identify specific lifestyle factors associated with microbiome composition across the gradient of lifestyles, including smoking and grain source.

CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that by controlling for geography, we can isolate an important role for lifestyle in determining oral microbiome composition. In doing so, we highlight the potential contributions of several lifestyle factors, underlining the importance of carefully examining the oral microbiome across lifestyles to improve our understanding of global microbiomes.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Zhao S, Rillig MC, Bing H, et al (2024)

Microplastic pollution promotes soil respiration: A global-scale meta-analysis.

Global change biology, 30(7):e17415.

Microplastic (MP) pollution likely affects global soil carbon (C) dynamics, yet it remains uncertain how and to what extent MP influences soil respiration. Here, we report on a global meta-analysis to determine the effects of MP pollution on the soil microbiome and CO2 emission. We found that MP pollution significantly increased the contents of soil organic C (SOC) (21%) and dissolved organic C (DOC) (12%), the activity of fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDAse) (10%), and microbial biomass (17%), but led to a decrease in microbial diversity (3%). In particular, increases in soil C components and microbial biomass further promote CO2 emission (25%) from soil, but with a much higher effect of MPs on these emissions than on soil C components and microbial biomass. The effect could be attributed to the opposite effects of MPs on microbial biomass vs. diversity, as soil MP accumulation recruited some functionally important bacteria and provided additional C substrates for specific heterotrophic microorganisms, while inhibiting the growth of autotrophic taxa (e.g., Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria). This study reveals that MP pollution can increase soil CO2 emission by causing shifts in the soil microbiome. These results underscore the potential importance of plastic pollution for terrestrial C fluxes, and thus climate feedbacks.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Shin CM (2024)

Can Epigenetic and Gastric Microbiome Markers Predict the Risk of Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastric Cancer?.

Gut and liver, 18(4):553-555.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Cabuslay C, Wertz JT, Béchade B, et al (2024)

Domestication and evolutionary histories of specialized gut symbionts across cephalotine ants.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of animals and their gut symbionts is a complex phenomenon, obscured by lability and diversity. In social organisms, transmission of symbionts among relatives may yield systems with more stable associations. Here, we study the history of a social insect symbiosis involving cephalotine ants and their extracellular gut bacteria, which come predominantly from host-specialized lineages. We perform multi-locus phylogenetics for symbionts from nine bacterial orders, and map prior amplicon sequence data to lineage-assigned symbiont genomes, studying distributions of rigorously defined symbionts across 20 host species. Based on monophyly and additional hypothesis testing, we estimate that these specialized gut bacteria belong to 18 distinct lineages, of which 15 have been successfully isolated and cultured. Several symbiont lineages showed evidence for domestication events that occurred later in cephalotine evolutionary history, and only one lineage was ubiquitously detected in all 20 host species and 48 colonies sampled with amplicon 16S rRNA sequencing. We found evidence for phylogenetically constrained distributions in four symbionts, suggesting historical or genetic impacts on community composition. Two lineages showed evidence for frequent intra-lineage co-infections, highlighting the potential for niche divergence after initial domestication. Nearly all symbionts showed evidence for occasional host switching, but four may, more often, co-diversify with their hosts. Through our further assessment of symbiont localization and genomic functional profiles, we demonstrate distinct niches for symbionts with shared evolutionary histories, prompting further questions on the forces underlying the evolution of hosts and their gut microbiomes.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Zhang P, Xu JF, YB Zhou (2024)

[Changes in tumor microbiome and underlying value according to response to neoadjuvan chemotherapy for in patients with gastric cancer].

Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery, 27(7):702-710.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for gastric cancer and gastric microecology. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using fresh frozen operative specimens. The specimens had been stored in the tumor sample bank of the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from January 2017 to January 2023 after having been collected from 31 patients with pathologically diagnosed gastric cancer who had no metastases and had received only neoadjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively. The study patients had all successfully undergone radical gastric cancer surgery. Patients with metastases or other primary tumor foci and/or had received other therapies within 1 month prior to surgery, including immunotherapy, targeted therapies and probiotics, were excluded. The tumors were graded and grouped in accordance with the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system and the Tumor Regression Grading System (TRG) of the College of American Pathologists. Those with TRG Grades 0-1, ypT0-1 and ypN0 were classified as responsive (Group R, 12 cases), whereas those with TRG Grades 2-3 and ypT2-4 or ypN+ were classified as non-responsive (Group NR, 19 cases). The fresh frozen samples were processed and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed using the Q2-diversity plug-in for QIIME2 and STAMP was used to determine the default parameters and differentially enriched bacterial taxa in the two groups. High-dimensional class comparisons were performed by effect size linear discriminant analysis, and potential functional distributions of microbiomes were predicted using PICRUST2 (v2.3.0-b) software. Results: Groups R and NR did not differ significantly in sex, age, body mass index, smoking history, tumor location, cTNM stage before NACT, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (all P>0.05), whereas tumor size and ypTNM stage after NACT differed significantly between the two groups (both P=0.001). Alpha and beta diversity analysis of the gastric microbiota did not reveal a statistically significant difference in alpha diversity between the two groups (P>0.05), whereas there was a statistically significant difference in beta diversity between the two groups (P=0.004). Four family-level bacterial taxa, namely Coriobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, were enriched in the R group, whereas four bacterial taxa dominated by phylum Proteobacteria were enriched in the NR group. Metabolic pathways of various amino acids, including citric acid cycle and alanine, were found to be potentially predictive. Conclusions: There are significant differences in the abundance and composition of gastric microecology in gastric cancer patients with different responses to NACT.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Nissen L, Spisni E, Spigarelli R, et al (2024)

Single exposure of food-derived polyethylene and polystyrene microplastics profoundly affects gut microbiome in an in vitro colon model.

Environment international, 190:108884 pii:S0160-4120(24)00470-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics (MPs) are widespread contaminants highly persistent in the environment and present in matrices to which humans are extensively exposed, including food and beverages. MP ingestion occurs in adults and children and is becoming an emerging public health issue. The gastrointestinal system is the most exposed to MP contamination, which can alter its physiology starting from changes in the microbiome. This study investigates by an omic approach the impact of a single intake of a mixture of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) MPs on the ecology and metabolic activity of the colon microbiota of healthy volunteers, in an in vitro intestinal model. PE and PS MPs were pooled together in a homogeneous mix, digested with the INFOGEST system, and fermented with MICODE (multi-unit in vitro colon model) at loads that by literature correspond to the possible intake of food-derived MPs of a single meal. Results demonstrated that MPs induced an opportunistic bacteria overgrowth (Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio spp., Clostridium group I and Atopobium - Collinsella group) and a contextual reduction on abundances of all the beneficial taxa analyzed, with the sole exception of Lactobacillales. This microbiota shift was consistent with the changes recorded in the bacterial metabolic activity.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Wilson JD, Dworsky-Fried M, N Ismail (2024)

Neurodevelopmental implications of COVID-19-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis in pregnant women.

Journal of reproductive immunology, 165:104300 pii:S0165-0378(24)00109-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The global public health emergency of COVID-19 in January 2020 prompted a surge in research focusing on the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the virus. While numerous reports have been published on the acute effects of COVID-19 infection, the review explores the multifaceted long-term implications of COVID-19, with a particular focus on severe maternal COVID-19 infection, gut microbiome dysbiosis, and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. Severe COVID-19 infection has been associated with heightened immune system activation and gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe COVID-19 may also result in gut microbiome dysbiosis and a compromised intestinal mucosal barrier, often referred to as 'leaky gut'. Increased gut permeability facilitates the passage of inflammatory cytokines, originating from the inflamed intestinal mucosa and gut, into the bloodstream, thereby influencing fetal development during pregnancy and potentially elevating the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. The current review discusses the role of cytokine signaling molecules, microglia, and synaptic pruning, highlighting their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders following maternal COVID-19 infection. Additionally, this review addresses the potential of probiotic interventions to mitigate gut dysbiosis and inflammatory responses associated with COVID-19, offering avenues for future research in optimizing maternal and fetal health outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Li H, Wang K, Hao M, et al (2024)

Intestinal epithelial Cldn-7 regulates intestinal inflammation by altering the gut microbiota.

Pathology, research and practice, 260:155448 pii:S0344-0338(24)00359-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tight junctions maintain gut homeostasis by forming a physical barrier that protects the gut from invasion by microbiota. Cldn-7 is an important component involved in this protection, but the relationship between Cldn-7, intestinal inflammation, and gut microbiota has not been clarified. Here, we hypothesize that Cldn-7 depletion affects intestinal inflammation by altering the gut microbiota.

METHODS: Based on the induced intestinal condition of Cldn-7 knockout mice (Cldn7fl/fl;villin-CreaERT2), we established the intestinal flora depletion model and colitis model by antibiotic drinking and feeding with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The environment of Cldn-7 gene deletion mice was changed by co-housing experiment. AB-PAS staining and Muc2 were used to detect the effect of co-housing and Cldn-7 deficiency on the mucus layer after flora depletion. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of intestinal inflammatory factors and AMPs in mice. Feces were collected and proportions of microbiota were analyzed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

RESULTS: Mice in the co-housing experiment had altered intestinal microbiota, including diversity, composition, and functional prediction, compared to controls. Intestinal inflammation was restored to some extent following altered intestinal microbiota. The intestinal inflammation caused by Cldn-7 deficiency and susceptibility to DSS could be reduced after antibiotic administration compared to controls, in terms of phenotype, pathological changes, inflammatory factors, mucus barrier, and expression of AMPs.

CONCLUSIONS: In analyses of intestinal tissues, colitis induction, and gut microbiota in mice with intestinal disruption of Cldn-7, we found this protein to prevent intestinal inflammation by regulating the gut microbiota. Cldn-7might therefore be an important mediator of host-microbiome interactions. Our research has revealed that Cldn-7 plays an indispensable role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis by regulating the gut microbiota and impacting intestinal inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Hong Y, Feng Y, Yan T, et al (2024)

Take-out food enhances the risk of MPs ingestion and obesity, altering the gut microbiome in young adults.

Journal of hazardous materials, 476:135125 pii:S0304-3894(24)01704-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Young people are consuming large amounts of microplastics (MPs) due to the booming development of the take-out industry. To investigate the association between MPs exposure and obesity, 121 volunteers were divided into high MPs exposure (HME) and low MPs exposure (LME) according to the frequency of take-out food consumption. Fecal samples were collected for MPs detection using Raman spectra analysis, and identification of the gut microbiota was based on 16 S rDNA/ITS, while metabolite analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. High levels of MPs and body mass index (BMI) were observed in the HME group (P < 0.05). Both the multiple linear regression (MLR) model and the binary logistic regression (BLR) (OR: 1.264, 95 % CI: 1.108-1.441, P < 0.001) analysis showed a positive correlation between MPs content and BMI. Microbial community analysis revealed that Veillonella, Alistipes and Dothideomycotes (pathogenic fungi) increased in HME participants, whereas Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus decreased. Meanwhile, analysis of stool metabolites showed that vancomycin resistance, selenocompound metabolism and drug metabolism pathways were enhanced in HME participants. These findings indicate that frequent consumption of take-out food may elevate the intake of microplastics, consequently modifying the gut microbiota and metabolites of young adults, and could represent a potential risk factor for obesity.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Dong PT, Shi W, He X, et al (2024)

Adhesive interactions within microbial consortia can be differentiated at the single-cell level through expansion microscopy.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

Investigating microbe-microbe interactions at the single-cell level is critical to unraveling the ecology and dynamics of microbial communities. In many situations, microbes assemble themselves into densely packed multi-species biofilms. The density and complexity pose acute difficulties for visualizing individual cells and analyzing their interactions. Here, we address this problem through an unconventional application of expansion microscopy, which allows for the 'decrowding' of individual bacterial cells within a multispecies community. Expansion microscopy generally has been carried out under isotropic expansion conditions and used as a resolution-enhancing method. In our variation of expansion microscopy, we carry out expansion under heterotropic conditions; that is, we expand the space between bacterial cells but not the space within individual cells. The separation of individual bacterial cells from each other reflects the competition between the expansion force pulling them apart and the adhesion force holding them together. We employed heterotropic expansion microscopy to study the relative strength of adhesion in model biofilm communities. These included mono and dual-species Streptococcus biofilms, and a three-species synthetic community (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis) under conditions that facilitated interspecies coaggregation. Using adhesion mutants, we investigated the interplay between F. nucleatum outer membrane protein RadD and different Streptococcus species. We also examined the Schaalia-TM7 epibiont association. Quantitative proximity analysis was used to evaluate the separation of individual microbial members. Our study demonstrates that heterotropic expansion microscopy can 'decrowd' dense biofilm communities, improve visualization of individual bacterial members, and enable analysis of microbe-microbe adhesive interactions at the single-cell level.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Duran R, C Cravo-Laureau (2024)

The hydrocarbon pollution crisis: Harnessing the earth hydrocarbon-degrading microbiome.

Microbial biotechnology, 17(7):e14526.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Yakar N, Yilmaz B, Emingil G, et al (2024)

Subgingival microbial profiles in pre- and postmenopausal women: Associations with serum estradiol levels.

Journal of periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Subgingival dental plaque is an ecosystem playing a key role in supporting both oral health and systemic health. Menopause-related changes have the potential to disrupt its balance, which is crucial to postmenopausal well-being. Our study explored how circulating estradiol levels correlate with subgingival microbial composition using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We also demonstrated that combining this method with 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing insights remains valuable for examining subgingival ecology.

METHODS: We assessed 40 bacterial species in 77 premenopausal and 81 postmenopausal women using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and measured serum estradiol with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Women were categorized by subgingival dysbiosis severity using a modified Subgingival Microbial Dysbiosis Index (mSMDI). Six women from each normobiotic and dysbiotic subgroup across premenopausal and postmenopausal women underwent 16S rRNA sequencing analysis.

RESULTS: DNA checkerboard analysis revealed that most observed variability in individual bacterial proportions is associated with periodontitis. Two species, Leptotrichia buccalis and Streptococcus constellatus, exhibited differences related to estradiol levels within the premenopausal group (p = 0.055 and p = 0.009, respectively). 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed the mSMDI's validity in categorizing normobiotic and dysbiotic states. Menopausal status was not associated with a dysbiotic shift in the subgingival microbiome despite significantly more attachment loss in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that decreased estradiol levels or increased attachment loss during menopause are not associated with changes in species abundance or dysbiotic shifts in women. The mSMDI may be a useful tool for classifying subgingival ecology based on its normobiotic or dysbiotic inclination.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Lyu X, Nuhu M, Candry P, et al (2024)

Top-down and bottom-up microbiome engineering approaches to enable biomanufacturing from waste biomass.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology pii:7713458 [Epub ahead of print].

Growing environmental concerns and the need to adopt a circular economy have highlighted the importance of waste valorization for resource recovery. Microbial consortia-enabled biotechnologies have made significant developments in the biomanufacturing of valuable resources from waste biomass that serve as suitable alternatives to petrochemical-derived products. These microbial consortia are designed following a top-down or bottom-up engineering approach. The top-down approach is a classical method that uses environmental variables to selectively steer an existing microbial consortium to achieve a target function. While high-throughput sequencing has enabled microbial community characterization, the major challenge is to disentangle complex microbial interactions and manipulate the structure and function accordingly. Microbial consortia design through a bottom-up approach uses prior knowledge of the metabolic pathway and possible interactions among consortium partners to design and engineer synthetic microbial consortia. This strategy offers some control over the composition and function of the consortium for targeted bioprocesses, but challenges remain in optimal assembly methods and long-term stability. In this review, we present the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities for further improvement using top-down and bottom-up approaches for microbiome engineering. As the bottom-up approach is relatively a new concept for waste valorization, this review explores the assembly and design of synthetic microbial consortia, ecological engineering principles to optimize microbial consortia, and metabolic engineering approaches for efficient conversion. Integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches along with developments in metabolic modeling to predict and optimize consortia function are also highlighted.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Xiong Z, Wang Y, He L, et al (2025)

Combined biochar and wheat-derived endophytic bacteria reduces cadmium uptake in wheat grains in a metal-polluted soil.

Journal of environmental sciences (China), 147:165-178.

In this study, two wheat-derived cadmium (Cd)-immobilizing endophytic Pseudomonas paralactis M14 and Priestia megaterium R27 were evaluated for their effects on wheat tissue Cd uptake under hydroponic conditions. Then, the impacts of the biochar (BC), M14+R27 (MR), and BC+MR treatments on wheat Cd uptake and the mechanisms involved were investigated at the jointing, heading, and mature stages of wheat plants under field-plot conditions. A hydroponic experiment showed that the MR treatment significantly decreased the above-ground tissue Cd content compared with the M14 or R27 treatment. The BC+MR treatment reduced the grain Cd content by 51.5%-67.7% and Cd translocation factor at the mature stage of wheat plants and increased the organic matter-bound Cd content by 31%-75% in the rhizosphere soils compared with the BC or MR treatment. Compared with the BC or MR treatment, the relative abundances of the biomarkers associated with Gemmatimonas, Altererythrobacter, Gammaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadaceae, Phenylobacterium, and Nocardioides in the BC+MR-treated rhizosphere microbiome decreased and negatively correlated with the organic matter-bound Cd contents. In the BC+MR-treated root interior microbiome, the relative abundance of the biomarker belonging to Exiguobacterium increased and negatively correlated with the Cd translocation factor, while the relative abundance of the biomarker belonging to Pseudonocardiaceae decreased and positively correlated with the Cd translocation factor. Our findings suggested that the BC+MR treatment reduced Cd availability and Cd transfer through affecting the abundances of these specific biomarkers in the rhizosphere soil and root interior microbiomes, leading to decreased wheat grain Cd uptake in the contaminated soil.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Vich Vila A, Zhang J, Liu M, et al (2024)

Untargeted faecal metabolomics for the discovery of biomarkers and treatment targets for inflammatory bowel diseases.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2023-329969 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome has been recognised as a key component in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and the wide range of metabolites produced by gut bacteria are an important mechanism by which the human microbiome interacts with host immunity or host metabolism. High-throughput metabolomic profiling and novel computational approaches now allow for comprehensive assessment of thousands of metabolites in diverse biomaterials, including faecal samples. Several groups of metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan metabolites and bile acids, have been associated with IBD. In this Recent Advances article, we describe the contribution of metabolomics research to the field of IBD, with a focus on faecal metabolomics. We discuss the latest findings on the significance of these metabolites for IBD prognosis and therapeutic interventions and offer insights into the future directions of metabolomics research.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Majumder S, Pushpakumar SB, Almarshood H, et al (2024)

Toll-like receptor 4 mutation mitigates gut microbiota-mediated hypertensive kidney injury.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(24)00248-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hypertension-associated dysbiosis is linked to several clinical complications, including inflammation and possible kidney dysfunction. Inflammation and TLR4 activation during hypertension result from gut dysbiosis-related impairment of intestinal integrity. However, the contribution of TLR4 in kidney dysfunction during hypertension-induced gut dysbiosis is unclear. We designed this study to address this knowledge gap by utilizing TLR4 normal (TLR4N) and TLR4 mutant (TLR4M) mice. These mice were infused with high doses of Angiotensin-II for four weeks to induce hypertension. Results suggest that Ang-II significantly increased renal arterial resistive index (RI), decreased renal vascularity, and renal function (GFR) in TLR4N mice compared to TLR4M. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiome revealed that Ang-II-induced hypertension resulted in alteration of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut of both TLR4N and TLR4M mice; however, it was not comparably rather differentially. Additionally, Ang-II-hypertension decreased the expression of tight junction proteins and increased gut permeability, which were more prominent in TLR4N mice than in TLR4M mice. Concomitant with gut hyperpermeability, an increased bacterial component translocation to the kidney was observed in TLR4N mice treated with Ang-II compared to TLR4N plus saline. Interestingly, microbiota translocation was mitigated in Ang-II-hypertensive TLR4M mice. Furthermore, Ang-II altered the expression of inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory IL-10) markers, and extracellular matrix proteins, including MMP-2, -9, -14, and TIMP-2 in the kidney of TLR4N mice, which were blunted in TLR4M mice. Our data demonstrate that ablation of TLR4 attenuates hypertension-induced gut dysbiosis resulting in preventing gut hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation, mitigation of renal inflammation and alleviation of kidney dysfunction.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Seo H, Yoon Y, Kim S, et al (2024)

Anti-tuberculosis effect of microbiome therapeutic PMC205 in extensively drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo.

International journal of antimicrobial agents pii:S0924-8579(24)00192-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the increase in antibiotic resistance threatens humankind. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-tuberculosis drugs that can overcome the limitations of existing drugs. Here, we report the anti-tuberculosis effect of microbiome therapeutic PMC205, a strain of Bacillus subtilis.

METHODS: The anti-tuberculosis activity of probiotics was evaluated in mouse models of lethal and latent pulmonary tuberculosis induced by high or low-dose infection of the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strain. Probiotics were administered by inhalation, and the burden of M. tuberculosis in the lungs, along with mortality and clinical observations, were monitored for 12 weeks and 8 months, respectively. For an in-depth understanding, analysis of the microbiome and inflammatory profile of the lung microenvironment and induction of autophagy in vitro were explored.

RESULTS: After inhalation administration of PMC205 for 3 months, the survival rate was 100%, unlike all deaths in the saline-treated group, and the burden of M. tuberculosis in the lungs was reduced by log 1.3 in the 8-month latent tuberculosis model. Moreover, PMC205 induced recovery of disrupted lung microflora, increased butyric acid, and suppressed excessive inflammation. It also promoted autophagy.

CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm PMC205's anti-tuberculosis effect, suggesting that it can be developed as an adjuvant to current antibiotic therapy to solve the drug-resistant tuberculosis problem.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )