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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 May 2021 at 01:47 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT 33634751[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-05-13

Dellière S, Hamane S, Aissaoui N, et al (2021)

Increased sensitivity of a new commercial reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in respiratory specimens.

Medical mycology pii:6275194 [Epub ahead of print].

Optimal sensitivity to detect low Pneumocystis loads is of importance to take individual and collective measures to avoid evolution towards Pneumocystis pneumonia and outbreaks in immunocompromised patients. This study compares two qPCR procedures, a new automated RTqPCR using the GeneLEAD VIII extractor/thermocycler (GLVIII; ∼2.2 hrs workflow) and a previously validated in-house qPCR assays (IH; ∼5 hrs workflow) both targeting mtSSU and mtLSU for detecting P. jirovecii in 213 respiratory samples. GLVIII was found to be more sensitive than IH, detecting 8 more specimens. Bland-Altman analysis between the two procedures showed a Cq bias of 1.17 ± 0.07 in favor of GLVIII. The fungus Pneumocystis needs to be detected early in respiratory samples to prevent pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. We evaluated a new commercial RTqPCR on 213 respiratory samples to detect Pneumocystis and found it more sensitive and faster than our routine sensitive in-house qPCR assay.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Mathur V, Wakeman KC, PJ Keeling (2021)

Parallel functional reduction in the mitochondria of apicomplexan parasites.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)00541-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Gregarines are an early-diverging lineage of apicomplexan parasites that hold many clues into the origin and evolution of the group, a remarkable transition from free-living phototrophic algae into obligate parasites of animals.1 Using single-cell transcriptomics targeting understudied lineages to complement available sequencing data, we characterized the mitochondrial metabolic repertoire across the tree of apicomplexans. In contrast to the large suite of proteins involved in aerobic respiration in well-studied parasites like Toxoplasma or Plasmodium,2 we find that gregarine trophozoites have significantly reduced energy metabolism: most lack respiratory complexes III and IV, and some lack the electron transport chains (ETCs) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle entirely. Phylogenomic analyses show that these reductions took place several times in parallel, resulting in a functional range from fully aerobic organelles to extremely reduced "mitosomes" restricted to Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. The mitochondrial genome has also been lost repeatedly: in species with severe functional reduction simply by gene loss but in one species with a complete ETC by relocating cox1 to the nuclear genome. Severe functional reduction of mitochondria is generally associated with structural reduction, resulting in small, nondescript mitochondrial-related organelles (MROs).3 By contrast, gregarines retain distinctive mitochondria with tubular cristae, even the most functionally reduced cases that also lack genes associated with cristae formation. Overall, the parallel, severe reduction of gregarine mitochondria expands the diversity of organisms that contain MROs and further emphasizes the role of parallel transitions in apicomplexan evolution.

RevDate: 2021-05-08

Skejo J, Garg SG, Gould SB, et al (2021)

Evidence for a syncytial origin of eukaryotes from ancestral state reconstruction.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6272229 [Epub ahead of print].

Modern accounts of eukaryogenesis entail an endosymbiotic encounter between an archaeal host and a proteobacterial endosymbiont, with subsequent evolution giving rise to a unicell possessing a single nucleus and mitochondria. The mononucleate state of the last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, is seldom, if ever, questioned, even though cells harboring multiple (syncytia, coenocytes, polykaryons) are surprisingly common across eukaryotic supergroups. Here we present a survey of multinucleated forms. Ancestral character state reconstruction for representatives of 106 eukaryotic taxa using 16 different possible roots and supergroup sister relationships, indicate that LECA, in addition to being mitochondriate, sexual, and meiotic, was multinucleate. LECA exhibited closed mitosis, which is the rule for modern syncytial forms, shedding light on the mechanics of its chromosome segregation. A simple mathematical model shows that within LECA's multinucleate cytosol, relationships among mitochondria and nuclei were neither one-to-one, nor one-to-many, but many-to-many, placing mitonuclear interactions and cytonuclear compatibility at the evolutionary base of eukaryotic cell origin. Within a syncytium, individual nuclei and individual mitochondria function as the initial lower-level evolutionary units of selection, as opposed to individual cells, during eukaryogenesis. Nuclei within a syncytium rescue each other's lethal mutations, thereby postponing selection for viable nuclei and cytonuclear compatibility to the generation of spores, buffering transitional bottlenecks at eukaryogenesis. The prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition is traditionally thought to have left no intermediates, yet if eukaryogenesis proceeded via a syncytial common ancestor, intermediate forms have persisted to the present throughout the eukaryotic tree as syncytia, but have so far gone unrecognized.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Reinke AW (2021)

mSphere of Influence: Where the Pathogen Proteins Are.

mSphere, 6(3):.

Aaron Reinke studies microsporidian evolution and how microsporidia interact with their hosts. In this mSphere of Influence article, he reflects on how the papers "A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells" (K. J. Roux, D. I. Kim, M. Raida, and B. Burke, J Cell Biol 196:801-810, 2012, and "Proteomic mapping of mitochondria in living cells via spatially restricted enzymatic tagging" (H.-W. Rhee, P. Zou, N. D. Udeshi, J. D. Martell, et al., Science 339:1328-1331, 2013, impacted his thinking on how to determine where proteins from intracellular pathogens are located within host cells.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Oborník M (2021)

Enigmatic Evolutionary History of Porphobilinogen Deaminase in Eukaryotic Phototrophs.

Biology, 10(5): pii:biology10050386.

In most eukaryotic phototrophs, the entire heme synthesis is localized to the plastid, and enzymes of cyanobacterial origin dominate the pathway. Despite that, porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of hydroxymethybilane in the plastid, shows phylogenetic affiliation to α-proteobacteria, the supposed ancestor of mitochondria. Surprisingly, no PBGD of such origin is found in the heme pathway of the supposed partners of the primary plastid endosymbiosis, a primarily heterotrophic eukaryote, and a cyanobacterium. It appears that α-proteobacterial PBGD is absent from glaucophytes but is present in rhodophytes, chlorophytes, plants, and most algae with complex plastids. This may suggest that in eukaryotic phototrophs, except for glaucophytes, either the gene from the mitochondrial ancestor was retained while the cyanobacterial and eukaryotic pseudoparalogs were lost in evolution, or the gene was acquired by non-endosymbiotic gene transfer from an unspecified α-proteobacterium and functionally replaced its cyanobacterial and eukaryotic counterparts.

RevDate: 2021-05-03

Li F, Lv Y, Wen Z, et al (2021)

The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal spider (Desis jiaxiangi) provides novel insights into the adaptive evolution of the mitogenome and the evolution of spiders.

BMC ecology and evolution, 21(1):72.

BACKGROUND: Although almost all extant spider species live in terrestrial environments, a few species live fully submerged in freshwater or seawater. The intertidal spiders (genus Desis) built silk nests within coral crevices can survive submerged in high tides. The diving bell spider, Argyroneta aquatica, resides in a similar dynamic environment but exclusively in freshwater. Given the pivotal role played by mitochondria in supplying most energy for physiological activity via oxidative phosphorylation and the environment, herein we sequenced the complete mitogenome of Desis jiaxiangi to investigate the adaptive evolution of the aquatic spider mitogenomes and the evolution of spiders.

RESULTS: We assembled a complete mitogenome of the intertidal spider Desis jiaxiangi and performed comparative mitochondrial analyses of data set comprising of Desis jiaxiangi and other 45 previously published spider mitogenome sequences, including that of Argyroneta aquatica. We found a unique transposition of trnL2 and trnN genes in Desis jiaxiangi. Our robust phylogenetic topology clearly deciphered the evolutionary relationships between Desis jiaxiangi and Argyroneta aquatica as well as other spiders. We dated the divergence of Desis jiaxiangi and Argyroneta aquatica to the late Cretaceous at ~ 98 Ma. Our selection analyses detected a positive selection signal in the nd4 gene of the aquatic branch comprising both Desis jiaxiangi and Argyroneta aquatica. Surprisingly, Pirata subpiraticus, Hypochilus thorelli, and Argyroneta aquatica each had a higher Ka/Ks value in the 13 PCGs dataset among 46 taxa with complete mitogenomes, and these three species also showed positive selection signal in the nd6 gene.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of the unique transposition of trnL2 and trnN genes indicates that these genes may have experienced rearrangements in the history of intertidal spider evolution. The positive selection signals in the nd4 and nd6 genes might enable a better understanding of the spider metabolic adaptations in relation to different environments. Our construction of a novel mitogenome for the intertidal spider thus sheds light on the evolutionary history of spiders and their mitogenomes.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Kolchanova S, Komissarov A, Kliver S, et al (2021)

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Amazon Parrots in the Greater Antilles.

Genes, 12(4):.

Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) colonized the islands of the Greater Antilles from the Central American mainland, but there has not been a consensus as to how and when this happened. Today, most of the five remaining island species are listed as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable as a consequence of human activity. We sequenced and annotated full mitochondrial genomes of all the extant Amazon parrot species from the Greater Antillean (A. leucocephala (Cuba), A. agilis, A. collaria (both from Jamaica), A. ventralis (Hispaniola), and A. vittata (Puerto Rico)), A. albifrons from mainland Central America, and A. rhodocorytha from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The assembled and annotated mitogenome maps provide information on sequence organization, variation, population diversity, and evolutionary history for the Caribbean species including the critically endangered A. vittata. Despite the larger number of available samples from the Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Program, the sequence diversity of the A. vittata population in Puerto Rico was the lowest among all parrot species analyzed. Our data support the stepping-stone dispersal and speciation hypothesis that has started approximately 3.47 MYA when the ancestral population arrived from mainland Central America and led to diversification across the Greater Antilles, ultimately reaching the island of Puerto Rico 0.67 MYA. The results are presented and discussed in light of the geological history of the Caribbean and in the context of recent parrot evolution, island biogeography, and conservation. This analysis contributes to understating evolutionary history and empowers subsequent assessments of sequence variation and helps design future conservation efforts in the Caribbean.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Filip E, L Skuza (2021)

Horizontal Gene Transfer Involving Chloroplasts.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(9): pii:ijms22094484.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT)- is defined as the acquisition of genetic material from another organism. However, recent findings indicate a possible role of HGT in the acquisition of traits with adaptive significance, suggesting that HGT is an important driving force in the evolution of eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. It has been noted that, in eukaryotes, HGT is more prevalent than originally thought. Mitochondria and chloroplasts lost a large number of genes after their respective endosymbiotic events occurred. Even after this major content loss, organelle genomes still continue to lose their own genes. Many of these are subsequently acquired by intracellular gene transfer from the original plastid. The aim of our review was to elucidate the role of chloroplasts in the transfer of genes. This review also explores gene transfer involving mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, though recent studies indicate that chloroplast genomes are far more active in HGT as compared to these other two DNA-containing cellular compartments.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Bonora M, Missiroli S, Perrone M, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Control of Genomic Instability in Cancer.

Cancers, 13(8):.

Mitochondria are well known to participate in multiple aspects of tumor formation and progression. They indeed can alter the susceptibility of cells to engage regulated cell death, regulate pro-survival signal transduction pathways and confer metabolic plasticity that adapts to specific tumor cell demands. Interestingly, a relatively poorly explored aspect of mitochondria in neoplastic disease is their contribution to the characteristic genomic instability that underlies the evolution of the disease. In this review, we summarize the known mechanisms by which mitochondrial alterations in cancer tolerate and support the accumulation of DNA mutations which leads to genomic instability. We describe recent studies elucidating mitochondrial responses to DNA damage as well as the direct contribution of mitochondria to favor the accumulation of DNA alterations.

RevDate: 2021-04-23

Breton S, Ghiselli F, L Milani (2021)

Mitochondrial short-term plastic responses and long-term evolutionary dynamics in animal species.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6248094 [Epub ahead of print].

How do species respond or adapt to environmental changes? The answer to this depends partly on mitochondrial epigenetics and genetics, new players in promoting adaptation to both short- and long-term environmental changes. In this review, we explore how mitochondrial epigenetics and genetics mechanisms, such as mtDNA methylation, mtDNA-derived non-coding RNAs, micropeptides, mtDNA mutations and adaptations, can contribute to animal plasticity and adaptation. We also briefly discuss the challenges in assessing mtDNA adaptive evolution. In sum, this review covers new advances in the field of mitochondrial genomics, many of which are still controversial, and discusses processes still somewhat obscure, and some of which are still quite speculative and require further robust experimentation.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Milner DS, Wideman JG, Stairs CW, et al (2021)

A functional bacteria-derived restriction modification system in the mitochondrion of a heterotrophic protist.

PLoS biology, 19(4):e3001126 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-21-00166.

The overarching trend in mitochondrial genome evolution is functional streamlining coupled with gene loss. Therefore, gene acquisition by mitochondria is considered to be exceedingly rare. Selfish elements in the form of self-splicing introns occur in many organellar genomes, but the wider diversity of selfish elements, and how they persist in the DNA of organelles, has not been explored. In the mitochondrial genome of a marine heterotrophic katablepharid protist, we identify a functional type II restriction modification (RM) system originating from a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event involving bacteria related to flavobacteria. This RM system consists of an HpaII-like endonuclease and a cognate cytosine methyltransferase (CM). We demonstrate that these proteins are functional by heterologous expression in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. These results suggest that a mitochondrion-encoded RM system can function as a toxin-antitoxin selfish element, and that such elements could be co-opted by eukaryotic genomes to drive biased organellar inheritance.

RevDate: 2021-04-20

Kummer E, Schubert KN, Schoenhut T, et al (2021)

Structural basis of translation termination, rescue, and recycling in mammalian mitochondria.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(21)00263-X [Epub ahead of print].

The mitochondrial translation system originates from a bacterial ancestor but has substantially diverged in the course of evolution. Here, we use single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a screening tool to identify mitochondrial translation termination mechanisms and to describe them in molecular detail. We show how mitochondrial release factor 1a releases the nascent chain from the ribosome when it encounters the canonical stop codons UAA and UAG. Furthermore, we define how the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase ICT1 acts as a rescue factor on mitoribosomes that have stalled on truncated messages to recover them for protein synthesis. Finally, we present structural models detailing the process of mitochondrial ribosome recycling to explain how a dedicated elongation factor, mitochondrial EFG2 (mtEFG2), has specialized for cooperation with the mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor to dissociate the mitoribosomal subunits at the end of the translation process.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Helfenrath K, Sauer M, Kamga M, et al (2021)

The more, the merrier? Multiple myoglobin genes in fish species, especially in gray bichir (Polypterus senegalus) and reedfish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus).

Genome biology and evolution pii:6237895 [Epub ahead of print].

The members of the globin superfamily are a classical model system to investigate gene evolution and their fates as well as the diversity of protein function. One of the best-known globins is myoglobin (Mb), which is mainly expressed in heart muscle and transports oxygen from the sarcolemma to the mitochondria. Most vertebrates harbor a single copy of the myoglobin gene, but some fish species have multiple myoglobin genes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate an independent emergence of multiple myoglobin genes, whereby the origin is mostly the last common ancestor of each order. By analyzing different transcriptome data sets, we found at least 15 multiple myoglobin genes in the polypterid gray bichir (Polypterus senegalus) and reedfish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus). In reedfish the myoglobin genes are expressed in a broad range of tissues but show very different expression values. In contrast, the Mb genes of the gray bichir show a rather scattered expression pattern; only a few Mb genes were found expressed in the analyzed tissues. Both, gray bichir and reedfish possess lungs which enable them to inhabit shallow and swampy waters throughout tropical Africa with frequently fluctuating and low oxygen concentrations. The myoglobin repertoire probably reflects the molecular adaptation to these conditions. The sequence divergence, the substitution rate and the different expression pattern of multiple myoglobin genes in gray bichir and reedfish imply different functions, probably through sub- and neofunctionalization during evolution.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

de Melo Teixeira M, Lang BF, Matute DR, et al (2021)

The mitochondrial genomes of the human pathogens Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6237489 [Epub ahead of print].

Fungal mitochondrial genomes encode genes involved in crucial cellular processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial translation, and the molecule has been used as a molecular marker for population genetics studies. Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii are endemic fungal pathogens that cause coccidioidomycosis in arid regions across both American continents. To date, approximately 150 Coccidioides isolates have been sequenced to infer patterns of variation of nuclear genomes. However, less attention has been given to the mitochondrial genomes of Coccidioides. In this report, we describe the assembly and annotation of mitochondrial reference genomes for two representative strains of C. posadasii and C. immitis, as well as assess population variation among 77 selected genomes. The sizes of the circular-mapping molecules are 68.2 Kb in C. immitis and 75.1 Kb in C. posadasii. We identify fourteen mitochondrial protein-coding genes common to most fungal mitochondria, which are largely syntenic across different populations and species of Coccidioides. Both Coccidioides species are characterized by a large number of group I and II introns, harboring twice the number of elements as compared to closely related Onygenales. The introns contain complete or truncated ORFs with high similarity to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Phylogenetic comparisons of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes show extensive phylogenetic discordance suggesting that the evolution of the two types of genetic material is not identical. This work represents the first assessment of mitochondrial genomes among isolates of both species of Coccidioides, and provides a foundation for future functional work.

RevDate: 2021-04-20

Salomaki ED, Terpis KX, Rueckert S, et al (2021)

Gregarine single-cell transcriptomics reveals differential mitochondrial remodeling and adaptation in apicomplexans.

BMC biology, 19(1):77.

BACKGROUND: Apicomplexa is a diverse phylum comprising unicellular endobiotic animal parasites and contains some of the most well-studied microbial eukaryotes including the devastating human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Cryptosporidium hominis. In contrast, data on the invertebrate-infecting gregarines remains sparse and their evolutionary relationship to other apicomplexans remains obscure. Most apicomplexans retain a highly modified plastid, while their mitochondria remain metabolically conserved. Cryptosporidium spp. inhabit an anaerobic host-gut environment and represent the known exception, having completely lost their plastid while retaining an extremely reduced mitochondrion that has lost its genome. Recent advances in single-cell sequencing have enabled the first broad genome-scale explorations of gregarines, providing evidence of differential plastid retention throughout the group. However, little is known about the retention and metabolic capacity of gregarine mitochondria.

RESULTS: Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from five species of gregarines isolated from cockroaches. We combined these data with those from other apicomplexans, performed detailed phylogenomic analyses, and characterized their mitochondrial metabolism. Our results support the placement of Cryptosporidium as the earliest diverging lineage of apicomplexans, which impacts our interpretation of evolutionary events within the phylum. By mapping in silico predictions of core mitochondrial pathways onto our phylogeny, we identified convergently reduced mitochondria. These data show that the electron transport chain has been independently lost three times across the phylum, twice within gregarines.

CONCLUSIONS: Apicomplexan lineages show variable functional restructuring of mitochondrial metabolism that appears to have been driven by adaptations to parasitism and anaerobiosis. Our findings indicate that apicomplexans are rife with convergent adaptations, with shared features including morphology, energy metabolism, and intracellularity.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Brandeis M (2021)

Were eukaryotes made by sex?: Sex might have been vital for merging endosymbiont and host genomes giving rise to eukaryotes.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

I hypothesize that the appearance of sex facilitated the merging of the endosymbiont and host genomes during early eukaryote evolution. Eukaryotes were formed by symbiosis between a bacterium that entered an archaeon, eventually giving rise to mitochondria. This entry was followed by the gradual transfer of most bacterial endosymbiont genes into the archaeal host genome. I argue that the merging of the mitochondrial genes into the host genome was vital for the evolution of genuine eukaryotes. At the time this process commenced it was unprecedented and required a novel mechanism. I suggest that this mechanism was meiotic sex, and that its appearance might have been THE crucial step that enabled the evolution of proper eukaryotes from early endosymbiont containing proto-eukaryotes. Sex might continue to be essential today for keeping genome insertions in check.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Deonath A (2021)

Evolution of eukaryotes as a story of survival and growth of mitochondrial DNA over two billion years.

Bio Systems, 206:104426 pii:S0303-2647(21)00081-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria's significance in human diseases and in functioning, health and death of eukaryotic cell has been acknowledged widely. Yet our perspective in cell biology and evolution remains nucleocentric. Mitochondrial DNA, by virtue of its omnipresence and species-level conservation, is used as a barcode in animal taxonomy. This article analyses various levels of containment structures that enclose mitochondrial DNA and advocates a fresh perspective wherein evolution of organic structures of the eukarya domain seem to support and facilitate survival and proliferation of mitochondrial DNA by splitting containers as they age and by directing them along two distinct pathways: destruction of containers with more mutant mitochondrial DNA and rejuvenation of containers with less mutant mitochondrial DNA.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Dores-Silva PR, Kiraly VTR, Moritz MNO, et al (2021)

New insights on human Hsp70-escort protein 1: Chaperone activity, interaction with liposomes, cellular localizations and HSPA's self-assemblies remodeling.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 182:772-784 pii:S0141-8130(21)00813-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are prone to self-assembly under thermal stress conditions, forming supramolecular assemblies (SMA), what may have detrimental consequences for cellular viability. In mitochondria, the cochaperone Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1) maintains mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70) in a soluble and functional state, contributing to preserving proteostasis. Here we investigated the interaction between human Hep1 (hHep1) and HSPA9 (human mtHsp70) or HSPA1A (Hsp70-1A) in monomeric and thermic SMA states to unveil further information about the involved mechanisms. hHep1 was capable of blocking the formation of HSPA SMAs under a thermic treatment and stimulated HSPA ATPase activity in both monomeric and preformed SMA. The interaction of hHep1 with both monomeric and SMA HSPAs displayed a stoichiometric ratio close to 1, suggesting that hHep1 has access to most protomers within the SMA. Interestingly, hHep1 remodeled HSPA9 and HSPA1A SMAs into smaller forms. Furthermore, hHep1 was detected in the mitochondria and nucleus of cells transfected with the respective coding DNA and interacted with liposomes resembling mitochondrial membranes. Altogether, these new features reinforce that hHep1 act as a "chaperone for a chaperone", which may play a critical role in cellular proteostasis.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

García-Catalán S, González-Moreno L, A Del Arco (2021)

Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers of ATP-Mg2+/Pi: Evolutionary insights in protozoans.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research, 1868(7):119038.

In addition to its uptake across the Ca2+ uniporter, intracellular calcium signals can stimulate mitochondrial metabolism activating metabolite exchangers of the inner mitochondrial membrane belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family (SLC25). One of these Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers (CaMCs) are the reversible ATP-Mg2+/Pi transporters, or SCaMCs, required for maintaining optimal adenine nucleotide (AdN) levels in the mitochondrial matrix representing an alternative transporter to the ADP/ATP translocases (AAC). This CaMC has a distinctive Calmodulin-like (CaM-like) domain fused to the carrier domain that makes its transport activity strictly dependent on cytosolic Ca2+ signals. Here we investigate about its origin analysing its distribution and features in unicellular eukaryotes. Unexpectedly, we find two types of ATP-Mg2+/Pi carriers, the canonical ones and shortened variants lacking the CaM-like domain. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both SCaMC variants have a common origin, unrelated to AACs, suggesting in turn that recurrent losses of the regulatory module have occurred in the different phyla. They are excluding variants that show a more limited distribution and less conservation than AACs. Interestingly, these truncated variants of SCaMC are found almost exclusively in parasitic protists, such as apicomplexans, kinetoplastides or animal-patogenic oomycetes, and in green algae, suggesting that its lost could be related to certain life-styles. In addition, we find an intricate structural diversity in these variants that may be associated with their pathogenicity. The consequences on SCaMC functions of these new SCaMC-b variants are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Pyrih J, Pánek T, Durante IM, et al (2021)

Vestiges of the bacterial signal recognition particle-based protein targeting in mitochondria.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6219958 [Epub ahead of print].

The main bacterial pathway for inserting proteins into the plasma membrane relies on the signal recognition particle (SRP), composed of the Ffh protein and an associated RNA component, and the SRP-docking protein FtsY. Eukaryotes use an equivalent system of archaeal origin to deliver proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas a bacteria-derived SRP and FtsY function in the plastid. Here we report on the presence of homologs of the bacterial Ffh and FtsY proteins in various unrelated plastid-lacking unicellular eukaryotes, namely Heterolobosea, Alveida, Goniomonas, and Hemimastigophora. The monophyly of novel eukaryotic Ffh and FtsY groups, predicted mitochondrial localization experimentally confirmed for Naegleria gruberi, and a strong alphaproteobacterial affinity of the Ffh group, collectively suggest they constitute parts of an ancestral mitochondrial signal peptide-based protein-targeting system inherited from the last eukaryotic common ancestor, but lost from the majority of extant eukaryotes. The ability of putative signal peptides, predicted in a subset of mitochondrial-encoded N. gruberi proteins, to target a reporter fluorescent protein into the endoplasmic reticulum of Trypanosoma brucei, likely through their interaction with the cytosolic SRP, provided further support for this notion. We also illustrate that known mitochondrial ribosome-interacting proteins implicated in membrane protein targeting in opisthokonts (Mba1, Mdm38, and Mrx15) are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and non-redundant with the mitochondrial SRP system. Finally, we identified a novel mitochondrial protein (MAP67) present in diverse eukaryotes and related to the signal peptide-binding domain of Ffh, which may well be a hitherto unrecognized component of the mitochondrial membrane protein-targeting machinery.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Lee SH, SH Lee (2021)

Complete mitochondrial genome of Oregonia gracilis Dana, 1851 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Majoidea).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 6(3):1236-1237.

The complete mitochondrial genome of the majoid crab, Oregonia gracilis, was determined from a specimen collected in Korea. The mitochondrial genome is 15,737 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on the 13 PCGs of the mitochondria showed that O. gracilis is closely related to the genus Chinoecetes. The complete mitochondrial genome of O. gracilis provides valuable information on the mitochondrial evolution of majoid crabs.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Schwartz JH (2021)

Evolution, systematics, and the unnatural history of mitochondrial DNA.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 32(4):126-151.

The tenets underlying the use of mtDNA in phylogenetic and systematic analyses are strict maternal inheritance, clonality, homoplasmy, and difference due to mutation: that is, there are species-specific mtDNA sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction is a matter of comparing these sequences and inferring closeness of relatedness from the degree of sequence similarity. Yet, how mtDNA behavior became so defined is mysterious. Even though early studies of fertilization demonstrated for most animals that not only the head, but the sperm's tail and mitochondria-bearing midpiece penetrate the egg, the opposite - only the head enters the egg - became fact, and mtDNA conceived as maternally transmitted. When midpiece/tail penetration was realized as true, the conceptions 'strict maternal inheritance', etc., and their application to evolutionary endeavors, did not change. Yet there is mounting evidence of paternal mtDNA transmission, paternal and maternal combination, intracellular recombination, and intra- and intercellular heteroplasmy. Clearly, these phenomena impact the systematic and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Ghiselli F, Gomes-Dos-Santos A, Adema CM, et al (2021)

Molluscan mitochondrial genomes break the rules.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1825):20200159.

The first animal mitochondrial genomes to be sequenced were of several vertebrates and model organisms, and the consistency of genomic features found has led to a 'textbook description'. However, a more broad phylogenetic sampling of complete animal mitochondrial genomes has found many cases where these features do not exist, and the phylum Mollusca is especially replete with these exceptions. The characterization of full mollusc mitogenomes required considerable effort involving challenging molecular biology, but has created an enormous catalogue of surprising deviations from that textbook description, including wide variation in size, radical genome rearrangements, gene duplications and losses, the introduction of novel genes, and a complex system of inheritance dubbed 'doubly uniparental inheritance'. Here, we review the extraordinary variation in architecture, molecular functioning and intergenerational transmission of molluscan mitochondrial genomes. Such features represent a great potential for the discovery of biological history, processes and functions that are novel for animal mitochondrial genomes. This provides a model system for studying the evolution and the manifold roles that mitochondria play in organismal physiology, and many ways that the study of mitochondrial genomes are useful for phylogeny and population biology. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Molluscan genomics: broad insights and future directions for a neglected phylum'.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Alqahtani AA, RK Jansen (2021)

The evolutionary fate of rpl32 and rps16 losses in the Euphorbia schimperi (Euphorbiaceae) plastome.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7466.

Gene transfers from mitochondria and plastids to the nucleus are an important process in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Plastid (pt) gene losses have been documented in multiple angiosperm lineages and are often associated with functional transfers to the nucleus or substitutions by duplicated nuclear genes targeted to both the plastid and mitochondrion. The plastid genome sequence of Euphorbia schimperi was assembled and three major genomic changes were detected, the complete loss of rpl32 and pseudogenization of rps16 and infA. The nuclear transcriptome of E. schimperi was sequenced to investigate the transfer/substitution of the rpl32 and rps16 genes to the nucleus. Transfer of plastid-encoded rpl32 to the nucleus was identified previously in three families of Malpighiales, Rhizophoraceae, Salicaceae and Passifloraceae. An E. schimperi transcript of pt SOD-1-RPL32 confirmed that the transfer in Euphorbiaceae is similar to other Malpighiales indicating that it occurred early in the divergence of the order. Ribosomal protein S16 (rps16) is encoded in the plastome in most angiosperms but not in Salicaceae and Passifloraceae. Substitution of the E. schimperi pt rps16 was likely due to a duplication of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial-targeted rps16 resulting in copies dually targeted to the mitochondrion and plastid. Sequences of RPS16-1 and RPS16-2 in the three families of Malpighiales (Salicaceae, Passifloraceae and Euphorbiaceae) have high sequence identity suggesting that the substitution event dates to the early divergence within Malpighiales.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

S Ten V, Stepanova AA, Ratner V, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Permeability Transition in Neonatal Brain and Lung Injuries.

Cells, 10(3):.

This review discusses the potential mechanistic role of abnormally elevated mitochondrial proton leak and mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain and lung injuries associated with premature birth. Providing supporting evidence, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to postnatal alveolar developmental arrest in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and cerebral myelination failure in diffuse white matter injury (WMI). This review also analyzes data on mitochondrial dysfunction triggered by activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore(s) (mPTP) during the evolution of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While the still cryptic molecular identity of mPTP continues to be a subject for extensive basic science research efforts, the translational significance of mitochondrial proton leak received less scientific attention, especially in diseases of the developing organs. This review is focused on the potential mechanistic relevance of mPTP and mitochondrial dysfunction to neonatal diseases driven by developmental failure of organ maturation or by acute ischemia-reperfusion insult during development.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Schirrmacher V (2021)

Less Can Be More: The Hormesis Theory of Stress Adaptation in the Global Biosphere and Its Implications.

Biomedicines, 9(3):.

A dose-response relationship to stressors, according to the hormesis theory, is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It is non-linear with a low-dose optimum. Stress responses by cells lead to adapted vitality and fitness. Physical stress can be exerted through heat, radiation, or physical exercise. Chemical stressors include reactive species from oxygen (ROS), nitrogen (RNS), and carbon (RCS), carcinogens, elements, such as lithium (Li) and silicon (Si), and metals, such as silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Anthropogenic chemicals are agrochemicals (phytotoxins, herbicides), industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Biochemical stress can be exerted through toxins, medical drugs (e.g., cytostatics, psychopharmaceuticals, non-steroidal inhibitors of inflammation), and through fasting (dietary restriction). Key-lock interactions between enzymes and substrates, antigens and antibodies, antigen-presenting cells, and cognate T cells are the basics of biology, biochemistry, and immunology. Their rules do not obey linear dose-response relationships. The review provides examples of biologic stressors: oncolytic viruses (e.g., immuno-virotherapy of cancer) and hormones (e.g., melatonin, stress hormones). Molecular mechanisms of cellular stress adaptation involve the protein quality control system (PQS) and homeostasis of proteasome, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Important components are transcription factors (e.g., Nrf2), micro-RNAs, heat shock proteins, ionic calcium, and enzymes (e.g., glutathion redox enzymes, DNA methyltransferases, and DNA repair enzymes). Cellular growth control, intercellular communication, and resistance to stress from microbial infections involve growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, and their respective receptors. The effects of hormesis during evolution are multifarious: cell protection and survival, evolutionary flexibility, and epigenetic memory. According to the hormesis theory, this is true for the entire biosphere, e.g., archaia, bacteria, fungi, plants, and the animal kingdoms.

RevDate: 2021-04-24

Lyu D, Zajonc J, Pagé A, et al (2021)

Plant Holobiont Theory: The Phytomicrobiome Plays a Central Role in Evolution and Success.

Microorganisms, 9(4):.

Under natural conditions, plants are always associated with a well-orchestrated community of microbes-the phytomicrobiome. The nature and degree of microbial effect on the plant host can be positive, neutral, or negative, and depends largely on the environment. The phytomicrobiome is integral for plant growth and function; microbes play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition, biotic and abiotic stress management, physiology regulation through microbe-to-plant signals, and growth regulation via the production of phytohormones. Relationships between the plant and phytomicrobiome members vary in intimacy, ranging from casual associations between roots and the rhizosphere microbial community, to endophytes that live between plant cells, to the endosymbiosis of microbes by the plant cell resulting in mitochondria and chloroplasts. If we consider these key organelles to also be members of the phytomicrobiome, how do we distinguish between the two? If we accept the mitochondria and chloroplasts as both members of the phytomicrobiome and the plant (entrained microbes), the influence of microbes on the evolution of plants becomes so profound that without microbes, the concept of the "plant" is not viable. This paper argues that the holobiont concept should take greater precedence in the plant sciences when referring to a host and its associated microbial community. The inclusivity of this concept accounts for the ambiguous nature of the entrained microbes and the wide range of functions played by the phytomicrobiome in plant holobiont homeostasis.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Proulex GCR, Meade MJ, Manoylov KM, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial mRNA Processing in the Chlorophyte Alga Pediastrum duplex and Streptophyte Alga Chara vulgaris Reveals an Evolutionary Branch in Mitochondrial mRNA Processing.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(3):.

Mitochondria carry the remnant of an ancestral bacterial chromosome and express those genes with a system separate and distinct from the nucleus. Mitochondrial genes are transcribed as poly-cistronic primary transcripts which are post-transcriptionally processed to create individual translationally competent mRNAs. Algae post-transcriptional processing has only been explored in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Class: Chlorophyceae) and the mature mRNAs are different than higher plants, having no 5' UnTranslated Regions (UTRs), much shorter and more variable 3' UTRs and polycytidylated mature mRNAs. In this study, we analyzed transcript termini using circular RT-PCR and PacBio Iso-Seq to survey the 3' and 5' UTRs and termini for two green algae, Pediastrum duplex (Class: Chlorophyceae) and Chara vulgaris (Class: Charophyceae). This enabled the comparison of processing in the chlorophyte and charophyte clades of green algae to determine if the differences in mitochondrial mRNA processing pre-date the invasion of land by embryophytes. We report that the 5' mRNA termini and non-template 3' termini additions in P. duplex resemble those of C. reinhardtii, suggesting a conservation of mRNA processing among the chlorophyceae. We also report that C. vulgaris mRNA UTRs are much longer than chlorophytic examples, lack polycytidylation, and are polyadenylated similar to embryophytes. This demonstrates that some mitochondrial mRNA processing events diverged with the split between chlorophytic and streptophytic algae.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Arcila-Galvis JE, Arango RE, Torres-Bonilla JM, et al (2021)

The Mitochondrial Genome of a Plant Fungal Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Mycosphaerellaceae), Comparative Analysis and Diversification Times of the Sigatoka Disease Complex Using Fossil Calibrated Phylogenies.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(3):.

Mycosphaerellaceae is a highly diverse fungal family containing a variety of pathogens affecting many economically important crops. Mitochondria play a crucial role in fungal metabolism and in the study of fungal evolution. This study aims to: (i) describe the mitochondrial genome of Pseudocercospora fijiensis, and (ii) compare it with closely related species (Sphaerulina musiva, S. populicola, P. musae and P. eumusae) available online, paying particular attention to the Sigatoka disease's complex causal agents. The mitochondrial genome of P. fijiensis is a circular molecule of 74,089 bp containing typical genes coding for the 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, 2 rRNA genes and a set of 38 tRNAs. P. fijiensis mitogenome has two truncated cox1 copies, and bicistronic transcription of nad2-nad3 and atp6-atp8 confirmed experimentally. Comparative analysis revealed high variability in size and gene order among selected Mycosphaerellaceae mitogenomes likely to be due to rearrangements caused by mobile intron invasion. Using fossil calibrated Bayesian phylogenies, we found later diversification times for Mycosphaerellaceae (66.6 MYA) and the Sigatoka disease complex causal agents, compared to previous strict molecular clock studies. An early divergent Pseudocercospora fijiensis split from the sister species P. musae + P. eumusae 13.31 MYA while their sister group, the sister species P. eumusae and P. musae, split from their shared common ancestor in the late Miocene 8.22 MYA. This newly dated phylogeny suggests that species belonging to the Sigatoka disease complex originated after wild relatives of domesticated bananas (section Eumusae; 27.9 MYA). During this time frame, mitochondrial genomes expanded significantly, possibly due to invasions of introns into different electron transport chain genes.

RevDate: 2021-04-22
CmpDate: 2021-04-22

Zhang T, Li C, Zhang X, et al (2021)

Characterization and Comparative Analyses of Mitochondrial Genomes in Single-Celled Eukaryotes to Shed Light on the Diversity and Evolution of Linear Molecular Architecture.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(5):.

Determination and comparisons of complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are important to understand the origin and evolution of mitochondria. Mitogenomes of unicellular protists are particularly informative in this regard because they are gene-rich and display high structural diversity. Ciliates are a highly diverse assemblage of protists and their mitogenomes (linear structure with high A+T content in general) were amongst the first from protists to be characterized and have provided important insights into mitogenome evolution. Here, we report novel mitogenome sequences from three representatives (Strombidium sp., Strombidium cf. sulcatum, and Halteria grandinella) in two dominant ciliate lineages. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of newly sequenced and previously published ciliate mitogenomes were performed and revealed a number of important insights. We found that the mitogenomes of these three species are linear molecules capped with telomeric repeats that differ greatly among known species. The genomes studied here are highly syntenic, but larger in size and more gene-rich than those of other groups. They also all share an AT-rich tandem repeat region which may serve as the replication origin and modulate initiation of bidirectional transcription. More generally we identified a split version of ccmf, a cytochrome c maturation-related gene that might be a derived character uniting taxa in the subclasses Hypotrichia and Euplotia. Finally, our mitogenome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses support to reclassify Halteria grandinella from the subclass Oligotrichia to the subclass Hypotrichia. These results add to the growing literature on the unique features of ciliate mitogenomes, shedding light on the diversity and evolution of their linear molecular architecture.

RevDate: 2021-04-29
CmpDate: 2021-04-29

Ennis CC, Haeffner NN, Keyser CD, et al (2021)

Comparative mitochondrial genomics of sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps in the genus Synalpheus: Exploring differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species and insights into phylogenetic relationships in caridean shrimps.

Gene, 786:145624.

The genus Synalpheus is a cosmopolitan clade of marine shrimps found in most tropical regions. Species in this genus exhibit a range of social organizations, including pair-forming, communal breeding, and eusociality, the latter only known to have evolved within this genus in the marine realm. This study examines the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Synalpheus and explores differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species considering that eusociality has been shown before to affect the strength of purifying selection in mitochondrial protein coding genes. The AT-rich mitochondrial genomes of Synalpheus range from 15,421 bp to 15,782 bp in length and comprise, invariably, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. A 648 bp to 994 bp long intergenic space is assumed to be the D-loop. Mitochondrial gene synteny is identical among the studied shrimps. No major differences occur between eusocial and non-eusocial species in nucleotide composition and codon usage profiles of PCGs and in the secondary structure of tRNA genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the complete concatenated PCG complement of 90 species supports the monophyly of the genus Synalpheus and its family Alpheidae. Moreover, the monophyletic status of the caridean families Alvinocaridae, Atyidae, Thoridae, Lysmatidae, Palaemonidae, and Pandalidae within caridean shrimps are fully or highly supported by the analysis. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial genomes contain sufficient phylogenetic information to resolve relationships at high taxonomic levels within the Caridea. Our analysis of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Synalpheus contributes to the understanding of the coevolution between genomic architecture and sociality in caridean shrimps and other marine organisms.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Considine MJ, CH Foyer (2020)

Oxygen and reactive oxygen species-dependent regulation of plant growth and development.

Plant physiology pii:6041600 [Epub ahead of print].

Oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been co-opted during evolution into the regulation of plant growth, development and differentiation. ROS and oxidative signals arising from metabolism or phytohormone-mediated processes control almost every aspect of plant development from seed and bud dormancy, liberation of meristematic cells from the quiescent state, root and shoot growth and architecture, to flowering and seed production. Moreover, the phytochrome and phytohormone-dependent transmission of ROS waves is central to the systemic whole plant signaling pathways that integrate root and shoot growth. The sensing of oxygen availability through the Cys/Arg N-degron pathway functions alongside ROS production and signaling but how these pathways interact in developing organs remains poorly understood. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the nature hydrogen peroxide sensors and the role of thiol-dependent signaling networks in the transmission of ROS signals. Reduction/oxidation (redox) changes in the glutathione pool (GSH), glutaredoxins (GRX) and thioredoxins (TRX) are important in the control of growth mediated by phytohormone pathways. Although, it is clear that the redox states of proteins involved in plant growth and development are controlled by the NADPH/NADPH thioredoxin reductase (NTR)/thioredoxin (TRX) and reduced GSH/GRX systems of the cytosol, chloroplasts, mitochondria and nucleus, we have only scratched the surface of this multilayered control and how redox-regulated processes interact with other cell signaling systems.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Mortz M, Levivier A, Lartillot N, et al (2021)

Long-Lived Species of Bivalves Exhibit Low MT-DNA Substitution Rates.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:626042.

Bivalves represent valuable taxonomic group for aging studies given their wide variation in longevity (from 1-2 to >500 years). It is well known that aging is associated to the maintenance of Reactive Oxygen Species homeostasis and that mitochondria phenotype and genotype dysfunctions accumulation is a hallmark of these processes. Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial DNA mutation rates are linked to lifespan in vertebrate species, but no study has explored this in invertebrates. To this end, we performed a Bayesian Phylogenetic Covariance model of evolution analysis using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes of 76 bivalve species. Three life history traits (maximum longevity, generation time and mean temperature tolerance) were tested against 1) synonymous substitution rates (dS), 2) conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kc) and 3) ratios of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc). Our results confirm the already known correlation between longevity and generation time and show, for the first time in an invertebrate class, a significant negative correlation between dS and longevity. This correlation was not as strong when generation time and mean temperature tolerance variations were also considered in our model (marginal correlation), suggesting a confounding effect of these traits on the relationship between longevity and mtDNA substitution rate. By confirming the negative correlation between dS and longevity previously documented in birds and mammals, our results provide support for a general pattern in substitution rates.

RevDate: 2021-03-30
CmpDate: 2021-03-30

Bazer FW, Seo H, Johnson GA, et al (2021)

One-Carbon Metabolism and Development of the Conceptus During Pregnancy: Lessons from Studies with Sheep and Pigs.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1285:1-15.

The pregnancy recognition signal from the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated membranes) to the mother is interferon tau (IFNT) in ruminants and estradiol, possibly in concert with interferons gamma and delta in pigs. Those pregnancy recognition signals silence expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISG) in uterine luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia while inducing expression of genes for transport of nutrients, including glucose and amino acids, into the uterine lumen to support growth and development of the conceptus. In sheep and pigs, glucose not utilized immediately by the conceptus is converted to fructose. Glucose, fructose, serine and glycine in uterine histotroph can contribute to one carbon (1C) metabolism that provides one-carbon groups for the synthesis of purines and thymidylate, as well as S-adenosylmethionine for epigenetic methylation reactions. Serine and glycine are transported into the mitochondria of cells and metabolized to formate that is transported into the cytoplasm for the synthesis of purines, thymidine and S-adenosylmethionine. The unique aspects of one-carbon metabolism are discussed in the context of the hypoxic uterine environment, aerobic glycolysis, and similarities in metabolism between cancer cells and cells of the rapidly developing fetal-placental tissues during pregnancy. Further, the evolution of anatomical and functional aspects of the placentae of sheep and pigs versus primates is discussed in the context of mechanisms to efficiently obtain, store and utilize nutrients required for rapid fetal growth in the last one-half of gestation.

RevDate: 2021-03-23

Shariq M, Quadir N, Sharma N, et al (2021)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis RipA Dampens TLR4-Mediated Host Protective Response Using a Multi-Pronged Approach Involving Autophagy, Apoptosis, Metabolic Repurposing, and Immune Modulation.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:636644.

Reductive evolution has endowed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) with moonlighting in protein functions. We demonstrate that RipA (Rv1477), a peptidoglycan hydrolase, activates the NFκB signaling pathway and elicits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12, through the activation of an innate immune-receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR)4. RipA also induces an enhanced expression of macrophage activation markers MHC-II, CD80, and CD86, suggestive of M1 polarization. RipA harbors LC3 (Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) motifs known to be involved in autophagy regulation and indeed alters the levels of autophagy markers LC3BII and P62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome-1), along with an increase in the ratio of P62/Beclin1, a hallmark of autophagy inhibition. The use of pharmacological agents, rapamycin and bafilomycin A1, reveals that RipA activates PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 signaling cascade that ultimately culminates in the inhibition of autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 (Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase). This inhibition of autophagy translates into efficient intracellular survival, within macrophages, of recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing M. tb RipA. RipA, which also localizes into mitochondria, inhibits the production of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes to promote a Warburg-like phenotype in macrophages that favors bacterial replication. Furthermore, RipA also inhibited caspase-dependent programed cell death in macrophages, thus hindering an efficient innate antibacterial response. Collectively, our results highlight the role of an endopeptidase to create a permissive replication niche in host cells by inducing the repression of autophagy and apoptosis, along with metabolic reprogramming, and pointing to the role of RipA in disease pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Lazcano A, J Peretó (2021)

Prokaryotic symbiotic consortia and the origin of nucleated cells: A critical review of Lynn Margulis hypothesis.

Bio Systems, 204:104408.

The publication in the late 1960s of Lynn Margulis endosymbiotic proposal is a scientific milestone that brought to the fore of evolutionary discussions the issue of the origin of nucleated cells. Although it is true that the times were ripe, the timely publication of Lynn Margulis' original paper was the product of an intellectually bold 29-years old scientist, who based on the critical analysis of the available scientific information produced an all-encompassing, sophisticated narrative scheme on the origin of eukaryotic cells as a result of the evolution of prokaryotic consortia and, in bold intellectual stroke, put it all in the context of planetary evolution. A critical historical reassessment of her original proposal demonstrates that her hypothesis was not a simple archival outline of past schemes, but a renewed historical narrative of prokaryotic evolution and the role of endosymbiosis in the origin of eukaryotes. Although it is now accepted that the closest bacterial relatives of mitochondria and plastids are α-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively, comparative genomics demonstrates the mosaic character of the organelle genomes. The available evidence has completely refuted Margulis' proposal of an exogenous origin for eukaryotic flagella, the (9 + 2) basal bodies, and centromeres, but we discuss in detail the reasons that led her to devote considerable efforts to argue for a symbiotic origin of the eukaryotic motility. An analysis of the arguments successfully employed by Margulis in her persuasive advocacy of endosymbiosis, combined with the discussions of her flaws and the scientific atmosphere during the period in which she formulated her proposals, are critical for a proper appraisal of the historical conditions that shaped her theory and its acceptance.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Zheng K, T Li (2021)

Prediction of ATPase cation transporting 13A2 molecule in Petromyzon marinus and pan-cancer analysis into human tumors from an evolutionary perspective.

Immunogenetics [Epub ahead of print].

The ATPase cation transporting 13A2 protein (ATP13A2), which maintains the homeostasis of mitochondria and lysosomes, plays a significant role in human neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Through constructing a lamprey proteome database, employing multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, 5 ATP13A2 proteins from Petromyzon marinus (Pm-ATP13A2) were identified based on the evolutionary perspective. The motif and domain analysis showed that the ATP13A2 protein was conserved. The multiple phosphorylation sites and transmembrane structures highlighted the characteristics of ATP13A2 as the P-ATPase-V cation transporting protein. Based on the information provided by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases, this study was conducted as a preliminary investigation of the carcinogenic effects of the ATP13A2 gene in a variety of tumors. The ATP13A2 was strongly expressed in most tumors, except in two types of nervous system tumors glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Moreover, the expression of ATP13A2 was strongly correlated with the prognosis of tumor patients. The high expression of ATP13A2 was obviously related to the poor prognosis of LGG. The poor prognosis of LGG patients may affect the ATP13A2 expression through the immune cells and radiotherapy. Also, cancer-related fibroblast infiltration was observed. All in all, this work offers more insights into the molecular evolution of the ATP13A2 protein and facilitates the understanding of the carcinogenic effects of the ATP13A2 in different tumors. Our discussion also promotes the study into the successful evolution of the vertebrate brain and the mechanism of clinical brain-related diseases.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Pyrih J, Žárský V, Fellows JD, et al (2021)

The iron-sulfur scaffold protein HCF101 unveils the complexity of organellar evolution in SAR, Haptista and Cryptista.

BMC ecology and evolution, 21(1):46.

BACKGROUND: Nbp35-like proteins (Nbp35, Cfd1, HCF101, Ind1, and AbpC) are P-loop NTPases that serve as components of iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) assembly machineries. In eukaryotes, Ind1 is present in mitochondria, and its function is associated with the assembly of FeS clusters in subunits of respiratory Complex I, Nbp35 and Cfd1 are the components of the cytosolic FeS assembly (CIA) pathway, and HCF101 is involved in FeS assembly of photosystem I in plastids of plants (chHCF101). The AbpC protein operates in Bacteria and Archaea. To date, the cellular distribution of these proteins is considered to be highly conserved with only a few exceptions.

RESULTS: We searched for the genes of all members of the Nbp35-like protein family and analyzed their targeting sequences. Nbp35 and Cfd1 were predicted to reside in the cytoplasm with some exceptions of Nbp35 localization to the mitochondria; Ind1was found in the mitochondria, and HCF101 was predicted to reside in plastids (chHCF101) of all photosynthetically active eukaryotes. Surprisingly, we found a second HCF101 paralog in all members of Cryptista, Haptista, and SAR that was predicted to predominantly target mitochondria (mHCF101), whereas Ind1 appeared to be absent in these organisms. We also identified a few exceptions, as apicomplexans possess mHCF101 predicted to localize in the cytosol and Nbp35 in the mitochondria. Our predictions were experimentally confirmed in selected representatives of Apicomplexa (Toxoplasma gondii), Stramenopila (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana), and Ciliophora (Tetrahymena thermophila) by tagging proteins with a transgenic reporter. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that chHCF101 and mHCF101 evolved from a common ancestral HCF101 independently of the Nbp35/Cfd1 and Ind1 proteins. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis supports rather a lateral gene transfer of ancestral HCF101 from bacteria than its acquisition being associated with either α-proteobacterial or cyanobacterial endosymbionts.

CONCLUSION: Our searches for Nbp35-like proteins across eukaryotic lineages revealed that SAR, Haptista, and Cryptista possess mitochondrial HCF101. Because plastid localization of HCF101 was only known thus far, the discovery of its mitochondrial paralog explains confusion regarding the presence of HCF101 in organisms that possibly lost secondary plastids (e.g., ciliates, Cryptosporidium) or possess reduced nonphotosynthetic plastids (apicomplexans).

RevDate: 2021-03-19

Tria FDK, Brueckner J, Skejo J, et al (2021)

Gene duplications trace mitochondria to the onset of eukaryote complexity.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6178794 [Epub ahead of print].

The last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA) possessed mitochondria and all key traits that make eukaryotic cells more complex than their prokaryotic ancestors, yet the timing of mitochondrial acquisition and the role of mitochondria in the origin of eukaryote complexity remain debated. Here we report evidence from gene duplications in LECA indicating an early origin of mitochondria. Among 163,545 duplications in 24,571 gene trees spanning 150 sequenced eukaryotic genomes, we identify 713 gene duplication events that occurred in LECA. LECA's bacterial derived genes include numerous mitochondrial functions and were duplicated significantly more often than archaeal derived and eukaryote specific genes. The surplus of bacterial derived duplications in LECA most likely reflects the serial copying of genes from the mitochondrial endosymbiont to the archaeal host's chromosomes. Clustering, phylogenies and likelihood ratio tests for 22.4 million genes from 5,655 prokaryotic and 150 eukaryotic genomes reveal no evidence for lineage specific gene acquisitions in eukaryotes, except from the plastid in the plant lineage. That finding, and the functions of bacterial genes duplicated in LECA, suggest that the bacterial genes in eukaryotes are acquisitions from the mitochondrion, followed by vertical gene evolution and differential loss across eukaryotic lineages, flanked by concomitant lateral gene transfer among prokaryotes. Overall, the data indicate that recurrent gene transfer via the copying of genes from a resident mitochondrial endosymbiont to archaeal host chromosomes preceded the onset of eukaryotic cellular complexity, favoring mitochondria-early over mitochondria-late hypotheses for eukaryote origin.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Wu G, Wei P, Chen X, et al (2021)

Less is more: biological effects of NiSe2/rGO nanocomposites with low dose provide new insight for risk assessment.

Journal of hazardous materials, 415:125605 pii:S0304-3894(21)00568-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Nickel selenide nanomaterials (NiSe2 NMs) with different vacancies demonstrated high catalytic activity as electrocatalyst in oxygen evolution reaction. As the growing needs of the industrial applications in electrocatalyst, the increased occupational exposure and environmental releasing of NMs would be unavoidable. While, much efforts have been made to evaluate the ecological safety of such engineered NMs at unrealistically high concentrations, failed to provide the comprehensively guideline for exposure thresholds. To supplement the current knowledge gap, we testified the cytotoxicity of NiSe2/rGO nanocomposites with different surface defects under more realistic exposure mode. Compared with the short-term exposure and repetitive exposure, rat lung macrophages exhibited the augmented oxidative stress, dysfunction of mitochondria, damage of DNA and disorder of calcium homeostasis under the long-term NiSe2/rGO exposure. Noteworthily, no significant differences could be found between the NiSe2/rGO with different surface defects, indicated that the defect type of NMs were not the accurate predictor for real risk assessment. Collectively, the study provided the real potential toxic effects and exposure thresholds of NMs that might be highly possible industrial produced, and appealed the new insight for risk assessments of engineered NMs under the long-term exposure, which exhibited difference from the traditional evaluation of short-term and repetitive exposure.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Cruz JO, Silva AO, Ribeiro JM, et al (2021)

Epigenetic Regulation of the N-Terminal Truncated Isoform of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (NTT-MMP-2) and Its Presence in Renal and Cardiac Diseases.

Frontiers in genetics, 12:637148.

Several clinical and experimental studies have documented a compelling and critical role for the full-length matrix metalloproteinase-2 (FL-MMP-2) in ischemic renal injury, progressive renal fibrosis, and diabetic nephropathy. A novel N-terminal truncated isoform of MMP-2 (NTT-MMP-2) was recently discovered, which is induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress by the activation of a latent promoter located in the first intron of the MMP2 gene. This NTT-MMP-2 isoform is enzymatically active but remains intracellular in or near the mitochondria. In this perspective article, we first present the findings about the discovery of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform, and its functional and structural differences as compared with the FL-MMP-2 isoform. Based on publicly available epigenomics data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, we provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of the latent promoter located in the first intron of the MMP2 gene, which support the activation of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform. We then focus on its functional assessment by covering the alterations found in the kidney of transgenic mice expressing the NTT-MMP-2 isoform. Next, we highlight recent findings regarding the presence of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform in renal dysfunction, in kidney and cardiac diseases, including damage observed in aging, acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and human renal transplants with delayed graft function. Finally, we briefly discuss how our insights may guide further experimental and clinical studies that are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the role of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform in renal dysfunction, which may help to establish it as a potential therapeutic target in kidney diseases.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Arab DA, N Lo (2021)

Evolutionary Rates are Correlated Between Buchnera Endosymbionts and the Mitochondrial Genomes of Their Aphid Hosts.

Journal of molecular evolution [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of bacterial endosymbiont genomes is strongly influenced by host-driven selection. Factors affecting host genome evolution will potentially affect endosymbiont genomes in similar ways. One potential outcome is correlations in molecular rates between the genomes of the symbiotic partners. Recently, we presented the first evidence of such correlations between the mitochondrial genomes of cockroaches and the genomes of their endosymbiont (Blattabacterium cuenoti). Here we investigate whether similar patterns are found in additional host-symbiont partners. We use partial genome data from multiple strains of the bacterial endosymbionts Buchnera aphidicola and Sulcia muelleri, and the mitochondrial genomes of their sap-feeding insect hosts. Both endosymbionts show phylogenetic congruence with the mitochondria of their hosts, a result that is expected due to their identical mode of inheritance. We compared root-to-tip distances and branch lengths of phylogenetically independent species pairs. Both analyses showed a highly significant correlation of molecular rates between the genomes of Buchnera and the mitochondrial genomes of their hosts. A similar correlation was detected between Sulcia and their hosts, but was not statistically significant. Our results indicate that evolutionary rate correlations between hosts and long-term symbionts may be a widespread phenomenon.

RevDate: 2021-04-20

Radzvilavicius A (2021)

Beyond the "selfish mitochondrion" theory of uniparental inheritance: A unified theory based on mutational variance redistribution.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 43(5):e2100009.

"Selfish" gene theories have offered invaluable insight into eukaryotic genome evolution, but they can also be misleading. The "selfish mitochondrion" hypothesis, developed in the 90s explained uniparental organelle inheritance as a mechanism of conflict resolution, improving cooperation between genetically distinct compartments of the cell. But modern population genetic models provided a more general explanation for uniparental inheritance based on mutational variance redistribution, modulating the efficiency of both purifying and adaptive selection. Nevertheless, as reviewed here, "selfish" conflict theories still dominate the literature. While these hypotheses are rich in metaphor and highly intuitive, selective focus on only one type of mitochondrial mutation limits the generality of our understanding and hinders progress in mito-nuclear evolution theory. Recognizing that uniparental inheritance may have evolved-and is maintained across the eukaryotic tree of life-because of its influence on mutational variance and improved selection will only increase the generality of our evolutionary reasoning, retaining "selfish" conflict explanations as a special case of a much broader theory.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Zhang J, Hou L, Zuo Z, et al (2021)

Comprehensive profiling of circular RNAs with nanopore sequencing and CIRI-long.

Nature biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Reconstructing the sequence of circular RNAs (circRNAs) from short RNA sequencing reads has proved challenging given the similarity of circRNAs and their corresponding linear messenger RNAs. Previous sequencing methods were unable to achieve high-throughput detection of full-length circRNAs. Here we describe a protocol for enrichment and full-length sequencing of circRNA isoforms using nanopore technology. Circular reverse transcription and size selection achieves a 20-fold higher enrichment of circRNAs from total RNA compared to previous methods. We developed an algorithm, called circRNA identifier using long-read sequencing data (CIRI-long), to reconstruct the sequence of circRNAs. The workflow was validated with simulated data and by comparison to Illumina sequencing as well as quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We used CIRI-long to analyze adult mouse brain samples and systematically profile circRNAs, including mitochondria-derived and transcriptional read-through circRNAs. We identified a new type of intronic self-ligated circRNA that exhibits special splicing and expression patterns. Our method takes advantage of nanopore long reads and enables unbiased reconstruction of full-length circRNA sequences.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Bogdanova VS, Shatskaya NV, Mglinets AV, et al (2021)

Discordant evolution of organellar genomes in peas (Pisum L.).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 160:107136.

Plastids and mitochondria have their own small genomes, which do not undergo meiotic recombination and may have evolutionary fates different from each other and that of the nuclear genome. For the first time, we sequenced mitochondrial genomes of pea (Pisum L.) from 42 accessions mostly representing diverse wild germplasm from throughout the wild pea geographical range. Six structural types of the pea mitochondrial genome were revealed. From the same accessions, plastid genomes were sequenced. Phylogenetic trees based on the plastid and mitochondrial genomes were compared. The topologies of these trees were highly discordant, implying not less than six events of hybridisation between diverged wild peas in the past, with plastids and mitochondria differently inherited by the descendants. Such discordant inheritance of organelles could have been driven by plastid-nuclear incompatibility, which is known to be widespread in crosses involving wild peas and affects organellar inheritance. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequences of a nuclear gene, His5, encoding a histone H1 subtype, corresponded to the current taxonomy and resembled that based on the plastid genome. Wild peas (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius s.l.) inhabiting Southern Europe were shown to be of hybrid origin, resulting from crosses of peas related to those presently inhabiting the eastern Mediterranean in a broad sense. These results highlight the roles of hybridisation and cytonuclear conflict in shaping plant microevolution.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Shevtsov-Tal S, Best C, Matan R, et al (2021)

nMAT3 is an essential maturase splicing factor required for holo-complex I biogenesis and embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Group-II introns are self-splicing mobile genetic elements consisting of catalytic intron-RNA and its related intron-encoded splicing maturase protein cofactor. Group-II sequences are particularly plentiful within the mitochondria of land plants, where they reside within many critical gene loci. During evolution, the plant organellar introns have degenerated, such as they lack regions that are are required for splicing, and also lost their evolutionary related maturase proteins. Instead, for their splicing the organellar introns in plants rely on different host-acting protein cofactors, which may also provide a means to link cellular signals with respiratory functions. The nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes four maturase-related factors. Previously, we showed that three of the maturases, nMAT1, nMAT2 and nMAT4, function in the excision of different group-II introns in Arabidopsis mitochondria. The function of nMAT3 (encoded by the At5g04050 gene locus) was found to be essential during early embryogenesis. Using a modified embryo-rescue method, we show that nMAT3-knockout plants are strongly affected in the splicing of nad1 introns 1, 3 and 4 in Arabidopsis mitochondria, resulting in complex-I biogenesis defects and altered respiratory activities. Functional complementation of nMAT3 restored the organellar defects and embryo-arrested phenotypes associated with the nmat3 mutant line. Notably, nMAT3 and nMA4 were found to act on the same RNA targets but have no redundant functions in the splicing of nad1 transcripts. The two maturases, nMAT3 and nMAT4 are likely to cooperate together in the maturation of nad1 pre-RNAs. Our results provide important insights into the roles of maturases in mitochondria gene expression and the biogenesis of the respiratory system during early plant life.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Ramzan R, Kadenbach B, S Vogt (2021)

Multiple Mechanisms Regulate Eukaryotic Cytochrome C Oxidase.

Cells, 10(3):.

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme of mitochondrial respiration, is regulated by various mechanisms. Its regulation by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) appears of particular importance, since it evolved early during evolution and is still found in cyanobacteria, but not in other bacteria. Therefore the "allosteric ATP inhibition of COX" is described here in more detail. Most regulatory properties of COX are related to "supernumerary" subunits, which are largely absent in bacterial COX. The "allosteric ATP inhibition of COX" was also recently described in intact isolated rat heart mitochondria.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Salinas-Giegé T, Ubrig E, L Drouard (2021)

Cyanophora paradoxa mitochondrial tRNAs play a double game.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Present-day mitochondria derive from a single endosymbiosis of an α-proteobacterium into a proto-eukaryotic cell. Since this monophyletic event, mitochondria have evolved considerably, and unique traits have been independently acquired in the different eukaryotic kingdoms. Mitochondrial genome expression and RNA metabolism have diverged greatly. Here, Cyanophora paradoxa, a freshwater alga considered as a living fossil among photosynthetic organisms, represents an exciting model for studying the evolution of mitochondrial gene expression. As expected, fully mature tRNAs are released from primary transcripts to function in mitochondrial translation. We also show that these tRNAs take part in an mRNA processing punctuation mechanism in a non-conventional manner, leading to mRNA-tRNA hybrids with a CCA triplet at their 3'-extremities. In this case, tRNAs are probably used as stabilizing structures impeding the degradation of mRNA by exonucleases. From our data we propose that the present-day tRNA-like elements (t-elements) found at the 3'-terminals of mitochondrial mRNAs in land plants originate from true tRNAs like those observed in the mitochondria of this basal photosynthetic glaucophyte.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Ji LL, D Yeo (2021)

Oxidative stress: an evolving definition.

Faculty reviews, 10:13.

Thirty-five years ago, Sies and colleagues insightfully described the universal phenomenon that the generation of reactive oxygen species could modify macromolecules in living organisms, resulting in a wide range of measurable damage. They used the term "oxidative stress" to define the loss of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former. After decades of research, it became increasingly clear that cells are not simply passive receivers of oxidative modification but can act dynamically to resist and adapt to oxidants. Furthermore, many redox-sensitive pathways have been identified wherein certain oxidants (mainly hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) are used as messenger molecules to transduce the signals required for these adaptations. Since the turn of the century, redox signaling has developed into a vibrant multidisciplinary field of biology. To reflect the evolution of the study in this field, the definition of oxidative stress is postulated to define a state in which the pro-oxidative processes overwhelm cellular antioxidant defense due to the disruption of redox signaling and adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Poroshina AA, Sherbakov DY, TE Peretolchina (2020)

Diagnosis of the mechanisms of different types of discordances between phylogenies inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial markers.

Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 24(4):420-426.

In ancient freshwater lakes, an abnormally large species diversity is observed. The mechanisms that generated extremely high biodiversity in the ancient lakes have not been sufficiently studied and remain only partially known. Sequences of environmental changes in highly complex ecosystems such as Lake Baikal, may induce sophisticated combinations of microevolutionary processes. These processes are likely to result in unusual "patterns" of genetic variability of species. The most unusual patterns include the ones when speciation is followed by incomplete lineage sorting as well as mitochondrial or nuclear introgression. All these phenomena are diagnosed by comparing the topologies of phylogenetic trees inferred from molecular markers of evolution located in mitochondria and nuclei. Mitochondrial and nuclear introgression is a particularly interesting and complex case, which is the process of incorporating the gene alleles of one species into the gene pool of a sister species due to interspecific hybridization (introgressive hybridization). In many cases, existing methods for molecular phylogenetic analysis do not automatically allow the observed patterns of polymorphism to be explained and, therefore, cannot provide hypotheses that would explain the mechanisms which resulted to these patterns. Here we use adaptive dynamics models to study neutral molecular evolution under various scenarios of interaction between sister species and the environment. We propose and justify a set of criteria for detecting how two evolutionary trees may differ, with a special focus on comparing a tree inferred from nuclear DNA to one from mitochondrial DNA. The criteria react to branching pattern and branch lengths, including relative distances from ancestral lineages. Simulations show that the criteria allow fast and automated detection of various types of introgression, secondary breaches of reproductive barriers, and incomplete lineage sorting.

RevDate: 2021-03-31

Graf JS, Schorn S, Kitzinger K, et al (2021)

Anaerobic endosymbiont generates energy for ciliate host by denitrification.

Nature, 591(7850):445-450.

Mitochondria are specialized eukaryotic organelles that have a dedicated function in oxygen respiration and energy production. They evolved about 2 billion years ago from a free-living bacterial ancestor (probably an alphaproteobacterium), in a process known as endosymbiosis1,2. Many unicellular eukaryotes have since adapted to life in anoxic habitats and their mitochondria have undergone further reductive evolution3. As a result, obligate anaerobic eukaryotes with mitochondrial remnants derive their energy mostly from fermentation4. Here we describe 'Candidatus Azoamicus ciliaticola', which is an obligate endosymbiont of an anaerobic ciliate and has a dedicated role in respiration and providing energy for its eukaryotic host. 'Candidatus A. ciliaticola' contains a highly reduced 0.29-Mb genome that encodes core genes for central information processing, the electron transport chain, a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle, ATP generation and iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. The genome encodes a respiratory denitrification pathway instead of aerobic terminal oxidases, which enables its host to breathe nitrate instead of oxygen. 'Candidatus A. ciliaticola' and its ciliate host represent an example of a symbiosis that is based on the transfer of energy in the form of ATP, rather than nutrition. This discovery raises the possibility that eukaryotes with mitochondrial remnants may secondarily acquire energy-providing endosymbionts to complement or replace functions of their mitochondria.

RevDate: 2021-04-06
CmpDate: 2021-04-06

Prieto C, Montecinos J, Jiménez G, et al (2021)

Phosphorylation of Phylogenetically Conserved Amino Acid Residues Confines HBx within Different Cell Compartments of Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(5):.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a circular, and partially double-stranded DNA virus. Upon infection, the viral genome is translocated into the cell nucleus, generating the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) intermediate, and forming a mini chromosome. HBV HBx is a small protein displaying multiple roles in HBV-infected cells, and in different subcellular locations. In the nucleus, the HBx protein is required to initiate and maintain viral transcription from the viral mini chromosome. In contrast, HBx also functions in the cytoplasm, where it is able to alter multiple cellular functions such as mitochondria metabolism, apoptosis and signal transduction pathways. It has been reported that in cultured cells, at low expression levels, the HBx protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas at high expression levels, it accumulates in the cytoplasm. This dynamic subcellular distribution of HBx might be essential to exert its multiple roles during viral infection. However, the mechanism that regulates different subcellular localizations of the HBx protein is unknown. We have previously taken a bioinformatics approach to investigate whether HBx might be regulated via post-translational modification, and we have proposed that the multiple nucleocytoplasmic functions of HBx might be regulated by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism via phosphorylation. In the current study, phylogenetically conserved amino acids of HBx with a high potential of phosphorylation were targeted for site-directed mutagenesis. Two conserved serine (Ser25 and Ser41), and one conserved threonine (Thr81) amino acids were replaced by either alanine or aspartic acid residues to simulate an unphosphorylated or phosphorylated state, respectively. Human hepatoma cells were transfected with increasing amounts of the HBx DNA constructs, and the cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Together, our results show that the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of the HBx protein could be regulated by phosphorylation since some of the modified proteins were mainly confined to distinct subcellular compartments. Remarkably, both HBx Ser41A, and HBx Thr81D proteins were predominantly localized within the nuclear compartment throughout the different expression levels of HBx mutants.

RevDate: 2021-04-29
CmpDate: 2021-04-29

Bizouerne E, Buitink J, Vu BL, et al (2021)

Gene co-expression analysis of tomato seed maturation reveals tissue-specific regulatory networks and hubs associated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seed vigour.

BMC plant biology, 21(1):124.

BACKGROUND: During maturation seeds acquire several physiological traits to enable them to survive drying and disseminate the species. Few studies have addressed the regulatory networks controlling acquisition of these traits at the tissue level particularly in endospermic seeds such as tomato, which matures in a fully hydrated environment and does not undergo maturation drying. Using temporal RNA-seq analyses of the different seed tissues during maturation, gene network and trait-based correlations were used to explore the transcriptome signatures associated with desiccation tolerance, longevity, germination under water stress and dormancy.

RESULTS: During maturation, 15,173 differentially expressed genes were detected, forming a gene network representing 21 expression modules, with 3 being specific to seed coat and embryo and 5 to the endosperm. A gene-trait significance measure identified a common gene module between endosperm and embryo associated with desiccation tolerance and conserved with non-endospermic seeds. In addition to genes involved in protection such LEA and HSP and ABA response, the module included antioxidant and repair genes. Dormancy was released concomitantly with the increase in longevity throughout fruit ripening until 14 days after the red fruit stage. This was paralleled by an increase in SlDOG1-2 and PROCERA transcripts. The progressive increase in seed vigour was captured by three gene modules, one in common between embryo and endosperm and two tissue-specific. The common module was enriched with genes associated with mRNA processing in chloroplast and mitochondria (including penta- and tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins) and post-transcriptional regulation, as well several flowering genes. The embryo-specific module contained homologues of ABI4 and CHOTTO1 as hub genes associated with seed vigour, whereas the endosperm-specific module revealed a diverse set of processes that were related to genome stability, defence against pathogens and ABA/GA response genes.

CONCLUSION: The spatio-temporal co-expression atlas of tomato seed maturation will serve as a valuable resource for the in-depth understanding of the dynamics of gene expression associated with the acquisition of seed vigour at the tissue level.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Radzvilavicius A, Layh S, Hall MD, et al (2021)

Sexually antagonistic evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear linkage.

Journal of evolutionary biology [Epub ahead of print].

Across eukaryotes, genes encoding bioenergetic machinery are located in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and incompatibilities between the two genomes can be devastating. Mitochondria are often inherited maternally, and theory predicts sex-specific fitness effects of mitochondrial mutational diversity. Yet how evolution acts on linkage patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is poorly understood. Using novel mito-nuclear population genetic models, we show that the interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial genes maintains mitochondrial haplotype diversity within populations, and it selects both for sex-independent segregation of mitochondrion-interacting genes and for paternal leakage. These effects of genetic linkage evolution can eliminate male-harming fitness effects of mtDNA mutational diversity. With maternal mitochondrial inheritance, females maintain a tight mitochondrial-nuclear match, but males accumulate mismatch mutations because of the weak statistical associations between the two genomic components. Sex-independent segregation of mitochondria-interacting loci improves the mito-nuclear match. In a sexually antagonistic evolutionary process, male nuclear alleles evolve to increase the rate of recombination, while females evolve to suppress it. Paternal leakage of mitochondria can evolve as an alternative mechanism to improve the mito-nuclear linkage. Our modelling framework provides an evolutionary explanation for the observed paucity of mitochondrion-interacting genes on mammalian sex chromosomes and for paternal leakage in protists, plants, fungi, and some animals.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Kumar V (2020)

The Trinity of cGAS, TLR9, and ALRs Guardians of the Cellular Galaxy Against Host-Derived Self-DNA.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:624597.

The immune system has evolved to protect the host from the pathogens and allergens surrounding their environment. The immune system develops in such a way to recognize self and non-self and develops self-tolerance against self-proteins, nucleic acids, and other larger molecules. However, the broken immunological self-tolerance leads to the development of autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by immunological cells on their cell membrane and in the cytosol. Different Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma-2 (AIM-2)-like receptors (ALRs) forming inflammasomes in the cytosol, RIG (retinoic acid-inducible gene)-1-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are some of the PRRs. The DNA-sensing receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is another PRR present in the cytosol and the nucleus. The present review describes the role of ALRs (AIM2), TLR9, and cGAS in recognizing the host cell DNA as a potent damage/danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), which moves out to the cytosol from its housing organelles (nucleus and mitochondria). The introduction opens with the concept that the immune system has evolved to recognize pathogens, the idea of horror autotoxicus, and its failure due to the emergence of autoimmune diseases (ADs), and the discovery of PRRs revolutionizing immunology. The second section describes the cGAS-STING signaling pathway mediated cytosolic self-DNA recognition, its evolution, characteristics of self-DNAs activating it, and its role in different inflammatory conditions. The third section describes the role of TLR9 in recognizing self-DNA in the endolysosomes during infections depending on the self-DNA characteristics and various inflammatory diseases. The fourth section discusses about AIM2 (an ALR), which also binds cytosolic self-DNA (with 80-300 base pairs or bp) that inhibits cGAS-STING-dependent type 1 IFN generation but induces inflammation and pyroptosis during different inflammatory conditions. Hence, this trinity of PRRs has evolved to recognize self-DNA as a potential DAMP and comes into action to guard the cellular galaxy. However, their dysregulation proves dangerous to the host and leads to several inflammatory conditions, including sterile-inflammatory conditions autoinflammatory and ADs.

RevDate: 2021-05-10

Shinde P, Whitwell HJ, Verma RK, et al (2021)

Impact of modular mitochondrial epistatic interactions on the evolution of human subpopulations.

Mitochondrion, 58:111-122.

Investigation of human mitochondrial (mt) genome variation has been shown to provide insights to the human history and natural selection. By analyzing 24,167 human mt-genome samples, collected for five continents, we have developed a co-mutation network model to investigate characteristic human evolutionary patterns. The analysis highlighted richer co-mutating regions of the mt-genome, suggesting the presence of epistasis. Specifically, a large portion of COX genes was found to co-mutate in Asian and American populations, whereas, in African, European, and Oceanic populations, there was greater co-mutation bias in hypervariable regions. Interestingly, this study demonstrated hierarchical modularity as a crucial agent for these co-mutation networks. More profoundly, our ancestry-based co-mutation module analyses showed that mutations cluster preferentially in known mitochondrial haplogroups. Contemporary human mt-genome nucleotides most closely resembled the ancestral state, and very few of them were found to be ancestral-variants. Overall, these results demonstrated that subpopulation-based biases may favor mitochondrial gene specific epistasis.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Piccinini G, Iannello M, Puccio G, et al (2021)

Mitonuclear Coevolution, but Not Nuclear Compensation, Drives Evolution of OXPHOS Complexes in Bivalves.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6146411 [Epub ahead of print].

In Metazoa, 4 out of 5 complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are formed by subunits encoded by both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nuDNA) genomes, leading to the expectation of mito-nuclear coevolution. Previous studies have supported co-adaptation of mitochondria-encoded (mtOXPHOS) and nuclear-encoded OXPHOS (nuOXPHOS) subunits, often specifically interpreted with regard to the "nuclear compensation hypothesis", a specific form of mitonuclear coevolution where nuclear genes compensate for deleterious mitochondrial mutations owing to less efficient mitochondrial selection. In this study we analysed patterns of sequence evolution of 79 OXPHOS subunits in 31 bivalve species, a taxon showing extraordinary mtDNA variability and including species with "doubly uniparental" mtDNA inheritance. Our data showed strong and clear signals of mitonuclear coevolution. NuOXPHOS subunits had concordant topologies with mtOXPHOS subunits, contrary to previous phylogenies based on nuclear genes lacking mt interactions. Evolutionary rates between mt and nuOXPHOS subunits were also highly correlated compared to non-OXPHOS-interacting nuclear genes. Nuclear subunits of chimeric OXPHOS complexes (I, III, IV, and V) also had higher dN/dS ratios than Complex II, which is formed exclusively by nuDNA-encoded subunits. However, we did not find evidence of nuclear compensation: mitochondria-encoded subunits showed similar dN/dS ratios compared to nuclear-encoded subunits, contrary to most previously studied bilaterian animals. Moreover, no site-specific signals of compensatory positive selection were detected in nuOXPHOS genes. Our analyses extend the evidence for mitonuclear coevolution to a new taxonomic group, but we propose a reconsideration of the nuclear compensation hypothesis.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Uwizeye C, Decelle J, Jouneau PH, et al (2021)

Morphological bases of phytoplankton energy management and physiological responses unveiled by 3D subcellular imaging.

Nature communications, 12(1):1049.

Eukaryotic phytoplankton have a small global biomass but play major roles in primary production and climate. Despite improved understanding of phytoplankton diversity and evolution, we largely ignore the cellular bases of their environmental plasticity. By comparative 3D morphometric analysis across seven distant phytoplankton taxa, we observe constant volume occupancy by the main organelles and preserved volumetric ratios between plastids and mitochondria. We hypothesise that phytoplankton subcellular topology is modulated by energy-management constraints. Consistent with this, shifting the diatom Phaeodactylum from low to high light enhances photosynthesis and respiration, increases cell-volume occupancy by mitochondria and the plastid CO2-fixing pyrenoid, and boosts plastid-mitochondria contacts. Changes in organelle architectures and interactions also accompany Nannochloropsis acclimation to different trophic lifestyles, along with respiratory and photosynthetic responses. By revealing evolutionarily-conserved topologies of energy-managing organelles, and their role in phytoplankton acclimation, this work deciphers phytoplankton responses at subcellular scales.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Zhu X, Boulet A, Buckley KM, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial copper and phosphate transporter specificity was defined early in the evolution of eukaryotes.

eLife, 10:.

The mitochondrial carrier family protein SLC25A3 transports both copper and phosphate in mammals, yet in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the transport of these substrates is partitioned across two paralogs: PIC2 and MIR1. To understand the ancestral state of copper and phosphate transport in mitochondria, we explored the evolutionary relationships of PIC2 and MIR1 orthologs across the eukaryotic tree of life. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PIC2-like and MIR1-like orthologs are present in all major eukaryotic supergroups, indicating an ancient gene duplication created these paralogs. To link this phylogenetic signal to protein function, we used structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues involved in copper and phosphate transport. Based on these analyses, we generated an L175A variant of mouse SLC25A3 that retains the ability to transport copper but not phosphate. This work highlights the utility of using an evolutionary framework to uncover amino acids involved in substrate recognition by mitochondrial carrier family proteins.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Xu D, Qian J, Guan X, et al (2020)

Copper-Containing Alloy as Immunoregulatory Material in Bone Regeneration via Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 8:620629.

In the mammalian skeletal system, osteogenesis and angiogenesis are closely linked by type H vessels during bone regeneration and repair. Our previous studies confirmed the promotion of these processes by copper-containing metal (CCM) in vitro and in vivo. However, whether and how the coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis participates in the promotion of bone regeneration by CCM in vivo is unknown. In this study, M2a macrophages but not M2c macrophages were shown to be immunoregulated by CCM. A CCM, 316L-5Cu, was applied to drilling hole injuries of the tibia of C57/6 mice for comparison. We observed advanced formation of cortical bone and type H vessels beneath the new bone in the 316L-5Cu group 14 and 21 days postinjury. Moreover, the recruitment of CD206-positive M2a macrophages, which are regarded as the primary source of platelet-derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB), was significantly promoted at the injury site at days 14 and 21. Under the stimulation of CCM, mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species were also found to be upregulated in CD206hi M2a macrophages in vitro, and this upregulation was correlated with the expression of PDGF-BB. In conclusion, our results indicate that CCM promotes the evolution of callus through the generation of type H vessels during the process of bone repair by upregulating the expression of PDGF-BB derived from M2a macrophages.

RevDate: 2021-04-12
CmpDate: 2021-04-12

Mannella CA (2021)

VDAC-A Primal Perspective.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(4):.

The evolution of the eukaryotic cell from the primal endosymbiotic event involved a complex series of adaptations driven primarily by energy optimization. Transfer of genes from endosymbiont to host and concomitant expansion (by infolding) of the endosymbiont's chemiosmotic membrane greatly increased output of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and placed selective pressure on the membrane at the host-endosymbiont interface to sustain the energy advantage. It is hypothesized that critical functions at this interface (metabolite exchange, polypeptide import, barrier integrity to proteins and DNA) were managed by a precursor β-barrel protein ("pβB") from which the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) descended. VDAC's role as hub for disparate and increasingly complex processes suggests an adaptability that likely springs from a feature inherited from pβB, retained because of important advantages conferred. It is proposed that this property is the remarkable structural flexibility evidenced in VDAC's gating mechanism, a possible origin of which is discussed.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Lee K, Leister D, T Kleine (2021)

Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor mTERF2 Promotes Splicing of Group IIB Introns.

Cells, 10(2):.

Plastid gene expression (PGE) is essential for chloroplast biogenesis and function and, hence, for plant development. However, many aspects of PGE remain obscure due to the complexity of the process. A hallmark of nuclear-organellar coordination of gene expression is the emergence of nucleus-encoded protein families, including nucleic-acid binding proteins, during the evolution of the green plant lineage. One of these is the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family, the members of which regulate various steps in gene expression in chloroplasts and/or mitochondria. Here, we describe the molecular function of the chloroplast-localized mTERF2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. The complete loss of mTERF2 function results in embryo lethality, whereas directed, microRNA (amiR)-mediated knockdown of MTERF2 is associated with perturbed plant development and reduced chlorophyll content. Moreover, photosynthesis is impaired in amiR-mterf2 plants, as indicated by reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although the levels of the corresponding messenger RNAs are not affected. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing (RIP-Seq) experiments, combined with whole-genome RNA-Seq, RNA gel-blot, and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, revealed that mTERF2 is required for the splicing of the group IIB introns of ycf3 (intron 1) and rps12.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Supaphon P, Kerdpiboon S, Vénien A, et al (2021)

Structural changes in local Thai beef during sous-vide cooking.

Meat science, 175:108442.

Thai beef (Bos indicus) samples were sous-vide-cooked at temperatures of 60°C, 70°C or 80°C for 2 to 36 hrs and prepared for microstructure characterization by light and electron microscopy. Muscle fibers showed a first phase of lateral shrinkage during the first 6 hrs of cooking at 60-70°C and the first 2 hrs at 80°C followed by a second phase of significant alternations of shrinkage and swelling independently of water transfers. Swelling peaked at 12 hrs. Microstructural changes were more variable for samples cooked at 60-70°C than for samples cooked at 80°C that showed a larger cross-sectional myofibrillar mass area (CSA). Hypercontracted fibers were evidenced at all temperature-time combinations and were associated with adjacent wavy fibers and a characteristic structural evolution in the mitochondria. The role of thermal denaturation of proteins and the ultrastructural analogy of hypercontracted fibers with cold-shortened fibers are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

de Freitas Souza C, Baldissera MD, Barroso D, et al (2021)

Involvement of purinergic system and electron transport chain in two species of cichlids from the Amazon basin exposed to hypoxia.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 255:110918.

The Amazonian aquatic ecosystem undergoes seasonal variations and daily changes that directly affect the availability of oxygen. During the day the levels of oxygen can reach supersaturation, and at night can drop to zero. In this way, aquatic organisms are exposed daily to physiological challenges regarding the availability of oxygen. The present study revealed significant differences in the physiology and performance of two cichlids: Geophagus proximus (black water cichlid - from Negro River) and Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (white water cichlid - from Amazon River), exposed to hypoxia. The white water cichlid showed lower value (1.99 ± 0.79 pKa) of critical pressure of oxygen (Pcrit) and a longer time (68.00 ± 14.11 min) for total loss of balance (LOE); however, this species showed 50% mortality during exposure to hypoxia, while the black water cichlid did not show mortality. Both cichlids presented a decrease in O2 consumption rate (OCR) during hypoxia.. In this sense, it was observed that the black water cichlid presented several physiological strategies during hypoxia, such as, a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity (for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as a substrate) in the gills, and the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in gills and liver, in addition to a significant increase in the activity of complexes (II-III) in the transporter chain of electrons in both analyzed tissues and succinate dehydrogenase activity of gills' mitochondria. On the other hand, the only physiological change observed in the white water cichlid was a significant reduction in the activity of complexes II-III in gills and liver. Based on our findings, we can hypothesize that the white water cichlid specie has less tolerant to hypoxia when compared to the black water cichlid.

RevDate: 2021-04-24
CmpDate: 2021-03-11

Kraus F, Roy K, Pucadyil TJ, et al (2021)

Function and regulation of the divisome for mitochondrial fission.

Nature, 590(7844):57-66.

Mitochondria form dynamic networks in the cell that are balanced by the flux of iterative fusion and fission events of the organelles. It is now appreciated that mitochondrial fission also represents an end-point event in a signalling axis that allows cells to sense and respond to external cues. The fission process is orchestrated by membrane-associated adaptors, influenced by organellar and cytoskeletal interactions and ultimately executed by the dynamin-like GTPase DRP1. Here we invoke the framework of the 'mitochondrial divisome', which is conceptually and operationally similar to the bacterial cell-division machinery. We review the functional and regulatory aspects of the mitochondrial divisome and, within this framework, parse the core from the accessory machinery. In so doing, we transition from a phenomenological to a mechanistic understanding of the fission process.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Rout S, Oeljeklaus S, Makki A, et al (2021)

Determinism and contingencies shaped the evolution of mitochondrial protein import.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(6):.

Mitochondrial protein import requires outer membrane receptors that evolved independently in different lineages. Here we used quantitative proteomics and in vitro binding assays to investigate the substrate preferences of ATOM46 and ATOM69, the two mitochondrial import receptors of Trypanosoma brucei The results show that ATOM46 prefers presequence-containing, hydrophilic proteins that lack transmembrane domains (TMDs), whereas ATOM69 prefers presequence-lacking, hydrophobic substrates that have TMDs. Thus, the ATOM46/yeast Tom20 and the ATOM69/yeast Tom70 pairs have similar substrate preferences. However, ATOM46 mainly uses electrostatic, and Tom20 hydrophobic, interactions for substrate binding. In vivo replacement of T. brucei ATOM46 by yeast Tom20 did not restore import. However, replacement of ATOM69 by the recently discovered Tom36 receptor of Trichomonas hydrogenosomes, while not allowing for growth, restored import of a large subset of trypanosomal proteins that lack TMDs. Thus, even though ATOM69 and Tom36 share the same domain structure and topology, they have different substrate preferences. The study establishes complementation experiments, combined with quantitative proteomics, as a highly versatile and sensitive method to compare in vivo preferences of protein import receptors. Moreover, it illustrates the role determinism and contingencies played in the evolution of mitochondrial protein import receptors.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Macey JR, Pabinger S, Barbieri CG, et al (2021)

Evidence of two deeply divergent co-existing mitochondrial genomes in the Tuatara reveals an extremely complex genomic organization.

Communications biology, 4(1):116.

Animal mitochondrial genomic polymorphism occurs as low-level mitochondrial heteroplasmy and deeply divergent co-existing molecules. The latter is rare, known only in bivalvian mollusks. Here we show two deeply divergent co-existing mt-genomes in a vertebrate through genomic sequencing of the Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the sole-representative of an ancient reptilian Order. The two molecules, revealed using a combination of short-read and long-read sequencing technologies, differ by 10.4% nucleotide divergence. A single long-read covers an entire mt-molecule for both strands. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a 7-8 million-year divergence between genomes. Contrary to earlier reports, all 37 genes typical of animal mitochondria, with drastic gene rearrangements, are confirmed for both mt-genomes. Also unique to vertebrates, concerted evolution drives three near-identical putative Control Region non-coding blocks. Evidence of positive selection at sites linked to metabolically important transmembrane regions of encoded proteins suggests these two mt-genomes may confer an adaptive advantage for an unusually cold-tolerant reptile.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Dryomov SV, Nazhmidenova AM, Starikovskaya EB, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial genome diversity on the Central Siberian Plateau with particular reference to the prehistory of northernmost Eurasia.

PloS one, 16(1):e0244228.

The Central Siberian Plateau was the last geographic area in Eurasia to become habitable by modern humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Through a comprehensive dataset of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes retained in the remnats of earlier ("Old") Siberians, primarily the Ket, Tofalar, and Todzhi, we explored genetic links between the Yenisei-Sayan region and Northeast Eurasia (best represented by the Yukaghir) over the last 10,000 years. We generated 218 new complete mtDNA sequences and placed them into compound phylogenies with 7 newly obtained and 70 published ancient mitochondrial genomes. We have considerably extended the mtDNA sequence diversity (at the entire mtDNA genome level) of autochthonous Siberians, which remain poorly sampled, and these new data may have a broad impact on the study of human migration. We compared present-day mtDNA diversity in these groups with complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient samples from the region and placed the samples into combined genealogical trees. The resulting components were used to clarify the origins and expansion history of mtDNA lineages that evolved in the refugia of south-central Siberia and beyond, as well as multiple phases of connection between this region and distant parts of Eurasia.

RevDate: 2021-01-28

Li J, Meng Q, Fu Y, et al (2021)

Novel insights: Dynamic foam cells derived from the macrophage in atherosclerosis.

Journal of cellular physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Atherosclerosis can be regarded as a chronic disease derived from the interaction between disordered lipoproteins and an unsuitable immune response. The evolution of foam cells is not only a significant pathological change in the early stage of atherosclerosis but also a key stage in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. The formation of foam cells is mainly caused by the imbalance among lipids uptake, lipids treatment, and reverse cholesterol transport. Although a large number of studies have summarized the source of foam cells and the mechanism of foam cells formation, we propose a new idea about foam cells in atherosclerosis. Rather than an isolated microenvironment, the macrophage multiple lipid uptake pathways, lipid internalization, lysosome, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and reverse cholesterol transport are mutually influential, and form a dynamic process under multi-factor regulation. The macrophage takes on different uptake lipid statuses depending on multiple uptake pathways and intracellular lipids, lipid metabolites versus pro-inflammatory factors. Except for NCEH and ACAT, the lipid internalization of macrophages also depends on multicellular organelles including the lysosome, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum, which are associated with each other. A dynamic balance between esterification and hydrolysis of cholesterol for macrophages is essential for physiology and pathology. Therefore, we propose that the foam cell in the process of atherosclerosis may be dynamic under multi-factor regulation, and collate this study to provide a holistic and dynamic idea of the foam cell.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Subramanian V, Rodemoyer B, Shastri V, et al (2021)

Bloom syndrome DNA helicase deficiency is associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial network changes.

Scientific reports, 11(1):2157.

Bloom Syndrome (BS; OMIM #210900; ORPHA #125) is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with growth deficits, compromised immune system, insulin resistance, genome instability and extraordinary predisposition to cancer. Most efforts thus far have focused on understanding the role of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase BLM as a recombination factor in maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. Here, we observed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA base damage in BLM-deficient cells, as well as oxidative-stress-dependent reduction in DNA replication speed. BLM-deficient cells exhibited increased mitochondrial mass, upregulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), higher ATP levels and increased respiratory reserve capacity. Cyclin B1, which acts in complex with cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 to regulate mitotic entry and associated mitochondrial fission by phosphorylating mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, fails to be fully degraded in BLM-deficient cells and shows unscheduled expression in G1 phase cells. This failure to degrade cyclin B1 is accompanied by increased levels and persistent activation of Drp1 throughout mitosis and into G1 phase as well as mitochondrial fragmentation. This study identifies mitochondria-associated abnormalities in Bloom syndrome patient-derived and BLM-knockout cells and we discuss how these abnormalities may contribute to Bloom syndrome.

RevDate: 2021-04-22
CmpDate: 2021-04-22

Neverov AD, Popova AV, Fedonin GG, et al (2021)

Episodic evolution of coadapted sets of amino acid sites in mitochondrial proteins.

PLoS genetics, 17(1):e1008711.

The rate of evolution differs between protein sites and changes with time. However, the link between these two phenomena remains poorly understood. Here, we design a phylogenetic approach for distinguishing pairs of amino acid sites that evolve concordantly, i.e., such that substitutions at one site trigger subsequent substitutions at the other; and also pairs of sites that evolve discordantly, so that substitutions at one site impede subsequent substitutions at the other. We distinguish groups of amino acid sites that undergo coordinated evolution and evolve discordantly from other such groups. In mitochondrion-encoded proteins of metazoans and fungi, we show that concordantly evolving sites are clustered in protein structures. By analysing the phylogenetic patterns of substitutions at concordantly and discordantly evolving site pairs, we find that concordant evolution has two distinct causes: epistatic interactions between amino acid substitutions and episodes of selection independently affecting substitutions at different sites. The rate of substitutions at concordantly evolving groups of protein sites changes in the course of evolution, indicating episodes of selection limited to some of the lineages. The phylogenetic positions of these changes are consistent between proteins, suggesting common selective forces underlying them.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Eo JK (2021)

The complete mitogenome of Diaporthe nobilis.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 6(1):6-7.

The complete mitogenome of Diaporthe nobilis NIE8444 (KCTC No. 56710) isolated from alpine conifer Abies nephrolepis is determined by the Illumina Hiseq4000 platform in this study. This mitogenome consists of 67,437 bp length with 31.45% G + C content. A total of 51 genes were predicted in this mitogenome: 21 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 28 tRNAs. Phylogenetic tree based on small subunit ribosomal RNA of mitochondria showed that D. nobilis was close to D. longicolla. This complete mitogenome of D. nobilis provides valuable information on the mitochondrial evolution of endophytic fungi.

RevDate: 2021-03-22

Wan KY, G Jékely (2021)

Origins of eukaryotic excitability.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1820):20190758.

All living cells interact dynamically with a constantly changing world. Eukaryotes, in particular, evolved radically new ways to sense and react to their environment. These advances enabled new and more complex forms of cellular behaviour in eukaryotes, including directional movement, active feeding, mating, and responses to predation. But what are the key events and innovations during eukaryogenesis that made all of this possible? Here we describe the ancestral repertoire of eukaryotic excitability and discuss five major cellular innovations that enabled its evolutionary origin. The innovations include a vastly expanded repertoire of ion channels, the emergence of cilia and pseudopodia, endomembranes as intracellular capacitors, a flexible plasma membrane and the relocation of chemiosmotic ATP synthesis to mitochondria, which liberated the plasma membrane for more complex electrical signalling involved in sensing and reacting. We conjecture that together with an increase in cell size, these new forms of excitability greatly amplified the degrees of freedom associated with cellular responses, allowing eukaryotes to vastly outperform prokaryotes in terms of both speed and accuracy. This comprehensive new perspective on the evolution of excitability enriches our view of eukaryogenesis and emphasizes behaviour and sensing as major contributors to the success of eukaryotes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Basal cognition: conceptual tools and the view from the single cell'.

RevDate: 2021-03-22

Christensen AC (2021)

Plant Mitochondria are a Riddle Wrapped in a Mystery Inside an Enigma.

Journal of molecular evolution, 89(3):151-156.

A fundamental paradox motivates the study of plant mitochondrial genomics: the mutation rate is very low (lower than in the nucleus) but the rearrangement rate is high. A landmark paper published in Journal of Molecular Evolution in 1988 established these facts and revealed the paradox. Jeffrey Palmer and Laura Herbon did a prodigious amount of work in the pre-genome sequencing era to identify both the high frequency of rearrangements between closely related species, and the low frequency of mutations, observations that have now been confirmed many times by sequencing. This paper was also the first to use molecular data on rearrangements as a phylogenetic trait to build a parsimonious tree. The work was a technical tour-de-force, its findings are still at the heart of plant mitochondrial genomics, and the underlying molecular mechanisms that produce this paradox are still not completely understood.

RevDate: 2021-04-29
CmpDate: 2021-04-29

Li Q, Wu P, Li L, et al (2021)

The first eleven mitochondrial genomes from the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus (Boletus) reveal intron loss and gene rearrangement.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 172:560-572.

In the present study, eleven novel complete mitogenomes of Boletus were assembled and compared. The eleven complete mitogenomes were all composed of circular DNA molecules, with sizes ranging from 32,883 bp to 48,298 bp. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of Boletus varied greatly from other Boletales mitogenomes, and gene position reversal were observed frequently in the evolution of Boletus. Across the 15 core protein-coding genes (PCGs) tested, atp9 had the least and rps3 had the largest genetic distances among the eleven Boletus species, indicating varied evolution rates of core PCGs. In addition, the Ka/Ks value for nad3 gene was >1, suggesting that this gene was subject to possible positive selection pressure. Comparative mitogenomic analysis indicated that the intronic region was significantly correlated with the size of mitogenomes in Boletales. Two large-scale intron loss events were detected in the evolution of Boletus. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined mitochondrial gene dataset yielded a well-supported (BPP ≥ 0.99; BS =100) phylogenetic tree for 72 Agaricomycetes, and the Boletus species had a close relationship with Paxillus. This study served as the first report on complete mitogenomes in Boletus, which will further promote investigations of the genetics, evolution and phylogeny of the Boletus genus.

RevDate: 2021-04-22

Fukuda T, T Kanki (2021)

Atg43, a novel autophagy-related protein, serves as a mitophagy receptor to bridge mitochondria with phagophores in fission yeast.

Autophagy, 17(3):826-827.

Mitophagy is a selective type of autophagy in which damaged or unnecessary mitochondria are sequestered by double-membranous structures called phagophores and delivered to vacuoles/lysosomes for degradation. The molecular mechanisms underlying mitophagy have been studied extensively in budding yeast and mammalian cells. To gain more diverse insights, our recent study identified Atg43 as a mitophagy receptor in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Atg43 is localized on the mitochondrial outer membrane through the Mim1-Mim2 complex and binds to Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein conjugated to phagophore membranes. Artificial tethering of Atg8 to mitochondria can bypass the requirement of Atg43 for mitophagy, suggesting that the main role of Atg43 in mitophagy is to stabilize phagophore expansion on mitochondria by interacting with Atg8. Atg43 shares no sequence similarity with mitophagy receptors in other organisms and has a mitophagy-independent function, raising the possibility that Atg43 has acquired the mitophagic function by convergent evolution.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Huang X, Shi Y, Huang D, et al (2020)

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Lagocephalus guentheri (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):3472-3473.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Lagocephalus guentheri was reported in the present study, which was 16,461 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region. The overall base composition of the genome is 27.54% for A, 24.80% for T, 31.23% for C and 16.43% for G. The phylogenetic tree, which is based on 12 protein-coding gene sequences, suggested that L. guentheri was closest to L. spadiceus. This study could give impetus to studies focused on population structure and molecular evolution of L. guentheri.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Chen Z, Zhao J, Qiao J, et al (2020)

Comparative analysis of codon usage between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense mitochondrial genomes.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):2500-2506.

Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense mitochondrial genomes were analyzed to understand the factors shaping codon usage. While most analyses of codon usage suggest minimal to no bias, nucleotide composition, specifically GC content, was significantly correlated with codon usage. In general, both mitochondrial genomes favor codons that end in A or U, with a secondary preference for pyrimidine rich codons. These observations are similar to previous reports of codon usage in cotton nuclear genomes, possibly suggestive of a general bias spanning genomic compartment. Although evidence for codon usage bias is weak for most genes, we identified six genes (i.e. atp8, atp9, sdh3, sdh4, mttB and rpl2) with significant nonrandom codon usage. In general, we find multiple factors that influence cotton mitochondrial genome codon usage, which may include selection in a subset of genes.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Cevallos MA, Guerrero G, Ríos S, et al (2020)

The mitogenome of Pseudocrossidium replicatum, a desiccation-tolerant moss.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):2339-2341.

Bryophytes are the earliest plant group on Earth. They are a fundamental component of many ecosystems around the World. Some of their main roles are related to soil development, water retention, and biogeochemical cycling. Bryophytes include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. The sequencing of chloroplast and mitochondria genomes has been useful to elucidate the taxonomy of this heterogeneous plant group. To date, despite their ecological importance only 41 mosses mitogenomes have been deposited in the GenBank. Here, the complete mitochondria genome sequence of Pseudocrossidium replicatum, a moss of the Pottiaceae family isolated in Tlaxcala, Mexico, is reported. The mitochondrial genome size of P. replicatum comprises 105,495 bp and contains the groups of genes described for other bryophytes mitogenomes. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that during the evolution of the mosses' mitogenome, nad7, rps4, rpl16, and rpl10 genes were lost independently in several lineages. The complete mitogenome sequence reported here would be a useful tool for our comprehension of the evolutionary and population genetics of this group of plants.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Han X, Li Y, Lu C, et al (2020)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta ruficeps (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):2049-2050.

Epicauta ruficeps is widely distributed in China and some countries in Southeast Asia, and plays an important role in medicine and biological control. The complete mitochondria genome of E. ruficeps was 15,813 bp in length, with 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes (tRNAs), and two rRNA genes (rRNAs). The positions and sequences of genes were consistent with those of known Meloidae species. The nucleotide composition was highly A + T biased, accounting for ∼65% of the whole mitogenome. The complete mitogenome of E. ruficeps would help understand Meloidae evolution.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Fuentealba M, Fabian DK, Dönertaş HM, et al (2021)

Transcriptomic profiling of long- and short-lived mutant mice implicates mitochondrial metabolism in ageing and shows signatures of normal ageing in progeroid mice.

Mechanisms of ageing and development, 194:111437.

Genetically modified mouse models of ageing are the living proof that lifespan and healthspan can be lengthened or shortened, and provide a powerful context in which to unravel the molecular mechanisms at work. In this study, we analysed and compared gene expression data from 10 long-lived and 8 short-lived mouse models of ageing. Transcriptome-wide correlation analysis revealed that mutations with equivalent effects on lifespan induce more similar transcriptomic changes, especially if they target the same pathway. Using functional enrichment analysis, we identified 58 gene sets with consistent changes in long- and short-lived mice, 55 of which were up-regulated in long-lived mice and down-regulated in short-lived mice. Half of these sets represented genes involved in energy and lipid metabolism, among which Ppargc1a, Mif, Aldh5a1 and Idh1 were frequently observed. Based on the gene sets with consistent changes, and also the whole transcriptome, the gene expression changes during normal ageing resembled the transcriptome of short-lived models, suggesting that accelerated ageing models reproduce partially the molecular changes of ageing. Finally, we identified new genetic interventions that may ameliorate ageing, by comparing the transcriptomes of 51 mouse mutants not previously associated with ageing to expression signatures of long- and short-lived mice and ageing-related changes.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Slijepcevic P (2021)

Serial Endosymbiosis Theory: From biology to astronomy and back to the origin of life.

Bio Systems, 202:104353.

Serial Endosymbiosis Theory, or SET, was conceived and developed by Lynn Margulis, to explain the greatest discontinuity in the history of life, the origin of eukaryotic cells. Some predictions of SET, namely the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, withstood the test of the most recent evidence from a variety of disciplines including phylogenetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. Even though some other predictions fared less well, SET remains a seminal theory in biology. In this paper, I focus on two aspects of SET. First, using the concept of "universal symbiogenesis", developed by Freeman Dyson to search for commonalities in astronomy and biology, I propose that SET can be extended beyond eukaryogenesis. The extension refers to the possibility that even prokaryotic organisms, themselves subject to the process of symbiogenesis in SET, could have emerged symbiotically. Second, I contrast a recent "viral eukaryogenesis" hypothesis, according to which the nucleus evolved from a complex DNA virus, with a view closer to SET, according to which the nucleus evolved through the interplay of the archaeal host, the eubacterial symbiont, and a non-LTR transposon, or telomerase. Viruses joined in later, through the process of viral endogenization, to shape eukaryotic chromosomes in the process of karyotype evolution. These two proposals based on SET are a testament to its longevity as a scientific theory.

RevDate: 2021-01-22

Cui H, Ding Z, Zhu Q, et al (2021)

Comparative analysis of nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes of watermelon and melon provides evidence of gene transfer.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1595.

During plant evolution, there is genetic communication between organelle and nuclear genomes. A comparative analysis was performed on the organelle and nuclear genomes of the watermelon and melon. In the watermelon, chloroplast-derived sequences accounted for 7.6% of the total length of the mitochondrial genome. In the melon, chloroplast-derived sequences accounted for approximately 2.73% of the total mitochondrial genome. In watermelon and melon, the chloroplast-derived small-fragment sequences are either a subset of large-fragment sequences or appeared multiple times in the mitochondrial genome, indicating that these fragments may have undergone multiple independent migration integrations or emerged in the mitochondrial genome after migration, replication, and reorganization. There was no evidence of migration from the mitochondria to chloroplast genome. A sequence with a total length of about 73 kb (47%) in the watermelon chloroplast genome was homologous to a sequence of about 313 kb in the nuclear genome. About 33% of sequences in the watermelon mitochondrial genome was homologous with a 260 kb sequence in the nuclear genome. A sequence with a total length of about 38 kb (25%) in the melon chloroplast genome was homologous with 461 sequences in the nuclear genome, with a total length of about 301 kb. A 3.4 Mb sequence in the nuclear genome was homologous with a melon mitochondrial sequence. These results indicate that, during the evolution of watermelon and melon, a large amount of genetic material was exchanged between the nuclear genome and the two organelle genomes in the cytoplasm.

RevDate: 2021-04-21
CmpDate: 2021-04-21

Koch RE, Buchanan KL, Casagrande S, et al (2021)

Integrating Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism into Ecology and Evolution.

Trends in ecology & evolution, 36(4):321-332.

Biologists have long appreciated the critical role that energy turnover plays in understanding variation in performance and fitness among individuals. Whole-organism metabolic studies have provided key insights into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, constraints operating at subcellular levels, such as those operating within the mitochondria, can also play important roles in optimizing metabolism over different energetic demands and time scales. Herein, we explore how mitochondrial aerobic metabolism influences different aspects of organismal performance, such as through changing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We consider how such insights have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning key ecological and evolutionary processes, from variation in life-history traits to adaptation to changing thermal conditions, and we highlight key areas for future research.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Austin S, K Nowikovsky (2021)

Mitochondrial osmoregulation in evolution, cation transport and metabolism.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics, 1862(5):148368.

This review provides a retrospective on the role of osmotic regulation in the process of eukaryogenesis. Specifically, it focuses on the adjustments which must have been made by the original colonizing α-proteobacteria that led to the evolution of modern mitochondria. We focus on the cations that are fundamentally involved in volume determination and cellular metabolism and define the transporter landscape in relation to these ions in mitochondria as we know today. We provide analysis on how the cations interplay and together maintain osmotic balance that allows for effective ATP synthesis in the organelle.

RevDate: 2021-03-15

Bartáková V, Bryjová A, Nicolas V, et al (2021)

Mitogenomics of the endemic Ethiopian rats: looking for footprints of adaptive evolution in sky islands.

Mitochondrion, 57:182-191.

Organisms living in high altitude must adapt to environmental conditions with hypoxia and low temperature, e.g. by changes in the structure and function of proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Here we analysed the signs of adaptive evolution in 27 mitogenomes of endemic Ethiopian rats (Stenocephalemys), where individual species adapted to different elevation. Significant signals of positive selection were detected in 10 of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, with a majority of functional substitutions in the NADH dehydrogenase complex. Higher frequency of positively selected sites was found in phylogenetic lineages corresponding to Afroalpine specialists.

RevDate: 2021-04-14
CmpDate: 2021-04-14

Wang Q, Wang J, Wu Q, et al (2021)

Insights into the evolution of Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda) from mitochondrial sequences and gene order rearrangements.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 170:717-727.

Brachyura is one of the most species rich and highly derived groups among extant crustaceans, with over 7250 known species. However, brachyuran phylogeny remains controversial and requires further study. Here, we combined 103 brachyuran mitogenomes from GenBank with 10 new mitogenomes to describe gene rearrangement patterns and explore the internal phylogenetic relationships of Brachyura. Most of the 10 novel mitogenomes had the typical 37 genes, except that of Longpotamon depressum, which lacked trnQ. We discovered 15 gene rearrangement patterns among Brachyura and preliminarily determined their rearrangement mechanisms with the help of CREx. We identified seven putative ancestral family gene orders among the 15 rearrangement patterns and expounded systematically upon the mechanisms of their rearrangement. In our phylogenetic analysis, Raninoida shared a sister relationship with an eubrachyuran clade ((Heterotremata [Potamoidea] + Thoracotremata) + Heterotremata) at maximum nodal support rather than Dromiacea, which did not support monophyly of Podotremata. In addition, Potamoidea (Parathelphusidae + Potamidae) retained a close relationship with Thoracotremata rather than their marine relatives in Heterotremata. Our study provides important information for the evolution of Brachyura by using the large taxon sampling currently available for systematic rearrangement and phylogenetic analyses.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Yarus M (2021)

Crick Wobble and Superwobble in Standard Genetic Code Evolution.

Journal of molecular evolution, 89(1-2):50-61.

Wobble coding is inevitable during evolution of the Standard Genetic Code (SGC). It ultimately splits half of NN U/C/A/G coding boxes with different assignments. Further, it contributes to pervasive SGC order by reinforcing close spacing for identical SGC assignments. But wobble cannot appear too soon, or it will inhibit encoding and more decisively, obstruct evolution of full coding tables. However, these prior results assumed Crick wobble, NN U/C and NN A/G, read by a single adaptor RNA. Superwobble translates NN U/C/A/G codons, using one adaptor RNA with an unmodified 5' anticodon U (appropriate to earliest coding) in modern mitochondria, plastids, and mycoplasma. Assuming the SGC was selected when evolving codes most resembled it, characteristics of the critical selection events can be calculated. For example, continuous superwobble infrequently evolves SGC-like coding tables. So, continuous superwobble is a very improbable origin hypothesis. In contrast, late-arising superwobble shares late Crick wobble's frequent resemblance to SGC order. Thus late superwobble is possible, but yields SGC-like assignments less frequently than late Crick wobble. Ancient coding ambiguity, most simply, arose from Crick wobble alone. This is consistent with SGC assignments to NAN codons.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Lee DW, I Hwang (2021)

Understanding the evolution of endosymbiotic organelles based on the targeting sequences of organellar proteins.

The New phytologist, 230(3):924-930.

Organellogenesis, a key aspect of eukaryotic cell evolution, critically depends on the successful establishment of organellar protein import mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the evolution of the two endosymbiotic organelles, the mitochondrion and the chloroplast, is thought to have occurred at time periods far from each other. Despite this, chloroplasts and mitochondria have highly similar protein import mechanisms. This raises intriguing questions such as what underlies such similarity in the import mechanisms and how these similar mechanisms have evolved. In this review, we summarise the recent findings regarding sorting and specific targeting of these organellar proteins. Based on these findings, we propose possible evolutionary scenarios regarding how the signal sequences of chloroplasts and mitochondrial proteins ended up having such relationship.

RevDate: 2021-03-25
CmpDate: 2021-03-25

Shimakawa G, Kohara A, C Miyake (2020)

Characterization of Light-Enhanced Respiration in Cyanobacteria.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(1):.

In eukaryotic algae, respiratory O2 uptake is enhanced after illumination, which is called light-enhanced respiration (LER). It is likely stimulated by an increase in respiratory substrates produced during photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and function in keeping the metabolic and redox homeostasis in the light in eukaryotic cells, based on the interactions among the cytosol, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. Here, we first characterize LER in photosynthetic prokaryote cyanobacteria, in which respiration and photosynthesis share their metabolisms and electron transport chains in one cell. From the physiological analysis, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 performs LER, similar to eukaryotic algae, which shows a capacity comparable to the net photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. Although the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transports share the interchain, LER was uncoupled from photosynthetic electron transport. Mutant analyses demonstrated that LER is motivated by the substrates directly provided by photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, but not by glycogen. Further, the light-dependent activation of LER was observed even with exogenously added glucose, implying a regulatory mechanism for LER in addition to the substrate amounts. Finally, we discuss the physiological significance of the large capacity of LER in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae compared to those in plants that normally show less LER.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Sorouri M, Chang T, Jesudhasan P, et al (2020)

Signatures of host-pathogen evolutionary conflict reveal MISTR-A conserved MItochondrial STress Response network.

PLoS biology, 18(12):e3001045.

Host-pathogen conflicts leave genetic signatures in genes that are critical for host defense functions. Using these "molecular scars" as a guide to discover gene functions, we discovered a vertebrate-specific MItochondrial STress Response (MISTR) circuit. MISTR proteins are associated with electron transport chain (ETC) factors and activated by stress signals such as interferon gamma (IFNγ) and hypoxia. Upon stress, ultraconserved microRNAs (miRNAs) down-regulate MISTR1(NDUFA4) followed by replacement with paralogs MItochondrial STress Response AntiViral (MISTRAV) and/or MItochondrial STress Response Hypoxia (MISTRH). While cells lacking MISTR1(NDUFA4) are more sensitive to chemical and viral apoptotic triggers, cells lacking MISTRAV or expressing the squirrelpox virus-encoded vMISTRAV exhibit resistance to the same insults. Rapid evolution signatures across primate genomes for MISTR1(NDUFA4) and MISTRAV indicate recent and ongoing conflicts with pathogens. MISTR homologs are also found in plants, yeasts, a fish virus, and an algal virus indicating ancient origins and suggesting diverse means of altering mitochondrial function under stress. The discovery of MISTR circuitry highlights the use of evolution-guided studies to reveal fundamental biological processes.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Huang X, Shi Y, Shen X, et al (2020)

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Lagocephalus gloveri (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):3683-3684.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Lagocephalus gloveri is reported in the present study, which is 16,446 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region. The overall base composition of the genome is 27.58% for A, 25.07% for T, 30.83% for C and 16.52% for G. The phylogenetic tree, which is based on 12 protein coding gene sequences, suggested that L. gloveri was closest to L. lagocephalus. This study could give impetus to studies focused on population structure and molecular evolution of L. gloveri.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Yang RS, YT Chen (2020)

The complete mitochondrial genome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Branchinella kugenumaensis Ishikawa 1894 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(1):1048-1049.

In this study, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Branchinella kugenumaensis Ishikawa 1894 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae). The mitogenome is 15,127 bp in length, consisted of 37 genes that participate in protein production and energy metabolism of mitochondria. The gene order of the B. kugenumaensis mtDNA exhibits major rearrangements compared with the pancrustacean ancestral pattern or other known anostracan mitogenomes, representing a novel mitochondrial genomic organization within the Crustacea. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes places B. kugenumaensis next to Streptocephalus sirindhornae, inside the Anostraca clade. Our study will provide new evidence to the less sampled anostracan evolution and take a further step to the completion of the Branchiopoda tree of life.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Li X, Li L, Bao Z, et al (2020)

The 287,403 bp Mitochondrial Genome of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Tuber calosporum Reveals Intron Expansion, tRNA Loss, and Gene Rearrangement.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:591453.

In the present study, the mitogenome of Tuber calosporum was assembled and analyzed. The mitogenome of T. calosporum comprises 15 conserved protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 14 tRNAs, with a total size of 287,403 bp. Fifty-eight introns with 170 intronic open reading frames were detected in the T. calosporum mitogenome. The intronic region occupied 69.41% of the T. calosporum mitogenome, which contributed to the T. calosporum mitogenome significantly expand relative to most fungal species. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed large-scale gene rearrangements occurred in the mitogenome of T. calosporum, involving gene relocations and position exchanges. The mitogenome of T. calosporum was found to have lost several tRNA genes encoding for cysteine, aspartate, histidine, etc. In addition, a pair of fragments with a total length of 32.91 kb in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of T. calosporum was detected, indicating possible gene transfer events. A total of 12.83% intragenomic duplications were detected in the T. calosporum mitogenome. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial gene datasets obtained well-supported tree topologies, indicating that mitochondrial genes could be reliable molecular markers for phylogenetic analyses of Ascomycota. This study served as the first report on mitogenome in the family Tuberaceae, thereby laying the groundwork for our understanding of the evolution, phylogeny, and population genetics of these important ectomycorrhizal fungi.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Else PL (2021)

Mammals to membranes: A reductionist story.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology, 253:110552.

This is the story of a series of reductionist studies that started with an attempt to explain what underpins the high-level of aerobic metabolism in mammals (i.e. associated with the evolution of endothermy) and almost forty years later had led to investigations into the role of membrane lipids in determining metabolism. Initial studies showed that the increase in aerobic metabolism in mammals was driven by a combination of increases in mitochondrial volume and membrane densities, organ size and changes in the molecular activity of enzymes. The increase in the capacity to produce energy was matched by an increase in energy use, notably driven by increases in H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes. In the case of increased Na+ flux, it was found this was matched by increases in Na+-dependent metabolism at the tissue level and increases in enzyme activity at a cellular level but not by an increase in the number of sodium pumps. To maintain Na+ gradient across cell membranes, increased Na+ flux is not controlled by an increase in sodium pump number but rather by an increase in sodium pump molecular activity (i.e. an increase the substrate turnover rate of each sodium pump) in tissues of endotherms. This increase in molecular activity is coupled to an increase in the level of highly unsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membranes, a mechanism similar to that used by ectotherms to ameliorate decreasing activities of metabolic processes in the cold. Determination of how changes in membrane fatty acid composition can change the activities of proteins in membranes will be the next step in this story.

RevDate: 2021-02-18
CmpDate: 2021-02-18

Liu H, Ju Y, Tamate H, et al (2021)

Phylogeography of sika deer (Cervus nippon) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and microsatellite DNA.

Gene, 772:145375.

The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of sika deer of different subspecies are uncertain. In order to explore the phylogenetic relationship of different sika deer subspecies, this study used a wider sample collection to analyze mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites of sika deer. The full lengths of cytochrome-b gene of 134 sika deer were sequenced, and 16 haplotypes were obtained. Based on phylogenetic and haplotype networks analysis, the sika deer was not clustered according to subspecies but was divided into four lineages. Lineage I includes individuals from C.n.kopschi, C.n.sichuanicus, and C.n.hortulorum subspecies; Lineage II includes individuals from C.n.hortulorum subspecies; Lineage III includes individuals from C.n.centralis, C.n.yakushime, C.n.mageshimae, and C.n.keramae subspecies, namely southern Japanese population; Lineage IV includes individuals from C.n.centralis and C.n.yesoensis subspecies, namely northern Japanese population. The microsatellite analysis showed that the sika deer in China and Japan originated independently. The three subspecies of China have significant genetic differentiation, while the three subspecies of Japan have no significant differentiation. This study provides reference for the research of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of sika deer, and also provides scientific data for the evaluation, protection, and utilization of sika deer resources.

RevDate: 2021-04-02
CmpDate: 2021-04-02

Cairns NA, Cicchino AS, Stewart KA, et al (2021)

Cytonuclear discordance, reticulation and cryptic diversity in one of North America's most common frogs.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 156:107042.

Complicated phylogenetic histories benefit from diverse sources of inference. Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper) spans most of eastern North America and comprises six mtDNA lineages that form multiple contact zones. The putative Miocene or early Pliocene origins of the oldest lineages within Pseudacris crucifer imply sufficient time for species-level divergence. To understand why this species appears unified while congeners have radiated, we analyze and compare male advertisement calls, mitochondrial, and nuclear markers and speak to the complex processes that have potentially influenced its contemporary patterns. We find extensive geographic and topological mitonuclear discordance, with three nuclear lineages containing 6 more-structured mtDNA lineages, and nuclear introgression at some contact zones. Male advertisement call differentiation is incongruent with the genetic structure as only one lineage appears differentiated. Occupying the Interior Highlands of the central United States, this Western lineage also has the most concordant mitochondrial and nuclear geographic patterns. Based on our findings we suggest that the antiquity of common ancestors was not as important as the maintenance of allopatry in the divergence in P. crucifer genetic lineages. We use multiple lines of evidence to generate hypotheses of isolation, reticulation, and discordance within this species and to expand our understanding of the early stages of speciation.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Zeng M, He Y, Du H, et al (2020)

Output Regulation and Function Optimization of Mitochondria in Eukaryotes.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:598112.

The emergence of endosymbiosis between aerobic alpha-proteobacterium and anaerobic eukaryotic cell precursors opened the chapter of eukaryotic evolution. Multiple functions of mitochondria originated from the ancient precursors of mitochondria and underwent remodeling in eukaryotic cells. Due to the dependence on mitochondrial functions, eukaryotic cells need to constantly adjust mitochondrial output based on energy demand and cellular stress. Meanwhile, eukaryotes conduct the metabolic cooperation between different cells through the involvement of mitochondria. Under some conditions, mitochondria might also be transferred to nearby cells to provide a protective mechanism. However, the endosymbiont relationship determines the existence of various types of mitochondrial injury, such as proteotoxic stress, mutational meltdown, oxidative injure, and immune activation caused by released mitochondrial contents. Eukaryotes have a repertoire of mitochondrial optimization processes, including various mitochondrial quality-control proteins, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and activation of mitochondrial autophagy. When these quality-control processes fail, eukaryotic cells can activate apoptosis to intercept uncontrolled cell death, thereby minimizing the damage to extracellular tissue. In this review, we describe the intracellular and extracellular context-based regulation of mitochondrial output in eukaryotic cells, and introduce new findings on multifaceted quality-control processes to deal with mitochondrial defects.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Oberleitner L, Poschmann G, Macorano L, et al (2020)

The Puzzle of Metabolite Exchange and Identification of Putative Octotrico Peptide Repeat Expression Regulators in the Nascent Photosynthetic Organelles of Paulinella chromatophora.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:607182.

The endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria and plastids more than one billion years ago was central for the evolution of eukaryotic life. However, owing to their ancient origin, these organelles provide only limited insights into the initial stages of organellogenesis. The cercozoan amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains photosynthetic organelles-termed chromatophores-that evolved from a cyanobacterium ∼100 million years ago, independently from plastids in plants and algae. Despite the more recent origin of the chromatophore, it shows tight integration into the host cell. It imports hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins, and diverse metabolites are continuously exchanged across the two chromatophore envelope membranes. However, the limited set of chromatophore-encoded solute transporters appears insufficient for supporting metabolic connectivity or protein import. Furthermore, chromatophore-localized biosynthetic pathways as well as multiprotein complexes include proteins of dual genetic origin, suggesting that mechanisms evolved that coordinate gene expression levels between chromatophore and nucleus. These findings imply that similar to the situation in mitochondria and plastids, also in P. chromatophora nuclear factors evolved that control metabolite exchange and gene expression in the chromatophore. Here we show by mass spectrometric analyses of enriched insoluble protein fractions that, unexpectedly, nucleus-encoded transporters are not inserted into the chromatophore inner envelope membrane. Thus, despite the apparent maintenance of its barrier function, canonical metabolite transporters are missing in this membrane. Instead we identified several expanded groups of short chromatophore-targeted orphan proteins. Members of one of these groups are characterized by a single transmembrane helix, and others contain amphipathic helices. We hypothesize that these proteins are involved in modulating membrane permeability. Thus, the mechanism generating metabolic connectivity of the chromatophore fundamentally differs from the one for mitochondria and plastids, but likely rather resembles the poorly understood mechanism in various bacterial endosymbionts in plants and insects. Furthermore, our mass spectrometric analysis revealed an expanded family of chromatophore-targeted helical repeat proteins. These proteins show similar domain architectures as known organelle-targeted expression regulators of the octotrico peptide repeat type in algae and plants. Apparently these chromatophore-targeted proteins evolved convergently to plastid-targeted expression regulators and are likely involved in gene expression control in the chromatophore.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Filograna R, Mennuni M, Alsina D, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial DNA copy number in human disease: the more the better?.

FEBS letters, 595(8):976-1002.

Most of the genetic information has been lost or transferred to the nucleus during the evolution of mitochondria. Nevertheless, mitochondria have retained their own genome that is essential for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In mammals, a gene-dense circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of about 16.5 kb encodes 13 proteins, which constitute only 1% of the mitochondrial proteome. Mammalian mtDNA is present in thousands of copies per cell and mutations often affect only a fraction of them. Most pathogenic human mtDNA mutations are recessive and only cause OXPHOS defects if present above a certain critical threshold. However, emerging evidence strongly suggests that the proportion of mutated mtDNA copies is not the only determinant of disease but that also the absolute copy number matters. In this review, we critically discuss current knowledge of the role of mtDNA copy number regulation in various types of human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, and during ageing. We also provide an overview of new exciting therapeutic strategies to directly manipulate mtDNA to restore OXPHOS in mitochondrial diseases.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )