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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:50 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT 33634751[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-02-07

Zhang Y, Li W, Bian Y, et al (2023)

Multifaceted roles of aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

PeerJ, 11:e14797.

Liver cancer is a common malignancy with high morbidity and mortality rates. Changes in liver metabolism are key factors in the development of primary hepatic carcinoma, and mitochondrial dysfunction is closely related to the occurrence and development of tumours. Accordingly, the study of the metabolic mechanism of mitochondria in primary hepatic carcinomas has gained increasing attention. A growing body of research suggests that defects in mitochondrial respiration are not generally responsible for aerobic glycolysis, nor are they typically selected during tumour evolution. Conversely, the dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may promote the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of primary hepatic carcinoma. This review presents the current paradigm of the roles of aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mitochondrial OXPHOS and cytoplasmic glycolysis cooperate to maintain the energy balance in HCC cells. Our study provides evidence for the targeting of mitochondrial metabolism as a potential therapy for HCC.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Espino-Sanchez TJ, Wienkers H, Marvin RG, et al (2023)

Direct Tests of Cytochrome Function in the Electron Transport Chain of Malaria Parasites.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.23.525242.

UNLABELLED: The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) of Plasmodium malaria parasites is a major antimalarial drug target, but critical cytochrome functions remain unstudied and enigmatic. Parasites express two distinct cyt c homologs (c and c -2) with unusually sparse sequence identity and uncertain fitness contributions. P. falciparum cyt c -2 is the most divergent eukaryotic cyt c homolog currently known and has sequence features predicted to be incompatible with canonical ETC function. We tagged both cyt c homologs and the related cyt c 1 for inducible knockdown. Translational repression of cyt c and cyt c 1 was lethal to parasites, which died from ETC dysfunction and impaired ubiquinone recycling. In contrast, cyt c -2 knockdown or knock-out had little impact on blood-stage growth, indicating that parasites rely fully on the more conserved cyt c for ETC function. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that both cyt c and c -2 are hemylated by holocytochrome c synthase, but UV-vis absorbance and EPR spectra strongly suggest that cyt c -2 has an unusually open active site in which heme is stably coordinated by only a single axial amino-acid ligand and can bind exogenous small molecules. These studies provide a direct dissection of cytochrome functions in the ETC of malaria parasites and identify a highly divergent Plasmodium cytochrome c with molecular adaptations that defy a conserved role in eukaryotic evolution.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Mitochondria are critical organelles in eukaryotic cells that drive oxidative metabolism. The mitochondrion of Plasmodium malaria parasites is a major drug target that has many differences from human cells and remains poorly studied. One key difference from humans is that malaria parasites express two cytochrome c proteins that differ significantly from each other and play untested and uncertain roles in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Our study revealed that one cyt c is essential for ETC function and parasite viability while the second, more divergent protein has unusual structural and biochemical properties and is not required for growth of blood-stage parasites. This work elucidates key biochemical properties and evolutionary differences in the mitochondrial ETC of malaria parasites.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Silva MC, Catry P, Bried J, et al (2023)

Contrasting patterns of population structure of Bulwer's petrel (Bulweria bulwerii) between oceans revealed by statistical phylogeography.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1939.

The patterns of population divergence of mid-latitude marine birds are impacted by only a few biogeographic barriers to dispersal and the effect of intrinsic factors, such as fidelity to natal colonies or wintering grounds, may become more conspicuous. Here we describe, for the first time, the phylogeographic patterns and historical demography of Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii and provide new insights regarding the drivers of species diversification in the marine environment. We sampled Bulwer's petrels from the main breeding colonies and used a statistical phylogeography approach based on surveying nuclear and mitochondrial loci (~ 9100 bp) to study its mechanisms of global diversification. We uncovered three highly differentiated groups including the Western Pacific, the Central Pacific and the Atlantic. The older divergence occurred within the Pacific Ocean, ca. 850,000 ya, and since then the W Pacific group has been evolving in isolation. Conversely, divergence between the Central Pacific and Atlantic populations occurred within the last 200,000 years. While the Isthmus of Panama is important in restricting gene flow between oceans in Bulwer's petrels, the deepest phylogeographic break is within the Pacific Ocean, where oceanographic barriers are key in driving and maintaining the remarkable structure found in this highly mobile seabird. This is in contrast with the Atlantic, where no structure was detected. Further data will provide insights regarding the extent of lineage divergence of Bulwer's petrels in the Western Pacific.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Lestari SM, Khatun MF, Acharya R, et al (2023)

Genetic diversity of cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci in Asia.

Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 112(2):e21981.

Bemisia tabaci is a species complex consisting of various genetically different cryptic species worldwide. To understand the genetic characteristics and geographic distribution of cryptic species of B. tabaci in Asia, we conducted an extensive collection of B. tabaci samples in ten Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam) from 2013 to 2020 and determined 56 different partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA. In addition, information on 129 COI sequences of B. tabaci identified from 16 Asian countries was downloaded from the GenBank database. Among the total 185 COI sequences of B. tabaci, the sequence variation reached to 19.68%. In addition, there were 31 cryptic species updated from 16 countries in Asia, that is, Asia I, Asia I India, Asia II (1-13), Asia III, Asia IV, Asia V, China 1-6, MEAM (1, 2, K), MED, Australia/Indonesia, Japan (1 and 2). Further, MED cryptic species consisted of 2 clades, Q1 and Q2. This study provides updated information to understand the genetic variation and geographic diversity of B. tabaci in Asia.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Schmitz JM, Wolters JF, Murray NH, et al (2023)

Aim18p and Aim46p are chalcone isomerase (CHI)-domain-containing mitochondrial hemoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(23)00113-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Chalcone isomerases (CHIs) have well-established roles in the biosynthesis of plant flavonoid metabolites. Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two predicted CHI-like proteins, Aim18p (encoded by YHR198C) and Aim46p (YHR199C), but it lacks other enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, suggesting that Aim18p and Aim46p employ the CHI fold for distinct purposes. Here, we demonstrate using proteinase K protection assays, sodium carbonate extractions, and crystallography that Aim18p and Aim46p reside on the mitochondrial inner membrane and adopt CHI folds, but they lack select active site residues and possess an extra fungal-specific loop. Consistent with these differences, Aim18p and Aim46p lack chalcone isomerase activity and also the fatty acid-binding capabilities of other CHI-like proteins, but instead bind heme. We further show that diverse fungal homologs also bind heme and that Aim18p and Aim46p possess structural homology to a bacterial hemoprotein. Collectively, our work reveals a distinct function and cellular localization for two CHI-like proteins, introduces a new variation of a hemoprotein fold, and suggests that ancestral CHI-like proteins were hemoproteins.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Fang JM, Basu S, Phu J, et al (2023)

Cellular Localization, Aggregation, and Cytotoxicity of Bicelle-Quantum Dot Nanocomposites.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Bicelles are discoidal lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in which the planar bilayer and curved rim are, respectively, composed of long- and short-chain lipids. Bicellar LNPs have a hydrophobic core, allowing hydrophobic molecules and large molecular complexes such as quantum dots (QDs) to be encapsulated. In this study, CdSe/ZnS QDs were encapsulated in bicelles made of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol, and distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine conjugated with polyethylene glycerol amine 2000 to form a well-defined bicelle-QD nanocomplex (known as NANO[2]-QD or bicelle-QD). The bicelle-QD was then incubated with Hek293t cells and HeLa cells for different periods of time to determine changes in their cellular localization. Bicelle-QDs readily penetrated Hek293t cell membranes within 15 min of incubation, localized to the cytoplasm, and associated with mitochondria and intracellular vesicles. After 1 h, the bicelle-QDs enter the cell nucleus. Large aggregates form throughout the cell after 2 h and QDs are nearly absent from the nucleus by 4 h. Previous reports have demonstrated that CdSe/ZnS QDs can be toxic to cells, and we have found that encapsulating QDs in bicelles can attenuate but did not eliminate cytotoxicity. The present research outcome demonstrates the time-resolved pathway of bicelle-encapsulated QDs in Hek293t cells, morphological evolution in cells over time, and cytotoxicity of the bicelle-QDs, providing important insight into the potential application of the nanocomplex for cellular imaging.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Rogers RL, Grizzard SL, JT Garner (2023)

Strong, recent selective sweeps reshape genetic diversity in freshwater bivalve Megalonaias nervosa.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7026026 [Epub ahead of print].

Freshwater Unionid bivalves have recently faced ecological upheaval through pollution, barriers to dispersal, harvesting, and changes in _sh-host prevalence. Currently, over 70% of species in North America are threatened, endangered or extinct. To characterize the genetic response to recent selective pressures, we collected population genetic data for one successful bivalve species, Megalonaias nervosa. We identify megabase sized regions that are nearly monomorphic across the population, signals of strong, recent selection reshaping diversity across 73Mb total. These signatures of selection are greater than is commonly seen in population genetic models. We observe 102 duplicate genes with high dN/dS on terminal branches among regions with sweeps, suggesting that gene duplication is a causative mechanism of recent adaptation in M. nervosa. Genes in sweeps reect functional classes important for Unionid survival, including anticoagulation genes important for _sh host parasitization, detox genes, mitochondria management, and shell formation. We identify sweeps in regions with no known functional impacts, suggesting mechanisms of adaptation that deserve greater attention in future work on species survival. In contrast, polymorphic transposable elements appear to be detrimental and underrepresented among regions with sweeps. TE site frequency spectra are skewed toward singleton variants, and TEs among regions with sweeps are present at low frequency. Our work suggests that duplicate genes are an essential source of genetic novelty that has helped this successful species succeed in environments where others have struggled. These results suggest that gene duplications deserve greater attention in non-model population genomics, especially in species that have recently faced sudden environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Rottenberg H (2023)

The evolution of the human mitochondrial bc1 complex- adaptation for reduced rate of superoxide production?.

Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes [Epub ahead of print].

The mitochondrial bc1 complex is a major source of mitochondrial superoxide. While bc1-generated superoxide plays a beneficial signaling role, excess production of superoxide lead to aging and degenerative diseases. The catalytic core of bc1 comprises three peptides -cytochrome b, Fe-S protein, and cytochrome c1. All three core peptides exhibit accelerated evolution in anthropoid primates. It has been suggested that the evolution of cytochrome b in anthropoids was driven by a pressure to reduce the production of superoxide. In humans, the bc1 core peptides exhibit anthropoid-specific substitutions that are clustered near functionally critical sites that may affect the production of superoxide. Here we compare the high-resolution structures of bovine, mouse, sheep and human bc1 to identify structural changes that are associated with human-specific substitutions. Several cytochrome b substitutions in humans alter its interactions with other subunits. Most significantly, there is a cluster of seven substitutions, in cytochrome b, the Fe-S protein, and cytochrome c1 that affect the interactions between these proteins at the tether arm of the Fe-S protein and may alter the rate of ubiquinone oxidation and the rate of superoxide production. Another cluster of substitutions near heme bH and the ubiquinone reduction site, Qi, may affect the rate of ubiquinone reduction and thus alter the rate of superoxide production. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that cytochrome b in humans (and other anthropoid primates) evolve to reduce the rate of production of superoxide thus enabling the exceptional longevity and exceptional cognitive ability of humans.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Nord A, Chamkha I, E Elmér (2023)

A whole blood approach improves speed and accuracy when measuring mitochondrial respiration in intact avian blood cells.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 37(3):e22766.

Understanding mitochondrial biology and pathology is key to understanding the evolution of animal form and function. However, mitochondrial measurement often involves invasive, or even terminal, sampling, which can be difficult to reconcile in wild models or longitudinal studies. Non-mammal vertebrates contain mitochondria in their red blood cells, which can be exploited for minimally invasive mitochondrial measurement. Several recent bird studies have measured mitochondrial function using isolated blood cells. Isolation adds time in the laboratory and might be associated with physiological complications. We developed and validated a protocol to measure mitochondrial respiration in bird whole blood. Endogenous respiration was comparable between isolated blood cells and whole blood. However, respiration towards oxidative phosphorylation was higher in whole blood, and whole blood mitochondria were better coupled and had higher maximum working capacity. Whole blood measurement was also more reproducible than measurement on isolated cells for all traits considered. Measurements were feasible over a 10-fold range of sample volumes, although both small and large volumes were associated with changes to respiratory traits. The protocol was compatible with long-term storage: after 24 h at 5°C without agitation, all respiration traits but maximum working capacity remained unchanged, the latter decreasing by 14%. Our study suggests that whole blood measurement provides faster, more reproducible, and more biologically and physiologically relevant (mitochondrial integrity) assessment of mitochondrial respiration. We recommend future studies to take a whole blood approach unless specific circumstances require the use of isolated blood cells.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Li Y, Gu M, Liu X, et al (2023)

Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Toona sinensis and Toona ciliata reveal evolutionary features of Toona.

BMC genomics, 24(1):58.

BACKGROUND: Toona is a critical genus in the Meliaceae, and the plants of this group are an asset for both restorative and restorative purposes, the most flexible of which are Toona sinensis and Toona ciliata. To concentrate on the advancement of mitochondrial(Mt) genome variety in T.sinensis and T.ciliata, the Mt genomes of the two species were sequenced in high throughput independently, after de novo assembly and annotation to construct a Mt genome map for comparison in genome structure. Find their repetitive sequences and analyze them in comparison with the chloroplast genome, along with Maximum-likelihood(ML) phylogenetic analysis with 16 other relatives.

RESULTS: (1) T. sinensis and T.ciliata are both circular structures with lengths of 683482 bp and 68300 bp, respectively. They share a high degree of similarity in encoding genes and have AT preferences. All of them have the largest Phe concentration and are the most frequently used codons. (2) Both of their Mt genome are highly preserved in terms of structural and functional genes, while the main variability is reflected in the length of tRNA, the number of genes, and the value of RSCU. (3) T. siniensis and T. ciliata were detected to have 94 and 87 SSRs, respectively, of which mononucleotides accounted for the absolute proportion. Besides, the vast majority of their SSRs were found to be poly-A or poly-T. (4)10 and 11 migrating fragments were identified in the comparison with the chloroplast genome, respectively. (5) In the ML evolutionary tree, T.sinensis and T.ciliata clustered individually into a small branch with 100% support, reflecting two species of Toona are very similarly related to each other.

CONCLUSIONS: This research provides a basis for the exploitation of T.sinensis and T.ciliata in terms of medicinal, edible, and timber resources to avoid confusion; at the same time, it can explore the evolutionary relationship between the Toona and related species, which does not only have an important practical value, but also provides a theoretical basis for future hybrid breeding of forest trees, molecular markers, and evolutionary aspects of plants, which has great scientific significance.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Russo MT, Santin A, Zuccarotto A, et al (2023)

The first genetic engineered system for ovothiol biosynthesis in diatoms reveals a mitochondrial localization for the sulfoxide synthase OvoA.

Open biology, 13(2):220309.

Diatoms represent one of the most abundant groups of microalgae in the ocean and are responsible for approximately 20% of photosynthetically fixed CO2 on Earth. Due to their complex evolutionary history and ability to adapt to different environments, diatoms are endowed with striking molecular biodiversity and unique metabolic activities. Their high growth rate and the possibility to optimize their biomass make them very promising 'biofactories' for biotechnological applications. Among bioactive compounds, diatoms can produce ovothiols, histidine-derivatives, endowed with unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and occurring in many marine invertebrates, bacteria and pathogenic protozoa. However, the functional role of ovothiols biosynthesis in organisms remains almost unexplored. In this work, we have characterized the thiol fraction of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, providing the first evidence of the presence of ovothiol B in pennate diatoms. We have used P. tricornutum to overexpress the 5-histidylcysteine sulfoxide synthase ovoA, the gene encoding the key enzyme involved in ovothiol biosynthesis and we have discovered that OvoA localizes in the mitochondria, a finding that uncovers new concepts in cellular redox biochemistry. We have also obtained engineered biolistic clones that can produce higher amount of ovothiol B compared to wild-type cells, suggesting a new strategy for the eco-sustainable production of these molecules.

RevDate: 2023-02-01
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Nishita Y, Amaike Y, Spassov N, et al (2023)

Diversity of mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes from ancient Thracian horses in Bulgaria.

Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho, 94(1):e13810.

The domestication of the horse began possibly more than 5000 years ago in the western part of the Eurasian steppe, and according to the leading hypothesis, horses first spread from the Steppe toward the region of the Thracian culture, starting in the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE and flourished from the fifth to first centuries BCE, mainly located in present-day Bulgaria. We analyzed 17 horse bone remains excavated from Thracian archaeological sites (fourth to first centuries BCE) in Bulgaria and successfully identified 17 sequences representing 14 different haplotypes of the mitochondrial D-loop. Compared with the mtDNA haplotypes of modern horses around the world, ancient Thracian horses in Bulgaria are thought to be more closely related to modern horses of Southern Europe and less related to those of Central Asia. In addition, the haplotypes we obtained represented 11 previously reported modern horse mtDNA haplogroups: A, B, D, E, G, H, I, L, N, P, and Q. All the haplogroups contain modern and regionally predominant haplotypes occurring in Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Our results indicate that Thracian horses in Bulgaria have had relatively high genetic diversity and are closely related to modern horse breeds.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Shilovsky GA, Putyatina TS, AV Markov (2022)

Evolution of Longevity as a Species-Specific Trait in Mammals.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 87(12):1579-1599.

From the evolutionary point of view, the priority problem for an individual is not longevity, but adaptation to the environment associated with the need for survival, food supply, and reproduction. We see two main vectors in the evolution of mammals. One is a short lifespan and numerous offspring ensuring reproductive success (r-strategy). The other one is development of valuable skills in order compete successfully (K-strategy). Species with the K-strategy should develop and enhance specific systems (anti-aging programs) aimed at increasing the reliability and adaptability, including lifespan. These systems are signaling cascades that provide cell repair and antioxidant defense. Hence, any arbitrarily selected long-living species should be characterized by manifestation to a different extent of the longevity-favoring traits (e.g., body size, brain development, sociality, activity of body repair and antioxidant defense systems, resistance to xenobiotics and tumor formation, presence of neotenic traits). Hereafter, we will call a set of such traits as the gerontological success of a species. Longevity is not equivalent to the evolutionary or reproductive success. This difference between these phenomena reaches its peak in mammals due to the development of endothermy and cephalization associated with the cerebral cortex expansion, which leads to the upregulated production of oxidative radicals by the mitochondria (and, consequently, accelerated aging), increase in the number of non-dividing differentiated cells, accumulation of the age-related damage in these cells, and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The article presents mathematical indicators used to assess the predisposition to longevity in different species (including the standard mortality rate and basal metabolic rate, as well as their derivatives). The properties of the evolution of mammals (including the differences between modern mammals and their ancestral forms) are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Buonvicino D, Ranieri G, Guasti D, et al (2023)

Early derangement of axonal mitochondria occurs in a mouse model of progressive but not relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Neurobiology of disease pii:S0969-9961(23)00029-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Derangement of axonal mitochondrial bioenergetics occurs during progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). However, whether this is a delayed epiphenomenon or an early causative event of disease progression waits to be understood. Answering this question might further our knowledge of mechanisms underlying neurobiology of PMS and related therapy.

METHODS: MOG35-55-immunized NOD and PLP139-151-immunized SJL female mice were adopted as models of progressive or relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), respectively. Multiple parameters of mitochondrial homeostasis were analyzed in the mouse spinal cord during the early asymptomatic stage, also evaluating the effects of scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with Mito-TEMPO.

RESULTS: Almost identical lumbar spinal cord immune infiltrates consisting of Th1 cells and neutrophils without B and Th17 lymphocytes occurred early upon immunization in both mouse strains. Still, only NOD mice showed axon-restricted dysregulation of mitochondrial homeostasis, with reduced mtDNA contents and increased cristae area. Increased expression of mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits Nd2, Cox1, Atp5d, Sdha also exclusively occurred in lumbar spinal cord of NOD and not SJL mice. Accordingly, in this region genes regulating mitochondrial morphology (Opa1, Mfn1, Mfn2 and Atp5j2) and mitochondriogenesis (Pgc1α, Foxo, Hif-1α and Nrf2) were induced early upon immunization. A reduced extent of mitochondrial derangement occurred in the thoracic spinal cord. Notably, the mitochondrial radical scavenger Mito-TEMPO reduced H2O2 content and prevented both mtDNA depletion and cristae remodeling, having no effects on dysregulation of mitochondrial transcriptome.

DISCUSSION: We provide here the first evidence that axonal-restricted derangement of mitochondrial homeostasis already occurs during the asymptomatic state exclusively in a mouse model of PMS. Data further our understanding of mechanisms related to EAE progression, and point to very early axonal mitochondrial dysfunction as central to the neuropathogenesis of MS evolution.

RevDate: 2023-01-24
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

Zhang T, Wang Y, H Song (2023)

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Gene Arrangement of the Enigmatic Scaphopod Pictodentalium vernedei.

Genes, 14(1):.

The enigmatic scaphopods, or tusk shells, are a small and rare group of molluscs whose phylogenomic position among the Conchifera is undetermined, and the taxonomy within this class also needs revision. Such work is hindered by there only being a very few mitochondrial genomes in this group that are currently available. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from Dentaliida Pictodentalium vernedei, whose mitochondrial genome is 14,519 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The nucleotide composition was skewed toward A-T, with a 71.91% proportion of AT content. Due to the mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis, we defined P. vernedei as a sister to Graptacme eborea in Dentaliida. Although a few re-arrangements occurred, the mitochondrial gene order showed deep conservation within Dentaliida. Yet, such a gene order in Dentaliida largely diverges from Gadilida and other molluscan classes, suggesting that scaphopods have the highest degree of mitogenome arrangement compared to other molluscs.

RevDate: 2023-01-24
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

Li SP, Jiang H, Liu ZB, et al (2023)

TBX2 affects proliferation, apoptosis and cholesterol generation by regulating mitochondrial function and autophagy in bovine cumulus cell.

Veterinary medicine and science, 9(1):326-335.

BACKGROUND: T-box transcription factor 2 (TBX2) is a member of T-box gene family whose members are highly conserved in evolution and encoding genes and are involved in the regulation of developmental processes. The encoding genes play an important role in growth and development. Although TBX2 has been widely studied in cancer cell growth and development, its biological functions in bovine cumulus cells remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of TBX2 in bovine cumulus cells.

METHODS: TBX2 gene was knockdown with siRNA to clarify the function in cellular physiological processes. Cell proliferation and cycle changes were determined by xCELLigence cell function analyzer and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential and autophagy were detected by fluorescent dye staining and immunofluorescence techniques. Western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to detect the expression changes of proliferation and autophagy-related proteins. Aadenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, glucose metabolism, and cholesterol synthesis of cumulus cells were measured by optical density and chemiluminescence analysis.

RESULTS: After inhibition of TBX2, the cell cycle was disrupted. The levels of apoptosis, ratio of light chain 3 beta II/I, and reactive oxygen species were increased. The proliferation, expansion ability, ATP production, and the amount of cholesterol secreted by cumulus cells were significantly decreased.

CONCLUSIONS: TBX2 plays important roles in regulating the cells' proliferation, expansion, apoptosis, and autophagy; maintaining the mitochondrial function and cholesterol generation of bovine cumulus cells.

RevDate: 2023-01-24
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

Vilaça ST, Maroso F, Lara P, et al (2023)

Evidence of backcross inviability and mitochondrial DNA paternal leakage in sea turtle hybrids.

Molecular ecology, 32(3):628-643.

Hybridization is known to be part of many species' evolutionary history. Sea turtles have a fascinating hybridization system in which species separated by as much as 43 million years are still capable of hybridizing. Indeed, the largest nesting populations in Brazil of loggerheads (Caretta caretta) and hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) have a high incidence of hybrids between these two species. A third species, olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea), is also known to hybridize although at a smaller scale. Here, we used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) markers, mitogenomes, and satellite-telemetry to investigate the patterns of hybridization and introgression in the Brazilian sea turtle population and their relationship with the migratory behaviours between feeding and nesting aggregations. We also explicitly test if the mixing of two divergent genomes in sea turtle hybrids causes mitochondrial paternal leakage. We developed a new species-specific PCR-assay capable of detecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance from both parental species and performed ultra-deep sequencing to estimate the abundance of each mtDNA type. Our results show that all adult hybrids are first generation (F1) and most display a loggerhead migratory behaviour. We detected paternal leakage in F1 hybrids and different proportions of mitochondria from maternal and paternal species. Although previous studies showed no significant fitness decrease in hatchlings, our results support genetically-related hybrid breakdown possibly caused by cytonuclear incompatibility. Further research on hybrids from other populations in addition to Brazil and between different species will show if backcross inviability and mitochondrial paternal leakage is observed across sea turtle species.

RevDate: 2023-01-23
CmpDate: 2023-01-23

He W, Xiang K, Chen C, et al (2023)

Master graph: an essential integrated assembly model for the plant mitogenome based on a graph-based framework.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(1):.

Unlike the typical single circular structure of most animal mitochondrial genomes (mitogenome), the drastic structural variation of plant mitogenomes is a result of a mixture of molecules of various sizes and structures. Obtaining the full panoramic plant mitogenome is still considered a roadblock in evolutionary biology. In this study, we developed a graph-based sequence assembly toolkit (GSAT) to construct the pan-structural landscape of plant mitogenome with high-quality mitochondrial master graphs (MMGs) for model species including rice (Oryza sativa) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). The rice and thale cress MMGs have total lengths of 346 562 and 358 041 bp, including 9 and 6 contigs and 12 and 8 links, respectively, and could be further divided into 6 and 3 minimum master circles and 4 and 2 minimum secondary circles separately. The nuclear mitochondrial DNA segments (NUMTs) in thale cress strongly affected the frequency evaluation of the homologous structures in the mitogenome, while the effects of NUMTs in rice were relatively weak. The mitochondrial plastid DNA segments (MTPTs) in both species had no effects on the assessment of the MMGs. All potential recombinant structures were evaluated, and the findings revealed that all, except for nuclear-homologous structures, MMG structures are present at a much higher frequency than non-MMG structures are. Investigations of potential circular and linear molecules further supported multiple dominant structures in the mitogenomes and could be completely summarized in the MMG. Our study provided an efficient and accurate model for assembling and applying graph-based plant mitogenomes to assess their pan-structural variations.

RevDate: 2023-01-23
CmpDate: 2023-01-23

Shukla P, Mukherjee S, Patil A, et al (2023)

Molecular characterization of variants in mitochondrial DNA encoded genes using next generation sequencing analysis and mitochondrial dysfunction in women with PCOS.

Gene, 855:147126.

Emerging studies indicates mitochondrial dysfunction and involvement of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cumulative effect of mtDNA rare variants are now gaining considerable interest apart from common variants in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Rare variants may modify the effect of polymorphism or in combination with the common variants may affect the risk of disease. With the evolution of high throughput sequencing techniques, which can be utilized to identify common as well as rare variants along with heteroplasmy levels, comprehensive characterization of the mtDNA variants is possible. Till date, few studies reported common mtDNA variants using traditional sequencing techniques but rare variants in mtDNA encoding genes remain unexplored in women with PCOS. These mtDNA variants may be responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and may contribute in PCOS pathogenesis. In this study we determined mtDNA copy number, a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction and first time analysed variants in mtDNA encoded genes in women with PCOS using mitochondrial Next Generation sequencing (NGS) approach and compared allele frequency from mitochondrial 1000 genome dataset. Variant annotation and prioritization was done using highly automated pipeline, MToolBox that excludes reads mapped from nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NumtS) to identify unique mtDNA reads. The present study identified significant reduction in mtDNA copy number in women with PCOS compared to non-PCOS women. A total of unique 214 prioritized common to rare variants were identified in mtDNA encoded genes, 183 variants in OXPHOS complexes, 14 variants in MT-tRNA and 17 variants in MT-rRNA genes that may be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in PCOS. Numerous variants were heteroplasmic, pathogenic in nature and occurred in evolutionary conserved region. Heteroplasmic variants were more frequently occurred in MT-CO3 gene. Non-synonymous variants were more than synonymous variants and mainly occurred in OXPHOS complex I and IV. Few variants were found to be associated with diseases in MITOMAP database. The study provides a better understanding towards pathogenesis of PCOS from novel aspects focusing on mitochondrial genetic defects as underlying cause for contributing mitochondrial dysfunction in women with PCOS.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Righetto I, Gasparotto M, Casalino L, et al (2023)

Exogenous Players in Mitochondria-Related CNS Disorders: Viral Pathogens and Unbalanced Microbiota in the Gut-Brain Axis.

Biomolecules, 13(1): pii:biom13010169.

Billions of years of co-evolution has made mitochondria central to the eukaryotic cell and organism life playing the role of cellular power plants, as indeed they are involved in most, if not all, important regulatory pathways. Neurological disorders depending on impaired mitochondrial function or homeostasis can be caused by the misregulation of "endogenous players", such as nuclear or cytoplasmic regulators, which have been treated elsewhere. In this review, we focus on how exogenous agents, i.e., viral pathogens, or unbalanced microbiota in the gut-brain axis can also endanger mitochondrial dynamics in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurotropic viruses such as Herpes, Rabies, West-Nile, and Polioviruses seem to hijack neuronal transport networks, commandeering the proteins that mitochondria typically use to move along neurites. However, several neurological complications are also associated to infections by pandemic viruses, such as Influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, representing a relevant risk associated to seasonal flu, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and "Long-COVID". Emerging evidence is depicting the gut microbiota as a source of signals, transmitted via sensory neurons innervating the gut, able to influence brain structure and function, including cognitive functions. Therefore, the direct connection between intestinal microbiota and mitochondrial functions might concur with the onset, progression, and severity of CNS diseases.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Cruz-Gregorio A, Aranda-Rivera AK, Aparicio-Trejo OE, et al (2022)

GK-1 Induces Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Decreased Membrane Potential, and Impaired Autophagy Flux in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:antiox12010056.

Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer worldwide in women. During the last decades, the mortality due to breast cancer has progressively decreased due to early diagnosis and the emergence of more effective new treatments. However, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remain with poor prognoses. In our research group, we are proposing the GK-1 immunomodulatory peptide as a new alternative for immunotherapy of these aggressive tumors. GK-1 reduced the growth rate of established tumors and effectively reduced lung metastasis in the 4T1 experimental murine model of breast cancer. Herein, the effect of GK-1 on the redox state, mitochondrial metabolism, and autophagy of triple-negative tumors that can be linked to cancer evolution was studied. GK-1 decreased catalase activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio while increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, GSSG, and protein carbonyl content, inducing oxidative stress (OS) in tumoral tissues. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants was related to mitochondrial dysfunction and uncoupling, characterized by reduced mitochondrial respiratory parameters and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), respectively. Furthermore, GK-1 likely affected autophagy flux, confirmed by elevated levels of p62, a marker of autophagy flux. Overall, the induction of OS, dysfunction, and uncoupling of the mitochondria and the reduction of autophagy could be molecular mechanisms that underlie the reduction of the 4T1 breast cancer induced by GK-1.

RevDate: 2023-01-20
CmpDate: 2023-01-20

Zhang A, Xu J, Xu X, et al (2022)

Genome-wide identification and characterization of the KCS gene family in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

PeerJ, 10:e14156.

The aboveground parts of plants are covered with cuticle, a hydrophobic layer composed of cutin polyester and cuticular wax that can protect plants from various environmental stresses. β-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in plant wax synthesis. Although the properties of KCS family genes have been investigated in many plant species, the understanding of this gene family in sorghum is still limited. Here, a total of 25 SbKCS genes were identified in the sorghum genome, which were named from SbKCS1 to SbKCS25. Evolutionary analysis among different species divided the KCS family into five subfamilies and the SbKCSs were more closely related to maize, implying a closer evolutionary relationship between sorghum and maize. All SbKCS genes were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10, respectively, while Chr 1 and Chr 10 contained more KCS genes than other chromosomes. The prediction results of subcellular localization showed that SbKCSs were mainly expressed in the plasma membrane and mitochondria. Gene structure analysis revealed that there was 0-1 intron in the sorghum KCS family and SbKCSs within the same subgroup were similar. Multiple cis-acting elements related to abiotic stress, light and hormone response were enriched in the promoters of SbKCS genes, which indicated the functional diversity among these genes. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that a compact spherical space structure was formed by various secondary bonds to maintain the stability of SbKCS proteins, which was necessary for their biological activity. qRT-PCR results revealed that nine randomly selected SbKCS genes expressed differently under drought and salt treatments, among which SbKCS8 showed the greatest fold of expression difference at 12 h after drought and salt stresses, which suggested that the SbKCS genes played a potential role in abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results provided an insight into investigating the functions of KCS family in sorghum and in response to abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2023-01-20
CmpDate: 2023-01-20

Kotov AA, DJ Taylor (2022)

Daphnia japonica sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera) an eastern Palearctic montane species with mitochondrial discordance.

PeerJ, 10:e14113.

The Daphnia longispina complex (Crustacea: Cladocera) contains several keystone freshwater species such as D. longispina O.F. Müller (D. rosea Sars is a junior synonym), D. galeata Sars, D. cucullata Sars, and D. dentifera Forbes. The complex is common throughout the Holarctic, but there are several geographic regions where local forms have been assigned to European species names based on a superficial morphological resemblance. Here we examine the species status of a form that was previously assigned to D. rosea from a montane bog pond on Honshu, Japan. We used two nuclear non-coding loci (nDNA), mitochondrial sequences (the ND2 protein-coding region) and morphology for evidence. The mitochondrial gene evidence supported the existence of a divergent lineage that is more closely related to D. galeata than to D. dentifera. However, morphology and the nuclear DNA data indicated a lineage that is most closely related to D. dentifera. As our evidence supported the existence of a cohesive divergent lineage, we described a new species, Daphnia japonica sp. nov. Recognition of local and subalpine diversity in this group is critical as ongoing anthropogenic disturbance has been associated with introductions, local extirpations, and hybridization.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Ye LQ, Zhao H, Zhou HJ, et al (2017)

The RNA editome of Macaca mulatta and functional characterization of RNA editing in mitochondria.

Science bulletin, 62(12):820-830.

RNA editing was first discovered in mitochondrial RNA molecular. However, whether adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has functions in nuclear genes involved in mitochondria remains elusive. Here, we retrieved 707,246 A-to-I RNA editing sites in Macaca mulatta leveraging massive transcriptomes of 30 different tissues and genomes of nine tissues, together with the reported data, and found that A-to-I RNA editing occurred frequently in nuclear genes that have functions in mitochondria. The mitochondrial structure, the level of ATP production, and the expression of some key genes involved in mitochondrial function were dysregulated after knocking down the expression of ADAR1 and ADAR2, the key genes encoding the enzyme responsible for RNA editing. When investigating dynamic changes of RNA editing during brain development, an amino-acid-changing RNA editing site (I234/V) in MFN1, a mediator of mitochondrial fusion, was identified to be significantly correlated with age, and could influence the function of MFN1. When studying transcriptomes of brain disorder, we found that dysregulated RNA editing sites in autism were also enriched within genes having mitochondrial functions. These data indicated that RNA editing had a significant function in mitochondria via their influence on nuclear genes.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Opazo JC, Vandewege MW, Hoffmann FG, et al (2023)

How many sirtuin genes are out there? evolution of sirtuin genes in vertebrates with a description of a new family member.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6993039 [Epub ahead of print].

Studying the evolutionary history of gene families is a challenging and exciting task with a wide range of implications. In addition to exploring fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of genes, disentangling their evolution is also critical to those who do functional/structural studies to allow a deeper and more precise interpretation of their results in an evolutionary context. The sirtuin gene family is a group of genes that are involved in a variety of biological functions mostly related to aging. Their duplicative history is an open question, as well as the definition of the repertoire of sirtuin genes among vertebrates. Our results show a well-resolved phylogeny that represents an improvement in our understanding of the duplicative history of the sirtuin gene family. We identified a new sirtuin gene family member (SIRT3.2) that was apparently lost in the last common ancestor of amniotes but retained in all other groups of jawed vertebrates. According to our experimental analyses, elephant shark SIRT3.2 protein is located in mitochondria, the overexpression of which leads to an increase in cellular levels of ATP. Moreover, in vitro analysis demonstrated it has deacetylase activity being modulated in a similar way to mammalian SIRT3. Our results indicate that there are at least eight sirtuin paralogs among vertebrates and that all of them can be traced back to the last common ancestor of the group that existed between 676 and 615 millions of years ago.

RevDate: 2023-01-19
CmpDate: 2023-01-19

Shimpi GG, B Bentlage (2023)

Ancient endosymbiont-mediated transmission of a selfish gene provides a model for overcoming barriers to gene transfer into animal mitochondrial genomes.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 45(2):e2200190.

In contrast to bilaterian animals, non-bilaterian mitochondrial genomes contain atypical genes, often attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) as an ad hoc explanation. Although prevalent in plants, HGT into animal mitochondrial genomes is rare, lacking suitable explanatory models for their occurrence. HGT of the mismatch DNA repair gene (mtMutS) from giant viruses to octocoral (soft corals and their kin) mitochondrial genomes provides a model for how barriers to HGT to animal mitochondria may be overcome. A review of the available literature suggests that this HGT was mediated by an alveolate endosymbiont infected with a lysogenic phycodnavirus that enabled insertion of the homing endonuclease containing mtMutS into octocoral mitochondrial genomes. We posit that homing endonuclease domains and similar selfish elements play a crucial role in such inter-domain gene transfers. Understanding the role of selfish genetic elements in HGT has the potential to aid development of tools for manipulating animal mitochondrial DNA.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Moreira F, Arenas M, Videira A, et al (2023)

Evolution of TOP1 and TOP1MT Topoisomerases in Chordata.

Journal of molecular evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Type IB topoisomerases relax the torsional stress associated with DNA metabolism in the nucleus and mitochondria and constitute important molecular targets of anticancer drugs. Vertebrates stand out among eukaryotes by having two Type IB topoisomerases acting specifically in the nucleus (TOP1) and mitochondria (TOP1MT). Despite their major importance, the origin and evolution of these paralogues remain unknown. Here, we examine the molecular evolutionary processes acting on both TOP1 and TOP1MT in Chordata, taking advantage of the increasing number of available genome sequences. We found that both TOP1 and TOP1MT evolved under strong purifying selection, as expected considering their essential biological functions. Critical active sites, including those associated with resistance to anticancer agents, were found particularly conserved. However, TOP1MT presented a higher rate of molecular evolution than TOP1, possibly related with its specialized activity on the mitochondrial genome and a less critical role in cells. We could place the duplication event that originated the TOP1 and TOP1MT paralogues early in the radiation of vertebrates, most likely associated with the first round of vertebrate tetraploidization (1R). Moreover, our data suggest that cyclostomes present a specialized mitochondrial Type IB topoisomerase. Interestingly, we identified two missense mutations replacing amino acids in the Linker region of TOP1MT in Neanderthals, which appears as a rare event when comparing the genome of both species. In conclusion, TOP1 and TOP1MT differ in their rates of evolution, and their evolutionary histories allowed us to better understand the evolution of chordates.

RevDate: 2023-01-17

Graham AM, FS Barreto (2023)

Myxozoans (Cnidaria) do not retain key oxygen-sensing and homeostasis toolkit genes.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6989568 [Epub ahead of print].

For aerobic organisms, both the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor pathway and the mitochondrial genomes are key players in regulating oxygen homeostasis. Recent work has suggested that these mechanisms are not as highly conserved as previously thought, prompting more surveys across animal taxonomic levels, which would permit testing of hypotheses about the ecological conditions facilitating evolutionary loss of such genes. Phylum Cnidaria is known to harbor wide variation in mitochondrial chromosome morphology, including the extreme example, in the Myxozoa, of mitochondrial genome loss. Because myxozoans are obligate endoparasites, frequently encountering hypoxic environments, we hypothesize that variation in environmental oxygen availability could be a key determinant in the evolution of metabolic gene networks associated with oxygen sensing, hypoxia response, and energy production. Here, we surveyed genomes and transcriptomes across 46 cnidarian species for the presence of HIF pathway members, as well as for an assortment of hypoxia, mitochondrial, and stress-response toolkit genes. We find that presence of the HIF pathway, as well as number of genes associated with mitochondria, hypoxia, and stress response, do not vary in parallel to mitochondrial genome morphology. More interestingly, we uncover evidence that myxozoans have lost the canonical HIF pathway repression machinery, potentially altering HIF pathway functionality to work under the specific conditions of their parasitic lifestyles. In addition, relative to other cnidarians, myxozoans show loss of large proportions of genes associated with the mitochondrion and involved in response to hypoxia and general stress. Our results provide additional evidence that the HIF regulatory machinery is evolutionarily labile and that variations in the canonical system have evolved in many animal groups.

RevDate: 2023-01-17
CmpDate: 2023-01-17

Zhou XQ, Ma J, Wang RY, et al (2022)

[Bacterial community diversity in Dermatophagoides farinae using high-throughput sequencing].

Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control, 34(6):630-634.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bacterial community diversity in Dermatophagoides farinae.

METHODS: Laboratory-cultured D. farinae was collected, and the composition of microbial communities was determined by sequence analyses of the V4 region in the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene on an Illumina PE250 high-throughput sequencing platform. Following quality control and filtering of the raw sequence files, valid reads were obtained and subjected to operational taxonomic units (OTU) clustering and analysis of the composition of microbial communities and alpha diversity index using the Usearch software, Silva database, and Mothur software.

RESULTS: A total of 187 616 valid reads were obtained, and 469 OTUs were clustered based on a sequence similarity of more than 97%. OTU annotation showed that the bacteria in D. farinae belonged to 26 phyla, 43 classes, 100 orders, 167 families and 284 genera. The bacteria in D. farinae were mainly annotated to five phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota, and Acidobacteriota, with Proteobacteria as the dominant phylum, and mainly annotated to five dominant genera of Ralstonia, norank-f-Mitochondria, Staphylococcus and Sphingomonas, with Wolbachia identified in the non-dominant genus.

CONCLUSIONS: A high diversity is identified in the composition of the bacterial community in D. farinae, and there are differences in bacterial community diversity and abundance among D. farinae.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Muñoz-Gómez SA (2023)

Energetics and evolution of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria and aerobic respiration have been suggested to be required for the evolution of eukaryotic cell complexity. Aerobic respiration is several times more energetically efficient than fermentation. Moreover, aerobic respiration occurs at internalized mitochondrial membranes that are not constrained by a sublinear scaling with cell volume. However, diverse and complex anaerobic eukaryotes (for example, free-living and parasitic unicellular, and even small multicellular, eukaryotes) that exclusively rely on fermentation for energy generation have evolved repeatedly from aerobic ancestors. How do fermenting eukaryotes maintain their cell volumes and complexity while relying on such a low energy-yielding process? Here I propose that reduced rates of ATP generation in fermenting versus respiring eukaryotes are compensated for by longer cell cycles that satisfy lifetime energy demands. A literature survey and growth efficiency calculations show that fermenting eukaryotes divide approximately four to six times slower than aerobically respiring counterparts with similar cell volumes. Although ecological advantages such as competition avoidance offset lower growth rates and yields in the short term, fermenting eukaryotes inevitably have fewer physiological and ecological possibilities, which ultimately constrain their long-term evolutionary trajectories.

RevDate: 2023-01-16
CmpDate: 2023-01-16

Achatz TJ, Von Holten ZS, Kipp JW, et al (2023)

Phylogenetic relationships and further unknown diversity of diplostomids (Diplostomida: Diplostomidae) parasitic in kingfishers.

Journal of helminthology, 97:e8 pii:S0022149X22000852.

Kingfishers (Alcedinidae Rafinesque) are common inhabitants of wetlands and are known to be definitive hosts to a wide range of digeneans that parasitize fish as second intermediate hosts. Among these digeneans, members of the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 (diplostomids) are particularly common. Recent studies of diplostomids collected from kingfishers have revealed that they are probably more diverse than currently known. This particularly concerns the genera Crassiphiala Van Haitsma, 1925 and Uvulifer Yamaguti, 1934. In the present work, we studied seven diplostomid taxa from kingfishers in Brazil, the USA and the Philippines. Partial DNA sequences of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit (28S) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) genes were obtained, and 28S sequences were used to study the phylogenetic interrelationships of these diplostomids. We provide the first DNA sequences from Uvulifer semicircumcisus Dubois et Rausch, 1950 and a member of Subuvulifer Dubois, 1952. Pseudocrassiphiala n. gen. is erected for a previously recognized species-level lineage of Crassiphiala and a new generic diagnosis of Crassiphiala is provided. Crassiphiala jeffreybelli n. sp., Crassiphiala wecksteini n. sp. and Pseudocrassiphiala tulipifera n. sp. are described, and a description of newly collected, high-quality specimens of Crassiphiala bulboglossa Van Haitsma, 1925 (the type-species of the genus) is provided.

RevDate: 2023-01-16
CmpDate: 2023-01-16

Rossitto De Marchi B, Gama AB, HA Smith (2023)

Evidence of the association between the Q2 mitochondrial group of Bemisia tabaci MED species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and low competitive displacement capability.

PloS one, 18(1):e0280002.

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is one of the most serious agricultural pests worldwide. Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex of more than 40 species among which the invasive MEAM1 and MED species are the most widespread and economically important. Both MEAM1 and MED present intraspecific genetic variability and some haplotypes are reported to be more invasive than others. MED can be further deconstructed into different genetic groups, including MED-Q1 and MED-Q2. However, distinct biological phenotypes discerning the different MED mitochondrial haplotypes are yet to be characterized. Competitive displacement and life-history trials were carried out between MED-Q2 and MEAM1 populations collected in Florida, USA. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis was carried out including populations from previous whitefly competitive displacement studies for identification and comparison of the MED mitochondrial groups. In contrast to other studies with MED-Q1, the MED-Q2 population from Florida is less likely to displace MEAM1 on pepper. In addition, both pepper and watermelon were a more favorable host to MEAM1 compared to MED-Q2 according to the life history trials.

RevDate: 2023-01-16
CmpDate: 2023-01-16

Jamaludin NA, Jamaluddin JAF, Rahim MA, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial marker implies fishery separate management units for spotted sardinella, Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum, 1792) populations in the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea.

PeerJ, 10:e13706.

The spotted sardinella, Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum, 1792), is a commercial sardine commonly caught in Malaysia. Lack of management of these marine species in Malaysian waters could lead to overfishing and potentially declining fish stock populations. Therefore, sustainable management of this species is of paramount importance to ensure its longevity. As such, molecular information is vital in determining the A. sirm population structure and management strategy. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b was sequenced from 10 A. sirm populations: the Andaman Sea (AS) (two), South China Sea (SCS) (six), Sulu Sea (SS) (one), and Celebes Sea (CS) (one). Accordingly, the intra-population haplotype diversity (Hd) was high (0.91-1.00), and nucleotide diversity (π) was low (0.002-0.009), which suggests a population bottleneck followed by rapid population growth. Based on the phylogenetic trees, minimum spanning network (MSN), population pairwise comparison, and F ST,and supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) tests, distinct genetic structures were observed (7.2% to 7.6% genetic divergence) between populations in the SCS and its neighboring waters, versus those in the AS. Furthermore, the results defined A. sirm stock boundaries and evolutionary between the west and east coast (which shares the same waters as western Borneo) of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, genetic homogeneity was revealed throughout the SCS, SS, and CS based on the non-significant F STpairwise comparisons. Based on the molecular evidence, separate management strategies may be required for A. sirm of the AS and the SCS, including its neighboring waters.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Osipova E, Barsacchi R, Brown T, et al (2023)

Loss of a gluconeogenic muscle enzyme contributed to adaptive metabolic traits in hummingbirds.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 379(6628):185-190.

Hummingbirds possess distinct metabolic adaptations to fuel their energy-demanding hovering flight, but the underlying genomic changes are largely unknown. Here, we generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of the long-tailed hermit and screened for genes that have been specifically inactivated in the ancestral hummingbird lineage. We discovered that FBP2 (fructose-bisphosphatase 2), which encodes a gluconeogenic muscle enzyme, was lost during a time period when hovering flight evolved. We show that FBP2 knockdown in an avian muscle cell line up-regulates glycolysis and enhances mitochondrial respiration, coincident with an increased mitochondria number. Furthermore, genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and organization have up-regulated expression in hummingbird flight muscle. Together, these results suggest that FBP2 loss was likely a key step in the evolution of metabolic muscle adaptations required for true hovering flight.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Borges DGF, Carvalho DS, Bomfim GC, et al (2023)

On the origin of mitochondria: a multilayer network approach.

PeerJ, 11:e14571.

BACKGOUND: The endosymbiotic theory is widely accepted to explain the origin of mitochondria from a bacterial ancestor. While ample evidence supports the intimate connection of Alphaproteobacteria to the mitochondrial ancestor, pinpointing its closest relative within sampled Alphaproteobacteria is still an open evolutionary debate. Many different phylogenetic methods and approaches have been used to answer this challenging question, further compounded by the heterogeneity of sampled taxa, varying evolutionary rates of mitochondrial proteins, and the inherent biases in each method, all factors that can produce phylogenetic artifacts. By harnessing the simplicity and interpretability of protein similarity networks, herein we re-evaluated the origin of mitochondria within an enhanced multilayer framework, which is an extension and improvement of a previously developed method.

METHODS: We used a dataset of eight proteins found in mitochondria (N = 6 organisms) and bacteria (N = 80 organisms). The sequences were aligned and resulting identity matrices were combined to generate an eight-layer multiplex network. Each layer corresponded to a protein network, where nodes represented organisms and edges were placed following mutual sequence identity. The Multi-Newman-Girvan algorithm was applied to evaluate community structure, and bifurcation events linked to network partition allowed to trace patterns of divergence between studied taxa.

RESULTS: In our network-based analysis, we first examined the topology of the 8-layer multiplex when mitochondrial sequences disconnected from the main alphaproteobacterial cluster. The resulting topology lent firm support toward an Alphaproteobacteria-sister placement for mitochondria, reinforcing the hypothesis that mitochondria diverged from the common ancestor of all Alphaproteobacteria. Additionally, we observed that the divergence of Rickettsiales was an early event in the evolutionary history of alphaproteobacterial clades.

CONCLUSION: By leveraging complex networks methods to the challenging question of circumscribing mitochondrial origin, we suggest that the entire Alphaproteobacteria clade is the closest relative to mitochondria (Alphaproteobacterial-sister hypothesis), echoing recent findings based on different datasets and methodologies.

RevDate: 2023-01-12
CmpDate: 2023-01-12

Krynická V, Skotnicová P, Jackson PJ, et al (2023)

FtsH4 protease controls biogenesis of the PSII complex by dual regulation of high light-inducible proteins.

Plant communications, 4(1):100502.

FtsH proteases are membrane-embedded proteolytic complexes important for protein quality control and regulation of various physiological processes in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Like most cyanobacteria, the model species Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains four FtsH homologs, FtsH1-FtsH4. FtsH1-FtsH3 form two hetero-oligomeric complexes, FtsH1/3 and FtsH2/3, which play a pivotal role in acclimation to nutrient deficiency and photosystem II quality control, respectively. FtsH4 differs from the other three homologs by the formation of a homo-oligomeric complex, and together with Arabidopsis thaliana AtFtsH7/9 orthologs, it has been assigned to another phylogenetic group of unknown function. Our results exclude the possibility that Synechocystis FtsH4 structurally or functionally substitutes for the missing or non-functional FtsH2 subunit in the FtsH2/3 complex. Instead, we demonstrate that FtsH4 is involved in the biogenesis of photosystem II by dual regulation of high light-inducible proteins (Hlips). FtsH4 positively regulates expression of Hlips shortly after high light exposure but is also responsible for Hlip removal under conditions when their elevated levels are no longer needed. We provide experimental support for Hlips as proteolytic substrates of FtsH4. Fluorescent labeling of FtsH4 enabled us to assess its localization using advanced microscopic techniques. Results show that FtsH4 complexes are concentrated in well-defined membrane regions at the inner and outer periphery of the thylakoid system. Based on the identification of proteins that co-purified with the tagged FtsH4, we speculate that FtsH4 concentrates in special compartments in which the biogenesis of photosynthetic complexes takes place.

RevDate: 2023-01-12
CmpDate: 2023-01-12

Cassidy-Hanley DM, Doerder FP, Hossain M, et al (2023)

Molecular identification of Tetrahymena species.

The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 70(1):e12936.

Mitochondrial cox1 689 bp barcodes are routinely used for identification of Tetrahymena species. Here, we examine whether two shorter nuclear sequences, the 5.8S rRNA gene region and the intergenic region between H3 and H4 histone genes, might also be useful either singly or in combination with each other or cox1. We obtained sequences from ~300 wild isolates deposited at the Tetrahymena Stock Center and analyzed additional sequences obtained from GenBank. The 5.8S rRNA gene and portions of its transcribed flanks identify isolates as to their major clade and uniquely identify some, but not all, species. The ~330 bp H3/H4 intergenic region possesses low intraspecific variability and is unique for most species. However, it fails to distinguish between two pairs of common species and their rarer counterparts, and its use is complicated by the presence of duplicate genes in some species. The results show that while the cox1 sequence is the best single marker for Tetrahymena species identification, 5.8S rRNA, and the H3/H4 intergenic regions sequences are useful, singly or in combination, to confirm cox1 species assignments or as part of a preliminary survey of newly collected Tetrahymena. From our newly collected isolates, the results extend the biogeographical range of T. shanghaiensis and T. malaccensis and identify a new species, Tetrahymena arleneae n. sp. herein described.

RevDate: 2023-01-12
CmpDate: 2023-01-12

Chen Z, M Schrödl (2022)

How many single-copy orthologous genes from whole genomes reveal deep gastropod relationships?.

PeerJ, 10:e13285.

The Gastropoda contains 80% of existing mollusks and is the most diverse animal class second only to the Insecta. However, the deep phylogeny of gastropods has been controversial for a long time. Especially the position of Patellogastropoda is a major uncertainty. Morphology and some mitochondria studies concluded that Patellogastropoda is likely to be sister to all other gastropods (Orthogastropoda hypothesis), while transcriptomic and other mitogenomic studies indicated that Patellogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa (Psilogastropoda). With the release of high-quality genomes, orthologous genes can be better identified and serve as powerful candidates for phylogenetic analysis. The question is, given the current limitations on the taxon sampling side, how many markers are needed to provide robust results. Here, we identified single-copy orthologous genes (SOGs) from 14 gastropods species with whole genomes available which cover five main gastropod subclasses. We generated different datasets from 395 to 1610 SOGs by allowing species missing in different levels. We constructed gene trees of each SOG, and inferred species trees from different collections of gene trees. We found as the number of SOGs increased, the inferred topology changed from Patellogastropoda being sister to all other gastropods to Patellogastropoda being sister to Vetigastropoda + Neomphalina (Psilogastropoda s.l.), with considerable support. Our study thus rejects the Orthogastropoda concept showing that the selection of the representative species and use of sufficient informative sites greatly influence the analysis of deep gastropod phylogeny.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Fang YK, Vaitová Z, V Hampl (2023)

A mitochondrion-free eukaryote contains proteins capable of import into an exogenous mitochondrion-related organelle.

Open biology, 13(1):220238.

The endobiotic flagellate Monocercomonoides exilis is the only known eukaryote to have lost mitochondria and all its associated proteins in its evolutionary past. This final stage of the mitochondrial evolutionary pathway may serve as a model to explain events at their very beginning such as the initiation of protein import. We have assessed the capability of proteins from this eukaryote to enter emerging mitochondria using a specifically designed in vitro assay. Hydrogenosomes (reduced mitochondria) of Trichomonas vaginalis were incubated with a soluble protein pool derived from a cytosolic fraction of M. exilis, and proteins entering hydrogenosomes were subsequently detected by mass spectrometry. The assay detected 19 specifically and reproducibly imported proteins, and in 14 cases the import was confirmed by the overexpression of their tagged version in T. vaginalis. In most cases, only a small portion of the signal reached the hydrogenosomes, suggesting specific but inefficient transport. Most of these proteins represent enzymes of carbon metabolism, and none exhibited clear signatures of proteins targeted to hydrogenosomes or mitochondria, which is consistent with their inefficient import. The observed phenomenon may resemble a primaeval type of protein import which might play a role in the establishment of the organelle and shaping of its proteome in the initial stages of endosymbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-01-11
CmpDate: 2023-01-11

Hénault M, Marsit S, Charron G, et al (2022)

Hybridization drives mitochondrial DNA degeneration and metabolic shift in a species with biparental mitochondrial inheritance.

Genome research, 32(11-12):2043-2056.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a cytoplasmic genome that is essential for respiratory metabolism. Although uniparental mtDNA inheritance is most common in animals and plants, distinct mtDNA haplotypes can coexist in a state of heteroplasmy, either because of paternal leakage or de novo mutations. mtDNA integrity and the resolution of heteroplasmy have important implications, notably for mitochondrial genetic disorders, speciation, and genome evolution in hybrids. However, the impact of genetic variation on the transition to homoplasmy from initially heteroplasmic backgrounds remains largely unknown. Here, we use Saccharomyces yeasts, fungi with constitutive biparental mtDNA inheritance, to investigate the resolution of mtDNA heteroplasmy in a variety of hybrid genotypes. We previously designed 11 crosses along a gradient of parental evolutionary divergence using undomesticated isolates of Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Each cross was independently replicated 48 to 96 times, and the resulting 864 hybrids were evolved under relaxed selection for mitochondrial function. Genome sequencing of 446 MA lines revealed extensive mtDNA recombination, but the recombination rate was not predicted by parental divergence level. We found a strong positive relationship between parental divergence and the rate of large-scale mtDNA deletions, which led to the loss of respiratory metabolism. We also uncovered associations between mtDNA recombination, mtDNA deletion, and genome instability that were genotype specific. Our results show that hybridization in yeast induces mtDNA degeneration through large-scale deletion and loss of function, with deep consequences for mtDNA evolution, metabolism, and the emergence of reproductive isolation.

RevDate: 2023-01-10
CmpDate: 2023-01-10

Di-Nizo CB, Suárez-Villota EY, MJJ Silva (2022)

Species limits and recent diversification of Cerradomys (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) during the Pleistocene.

PeerJ, 10:e13011.

Cerradomys is a genus of the tribe Oryzomyini with eight species currently recognized, and a controversial taxonomy. These species are mainly distributed in the South America dry diagonal, but some species extend into Atlantic Forest, reaching the coastal sandy plains known as Restingas. This study aimed to address species limits and patterns of diversification of Cerradomys species. For this purpose, we performed cytogenetic and molecular analyses (phylogeny, coalescent species delimitation, barcoding, and divergence times estimation) using multiple mitochondrial and nuclear markers on a comprehensive sampling, representing all nominal taxa reported so far. Chromosomal information was a robust marker recognizing eight Cerradomys species. Reciprocal monophyly was recovered for all the species, except for C. subflavus. These results together with coalescent analyses recovered eight species as the most congruent species delimitation scenario for the genus (mean C tax : 0.72). Divergence time estimates revealed that Cerradomys' diversification occurred about 1.32 million years ago (Mya) during the Pleistocene. Although our results conservatively support the eight Cerradomys species described so far, different lines of evidence suggest that C. langguthi and C. subflavus could potentially be species-complexes. We discussed this scenario in the light of multiple evolutionary processes within and between species and populations, since Cerradomys comprises a species group with recent diversification affected by Pleistocene climatic changes and by the complex biogeographic history of South America dry diagonal. This work supports that the diversity of Cerradomys is underestimated and reiterates that interdisciplinary approaches are mandatory to identify small rodent species properly, and to unhide cryptic species.

RevDate: 2023-01-09
CmpDate: 2023-01-09

Nikelski E, Rubtsov AS, D Irwin (2023)

High heterogeneity in genomic differentiation between phenotypically divergent songbirds: a test of mitonuclear co-introgression.

Heredity, 130(1):1-13.

Comparisons of genomic variation among closely related species often show more differentiation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and sex chromosomes than in autosomes, a pattern expected due to the differing effective population sizes and evolutionary dynamics of these genomic components. Yet, introgression can cause species pairs to deviate dramatically from general differentiation trends. The yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) and pine bunting (E. leucocephalos) are hybridizing avian sister species that differ greatly in appearance and moderately in nuclear DNA, but that show no mtDNA differentiation. This discordance is best explained by adaptive mtDNA introgression-a process that can select for co-introgression at nuclear genes with mitochondrial functions (mitonuclear genes). To better understand these discordant differentiation patterns and characterize nuclear differentiation in this system, we investigated genome-wide differentiation between allopatric yellowhammers and pine buntings and compared it to what was seen previously in mtDNA. We found significant nuclear differentiation that was highly heterogeneous across the genome, with a particularly wide differentiation peak on the sex chromosome Z. We further investigated mitonuclear gene co-introgression between yellowhammers and pine buntings and found support for this process in the direction of pine buntings into yellowhammers. Genomic signals indicative of co-introgression were common in mitonuclear genes coding for subunits of the mitoribosome and electron transport chain complexes. Such introgression of mitochondrial DNA and mitonuclear genes provides a possible explanation for the patterns of high genomic heterogeneity in genomic differentiation seen among some species groups.

RevDate: 2023-01-08

Bottoni P, Gionta G, R Scatena (2022)

Remarks on Mitochondrial Myopathies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(1): pii:ijms24010124.

Mitochondrial myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases caused mainly by genetic mutations to proteins that are related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Meanwhile, a similar etiopathogenetic mechanism (i.e., a deranged oxidative phosphorylation and a dramatic reduction of ATP synthesis) reveals that the evolution of these myopathies show significant differences. However, some physiological and pathophysiological aspects of mitochondria often reveal other potential molecular mechanisms that could have a significant pathogenetic role in the clinical evolution of these disorders, such as: i. a deranged ROS production both in term of signaling and in terms of damaging molecules; ii. the severe modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+/NADH, pyruvate/lactate, and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)/2- hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) ratios. A better definition of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of their pathogenesis could improve not only the clinical approach in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of these myopathies but also deepen the knowledge of mitochondrial medicine in general.

RevDate: 2023-01-07

Ji X, Tian Y, Liu W, et al (2023)

Mitochondrial characteristics of the powdery mildew genus Erysiphe revealed an extraordinary evolution in protein-coding genes.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)00021-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Erysiphe was an obligate parasite causing powdery mildew disease on a wide range of higher plants. However, the knowledge of their mitogenome architecture for lifestyle adaptability was scarce. Here, we assembled the first complete mitogenome (190,559 bp in size) for rubber tree powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe quercicola. Comparable analysis of the Erysiphe mitogenomes exhibited conserved gene content, genome organization and codon usage bias, but extensive dynamic intron gain/loss events were presented between Erysiphe species. The phylogeny of the Ascomycota species constructed in the phylogenetic analysis showed genetic divergences of the Erysiphe species. Compared with other distant saprophytic and plant pathogenic fungi, Erysiphe had a flat distribution of evolutionary pressures on fungal standard protein-coding genes (PCGs). The Erysiphe PCGs had the highest mean selection pressure. In particular, Erysiphe's cox1, nad1, cob and rps3 genes had the most elevated selection pressures among corresponding PCGs across fungal genera. Altogether, the investigations provided a novel insight into the potential evolutionary pattern of the genus Erysiphe to adapt obligate biotrophic lifestyle and promoted the understanding of the high plasticity and population evolution of fungal mitogenomes.

RevDate: 2023-01-06

Wu CS, Chen CI, SM Chaw (2022)

Plastid phylogenomics and plastome evolution in the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae).

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1061174.

Convolvulaceae, the morning glories or bindweeds, is a large family containing species of economic value, including crops, traditional medicines, ornamentals, and vegetables. However, not only are the phylogenetic relationships within this group still debated at the intertribal and intergeneric levels, but also plastid genome (plastome) complexity within Convolvulaceae is not well surveyed. We gathered 78 plastomes representing 17 genera across nine of the 12 Convolvulaceae tribes. Our plastid phylogenomic trees confirm the monophyly of Convolvulaceae, place the genus Jacquemontia within the subfamily Dicranostyloideae, and suggest that the tribe Merremieae is paraphyletic. In contrast, positions of the two genera Cuscuta and Erycibe are uncertain as the bootstrap support of the branches leading to them is moderate to weak. We show that nucleotide substitution rates are extremely variable among Convolvulaceae taxa and likely responsible for the topological uncertainty. Numerous plastomic rearrangements are detected in Convolvulaceae, including inversions, duplications, contraction and expansion of inverted repeats (IRs), and losses of genes and introns. Moreover, integrated foreign DNA of mitochondrial origin was found in the Jacquemontia plastome, adding a rare example of gene transfer from mitochondria to plastids in angiosperms. In the IR of Dichondra, we discovered an extra copy of rpl16 containing a direct repeat of ca. 200 bp long. This repeat was experimentally demonstrated to trigger effective homologous recombination, resulting in the coexistence of intron-containing and -lacking rpl16 duplicates. Therefore, we propose a hypothetical model to interpret intron loss accompanied by invasion of direct repeats at appropriate positions. Our model complements the intron loss model driven by retroprocessing when genes have lost introns but contain abundant RNA editing sites adjacent to former splicing sites.

RevDate: 2023-01-06

Locatelli AG, S Cenci (2022)

Autophagy and longevity: Evolutionary hints from hyper-longevous mammals.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:1085522.

Autophagy is a fundamental multi-tasking adaptive cellular degradation and recycling strategy. Following its causal implication in age-related decline, autophagy is currently among the most broadly studied and challenged mechanisms within aging research. Thanks to these efforts, new cellular nodes interconnected with this phylogenetically ancestral pathway and unexpected roles of autophagy-associated genetic products are unveiled daily, yet the history of functional adaptations of autophagy along its evolutive trail is poorly understood and documented. Autophagy is traditionally studied in canonical and research-wise convenient model organisms such as yeast and mice. However, unconventional animal models endowed with extended longevity and exemption from age-related diseases offer a privileged perspective to inquire into the role of autophagy in the evolution of longevity. In this mini review we retrace the appearance and functions evolved by autophagy in eukaryotic cells and its protective contribution in the pathophysiology of aging.

RevDate: 2023-01-06
CmpDate: 2023-01-06

Juhaszova M, Kobrinsky E, Zorov DB, et al (2022)

ATP Synthase K[+]- and H[+]-fluxes Drive ATP Synthesis and Enable Mitochondrial K[+]-"Uniporter" Function: II. Ion and ATP Synthase Flux Regulation.

Function (Oxford, England), 3(2):zqac001.

We demonstrated that ATP synthase serves the functions of a primary mitochondrial K[+] "uniporter," i.e., the primary way for K[+] to enter mitochondria. This K[+] entry is proportional to ATP synthesis, regulating matrix volume and energy supply-vs-demand matching. We show that ATP synthase can be upregulated by endogenous survival-related proteins via IF1. We identified a conserved BH3-like domain of IF1 which overlaps its "minimal inhibitory domain" that binds to the β-subunit of F1. Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 possess a BH3-binding-groove that can engage IF1 and exert effects, requiring this interaction, comparable to diazoxide to augment ATP synthase's H[+] and K[+] flux and ATP synthesis. Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, but not Bcl-2, serve as endogenous regulatory ligands of ATP synthase via interaction with IF1 at this BH3-like domain, to increase its chemo-mechanical efficiency, enabling its function as the recruitable mitochondrial KATP-channel that can limit ischemia-reperfusion injury. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis to examine potential bacterial IF1-progenitors, we found that IF1 is likely an ancient (∼2 Gya) Bcl-family member that evolved from primordial bacteria resident in eukaryotes, corresponding to their putative emergence as symbiotic mitochondria, and functioning to prevent their parasitic ATP consumption inside the host cell.

RevDate: 2023-01-06
CmpDate: 2023-01-06

Yuan Z, Jiang W, Z Sha (2022)

A review of the common crab genus Macromedaeus Ward, 1942 (Brachyura, Xanthidae) from China Seas with description of a new species using integrative taxonomy methods.

PeerJ, 10:e12735.

Macromedaeus is one of the most common xanthid genera in shallow waters of the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, we describe a new species, Macromedaeus hainanensis sp. nov., and report on two newly recorded species, M. quinquedentatus (Krauss, 1843) and M. orientalis (Takeda & Miyake, 1969) from Hainan Island, South China Sea. M. hainanensis is most related to M. distinguendus (De Haan, 1833-1850) and M. orientalis on the carapace shape and granular appearance, but can be distinguished by unique morphological characteristics especially its front, pereopods and male first gonopod. Taxonomic identities of the six Macromedaeus species recorded from China seas are discussed, and a phylogenetic analyzation is performed on Macromedaeus and related taxa based on three mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (12S, 16S, COI, H3, 18S). Integrated taxonomic evidence is used to support the taxonomic status of each species.

RevDate: 2023-01-05
CmpDate: 2023-01-05

Shi F, Yu T, Xu Y, et al (2023)

Comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis provides new insights into the evolution of the subfamily Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

International journal of biological macromolecules, 225:634-647.

The genus Monochamus within the subfamily Lamiinae is the main vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which causes pine wilt disease and induces substantial economic and ecological losses. Only three complete mitochondrial genomes of the genus Monochamus have been sequenced to date, and no comparative mitochondrial genomic studies of Lamiinae have been conducted. Here, the mitochondrial genomes of two Monochamus species, M. saltuarius and M. urussovi, were newly sequenced and annotated. The composition and order of genes in the mitochondrial genomes of Monochamus species are conserved. All transfer RNAs exhibit the typical clover-leaf secondary structure, with the exception of trnS1. Similar to other longhorn beetles, Lamiinae mitochondrial genomes have an A + T bias. All 13 protein-coding genes have experienced purifying selection, and tandem repeat sequences are abundant in the A + T-rich region. Phylogenetic analyses revealed congruent topologies among trees inferred from the five datasets, with the monophyly of Acanthocinini, Agapanthiini, Batocerini, Dorcaschematini, Pteropliini, and Saperdini receiving high support. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution and will provide a basis for future studies of population genetics and phylogenetic investigations in this group.

RevDate: 2023-01-04
CmpDate: 2023-01-04

Liu J, Ni Y, C Liu (2023)

Polymeric structure of the Cannabis sativa L. mitochondrial genome identified with an assembly graph model.

Gene, 853:147081.

Cannabis sativa L. belongs to the family Cannabaceae in Rosales. It has been widely used as medicines, building materials, and textiles. Elucidating its genome is critical for molecular breeding and synthetic biology study. Many studies have shown that the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and even chloroplast genomes (plastomes) had complex polymeric structures. Using the Nanopore sequencing platform, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed its mitogenome and plastome. The resulting unitig graph suggested that the mitogenome had a complex polymeric structure. However, a gap-free, circular sequence was further assembled from the unitig graph. In contrast, a circular sequence representing the plastome was obtained. The mitogenome major conformation was 415,837 bp long, and the plastome was 153,927 bp long. To test if the repeat sequences promote recombination, which corresponds to the branch points in the structure, we tested the sequences around repeats by long-read mapping. Among 208 pairs of predicted repeats, the mapping results supported the presence of cross-over around 25 pairs of repeats. Subsequent PCR amplification confirmed the presence of cross-over around 15 of the 25 repeats. By comparing the mitogenome and plastome sequences, we identified 19 mitochondria plastid DNAs, including seven complete genes (trnW-CCA, trnP-UGG, psbJ, trnN-GUU, trnD-GUC, trnH-GUG, trnM-CAU) and nine gene fragments. Furthermore, the selective pressure analysis results showed that five genes (atp1, ccmB, ccmC, cox1, nad7) had 19 positively selected sites. Lastly, we predicted 28 RNA editing sites. A total of 8 RNA editing sites located in the coding regions were successfully validated by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing, of which four were synonymous, and four were nonsynonymous. In particular, the RNA editing events appeared to be tissue-specific in C. sativa mitogenome. In summary, we have confirmed the major confirmation of C. sativa mitogenome and characterized its structural features in detail. These results provide critical information for future variety breeding and resource development for C. sativa.

RevDate: 2022-12-27

Baião GC, Schneider DI, Miller WJ, et al (2022)

Multiple introgressions shape mitochondrial evolutionary history in Drosophila paulistorum and the Drosophila willistoni group.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(22)00296-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hybridization and the consequent introgression of genomic elements is an important source of genetic diversity for biological lineages. This is particularly evident in young clades in which hybrid incompatibilities are still incomplete and mixing between species is more likely to occur. Drosophila paulistorum, a representative of the Neotropical Drosophila willistoni subgroup, is a classic model of incipient speciation. The species is divided into six semispecies that show varying degrees of pre- and post-mating incompatibility with each other. In the present study, we investigate the mitochondrial evolutionary history of D. paulistorum and the willistoni subgroup. For that, we perform phylogenetic and comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes and draft nuclear assemblies of 25 Drosophila lines of the willistoni and saltans species groups. Our results show that the mitochondria of D. paulistorum are polyphyletic and form two non-sister clades that we name α and β. Identification and analyses of nuclear mitochondrial insertions further reveal that the willistoni subgroup has an α-like mitochondrial ancestor and strongly suggest that both the α and β mitochondria of D. paulistorum were acquired through introgression from unknown fly lineages of the willistoni subgroup. We also uncover multiple mitochondrial introgressions across D. paulistorum semispecies and generate novel insight into the evolution of the species.

RevDate: 2022-12-26
CmpDate: 2022-12-26

Kunerth HD, Tapisso JT, Valente R, et al (2022)

Characterising Mitochondrial Capture in an Iberian Shrew.

Genes, 13(12):.

Mitochondrial introgression raises questions of biogeography and of the extent of reproductive isolation and natural selection. Previous phylogenetic work on the Sorex araneus complex revealed apparent mitonuclear discordance in Iberian shrews, indicating past hybridisation of Sorex granarius and the Carlit chromosomal race of S. araneus, enabling introgression of the S. araneus mitochondrial genome into S. granarius. To further study this, we genetically typed 61 Sorex araneus/coronatus/granarius from localities in Portugal, Spain, France, and Andorra at mitochondrial, autosomal, and sex-linked loci and combined our data with the previously published sequences. Our data are consistent with earlier data indicating that S. coronatus and S. granarius are the most closely related of the three species, confirming that S. granarius from the Central System mountain range in Spain captured the mitochondrial genome from a population of S. araneus. This mitochondrial capture event can be explained by invoking a biogeographical scenario whereby S. araneus was in contact with S. granarius during the Younger Dryas in central Iberia, despite the two species currently having disjunct distributions. We discuss whether selection favoured S. granarius with an introgressed mitochondrial genome. Our data also suggest recent hybridisation and introgression between S. coronatus and S. granarius, as well as between S. araneus and S. coronatus.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Malnick SDH, Alin P, Somin M, et al (2022)

Fatty Liver Disease-Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic: Similar but Different.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(24):.

In alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) and in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are abnormal accumulations of fat in the liver. This phenomenon may be related to excessive alcohol consumption, as well as the combination of alcohol consumption and medications. There is an evolution from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatic pathology is very similar regarding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and ALD. Initially, there is lipid accumulation in parenchyma and progression to lobular inflammation. The morphological changes in the liver mitochondria, perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and hepatocellular ballooning, apoptosis and necrosis and accumulation of fibrosis may lead to the development of cirrhosis and HCC. Medical history of ethanol consumption, laboratory markers of chronic ethanol intake, AST/ALT ratio on the one hand and features of the metabolic syndrome on the other hand, may help in estimating the contribution of alcohol intake and the metabolic syndrome, respectively, to liver steatosis.

RevDate: 2022-12-23
CmpDate: 2022-12-23

Cunha RL, Faleh AB, Francisco S, et al (2022)

Three mitochondrial lineages and no Atlantic-Mediterranean barrier for the bogue Boops boops across its widespread distribution.

Scientific reports, 12(1):22124.

Marine species exhibiting wide distributional ranges are frequently subdivided into discrete genetic units over limited spatial scales. This is often due to specific life-history traits or oceanographic barriers that prevent gene flow. Fine-scale sampling studies revealed distinct phylogeographic patterns in the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, ranging from panmixia to noticeable population genetic structure. Here, we used mitochondrial sequence data to analyse connectivity in the bogue Boops boops throughout most of its widespread distribution. Our results identified the existence of three clades, one comprising specimens from the Azores and eastern Atlantic/Mediterranean, another with individuals from the Canary Islands, Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos, and the third with samples from Mauritania only. One of the branches of the northern subtropical gyre (Azores Current) that drifts towards the Gulf of Cádiz promotes a closer connection between the Azores, southern Portugal and the Mediterranean B. boops populations. The Almería-Oran Front, widely recognised as an oceanographic barrier for many organisms to cross the Atlantic-Mediterranean divide, does not seem to affect the dispersal of this benthopelagic species. The southward movement of the Cape Verde Frontal Zone during the winter, combined with the relatively short duration of the pelagic larval stage of B. boops, may be potential factors for preventing the connectivity between the Atlantic oceanic archipelagos and Mauritania shaping the genetic signature of this species.

RevDate: 2022-12-23
CmpDate: 2022-12-23

Zawal A, Skuza L, Michoński G, et al (2022)

Complete mitochondrial genome of Hygrobates turcicus Pešić, Esen & Dabert, 2017 (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatoidea).

Scientific reports, 12(1):22063.

The aim of the study was sequencing of the mitogenome of Hygrobates turcicus Pešić, Esen & Dabert, 2017 to expand knowledge of the polymorphism and cryptic or pseudocryptic diversity within Hydrachnidia. The samples originated from Bulgaria, Vidima River near Debnewo, 42°56'41.4''N, 24°48'44.6''E, depth 0.4 m, stones on the bottom, water flow 0.71 m/s, temperature 10 °C, pH 8.53, oxygen 110%, conductivity 279 µS/cm, hardness 121 CaO mg/l; 11 males, 27 females, 2 deutonymphs 12.x.2019 leg. Zawal, Michoński & Bańkowska; one male and one female dissected and slides mounted. The study was carried out using the following methods: DNA extraction, sequencing, assembly and annotation, comparison with other populations of H. turcicus, and multigene phylogeny. As a result of the study, it was determined that the mitogenome is 15,006 bp long and encodes for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The genome is colinear with those of H. longiporus and H. taniguchii, the difference in size originating from a non-coding region located between protein-coding genes ND4L and ND3. Five genes have alternative start-codon, and four display premature termination. The multigene phylogeny obtained using all mitochondrial protein-coding genes unambiguously associates H. turcicus with the cluster formed by H. longiporus and H. taniguchii.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

He L, A Maheshwari (2022)

Mitochondria in Early Life.

Current pediatric reviews pii:CPR-EPUB-128354 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria are highly-dynamic, membrane-bound organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the biochemical reactions in eukaryotic cells. These organelles also communicate with the nucleus and other cellular structures to help maintain somatic homeostasis, allow cellular adaptation to stress, and help maintain the developmental trajectory. Mitochondria also perform numerous other functions to support metabolic, energetic, and epigenetic regulation in our cells. There is increasing information on various disorders caused by defects in intrinsic mitochondrial or supporting nuclear genes in different organ systems. In this review, we have summarized the ultrastructural morphology, structural components, our current understanding of the evolution, biogenesis, dynamics, function, clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction, and future possibilities. The implications of deficits in mitochondrial dynamics and signaling for embryo viability and offspring health are also explored. We present information from our own clinical and laboratory research in conjunction with information collected from an extensive search in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus.

RevDate: 2022-12-17

Knoop V (2022)

C-to-U and U-to-C: RNA editing in plant organelles and beyond.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6927144 [Epub ahead of print].

The genomes in the two energy-converting organelles of plant cells, chloroplasts and mitochondria, contain numerous "errors" that are corrected at the level of RNA transcript copies. The genes encoded in the two endosymbiotic organelles would not function properly if their transcripts would not be altered by site-specific cytidine-to-uridine exchanges and by additional reverse U-to-C exchanges in hornworts, lycophytes and ferns. These peculiar processes of plant RNA editing, re-establishing genetic information that could alternatively be present at the organelle genome level, has spurred much research over more than 30 years. Lately this has revealed numerous interesting insights, notably on the biochemical machinery identifying specific pyrimidine nucleobases for conversion from C to U and vice versa. Here, I will summarize prominent research findings that have lately contributed to our better understanding of these phenomena introducing an added layer of information processing in plant cells. Some of this recent progress is based on the successful functional expression of plant RNA editing factors in bacteria and mammalian cells. These research approaches have recapitulated natural processes of horizontal gene transfer through which some protist lineages seem to have acquired plant RNA editing factors and adapted them functionally for their own purposes.

RevDate: 2022-12-17

Hogg DW, Reid AL, Dodsworth TL, et al (2022)

Skeletal muscle metabolism and contraction performance regulation by teneurin C-terminal-associated peptide-1.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:1031264.

Skeletal muscle regulation is responsible for voluntary muscular movement in vertebrates. The genes of two essential proteins, teneurins and latrophilins (LPHN), evolving in ancestors of multicellular animals form a ligand-receptor pair, and are now shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Teneurins possess a bioactive peptide, termed the teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) that interacts with the LPHNs to regulate skeletal muscle contractility strength and fatigue by an insulin-independent glucose importation mechanism in rats. CRISPR-based knockouts and siRNA-associated knockdowns of LPHN-1 and-3 in the C2C12 mouse skeletal cell line shows that TCAP stimulates an LPHN-dependent cytosolic Ca[2+] signal transduction cascade to increase energy metabolism and enhance skeletal muscle function via increases in type-1 oxidative fiber formation and reduce the fatigue response. Thus, the teneurin/TCAP-LPHN system is presented as a novel mechanism that regulates the energy requirements and performance of skeletal muscle.

RevDate: 2022-12-19
CmpDate: 2022-12-19

Marszalek J, Craig EA, B Tomiczek (2023)

J-Domain Proteins Orchestrate the Multifunctionality of Hsp70s in Mitochondria: Insights from Mechanistic and Evolutionary Analyses.

Sub-cellular biochemistry, 101:293-318.

Mitochondrial J-domain protein (JDP) co-chaperones orchestrate the function of their Hsp70 chaperone partner(s) in critical organellar processes that are essential for cell function. These include folding, refolding, and import of mitochondrial proteins, maintenance of mitochondrial DNA, and biogenesis of iron-sulfur cluster(s) (FeS), prosthetic groups needed for function of mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. Consistent with the organelle's endosymbiotic origin, mitochondrial Hsp70 and the JDPs' functioning in protein folding and FeS biogenesis clearly descended from bacteria, while the origin of the JDP involved in protein import is less evident. Regardless of their origin, all mitochondrial JDP/Hsp70 systems evolved unique features that allowed them to perform mitochondria-specific functions. Their modes of functional diversification and specialization illustrate the versatility of JDP/Hsp70 systems and inform our understanding of system functioning in other cellular compartments.

RevDate: 2022-12-17

Kim S, Eom H, Nandre R, et al (2022)

Comparative structural analysis on the mitochondrial DNAs from various strains of Lentinula edodes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1034387.

The evolution of mitochondria through variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is one of the intriguing questions in eukaryotic cells. In order to assess the causes of the variations in mitochondria, the mtDNAs of the 21 strains of Lentinula edodes were assembled for this study, and analyzed together with four published mtDNA sequences. The mtDNAs were within the sizes of 117 kb ~ 122 kb. The gene number was observed consistent except for two mtDNAs, which carry a duplicated trnG1-trnG2 unit or a putative gene deletion. The size variation was largely attributed to the number of introns, repeated sequences, transposable elements (TEs), and plasmid-related sequences. Intron loss and gain were found from cox1, rnl, and rns of three mtDNAs. Loss of two introns in cox1 of KY217797.1 reduced its size by 2.7 kb, making it the smallest cox1 gene (8.4 kb) among the cox1s of the 25 mtDNAs, whereas gain of a Group II intron (2.65 kb) and loss of a Group I intron (1.7 kb) in cox1 of MF774813.1 resulted in the longest cox1 (12 kb). In rnl of L. edodes, we discovered four intron insertion consensus sequences which were unique to basidiomycetes but not ascomycetes. Differential incorporation of introns was the primary cause of the rnl size polymorphism. Homing endonucleases (HEGs) were suggestively involved in the mobilization of the introns because all of the introns have HEG genes of the LAGRIDADG or GIY-YIG families with the conserved HEG cleavage sites. TEs contributed to 11.04% of the mtDNA size in average, of which 7.08% was LTR-retrotransposon and 3.96% was DNA transposon, whereas the repeated sequences covered 4.6% of the mtDNA. The repeat numbers were variable in a strain-dependent manner. Both the TEs and repeated sequences were mostly found in the intronic and intergenic regions. Lastly, two major deletions were found in the plasmid-related sequence regions (pol2-pol3 and pol1-atp8) in the five mtDNAs. Particularly, the 6.8 kb-long deletion at pol2-pol3 region made MF774813.1 the shortest mtDNA of all. Our results demonstrate that mtDNA is a dynamic molecule that persistently evolves over a short period of time by insertion/deletion and repetition of DNA segments at the strain level.

RevDate: 2022-12-17
CmpDate: 2022-12-15

Guo S, Lin X, N Song (2022)

Mitochondrial phylogenomics reveals deep relationships of scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

PloS one, 17(12):e0278820.

In this study, we newly sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two phytophagous scarab beetles, and investigated the deep level relationships within Scarabaeidae combined with other published beetle mitogenome sequences. The complete mitogenomes of Dicronocephalus adamsi Pascoe (Cetoniinae) and Amphimallon sp. (Melolonthinae) are 15,563 bp and 17,433 bp in size, respectively. Both mitogenomes have the typical set of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes) and an A+T-rich region, with the same gene arrangement found in the majority of beetles. The secondary structures for ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) were inferred by comparative analysis method. Results from phylogenetic analyses provide support for major lineages and current classification of Scarabaeidae. Amino acid data recovered Scarabaeidae as monophyletic. The Scarabaeidae was split into two clades. One clade contained the subfamilies Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. The other major clade contained the subfamilies Dynastinae, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae, Melolonthinae and Sericini. The monophyly of Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae, Dynastinae, Cetoniinae and Sericini were strongly supported. The Scarabaeinae was the sister group of Aphodiinae. The Cetoniinae was sister to the Dynastinae + Rutelinae clade. The Melolonthinae was a non-monophyletic group. The removal of fast-evolving sites from nucleotide dataset using a pattern sorting method (OV-sorting) supported the family Scarabaeidae as a monophyletic group. At the tribe level, the Onthophagini was non-monophyletic with respect to Oniticellini. Ateuchini was sister to a large clade comprising the tribes Onthophagini, Oniticellini and Onitini. Eurysternini was a sister group of the Phanaeini + Ateuchini clade.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Xu R, Martelossi J, Smits M, et al (2022)

Multi-tissue RNA-Seq analysis and long-read-based genome assembly reveal complex sex-specific gene regulation and molecular evolution in the Manila clam.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6889380 [Epub ahead of print].

The molecular factors and gene regulation involved in sex determination and gonad differentiation in bivalve molluscs are unknown. It has been suggested that doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria may be involved in these processes in species such as the ubiquitous and commercially relevant Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. We present the first long-read-based de novo genome assembly of a Manila clam, and a RNA-Seq multi-tissue analysis of 15 females and 15 males. The highly contiguous genome assembly was used as reference to investigate gene expression, alternative splicing, sequence evolution, tissue-specific co-expression networks, and sexual contrasting SNPs. Differential expression and differential splicing analyses revealed sex-specific transcriptional regulation in gonads, but not in somatic tissues. Co-expression networks revealed complex gene regulation in gonads, and genes in gonad-associated modules showed high tissue specificity. However, male gonad-associated modules showed contrasting patterns of sequence evolution and tissue specificity. One gene set was related to the structural organization of male gametes and presented slow sequence evolution but high pleiotropy, while another gene set was enriched in reproduction-related processes and characterized by fast sequence evolution and tissue specificity. Sexual contrasting SNPs were found in genes overrepresented in mitochondrial related functions, providing new candidates for investigating the relationship between mitochondria and sex in DUI species. Together, these results increase our understanding of the role of differential expression, differential splicing, and sequence evolution of sex-specific genes in an understudied taxon. We also provide resourceful genomic data for studies regarding sex diagnosis and breeding in bivalves.

RevDate: 2022-12-16
CmpDate: 2022-12-16

Alsaad RKA (2022)

Past, present and future of Trichomonas vaginalis: a review study.

Annals of parasitology, 68(3):409-419.

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) microaerophilic protist parasite, which is the causative agent of trichomonosis. Globally, the estimated annual incidence is more than 270 million cases. It is correlated for several health problems including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pregnancy miscarriages, cervical carcinoma, prostatitis, prostatic adenocarcinomas, infertility, and the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Most individuals infected with TV are asymptomatic. Metronidazole (MTZ) has been the treatment of choice for women. Currently, there is no effective vaccine against this pathogen despite efforts at vaccine development. Different socio-economic, demographic, behavioral, and biological factors are associated with the disease. Apart from its role as a pathogenic agent of diseases, it is also a fascinating organism with a surprisingly large genome for a parasite, i.e. larger than 160 Mb, and physiology adapted to its microaerophilic lifestyle. Particularly, the hydrogenosome, a mitochondria-derived organelle that releases hydrogen, attracted much interest in the last decades and rendered TV a model organism for eukaryotic evolution. According to the high prevalence and health consequences associated with TV, there is a requirement for improved screening programs in Iraq. The early diagnosis of asymptomatic diseases and effective treatment regimens are mandatory. Despite being highly prevalent of trichomonosis in the world, there is no review research published that solely focuses on T. vaginalis infections in Iraq.

RevDate: 2022-12-16
CmpDate: 2022-12-16

Żmijewski MA (2022)

Nongenomic Activities of Vitamin D.

Nutrients, 14(23):.

Vitamin D shows a variety of pleiotropic activities which cannot be fully explained by the stimulation of classic pathway- and vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent transcriptional modulation. Thus, existence of rapid and nongenomic responses to vitamin D was suggested. An active form of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2D3) is an essential regulator of calcium-phosphate homeostasis, and this process is tightly regulated by VDR genomic activity. However, it seems that early in evolution, the production of secosteroids (vitamin-D-like steroids) and their subsequent photodegradation served as a protective mechanism against ultraviolet radiation and oxidative stress. Consequently, direct cell-protective activities of vitamin D were proven. Furthermore, calcitriol triggers rapid calcium influx through epithelia and its uptake by a variety of cells. Subsequently, protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) was described as a membrane vitamin D receptor responsible for rapid nongenomic responses. Vitamin D was also found to stimulate a release of secondary massagers and modulate several intracellular processes-including cell cycle, proliferation, or immune responses-through wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog (SSH), STAT1-3, or NF-kappaB pathways. Megalin and its coreceptor, cubilin, facilitate the import of vitamin D complex with vitamin-D-binding protein (DBP), and its involvement in rapid membrane responses was suggested. Vitamin D also directly and indirectly influences mitochondrial function, including fusion-fission, energy production, mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of ion channels, and apoptosis. Although mechanisms of the nongenomic responses to vitamin D are still not fully understood, in this review, their impact on physiology, pathology, and potential clinical applications will be discussed.

RevDate: 2022-12-16
CmpDate: 2022-12-16

Ge Q, Peng P, Cheng M, et al (2022)

Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of FKBP Gene Family in Wheat (Triticum asetivum).

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(23):.

FK506-binding protein (FKBP) genes have been found to play vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, limited information is available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, a total of 64 FKBP genes were identified in wheat via a genome-wide analysis involving a homologous search of the latest wheat genome data, which was unevenly distributed in 21 chromosomes, encoded 152 to 649 amino acids with molecular weights ranging from 16 kDa to 72 kDa, and was localized in the chloroplast, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisome and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, 64 TaFKBPs were divided into four different groups or subfamilies, providing evidence of an evolutionary relationship with Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum dicoccoides, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Hormone-related, abiotic stress-related and development-related cis-elements were preferentially presented in promoters of TaFKBPs. The expression levels of TaFKBP genes were investigated using transcriptome data from the WheatExp database, which exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Moreover, TaFKBPs responded to drought and heat stress, and nine of them were randomly selected for validation by qRT-PCR. Yeast cells expressing TaFKBP19-2B-2 or TaFKBP18-6B showed increased influence on drought stress, indicating their negative roles in drought tolerance. Collectively, our results provide valuable information about the FKBP gene family in wheat and contribute to further characterization of FKBPs during plant development and abiotic stress responses, especially in drought stress.

RevDate: 2022-12-16
CmpDate: 2022-12-16

Kozhukhar N, MF Alexeyev (2022)

TFAM's Contributions to mtDNA Replication and OXPHOS Biogenesis Are Genetically Separable.

Cells, 11(23):.

The ability of animal orthologs of human mitochondrial transcription factor A (hTFAM) to support the replication of human mitochondrial DNA (hmtDNA) does not follow a simple pattern of phylogenetic closeness or sequence similarity. In particular, TFAM from chickens (Gallus gallus, chTFAM), unlike TFAM from the "living fossil" fish coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae), cannot support hmtDNA replication. Here, we implemented the recently developed GeneSwap approach for reverse genetic analysis of chTFAM to obtain insights into this apparent contradiction. By implementing limited "humanization" of chTFAM focused either on amino acid residues that make DNA contacts, or the ones with significant variances in side chains, we isolated two variants, Ch13 and Ch22. The former has a low mtDNA copy number (mtCN) but robust respiration. The converse is true of Ch22. Ch13 and Ch22 complement each other's deficiencies. Opposite directionalities of changes in mtCN and respiration were also observed in cells expressing frog TFAM. This led us to conclude that TFAM's contributions to mtDNA replication and respiratory chain biogenesis are genetically separable. We also present evidence that TFAM residues that make DNA contacts play the leading role in mtDNA replication. Finally, we present evidence for a novel mode of regulation of the respiratory chain biogenesis by regulating the supply of rRNA subunits.

RevDate: 2022-12-15
CmpDate: 2022-12-15

Leger MM, C Stairs (2022)

Eukaryotic evolution: Spatial proteomics sheds light on mitochondrial reduction.

Current biology : CB, 32(23):R1308-R1311.

Multi-organelle spatial proteomics has revolutionized animal cell biology, but its use in protists has so far been limited. A new study delivers the first such proteome of a free-living protist, uncovering a previously overlooked function of highly reduced mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Cahill MA (2022)

Unde venisti PGRMC? Grand-Scale Biology from Early Eukaryotes and Eumetazoan Animal Origins.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 27(11):317.

The title usage of Unde venisti 'from where have you come' is from a now dead language (Latin) that foundationally influenced modern English (not the major influence, but an essential formative one). This is an apt analogy for how both the ancient eukaryotic and eumetazoan functions of PGRMC proteins (PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 in mammals) probably influence modern human biology: via a formative trajectory from an evolutionarily foundational fulcrum. There is an arguable probability, although not a certainty, that PGRMC-like proteins were involved in eukaryogenesis. If so, then the proto-eukaryotic ancestral protein is modelled as having initiated the oxygen-induced and CYP450 (Cytochrome P450)-mediated synthesis of sterols in the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate proto-mitochondrial activity and heme homeostasis, as well as having enabled sterol transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria membranes involving the actin cytoskeleton, transport of heme from mitochondria, and possibly the regulation/origins of mitosis/meiosis. Later, during animal evolution, the last eumetazoan common ancestor (LEUMCA) acquired PGRMC phosphorylated tyrosines coincidentally with the gastrulation organizer, Netrin/deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) signaling, muscle fibers, synapsed neurons, and neural recovery via a sleep-like process. Modern PGRMC proteins regulate multiple functions, including CYP450-mediated steroidogenesis, membrane trafficking, heme homeostasis, glycolysis/Warburg effect, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial regulation, and genomic CpG epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The latter imposes the system of differentiation status-sensitive cell-type specific proteomic complements in multi-tissued descendants of the LEUMCA. This paper attempts to trace PGRMC functions through time, proposing that key functions were involved in early eukaryotes, and were later added upon in the LEUMCA. An accompanying paper considers the implications of this awareness for human health and disease.

RevDate: 2022-12-03

Missiroli S, Perrone M, Gafà R, et al (2022)

PML at mitochondria-associated membranes governs a trimeric complex with NLRP3 and P2X7R that modulates the tumor immune microenvironment.

Cell death and differentiation [Epub ahead of print].

Uncontrolled inflammatory response arising from the tumor microenvironment (TME) significantly contributes to cancer progression, prompting an investigation and careful evaluation of counter-regulatory mechanisms. We identified a trimeric complex at the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in which the purinergic P2X7 receptor - NLRP3 inflammasome liaison is fine-tuned by the tumor suppressor PML. PML downregulation drives an exacerbated immune response due to a loss of P2X7R-NLRP3 restraint that boosts tumor growth. PML mislocalization from MAMs elicits an uncontrolled NLRP3 activation, and consequent cytokines blast fueling cancer and worsening the tumor prognosis in different human cancers. New mechanistic insights are provided for the PML-P2X7R-NLRP3 axis to govern the TME in human carcinogenesis, fostering new targeted therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-30

Insalata F, Hoitzing H, Aryaman J, et al (2022)

Stochastic survival of the densest and mitochondrial DNA clonal expansion in aging.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(49):e2122073119.

The expansion of mitochondrial DNA molecules with deletions has been associated with aging, particularly in skeletal muscle fibers; its mechanism has remained unclear for three decades. Previous accounts have assigned a replicative advantage (RA) to mitochondrial DNA containing deletion mutations, but there is also evidence that cells can selectively remove defective mitochondrial DNA. Here we present a spatial model that, without an RA, but instead through a combination of enhanced density for mutants and noise, produces a wave of expanding mutations with speeds consistent with experimental data. A standard model based on RA yields waves that are too fast. We provide a formula that predicts that wave speed drops with copy number, consonant with experimental data. Crucially, our model yields traveling waves of mutants even if mutants are preferentially eliminated. Additionally, we predict that mutant loads observed in single-cell experiments can be produced by de novo mutation rates that are drastically lower than previously thought for neutral models. Given this exemplar of how spatial structure (multiple linked mtDNA populations), noise, and density affect muscle cell aging, we introduce the mechanism of stochastic survival of the densest (SSD), an alternative to RA, that may underpin other evolutionary phenomena.

RevDate: 2022-12-13
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Pożoga M, Armbruster L, M Wirtz (2022)

From Nucleus to Membrane: A Subcellular Map of the N-Acetylation Machinery in Plants.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(22):.

N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is an ancient protein modification conserved throughout all domains of life. N-terminally acetylated proteins are present in the cytosol, the nucleus, the plastids, mitochondria and the plasma membrane of plants. The frequency of NTA differs greatly between these subcellular compartments. While up to 80% of cytosolic and 20-30% of plastidic proteins are subject to NTA, NTA of mitochondrial proteins is rare. NTA alters key characteristics of proteins such as their three-dimensional structure, binding properties and lifetime. Since the majority of proteins is acetylated by five ribosome-bound N-terminal acetyltransferases (Nats) in yeast and humans, NTA was long perceived as an exclusively co-translational process in eukaryotes. The recent characterization of post-translationally acting plant Nats, which localize to the plasma membrane and the plastids, has challenged this view. Moreover, findings in humans, yeast, green algae and higher plants uncover differences in the cytosolic Nat machinery of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. These distinctive features of the plant Nat machinery might constitute adaptations to the sessile lifestyle of plants. This review sheds light on the unique role of plant N-acetyltransferases in development and stress responses as well as their evolution-driven adaptation to function in different cellular compartments.

RevDate: 2022-12-18

Munro D, Rodríguez E, PU Blier (2022)

The longest-lived metazoan, Arctica islandica, exhibits high mitochondrial H2O2 removal capacities.

Mitochondrion, 68:81-86 pii:S1567-7249(22)00102-7 [Epub ahead of print].

A greater capacity of endogenous matrix antioxidants has recently been hypothesized to characterize mitochondria of long-lived species, curbing bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in this organelle. Evidence for this has been obtained from studies comparing the long-lived naked mole rat to laboratory mice. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the longest-lived metazoan, the marine bivalve Arctica islandica (MLSP = 507 y), with shorter-lived and evolutionarily related species. We used a recently developed fluorescent technique to assess mantle and gill tissue mitochondria's capacity to consume hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in multiple physiological states ex vivo. Depending on the type of respiratory substrate provided, mitochondria of Arctica islandica could consume between 3 and 14 times more H2O2 than shorter-lived species. These findings support the contention that a greater capacity for the elimination of ROS characterizes long-lived species, a novel property of mitochondria thus far demonstrated in two key biogerontological models from distant evolutionary lineages.

RevDate: 2022-12-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Tang Y, Huo Z, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Full Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal Species Differences between the Venerid Clams Ruditapes philippinarum and R. variegatus.

Genes, 13(11):.

In natural sea areas along the coast of China, venerid clams Ruditapes philippinarum and R. variegatus exhibit similar adult shell forms and are especially difficult to distinguish as spat and juveniles. This study used comparative mitochondrial genome analysis to reveal differences between these species. The results showed that: (1) the mitochondrial genomes of R. philippinarum and R. variegatus share a large number of similar gene clusters arranged in consistent order, yet they also display noncommon genes, with both gene rearrangements and random losses found; (2) the 13 protein-coding genes in R. philippinarum as well as two-fold and four-fold degenerate sites in R. variegatus have an evident AT bias; (3) the Ka/Ks ratio of the mitochondrial ATP8 gene was significantly higher in R. philippinarum than in R. variegatus, and an analysis of selection pressure revealed that the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene of R. variegatus were under great selective pressure during its evolution; and finally, (4) the two species clustered into one branch on a phylogenetic tree, further affirming their phylogenetic closeness. Based on these results, we speculate that the species differences between R. variegatus and R. philippinarum are largely attributable to adaptive evolution to the environment. The present findings provide a reference for the development of germplasm identification.

RevDate: 2022-12-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Kyrgiafini MA, Giannoulis T, Moutou KA, et al (2022)

Investigating the Impact of a Curse: Diseases, Population Isolation, Evolution and the Mother's Curse.

Genes, 13(11):.

The mitochondrion was characterized for years as the energy factory of the cell, but now its role in many more cellular processes is recognized. The mitochondrion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also possess a set of distinct properties, including maternal inheritance, that creates the Mother's Curse phenomenon. As mtDNA is inherited from females to all offspring, mutations that are harmful to males tend to accumulate more easily. The Mother's Curse is associated with various diseases, and has a significant effect on males, in many cases even affecting their reproductive ability. Sometimes, it even leads to reproductive isolation, as in crosses between different populations, the mitochondrial genome cannot cooperate effectively with the nuclear one resulting in a mito-nuclear incompatibility and reduce the fitness of the hybrids. This phenomenon is observed both in the laboratory and in natural populations, and have the potential to influence their evolution and speciation. Therefore, it turns out that the study of mitochondria is an exciting field that finds many applications, including pest control, and it can shed light on the molecular mechanism of several diseases, improving successful diagnosis and therapeutics. Finally, mito-nuclear co-adaptation, paternal leakage, and kin selection are some mechanisms that can mitigate the impact of the Mother's Curse.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Ding H, Bi D, Zhang S, et al (2022)

The Mitogenome of Sedum plumbizincicola (Crassulaceae): Insights into RNA Editing, Lateral Gene Transfer, and Phylogenetic Implications.

Biology, 11(11):.

As the largest family within the order Saxifragales, Crassulaceae contains about 34 genera with 1400 species. Mitochondria play a critical role in cellular energy production. Since the first land plant mitogenome was reported in Arabidopsis, more than 400 mitogenomic sequences have been deposited in a public database. However, no entire mitogenome data have been available for species of Crassulaceae to date. To better understand the evolutionary history of the organelles of Crassulaceae, we sequenced and performed comprehensive analyses on the mitogenome of Sedum plumbizincicola. The master mitogenomic circle is 212,159 bp in length, including 31 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 14 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. We further identified totally 508 RNA editing sites in PCGs, and demonstrated that the second codon positions of mitochondrial genes are most prone to RNA editing events. Notably, by neutrality plot analyses, we observed that the mitochondrial RNA editing events have large effects on the driving forces of plant evolution. Additionally, 4 MTPTs and 686 NUMTs were detected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of S. plumbizincicola, respectively. Additionally, we conducted further analyses on gene transfer, secondary structures of mitochondrial RNAs, and phylogenetic implications. Therefore, the findings presented here will be helpful for future investigations on plant mitogenomes.

RevDate: 2022-12-11
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Aman Y, Erinjeri AP, Tataridas-Pallas N, et al (2022)

Loss of MTCH-1 suppresses age-related proteostasis collapse through the inhibition of programmed cell death factors.

Cell reports, 41(8):111690.

The age-related loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is at the heart of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, finding ways to preserve proteome integrity in aged cells may be a powerful way to promote long-term health. Here, we show that reducing the activity of a highly conserved mitochondrial outer membrane protein, MTCH-1/MTCH2, suppresses age-related proteostasis collapse in Caenorhabditis elegans without disrupting development, growth, or reproduction. Loss of MTCH-1 does not influence proteostasis capacity in aged tissues through previously described pathways but instead operates by reducing CED-4 levels. This results in the sequestration of HSP-90 by inactive CED-3, which in turn leads to an increase in HSF-1 activity, transcriptional remodeling of the proteostasis network, and maintenance of proteostasis capacity with age. Together, our findings reveal a role for programmed cell death factors in determining proteome health and suggest that inhibiting MTCH-1 activity in adulthood may safeguard the aging proteome and suppress age-related diseases.

RevDate: 2022-12-22
CmpDate: 2022-12-22

Sahayasheela VJ, Yu Z, Hidaka T, et al (2023)

Mitochondria and G-quadruplex evolution: an intertwined relationship.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 39(1):15-30.

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical structures formed in guanine (G)-rich sequences through stacked G tetrads by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. Several studies have demonstrated the existence of G4s in the genome of various organisms, including humans, and have proposed that G4s have a regulatory role in various cellular functions. However, little is known regarding the dissemination of G4s in mitochondria. In this review, we report the observation that the number of potential G4-forming sequences in the mitochondrial genome increases with the evolutionary complexity of different species, suggesting that G4s have a beneficial role in higher-order organisms. We also discuss the possible function of G4s in mitochondrial (mt)DNA and long noncoding (lnc)RNA and their role in various biological processes.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Guette-Marquet S, Roques C, A Bergel (2023)

Direct electrochemical detection of trans-plasma membrane electron transfer: A possible alternative pathway for cell respiration.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 220:114896.

An electrochemical protocol was designed to enable Vero cells to transfer electrons to an electrode without any added redox mediator. The cells were cultured on the surface of electrodes polarized at the optimal potential of 400 mV/silver pseudo-reference. Gold, carbon, and CNT-coated carbon electrodes displayed similar current record patterns. Extracellular electron transfer was sustained for several days. Its intensity, up to 1.5 pA.cell[-1], was in the range of the electron flows implemented by cell respiration. A large fraction of the current vanished as soon as anoxic conditions were established, which suggests a mitochondrial origin for a large proportion of the electrons. The current records always showed a two-phase pattern. The occurrence of the two phases was not due to an evolution of the cell mat structure, which was fully established during the first day of polarization and did not change significantly thereafter. Increasing the cell seeding density decreased the maximum current reached during the first phase and the duration of the phase. These observations put together lead us to propose a model, in which only the cells adhered on the electrode surface produced current by metabolizing glutamine during the first phase. The possible role of this extracellular electron transfer as an alternative cell respiration pathway is discussed. The key roles it could play in regulating pH and pO2 gradients are considered, specifically to explain the pH gradient reversal observed in cancer cells. These pioneering results pave the way for electrochemical sensors to directly address cellular metabolic pathways.

RevDate: 2022-12-15
CmpDate: 2022-12-15

Maciszewski K, Fells A, A Karnkowska (2022)

Challenging the Importance of Plastid Genome Structure Conservation: New Insights From Euglenophytes.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(12):.

Plastids, similar to mitochondria, are organelles of endosymbiotic origin, which retained their vestigial genomes (ptDNA). Their unique architecture, commonly referred to as the quadripartite (four-part) structure, is considered to be strictly conserved; however, the bulk of our knowledge on their variability and evolutionary transformations comes from studies of the primary plastids of green algae and land plants. To broaden our perspective, we obtained seven new ptDNA sequences from freshwater species of photosynthetic euglenids-a group that obtained secondary plastids, known to have dynamically evolving genome structure, via endosymbiosis with a green alga. Our analyses have demonstrated that the evolutionary history of euglenid plastid genome structure is exceptionally convoluted, with a patchy distribution of inverted ribosomal operon (rDNA) repeats, as well as several independent acquisitions of tandemly repeated rDNA copies. Moreover, we have shown that inverted repeats in euglenid ptDNA do not share their genome-stabilizing property documented in chlorophytes. We hypothesize that the degeneration of the quadripartite structure of euglenid plastid genomes is connected to the group II intron expansion. These findings challenge the current global paradigms of plastid genome architecture evolution and underscore the often-underestimated divergence between the functionality of shared traits in primary and complex plastid organelles.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Mallard J, Hucteau E, Schott R, et al (2022)

Early skeletal muscle deconditioning and reduced exercise capacity during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a hallmark of breast cancer and is associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. If cancer-related fatigue occurs early during chemotherapy (CT), the development of skeletal muscle deconditioning and its effect on exercise capacity remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of skeletal muscle deconditioning and exercise capacity in patients with early-stage breast cancer during CT.

METHODS: Patients with breast cancer had a visit before undergoing CT, at 8 weeks, and at the end of chemotherapy (post-CT). Body composition was determined through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Knee extensor, handgrip muscle force and fatigue was quantified by performing maximal voluntary isometric contractions and exercise capacity using the 6-min walking test. Questionnaires were also administered to evaluate quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, and physical activity level.

RESULTS: Among the 100 patients, reductions were found in muscle mass (-2.3%, p = .002), exercise capacity (-6.7%, p < .001), and knee extensor force (-4.9%, p < .001) post-CT, which occurred within the first 8 weeks of treatment with no further decrease thereafter. If muscle fatigue did not change, handgrip muscle force decreased post-CT only (-2.5%, p = .001), and exercise capacity continued to decrease between 8 weeks and post-CT (-4.6%, p < .001). Quality of life and cancer-related fatigue were impaired after 8 weeks (p < .001) and remained stable thereafter, whereas the physical activity level remained stable during chemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Similar to cancer-related fatigue, skeletal muscle deconditioning and reduced exercise capacity occurred early during breast cancer CT. Thus, it appears essential to prevent these alterations through exercise training implemented during CT.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Radzvilavicius AL, IG Johnston (2022)

Organelle bottlenecks facilitate evolvability by traversing heteroplasmic fitness valleys.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:974472.

Bioenergetic organelles-mitochondria and plastids-retain their own genomes (mtDNA and ptDNA), and these organelle DNA (oDNA) molecules are vital for eukaryotic life. Like all genomes, oDNA must be able to evolve to suit new environmental challenges. However, mixed oDNA populations in cells can challenge cellular bioenergetics, providing a penalty to the appearance and adaptation of new mutations. Here we show that organelle "bottlenecks," mechanisms increasing cell-to-cell oDNA variability during development, can overcome this mixture penalty and facilitate the adaptation of beneficial mutations. We show that oDNA heteroplasmy and bottlenecks naturally emerge in evolutionary simulations subjected to fluctuating environments, demonstrating that this evolvability is itself evolvable. Usually thought of as a mechanism to clear damaging mutations, organelle bottlenecks therefore also resolve the tension between intracellular selection for pure cellular oDNA populations and the "bet-hedging" need for evolvability and adaptation to new environments. This general theory suggests a reason for the maintenance of organelle heteroplasmy in cells, and may explain some of the observed diversity in organelle maintenance and inheritance across taxa.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Watson ET, Flanagan BA, Pascar JA, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial effects on fertility and longevity in Tigriopus californicus contradict predictions of the mother's curse hypothesis.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1987):20221211.

Strict maternal inheritance of mitochondria favours the evolutionary accumulation of sex-biased fitness effects, as mitochondrial evolution occurs exclusively in female lineages. The 'mother's curse' hypothesis proposes that male-harming mutations should accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when they have neutral or beneficial effects on female fitness. Rigorous empirical tests have largely focused on Drosophila, where support for the predictions of mother's curse has been mixed. We investigated the impact of mother's curse mutations in Tigriopus californicus, a minute crustacean. Using non-recombinant backcrosses, we introgressed four divergent mitochondrial haplotypes into two nuclear backgrounds and recorded measures of fertility and longevity. We found that the phenotypic effects of mitochondrial mutations were context dependent, being influenced by the nuclear background in which they were expressed, as well as the sex of the individual and rearing temperature. Mitochondrial haplotype effects were greater for fertility than longevity, and temperature effects were greater for longevity. However, in opposition to mother's curse expectations, females had higher mitochondrial genetic variance than males for fertility and longevity, little evidence of sexual antagonism favouring females was found, and the impacts of mitonuclear mismatch harmed females but not males. Together, this indicates that selection on mitochondrial variation has not resulted in the accumulation of male mutation load in Tigriopus californicus.

RevDate: 2022-12-22
CmpDate: 2022-12-21

Mencía M (2023)

Acid digestion and symbiont: Proton sharing at the origin of mitochondriogenesis?: Proton production by a symbiotic bacterium may have been the origin of two hallmark eukaryotic features, acid digestion and mitochondria: Proton production by a symbiotic bacterium may have been the origin of two hallmark eukaryotic features, acid digestion and mitochondria.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 45(1):e2200136.

The initial relationships between organisms leading to endosymbiosis and the first eukaryote are currently a topic of hot debate. Here, I present a theory that offers a gradual scenario in which the origins of phagocytosis and mitochondria are intertwined in such a way that the evolution of one would not be possible without the other. In this scenario, the premitochondrial bacterial symbiont became initially associated with a protophagocytic host on the basis of cooperation to kill prey with symbiont-produced toxins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, the cooperation was focused on the digestion stage, through the acidification of the protophagocytic cavities via exportation of protons produced by the aerobic respiration of the symbiont. The host gained an improved phagocytic capacity and the symbiont received organic compounds from prey. As the host gradually lost its membrane energetics to develop lysosomal digestion, respiration was centralized in the premitochondrial symbiont for energy production for the consortium.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Zhao W, Bu X, Zou H, et al (2022)

The Genome of the Mitochondrion-Related Organelle in Cepedea longa, a Large Endosymbiotic Opalinid Inhabiting the Recta of Frogs.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) are loosely defined as degenerated mitochondria in anaerobic and microaerophilic lineages. Opalinids are commonly regarded as commensals in the guts of cold-blooded amphibians. It may represent an intermediate adaptation stage between the conventional aerobic mitochondria and derived anaerobic MROs. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the MRO genome of Cepedea longa. It has a linear MRO genome with large inverted repeat gene regions at both ends. Compared to Blastocystis and Proteromonas lacertae, the MRO genome of C. longa has a higher G + C content and repeat sequences near the central region. Although three Opalinata species have different morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analyses based on eight concatenated nad genes indicate that they are close relatives. The phylogenetic analysis showed that C. longa clustered with P. lacertae with strong support. The 18S rRNA gene-based phylogeny resolved the Opalinea clade as a sister clade to Karotomorpha, which then further grouped with Proteromonas. The paraphyly of Proteromonadea needs to be verified due to the lack of MRO genomes for key species, such as Karotomorpha, Opalina and Protoopalina. Besides, our dataset and analyses offered slight support for the paraphyly of Bigyra.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Alves R, Pazos-Gil M, Medina-Carbonero M, et al (2022)

Evolution of an Iron-Detoxifying Protein: Eukaryotic and Rickettsia Frataxins Contain a Conserved Site Which Is Not Present in Their Bacterial Homologues.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin gene. Frataxin homologues, including bacterial CyaY proteins, can be found in most species and play a fundamental role in mitochondrial iron homeostasis, either promoting iron assembly into metaloproteins or contributing to iron detoxification. While several lines of evidence suggest that eukaryotic frataxins are more effective than bacterial ones in iron detoxification, the residues involved in this gain of function are unknown. In this work, we analyze conservation of amino acid sequence and protein structure among frataxins and CyaY proteins to identify four highly conserved residue clusters and group them into potential functional clusters. Clusters 1, 2, and 4 are present in eukaryotic frataxins and bacterial CyaY proteins. Cluster 3, containing two serines, a tyrosine, and a glutamate, is only present in eukaryotic frataxins and on CyaY proteins from the Rickettsia genus. Residues from cluster 3 are blocking a small cavity of about 40 Å present in E. coli's CyaY. The function of this cluster is unknown, but we hypothesize that its tyrosine may contribute to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species during iron detoxification. This cluster provides an example of gain of function during evolution in a protein involved in iron homeostasis, as our results suggests that Cluster 3 was present in the endosymbiont ancestor of mitochondria and was conserved in eukaryotic frataxins.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Boulygina E, Sharko F, Cheprasov M, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA Reveals Maternal Philopatry of the Northeast Eurasian Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) Population during the Holocene.

Genes, 13(11):.

Significant palaeoecological and paleoclimatic changes that took place during Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene transition are considered important factors that led to megafauna extinctions. Unlike many other species, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) has survived this geological time. Despite the fact that several mitochondrial DNA clades of brown bears became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, this species is still widely distributed in Northeast Eurasia. Here, using the ancient DNA analysis of a brown bear individual that inhabited Northeast Asia in the Middle Holocene (3460 ± 40 years BP) and comparative phylogenetic analysis, we show a significant mitochondrial DNA similarity of the studied specimen with modern brown bears inhabiting Yakutia and Chukotka. In this study, we clearly demonstrate the maternal philopatry of the Northeastern Eurasian U. arctos population during the several thousand years of the Holocene.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Wang Y, Hua X, Shi X, et al (2022)

Origin, Evolution, and Research Development of Donkeys.

Genes, 13(11):.

Lack of archaeological and whole-genome diversity data has restricted current knowledge of the evolutionary history of donkeys. With the advancement of science and technology, the discovery of archaeological evidence, the development of molecular genetics, and the improvement of whole-genome sequencing technology, the in-depth understanding of the origin and domestication of donkeys has been enhanced, however. Given the lack of systematic research, the present study carefully screened and collected multiple academic papers and books, journals, and literature on donkeys over the past 15 years. The origin and domestication of donkeys are reviewed in this paper from the aspects of basic information, cultural origin, bioarcheology, mitochondrial and chromosomal microsatellite sequences, and whole-genome sequence comparison. It also highlights and reviews genome assembly technology, by assembling the genome of an individual organism and comparing it with related sample genomes, which can be used to produce more accurate results through big data statistics, analysis, and computational correlation models. Background: The donkey industry in the world and especially in China is developing rapidly, and donkey farming is transforming gradually from the family farming model to large-scale, intensive, and integrated industrial operations, which could ensure the stability of product quality and quantity. However, theoretical research on donkey breeding and its technical development lags far behind that of other livestock, thereby limiting its industrial development. This review provides holistic information for the donkey industry and researchers, that could promote theoretical research, genomic selection (GS), and reproductive management of the donkey population.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Klucnika A, Mu P, Jezek J, et al (2023)

REC drives recombination to repair double-strand breaks in animal mtDNA.

The Journal of cell biology, 222(1):.

Mechanisms that safeguard mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) limit the accumulation of mutations linked to mitochondrial and age-related diseases. Yet, pathways that repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) in animal mitochondria are poorly understood. By performing a candidate screen for mtDNA repair proteins, we identify that REC-an MCM helicase that drives meiotic recombination in the nucleus-also localizes to mitochondria in Drosophila. We show that REC repairs mtDNA DSBs by homologous recombination in somatic and germline tissues. Moreover, REC prevents age-associated mtDNA mutations. We further show that MCM8, the human ortholog of REC, also localizes to mitochondria and limits the accumulation of mtDNA mutations. This study provides mechanistic insight into animal mtDNA recombination and demonstrates its importance in safeguarding mtDNA during ageing and evolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Raval PK, Garg SG, SB Gould (2022)

Endosymbiotic selective pressure at the origin of eukaryotic cell biology.

eLife, 11:.

The dichotomy that separates prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells runs deep. The transition from pro- to eukaryote evolution is poorly understood due to a lack of reliable intermediate forms and definitions regarding the nature of the first host that could no longer be considered a prokaryote, the first eukaryotic common ancestor, FECA. The last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, was a complex cell that united all traits characterising eukaryotic biology including a mitochondrion. The role of the endosymbiotic organelle in this radical transition towards complex life forms is, however, sometimes questioned. In particular the discovery of the asgard archaea has stimulated discussions regarding the pre-endosymbiotic complexity of FECA. Here we review differences and similarities among models that view eukaryotic traits as isolated coincidental events in asgard archaeal evolution or, on the contrary, as a result of and in response to endosymbiosis. Inspecting eukaryotic traits from the perspective of the endosymbiont uncovers that eukaryotic cell biology can be explained as having evolved as a solution to housing a semi-autonomous organelle and why the addition of another endosymbiont, the plastid, added no extra compartments. Mitochondria provided the selective pressures for the origin (and continued maintenance) of eukaryotic cell complexity. Moreover, they also provided the energetic benefit throughout eukaryogenesis for evolving thousands of gene families unique to eukaryotes. Hence, a synthesis of the current data lets us conclude that traits such as the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, autophagosomes, and meiosis and sex evolved as a response to the selective pressures an endosymbiont imposes.

RevDate: 2022-11-11

Liang P, Wang S, Lin Y, et al (2022)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Cepola schlegelii from the East China Sea.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(11):1925-1927.

Cepola schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) belongs to the genus Cepola in the family Cepolidae and order Priacanthiformes. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. schlegelii was sequenced and analyzed by a high-throughput sequencing approach. The full length of the genome is 17,020 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a non-coding control region (D-loop). Phylogenetic analysis based on complete mitochondrial genomes revealed that C. schlegelii was most closely related to Acanthocepola krusensternii. The complete mitochondrial sequence of C. schlegelii will enrich the mitochondrial genome database and provide useful resources for population genetics and evolution analyses.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

De AK, Bhattacharya D, Sawhney S, et al (2022)

Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus microplus in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: an insight into genetic assemblages.

Journal of genetics, 101:.

The tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is considered as the most notorious ectoparasite of veterinary importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present study deals with the molecular characterization of R. microplus in different regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands using sequence information of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COX1) and their phylogenetic relationship with other Indian R. microplus genotypes. DNA polymorphism study identified a total of eight haplotypes with haplotype diversity of 0.909 ± 0.065 and nucleotide diversity of 0.01911 ± 0.00493. Currently, R. microplus complex consists of five taxa; R. microplus clade A sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade B sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade C sensu Low et al. (2015), R. australis and R. annulatus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two clades (clade A and clade C) of R. microplus in Andaman and Nicobar isolates; Nicobar isolates belonged to clade A whereas Andaman isolates belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. All the other Indian sequences retrieved from GenBank belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. Andaman isolates under clade C of R. microplus were phylogenetically distinct from Indian isolates, which indicates independent speciation under isolated island milieu. In Indian isolates, no host-specific or geographical location-specific sub-clustering was observed which indicates the species jumping potential of the R. microplus tick. Therefore, this study indicated the presence of two different genetic makeup of R. microplus complex in two areas of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago separated by a natural geographical barrier. This indicates presence of two different founding populations of ticks, one in the south and north-middle Andaman and the other in Nicobar Island.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-04

Zhao B, Gao S, Zhao M, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial genomic analyses provide new insights into the "missing" atp8 and adaptive evolution of Mytilidae.

BMC genomics, 23(1):738.

BACKGROUND: Mytilidae, also known as marine mussels, are widely distributed in the oceans worldwide. Members of Mytilidae show a tremendous range of ecological adaptions, from the species distributed in freshwater to those that inhabit in deep-sea. Mitochondria play an important role in energy metabolism, which might contribute to the adaptation of Mytilidae to different environments. In addition, some bivalve species are thought to lack the mitochondrial protein-coding gene ATP synthase F0 subunit 8. Increasing studies indicated that the absence of atp8 may be caused by annotation difficulties for atp8 gene is characterized by highly divergent, variable length.

RESULTS: In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of three marine mussels (Xenostrobus securis, Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis, Gigantidas vrijenhoeki) were newly assembled, with the lengths of 14,972 bp, 20,482, and 17,786 bp, respectively. We annotated atp8 in the sequences that we assembled and the sequences lacking atp8. The newly annotated atp8 sequences all have one predicted transmembrane domain, a similar hydropathy profile, as well as the C-terminal region with positively charged amino acids. Furthermore, we reconstructed the phylogenetic trees and performed positive selection analysis. The results showed that the deep-sea bathymodiolines experienced more relaxed evolutionary constraints. And signatures of positive selection were detected in nad4 of Limnoperna fortunei, which may contribute to the survival and/or thriving of this species in freshwater.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis supported that atp8 may not be missing in the Mytilidae. And our results provided evidence that the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the adaptation of Mytilidae to different environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-04

Picard M, OS Shirihai (2022)

Mitochondrial signal transduction.

Cell metabolism, 34(11):1620-1653.

The analogy of mitochondria as powerhouses has expired. Mitochondria are living, dynamic, maternally inherited, energy-transforming, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that actively transduce biological information. We argue that mitochondria are the processor of the cell, and together with the nucleus and other organelles they constitute the mitochondrial information processing system (MIPS). In a three-step process, mitochondria (1) sense and respond to both endogenous and environmental inputs through morphological and functional remodeling; (2) integrate information through dynamic, network-based physical interactions and diffusion mechanisms; and (3) produce output signals that tune the functions of other organelles and systemically regulate physiology. This input-to-output transformation allows mitochondria to transduce metabolic, biochemical, neuroendocrine, and other local or systemic signals that enhance organismal adaptation. An explicit focus on mitochondrial signal transduction emphasizes the role of communication in mitochondrial biology. This framework also opens new avenues to understand how mitochondria mediate inter-organ processes underlying human health.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

McGlynn SE, Perkins G, Sim MS, et al (2022)

A Cristae-Like Microcompartment in Desulfobacterota.

mBio, 13(6):e0161322 [Epub ahead of print].

Some Alphaproteobacteria contain intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) and proteins homologous to those responsible for the mitochondrial cristae, an observation which has given rise to the hypothesis that the Alphaproteobacteria endosymbiont had already evolved cristae-like structures and functions. However, our knowledge of microbial fine structure is still limited, leaving open the possibility of structurally homologous ICMs outside the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report on the detailed characterization of lamellar cristae-like ICMs in environmental sulfate-reducing Desulfobacterota that form syntrophic partnerships with anaerobic methane-oxidizing (ANME) archaea. These structures are junction-bound to the cytoplasmic membrane and resemble the form seen in the lamellar cristae of opisthokont mitochondria. Extending these observations, we also characterized similar structures in Desulfovibrio carbinolicus, a close relative of the magnetotactic D. magneticus, which does not contain magnetosomes. Despite a remarkable structural similarity, the key proteins involved in cristae formation have not yet been identified in Desulfobacterota, suggesting that an analogous, but not a homologous, protein organization system developed during the evolution of some members of Desulfobacterota. IMPORTANCE Working with anaerobic consortia of methane oxidizing ANME archaea and their sulfate-reducing bacterial partners recovered from deep sea sediments and with the related sulfate-reducing bacterial isolate D. carbinolicus, we discovered that their intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) appear remarkably similar to lamellar cristae. Three-dimensional electron microscopy allowed for the novel analysis of the nanoscale attachment of ICMs to the cytoplasmic membrane, and these ICMs are structurally nearly identical to the crista junction architecture seen in metazoan mitochondria. However, the core junction-forming proteins must be different. The outer membrane vesicles were observed to bud from syntrophic Desulfobacterota, and darkly stained granules were prominent in both Desulfobacterota and D. carbinolicus. These findings expand the taxonomic breadth of ICM-producing microorganisms and add to our understanding of three-dimensional microbial fine structure in environmental microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-12-18
CmpDate: 2022-11-10

Liu Y, Zhou J, Zhang N, et al (2022)

Two sensory neurons coordinate the systemic mitochondrial stress response via GPCR signaling in C. elegans.

Developmental cell, 57(21):2469-2482.e5.

Mitochondrial perturbations within neurons communicate stress signals to peripheral tissues, coordinating organismal-wide mitochondrial homeostasis for optimal fitness. However, the neuronal control of the systemic stress regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), SRZ-75, that couples with Gαq signaling in a pair of chemosensory ADL neurons to drive the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR[mt]) activation in the intestine via the release of neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans. Constitutive activation of Gαq signaling in the ADL neurons is sufficient to induce the intestinal UPR[mt], leading to increased stress resistance and metabolic adaptations. Ablation of ADL neurons attenuates the intestinal UPR[mt] activation in response to various forms of neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, GPCR and its Gαq downstream signaling in two sensory neurons coordinate the systemic UPR[mt] activation, representing a previously uncharacterized, but potentially conserved, neuronal signaling for organismal-wide mitochondrial stress regulation.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Liu Q, Zhang L, Zou Y, et al (2022)

Modulating p-AMPK/mTOR Pathway of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Caused by MTERF1 Abnormal Expression in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(20):.

Human mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1 (MTERF1) has been demonstrated to play an important role in mitochondrial gene expression regulation. However, the molecular mechanism of MTERF1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. Here, we found that MTERF1 expression was significantly increased in colon cancer tissues compared with normal colorectal tissue by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarrays (TMA). Overexpression of MTERF1 in the HT29 cell promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and xenograft tumor formation, whereas knockdown of MTERF1 in HCT116 cells appeared to be the opposite phenotype to HT29 cells. Furthermore, MTERF1 can increase mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, transcription, and protein synthesis in colorectal cancer cells; increase ATP levels, the mitochondrial crista density, mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR); and reduce the ROS production in colorectal cancer cells, thereby enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity. Mechanistically, we revealed that MTERF1 regulates the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in cancerous cell lines, and we also confirmed the involvement of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in both xenograft tumor tissues and colorectal cancer tissues. In summary, our data reveal an oncogenic role of MTERF1 in CRC progression, indicating that MTERF1 may represent a new therapeutic target in the future.

RevDate: 2022-12-20
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Weaver RJ, Rabinowitz S, Thueson K, et al (2022)

Genomic Signatures of Mitonuclear Coevolution in Mammals.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(11):.

Mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear-encoded proteins are integrated in aerobic respiration, requiring co-functionality among gene products from fundamentally different genomes. Different evolutionary rates, inheritance mechanisms, and selection pressures set the stage for incompatibilities between interacting products of the two genomes. The mitonuclear coevolution hypothesis posits that incompatibilities may be avoided if evolution in one genome selects for complementary changes in interacting genes encoded by the other genome. Nuclear compensation, in which deleterious mtDNA changes are offset by compensatory nuclear changes, is often invoked as the primary mechanism for mitonuclear coevolution. Yet, direct evidence supporting nuclear compensation is rare. Here, we used data from 58 mammalian species representing eight orders to show strong correlations between evolutionary rates of mt and nuclear-encoded mt-targeted (N-mt) proteins, but not between mt and non-mt-targeted nuclear proteins, providing strong support for mitonuclear coevolution across mammals. N-mt genes with direct mt interactions also showed the strongest correlations. Although most N-mt genes had elevated dN/dS ratios compared to mt genes (as predicted under nuclear compensation), N-mt sites in close contact with mt proteins were not overrepresented for signs of positive selection compared to noncontact N-mt sites (contrary to predictions of nuclear compensation). Furthermore, temporal patterns of N-mt and mt amino acid substitutions did not support predictions of nuclear compensation, even in positively selected, functionally important residues with direct mitonuclear contacts. Overall, our results strongly support mitonuclear coevolution across ∼170 million years of mammalian evolution but fail to support nuclear compensation as the major mode of mitonuclear coevolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Guo C, Wang A, Cheng H, et al (2022)

New imaging instrument in animal models: Two-photon miniature microscope and large field of view miniature microscope for freely behaving animals.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past decade, novel optical imaging tools have been developed for imaging neuronal activities along with the evolution of fluorescence indicators with brighter expression and higher sensitivity. Miniature microscopes, as revolutionary approaches, enable the imaging of large populations of neuron ensembles in freely behaving rodents and mammals, which allows exploring the neural basis of behaviors. Recent progress in two-photon miniature microscopes and mesoscale single-photon miniature microscopes further expand those affordable methods to navigate neural activities during naturalistic behaviors. In this review article, two-photon miniature microscopy techniques are summarized historically from the first documented attempt to the latest ones, and comparisons are made. The driving force behind and their potential for neuroscientific inquiries are also discussed. Current progress in terms of the mesoscale, i.e., the large field-of-view miniature microscopy technique, is addressed as well. Then, pipelines for registering single cells from the data of two-photon and large field-of-view miniature microscopes are discussed. Finally, we present the potential evolution of the techniques.

RevDate: 2022-12-13
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Martijn J, Vosseberg J, Guy L, et al (2022)

Phylogenetic affiliation of mitochondria with Alpha-II and Rickettsiales is an artefact.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(12):1829-1831.

RevDate: 2022-12-13
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Fan L, Wu D, Goremykin V, et al (2022)

Reply to: Phylogenetic affiliation of mitochondria with Alpha-II and Rickettsiales is an artefact.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(12):1832-1835.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )