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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Sep 2020 at 01:50 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-09-15
CmpDate: 2020-09-15

Lareau CA, Ludwig LS, VG Sankaran (2019)

Longitudinal assessment of clonal mosaicism in human hematopoiesis via mitochondrial mutation tracking.

Blood advances, 3(24):4161-4165.

Our ability to track cellular dynamics in humans over time in vivo has been limited. Here, we demonstrate how somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be used to longitudinally track the dynamic output of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in humans. Over the course of 3 years of blood sampling in a single individual, our analyses reveal somatic mtDNA sequence variation and evolution reminiscent of models of hematopoiesis established by genetic labeling approaches. Furthermore, we observe fluctuations in mutation heteroplasmy, coinciding with specific clinical events, such as infections, and further identify lineage-specific somatic mtDNA mutations in longitudinally sampled circulating blood cell subsets in individuals with leukemia. Collectively, these observations indicate the significant potential of using tracking of somatic mtDNA sequence variation as a broadly applicable approach to systematically assess hematopoietic clonal dynamics in human health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

de Oliveira VC, Gomes Mariano Junior C, Belizário JE, et al (2020)

Characterization of post-edited cells modified in the TFAM gene by CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the bovine model.

PloS one, 15(7):e0235856.

Gene editing in large animal models for future applications in translational medicine and food production must be deeply investigated for an increase of knowledge. The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a member of the HMGB subfamily that binds to mtDNA promoters. This gene maintains mtDNA, and it is essential for the initiation of mtDNA transcription. Lately, we generated a new cell line through the disruption of the TFAM gene in bovine fibroblast cells by CRISPR/Cas 9 technology. We showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 design was efficient through the generation of heterozygous mutant clones. In this context, once this gene regulates the mtDNA replication specificity, the study aimed to determine if the post-edited cells are capable of in vitro maintenance and assess if they present changes in mtDNA copies and mitochondrial membrane potential after successive passages in culture. The post-edited cells were expanded in culture, and we performed a growth curve, doubling time, cell viability, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. The editing process did not make cell culture unfeasible, even though cell growth rate and viability were decreased compared to control since we observed the cells grow well when cultured in a medium supplemented with uridine and pyruvate. They also exhibited a classical fibroblastoid appearance. The RT-qPCR to determine the mtDNA copy number showed a decrease in the edited clones compared to the non-edited ones (control) in different cell passages. Cell staining with Mitotracker Green and red suggests a reduction in red fluorescence in the edited cells compared to the non-edited cells. Thus, through characterization, we demonstrated that the TFAM gene is critical to mitochondrial maintenance due to its interference in the stability of the mitochondrial DNA copy number in different cell passages and membrane potential confirming the decrease in mitochondrial activity in cells edited in heterozygosis.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Yamada Y, Sato Y, Nakamura T, et al (2020)

Evolution of drug delivery system from viewpoint of controlled intracellular trafficking and selective tissue targeting toward future nanomedicine.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(20)30514-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the rapid changes that have occurred in the field of drug discovery and the recent developments in the early 21st century, the role of drug delivery systems (DDS) has become increasingly more important. For the past 20 years, our laboratory has been developing gene delivery systems based on lipid-based delivery systems. One of our efforts has been directed toward developing a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) by modifying the particle surface with octaarginine, which resulted in a remarkably enhanced cellular uptake and improved intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA (pDNA). When we moved to in vivo applications, however, we were faced with the PEG-dilemma and we shifted our strategy to the incorporation of ionizable cationic lipids into our system. This resulted in some dramatic improvements over our original design and this can be attributed to the development of a new lipid library. We have also developed a mitochondrial targeting system based on a membrane fusion mechanism using a MITO-Porter, which can deliver nucleic acids/pDNA into the matrix of mitochondria. After the appearance of antibody medicines, Opdivo, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, has established cancer immunology as the 4th strategy in cancer therapy. Our DDS technologies can also be applied to this new field of cancer therapy to cure cancer by controlling our immune mechanisms. The latest studies are summarized in this review article.

RevDate: 2020-09-10
CmpDate: 2020-09-10

Garraffoni ARS, Araújo TQ, Lourenço AP, et al (2019)

Integrative taxonomy of a new Redudasys species (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) sheds light on the invasion of fresh water habitats by macrodasyids.

Scientific reports, 9(1):2067.

The order Macrodasyida (Gastrotricha) includes over 350 marine species, and only 3 freshwater species (Marinellina flagellata, Redudasys fornerise, R. neotemperatus). Herein we describe a new freshwater species of Macrodasyida, Redudasys brasiliensis sp. nov., from Brazil through an integrative taxonomic approach. The external morphology and internal anatomy were investigated using differential interference contrast microscopy, confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The systematization of the new taxon was inferred by nuclear (18S and 28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes, and its intra-order relationships were assessed using data from most of available macrodasyids. Phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees, in which the new taxon is nested within the family Redudasyidae, but it was genetically distinct from the other species of the genus Redudasys. The new species shares the gross morphology and reproductive traits with other Redudasyidae and the presence of only 1 anterior adhesive tube per side with Redudasys neotemperatus, but it has a specific pattern of ventral ciliation and muscle organization. Results support the hypothesis that dispersion into fresh water habitats by Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida taxa occurred independently and that within Macrodasyida a single lineage invaded the freshwater environment only once. Furthermore, the Neotropical region seems to be peculiar for the evolution of the freshwater macrodasyid clade.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Mallard J, Hucteau E, Schott R, et al (2020)

Evolution of Physical Status From Diagnosis to the End of First-Line Treatment in Breast, Lung, and Colorectal Cancer Patients: The PROTECT-01 Cohort Study Protocol.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:1304.

Background: Cancer cachexia and exacerbated fatigue represent two hallmarks in cancer patients, negatively impacting their exercise tolerance and ultimately their quality of life. However, the characterization of patients' physical status and exercise tolerance and, most importantly, their evolution throughout cancer treatment may represent the first step in efficiently counteracting their development with prescribed and tailored exercise training. In this context, the aim of the PROTECT-01 study will be to investigate the evolution of physical status, from diagnosis to the end of first-line treatment, of patients with one of the three most common cancers (i.e., lung, breast, and colorectal). Methods: The PROTECT-01 cohort study will include 300 patients equally divided between lung, breast and colorectal cancer. Patients will perform a series of assessments at three visits throughout the treatment: (1) between the date of diagnosis and the start of treatment, (2) 8 weeks after the start of treatment, and (3) after the completion of first-line treatment or at the 6-months mark, whichever occurs first. For each of the three visits, subjective and objective fatigue, maximal voluntary force, body composition, cachexia, physical activity level, quality of life, respiratory function, overall physical performance, and exercise tolerance will be assessed. Discussion: The present study is aimed at identifying the nature and severity of maladaptation related to exercise intolerance in the three most common cancers. Therefore, our results should contribute to the delineation of the needs of each group of patients and to the determination of the most valuable exercise interventions in order to counteract these maladaptations. This descriptive and comprehensive approach is a prerequisite in order to elaborate, through future interventional research projects, tailored exercise strategies to counteract specific symptoms that are potentially cancer type-dependent and, in fine, to improve the health and quality of life of cancer patients. Moreover, our concomitant focus on fatigue and cachexia will provide insightful information about two factors that may have substantial interaction but require further investigation. Trial registration: This prospective study has been registered at (NCT03956641), May, 2019.

RevDate: 2020-09-09
CmpDate: 2020-09-09

Fernando HSD, Hapugoda M, Perera R, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial metabolic genes provide phylogeographic relationships of global collections of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

PloS one, 15(7):e0235430.

Phylogeographic relationships among global collections of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were evaluated using the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 (CO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes including new sequences from Sri Lanka. Phylogeographic analysis estimated that Ae. aegypti arose as a species ~614 thousand years ago (kya) in the late Pleistocene. At 545 kya an "early" East African clade arose that continued to differentiate in East Africa, and eventually gave rise to three lineages one of which is distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical regions, a second that contains Southeast Asian/Sri Lankan mosquitoes and a third that contains mostly New World mosquitoes. West African collections were not represented in this early clade. The late clade continued to differentiate throughout Africa and gave rise to a lineage that spread globally. The most recent branches of the late clade are represented by South-East Asia and India/Pakistan collections. Analysis of migration rates suggests abundant gene flow between India/Pakistan and the rest of the world with the exception of Africa.

RevDate: 2020-09-09
CmpDate: 2020-09-09

Rossi NA, Menchaca-Rodriguez A, Antelo R, et al (2020)

High levels of population genetic differentiation in the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus).

PloS one, 15(7):e0235288.

The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a widely distributed species across coastal and brackish areas of the Neotropical region of the Americas and the Greater Antilles. Available information on patterns of genetic differentiation in C. acutus shows a complex structuring influenced by interspecific interactions (mainly hybridization) and anthropogenic actions (mostly historical hunting, recent poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation, and unintentional translocation of individuals). In this study, we used data on mitochondrial DNA control region and 11 nuclear polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the degree of population structure of C. acutus in South America, North America, Central America and the Greater Antilles. We used traditional genetic differentiation indices, Bayesian clustering and multivariate methods to create a more comprehensive picture of the genetic relationships within the species across its range. Analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite loci show evidence of a strong population genetic structure in the American crocodile, with unique populations in each sampling locality. Our results support previous findings showing large degrees of genetic differentiation between the continental and the Greater Antillean C. acutus. We report three new haplotypes unique to Venezuela, which are considerably less distant from the Central and North American haplotypes than to the Greater Antillean ones. Our findings reveal genetic population differentiation between Cuban and Jamaican C. acutus and offer the first evidence of strong genetic differentiation among the populations of Greater Antillean C. acutus.

RevDate: 2020-09-09
CmpDate: 2020-09-09

Gao H, Li N, Huang Y, et al (2020)

Taxonomic status of Chinese blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur): new evidence of a distinct subspecies.

Integrative zoology, 15(3):202-212.

The blue sheep is an endemic species to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding regions. It has been regarded as having 2 subspecies: Pseudois nayaur nayaur and P. n. szechuanensis. However, such a classification remains controversial. Herein, we analyze 10 microsatellite loci and part of the mitochondrial control region for clarification in such taxonomic debates. We use samples from 168 individuals from 6 geographic populations covering almost all the distribution areas of the species in China to carry out comparisons. Phylogenetic trees derived from both the microsatellite and mitochondrial markers combined with the discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and the STRUCTURE analysis reveal that the individuals in the Helan Mountains are well grouped with a distinct evolutionary lineage and are significantly different from the other populations of P. n. szechuanensis according to Fst values, implying that this isolated population should be categorized as a valid subspecies; namely, Pseudois nayaur alashanicus. The isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis shows a significant positive relationship between genetic and geographical distances among the populations.

RevDate: 2020-09-08

Zhao D, Wang H, Chen S, et al (2020)

Phytomelatonin: An Emerging Regulator of Plant Biotic Stress Resistance.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(20)30256-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Melatonin has diverse functions in plant development and stress tolerance, with recent evidence showing a beneficial role in plant biotic stress tolerance. It has been hypothesized that pathogenic invasion causes the immediate generation of melatonin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), with these being mutually dependent, forming the integrative melatonin-ROS-RNS feedforward loop. Here we discuss how the loop, possibly located in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, maximizes disease resistance in the early pathogen ingress stage, providing on-site protection. We also review how melatonin interacts with phytohormone signaling pathways to mediate defense responses and discuss the evolutionary context from the beginnings of the melatonin receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in unicellular green algae, followed by the occurrence of phytohormone pathways in land plants.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Ivanova A, Gill-Hille M, Huang S, et al (2019)

A Mitochondrial LYR Protein Is Required for Complex I Assembly.

Plant physiology, 181(4):1632-1650.

Complex I biogenesis requires the expression of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, the import of proteins, cofactor biosynthesis, and the assembly of at least 49 individual subunits. Assembly factors interact with subunits of Complex I but are not part of the final holocomplex. We show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a mitochondrial matrix protein (EMB1793, At1g76060), which we term COMPLEX I ASSEMBLY FACTOR 1 (CIAF1), contains a LYR domain and is required for Complex I assembly. T-DNA insertion mutants of CIAF1 lack Complex I and the Supercomplex I+III. Biochemical characterization shows that the assembly of Complex I is stalled at 650 and 800 kD intermediates in mitochondria isolated from ciaf1 mutant lines.I. Yeast-two-hybrid interaction and complementation assays indicate that CIAF1 specifically interacts with the 23-kD TYKY-1 matrix domain subunit of Complex I and likely plays a role in Fe-S insertion into this subunit. These data show that CIAF1 plays an essential role in assembling the peripheral matrix arm Complex I subunits into the Complex I holoenzyme.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Dell'Aglio E, Giustini C, Kraut A, et al (2019)

Identification of the Arabidopsis Calmodulin-Dependent NAD+ Kinase That Sustains the Elicitor-Induced Oxidative Burst.

Plant physiology, 181(4):1449-1458.

NADP(H) is an essential cofactor of multiple metabolic processes in all living organisms, and in plants, NADP(H) is required as the substrate of Ca2+-dependent NADPH oxidases, which catalyze a reactive oxygen species burst in response to various stimuli. While NADP+ production in plants has long been known to involve a calmodulin (CaM)/Ca2+-dependent NAD+ kinase, the nature of the enzyme catalyzing this activity has remained enigmatic, as has its role in plant physiology. Here, we used proteomic, biochemical, molecular, and in vivo analyses to identify an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protein that catalyzes NADP+ production exclusively in the presence of CaM/Ca2+ This enzyme, which we named NAD kinase-CaM dependent (NADKc), has a CaM-binding peptide located in its N-terminal region and displays peculiar biochemical properties as well as different domain organization compared with known plant NAD+ kinases. In response to a pathogen elicitor, the activity of NADKc, which is associated with the mitochondrial periphery, contributes to an increase in the cellular NADP+ concentration and to the amplification of the elicitor-induced oxidative burst. Based on a phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic assays, we propose that the CaM/Ca2+-dependent NAD+ kinase activity found in photosynthetic organisms is carried out by NADKc-related proteins. Thus, NADKc represents the missing link between Ca2+ signaling, metabolism, and the oxidative burst.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Royes J, Biou V, Dautin N, et al (2020)

Inducible intracellular membranes: molecular aspects and emerging applications.

Microbial cell factories, 19(1):176 pii:10.1186/s12934-020-01433-x.

Membrane remodeling and phospholipid biosynthesis are normally tightly regulated to maintain the shape and function of cells. Indeed, different physiological mechanisms ensure a precise coordination between de novo phospholipid biosynthesis and modulation of membrane morphology. Interestingly, the overproduction of certain membrane proteins hijack these regulation networks, leading to the formation of impressive intracellular membrane structures in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The proteins triggering an abnormal accumulation of membrane structures inside the cells (or membrane proliferation) share two major common features: (1) they promote the formation of highly curved membrane domains and (2) they lead to an enrichment in anionic, cone-shaped phospholipids (cardiolipin or phosphatidic acid) in the newly formed membranes. Taking into account the available examples of membrane proliferation upon protein overproduction, together with the latest biochemical, biophysical and structural data, we explore the relationship between protein synthesis and membrane biogenesis. We propose a mechanism for the formation of these non-physiological intracellular membranes that shares similarities with natural inner membrane structures found in α-proteobacteria, mitochondria and some viruses-infected cells, pointing towards a conserved feature through evolution. We hope that the information discussed in this review will give a better grasp of the biophysical mechanisms behind physiological and induced intracellular membrane proliferation, and inspire new applications, either for academia (high-yield membrane protein production and nanovesicle production) or industry (biofuel production and vaccine preparation).

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Karakaidos P, T Rampias (2020)

Mitonuclear Interactions in the Maintenance of Mitochondrial Integrity.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9): pii:life10090173.

In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria originated in an α-proteobacterial endosymbiont. Although these organelles harbor their own genome, the large majority of genes, originally encoded in the endosymbiont, were either lost or transferred to the nucleus. As a consequence, mitochondria have become semi-autonomous and most of their processes require the import of nuclear-encoded components to be functional. Therefore, the mitochondrial-specific translation has evolved to be coordinated by mitonuclear interactions to respond to the energetic demands of the cell, acquiring unique and mosaic features. However, mitochondrial-DNA-encoded genes are essential for the assembly of the respiratory chain complexes. Impaired mitochondrial function due to oxidative damage and mutations has been associated with numerous human pathologies, the aging process, and cancer. In this review, we highlight the unique features of mitochondrial protein synthesis and provide a comprehensive insight into the mitonuclear crosstalk and its co-evolution, as well as the vulnerabilities of the animal mitochondrial genome.

RevDate: 2020-09-02
CmpDate: 2020-09-02

Pyrih J, Rašková V, Škodová-Sveráková I, et al (2020)

ZapE/Afg1 interacts with Oxa1 and its depletion causes a multifaceted phenotype.

PloS one, 15(6):e0234918.

ZapE/Afg1 is a component of the inner cell membrane of some eubacteria and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. This protein is involved in FtsZ-dependent division of eubacteria. In the yeast and human mitochondrion, ZapE/Afg1 likely interacts with Oxa1 and facilitates the degradation of mitochondrion-encoded subunits of respiratory complexes. Furthermore, the depletion of ZapE increases resistance to apoptosis, decreases oxidative stress tolerance, and impacts mitochondrial protein homeostasis. It remains unclear whether ZapE is a multifunctional protein, or whether some of the described effects are just secondary phenotypes. Here, we have analyzed the functions of ZapE in Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist, and an important model organism. Using a newly developed proximity-dependent biotinylation approach (BioID2), we have identified the inner mitochondrial membrane insertase Oxa1 among three putative interacting partners of ZapE, which is present in two paralogs. RNAi-mediated depletion of both ZapE paralogs likely affected the function of respiratory complexes I and IV. Consistently, we show that the distribution of mitochondrial ZapE is restricted only to organisms with Oxa1, respiratory complexes, and a mitochondrial genome. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved interaction of ZapE with Oxa1, which is required for proper insertion of many inner mitochondrial membrane proteins, is behind the multifaceted phenotype caused by the ablation of ZapE.

RevDate: 2020-09-01

Seeliger B, Alesina PF, Walz MK, et al (2020)

Intraoperative imaging for remnant viability assessment in bilateral posterior retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy in an experimental model.

The British journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: A surgical approach preserving functional adrenal tissue allows biochemical cure while avoiding the need for lifelong steroid replacement. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative imaging during bilateral partial adrenalectomy on remnant perfusion and function.

METHODS: Five pigs underwent bilateral posterior retroperitoneoscopic central adrenal gland division (9 divided glands, 1 undivided). Intraoperative perfusion assessment included computer-assisted quantitative fluorescence imaging, contrast-enhanced CT, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and local lactate sampling. Specimen analysis after completion adrenalectomy (10 adrenal glands) comprised mitochondrial activity and electron microscopy.

RESULTS: Fluorescence signal intensity evolution over time was significantly lower in the cranial segment of each adrenal gland (mean(s.d.) 0·052(0·057) versus 0·133(0·057) change in intensity per s for cranial versus caudal parts respectively; P = 0·020). Concordantly, intraoperative CT in the portal phase demonstrated significantly lower contrast uptake in cranial segments (P = 0·031). In CLE, fluorescein contrast was observed in all caudal segments, but in only four of nine cranial segments (P = 0·035). Imaging findings favouring caudal perfusion were congruent, with significantly lower local capillary lactate levels caudally (mean(s.d.) 5·66(5·79) versus 11·58(6·53) mmol/l for caudal versus cranial parts respectively; P = 0·008). Electron microscopy showed more necrotic cells cranially (P = 0·031). There was no disparity in mitochondrial activity (respiratory rates, reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide production) between the different segments.

CONCLUSION: In a model of bilateral partial adrenalectomy, three intraoperative imaging modalities consistently discriminated between regular and reduced adrenal remnant perfusion. By avoiding circumferential dissection, mitochondrial function was preserved in each segment of the adrenal glands. Surgical relevance Preservation of adrenal tissue to maintain postoperative function is essential in bilateral and hereditary adrenal pathologies. There is interindividual variation in residual adrenocortical stress capacity, and the minimal functional remnant size is unknown. New intraoperative imaging technologies allow improved remnant size and perfusion assessment. Fluorescence imaging and contrast-enhanced intraoperative CT showed congruent results in evaluation of perfusion. Intraoperative imaging can help to visualize the remnant vascular supply in partial adrenalectomy. Intraoperative assessment of perfusion may foster maximal functional tissue preservation in bilateral adrenal pathologies and procedures.

RevDate: 2020-09-01

Dawson ER, Patananan AN, Sercel AJ, et al (2020)

Stable retention of chloramphenicol-resistant mtDNA to rescue metabolically impaired cells.

Scientific reports, 10(1):14328 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-71199-0.

The permanent transfer of specific mtDNA sequences into mammalian cells could generate improved models of mtDNA disease and support future cell-based therapies. Previous studies documented multiple biochemical changes in recipient cells shortly after mtDNA transfer, but the long-term retention and function of transferred mtDNA remains unknown. Here, we evaluate mtDNA retention in new host cells using 'MitoPunch', a device that transfers isolated mitochondria into mouse and human cells. We show that newly introduced mtDNA is stably retained in mtDNA-deficient (ρ0) recipient cells following uridine-free selection, although exogenous mtDNA is lost from metabolically impaired, mtDNA-intact (ρ+) cells. We then introduced a second selective pressure by transferring chloramphenicol-resistant mitochondria into chloramphenicol-sensitive, metabolically impaired ρ+ mouse cybrid cells. Following double selection, recipient cells with mismatched nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes retained transferred mtDNA, which replaced the endogenous mutant mtDNA and improved cell respiration. However, recipient cells with matched mtDNA-nDNA failed to retain transferred mtDNA and sustained impaired respiration. Our results suggest that exogenous mtDNA retention in metabolically impaired ρ+ recipients depends on the degree of recipient mtDNA-nDNA co-evolution. Uncovering factors that stabilize exogenous mtDNA integration will improve our understanding of in vivo mitochondrial transfer and the interplay between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.

RevDate: 2020-09-01
CmpDate: 2020-09-01

Amanzougaghene N, Fenollar F, Raoult D, et al (2019)

Where Are We With Human Lice? A Review of the Current State of Knowledge.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:474.

Pediculus humanus is an obligate bloodsucking ectoparasite of human that includes two ecotypes, head louse and body louse, which differ slightly in morphology and biology, but have distinct ecologies. Phylogenetically, they are classified on six mitochondrial clades (A, B, C, D, E, and F), head louse encompasses the full genetic diversity of clades, while body louse belongs to clades A and D. Recent studies suggested that not only body louse, but also head louse can transmit disease, which warrants greater attention as a serious public health problem. The recent sequencing of body louse genome confirmed that P. humanus has the smallest genome of any hemimetabolous insect reported to date, and also revealed numerous interesting characteristics in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptome analyses showed that body and head lice were almost genetically identical. Indeed, the phenotypic flexibility associated with the emergence of body lice, is probably a result of regulatory changes, perhaps epigenetic in origin, triggered by environmental signals. Current lice control strategies have proven unsuccessful. For instance, ivermectin represents a relatively new and very promising pediculicide. However, ivermectin resistance in the field has begun to be reported. Therefore, novel opportunities for pest control strategies are needed. Our objective here is to review the current state of knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, phylogeny, disease-vector and control of this fascinating and very intimate human parasite.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Medini H, Cohen T, D Mishmar (2020)

Mitochondria Are Fundamental for the Emergence of Metazoans: On Metabolism, Genomic Regulation, and the Birth of Complex Organisms.

Annual review of genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Out of many intracellular bacteria, only the mitochondria and chloroplasts abandoned their independence billions of years ago and became endosymbionts within the host eukaryotic cell. Consequently, one cannot grow eukaryotic cells without their mitochondria, and the mitochondria cannot divide outside of the cell, thus reflecting interdependence. Here, we argue that such interdependence underlies the fundamental role of mitochondrial activities in the emergence of metazoans. Several lines of evidence support our hypothesis: (a) Differentiation and embryogenesis rely on mitochondrial function; (b) mitochondrial metabolites are primary precursors for epigenetic modifications (such as methyl and acetyl), which are critical for chromatin remodeling and gene expression, particularly during differentiation and embryogenesis; (c) mitonuclear coregulation adapted to accommodate both housekeeping and tissue-dependent metabolic needs. We discuss the evolution of the unique mitochondrial genetic system, mitochondrial metabolites, mitonuclear coregulation, and their critical roles in the emergence of metazoans and in human disorders. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 54 is November 23, 2020. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Arakawa T, Kagami H, Katsuyama T, et al (2020)

A lineage-specific paralogue of Oma1 evolved into a gene family from which a suppressor of male sterility-inducing mitochondria emerged in plants.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5898194 [Epub ahead of print].

Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants is caused by male sterility-inducing mitochondria, which have emerged frequently during plant evolution. Nuclear Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can suppress their cognate male sterility-inducing mitochondria. Whereas many Rfs encode a class of RNA binding protein, the sugar beet (Caryophyllales) Rf encodes a protein resembling Oma1, which is involved in the quality control of mitochondria. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of Oma1 homologues in plants. We analyzed 37 plant genomes and concluded that a single copy is the ancestral state in Caryophyllales. Among the sugar beet Oma1 homologues, the orthologous copy is located in a syntenic region that is preserved in Arabidopsis thaliana. The sugar beet Rf is a complex locus consisting of a small Oma1 homologue family (RF-Oma1 family) unique to sugar beet. The gene arrangement in the vicinity of the locus is seen in some but not all Caryophyllalean plants and is absent from A. thaliana. This suggests a segmental duplication rather than a whole genome duplication as the mechanism of RF-Oma1 evolution. Among the positively selected codons in RF-Oma1, many are located in predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic network analysis indicated that homologous recombination among the RF-Oma1 members played an important role to generate protein activity related to suppression. Together, our data illustrate how an evolutionarily young Rf has emerged from a lineage-specific paralogue. Interestingly, several evolutionary features are shared with the RNA binding protein type Rfs. Hence, the evolution of the sugar beet Rf is representative of Rf evolution in general.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Pérez-Hernández CA, Kern CC, Butkeviciute E, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial Signature in Human Monocytes and Resistance to Infection in C. elegans During Fumarate-Induced Innate Immune Training.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1715.

Monocytes can develop immunological memory, a functional characteristic widely recognized as innate immune training, to distinguish it from memory in adaptive immune cells. Upon a secondary immune challenge, either homologous or heterologous, trained monocytes/macrophages exhibit a more robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, than untrained monocytes. Candida albicans, β-glucan, and BCG are all inducers of monocyte training and recent metabolic profiling analyses have revealed that training induction is dependent on glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the cholesterol synthesis pathway, along with fumarate accumulation; interestingly, fumarate itself can induce training. Since fumarate is produced by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within mitochondria, we asked whether extra-mitochondrial fumarate has an effect on mitochondrial function. Results showed that the addition of fumarate to monocytes induces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, fusion, and increased membrane potential (Δψm), while mitochondrial cristae became closer to each other, suggesting that immediate (from minutes to hours) mitochondrial activation plays a role in the induction phase of innate immune training of monocytes. To establish whether fumarate induces similar mitochondrial changes in vivo in a multicellular organism, effects of fumarate supplementation were tested in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. This induced mitochondrial fusion in both muscle and intestinal cells and also increased resistance to infection of the pharynx with E. coli. Together, these findings contribute to defining a mitochondrial signature associated with the induction of innate immune training by fumarate treatment, and to the understanding of whole organism infection resistance.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Aguirre-López B, Escalera-Fanjul X, Hersch-González J, et al (2020)

In Kluyveromyces lactis a Pair of Paralogous Isozymes Catalyze the First Committed Step of Leucine Biosynthesis in Either the Mitochondria or the Cytosol.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1843.

Divergence of paralogous pairs, resulting from gene duplication, plays an important role in the evolution of specialized or novel gene functions. Analysis of selected duplicated pairs has elucidated some of the mechanisms underlying the functional diversification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) paralogous genes. Similar studies of the orthologous pairs extant in pre-whole genome duplication yeast species, such as Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis) remain to be addressed. The genome of K. lactis, an aerobic yeast, includes gene pairs generated by sporadic duplications. The genome of this organism comprises the KlLEU4 and KlLEU4BIS paralogous pair, annotated as putative α-isopropylmalate synthases (α-IPMSs), considered to be the orthologs of the S. cerevisiae ScLEU4/ScLEU9 paralogous genes. The enzymes encoded by the latter two genes are mitochondrially located, differing in their sensitivity to leucine allosteric inhibition resulting in ScLeu4-ScLeu4 and ScLeu4-ScLeu9 sensitive dimers and ScLeu9-ScLeu9 relatively resistant homodimers. Previous work has shown that, in a Scleu4Δ mutant, ScLEU9 expression is increased and assembly of ScLeu9-ScLeu9 leucine resistant homodimers results in loss of feedback regulation of leucine biosynthesis, leading to leucine accumulation and decreased growth rate. Here we report that: (i) K. lactis harbors a sporadic gene duplication, comprising the KlLEU4, syntenic with S. cerevisiae ScLEU4 and ScLEU9, and the non-syntenic KlLEU4BIS, arising from a pre-WGD event. (ii) That both, KlLEU4 and KlLEU4BIS encode leucine sensitive α-IPMSs isozymes, located in the mitochondria (KlLeu4) and the cytosol (KlLeu4BIS), respectively. (iii) That both, KlLEU4 or KlLEU4BIS complement the Scleu4Δ Scleu9Δ leucine auxotrophic phenotype and revert the enhanced ScLEU9 transcription observed in a Scleu4Δ ScLEU9 mutant. The Scleu4Δ ScLEU9 growth mutant phenotype is only fully complemented when transformed with the syntenic KlLEU4 mitochondrial isoform. KlLEU4 and KlLEU4BIS underwent a different diversification pathways than that leading to ScLEU4/ScLEU9. KlLEU4 could be considered as the functional ortholog of ScLEU4, since its encoded isozyme can complement both the Scleu4Δ Scleu9Δ leucine auxotrophy and the Scleu4Δ ScLEU9 complex phenotype.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Chen M, Chen N, Wu T, et al (2020)

Characterization of Two Mitochondrial Genomes and Gene Expression Analysis Reveal Clues for Variations, Evolution, and Large-Sclerotium Formation in Medical Fungus Wolfiporia cocos.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1804.

Wolfiporia cocos, a precious mushroom with a long history as an edible food and Asian traditional medicine, remains unclear in the genetic mechanism underlying the formation of large sclerotia. Here, two complete circular mitogenomes (BL16, 135,686 bp and MD-104 SS10, 124,842 bp, respectively) were presented in detail first. The salient features in the mitogenomes of W. cocos include an intron in the tRNA (trnQ-UUG2), and an obvious gene rearrangement identified between the two mitogenomes from the widely geographically separated W. cocos strains. Genome comparison and phylogenetic analyses reveal some variations and evolutional characteristics in W. cocos. Whether the mitochondrion is functional in W. cocos sclerotium development was investigated by analyzing the mitogenome synteny of 10 sclerotium-forming fungi and mitochondrial gene expression patterns in different W. cocos sclerotium-developmental stages. Three common homologous genes identified across ten sclerotium-forming fungi were also found to exhibit significant differential expression levels during W. cocos sclerotium development. Most of the mitogenomic genes are not expressed in the mycelial stage but highly expressed in the sclerotium initial or developmental stage. These results indicate that some of mitochondrial genes may play a role in the development of sclerotium in W. cocos, which needs to be further elucidated in future studies. This study will stimulate new ideas on cytoplasmic inheritance of W. cocos and facilitate the research on the role of mitochondria in large sclerotium formation.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Krajnc E, Visentin M, Gai Z, et al (2020)

Untargeted metabolomics reveals anaerobic glycolysis as a novel target of the hepatotoxic antidepressant nefazodone.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics pii:jpet.120.000120 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial damage is considered a hallmark of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). However, despite the common molecular etiology, the evolution of the injury is usually unpredictable, with some cases that are mild and reversible upon discontinuation of the treatment and others characterized by irreversible acute liver failure. This suggests that additional mechanisms of damage play a role in determining the progression of the initial insult. To uncover novel pathways potentially involved in DILI, we investigated in vitro the metabolic perturbations associated with nefazodone, an antidepressant associated with acute liver failure. Several pathways associated with ATP production, including gluconeogenesis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, were altered in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived (Huh7) cells after two hour-exposure to a 50 μM extracellular concentration of nefazodone. In the presence or absence of glucose, ATP production of Huh7 cells was glycolysis- and oxidative phosphorylation-dependent, respectively. In glucose-containing medium, nefazodone-induced ATP depletion from Huh7 cells was biphasic. Huh7 cells in glucose-free medium were more sensitive to nefazodone than those in glucose-containing medium, losing the biphasic inhibition. Primary cultured mouse hepatocytes, mainly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, were more sensitive than Huh7 cells to nefazodone exposure in glucose-containing medium. At lower extracellular concentrations, nefazodone inhibited the oxygen consumption of Huh7 cells, whereas, at higher extracellular concentrations, it also inhibited the extracellular acidification. ATP content was rescued by increasing the extracellular concentration of glucose. In conclusion, nefazodone has a dual inhibitory effect on mitochondrial-dependent and mitochondrial-independent ATP production. Significance Statement Mitochondrial damage is a hallmark of drug-induced liver injury, yet other collateral alterations might contribute to the severity and evolution of the injury. Our in vitro study supports previous results arguing that a deficit in hepatic glucose metabolism, concomitant to the mitochondrial injury, might be cardinal in the prognosis of the initial insult to the liver. From a drug development standpoint, coupling anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial function assessment might increase the drug-induced liver injury preclinical screening performance.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Nunes-Nesi A, Cavalcanti JHF, AR Fernie (2020)

Characterization of In Vivo Function(s) of Members of the Plant Mitochondrial Carrier Family.

Biomolecules, 10(9): pii:biom10091226.

Although structurally related, mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) proteins catalyze the specific transport of a range of diverse substrates including nucleotides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, tricarboxylates, cofactors, vitamins, phosphate and H+. Despite their name, they do not, however, always localize to the mitochondria, with plasma membrane, peroxisomal, chloroplast and thylakoid and endoplasmic reticulum localizations also being reported. The existence of plastid-specific MCF proteins is suggestive that the evolution of these proteins occurred after the separation of the green lineage. That said, plant-specific MCF proteins are not all plastid-localized, with members also situated at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. While by no means yet comprehensive, the in vivo function of a wide range of these transporters is carried out here, and we discuss the employment of genetic variants of the MCF as a means to provide insight into their in vivo function complementary to that obtained from studies following their reconstitution into liposomes.

RevDate: 2020-08-25

Pallardó FV, Pagano G, Rodríguez LR, et al (2020)

Friedreich Ataxia: current state-of-the-art, and future prospects for mitochondrial-focused therapies.

Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine pii:S1931-5244(20)30204-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Friedreich´s Ataxia is an autosomal recessive genetic disease causing the defective gene product, frataxin. A body of literature has been focused on the attempts to counteract frataxin deficiency and the consequent iron imbalance, in order to mitigate the disease-associated prooxidant state and clinical course. The present mini review is aimed at evaluating the basic and clinical reports on the roles and the use of a set of iron chelators, antioxidants and some cofactors involved in the key mitochondrial functions. Extensive literature has focused on the protective roles of iron chelators, coenzyme Q10 and analogs, and vitamin E, altogether with varying outcomes in clinical studies. Other studies have suggested mitoprotective roles for other mitochondrial cofactors, involved in Krebs cycle, such as alpha-lipoic acid and carnitine, involved in acyl transport across the mitochondrial membrane. A body of evidence points to the strong antioxidant properties of these cofactors, and to their potential contribution in mitoprotective strategies in Friedreich's Ataxia clinical evolution. Thus, we suggest the rationale for planning combination strategies based on the three mitochondrial cofactors and of some antioxidants and iron binders as mitoprotective cocktails in FRDA patients, calling attention to clinical practitioners of the importance to implement clinical trials.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Arbeithuber B, Hester J, Cremona MA, et al (2020)

Age-related accumulation of de novo mitochondrial mutations in mammalian oocytes and somatic tissues.

PLoS biology, 18(7):e3000745.

Mutations create genetic variation for other evolutionary forces to operate on and cause numerous genetic diseases. Nevertheless, how de novo mutations arise remains poorly understood. Progress in the area is hindered by the fact that error rates of conventional sequencing technologies (1 in 100 or 1,000 base pairs) are several orders of magnitude higher than de novo mutation rates (1 in 10,000,000 or 100,000,000 base pairs per generation). Moreover, previous analyses of germline de novo mutations examined pedigrees (and not germ cells) and thus were likely affected by selection. Here, we applied highly accurate duplex sequencing to detect low-frequency, de novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) directly from oocytes and from somatic tissues (brain and muscle) of 36 mice from two independent pedigrees. We found mtDNA mutation frequencies 2- to 3-fold higher in 10-month-old than in 1-month-old mice, demonstrating mutation accumulation during the period of only 9 mo. Mutation frequencies and patterns differed between germline and somatic tissues and among mtDNA regions, suggestive of distinct mutagenesis mechanisms. Additionally, we discovered a more pronounced genetic drift of mitochondrial genetic variants in the germline of older versus younger mice, arguing for mtDNA turnover during oocyte meiotic arrest. Our study deciphered for the first time the intricacies of germline de novo mutagenesis using duplex sequencing directly in oocytes, which provided unprecedented resolution and minimized selection effects present in pedigree studies. Moreover, our work provides important information about the origins and accumulation of mutations with aging/maturation and has implications for delayed reproduction in modern human societies. Furthermore, the duplex sequencing method we optimized for single cells opens avenues for investigating low-frequency mutations in other studies.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Nong W, Cao J, Li Y, et al (2020)

Jellyfish genomes reveal distinct homeobox gene clusters and conservation of small RNA processing.

Nature communications, 11(1):3051 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-16801-9.

The phylum Cnidaria represents a close outgroup to Bilateria and includes familiar animals including sea anemones, corals, hydroids, and jellyfish. Here we report genome sequencing and assembly for true jellyfish Sanderia malayensis and Rhopilema esculentum. The homeobox gene clusters are characterised by interdigitation of Hox, NK, and Hox-like genes revealing an alternate pathway of ANTP class gene dispersal and an intact three gene ParaHox cluster. The mitochondrial genomes are linear but, unlike in Hydra, we do not detect nuclear copies, suggesting that linear plastid genomes are not necessarily prone to integration. Genes for sesquiterpenoid hormone production, typical for arthropods, are also now found in cnidarians. Somatic and germline cells both express piwi-interacting RNAs in jellyfish revealing a conserved cnidarian feature, and evidence for tissue-specific microRNA arm switching as found in Bilateria is detected. Jellyfish genomes reveal a mosaic of conserved and divergent genomic characters evolved from a shared ancestral genetic architecture.

RevDate: 2020-08-22

Esch T, Kream RM, GB Stefano (2020)

Emerging regulatory roles of opioid peptides, endogenous morphine, and opioid receptor subtypes in immunomodulatory processes: Metabolic, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives.

Immunology letters pii:S0165-2478(20)30370-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Integrated behavioral paradigms such as nociceptive processing coupled to anti-nociceptive responsiveness include systemically-mediated states of alertness, vigilance, motivation, and avoidance. Within a historical and cultural context, opium and its biologically active compounds, codeine and morphine, have been widely used as frontline anti-nociceptive agents. In eukaryotic cells, opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides were evolutionarily fashioned as regulatory factors in neuroimmune, vascular immune, and systemic immune communication and auto-immunoregulation. The significance of opioidergic regulation of immune function was validated by the identification of novel μ and δ opioid receptors on circulating leukocytes. The novel μ3 opioid receptor subtype has been characterized as an opioid peptide-insensitive and opiate alkaloid-selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is functionally linked to the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). Opioid peptides stimulate granulocyte and immunocyte activation and chemotaxis via activation of a novel leukocyte δ2 receptor subtype. However, opiate alkaloid μ3 receptor agonists inhibit these same cellular activities. Opiate coupling to cNOS and subsequent production and release of mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) suggests an evolutionary linkage to similar physiological events in prokaryotic cells. A subpopulation of immunocytes from Mytilus edulis and Leucophaea maderae and human granulocytes respond to low opioid concentrations, mediated by the adherence-promoting role of (D-Ala2-D-Met5)-enkephalinamide (DAMA), which is blocked by naloxone in a dose-dependent manner. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), or enkephalinase (CD10), is present on both human and invertebrate immunocytes. Alkaloids, including morphine, are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and may have evolved much later in evolution through horizontal gene transfer. It is possible that opioid-mediated regulatory activities were conserved and elaborated during evolution as the central nervous system (CNS) became immunologically isolated by the blood-brain barrier. Thus, opioid receptor coupling became significant for cognitive and behavioural processes. Although opioid peptides and alkaloids work synergistically to suppress nociception, they mediate different actions in immune surveillance. Increased understanding of the evolutionary development of opioid receptors, nociceptive and anti-nociceptive pathways, and immunomodulation may help in the understanding of the development of tolerance to the clinical use of opiates for pain management. The significance of endogenous morphine's importance to evolution can be ascertained by the number of physiological tissues and systems that can be affected by this chemical messenger mechanism, which transcends pain. An integrated review is presented of opioid and opiate receptors, immunomodulation, and pain associated with inflammation, from an evolutionary perspective.

RevDate: 2020-08-19

Shen H, Zheng X, Zhou Z, et al (2020)

Oriented immobilization of enzyme-DNA conjugates on magnetic Janus particles for constructing a multicompartment multienzyme system with high activity and stability.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Various organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts) have a multicompartment structure, providing superior function of material transformation, selective segregation and energy conversion. Enlightened by the elegant evolution of nature, intended isolation of the biochemical process by cooperative multicompartments in cells has become an appealing blueprint to construct bioreactors. In this study, we develop a "soft separation" way to establish a delicate multicompartment multienzyme system (MMS) with polyphenol-encapsulated enzyme-DNA conjugates, which are anchored on magnetic Janus particles, providing a biomimetic catalysis network with the model cascade reactions in confinement. The well-designed MMS exhibits preferable bioactivity benefitting from the dependable DNA bridges and the oriented immobilization of enzymes, while the polyphenol shell further protects the anchored enzymes from exterior attacks, such as heat and enzymatic degradation. Moreover, by applying the MMS as nanomotors, the asymmetrical distribution of enzymes on Janus particles is found to improve mutual elevation between the self-driven locomotion and enzyme-mediated reactions, delivering enhanced dispersal ability and bioactivity. Owing to the excellent enzymatic activity, promoted stability and satisfying biocompatibility, the assembled MMS is proved to be promising for the in vitro and intracellular sensing of glucose, showing significant potential for biochemical analysis applications.

RevDate: 2020-08-18

Santos HJ, Chiba Y, Makiuchi T, et al (2020)

Import of Entamoeba histolytica Mitosomal ATP Sulfurylase Relies on Internal Targeting Sequences.

Microorganisms, 8(8): pii:microorganisms8081229.

Mitochondrial matrix proteins synthesized in the cytosol often contain amino (N)-terminal targeting sequences (NTSs), or alternately internal targeting sequences (ITSs), which enable them to be properly translocated to the organelle. Such sequences are also required for proteins targeted to mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that are present in a few species of anaerobic eukaryotes. Similar to other MROs, the mitosomes of the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica are highly degenerate, because a majority of the components involved in various processes occurring in the canonical mitochondria are either missing or modified. As of yet, sulfate activation continues to be the only identified role of the relic mitochondria of Entamoeba. Mitosomes influence the parasitic nature of E. histolytica, as the downstream cytosolic products of sulfate activation have been reported to be essential in proliferation and encystation. Here, we investigated the position of the targeting sequence of one of the mitosomal matrix enzymes involved in the sulfate activation pathway, ATP sulfurylase (AS). We confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and subcellular fractionation that hemagluttinin (HA)-tagged EhAS was targeted to mitosomes. However, its ortholog in the δ-proteobacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris, expressed as DvAS-HA in amoebic trophozoites, indicated cytosolic localization, suggesting a lack of recognizable mitosome targeting sequence in this protein. By expressing chimeric proteins containing swapped sequences between EhAS and DvAS in amoebic cells, we identified the ITSs responsible for mitosome targeting of EhAS. This observation is similar to other parasitic protozoans that harbor MROs, suggesting a convergent feature among various MROs in favoring ITS for the recognition and translocation of targeted proteins.

RevDate: 2020-08-17
CmpDate: 2020-08-17

Dunn CD, VO Paavilainen (2019)

Wherever I may roam: organellar protein targeting and evolvability.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 58-59:9-16.

Many functions of eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized within membrane-bound organelles. One or more cis-encoded signals within a polypeptide sequence typically govern protein targeting to and within destination organelles. Perhaps unexpectedly, organelle targeting does not occur with high specificity, but instead is characterized by considerable degeneracy and inefficiency. Indeed, the same peptide signals can target proteins to more than one location, randomized sequences can easily direct proteins to organelles, and many enzymes appear to traverse different subcellular settings across eukaryotic phylogeny. We discuss the potential benefits provided by flexibility in organelle targeting, with a special emphasis on horizontally transferred and de novo proteins. Moreover, we consider how these new organelle residents can be protected and maintained before they contribute to the needs of the cell and promote fitness.

RevDate: 2020-08-17
CmpDate: 2020-08-17

Husnik F, PJ Keeling (2019)

The fate of obligate endosymbionts: reduction, integration, or extinction.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 58-59:1-8.

Whether mitochondria and plastids originated by endosymbiosis is no longer questioned, but we still do not understand the actual process of integration. Other, younger endosymbiotic systems are, however, relatively common. Traditionally, it was not clear whether these systems could be directly and informatively compared to organelles because they appear sufficiently different. Surprisingly, new data from both organelles and endosymbiotic bacteria are changing this view. As more commonalities are described, the processes underlaying these associations appear to be not so different after all. New models for endosymbiotic associations emphasize the importance of transient stages, conflict more than cooperation, and population genetics forces that lead to genome reduction, which in turn restricts most endosymbionts to one of a few possible evolutionary pathways, commonly ending with extinction.

RevDate: 2020-08-13

N Miyata M, Nomura M, D Kageyama (2020)

Wolbachia have made it twice: Hybrid introgression between two sister species of Eurema butterflies.

Ecology and evolution, 10(15):8323-8330 pii:ECE36539.

Wolbachia, cytoplasmically inherited endosymbionts of arthropods, are known to hijack their host reproduction in various ways to increase their own vertical transmission. This may lead to the selective sweep of associated mitochondria, which can have a large impact on the evolution of mitochondrial lineages. In Japan, two different Wolbacahia strains (wCI and wFem) are found in two sister species of pierid butterflies, Eurema mandarina and Eurema hecabe. In both species, females infected with wCI (C females) produce offspring with a nearly 1:1 sex ratio, while females infected with both wCI and wFem (CF females) produce all-female offspring. Previous studies have suggested the historical occurrence of hybrid introgression in C individuals between the two species. Furthermore, hybrid introgression in CF individuals is suggested by the distinct mitochondrial lineages between C females and CF females of E. mandarina. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA markers of E. hecabe with previously published data on E. mandarina. We found that the nuclear DNA of this species significantly diverged from that of E. mandarina. By contrast, mitochondrial DNA haplotypes comprised two clades, mostly reflecting Wolbachia infection status rather than the individual species. Collectively, our results support the previously suggested occurrence of two independent historical events wherein the cytoplasms of CF females and C females moved between E. hecabe and E. mandarina through hybrid introgression.

RevDate: 2020-08-13

Pittis AA, Goh V, Cebrian-Serrano A, et al (2020)

Discovery of EMRE in fungi resolves the true evolutionary history of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

Nature communications, 11(1):4031 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-17705-4.

Calcium (Ca2+) influx into mitochondria occurs through a Ca2+-selective uniporter channel, which regulates essential cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Previous evolutionary analyses of its pore-forming subunits MCU and EMRE, and gatekeeper MICU1, pinpointed an evolutionary paradox: the presence of MCU homologs in fungal species devoid of any other uniporter components and of mt-Ca2+ uptake. Here, we trace the mt-Ca2+ uniporter evolution across 1,156 fully-sequenced eukaryotes and show that animal and fungal MCUs represent two distinct paralogous subfamilies originating from an ancestral duplication. Accordingly, we find EMRE orthologs outside Holoza and uncover the existence of an animal-like uniporter within chytrid fungi, which enables mt-Ca2+ uptake when reconstituted in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our study represents the most comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the mt-Ca2+ uptake system and demonstrates that MCU, EMRE, and MICU formed the core of the ancestral opisthokont uniporter, with major implications for comparative structural and functional studies.

RevDate: 2020-08-04
CmpDate: 2020-08-04

Black SM, E Nozik-Grayck (2019)

Compartmentalization of Redox-Regulated Signaling in the Pulmonary Circulation.

Antioxidants & redox signaling, 31(12):801-803.

Oxidative stress is well recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of diverse diseases, including the devastating disease of the lung's blood vessels, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), however, antioxidant-based therapies have been overall disappointing. With the evolution of the field of redox biology, it is now becoming clear that redox reactions are highly selective and targeted, allowing for precise control of redox-regulated signaling in health and disease. This special Forum of the journal describes the current state of knowledge on the regulation of redox-regulated signaling during the development of pulmonary vascular disease, focusing on distinct compartmentalized mechanisms outside and within the cell, including regulation of extracellular and intracellular membrane receptors and channels; responses to changes in biomechanical forces; intracellular thiol redox control; regulation of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. Collectively, they exemplify the complex, precise, and localized signaling pathways that drive PAH pathogenesis. This group of authors suggests ways that our increased understanding of these events may pave the way to improved therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this lethal disease.

RevDate: 2020-08-09

Bennewitz B, Sharma M, Tannert F, et al (2020)

Dual targeting of TatA points to a chloroplast-like Tat pathway in plant mitochondria.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research pii:S0167-4889(20)30174-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The biogenesis of membrane-bound electron transport chains requires membrane translocation pathways for folded proteins carrying complex cofactors, like the Rieske Fe/S proteins. Two independent systems were developed during evolution, namely the Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, which is present in bacteria and chloroplasts, and the Bcs1 pathway found in mitochondria of yeast and mammals. Mitochondria of plants carry a Tat-like pathway which was hypothesized to operate with only two subunits, a TatB-like protein and a TatC homolog (OrfX), but lacking TatA. Here we show that the nuclearly encoded TatA from pea has dual targeting properties, i.e., it can be imported into both, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Dual targeting of TatA was observed with in organello experiments employing chloroplasts and mitochondria isolated from pea as well as after transient expression of suitable reporter constructs in leaf tissue from pea and Nicotiana benthamiana. The extent of transport of these constructs into mitochondria of transiently transformed leaf cells was relatively low, causing a demand for highly sensitive methods to be detected, like the sasplitGFP approach. Yet, the dual import of TatA into mitochondria and chloroplasts observed here points to a common mechanism of Tat transport for folded proteins within both endosymbiotic organelles in plants.

RevDate: 2020-08-06
CmpDate: 2020-08-06

Ran R, Zhao Q, Abuzeid AMI, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Echinostoma revolutum from Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis).

The Korean journal of parasitology, 58(1):73-79.

Echinostoma revolutum is a zoonotic food-borne intestinal trematode that can cause intestinal bleeding, enteritis, and diarrhea in human and birds. To identify a suspected E. revolutum trematode from a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and to reveal the genetic characteristics of its mitochondrial (mt) genome, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and complete mt genome sequence of this trematode were amplified. The results identified the trematode as E. revolutum. Its entire mt genome sequence was 15,714 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one non-coding region (NCR), with 61.73% A+T base content and a significant AT preference. The length of the 22 tRNA genes ranged from 59 bp to 70 bp, and their secondary structure showed the typical cloverleaf and D-loop structure. The length of the large subunit of rRNA (rrnL) and the small subunit of rRNA (rrnS) gene was 1,011 bp and 742 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic trees showed that E. revolutum and E. miyagawai clustered together, belonging to Echinostomatidae with Hypoderaeum conoideum. This study may enrich the mitochondrial gene database of Echinostoma trematodes and provide valuable data for studying the molecular identification and phylogeny of some digenean trematodes.

RevDate: 2020-08-06
CmpDate: 2020-08-06

Pyron RA, O'Connell KA, Lemmon EM, et al (2020)

Phylogenomic data reveal reticulation and incongruence among mitochondrial candidate species in Dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 146:106751.

Gene flow between evolutionarily distinct lineages is increasingly recognized as a common occurrence. Such processes distort our ability to diagnose and delimit species, as well as confound attempts to estimate phylogenetic relationships. A conspicuous example is Dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus), a common model-system for ecology, evolution, and behavior. Only 22 species are described, 7 in the last 40 years. However, mitochondrial datasets indicate the presence of up to 45 "candidate species" and multiple paraphyletic taxa presenting a complex history of reticulation. Some authors have even suggested that the search for species boundaries in the group may be in vain. Here, we analyze nuclear and mitochondrial data containing 161 individuals from at least 49 distinct evolutionary lineages that we treat as candidate species. Concatenated and species-tree methods do not estimate fully resolved relationships among these taxa. Comparing topologies and applying methods for estimating phylogenetic networks, we find strong support for numerous instances of hybridization throughout the history of the group. We suggest that these processes may be more common than previously thought across the phylogeography-phylogenetics continuum, and that while the search for species boundaries in Desmognathus may not be in vain, it will be complicated by factors such as crypsis, parallelism, and gene-flow.

RevDate: 2020-08-06
CmpDate: 2020-08-06

Olsson U, P Alström (2020)

A comprehensive phylogeny and taxonomic evaluation of the waxbills (Aves: Estrildidae).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 146:106757.

We present a revised taxonomy of Estrildidae based on the first time-calibrated phylogeny of the family Estrildidae estimated from a data set including the majority of the species, and all genera except the monospecific Paludipasser, using two mitochondrial and five nuclear markers. We find that most differences in current taxonomy reflect alternative opinions among authors regarding inclusiveness of genera, which are usually not in conflict with the phylogeny. The most notable exception is the current circumscriptions of the genera Neochmia, Nesocharis and Taeniopygia, which are incompatible with the phylogeny. Estrildidae is subdivided into six well supported subclades, which we propose be recognized as the subfamilies Amandavinae, Erythrurinae, Estrildinae, Lagonostictinae, Lonchurinae and Poephilinae.

RevDate: 2020-08-05
CmpDate: 2020-08-05

Allen R, Ryan H, Davis BW, et al (2020)

A mitochondrial genetic divergence proxy predicts the reproductive compatibility of mammalian hybrids.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1928):20200690.

Numerous pairs of evolutionarily divergent mammalian species have been shown to produce hybrid offspring. In some cases, F1 hybrids are able to produce F2s through matings with F1s. In other instances, the hybrids are only able to produce offspring themselves through backcrosses with a parent species owing to unisexual sterility (Haldane's Rule). Here, we explicitly tested whether genetic distance, computed from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, can be used as a proxy to predict the relative fertility of the hybrid offspring resulting from matings between species of terrestrial mammals. We assessed the proxy's predictive power using a well-characterized felid hybrid system, and applied it to modern and ancient hominins. Our results revealed a small overlap in mitochondrial genetic distance values that distinguish species pairs whose calculated distances fall within two categories: those whose hybrid offspring follow Haldane's Rule, and those whose hybrid F1 offspring can produce F2s. The strong correlation between genetic distance and hybrid fertility demonstrated here suggests that this proxy can be employed to predict whether the hybrid offspring of two mammalian species will follow Haldane's Rule.

RevDate: 2020-07-27
CmpDate: 2020-07-27

Wein T, Romero Picazo D, Blow F, et al (2019)

Currency, Exchange, and Inheritance in the Evolution of Symbiosis.

Trends in microbiology, 27(10):836-849.

Symbiotic interactions between eukaryotes and prokaryotes are widespread in nature. Here we offer a conceptual framework to study the evolutionary origins and ecological circumstances of species in beneficial symbiosis. We posit that mutual symbiotic interactions are well described by three elements: a currency, the mechanism of currency exchange, and mechanisms of symbiont inheritance. Each of these elements may be at the origin of symbiosis, with the other elements developing with time. The identity of currency in symbiosis depends on the ecological context of the symbiosis, while the specificity of the exchange mechanism underlies molecular adaptations for the symbiosis. The inheritance regime determines the degree of partner dependency and the symbiosis evolutionary trajectory. Focusing on these three elements, we review examples and open questions in the research on symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-08-03

Nechushtai R, Karmi O, Zuo K, et al (2020)

The balancing act of NEET proteins: Iron, ROS, calcium and metabolism.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research pii:S0167-4889(20)30163-4 [Epub ahead of print].

NEET proteins belong to a highly conserved group of [2Fe-2S] proteins found across all kingdoms of life. Due to their unique [2Fe-2S] cluster structure, they play a key role in the regulation of many different redox and oxidation processes. In eukaryotes, NEET proteins are localized to the mitochondria, ER and the membranes connecting these organelles (MAM), and are involved in the control of multiple processes, ranging from autophagy and apoptosis to ferroptosis, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, redox control and iron and iron-sulfur homeostasis. Through their different functions and interactions with key proteins such as VDAC and Bcl-2, NEET proteins coordinate different mitochondrial, MAM, ER and cytosolic processes and functions and regulate major signaling molecules such as calcium and reactive oxygen species. Owing to their central role in cells, NEET proteins are associated with numerous human maladies including cancer, metabolic diseases, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years, a new and exciting role for NEET proteins was uncovered, i.e., the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. This new role places NEET proteins at the forefront of studies into cancer and different metabolic diseases, both associated with the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Here we review recent studies focused on the evolution, biological role, and structure of NEET proteins, as well as discuss different studies conducted on NEET protein function using transgenic organisms. We further discuss the different strategies used in the development of drugs that target NEET proteins, and link these with the different roles of NEET proteins in cells.

RevDate: 2020-08-03
CmpDate: 2020-08-03

Bouchoucha A, Waltz F, Bonnard G, et al (2019)

Determination of protein-only RNase P interactome in Arabidopsis mitochondria and chloroplasts identifies a complex between PRORP1 and another NYN domain nuclease.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 100(3):549-561.

The essential type of endonuclease that removes 5' leader sequences from transfer RNA precursors is called RNase P. While ribonucleoprotein RNase P enzymes containing a ribozyme are found in all domains of life, another type of RNase P called 'PRORP', for 'PROtein-only RNase P', is composed of protein that occurs only in a wide variety of eukaryotes, in organelles and in the nucleus. Here, to find how PRORP functions integrate with other cell processes, we explored the protein interaction network of PRORP1 in Arabidopsis mitochondria and chloroplasts. Although PRORP proteins function as single subunit enzymes in vitro, we found that PRORP1 occurs in protein complexes and is present in high-molecular-weight fractions that contain mitochondrial ribosomes. The analysis of immunoprecipitated protein complexes identified proteins involved in organellar gene expression processes. In particular, direct interaction was established between PRORP1 and MNU2 a mitochondrial nuclease. A specific domain of MNU2 and a conserved signature of PRORP1 were found to be directly accountable for this protein interaction. Altogether, results revealed the existence of an RNA maturation complex in Arabidopsis mitochondria and suggested that PRORP proteins cooperated with other gene expression factors for RNA maturation in vivo.

RevDate: 2020-08-02

Smith SK, ES Musiek (2020)

Impact of circadian and diurnal rhythms on cellular metabolic function and neurodegenerative diseases.

International review of neurobiology, 154:393-412.

The 24-h rotational period of the earth has driven evolution of biological systems that serve to synchronize organismal physiology and behavior to this predictable environmental event. In mammals, the circadian (circa, "about" and dia, "a day") clock keeps 24-h time at the organismal and cellular level, optimizing biological function for a given time of day. The most obvious circadian output is the sleep-wake cycle, though countless bodily functions, ranging from hormone levels to cognitive function, are influenced by the circadian clock. Here we discuss the regulation of metabolic pathways by the circadian clock, discuss the evidence implicating circadian and sleep disruption in neurodegenerative diseases, and suggest some possible connections between the clock, metabolism, and neurodegenerative disease.

RevDate: 2020-07-31

Williams R, Laskovs M, Williams RI, et al (2020)

A Mitochondrial Stress-Specific Form of HSF1 Protects against Age-Related Proteostasis Collapse.

Developmental cell pii:S1534-5807(20)30546-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a primary driver of age-related tissue dysfunction. Recent studies have revealed that the failure of proteostasis with age is triggered by developmental and reproductive cues that repress the activity of proteostasis-related pathways in early adulthood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reduced mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function during development can override signals that promote proteostasis collapse in aged tissues. However, it is unclear precisely how these beneficial effects are mediated. Here, we reveal that in response to ETC impairment, the PP2A complex generates a dephosphorylated, mitochondrial stress-specific variant of the transcription factor HSF-1. This results in the selective induction of small heat shock proteins in adulthood, thereby protecting against age-related proteostasis collapse. We propose that mitochondrial signals early in life can protect the aging cytosolic proteome by tailoring HSF-1 activity to preferentially drive the expression of non-ATP-dependent chaperones.

RevDate: 2020-07-30

Wang X, Wang J, Liu J, et al (2020)

Insights into the phylogenetic relationships and drug targets of Babesia isolates infective to small ruminants from the mitochondrial genomes.

Parasites & vectors, 13(1):378 pii:10.1186/s13071-020-04250-8.

BACKGROUND: Babesiosis, a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Babesia, is widespread in subtropical and tropical countries. Mitochondria are essential organelles that are responsible for energy transduction and metabolism, calcium homeostasis and cell signaling. Mitochondrial genomes could provide new insights to help elucidate and investigate the biological features, genetic evolution and classification of the protozoans. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the mitochondrial genomes of ovine Babesia spp. in China.

METHODS: Herein, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the mitochondrial genomes of six ovine Babesia isolates; analyzed the genome size, gene content, genome structure and cytochrome b (cytb) amino acid sequences and performed comparative mitochondrial genomics and phylogenomic analyses among apicomplexan parasites.

RESULTS: The mitochondrial genomes range from 5767 to 5946 bp in length with a linear form and contain three protein-encoding genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3) and cytb, six large subunit rRNA genes (LSU) and two terminal inverted repeats (TIR) on both ends. The cytb gene sequence analysis indicated the binding site of anti-Babesia drugs that targeted the cytochrome bc1 complex. Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini have a dual flip-flop inversion of 184-1082 bp, whereas other Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. have one pair of TIRs, 25-1563 bp. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the six ovine Babesia isolates were divided into two clades, Babesia sp. and Babesia motasi. Babesia motasi isolates were further separated into two small clades (B. motasi Hebei/Ningxian and B. motasi Tianzhu/Lintan).

CONCLUSIONS: The data provided new insights into the taxonomic relationships and drug targets of apicomplexan parasites.

RevDate: 2020-07-29
CmpDate: 2020-07-29

Peris D, Alexander WG, Fisher KJ, et al (2020)

Synthetic hybrids of six yeast species.

Nature communications, 11(1):2085.

Allopolyploidy generates diversity by increasing the number of copies and sources of chromosomes. Many of the best-known evolutionary radiations, crops, and industrial organisms are ancient or recent allopolyploids. Allopolyploidy promotes differentiation and facilitates adaptation to new environments, but the tools to test its limits are lacking. Here we develop an iterative method of Hybrid Production (iHyPr) to combine the genomes of multiple budding yeast species, generating Saccharomyces allopolyploids of at least six species. When making synthetic hybrids, chromosomal instability and cell size increase dramatically as additional copies of the genome are added. The six-species hybrids initially grow slowly, but they rapidly regain fitness and adapt, even as they retain traits from multiple species. These new synthetic yeast hybrids and the iHyPr method have potential applications for the study of polyploidy, genome stability, chromosome segregation, and bioenergy.

RevDate: 2020-07-28

Flament-Simon SC, de Toro M, Chuprikova L, et al (2020)

High diversity and variability of pipolins among a wide range of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

Scientific reports, 10(1):12452 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-69356-6.

Self-synthesizing transposons are integrative mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that encode their own B-family DNA polymerase (PolB). Discovered a few years ago, they are proposed as key players in the evolution of several groups of DNA viruses and virus-host interaction machinery. Pipolins are the most recent addition to the group, are integrated in the genomes of bacteria from diverse phyla and also present as circular plasmids in mitochondria. Remarkably, pipolins-encoded PolBs are proficient DNA polymerases endowed with DNA priming capacity, hence the name, primer-independent PolB (piPolB). We have now surveyed the presence of pipolins in a collection of 2,238 human and animal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and found that, although detected in only 25 positive isolates (1.1%), they are present in E. coli strains from a wide variety of pathotypes, serotypes, phylogenetic groups and sequence types. Overall, the pangenome of strains carrying pipolins is highly diverse, despite the fact that a considerable number of strains belong to only three clonal complexes (CC10, CC23 and CC32). Comparative analysis with a set of 67 additional pipolin-harboring genomes from GenBank database spanning strains from diverse origin, further confirmed these results. The genetic structure of pipolins shows great flexibility and variability, with the piPolB gene and the attachment sites being the only common features. Most pipolins contain one or more recombinases that would be involved in excision/integration of the element in the same conserved tRNA gene. This mobilization mechanism might explain the apparent incompatibility of pipolins with other integrative MGEs such as integrons. In addition, analysis of cophylogeny between pipolins and pipolin-harboring strains showed a lack of congruence between several pipolins and their host strains, in agreement with horizontal transfer between hosts. Overall, these results indicate that pipolins can serve as a vehicle for genetic transfer among circulating E. coli and possibly also among other pathogenic bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-07-28
CmpDate: 2020-07-28

Han X, He H, Shen H, et al (2020)

Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of Dendrolimus houi (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and phylogenetic relationship among Lasiocampidae species.

PloS one, 15(5):e0232527.

Dendrolimus houi is one of the most common caterpillars infesting Gymnosperm trees, and widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia, and exists soley or coexists with several congeners and some Lasiocampidae species in various forest habitats. However, natural hybrids occasionally occur among some closely related species in the same habitat, and host preference, extreme climate stress, and geographic isolation probably lead to their uncertain taxonomic consensus. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of D. houi was extracted and sequenced by using high-throughput technology, and the mitogenome composition and characteristics were compared and analyzed of these species, then the phylogenetic relationship was constructed using the maximum likelihood method (ML) and the Bayesian method (BI) based on their 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) dataset, which were combined and made available to download which were combined and made available to download among global Lasiocampidae species data. Mitogenome of D. houi was 15,373 bp in length, with 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes (tRNAs) and 2 rRNA genes (rRNAs). The positions and sequences of genes were consistent with those of most known Lasiocampidae species. The nucleotide composition was highly A+T biased, accounting for ~80% of the whole mitogenome. All start codons of PCGs belonged to typical start codons ATN except for COI which used CGA, and most stop codons ended with standard TAA or TAG, while COI, COII, ND4 ended with incomplete T. Only tRNASer (AGN) lacked DHU arm, while the remainder formed a typical "clover-shaped" secondary structure. For Lasiocampidae species, their complete mitochondrial genomes ranged from 15,281 to 15,570 bp in length, and all first genes started from trnM in the same direction. And base composition was biased toward A and T. Finally, both two methods (ML and BI) separately revealed that the same phylogenetic relationship of D. spp. as ((((D. punctatus + D. tabulaeformis) + D. spectabilis) + D. superans) + (D. kikuchii of Hunan population + D. houi) as in previous research, but results were different in that D. kikuchii from a Yunnan population was included, indicating that different geographical populations of insects have differentiated. And the phylogenetic relationship among Lasiocampidae species was ((((Dendrolimus) + Kunugia) + Euthrix) + Trabala). This provides a better theoretical basis for Lasiocampidae evolution and classification for future research directions.

RevDate: 2020-07-26

Bertgen L, Mühlhaus T, JM Herrmann (2020)

Clingy genes: Why were genes for ribosomal proteins retained in many mitochondrial genomes?.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics pii:S0005-2728(20)30125-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Why mitochondria still retain their own genome is a puzzle given the enormous effort to maintain a mitochondrial translation machinery. Most mitochondrially encoded proteins are membrane-embedded subunits of the respiratory chain. Their hydrophobicity presumably impedes their import into mitochondria. However, many mitochondrial genomes also encode protein subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome. These proteins lack transmembrane domains and hydrophobicity cannot explain why their genes remained in mitochondria. In this review, we provide an overview about mitochondrially encoded subunits of mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, plants and protists. Moreover, we discuss and evaluate different hypotheses which were put forward to explain why (ribosomal) proteins remained mitochondrially encoded. It seems likely that the synthesis of ribosomal proteins in the mitochondrial matrix is used to regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial ribosome within mitochondria and to avoid problems that mitochondrial proteins might pose for cytosolic proteostasis and for the assembly of cytosolic ribosomes.

RevDate: 2020-07-25

Cunnane SC, Trushina E, Morland C, et al (2020)

Brain energy rescue: an emerging therapeutic concept for neurodegenerative disorders of ageing.

Nature reviews. Drug discovery pii:10.1038/s41573-020-0072-x [Epub ahead of print].

The brain requires a continuous supply of energy in the form of ATP, most of which is produced from glucose by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, complemented by aerobic glycolysis in the cytoplasm. When glucose levels are limited, ketone bodies generated in the liver and lactate derived from exercising skeletal muscle can also become important energy substrates for the brain. In neurodegenerative disorders of ageing, brain glucose metabolism deteriorates in a progressive, region-specific and disease-specific manner - a problem that is best characterized in Alzheimer disease, where it begins presymptomatically. This Review discusses the status and prospects of therapeutic strategies for countering neurodegenerative disorders of ageing by improving, preserving or rescuing brain energetics. The approaches described include restoring oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, increasing insulin sensitivity, correcting mitochondrial dysfunction, ketone-based interventions, acting via hormones that modulate cerebral energetics, RNA therapeutics and complementary multimodal lifestyle changes.

RevDate: 2020-07-27
CmpDate: 2020-07-27

Cai G, SR Scofield (2020)

Mitochondrial genome sequence of Phytophthora sansomeana and comparative analysis of Phytophthora mitochondrial genomes.

PloS one, 15(5):e0231296.

Phytophthora sansomeana infects soybean and causes root rot. It was recently separated from the species complex P. megasperma sensu lato. In this study, we sequenced and annotated its complete mitochondrial genome and compared it to that of nine other Phytophthora species. The genome was assembled into a circular molecule of 39,618 bp with a 22.03% G+C content. Forty-two protein coding genes, 25 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes were annotated in this genome. The protein coding genes include 14 genes in the respiratory complexes, four ATP synthase genes, 16 ribosomal proteins genes, a tatC translocase gene, six conserved ORFs and a unique orf402. The tRNA genes encode tRNAs for 19 amino acids. Comparison among mitochondrial genomes of 10 Phytophthora species revealed three inversions, each covering multiple genes. These genomes were conserved in gene content with few exceptions. A 3' truncated atp9 gene was found in P. nicotianae. All 10 Phytophthora species, as well as other oomycetes and stramenopiles, lacked tRNA genes for threonine in their mitochondria. Phylogenomic analysis using the mitochondrial genomes supported or enhanced previous findings of the phylogeny of Phytophthora spp.

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Suk HY, Bae HG, Kim DY, et al (2020)

Genetic and phylogenetic structure of Hynobius quelpaertensis, an endangered endemic salamander species on the Korean Peninsula.

Genes & genomics, 42(2):165-178.

BACKGROUND: The Korean Peninsula is a small but unique area showing great endemic Hynobius diversity with H. quelpaertensis, H. yangi, H. unisacculus and three species candidates (HC1, HC3 and HC4). H. quelpaertensis is distributed in the southern part and in Jeju Island, while the remaining species have extremely narrow distributions.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the genetic structure of H. quelpaertensis and the phylogenetic placement in Hynobius.

METHODS: Three mitochondrial and six microsatellite loci were genotyped for 204 Hynobius quelpaertensis, three H. leechii, three H. yangi, three HC1, two H. unisacculus, three HC3, three HC4 and ten Japanses H. lichenatus.

RESULTS: A high level of mitochondrial diversity was found in H. quelpaertensis. Our mitochondrial data showed evidence of a historical link between inland and Jeju Island despite the signature of founder effect likely experienced by the early island populations. However, our microsatellite analysis showed the fairly clear signature of isolation history between in- and island populations. Upon phylogenetic analysis, H. quelpaertensis, H. unisacculus and HC1 formed a cluster, whereas H. yangi belonged to a separate cluster. HC3 and HC4 were clustered with either H. quelpaertensis or H. yangi depending on the locus used.

CONCLUSION: Our results show at least partially the historical imprints engraved by dispersal of Korean endemic Hynobius during Pleistocene, potentially providing a fundamental basis in determining the conservation units and finding management strategies for these species.

RevDate: 2020-07-27
CmpDate: 2020-07-27

Li J, Xue C, Gao Q, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy rises in substantial nigra of aged PINK1 KO mice.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 521(4):1024-1029.

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin result in early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1/Parkin pathway maintain mitochondrial function by mediating the clearance of damaged mitochondria. However, the role of PINK1/Parkin in maintaining the balance of mtDNA heteroplasmy is still unknown. Here, we isolated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from cortex, striatum and substantia nigra of wildtype (WT), PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) and Parkin knockout (Parkin KO) mice to analyze mtDNA heteroplasmy induced by PINK1/Parkin deficiency or aging. Our results showed that the Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) of late-onset somatic variants mainly increased with aging. Conversely, the early-onset somatic variants exhibited significant increase in the cortex and substantia nigra of PINK1 KO mice than WT mice of the same age. Increased average variant allele frequency was observed in aged PINK1 KO mice and in substantial nigra of aged Parkin KO mice than in WT mice. Cumulative variant allele frequency in the substantia nigra of PINK1 KO mice was significantly higher than that in WT mice, further supporting the pivotal role of PINK1 in mtDNA maintenance. This study presented a new evidence for PINK1 and Parkin in participating in mitochondrial quality control and provided clues for further revealing the role of PINK1 and Parkin in the pathogenesis of PD.

RevDate: 2020-07-23

Žihala D, Salamonová J, M Eliáš (2020)

Evolution of the genetic code in the mitochondria of Labyrinthulea (Stramenopiles).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(20)30180-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial translation often exhibits departures from the standard genetic code, but the full spectrum of these changes has certainly not yet been described and the molecular mechanisms behind the changes in codon meaning are rarely studied. Here we report a detailed analysis of the mitochondrial genetic code in the stramenopile group Labyrinthulea (Labyrinthulomycetes) and their relatives. In the genus Aplanochytrium, UAG is not a termination codon but encodes tyrosine, in contrast to the unaffected meaning of the UAA codon. This change is evolutionarily independent of the reassignment of both UAG and UAA as tyrosine codons recently reported from two uncultivated labyrinthuleans (S2 and S4), which we show are not thraustochytrids as proposed before, but represent the clade LAB14 previously recognised in environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys. We provide rigorous evidence that the UUA codon in the mitochondria of all labyrinthuleans serves as a termination codon instead of encoding leucine, and propose that a sense-to-stop reassignment has also affected the AGG and AGA codons in the LAB14 clade. The distribution of the different forms of sense-to-stop and stop-to-sense reassignments correlates with specific modifications of the mitochondrial release factor mtRF2a in different subsets of labyrinthuleans, and with the unprecedented loss of mtRF1a in Aplanochytrium and perhaps also in the LAB14 clade, pointing towards a possible mechanistic basis of the code changes observed. Curiously, we show that labyrinthulean mitochondria also exhibit a sense-to-sense codon reassignment, manifested as AUA encoding methionine instead of isoleucine. Furthermore, we show that this change evolved independently in the uncultivated stramenopile lineage MAST8b, together with the reassignment of the AGR codons from arginine to serine. Altogether, our study has uncovered novel variants of the mitochondrial genetic code and previously unknown modifications of the mitochondrial translation machinery, further enriching our understanding of the rules governing the evolution of one of the central molecular process in the cell.

RevDate: 2020-07-22

Codo AC, Davanzo GG, Monteiro LB, et al (2020)

Elevated Glucose Levels Favor SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Monocyte Response through a HIF-1α/Glycolysis-Dependent Axis.

Cell metabolism pii:S1550-4131(20)30365-X [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-07-21

Voznesenskaya EV, Koteyeva NK, Chuong SDX, et al (2007)

Physiological, anatomical and biochemical characterisation of photosynthetic types in genus Cleome (Cleomaceae).

Functional plant biology : FPB, 34(4):247-267.

C4 photosynthesis has evolved many times in 18 different families of land plants with great variation in leaf anatomy, ranging from various forms of Kranz anatomy to C4 photosynthesis occurring within a single type of photosynthetic cell. There has been little research on photosynthetic typing in the family Cleomaceae, in which only one C4 species has been identified, Cleome gynandra L. There is recent interest in selecting and developing a C4 species from the family Cleomaceae as a model C4 system, since it is the most closely related to Arabidopsis, a C3 model system (Brown et al. 2005). From screening more than 230 samples of Cleomaceae species, based on a measure of the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in leaves, we have identified two additional C4 species, C. angustifolia Forssk. (Africa) and C. oxalidea F.Muell. (Australia). Several other species have δ13C values around -17‰ to -19‰, suggesting they are C4-like or intermediate species. Eight species of Cleome were selected for physiological, anatomical and biochemical analyses. These included C. gynandra, a NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C4 species, C. paradoxa R.Br., a C3-C4 intermediate species, and 6 others which were characterised as C3 species. Cleome gynandra has C4 features based on low CO2 compensation point (Γ), C4 type δ13C values, Kranz-type leaf anatomy and bundle sheath (BS) ultrastructure, presence of C4 pathway enzymes, and selective immunolocalisation of Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Cleome paradoxa was identified as a C3-C4 intermediate based on its intermediate Γ (27.5 μmol mol-1), ultrastructural features and selective localisation of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of BS cells. The other six species are C3 plants based on Γ, δ13C values, non-Kranz leaf anatomy, and levels of C4 pathway enzymes (very low or absent) typical of C3 plants. The results indicate that this is an interesting family for studying the genetic basis for C4 photosynthesis and its evolution from C3 species.

RevDate: 2020-07-21
CmpDate: 2020-07-21

Eom KS, Rim HJ, HK Jeon (2020)

Taenia asiatica: Historical overview of taeniasis and cysticercosis with molecular characterization.

Advances in parasitology, 108:133-173.

Asian Taenia is a human-infecting Taenia tapeworm known as Taenia asiatica following morphological examination of adult and larval stages of the tapeworm by Eom and Rim (1993). The life cycle of T. asiatica differs from that of T. saginata in its intermediate host (pigs versus cattle) as well as in the infected organs (liver versus muscle). T. asiatica can be differentiated from T. solium and T. saginata by examination of morphological characteristics such as the scolex, mature and gravid proglottids in the adult stage, and the scolex and bladder surface in the larval stage. T. asiatica has been identified in Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan, Lao PDR, Nepal and India. The molecular tools employed for T. asiatica identification have been developed to differentiate T. asiatica from other human-infecting Taenia tapeworms based on genetic information such as nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genes, nuclear ribosomal genes and nuclear genes that lead to development of the subsequent molecular techniques, such as PCR-RFLP, PCR-RAPD, BESST-base, LAMP and qPCR. Investigation of the phylogenetic relationships among human Taenia species revealed that T. asiatica is a sister species with T. saginata, which is genetically more similar than other Taenia species in terms of the nucleotide sequences of cox1, nad1 and 28S rDNA. The mitochondrial genomes of human Taenia tapeworms comprise 13,703bp (T. asiatica), 13,670bp (T. saginata) and 13,709bp (T. solium), and contain 36 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Sequence differences in the full genome of T. asiatica and T. saginata mitochondria is 4.6%, while T. solium differs by 11%. Hox gene orthology in T. asiatica was established by comparative analysis with Platyhelminthes Hox genes. T. asiatica Hox revealed six Hox orthologs including two lab/Hox1, two Hox3, one Dfd/Hox4 and one Lox/Lox4. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata was definitely observed in these species which are sympatrically endemic in the regions of Korea, Thailand, China and Lao PDR. Comparative analyses of T. asiatica, T. saginata and T. solium genomes were also reported with genome features. Taenia asiaticus nomen novum was proposed for T. asiaticaEom and Rim, 1993 which is a homonym of T. asiatica Linstow, 1901 (Davaineidae).

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Kim JS, Park J, Fong JJ, et al (2020)

Genetic diversity and inferred dispersal history of the Schlegel's Japanese Gecko (Gekko japonicus) in Northeast Asia based on population genetic analyses and paleo-species distribution modelling.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(3):120-130.

To understand the genetic diversity and dispersal history of Schlegel's Japanese gecko (Gekko japonicus), we performed genetic analyses and paleo-species distributional modelling. For the genetic analysis, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (cytochrome b [Cytb] and NADH dehydrogenase 2 [ND2]) and seven microsatellite loci of 353 individuals from 11 populations (2 east coast China, 4 west and central coast Japan and 5 Korea). For the paleo-species distribution modelling, we used 432 occurrence data points (125 China, 291 Japan and 16 Korea) over the Pleistocene and Holocene. China is inferred to be the source population, which had higher genetic diversity (mtDNA) and more private alleles (mtDNA) compared to Japanese and Korean populations. Differences between the three counties were very small in the mtDNA haplotype network despite some genetic structure among the three countries. Microsatellite analysis inferred that genetic exchange has actively occurred among the Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations. Suitable habitats in Japan should have been plentiful by the mid-Holocene, but have only recently become available in Korea. These results suggest that dispersal of G. japonicus occurred after the Holocene warming from the east coast of China to the west and central coasts of Japan and Korea, and gene flow is actively occurring among the three countries.

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Yang C, Zhu EJ, He QJ, et al (2020)

Strong genetic differentiation among populations of Cheirotonus gestroi (Coleoptera: Euchiridae) in its native area sheds lights on species conservation.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(3):108-119.

The long-armed scarab (Cheirotonus gestroi) is an endangered large insect in southwestern China and neighboring countries; however, limited information is available regarding its population genetics, hindering conservation efforts. Therefore, we investigated the population genetic structure and evolutionary history of C. gestroi in southwestern China. Twenty-five haplotypes were obtained from 47 specimens across five populations. The Dawei Mountain (DWS) population differed from other populations by a high genetic distance. Population structure analysis generated three distinct clades, corresponding to Hengduan Mountains (HM), Ailao Mountains (AM), and Dawei Mountains (DM), and high-level genetic diversity was found in two HM populations. Collectively, the strong genetic differentiation among populations might be due to limited gene flow, geographical isolation, and habitat fragmentation. Therefore, while developing a conservation strategy, HM, AM, and DM groups should be defined as separate management units. Additionally, the DWS population should be given priority protection due to its uniqueness and low genetic diversity.

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Mehdizadeh R, Akmali V, M Sharifi (2020)

Population genetic structure and phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) along Alborz and Zagros Mts. in Iran.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(3):87-97.

In this paper, we investigate the genetic structure and phylogeography of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1017 bp) in Iran and adjacent regions. The total haplotype and nucleotide diversity are 0.63 ± 0.055 and 0.0021 ± 0.00017, respectively which suggest that R. ferrumequinum exhibits low genetic diversity. AMOVA analysis shows that more variation of genetic differentiation is present among populations of phylogenetic groupings than within populations. Our phylogenetic results support the monophyly of R. ferrumequinum and suggest this taxon comprises three allopatric/parapatric phylogroups that are distributed in Europe-western Turkey, eastern Turkey-northern Iran, and southern Iran. The Europe-western Turkey lineage (clade 2) split from the eastern Turkey-Iran lineage (clade 1) during the middle Pleistocene (0.8534 (ca.I)-0.6454 (ca.II) Ma). The divergence time among subclades A and B occurred during the mid-Pleistocene (0.4849 (ca.I)-0.369 (ca.II) Ma). All phylogenetic analyses also indicate that the Iranian and eastern Turkey R. ferrumequinum diverged from Europe and western Turkey R. ferrumequinum, with the mean percentage sequence differences ranging from 0.92%-0.75% between them. We infer that long-term isolation of R. ferrumequinum in spatially distinct refugia in parts of southwestern and northeastern Iran has promoted distinct phylogeographic lineages during the Pleistocene.

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Zhang WJ, Wang JJ, Li C, et al (2020)

Spatial genetic structure of Opsariichthys hainanensis in South China.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(3):98-107.

South China presents an excellent opportunity to build a phylogeographic paradigm for complex geological history, including mountain lifting, climate change, and river capture/reversal events. The phylogeography of cyprinids, particularly Opsariichthys hainanensis, an endemic species restricted to South China, was examined to explore the relationship between the populations in Red River, Hainan Island and its adjacent mainland China. A total of 37 haplotypes were genotyped for the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene in 115 specimens from 11 river systems. Relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.946) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.014) were detected in O. hainanensis. Four major phylogenetic haplotype groups revealed a relationship between phylogeny and geography. Our results found that (i) the ancestral populations of O. hainanensis were distributed south of the Wuzhishan and Yinggeling mountains, including the Changhua River on Hainan Island, and then spread to the surrounding areas, (ii) the admixtures within lineages occurred between the Red River in North Vietnam and the Changhua River in western Hainan Island and (iii) indicated that the exposure of straits and shelves under water retreat, provides opportunities for population dispersion during glaciations.

RevDate: 2020-07-15
CmpDate: 2020-07-15

Baldini F, Portincasa P, Grasselli E, et al (2020)

Aquaporin-9 is involved in the lipid-lowering activity of the nutraceutical silybin on hepatocytes through modulation of autophagy and lipid droplets composition.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids, 1865(3):158586.

Hepatic steatosis is the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance with potential evolution towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Key roles of autophagy and oxidative stress in hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD progression are recognized. Here, we employed a rat hepatoma cell model of NAFLD progression made of FaO cells exposed to oleate/palmitate followed or not by TNFα treatment to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which silybin, a lipid-lowering nutraceutical, may improve hepatic lipid dyshomeostasis. The beneficial effect of silybin was found to involve amelioration of the fatty acids profile of lipid droplets, stimulation of the mitochondrial oxidation and upregulation of a microRNA of pivotal relevance in hepatic fat metabolism, miR-122. Silybin was also found to restore the levels of Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and glycerol permeability while reducing the activation of the oxidative stress-dependent transcription factor NF-κB, and autophagy turnover. In conclusion, silybin was shown to have molecular effects on signaling pathways that were previously unknown and potentially protect the hepatocyte. These actions intersect TG metabolism, fat-induced autophagy and AQP9-mediated glycerol transport in hepatocytes.

RevDate: 2020-07-18

Kami D, S Gojo (2020)

From Cell Entry to Engraftment of Exogenous Mitochondria.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(14): pii:ijms21144995.

Mitochondrial transfer has been recognized to play a role in a variety of processes, ranging from fertilization to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as well as mammalian horizontal gene transfer. It is achieved through either exogeneous or intercellular mitochondrial transfer. From the viewpoint of evolution, exogeneous mitochondrial transfer is quite akin to the initial process of symbiosis between α-protobacterium and archaea, although the progeny have developed more sophisticated machinery to engulf environmental materials, including nutrients, bacteria, and viruses. A molecular-based knowledge of endocytosis, including macropinocytosis and endosomal escape involving bacteria and viruses, could provide mechanistic insights into exogeneous mitochondrial transfer. We focus on exogeneous mitochondrial transfer in this review to facilitate the clinical development of the use of isolated mitochondria to treat various pathological conditions. Several kinds of novel procedures to enhance exogeneous mitochondrial transfer have been developed and are summarized in this review.

RevDate: 2020-07-16

Heger P, Zheng W, Rottmann A, et al (2020)

The genetic factors of bilaterian evolution.

eLife, 9: pii:45530 [Epub ahead of print].

The Cambrian explosion was a unique animal radiation ~540 million years ago that produced the full range of body plans across bilaterians. The genetic mechanisms underlying these events are unknown, leaving a fundamental question in evolutionary biology unanswered. Using large-scale comparative genomics and advanced orthology evaluation techniques, we identified 157 bilaterian-specific genes. They include the entire Nodal pathway, a key regulator of mesoderm development and left-right axis specification; components for nervous system development, including a suite of G protein-coupled receptors that control physiology and behaviour, the Robo-Slit midline repulsion system, and the neurotrophin signalling system; a high number of zinc finger transcription factors; and novel factors that previously escaped attention. Contradicting the current view, our study reveals that genes with bilaterian origin are robustly associated with key features in extant bilaterians, suggesting a causal relationship.

RevDate: 2020-07-17

Praud C, Jimenez J, Pampouille E, et al (2020)

Molecular Phenotyping of White Striping and Wooden Breast Myopathies in Chicken.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:633.

The White Striping (WS) and Wooden Breast (WB) defects are two myopathic syndromes whose occurrence has recently increased in modern fast-growing broilers. The impact of these defects on the quality of breast meat is very important, as they greatly affect its visual aspect, nutritional value, and processing yields. The research conducted to date has improved our knowledge of the biological processes involved in their occurrence, but no solution has been identified so far to significantly reduce their incidence without affecting growing performance of broilers. This study aims to follow the evolution of molecular phenotypes in relation to both fast-growing rate and the occurrence of defects in order to identify potential biomarkers for diagnostic purposes, but also to improve our understanding of physiological dysregulation involved in the occurrence of WS and WB. This has been achieved through enzymatic, histological, and transcriptional approaches by considering breast muscles from a slow- and a fast-growing line, affected or not by WS and WB. Fast-growing muscles produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than slow-growing ones, independently of WS and WB occurrence. Within fast-growing muscles, despite higher mitochondria density, muscles affected by WS or WB defects did not show higher cytochrome oxidase activity (COX) activity, suggesting altered mitochondrial function. Among the markers related to muscle remodeling and regeneration, immunohistochemical staining of FN1, NCAM, and MYH15 was higher in fast- compared to slow-growing muscles, and their amount also increased linearly with the presence and severity of WS and WB defects, making them potential biomarkers to assess accurately their presence and severity. Thanks to an innovative histological technique based on fluorescence intensity measurement, they can be rapidly quantified to estimate the injuries induced in case of WS and WB. The muscular expression of several other genes correlates also positively to the presence and severity of the defects like TGFB1 and CTGF, both involved in the development of connective tissue, or Twist1, known as an inhibitor of myogenesis. Finally, our results suggested that a balance between TGFB1 and PPARG would be essential for fibrosis or adiposis induction and therefore for determining WS and WB phenotypes.

RevDate: 2020-07-17
CmpDate: 2020-07-17

Zardoya R (2020)

Recent advances in understanding mitochondrial genome diversity.

F1000Research, 9:.

Ever since its discovery, the double-stranded DNA contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotes has fascinated researchers because of its bacterial endosymbiotic origin, crucial role in encoding subunits of the respiratory complexes, compact nature, and specific inheritance mechanisms. In the last few years, high-throughput sequencing techniques have accelerated the sequencing of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and uncovered the great diversity of organizations, gene contents, and modes of replication and transcription found in living eukaryotes. Some early divergent lineages of unicellular eukaryotes retain certain synteny and gene content resembling those observed in the genomes of alphaproteobacteria (the inferred closest living group of mitochondria), whereas others adapted to anaerobic environments have drastically reduced or even lost the mitogenome. In the three main multicellular lineages of eukaryotes, mitogenomes have pursued diverse evolutionary trajectories in which different types of molecules (circular versus linear and single versus multipartite), gene structures (with or without self-splicing introns), gene contents, gene orders, genetic codes, and transfer RNA editing mechanisms have been selected. Whereas animals have evolved a rather compact mitochondrial genome between 11 and 50 Kb in length with a highly conserved gene content in bilaterians, plants exhibit large mitochondrial genomes of 66 Kb to 11.3 Mb with large intergenic repetitions prone to recombination, and fungal mitogenomes have intermediate sizes of 12 to 236 Kb.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Pedriali G, Morciano G, Patergnani S, et al (2020)

Aortic Valve Stenosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions: Clinical and Molecular Perspectives.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(14): pii:ijms21144899.

Calcific aortic stenosis is a disorder that impacts the physiology of heart valves. Fibrocalcific events progress in conjunction with thickening of the valve leaflets. Over the years, these events promote stenosis and obstruction of blood flow. Known and common risk factors are congenital defects, aging and metabolic syndromes linked to high plasma levels of lipoproteins. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the main molecular mediators of the evolution of aortic stenosis in patients and these mediators regulate both the degradation and remodeling processes. Mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of autophagy also contribute to the disease. A better understanding of these cellular impairments might help to develop new ways to treat patients since, at the moment, there is no effective medical treatment to diminish neither the advancement of valve stenosis nor the left ventricular function impairments, and the current approaches are surgical treatment or transcatheter aortic valve replacement with prosthesis.

RevDate: 2020-07-14

Fan L, Wu D, Goremykin V, et al (2020)

Phylogenetic analyses with systematic taxon sampling show that mitochondria branch within Alphaproteobacteria.

Nature ecology & evolution pii:10.1038/s41559-020-1239-x [Epub ahead of print].

Though it is well accepted that mitochondria originated from an alphaproteobacteria-like ancestor, the phylogenetic relationship of the mitochondrial endosymbiont to extant Alphaproteobacteria is yet unresolved. The focus of much debate is whether the affinity between mitochondria and fast-evolving alphaproteobacterial lineages reflects true homology or artefacts. Approaches such as site exclusion have been claimed to mitigate compositional heterogeneity between taxa, but this comes at the cost of information loss, and the reliability of such methods is so far unproven. Here we demonstrate that site-exclusion methods produce erratic phylogenetic estimates of mitochondrial origin. Thus, previous phylogenetic hypotheses on the origin of mitochondria based on pretreated datasets should be re-evaluated. We applied alternative strategies to reduce phylogenetic noise by systematic taxon sampling while keeping site substitution information intact. Cross-validation based on a series of trees placed mitochondria robustly within Alphaproteobacteria, sharing an ancient common ancestor with Rickettsiales and currently unclassified marine lineages.

RevDate: 2020-07-14
CmpDate: 2020-07-14

Gyllenhammer LE, Entringer S, Buss C, et al (2020)

Developmental programming of mitochondrial biology: a conceptual framework and review.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1926):20192713.

Research on mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of developmental programming of health and disease has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs and phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that exposure to suboptimal or adverse developmental conditions concomitantly influences a broad range of phenotypes suggests that these exposures may additionally exert effects through cellular mechanisms that are common, or shared, across these different cell and tissue types. It is in this context that we focus on cellular bioenergetics and propose that mitochondria, bioenergetic and signalling organelles, may represent a key cellular target underlying developmental programming. In this review, we discuss empirical findings in animals and humans that suggest that key structural and functional features of mitochondrial biology exhibit developmental plasticity, and are influenced by the same physiological pathways that are implicated in susceptibility for complex, common age-related disorders, and that these targets of mitochondrial developmental programming exhibit long-term temporal stability. We conclude by articulating current knowledge gaps and propose future research directions to bridge these gaps.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Lee S, S Lee (2020)

Multigene phylogeny uncovers oviposition-related evolutionary history of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106707.

The correlated evolution of the morphology of reproduction-related organs and biological aspects of insects is intriguing yet poorly understood. As one of the largest subfamilies of phytophagous beetles, Cerambycinae provides a unique opportunity to study this topic because of the wide range of host plants, oviposition strategies, and various forms of ovipositors of its members. Nevertheless, the evolutionary pathway of these traits is unexplored and no robust phylogenetic study of the subfamily has been conducted. In this study, we reconstructed a first multi-locus phylogeny of Cerambycinae representing a wide range of oviposition strategies, host plants, and ovipositor lengths. Ancestral state reconstruction analyses showed that the shortened ovipositor in Cerambycinae evolved at least four times independently and that the use of host plant has evolved from stressed hosts to dead or living hosts and from broad-leaved trees to conifers. The correlated evolution test revealed the correlation between ovipositor length and oviposition strategy. Our study elucidates for the first time the complex evolutionary history of the ovipositor, oviposition strategy, and host plant usage, and their correlations within Cerambycinae.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Fang Y, Zhao C, Xiang H, et al (2020)

Melatonin improves cryopreservation of ram sperm by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene [Epub ahead of print].

Cryopreservation damages permeability of sperm mitochondrial membranes, with formation of a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Mitochondria are both a primary synthesis site and principle target for melatoninm, and which can directly inhibit mPTP formation. The objective was to determine effects of melatonin on mPTP opening of frozen-thawed ram sperm, and elucidate underlying pathways by antagonist and agonists of melatonin receptors (MTs), and antagonists of PI3K and GSK 3β treatments; furthermore, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial Cytochrome c (Cyt c) release and fertilization were analyzed to assess the effect of mPTP status mediated by melatonin on quality of frozen-thawed sperm. Fresh ram semen was diluted in glucose-egg yolk buffer with 0 or 10-7 M melatonin (frozen and frozen+melatonin groups, respectively) and slow-frozen. In frozen-thawed sperm, melatonin added at initiation of 4°C equilibration was most effective for inhibiting mPTP opening, decreasing peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase activity of Cyclophilin D and increasing plasma membrane integrity, ΔΨm, mitochondrial Cyt c concentration and fertilizing ability (P < 0.05). In a mechanistic study, the melatonin receptor (MT)1 antagonist eliminated inhibition of melatonin on mPTP opening, whereas MT1 agonist had opposite effects (P < 0.05). Neither MT2 antagonist nor agonist had significant effect, but PI3K and/or GSK 3β antagonist decreased inhibition of MT1 agonist on mPTP opening (P < 0.05). In conclusion, melatonin improved sperm cryopreservation, perhaps by acting on MT1 via the PI3K-Akt-GSK 3β pathway to inhibit mPTP opening.

RevDate: 2020-07-09

Porter SM (2020)

Insights into eukaryogenesis from the fossil record.

Interface focus, 10(4):20190105.

Eukaryogenesis-the process by which the eukaryotic cell emerged-has long puzzled scientists. It has been assumed that the fossil record has little to say about this process, in part because important characters such as the nucleus and mitochondria are rarely preserved, and in part because the prevailing model of early eukaryotes implies that eukaryogenesis occurred before the appearance of the first eukaryotes recognized in the fossil record. Here, I propose a different scenario for early eukaryote evolution than is widely assumed. Rather than crown group eukaryotes originating in the late Paleoproterozoic and remaining ecologically minor components for more than half a billion years in a prokaryote-dominated world, I argue for a late Mesoproterozoic origin of the eukaryotic crown group, implying that eukaryogenesis can be studied using the fossil record. I review the proxy records of four crown group characters: the capacity to form cysts as evidenced by the presence of excystment structures; a complex cytoskeleton as evidenced by spines or pylomes; sterol synthesis as evidenced by steranes; and aerobic respiration-and therefore mitochondria-as evidenced by eukaryotes living in oxic environments, and argue that it might be possible to use these proxy records to infer the order in which these characters evolved. The records indicate that both cyst formation and a complex cytoskeleton appeared by late Paleoproterozoic time, and sterol synthesis appeared in the late Mesoproterozioc or early Neoproterozoic. The origin of aerobic respiration cannot as easily be pinned down, but current evidence permits the possibility that it evolved sometime in the Mesoproterozoic.

RevDate: 2020-07-09
CmpDate: 2020-07-09

Dong S, Chen L, Liu Y, et al (2020)

The draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii and mitochondrial phylogenomics of angiosperms.

PloS one, 15(4):e0231020.

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants are well known for their large size, variable coding-gene set and fluid genome structure. The available mitochondrial genomes of the early angiosperms show extreme genetic diversity in genome size, structure, and sequences, such as rampant HGTs in Amborella mt genome, numerous repeated sequences in Nymphaea mt genome, and conserved gene evolution in Liriodendron mt genome. However, currently available early angiosperm mt genomes are still limited, hampering us from obtaining an overall picture of the mitogenomic evolution in angiosperms. Here we sequenced and assembled the draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii Pamp. from Magnoliaceae (magnoliids) using Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology. We recovered a single linear mitochondrial contig of 967,100 bp with an average read coverage of 122 × and a GC content of 46.6%. This draft mitochondrial genome contains a rich 64-gene set, similar to those of Liriodendron and Nymphaea, including 41 protein-coding genes, 20 tRNAs, and 3 rRNAs. Twenty cis-spliced and five trans-spliced introns break ten protein-coding genes in the Magnolia mt genome. Repeated sequences account for 27% of the draft genome, with 17 out of the 1,145 repeats showing recombination evidence. Although partially assembled, the approximately 1-Mb mt genome of Magnolia is still among the largest in angiosperms, which is possibly due to the expansion of repeated sequences, retention of ancestral mtDNAs, and the incorporation of nuclear genome sequences. Mitochondrial phylogenomic analysis of the concatenated datasets of 38 conserved protein-coding genes from 91 representatives of angiosperm species supports the sister relationship of magnoliids with monocots and eudicots, which is congruent with plastid evidence.

RevDate: 2020-07-08

Long X, Xue H, JT Wong (2020)

Descent of Bacteria and Eukarya From an Archaeal Root of Life.

Evolutionary bioinformatics online, 16:1176934320908267 pii:10.1177_1176934320908267.

The 3 biological domains delineated based on small subunit ribosomal RNAs (SSU rRNAs) are confronted by uncertainties regarding the relationship between Archaea and Bacteria, and the origin of Eukarya. The similarities between the paralogous valyl-tRNA and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases in 5398 species estimated by BLASTP, which decreased from Archaea to Bacteria and further to Eukarya, were consistent with vertical gene transmission from an archaeal root of life close to Methanopyrus kandleri through a Primitive Archaea Cluster to an Ancestral Bacteria Cluster, and to Eukarya. The predominant similarities of the ribosomal proteins (rProts) of eukaryotes toward archaeal rProts relative to bacterial rProts established that an archaeal parent rather than a bacterial parent underwent genome merger with bacteria to generate eukaryotes with mitochondria. Eukaryogenesis benefited from the predominantly archaeal accelerated gene adoption (AGA) phenotype pertaining to horizontally transferred genes from other prokaryotes and expedited genome evolution via both gene-content mutations and nucleotidyl mutations. Archaeons endowed with substantial AGA activity were accordingly favored as candidate archaeal parents. Based on the top similarity bitscores displayed by their proteomes toward the eukaryotic proteomes of Giardia and Trichomonas, and high AGA activity, the Aciduliprofundum archaea were identified as leading candidates of the archaeal parent. The Asgard archaeons and a number of bacterial species were among the foremost potential contributors of eukaryotic-like proteins to Eukarya.

RevDate: 2020-07-08
CmpDate: 2020-07-08

Medrano-Soto A, Ghazi F, Hendargo KJ, et al (2020)

Expansion of the Transporter-Opsin-G protein-coupled receptor superfamily with five new protein families.

PloS one, 15(4):e0231085.

Here we provide bioinformatic evidence that the Organo-Arsenical Exporter (ArsP), Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention Receptor (KDELR), Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC), L-Alanine Exporter (AlaE), and the Lipid-linked Sugar Translocase (LST) protein families are members of the Transporter-Opsin-G Protein-coupled Receptor (TOG) Superfamily. These families share domains homologous to well-established TOG superfamily members, and their topologies of transmembranal segments (TMSs) are compatible with the basic 4-TMS repeat unit characteristic of this Superfamily. These repeat units tend to occur twice in proteins as a result of intragenic duplication events, often with subsequent gain/loss of TMSs in many superfamily members. Transporters within the ArsP family allow microbial pathogens to expel toxic arsenic compounds from the cell. Members of the KDELR family are involved in the selective retrieval of proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins of the MPC family are involved in the transport of pyruvate into mitochondria, providing the organelle with a major oxidative fuel. Members of family AlaE excrete L-alanine from the cell. Members of the LST family are involved in the translocation of lipid-linked glucose across the membrane. These five families substantially expand the range of substrates of transport carriers in the superfamily, although KDEL receptors have no known transport function. Clustering of protein sequences reveals the relationships among families, and the resulting tree correlates well with the degrees of sequence similarity documented between families. The analyses and programs developed to detect distant relatedness, provide insights into the structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships that exist between families of the TOG superfamily, and should be of value to many other investigators.

RevDate: 2020-07-08
CmpDate: 2020-07-08

Draper ACE, Wilson Z, Maile C, et al (2020)

Species-specific consequences of an E40K missense mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1).

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 34(1):458-473.

A glutamic acid to lysine (E40K) residue substitution in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is associated with canine degenerative myelopathy: the only naturally occurring large animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The E40 residue is highly conserved across mammals, except the horse, which naturally carries the (dog mutant) K40 residue. Here we hypothesized that in vitro expression of mutant dog SOD1 would recapitulate features of human ALS (ie, SOD1 protein aggregation, reduced cell viability, perturbations in mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential, reduced ATP production, and increased superoxide ion levels); further, we hypothesized that an equivalent equine SOD1 variant would share similar perturbations in vitro, thereby explain horses' susceptibility to certain neurodegenerative diseases. As in human ALS, expression of mutant dog SOD1 was associated with statistically significant increased aggregate formation, raised superoxide levels (ROS), and altered mitochondrial morphology (increased branching (form factor)), when compared to wild-type dog SOD1-expressing cells. Similar deficits were not detected in cells expressing the equivalent horse SOD1 variant. Our data helps explain the ALS-associated cellular phenotype of dogs expressing the mutant SOD1 protein and reveals that species-specific sequence conservation does not necessarily predict pathogenicity. The work improves understanding of the etiopathogenesis of canine degenerative myelopathy.

RevDate: 2020-07-08
CmpDate: 2020-07-08

Bloomfield G (2019)

Sex and macrocyst formation in Dictyostelium.

The International journal of developmental biology, 63(8-9-10):439-446.

Sex in Dictyostelia involves a remarkable form of cannibalism in which zygotes attract large numbers of surrounding amoebae and then ingest them. Before they are consumed, the attracted amoebae help the zygote by synthesising an outer wall around the aggregate that traps them inside and helps to protect the mature developed zygotic structure, the macrocyst. Competition between cells vying to contribute genetically to zygotes and through to the next generation seems likely to have promoted the evolution of several unusual features of dictyostelid sex: individual species often have more than two mating types, increasing haploid cells' chances of matching with a compatible partner, and fusion of many gametes to form transient syncytia allows cytoplasmic mixing and lateral transmission of mitochondrial genomes. This review will summarise recent advances in our understanding of mating-type determination, gamete fusion, and inheritance in Dictyostelium, and highlight the key gaps in our understanding of this fascinating set of phenomena.

RevDate: 2020-07-07
CmpDate: 2020-07-07

Healy TM, RS Burton (2020)

Strong selective effects of mitochondrial DNA on the nuclear genome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(12):6616-6621.

Oxidative phosphorylation, the primary source of cellular energy in eukaryotes, requires gene products encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. As a result, functional integration between the genomes is essential for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. Although within populations this integration is presumably maintained by coevolution, the importance of mitonuclear coevolution in key biological processes such as speciation and mitochondrial disease has been questioned. In this study, we crossed populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus to disrupt putatively coevolved mitonuclear genotypes in reciprocal F2 hybrids. We utilized interindividual variation in developmental rate among these hybrids as a proxy for fitness to assess the strength of selection imposed on the nuclear genome by alternate mitochondrial genotypes. Developmental rate varied among hybrid individuals, and in vitro ATP synthesis rates of mitochondria isolated from high-fitness hybrids were approximately two-fold greater than those of mitochondria isolated from low-fitness individuals. We then used Pool-seq to compare nuclear allele frequencies for high- or low-fitness hybrids. Significant biases for maternal alleles were detected on 5 (of 12) chromosomes in high-fitness individuals of both reciprocal crosses, whereas maternal biases were largely absent in low-fitness individuals. Therefore, the most fit hybrids were those with nuclear alleles that matched their mitochondrial genotype on these chromosomes, suggesting that mitonuclear effects underlie individual-level variation in developmental rate and that intergenomic compatibility is critical for high fitness. We conclude that mitonuclear interactions can have profound impacts on both physiological performance and the evolutionary trajectory of the nuclear genome.

RevDate: 2020-07-06

Gonçalves DJP, Jansen RK, Ruhlman TA, et al (2020)

Under the rug: Abandoning persistent misconceptions that obfuscate organelle evolution.

The advent and advance of next generation sequencing over the past two decades made it possible to accumulate large quantities of sequence reads that could be used to assemble complete or nearly complete organelle genomes (plastome or mitogenome). The result has been an explosive increase in the availability of organelle genome sequences with over 4000 different species of green plants currently available on GenBank. During the same time period, plant molecular biologists greatly enhanced the understanding of the structure, repair, replication, recombination, transcription and translation, and inheritance of organelle DNA. Unfortunately many plant evolutionary biologists are unaware of or have overlooked this knowledge, resulting in misrepresentation of several phenomena that are critical for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies using organelle genomes. We believe that confronting these misconceptions about organelle genome organization, composition, and inheritance will improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that underly organelle evolution. Here we discuss four misconceptions that can limit evolutionary biology studies and lead to inaccurate phylogenies and incorrect structure of the organellar DNA used to infer organelle evolution.

RevDate: 2020-07-06
CmpDate: 2020-07-06

Sun X, Yu D, Xie Z, et al (2020)

Phylomitogenomic analyses on collembolan higher taxa with enhanced taxon sampling and discussion on method selection.

PloS one, 15(4):e0230827.

Collembola are a basal group of Hexapoda renowned for both unique morphological characters and significant ecological roles. However, a robust and plausible phylogenetic relationship between its deeply divergent lineages has yet to be achieved. We carried out a mitophylogenomic study based on a so far the most comprehensive mitochondrial genome dataset. Our data matrix contained mitogenomes of 31 species from almost all major families of all four orders, with 16 mitogenomes newly sequenced and annotated. We compared the linear arrangements of genes along mitochondria across species. Then we conducted 13 analyses each under a different combination of character coding, partitioning scheme and heterotachy models, and assessed their performance in phylogenetic inference. Several hypothetical tree topologies were also tested. Mitogenomic structure comparison revealed that most species share the same gene order of putative ancestral pancrustacean pattern, while seven species from Onychiuridae, Poduridae and Symphypleona bear different levels of gene rearrangements, indicating phylogenetic signals. Tomoceroidea was robustly recovered for the first time in the presence of all its families and subfamilies. Monophyly of Onychiuroidea was supported using unpartitioned models alleviating LBA. Paronellidae was revealed polyphyletic with two subfamilies inserted independently into Entomobryidae. Although Entomobryomorpha has not been well supported, more than half of the analyses obtained convincing topologies by placing Tomoceroidea within or near remaining Entomobryomorpha. The relationship between elongate-shaped and spherical-shaped collembolans still remained ambiguous, but Neelipleona tend to occupy the basal position in most trees. This study showed that mitochondrial genomes could provide important information for reconstructing the relationships among Collembola when suitable analytical approaches are implemented. Of all the data refining and model selecting schemes used in this study, the combination of nucleotide sequences, partitioning model and exclusion of third codon positions performed better in generating more reliable tree topology and higher node supports than others.

RevDate: 2020-07-06
CmpDate: 2020-07-06

Kato S, Okamura E, Matsunaga TM, et al (2019)

Cyanidioschyzon merolae aurora kinase phosphorylates evolutionarily conserved sites on its target to regulate mitochondrial division.

Communications biology, 2:477.

The mitochondrion is an organelle that was derived from an endosymbiosis. Although regulation of mitochondrial growth by the host cell is necessary for the maintenance of mitochondria, it is unclear how this regulatory mechanism was acquired. To address this, we studied the primitive unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, which has the simplest eukaryotic genome and a single mitochondrion. Here we show that the C. merolae Aurora kinase ortholog CmAUR regulates mitochondrial division through phosphorylation of mitochondrial division ring components. One of the components, the Drp1 ortholog CmDnm1, has at least four sites phosphorylated by CmAUR. Depletion of the phosphorylation site conserved among eukaryotes induced defects such as mitochondrial distribution on one side of the cell. Taken together with the observation that human Aurora kinase phosphorylates Drp1 in vitro, we suggest that the phosphoregulation is conserved from the simplest eukaryotes to mammals, and was acquired at the primitive stage of endosymbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Zhu X, Liu G, Bu Y, et al (2020)

In-situ Monitoring of Mitochondria Regulating Cell Viability by the RNA-specific Fluorescent Photosensitizer.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Cell viability is greatly affected by external stimulus eliciting correlated dynamical physiological processes for cells to choose survival or death. A few fluorescent probes have been designed to detect whether the cell is in survival state or apoptotic state, but monitoring the regulation process of the cell undergoing survival to death remains a long-standing challenge. Herein, we highlight the in-situ monitor of mitochondria regulating the cell viability by the RNA-specific fluorescent photosensitizer L. At normal conditions, L anchored mitochondria and interacted with mito-RNA to light up the mitochondria with red fluorescence. With external light stimulus, L generated reactive oxide species (ROS) and cause damage to mitochondria, which activated mitochondrial autophagy to prevent death, during which the red fluorescence of L witnessed dynamical distribution in accordance with the evolution of vacuole structures containing damaged mitochondria into autophagosomes. However, with ROS continuously increasing, the mitochondrial apoptosis was eventually commenced and L with red fluorescent was gradually accumulated in the nucleoli, indicating the programmed cell death. This work demonstrated how the delicate balance between survival and death are regulated by mitochondria.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Noiret A, Puch L, Riffaud C, et al (2020)

Sex-Specific Response to Caloric Restriction After Reproductive Investment in Microcebus murinus: An Integrative Approach.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:506.

In seasonal environments, males and females usually maintain high metabolic activity during the whole summer season, exhausting their energy reserves. In the global warming context, unpredictability of food availability during summer could dramatically challenge the energy budget of individuals. Therefore, one can predict that resilience to environmental stress would be dramatically endangered during summer. Here, we hypothesized that females could have greater capacity to survive harsh conditions than males, considering the temporal shift in their respective reproductive energy investment, which can challenge them differently, as well as enhanced flexibility in females' physiological regulation. We tackled this question on the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), focusing on the late summer period, after the reproductive effort. We monitored six males and six females before and after a 2-weeks 60% caloric restriction (CR), measuring different physiological and cellular parameters in an integrative and comparative multiscale approach. Before CR, females were heavier than males and mostly characterized by high levels of energy expenditure, a more energetic mitochondrial profile and a downregulation of blood antioxidants. We observed a similar energy balance between sexes due to CR, with a decrease in metabolic activity over time only in males. Oxidative damage to DNA was also reduced by different pathways between sexes, which may reflect variability in their physiological status and life-history traits at the end of summer. Finally, females' mitochondria seemed to exhibit greater flexibility and greater metabolic potential than males in response to CR. Our results showed strong differences between males and females in response to food shortage during late summer, underlining the necessity to consider sex as a factor for population dynamics in climate change models.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Keaney TA, Wong HWS, Dowling DK, et al (2020)

Sibling rivalry versus mother's curse: can kin competition facilitate a response to selection on male mitochondria?.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1930):20200575.

Assuming that fathers never transmit mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to their offspring, mitochondrial mutations that affect male fitness are invisible to direct selection on males, leading to an accumulation of male-harming alleles in the mitochondrial genome (mother's curse). However, male phenotypes encoded by mtDNA can still undergo adaptation via kin selection provided that males interact with females carrying related mtDNA, such as their sisters. Here, using experiments with Drosophila melanogaster carrying standardized nuclear DNA but distinct mitochondrial DNA, we test whether the mitochondrial haplotype carried by interacting pairs of larvae affects survival to adulthood, as well as the fitness of the adults. Although mtDNA had no detectable direct or indirect genetic effect on larva-to-adult survival, the fitness of male and female adults was significantly affected by their own mtDNA and the mtDNA carried by their social partner in the larval stage. Thus, mtDNA mutations that alter the effect of male larvae on nearby female larvae (which often carry the same mutation, due to kinship) could theoretically respond to kin selection. We discuss the implications of our findings for the evolution of mitochondria and other maternally inherited endosymbionts.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Wu Z, Waneka G, Broz AK, et al (2020)

MSH1 is required for maintenance of the low mutation rates in plant mitochondrial and plastid genomes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2001998117 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial and plastid genomes in land plants exhibit some of the slowest rates of sequence evolution observed in any eukaryotic genome, suggesting an exceptional ability to prevent or correct mutations. However, the mechanisms responsible for this extreme fidelity remain unclear. We tested seven candidate genes involved in cytoplasmic DNA replication, recombination, and repair (POLIA, POLIB, MSH1, RECA3, UNG, FPG, and OGG1) for effects on mutation rates in the model angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana by applying a highly accurate DNA sequencing technique (duplex sequencing) that can detect newly arisen mitochondrial and plastid mutations even at low heteroplasmic frequencies. We find that disrupting MSH1 (but not the other candidate genes) leads to massive increases in the frequency of point mutations and small indels and changes to the mutation spectrum in mitochondrial and plastid DNA. We also used droplet digital PCR to show transmission of de novo heteroplasmies across generations in msh1 mutants, confirming a contribution to heritable mutation rates. This dual-targeted gene is part of an enigmatic lineage within the mutS mismatch repair family that we find is also present outside of green plants in multiple eukaryotic groups (stramenopiles, alveolates, haptophytes, and cryptomonads), as well as certain bacteria and viruses. MSH1 has previously been shown to limit ectopic recombination in plant cytoplasmic genomes. Our results point to a broader role in recognition and correction of errors in plant mitochondrial and plastid DNA sequence, leading to greatly suppressed mutation rates perhaps via initiation of double-stranded breaks and repair pathways based on faithful homologous recombination.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Souza DS, Marinoni L, Monné ML, et al (2020)

Molecular phylogenetic assessment of the tribal classification of Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106736.

Lamiinae is the most diverse subfamily of longhorned beetles, with about 20,000 described species classified into 80 tribes. Most of the tribes of Lamiinae were proposed during the 19th century and the suprageneric classification of the subfamily has never been assessed under phylogenetic criteria. In this study, we present the first tribal-level phylogeny of Lamiinae, inferred from 130 terminals (representing 46 tribes, prioritizing generic type species of the tribes) and fragments of two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers (cox1, rrnL, Wg, CPS and LSU; 5,024 aligned positions in total). Analyses were performed under Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods based on two datasets: a dataset including all taxa available for the study, and a reduced dataset with 111 terminals where taxa only contributing with mitochondrial markers were excluded from the matrix. The monophyly of Lamiinae was corroborated in three of the four analyses and 11 of the 35 tribes with more than one species represented in the analyses were consistently recovered as monophyletic. However, 15 tribes were not retrieved as monophyletic, requiring a revision of their boundaries: Acanthocinini, Acanthoderini, Agapanthiini, Apomecynini, Desmiphorini, Dorcaschematini, Enicodini, Hemilophini, Monochamini, Onciderini, Parmenini, Phytoeciini, Pogonocherini, Pteropliini and Saperdini. Based on these results, when strong support values for paraphyly were recovered, we argue a number of tribe synonymies, including Moneilemini as synonym of Acanthocinini; Onocephalini of Onciderini; Dorcadionini, Gnomini, Monochamini and Rhodopinini of Lamiini; and Obereini and Phytoeciini of Saperdini. Other taxonomic changes proposed in this study based on the criterion of monophyly and supported by morphological characters include the transfer of Tricondyloides and Stenellipsis to Enicodini, and of Dylobolus stat. rest., which is removed as subgenus of Mecas and restituted as genus, to Hemilophini. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that Ostedes and Neohoplonotus should be removed from Acanthocinini and Parmenini, respectively, and Colobotheini should be redefined to encompass several genera currently placed in Acanthocinini.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Chang H, Qiu Z, Yuan H, et al (2020)

Evolutionary rates of and selective constraints on the mitochondrial genomes of Orthoptera insects with different wing types.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106734.

Orthoptera is the most diverse order of polyneopterans, and the forewing and hindwing of its members exhibit extremely variability from full length to complete loss in many groups; thus, this order provides a good model for studying the effects of insect flight ability on the evolutionary constraints on and evolutionary rate of the mitochondrial genome. Based on a data set of mitochondrial genomes from 171 species, including 43 newly determined, we reconstructed Orthoptera phylogenetic relationships and estimated the divergence times of this group. The results supported Caelifera and Ensifera as two monophyletic groups, and revealed that Orthoptera originated in the Carboniferous (298.997 Mya). The date of divergence between the suborders Caelifera and Ensifera was 255.705 Mya, in the late Permian. The major lineages of Acrididae seemed to have radiated in the Cenozoic, and the six patterns of rearrangement of 171 Orthoptera mitogenomes mostly occurred in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. Based on phylogenetic relationships and ancestral state reconstruction, we analysed the evolutionary selection pressure on and evolutionary rate of mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mPCGs). The results indicated that during approximately 300 Mya of evolution, these genes experienced purifying selection to maintain their function. Flightless orthopteran insects accumulated more non-synonymous mutations than flying species and experienced more relaxed evolutionary constraints. The different wing types had different evolutionary rates, and the mean evolutionary rate of Orthoptera mitochondrial mPCGs was 13.554 × 10-9 subs/s/y. The differences in selection pressures and evolutionary rates observed between the mitochondrial genomes suggested that functional constraints due to locomotion play an important role in the evolution of mitochondrial DNA in orthopteran insects with different wing types.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Gautério TB, Machado S, Loreto ELDS, et al (2020)

Phylogenetic relationships between fungus-associated Neotropical species of the genera Hirtodrosophila, Mycodrosophila and Zygothrica (Diptera, Drosophilidae), with insights into the evolution of breeding sites usage.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106733.

The Neotropical region harbors an astonishing diversity of species, but still encompasses the least studied biogeographic region of the world. These properties apply for different taxonomic groups, and can be exemplified by drosophilids. In fact, high levels of cryptic diversity have recently been discovered for Neotropical species of the Zygothrica genus group, but relationships among these species, or them and other Drosophilidae species still remains to be addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between fungus-associated Neotropical species of the genera Hirtodrosophila, Mycodrosophila and Zygothrica, which together with Paramycodrosophila and Paraliodrosophila compose the Zygothrica genus group. For this, fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) genes, and the nuclear alpha methyldopa (Amd) and dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) genes were newly characterized for 43 Neotropical specimens of fungus-associated drosophilids, and analyzed in the context of 51 additional Drosophilinae sequences plus one Steganinae outgroup. Based on the resulting phylogeny, the evolution of breeding sites usage was also evaluated through ancestral character reconstructions. Our results revealed the Zygothrica genus group as a monophyletic lineage of Drosophila that branches after the subgenera Sophophora and Drosophila. Within this lineage, Mycodrosophila species seem to encompass the early offshoot, followed by a grade of Hirtodrosophila species, with derived branches mostly occupied by representatives of Zygothrica. This genus, in particular, was subdivided into five major clades, two of which include species of Hirtodrosophila, whose generic status needs to be reevatuated. According to our results, the use of fungi as breeding sites encompasses a symplesiomorphy for the Zygothrica genus group, since one of the recovered clades is currently specialized in using flowers as breeding sites whereas a sole species presents a reversal to the use of fruits of a plant of Gentianales. So, in general, this study supports the paraphyly of Drosophila in relation to fungus-associated Neotropical species of Drosophilidae, providing the first molecular insights into the phylogenetic patterns related to the evolution of this diverse group of species and some of its characteristic traits.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Kaczmarek Ł, Roszkowska M, Poprawa I, et al (2020)

Integrative description of bisexual Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. (Macrobiotidae) from republic of Madagascar (Africa) with microbiome analysis.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106730.

In a moss samples collected on Madagascar two populations of Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. were found. Paramacrobiotus experimentalis sp. nov. with the presence of a microplacoid and areolatus type of eggs is similar to Pam. danielae, Pam. garynahi, Pam. hapukuensis, Pam. peteri, Pam. rioplatensis and Pam. savai, but it differs from them by some morphological and morphometric characters of the eggs. The p-distance between two COI haplotypes of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. was 0.17%. In turn, the ranges of uncorrected genetic p-distances of all Paramacrobiotus species available in GenBank was from 18.27% (for Pam. lachowskae) to 25.26% (for Pam. arduus) with an average distance of 20.67%. We also found that Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. is bisexual. This observation was congruent on three levels: (i) morphological - specimen size dimorphism; (ii) structural (primary sexual characteristics) - females have an unpaired ovary while males have an unpaired testis and (iii) molecular - heterozygous and homozygous strains of the ITS-2 marker. Although symbiotic associations of hosts with bacteria (including endosymbiotic bacteria) are common in nature and these interactions exert various effects on the evolution, biology and reproductive ecology of hosts, there is still very little information on the bacterial community associated with tardigrades. To fill this gap and characterise the bacterial community of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. populations and microbiome of its microhabitat, high throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions in the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed. The obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences ranged from 92,665 to 131,163. In total, 135 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified across the rarefied dataset. Overall, both Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. populations were dominated by OTUs ascribed to the phylum Proteobacteria (89-92%) and Firmicutes (6-7%). In the case of samples from tardigrades' laboratory habitat, the most abundant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria (51-90%) and Bacteroides (9-48%). In all compared microbiome profiles, only 16 of 137 OTUs were shared. We found also significant differences in beta diversity between the partly species-specific microbiome of Pam. experimentalis sp. nov. and its culturing environment. Two OTUs belonging to a putative bacterial endosymbiont were identified - Rickettsiales and Polynucleobacter. We also demonstrated that each bacterial community was rich in genes involved in membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Jardim de Queiroz L, Cardoso Y, Jacot-des-Combes C, et al (2020)

Evolutionary units delimitation and continental multilocus phylogeny of the hyperdiverse catfish genus Hypostomus.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 145:106711.

With 149 currently recognized species, Hypostomus is one of the most species-rich catfish genera in the world, widely distributed over most of the Neotropical region. To clarify the evolutionary history of this genus, we reconstructed a comprehensive phylogeny of Hypostomus based on four nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A total of 206 specimens collected from the main Neotropical rivers were included in the present study. Combining morphology and a Bayesian multispecies coalescent (MSC) approach, we recovered 85 previously recognized species plus 23 putative new species, organized into 118 'clusters'. We presented the Cluster Credibility (CC) index that provides numerical support for every hypothesis of cluster delimitation, facilitating delimitation decisions. We then examined the correspondence between the morphologically identified species and their inter-specific COI barcode pairwise divergence. The mean COI barcode divergence between morphological sisters species was 1.3 ± 1.2%, and only in 11% of the comparisons the divergence was ≥2%. This indicates that the COI barcode threshold of 2% classically used to delimit fish species would seriously underestimate the number of species in Hypostomus, advocating for a taxon-specific COI-based inter-specific divergence threshold to be used only when approximations of species richness are needed. The phylogeny of the 108 Hypostomus species, together with 35 additional outgroup species, confirms the monophyly of the genus. Four well-supported main lineages were retrieved, hereinafter called super-groups: Hypostomus cochliodon, H. hemiurus, H. auroguttatus, and H. plecostomus super-groups. We present a compilation of diagnostic characters for each super-group. Our phylogeny lays the foundation for future studies on biogeography and on macroevolution to better understand the successful radiation of this Neotropical fish genus.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Mannella CA (2020)

Consequences of Folding the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:536.

A fundamental first step in the evolution of eukaryotes was infolding of the chemiosmotic membrane of the endosymbiont. This allowed the proto-eukaryote to amplify ATP generation while constraining the volume dedicated to energy production. In mitochondria, folding of the inner membrane has evolved into a highly regulated process that creates specialized compartments (cristae) tuned to optimize function. Internalizing the inner membrane also presents complications in terms of generating the folds and maintaining mitochondrial integrity in response to stresses. This review describes mechanisms that have evolved to regulate inner membrane topology and either preserve or (when appropriate) rupture the outer membrane.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Nesci S, Pagliarani A, Algieri C, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase: multiple enzyme functions revealed by the membrane-embedded FO structure.

Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Of the two main sectors of the F-type ATP synthase, the membrane-intrinsic FO domain is the one which, during evolution, has undergone the highest structural variations and changes in subunit composition. The FO complexity in mitochondria is apparently related to additional enzyme functions that lack in bacterial and thylakoid complexes. Indeed, the F-type ATP synthase has the main bioenergetic role to synthesize ATP by exploiting the electrochemical gradient built by respiratory complexes. The FO membrane domain, essential in the enzyme machinery, also participates in the bioenergetic cost of synthesizing ATP and in the formation of the cristae, thus contributing to mitochondrial morphology. The recent enzyme involvement in a high-conductance channel, which forms in the inner mitochondrial membrane and promotes the mitochondrial permeability transition, highlights a new F-type ATP synthase role. Point mutations which cause amino acid substitutions in FO subunits produce mitochondrial dysfunctions and lead to severe pathologies. The FO variability in different species, pointed out by cryo-EM analysis, mirrors the multiple enzyme functions and opens a new scenario in mitochondrial biology.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

Donin LM, Ferrer J, TP Carvalho (2020)

Taxonomical study of Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin reveals a new species recorded in the early 20th century.

Journal of fish biology, 96(4):886-904.

A new species of Trichomycterus endemic to the Ribeira de Iguape River basin, southeastern Brazil, was studied based on morphological and molecular evidence. This species had an outer layer of coloration composed of scattered, round, black or dark-brown spots smaller or equivalent in size to the circumference of the eye; eight pectoral-fin rays; 28-29 opercular odontodes; 54-56 interopercular odontodes; and supraorbital line of the laterosensory system not interrupted, with pores s2 absent. Two other species of Trichomycterus from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin are recorded, and their taxonomic status is discussed: Trichomycterus alternatus and Trichomycterus jacupiranga were not differentiated using molecular analysis but may be consistently distinguished based on morphology. The phylogenetic relationships of the co-occurring species, T. alternatus and Cambeva zonata, were inferred using mitochondrial data, reinforcing the taxonomic status of these recently revised species that have a complex taxonomy. In addition, a new combination for Trichomycterus taroba with its inclusion in the genus Cambeva is recommended.

RevDate: 2020-06-23
CmpDate: 2020-06-23

Magallón-Gayón E, Del Río-Portilla MÁ, I de Los Angeles Barriga-Sosa (2020)

The complete mitochondrial genomes of two octopods of the eastern Pacific Ocean: Octopus mimus and 'Octopus' fitchi (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) and their phylogenetic position within Octopoda.

Molecular biology reports, 47(2):943-952.

The complete mitochondrial genomes of two important octopus species from the eastern Pacific were sequenced, obtaining their complete nucleotide sequences. Octopus mimus is the most important commercially catched species along the eastern Pacific, from Mexico to Chile, whereas 'Octopus' fitchi is a pigmy species with uncertain taxonomic genus. The mitogenomes of Octopus mimus and 'Octopus' fitchi were 15,696 and 15,780 base pairs (bp) in length with an A + T composition of 75.5% and 75.8%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes, as well as a control region. Gene order is maintained as reported for other species of the Octopodidae. The phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated thirteen protein-coding genes confirms that O. mimus belongs to the genus Octopus, which is supported by the genetic distance (11-16%) whereas the position of 'O'. fitchi within this group it is not supported. The analysis also indicated that the phylogenetic position of 'O'. fitchi is closer to Callistoctopus than to the Cistopus or the Amphioctopus clades. Based on the tree topology and the high genetic distance observed (24-25%), we suggest that 'O'. fitchi might represent a different genus.

RevDate: 2020-06-23
CmpDate: 2020-06-23

Montava-Garriga L, IG Ganley (2020)

Outstanding Questions in Mitophagy: What We Do and Do Not Know.

Journal of molecular biology, 432(1):206-230.

The elimination of mitochondria via autophagy, termed mitophagy, is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitophagy, therefore, has an important contribution to cell function and integrity, which extends to the whole organism for development and survival. Research in mitophagy has boomed in recent years, and it is becoming clear that mitophagy is a complex and multi-factorial cellular response that depends on tissue, energetic, stress and signaling contexts. However, we know very little of its physiological regulation and the direct contribution of mitophagy to pathologies like neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we aim to discuss the outstanding questions (and questions outstanding) in the field and reflect on our current understanding of mitophagy, the current challenges and the future directions to take.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Levitskii SA, Baleva MV, Chicherin IV, et al (2020)

Protein Biosynthesis in Mitochondria: Past Simple, Present Perfect, Future Indefinite.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 85(3):257-263.

Mitochondria are obligate organelles of most eukaryotic cells that perform many different functions important for cellular homeostasis. The main role of mitochondria is supplying cells with energy in a form of ATP, which is synthesized in a chain of oxidative phosphorylation reactions on the organelle inner membrane. It is commonly believed now that mitochondria have the endosymbiotic origin. In the course of evolution, they have lost most of their genetic material as a result of genome reduction and gene transfer to the nucleus. The majority of mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and then imported to the mitochondria. However, almost all known mitochondria still contain genomes that are maintained and expressed. The processes of protein biosynthesis in the mitochondria - mitochondrial translation - substantially differs from the analogous processes in bacteria and the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial translation is characterized by a high degree of specialization and specific regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we analyze available information on the common principles of mitochondrial translation with emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of translation initiation in the mitochondria of yeast and mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2020-06-22
CmpDate: 2020-06-22

Aguirre-Dugua X, Castellanos-Morales G, Paredes-Torres LM, et al (2019)

Evolutionary Dynamics of Transferred Sequences Between Organellar Genomes in Cucurbita.

Journal of molecular evolution, 87(9-10):327-342.

Twenty-nine DNA regions of plastid origin have been previously identified in the mitochondrial genome of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae). Four of these regions harbor homolog sequences of rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12 and trnL-trnF, which are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. We extracted the mitochondrial copies of these regions based on the mitochondrial genome of C. pepo and, along with published sequences for these plastome markers from 13 Cucurbita taxa, we performed phylogenetic molecular analyses to identify inter-organellar transfer events in the Cucurbita phylogeny and changes in their nucleotide substitution rates. Phylogenetic reconstruction and tree selection tests suggest that rpl20 and rbcL mitochondrial paralogs arose before Cucurbita diversification whereas the mitochondrial matK and trnL-trnF paralogs emerged most probably later, in the mesophytic Cucurbita clade. Nucleotide substitution rates increased one order of magnitude in all the mitochondrial paralogs compared to their original plastid sequences. Additionally, mitochondrial trnL-trnF sequences obtained by PCR from nine Cucurbita taxa revealed higher nucleotide diversity in the mitochondrial than in the plastid copies, likely related to the higher nucleotide substitution rates in the mitochondrial region and loss of functional constraints in its tRNA genes.

RevDate: 2020-06-22
CmpDate: 2020-06-22

Zheng F, Colasante C, F Voncken (2019)

Characterisation of a mitochondrial iron transporter of the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei.

Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 233:111221.

Similar to higher eukaryotes, the protist parasite T. brucei harbours several iron-containing proteins that regulate DNA and protein processing, oxidative stress defence and mitochondrial respiration. The synthesis of these proteins occurs either in the cytoplasm or within the mitochondrion. For mitochondrial iron cluster protein synthesis, iron needs to be transported across the solute impermeable mitochondrial membrane. In T. brucei we previously identified 24 mitochondrial carrier proteins (TbMCPs) sharing conserved structural and functional features with those from higher eukaryotes. One of these carriers (TbMCP17) displayed high similarity with the iron carriers MRS3, MRS4 from yeast and mitoferrin from mammals, insects and plants. In the present study we demonstrated that TbMCP17 functions as an iron carrier by complementation studies using MRS3/4-deficient yeast. Depletion of TbMCP17 in procyclic form T. brucei resulted in growth deficiency, increased sensitivity to iron deprivation, and lowered mitochondrial iron content. Taken together our results suggest that TbMCP17 functions as a mitochondrial iron transporter in the parasite T. brucei.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Tobiasson V, A Amunts (2020)

Ciliate mitoribosome illuminates evolutionary steps of mitochondrial translation.

eLife, 9: pii:59264 [Epub ahead of print].

To reveal steps in the evolution of translation, we identified ciliates as a model with high coding capacity of the mitochondrial genome and characterized its mitoribosomes by cryo-EM. It revealed a 94-protein and 4-rRNA assembly with an additional protein mass of ~700 kDa on the small subunit, while the large subunit lacks 5S rRNA. The structure shows that the small subunit head is constrained, tRNA binding sites are formed by mitochondria-specific protein elements, conserved protein bS1 is excluded, and bacterial RNA polymerase binding site is blocked. We provide evidence for intrinsic protein targeting system through visualization of mitochondria-specific mL105 by the exit tunnel that would facilitate recruitment of a nascent polypeptide. Functional protein uS3m is encoded by three complementary genes from the nucleus and mitochondrion, establishing a link between genetic drift and mitochondrial translation. Finally, we reannotated nine open reading frames in the mitochondrial genome that code for mitoribosomal proteins.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )