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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2022 at 01:49 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT 33634751[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-12-06

Leger MM, C Stairs (2022)

Eukaryotic evolution: Spatial proteomics sheds light on mitochondrial reduction.

Current biology : CB, 32(23):R1308-R1311.

Multi-organelle spatial proteomics has revolutionized animal cell biology, but its use in protists has so far been limited. A new study delivers the first such proteome of a free-living protist, uncovering a previously overlooked function of highly reduced mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Cahill MA (2022)

Unde venisti PGRMC? Grand-Scale Biology from Early Eukaryotes and Eumetazoan Animal Origins.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 27(11):317.

The title usage of Unde venisti 'from where have you come' is from a now dead language (Latin) that foundationally influenced modern English (not the major influence, but an essential formative one). This is an apt analogy for how both the ancient eukaryotic and eumetazoan functions of PGRMC proteins (PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 in mammals) probably influence modern human biology: via a formative trajectory from an evolutionarily foundational fulcrum. There is an arguable probability, although not a certainty, that PGRMC-like proteins were involved in eukaryogenesis. If so, then the proto-eukaryotic ancestral protein is modelled as having initiated the oxygen-induced and CYP450 (Cytochrome P450)-mediated synthesis of sterols in the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate proto-mitochondrial activity and heme homeostasis, as well as having enabled sterol transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria membranes involving the actin cytoskeleton, transport of heme from mitochondria, and possibly the regulation/origins of mitosis/meiosis. Later, during animal evolution, the last eumetazoan common ancestor (LEUMCA) acquired PGRMC phosphorylated tyrosines coincidentally with the gastrulation organizer, Netrin/deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) signaling, muscle fibers, synapsed neurons, and neural recovery via a sleep-like process. Modern PGRMC proteins regulate multiple functions, including CYP450-mediated steroidogenesis, membrane trafficking, heme homeostasis, glycolysis/Warburg effect, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial regulation, and genomic CpG epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The latter imposes the system of differentiation status-sensitive cell-type specific proteomic complements in multi-tissued descendants of the LEUMCA. This paper attempts to trace PGRMC functions through time, proposing that key functions were involved in early eukaryotes, and were later added upon in the LEUMCA. An accompanying paper considers the implications of this awareness for human health and disease.

RevDate: 2022-12-03

Missiroli S, Perrone M, Gafà R, et al (2022)

PML at mitochondria-associated membranes governs a trimeric complex with NLRP3 and P2X7R that modulates the tumor immune microenvironment.

Cell death and differentiation [Epub ahead of print].

Uncontrolled inflammatory response arising from the tumor microenvironment (TME) significantly contributes to cancer progression, prompting an investigation and careful evaluation of counter-regulatory mechanisms. We identified a trimeric complex at the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in which the purinergic P2X7 receptor - NLRP3 inflammasome liaison is fine-tuned by the tumor suppressor PML. PML downregulation drives an exacerbated immune response due to a loss of P2X7R-NLRP3 restraint that boosts tumor growth. PML mislocalization from MAMs elicits an uncontrolled NLRP3 activation, and consequent cytokines blast fueling cancer and worsening the tumor prognosis in different human cancers. New mechanistic insights are provided for the PML-P2X7R-NLRP3 axis to govern the TME in human carcinogenesis, fostering new targeted therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2022-11-30
CmpDate: 2022-11-30

Insalata F, Hoitzing H, Aryaman J, et al (2022)

Stochastic survival of the densest and mitochondrial DNA clonal expansion in aging.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(49):e2122073119.

The expansion of mitochondrial DNA molecules with deletions has been associated with aging, particularly in skeletal muscle fibers; its mechanism has remained unclear for three decades. Previous accounts have assigned a replicative advantage (RA) to mitochondrial DNA containing deletion mutations, but there is also evidence that cells can selectively remove defective mitochondrial DNA. Here we present a spatial model that, without an RA, but instead through a combination of enhanced density for mutants and noise, produces a wave of expanding mutations with speeds consistent with experimental data. A standard model based on RA yields waves that are too fast. We provide a formula that predicts that wave speed drops with copy number, consonant with experimental data. Crucially, our model yields traveling waves of mutants even if mutants are preferentially eliminated. Additionally, we predict that mutant loads observed in single-cell experiments can be produced by de novo mutation rates that are drastically lower than previously thought for neutral models. Given this exemplar of how spatial structure (multiple linked mtDNA populations), noise, and density affect muscle cell aging, we introduce the mechanism of stochastic survival of the densest (SSD), an alternative to RA, that may underpin other evolutionary phenomena.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Pożoga M, Armbruster L, M Wirtz (2022)

From Nucleus to Membrane: A Subcellular Map of the N-Acetylation Machinery in Plants.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(22): pii:ijms232214492.

N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is an ancient protein modification conserved throughout all domains of life. N-terminally acetylated proteins are present in the cytosol, the nucleus, the plastids, mitochondria and the plasma membrane of plants. The frequency of NTA differs greatly between these subcellular compartments. While up to 80% of cytosolic and 20-30% of plastidic proteins are subject to NTA, NTA of mitochondrial proteins is rare. NTA alters key characteristics of proteins such as their three-dimensional structure, binding properties and lifetime. Since the majority of proteins is acetylated by five ribosome-bound N-terminal acetyltransferases (Nats) in yeast and humans, NTA was long perceived as an exclusively co-translational process in eukaryotes. The recent characterization of post-translationally acting plant Nats, which localize to the plasma membrane and the plastids, has challenged this view. Moreover, findings in humans, yeast, green algae and higher plants uncover differences in the cytosolic Nat machinery of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. These distinctive features of the plant Nat machinery might constitute adaptations to the sessile lifestyle of plants. This review sheds light on the unique role of plant N-acetyltransferases in development and stress responses as well as their evolution-driven adaptation to function in different cellular compartments.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Munro D, Rodríguez E, PU Blier (2022)

The longest-lived metazoan, Arctica islandica, exhibits high mitochondrial H2O2 removal capacities.

Mitochondrion, 68:81-86 pii:S1567-7249(22)00102-7 [Epub ahead of print].

A greater capacity of endogenous matrix antioxidants has recently been hypothesized to characterize mitochondria of long-lived species, curbing bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in this organelle. Evidence for this has been obtained from studies comparing the long-lived naked mole rat to laboratory mice. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the longest-lived metazoan, the marine bivalve Arctica islandica (MLSP = 507 y), with shorter-lived and evolutionarily related species. We used a recently developed fluorescent technique to assess mantle and gill tissue mitochondria's capacity to consume hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in multiple physiological states ex vivo. Depending on the type of respiratory substrate provided, mitochondria of Arctica islandica could consume between 3 and 14 times more H2O2 than shorter-lived species. These findings support the contention that a greater capacity for the elimination of ROS characterizes long-lived species, a novel property of mitochondria thus far demonstrated in two key biogerontological models from distant evolutionary lineages.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Tang Y, Huo Z, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Full Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal Species Differences between the Venerid Clams Ruditapes philippinarum and R. variegatus.

Genes, 13(11):.

In natural sea areas along the coast of China, venerid clams Ruditapes philippinarum and R. variegatus exhibit similar adult shell forms and are especially difficult to distinguish as spat and juveniles. This study used comparative mitochondrial genome analysis to reveal differences between these species. The results showed that: (1) the mitochondrial genomes of R. philippinarum and R. variegatus share a large number of similar gene clusters arranged in consistent order, yet they also display noncommon genes, with both gene rearrangements and random losses found; (2) the 13 protein-coding genes in R. philippinarum as well as two-fold and four-fold degenerate sites in R. variegatus have an evident AT bias; (3) the Ka/Ks ratio of the mitochondrial ATP8 gene was significantly higher in R. philippinarum than in R. variegatus, and an analysis of selection pressure revealed that the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene of R. variegatus were under great selective pressure during its evolution; and finally, (4) the two species clustered into one branch on a phylogenetic tree, further affirming their phylogenetic closeness. Based on these results, we speculate that the species differences between R. variegatus and R. philippinarum are largely attributable to adaptive evolution to the environment. The present findings provide a reference for the development of germplasm identification.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Kyrgiafini MA, Giannoulis T, Moutou KA, et al (2022)

Investigating the Impact of a Curse: Diseases, Population Isolation, Evolution and the Mother's Curse.

Genes, 13(11):.

The mitochondrion was characterized for years as the energy factory of the cell, but now its role in many more cellular processes is recognized. The mitochondrion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also possess a set of distinct properties, including maternal inheritance, that creates the Mother's Curse phenomenon. As mtDNA is inherited from females to all offspring, mutations that are harmful to males tend to accumulate more easily. The Mother's Curse is associated with various diseases, and has a significant effect on males, in many cases even affecting their reproductive ability. Sometimes, it even leads to reproductive isolation, as in crosses between different populations, the mitochondrial genome cannot cooperate effectively with the nuclear one resulting in a mito-nuclear incompatibility and reduce the fitness of the hybrids. This phenomenon is observed both in the laboratory and in natural populations, and have the potential to influence their evolution and speciation. Therefore, it turns out that the study of mitochondria is an exciting field that finds many applications, including pest control, and it can shed light on the molecular mechanism of several diseases, improving successful diagnosis and therapeutics. Finally, mito-nuclear co-adaptation, paternal leakage, and kin selection are some mechanisms that can mitigate the impact of the Mother's Curse.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Ding H, Bi D, Zhang S, et al (2022)

The Mitogenome of Sedum plumbizincicola (Crassulaceae): Insights into RNA Editing, Lateral Gene Transfer, and Phylogenetic Implications.

Biology, 11(11):.

As the largest family within the order Saxifragales, Crassulaceae contains about 34 genera with 1400 species. Mitochondria play a critical role in cellular energy production. Since the first land plant mitogenome was reported in Arabidopsis, more than 400 mitogenomic sequences have been deposited in a public database. However, no entire mitogenome data have been available for species of Crassulaceae to date. To better understand the evolutionary history of the organelles of Crassulaceae, we sequenced and performed comprehensive analyses on the mitogenome of Sedum plumbizincicola. The master mitogenomic circle is 212,159 bp in length, including 31 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 14 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. We further identified totally 508 RNA editing sites in PCGs, and demonstrated that the second codon positions of mitochondrial genes are most prone to RNA editing events. Notably, by neutrality plot analyses, we observed that the mitochondrial RNA editing events have large effects on the driving forces of plant evolution. Additionally, 4 MTPTs and 686 NUMTs were detected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of S. plumbizincicola, respectively. Additionally, we conducted further analyses on gene transfer, secondary structures of mitochondrial RNAs, and phylogenetic implications. Therefore, the findings presented here will be helpful for future investigations on plant mitogenomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-25
CmpDate: 2022-11-25

Aman Y, Erinjeri AP, Tataridas-Pallas N, et al (2022)

Loss of MTCH-1 suppresses age-related proteostasis collapse through the inhibition of programmed cell death factors.

Cell reports, 41(8):111690.

The age-related loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is at the heart of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, finding ways to preserve proteome integrity in aged cells may be a powerful way to promote long-term health. Here, we show that reducing the activity of a highly conserved mitochondrial outer membrane protein, MTCH-1/MTCH2, suppresses age-related proteostasis collapse in Caenorhabditis elegans without disrupting development, growth, or reproduction. Loss of MTCH-1 does not influence proteostasis capacity in aged tissues through previously described pathways but instead operates by reducing CED-4 levels. This results in the sequestration of HSP-90 by inactive CED-3, which in turn leads to an increase in HSF-1 activity, transcriptional remodeling of the proteostasis network, and maintenance of proteostasis capacity with age. Together, our findings reveal a role for programmed cell death factors in determining proteome health and suggest that inhibiting MTCH-1 activity in adulthood may safeguard the aging proteome and suppress age-related diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Sahayasheela VJ, Yu Z, Hidaka T, et al (2022)

Mitochondria and G-quadruplex evolution: an intertwined relationship.

Trends in genetics : TIG pii:S0168-9525(22)00254-2 [Epub ahead of print].

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical structures formed in guanine (G)-rich sequences through stacked G tetrads by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. Several studies have demonstrated the existence of G4s in the genome of various organisms, including humans, and have proposed that G4s have a regulatory role in various cellular functions. However, little is known regarding the dissemination of G4s in mitochondria. In this review, we report the observation that the number of potential G4-forming sequences in the mitochondrial genome increases with the evolutionary complexity of different species, suggesting that G4s have a beneficial role in higher-order organisms. We also discuss the possible function of G4s in mitochondrial (mt)DNA and long noncoding (lnc)RNA and their role in various biological processes.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Guette-Marquet S, Roques C, A Bergel (2023)

Direct electrochemical detection of trans-plasma membrane electron transfer: A possible alternative pathway for cell respiration.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 220:114896.

An electrochemical protocol was designed to enable Vero cells to transfer electrons to an electrode without any added redox mediator. The cells were cultured on the surface of electrodes polarized at the optimal potential of 400 mV/silver pseudo-reference. Gold, carbon, and CNT-coated carbon electrodes displayed similar current record patterns. Extracellular electron transfer was sustained for several days. Its intensity, up to 1.5 pA.cell[-1], was in the range of the electron flows implemented by cell respiration. A large fraction of the current vanished as soon as anoxic conditions were established, which suggests a mitochondrial origin for a large proportion of the electrons. The current records always showed a two-phase pattern. The occurrence of the two phases was not due to an evolution of the cell mat structure, which was fully established during the first day of polarization and did not change significantly thereafter. Increasing the cell seeding density decreased the maximum current reached during the first phase and the duration of the phase. These observations put together lead us to propose a model, in which only the cells adhered on the electrode surface produced current by metabolizing glutamine during the first phase. The possible role of this extracellular electron transfer as an alternative cell respiration pathway is discussed. The key roles it could play in regulating pH and pO2 gradients are considered, specifically to explain the pH gradient reversal observed in cancer cells. These pioneering results pave the way for electrochemical sensors to directly address cellular metabolic pathways.

RevDate: 2022-11-20

Maciszewski K, Fells A, A Karnkowska (2022)

Challenging the importance of plastid genome structure conservation: new insights from euglenophytes.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6834297 [Epub ahead of print].

Plastids, similarly to mitochondria, are organelles of endosymbiotic origin, which retained their vestigial genomes (ptDNA). Their unique architecture, commonly referred to as the quadripartite (four-part) structure, is considered to be strictly conserved; however, the bulk of our knowledge on their variability and evolutionary transformations comes from studies of the primary plastids of green algae and land plants. To broaden our perspective, we obtained seven new ptDNA sequences from freshwater species of photosynthetic euglenids - a group which obtained secondary plastids, known to have dynamically evolving genome structure, via endosymbiosis with a green alga. Our analyses have demonstrated that the evolutionary history of euglenid plastid genome structure is exceptionally convoluted, with patchy distribution of inverted ribosomal operon (rDNA) repeats, as well as several independent acquisitions of tandemly repeated rDNA copies. Moreover, we have shown that inverted repeats in euglenid ptDNA do not share their genome stabilizing property documented in chlorophytes. We hypothesize that the degeneration of the quadripartite structure of euglenid plastid genomes is connected to the group II intron expansion. These findings challenge the current global paradigms of plastid genome architecture evolution, and underscore the often-underestimated divergence between the functionality of shared traits in primary and complex plastid organelles.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Mallard J, Hucteau E, Schott R, et al (2022)

Early skeletal muscle deconditioning and reduced exercise capacity during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a hallmark of breast cancer and is associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. If cancer-related fatigue occurs early during chemotherapy (CT), the development of skeletal muscle deconditioning and its effect on exercise capacity remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of skeletal muscle deconditioning and exercise capacity in patients with early-stage breast cancer during CT.

METHODS: Patients with breast cancer had a visit before undergoing CT, at 8 weeks, and at the end of chemotherapy (post-CT). Body composition was determined through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Knee extensor, handgrip muscle force and fatigue was quantified by performing maximal voluntary isometric contractions and exercise capacity using the 6-min walking test. Questionnaires were also administered to evaluate quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, and physical activity level.

RESULTS: Among the 100 patients, reductions were found in muscle mass (-2.3%, p = .002), exercise capacity (-6.7%, p < .001), and knee extensor force (-4.9%, p < .001) post-CT, which occurred within the first 8 weeks of treatment with no further decrease thereafter. If muscle fatigue did not change, handgrip muscle force decreased post-CT only (-2.5%, p = .001), and exercise capacity continued to decrease between 8 weeks and post-CT (-4.6%, p < .001). Quality of life and cancer-related fatigue were impaired after 8 weeks (p < .001) and remained stable thereafter, whereas the physical activity level remained stable during chemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Similar to cancer-related fatigue, skeletal muscle deconditioning and reduced exercise capacity occurred early during breast cancer CT. Thus, it appears essential to prevent these alterations through exercise training implemented during CT.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Radzvilavicius AL, IG Johnston (2022)

Organelle bottlenecks facilitate evolvability by traversing heteroplasmic fitness valleys.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:974472.

Bioenergetic organelles-mitochondria and plastids-retain their own genomes (mtDNA and ptDNA), and these organelle DNA (oDNA) molecules are vital for eukaryotic life. Like all genomes, oDNA must be able to evolve to suit new environmental challenges. However, mixed oDNA populations in cells can challenge cellular bioenergetics, providing a penalty to the appearance and adaptation of new mutations. Here we show that organelle "bottlenecks," mechanisms increasing cell-to-cell oDNA variability during development, can overcome this mixture penalty and facilitate the adaptation of beneficial mutations. We show that oDNA heteroplasmy and bottlenecks naturally emerge in evolutionary simulations subjected to fluctuating environments, demonstrating that this evolvability is itself evolvable. Usually thought of as a mechanism to clear damaging mutations, organelle bottlenecks therefore also resolve the tension between intracellular selection for pure cellular oDNA populations and the "bet-hedging" need for evolvability and adaptation to new environments. This general theory suggests a reason for the maintenance of organelle heteroplasmy in cells, and may explain some of the observed diversity in organelle maintenance and inheritance across taxa.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Watson ET, Flanagan BA, Pascar JA, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial effects on fertility and longevity in Tigriopus californicus contradict predictions of the mother's curse hypothesis.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1987):20221211.

Strict maternal inheritance of mitochondria favours the evolutionary accumulation of sex-biased fitness effects, as mitochondrial evolution occurs exclusively in female lineages. The 'mother's curse' hypothesis proposes that male-harming mutations should accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when they have neutral or beneficial effects on female fitness. Rigorous empirical tests have largely focused on Drosophila, where support for the predictions of mother's curse has been mixed. We investigated the impact of mother's curse mutations in Tigriopus californicus, a minute crustacean. Using non-recombinant backcrosses, we introgressed four divergent mitochondrial haplotypes into two nuclear backgrounds and recorded measures of fertility and longevity. We found that the phenotypic effects of mitochondrial mutations were context dependent, being influenced by the nuclear background in which they were expressed, as well as the sex of the individual and rearing temperature. Mitochondrial haplotype effects were greater for fertility than longevity, and temperature effects were greater for longevity. However, in opposition to mother's curse expectations, females had higher mitochondrial genetic variance than males for fertility and longevity, little evidence of sexual antagonism favouring females was found, and the impacts of mitonuclear mismatch harmed females but not males. Together, this indicates that selection on mitochondrial variation has not resulted in the accumulation of male mutation load in Tigriopus californicus.

RevDate: 2022-11-14

Mencía M (2022)

Acid digestion and symbiont: Proton sharing at the origin of mitochondriogenesis?: Proton production by a symbiotic bacterium may have been the origin of two hallmark eukaryotic features, acid digestion and mitochondria: Proton production by a symbiotic bacterium may have been the origin of two hallmark eukaryotic features, acid digestion and mitochondria.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

The initial relationships between organisms leading to endosymbiosis and the first eukaryote are currently a topic of hot debate. Here, I present a theory that offers a gradual scenario in which the origins of phagocytosis and mitochondria are intertwined in such a way that the evolution of one would not be possible without the other. In this scenario, the premitochondrial bacterial symbiont became initially associated with a protophagocytic host on the basis of cooperation to kill prey with symbiont-produced toxins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, the cooperation was focused on the digestion stage, through the acidification of the protophagocytic cavities via exportation of protons produced by the aerobic respiration of the symbiont. The host gained an improved phagocytic capacity and the symbiont received organic compounds from prey. As the host gradually lost its membrane energetics to develop lysosomal digestion, respiration was centralized in the premitochondrial symbiont for energy production for the consortium.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Zhao W, Bu X, Zou H, et al (2022)

The Genome of the Mitochondrion-Related Organelle in Cepedea longa, a Large Endosymbiotic Opalinid Inhabiting the Recta of Frogs.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) are loosely defined as degenerated mitochondria in anaerobic and microaerophilic lineages. Opalinids are commonly regarded as commensals in the guts of cold-blooded amphibians. It may represent an intermediate adaptation stage between the conventional aerobic mitochondria and derived anaerobic MROs. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the MRO genome of Cepedea longa. It has a linear MRO genome with large inverted repeat gene regions at both ends. Compared to Blastocystis and Proteromonas lacertae, the MRO genome of C. longa has a higher G + C content and repeat sequences near the central region. Although three Opalinata species have different morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analyses based on eight concatenated nad genes indicate that they are close relatives. The phylogenetic analysis showed that C. longa clustered with P. lacertae with strong support. The 18S rRNA gene-based phylogeny resolved the Opalinea clade as a sister clade to Karotomorpha, which then further grouped with Proteromonas. The paraphyly of Proteromonadea needs to be verified due to the lack of MRO genomes for key species, such as Karotomorpha, Opalina and Protoopalina. Besides, our dataset and analyses offered slight support for the paraphyly of Bigyra.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Alves R, Pazos-Gil M, Medina-Carbonero M, et al (2022)

Evolution of an Iron-Detoxifying Protein: Eukaryotic and Rickettsia Frataxins Contain a Conserved Site Which Is Not Present in Their Bacterial Homologues.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin gene. Frataxin homologues, including bacterial CyaY proteins, can be found in most species and play a fundamental role in mitochondrial iron homeostasis, either promoting iron assembly into metaloproteins or contributing to iron detoxification. While several lines of evidence suggest that eukaryotic frataxins are more effective than bacterial ones in iron detoxification, the residues involved in this gain of function are unknown. In this work, we analyze conservation of amino acid sequence and protein structure among frataxins and CyaY proteins to identify four highly conserved residue clusters and group them into potential functional clusters. Clusters 1, 2, and 4 are present in eukaryotic frataxins and bacterial CyaY proteins. Cluster 3, containing two serines, a tyrosine, and a glutamate, is only present in eukaryotic frataxins and on CyaY proteins from the Rickettsia genus. Residues from cluster 3 are blocking a small cavity of about 40 Å present in E. coli's CyaY. The function of this cluster is unknown, but we hypothesize that its tyrosine may contribute to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species during iron detoxification. This cluster provides an example of gain of function during evolution in a protein involved in iron homeostasis, as our results suggests that Cluster 3 was present in the endosymbiont ancestor of mitochondria and was conserved in eukaryotic frataxins.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Boulygina E, Sharko F, Cheprasov M, et al (2022)

Ancient DNA Reveals Maternal Philopatry of the Northeast Eurasian Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) Population during the Holocene.

Genes, 13(11):.

Significant palaeoecological and paleoclimatic changes that took place during Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene transition are considered important factors that led to megafauna extinctions. Unlike many other species, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) has survived this geological time. Despite the fact that several mitochondrial DNA clades of brown bears became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, this species is still widely distributed in Northeast Eurasia. Here, using the ancient DNA analysis of a brown bear individual that inhabited Northeast Asia in the Middle Holocene (3460 ± 40 years BP) and comparative phylogenetic analysis, we show a significant mitochondrial DNA similarity of the studied specimen with modern brown bears inhabiting Yakutia and Chukotka. In this study, we clearly demonstrate the maternal philopatry of the Northeastern Eurasian U. arctos population during the several thousand years of the Holocene.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Wang Y, Hua X, Shi X, et al (2022)

Origin, Evolution, and Research Development of Donkeys.

Genes, 13(11):.

Lack of archaeological and whole-genome diversity data has restricted current knowledge of the evolutionary history of donkeys. With the advancement of science and technology, the discovery of archaeological evidence, the development of molecular genetics, and the improvement of whole-genome sequencing technology, the in-depth understanding of the origin and domestication of donkeys has been enhanced, however. Given the lack of systematic research, the present study carefully screened and collected multiple academic papers and books, journals, and literature on donkeys over the past 15 years. The origin and domestication of donkeys are reviewed in this paper from the aspects of basic information, cultural origin, bioarcheology, mitochondrial and chromosomal microsatellite sequences, and whole-genome sequence comparison. It also highlights and reviews genome assembly technology, by assembling the genome of an individual organism and comparing it with related sample genomes, which can be used to produce more accurate results through big data statistics, analysis, and computational correlation models. Background: The donkey industry in the world and especially in China is developing rapidly, and donkey farming is transforming gradually from the family farming model to large-scale, intensive, and integrated industrial operations, which could ensure the stability of product quality and quantity. However, theoretical research on donkey breeding and its technical development lags far behind that of other livestock, thereby limiting its industrial development. This review provides holistic information for the donkey industry and researchers, that could promote theoretical research, genomic selection (GS), and reproductive management of the donkey population.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Klucnika A, Mu P, Jezek J, et al (2023)

REC drives recombination to repair double-strand breaks in animal mtDNA.

The Journal of cell biology, 222(1):.

Mechanisms that safeguard mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) limit the accumulation of mutations linked to mitochondrial and age-related diseases. Yet, pathways that repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) in animal mitochondria are poorly understood. By performing a candidate screen for mtDNA repair proteins, we identify that REC-an MCM helicase that drives meiotic recombination in the nucleus-also localizes to mitochondria in Drosophila. We show that REC repairs mtDNA DSBs by homologous recombination in somatic and germline tissues. Moreover, REC prevents age-associated mtDNA mutations. We further show that MCM8, the human ortholog of REC, also localizes to mitochondria and limits the accumulation of mtDNA mutations. This study provides mechanistic insight into animal mtDNA recombination and demonstrates its importance in safeguarding mtDNA during ageing and evolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Raval PK, Garg SG, SB Gould (2022)

Endosymbiotic selective pressure at the origin of eukaryotic cell biology.

eLife, 11:.

The dichotomy that separates prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells runs deep. The transition from pro- to eukaryote evolution is poorly understood due to a lack of reliable intermediate forms and definitions regarding the nature of the first host that could no longer be considered a prokaryote, the first eukaryotic common ancestor, FECA. The last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, was a complex cell that united all traits characterising eukaryotic biology including a mitochondrion. The role of the endosymbiotic organelle in this radical transition towards complex life forms is, however, sometimes questioned. In particular the discovery of the asgard archaea has stimulated discussions regarding the pre-endosymbiotic complexity of FECA. Here we review differences and similarities among models that view eukaryotic traits as isolated coincidental events in asgard archaeal evolution or, on the contrary, as a result of and in response to endosymbiosis. Inspecting eukaryotic traits from the perspective of the endosymbiont uncovers that eukaryotic cell biology can be explained as having evolved as a solution to housing a semi-autonomous organelle and why the addition of another endosymbiont, the plastid, added no extra compartments. Mitochondria provided the selective pressures for the origin (and continued maintenance) of eukaryotic cell complexity. Moreover, they also provided the energetic benefit throughout eukaryogenesis for evolving thousands of gene families unique to eukaryotes. Hence, a synthesis of the current data lets us conclude that traits such as the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, autophagosomes, and meiosis and sex evolved as a response to the selective pressures an endosymbiont imposes.

RevDate: 2022-11-11

Liang P, Wang S, Lin Y, et al (2022)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Cepola schlegelii from the East China Sea.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(11):1925-1927.

Cepola schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) belongs to the genus Cepola in the family Cepolidae and order Priacanthiformes. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. schlegelii was sequenced and analyzed by a high-throughput sequencing approach. The full length of the genome is 17,020 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a non-coding control region (D-loop). Phylogenetic analysis based on complete mitochondrial genomes revealed that C. schlegelii was most closely related to Acanthocepola krusensternii. The complete mitochondrial sequence of C. schlegelii will enrich the mitochondrial genome database and provide useful resources for population genetics and evolution analyses.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

De AK, Bhattacharya D, Sawhney S, et al (2022)

Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus microplus in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: an insight into genetic assemblages.

Journal of genetics, 101:.

The tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is considered as the most notorious ectoparasite of veterinary importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present study deals with the molecular characterization of R. microplus in different regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands using sequence information of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COX1) and their phylogenetic relationship with other Indian R. microplus genotypes. DNA polymorphism study identified a total of eight haplotypes with haplotype diversity of 0.909 ± 0.065 and nucleotide diversity of 0.01911 ± 0.00493. Currently, R. microplus complex consists of five taxa; R. microplus clade A sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade B sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade C sensu Low et al. (2015), R. australis and R. annulatus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two clades (clade A and clade C) of R. microplus in Andaman and Nicobar isolates; Nicobar isolates belonged to clade A whereas Andaman isolates belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. All the other Indian sequences retrieved from GenBank belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. Andaman isolates under clade C of R. microplus were phylogenetically distinct from Indian isolates, which indicates independent speciation under isolated island milieu. In Indian isolates, no host-specific or geographical location-specific sub-clustering was observed which indicates the species jumping potential of the R. microplus tick. Therefore, this study indicated the presence of two different genetic makeup of R. microplus complex in two areas of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago separated by a natural geographical barrier. This indicates presence of two different founding populations of ticks, one in the south and north-middle Andaman and the other in Nicobar Island.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-04

Zhao B, Gao S, Zhao M, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial genomic analyses provide new insights into the "missing" atp8 and adaptive evolution of Mytilidae.

BMC genomics, 23(1):738.

BACKGROUND: Mytilidae, also known as marine mussels, are widely distributed in the oceans worldwide. Members of Mytilidae show a tremendous range of ecological adaptions, from the species distributed in freshwater to those that inhabit in deep-sea. Mitochondria play an important role in energy metabolism, which might contribute to the adaptation of Mytilidae to different environments. In addition, some bivalve species are thought to lack the mitochondrial protein-coding gene ATP synthase F0 subunit 8. Increasing studies indicated that the absence of atp8 may be caused by annotation difficulties for atp8 gene is characterized by highly divergent, variable length.

RESULTS: In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of three marine mussels (Xenostrobus securis, Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis, Gigantidas vrijenhoeki) were newly assembled, with the lengths of 14,972 bp, 20,482, and 17,786 bp, respectively. We annotated atp8 in the sequences that we assembled and the sequences lacking atp8. The newly annotated atp8 sequences all have one predicted transmembrane domain, a similar hydropathy profile, as well as the C-terminal region with positively charged amino acids. Furthermore, we reconstructed the phylogenetic trees and performed positive selection analysis. The results showed that the deep-sea bathymodiolines experienced more relaxed evolutionary constraints. And signatures of positive selection were detected in nad4 of Limnoperna fortunei, which may contribute to the survival and/or thriving of this species in freshwater.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis supported that atp8 may not be missing in the Mytilidae. And our results provided evidence that the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the adaptation of Mytilidae to different environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-04

Picard M, OS Shirihai (2022)

Mitochondrial signal transduction.

Cell metabolism, 34(11):1620-1653.

The analogy of mitochondria as powerhouses has expired. Mitochondria are living, dynamic, maternally inherited, energy-transforming, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that actively transduce biological information. We argue that mitochondria are the processor of the cell, and together with the nucleus and other organelles they constitute the mitochondrial information processing system (MIPS). In a three-step process, mitochondria (1) sense and respond to both endogenous and environmental inputs through morphological and functional remodeling; (2) integrate information through dynamic, network-based physical interactions and diffusion mechanisms; and (3) produce output signals that tune the functions of other organelles and systemically regulate physiology. This input-to-output transformation allows mitochondria to transduce metabolic, biochemical, neuroendocrine, and other local or systemic signals that enhance organismal adaptation. An explicit focus on mitochondrial signal transduction emphasizes the role of communication in mitochondrial biology. This framework also opens new avenues to understand how mitochondria mediate inter-organ processes underlying human health.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

McGlynn SE, Perkins G, Sim MS, et al (2022)

A Cristae-Like Microcompartment in Desulfobacterota.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Some Alphaproteobacteria contain intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) and proteins homologous to those responsible for the mitochondrial cristae, an observation which has given rise to the hypothesis that the Alphaproteobacteria endosymbiont had already evolved cristae-like structures and functions. However, our knowledge of microbial fine structure is still limited, leaving open the possibility of structurally homologous ICMs outside the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report on the detailed characterization of lamellar cristae-like ICMs in environmental sulfate-reducing Desulfobacterota that form syntrophic partnerships with anaerobic methane-oxidizing (ANME) archaea. These structures are junction-bound to the cytoplasmic membrane and resemble the form seen in the lamellar cristae of opisthokont mitochondria. Extending these observations, we also characterized similar structures in Desulfovibrio carbinolicus, a close relative of the magnetotactic D. magneticus, which does not contain magnetosomes. Despite a remarkable structural similarity, the key proteins involved in cristae formation have not yet been identified in Desulfobacterota, suggesting that an analogous, but not a homologous, protein organization system developed during the evolution of some members of Desulfobacterota. IMPORTANCE Working with anaerobic consortia of methane oxidizing ANME archaea and their sulfate-reducing bacterial partners recovered from deep sea sediments and with the related sulfate-reducing bacterial isolate D. carbinolicus, we discovered that their intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) appear remarkably similar to lamellar cristae. Three-dimensional electron microscopy allowed for the novel analysis of the nanoscale attachment of ICMs to the cytoplasmic membrane, and these ICMs are structurally nearly identical to the crista junction architecture seen in metazoan mitochondria. However, the core junction-forming proteins must be different. The outer membrane vesicles were observed to bud from syntrophic Desulfobacterota, and darkly stained granules were prominent in both Desulfobacterota and D. carbinolicus. These findings expand the taxonomic breadth of ICM-producing microorganisms and add to our understanding of three-dimensional microbial fine structure in environmental microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-11-10

Liu Y, Zhou J, Zhang N, et al (2022)

Two sensory neurons coordinate the systemic mitochondrial stress response via GPCR signaling in C. elegans.

Developmental cell, 57(21):2469-2482.e5.

Mitochondrial perturbations within neurons communicate stress signals to peripheral tissues, coordinating organismal-wide mitochondrial homeostasis for optimal fitness. However, the neuronal control of the systemic stress regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), SRZ-75, that couples with Gαq signaling in a pair of chemosensory ADL neurons to drive the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR[mt]) activation in the intestine via the release of neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans. Constitutive activation of Gαq signaling in the ADL neurons is sufficient to induce the intestinal UPR[mt], leading to increased stress resistance and metabolic adaptations. Ablation of ADL neurons attenuates the intestinal UPR[mt] activation in response to various forms of neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, GPCR and its Gαq downstream signaling in two sensory neurons coordinate the systemic UPR[mt] activation, representing a previously uncharacterized, but potentially conserved, neuronal signaling for organismal-wide mitochondrial stress regulation.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Liu Q, Zhang L, Zou Y, et al (2022)

Modulating p-AMPK/mTOR Pathway of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Caused by MTERF1 Abnormal Expression in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(20):.

Human mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1 (MTERF1) has been demonstrated to play an important role in mitochondrial gene expression regulation. However, the molecular mechanism of MTERF1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. Here, we found that MTERF1 expression was significantly increased in colon cancer tissues compared with normal colorectal tissue by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarrays (TMA). Overexpression of MTERF1 in the HT29 cell promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and xenograft tumor formation, whereas knockdown of MTERF1 in HCT116 cells appeared to be the opposite phenotype to HT29 cells. Furthermore, MTERF1 can increase mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, transcription, and protein synthesis in colorectal cancer cells; increase ATP levels, the mitochondrial crista density, mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR); and reduce the ROS production in colorectal cancer cells, thereby enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity. Mechanistically, we revealed that MTERF1 regulates the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in cancerous cell lines, and we also confirmed the involvement of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in both xenograft tumor tissues and colorectal cancer tissues. In summary, our data reveal an oncogenic role of MTERF1 in CRC progression, indicating that MTERF1 may represent a new therapeutic target in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Weaver RJ, Rabinowitz S, Thueson K, et al (2022)

Genomic Signatures of Mitonuclear Coevolution in Mammals.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(11):.

Mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear-encoded proteins are integrated in aerobic respiration, requiring co-functionality among gene products from fundamentally different genomes. Different evolutionary rates, inheritance mechanisms, and selection pressures set the stage for incompatibilities between interacting products of the two genomes. The mitonuclear coevolution hypothesis posits that incompatibilities may be avoided if evolution in one genome selects for complementary changes in interacting genes encoded by the other genome. Nuclear compensation, in which deleterious mtDNA changes are offset by compensatory nuclear changes, is often invoked as the primary mechanism for mitonuclear coevolution. Yet, direct evidence supporting nuclear compensation is rare. Here, we used data from 58 mammalian species representing eight orders to show strong correlations between evolutionary rates of mt and nuclear-encoded mt-targeted (N-mt) proteins, but not between mt and non-mt-targeted nuclear proteins, providing strong support for mitonuclear coevolution across mammals. N-mt genes with direct mt interactions also showed the strongest correlations. Although most N-mt genes had elevated dN/dS ratios compared to mt genes (as predicted under nuclear compensation), N-mt sites in close contact with mt proteins were not overrepresented for signs of positive selection compared to noncontact N-mt sites (contrary to predictions of nuclear compensation). Furthermore, temporal patterns of N-mt and mt amino acid substitutions did not support predictions of nuclear compensation, even in positively selected, functionally important residues with direct mitonuclear contacts. Overall, our results strongly support mitonuclear coevolution across ∼170 million years of mammalian evolution but fail to support nuclear compensation as the major mode of mitonuclear coevolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Guo C, Wang A, Cheng H, et al (2022)

New imaging instrument in animal models: Two-photon miniature microscope and large field of view miniature microscope for freely behaving animals.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past decade, novel optical imaging tools have been developed for imaging neuronal activities along with the evolution of fluorescence indicators with brighter expression and higher sensitivity. Miniature microscopes, as revolutionary approaches, enable the imaging of large populations of neuron ensembles in freely behaving rodents and mammals, which allows exploring the neural basis of behaviors. Recent progress in two-photon miniature microscopes and mesoscale single-photon miniature microscopes further expand those affordable methods to navigate neural activities during naturalistic behaviors. In this review article, two-photon miniature microscopy techniques are summarized historically from the first documented attempt to the latest ones, and comparisons are made. The driving force behind and their potential for neuroscientific inquiries are also discussed. Current progress in terms of the mesoscale, i.e., the large field-of-view miniature microscopy technique, is addressed as well. Then, pipelines for registering single cells from the data of two-photon and large field-of-view miniature microscopes are discussed. Finally, we present the potential evolution of the techniques.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Martijn J, Vosseberg J, Guy L, et al (2022)

Phylogenetic affiliation of mitochondria with Alpha-II and Rickettsiales is an artefact.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(12):1829-1831.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Fan L, Wu D, Goremykin V, et al (2022)

Reply to: Phylogenetic affiliation of mitochondria with Alpha-II and Rickettsiales is an artefact.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(12):1832-1835.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Bi R, Li Y, Xu M, et al (2022)

Direct evidence of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated mitochondrial genome editing.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 3(6):100329.

Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can cause a variety of human diseases. The recent development of genome-editing technologies to manipulate mtDNA, such as mitochondria-targeted DNA nucleases and base editors, offer a promising way for curing mitochondrial diseases caused by mtDNA mutations. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a widely used tool for genome editing; however, its application in mtDNA editing is still under debate. In this study, we developed a mito-Cas9 system by adding the mitochondria-targeted sequences and 3' untranslated region of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes upstream and downstream of the Cas9 gene, respectively. We confirmed that the mito-Cas9 system was transported into mitochondria and enabled knockin of exogenous single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs) into mtDNA based on proteinase and DNase protection assays. Successful knockin of exogenous ssODNs into mtDNA was further validated using polymerase chain reaction-free third-generation sequencing technology. We also demonstrated that RS-1, an agonist of RAD51, significantly increased knockin efficiency of the mito-Cas9 system. Collectively, we provide direct evidence that mtDNA can be edited using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. The mito-Cas9 system could be optimized as a promising approach for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases caused by pathogenic mtDNA mutations, especially those with homoplasmic mtDNA mutations.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Hajibarat Z, Saidi A, Gorji AM, et al (2022)

Identification of myosin genes and their expression in response to biotic (PVY, PVX, PVS, and PVA) and abiotic (Drought, Heat, Cold, and High-light) stress conditions in potato.

Molecular biology reports, 49(12):11983-11996.

BACKGROUND: Plant organelles are highly motile where their movement is significant for fast distribution of material around the cell, facilitation of the plant's ability to respond to abiotic and biotic signals, and for appropriate growth. Abiotic and biotic stresses are among the major factors limiting crop yields, and biological membranes are the first target of these stresses. Plants utilize adaptive mechanisms namely myosin to repair injured membranes following exposure to abiotic and biotic stresses.

OBJECTIVE: Due to the economic importance and cultivation of potato grown under abiotic and biotic stress prone areas, identification and characterization of myosin family members in potato were performed in the present research.

METHODS: To identify the myosin genes in potato, we performed genome-wide analysis of myosin genes in the S. tuberosum genome using the phytozome. All putative sequences were approved with the interproscan. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted using phylogenetic tree, gene structure, cis-regulatory elements, protein-protein interaction, and gene expression.

RESULT: The majority of the cell machinery contain actin cytoskeleton and myosins, where motility of organelles are dependent on them. Homology-based analysis was applied to determine seven myosin genes in the potato genome. The members of myosin could be categorized into two groups (XI and VIII). Some of myosin proteins were sub-cellularly located in the nucleus containing 71.5% of myosin proteins and other myosin proteins were localized in the mitochondria, plasma-membrane, and cytoplasm. Determination of co-expressed network, promoter analysis, and gene structure were also performed and gene expression pattern of each gene was surveyed. Number of introns in the gene family members varied from 1 to 39. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that StMyoXI-B and StMyoVIII-2 had the highest transcripts, induced by biotic and abiotic stresses in all three tissues of stem, root, and leaves, respectively. Overall, different cis-elements including abiotic and biotic responsive, hormonal responsive, light responsive, defense responsive elements were found in the myosin promoter sequences. Among the cis-elements, the MYB, G-box, ABRE, JA, and SA contributed the most in the plant growth and development, and in response to abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

CONCLUSION: Our results showed that myosin genes can be utilized in breeding programs and genetic engineering of plants with the aim of increasing tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, especially to viral stresses such as PVY, PVX, PVA, PVS, high light, drought, cold and heat.

RevDate: 2022-11-18
CmpDate: 2022-11-18

Zhang K, Li J, Li G, et al (2022)

Compensatory Genetic and Transcriptional Cytonuclear Coordination in Allopolyploid Lager Yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus).

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(11):.

Cytonuclear coordination between biparental-nuclear genomes and uniparental-cytoplasmic organellar genomes in plants is often resolved by genetic and transcriptional cytonuclear responses. Whether this mechanism also acts in allopolyploid members of other kingdoms is not clear. Additionally, cytonuclear coordination of interleaved allopolyploid cells/individuals within the same population is underexplored. The yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus provides the opportunity to explore cytonuclear coevolution during different growth stages and from novel dimensions. Using S. pastorianus cells from multiple growth stages in the same environment, we show that nuclear mitochondria-targeted genes have undergone both asymmetric gene conversion and growth stage-specific biased expression favoring genes from the mitochondrial genome donor (Saccharomyces eubayanus). Our results suggest that cytonuclear coordination in allopolyploid lager yeast species entails an orchestrated and compensatory genetic and transcriptional evolutionary regulatory shift. The common as well as unique properties of cytonuclear coordination underlying allopolyploidy between unicellular yeasts and higher plants offers novel insights into mechanisms of cytonuclear evolution associated with allopolyploid speciation.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-10-20

Marx C, Marx-Blümel L, Sonnemann J, et al (2023)

Assessment of Mitochondrial Dysfunctions After Sirtuin Inhibition.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2589:269-291.

Posttranslational modifications are important for protein functions and cellular signaling pathways. The acetylation of lysine residues is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs), with the latter being grouped into four phylogenetic classes. The class III of the HDAC family, the sirtuins (SIRTs), contributes to gene expression, genomic stability, cell metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Thus, several specific SIRT inhibitors (SIRTi) have been developed to target cancer cell proliferation. Here we provide an overview of methods to study SIRT-dependent cell metabolism and mitochondrial functionality. The chapter describes metabolic flux analysis using Seahorse analyzers, methods for normalization of Seahorse data, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial content per cell and mitochondrial network structures, and Western blot analysis to measure mitochondrial proteins.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-19

Tobiasson V, Berzina I, A Amunts (2022)

Structure of a mitochondrial ribosome with fragmented rRNA in complex with membrane-targeting elements.

Nature communications, 13(1):6132.

Mitoribosomes of green algae display a great structural divergence from their tracheophyte relatives, with fragmentation of both rRNA and proteins as a defining feature. Here, we report a 2.9 Å resolution structure of the mitoribosome from the alga Polytomella magna harbouring a reduced rRNA split into 13 fragments. We found that the rRNA contains a non-canonical reduced form of the 5S, as well as a permutation of the LSU domain I. The mt-5S rRNA is stabilised by mL40 that is also found in mitoribosomes lacking the 5S, which suggests an evolutionary pathway. Through comparison to other ribosomes with fragmented rRNAs, we observe that the pattern is shared across large evolutionary distances, and between cellular compartments, indicating an evolutionary convergence and supporting the concept of a primordial fragmented ribosome. On the protein level, eleven peripherally associated HEAT-repeat proteins are involved in the binding of 3' rRNA termini, and the structure features a prominent pseudo-trimer of one of them (mL116). Finally, in the exit tunnel, mL128 constricts the tunnel width of the vestibular area, and mL105, a homolog of a membrane targeting component mediates contacts with an inner membrane bound insertase. Together, the structural analysis provides insight into the evolution of the ribosomal machinery in mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Giuditta A, Zucconi GG, A Sadile (2022)

Brain Metabolic DNA: A Long Story and Some Conclusions.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

We have previously outlined the main properties of brain metabolic DNA (BMD) and its involvement in circadian oscillations, learning, and post-trial sleep. The presence of BMD in certain subcellular fractions and their behavior in cesium gradients have suggested that BMD originates from cytoplasmic reverse transcription and subsequently acquires a double-stranded configuration. More recently, it has been reported that some DNA sequences of cytoplasmic BMD in learning mice are different from that of the control animals. Furthermore, BMD is located in vicinity of the genes involved in different modifications of synaptic activity, suggesting that BMD may contribute to the brain's response to the changing environment. The present review outlines recent data with a special emphasis on reverse transcription of BMD that may recapitulate the molecular events at the time of the "RNA world" by activating mitochondrial telomerase and generating RNA templates from mitochondrial transcripts. The latter unexpected role of mitochondria is likely to promote a better understanding of mitochondrial contribution to cellular interactions and eukaryotic evolution. An initial step regards the role of human mitochondria in embryonic BMD synthesis, which is exclusively of maternal origin. In addition, mitochondrial transcripts involved in reverse transcription of BMD might possibly reveal unexpected features elucidating mitochondrial involvement in cancer events and neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Loiacono FV, Walther D, Seeger S, et al (2022)

Emergence of novel RNA editing sites by changes in the binding affinity of a conserved PPR protein.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6760358 [Epub ahead of print].

RNA editing converts cytidines to uridines in plant organellar transcripts. Editing typically restores codons for conserved amino acids. During evolution, specific C-to-U editing sites can be lost from some plant lineages by genomic C-to-T mutations. By contrast, the emergence of novel editing sites is less well documented. Editing sites are recognized by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with high specificity. RNA recognition by PPR proteins is partially predictable, but prediction is often inadequate for PPRs involved in RNA editing. Here we have characterized evolution and recognition of a recently gained editing site. We demonstrate that changes in the RNA recognition motifs that are not explainable with the current PPR code allow an ancient PPR protein, QED1, to uniquely target the ndhB-291 site in Brassicaceae. When expressed in tobacco, the Arabidopsis QED1 edits 33 high-confident off-target sites in chloroplasts and mitochondria causing a spectrum of mutant phenotypes. By manipulating the relative expression levels of QED1 and ndhB-291, we show that the target specificity of the PPR protein depends on the RNA:protein ratio. Finally, our data suggest that the low expression levels of PPR proteins are necessary to ensure the specificity of editing site selection and prevent deleterious off-target editing.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Chen L, A Kashina (2022)

Arginylation Regulates Cytoskeleton Organization and Cell Division and Affects Mitochondria in Fission Yeast.

Molecular and cellular biology, 42(11):e0026122.

Protein arginylation mediated by arginyltransferase Ate1 is a posttranslational modification of emerging importance implicated in the regulation of mammalian embryogenesis, the cardiovascular system, tissue morphogenesis, cell migration, neurodegeneration, cancer, and aging. Ate1 deletion results in embryonic lethality in mice but does not affect yeast viability, making yeast an ideal system to study the molecular pathways regulated by arginylation. Here, we conducted a global analysis of cytoskeleton-related arginylation-dependent phenotypes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a fission yeast species that shares many fundamental features of higher eukaryotic cells. Our studies revealed roles of Ate1 in cell division, cell polarization, organelle transport, and interphase cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. We also found a role of Ate1 in mitochondria morphology and maintenance. Furthermore, targeted mass spectrometry analysis of the total Sc. pombe arginylome identified a number of arginylated proteins, including those that play direct roles in these processes; lack of their arginylation may be responsible for ate1-knockout phenotypes. Our work outlines global biological processes potentially regulated by arginylation and paves the way to unraveling the functions of protein arginylation that are conserved at multiple levels of evolution and potentially constitute the primary role of this modification in vivo.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Liu S, Storti M, Finazzi G, et al (2022)

A metabolic, phylogenomic and environmental atlas of diatom plastid transporters from the model species Phaeodactylum.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:950467.

Diatoms are an important group of algae, contributing nearly 40% of total marine photosynthetic activity. However, the specific molecular agents and transporters underpinning the metabolic efficiency of the diatom plastid remain to be revealed. We performed in silico analyses of 70 predicted plastid transporters identified by genome-wide searches of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We considered similarity with Arabidopsis thaliana plastid transporters, transcriptional co-regulation with genes encoding core plastid metabolic pathways and with genes encoded in the mitochondrial genomes, inferred evolutionary histories using single-gene phylogeny, and environmental expression trends using Tara Oceans meta-transcriptomics and meta-genomes data. Our data reveal diatoms conserve some of the ion, nucleotide and sugar plastid transporters associated with plants, such as non-specific triose phosphate transporters implicated in the transport of phosphorylated sugars, NTP/NDP and cation exchange transporters. However, our data also highlight the presence of diatom-specific transporter functions, such as carbon and amino acid transporters implicated in intricate plastid-mitochondria crosstalk events. These confirm previous observations that substrate non-specific triose phosphate transporters (TPT) may exist as principal transporters of phosphorylated sugars into and out of the diatom plastid, alongside suggesting probable agents of NTP exchange. Carbon and amino acid transport may be related to intricate metabolic plastid-mitochondria crosstalk. We additionally provide evidence from environmental meta-transcriptomic/meta- genomic data that plastid transporters may underpin diatom sensitivity to ocean warming, and identify a diatom plastid transporter (J43171) whose expression may be positively correlated with temperature.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-10

Nofrianto AB, Lawelle SA, Mokodongan DF, et al (2022)

Ancient Admixture in Freshwater Halfbeaks of the Genus Nomorhamphus in Southeast Sulawesi.

Zoological science, 39(5):453-458.

Freshwater halfbeaks of the genus Nomorhamphus (Zenarchopteridae) uniquely diversified on Sulawesi Island, where tectonic movements have been very active since the Pliocene. Most species of this genus have quite limited distributions, which indicates that geographic isolations have contributed to their diversification. In this study, we demonstrated that secondary contacts and resultant admixtures between long-isolated species/populations may have also been important. We found that the mitochondrial phylogeny of a group of Nomorhamphus in Southeast Sulawesi was discordant with the nuclear phylogeny. Most notably, individuals in the upper and lower streams of the Moramo River, a small river in this region, clustered with each other in the mitochondrial phylogeny but not in the nuclear phylogeny; in the latter, the lower-stream individuals formed a clade with individuals in the Anduna River, a different river with no present water connection to the Moramo River. Phylogenetic network and population structure analyses using genomic data obtained from RNA-seq revealed that the lower-stream Moramo population admixed with the upper-stream Moramo lineage in ancient times. These findings indicate that the observed mito-nuclear discordance was caused by mitochondrial introgression and not incomplete lineage sorting. The phylogenetic network also revealed several other admixtures between ancient lineages. Repeated admixtures were also evidenced by topological incongruence in population trees estimated using the RNA-seq data. We propose that activities of many fault systems dissecting Southeast Sulawesi caused repeated secondary contact.

RevDate: 2022-10-09

Mondal S, SP Singh (2022)

New insights on thioredoxins (Trxs) and glutaredoxins (Grxs) by in silico amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and comparative structural analyses in organisms of three domains of life.

Heliyon, 8(10):e10776.

Thioredoxins (Trxs) and Glutaredoxins (Grxs) regulate several cellular processes by controlling the redox state of their target proteins. Trxs and Grxs belong to thioredoxin superfamily and possess characteristic Trx/Grx fold. Several phylogenetic, biochemical and structural studies have contributed to our overall understanding of Trxs and Grxs. However, comparative study of closely related Trxs and Grxs in organisms of all domains of life was missing. Here, we conducted in silico comparative structural analysis combined with amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses of 65 Trxs and 88 Grxs from 12 organisms of three domains of life to get insights into evolutionary and structural relationship of two proteins. Outcomes suggested that despite diversity in their amino acids composition in distantly related organisms, both Trxs and Grxs strictly conserved functionally and structurally important residues. Also, position of these residues was highly conserved in all studied Trxs and Grxs. Notably, if any substitution occurred during evolution, preference was given to amino acids having similar chemical properties. Trxs and Grxs were found more different in eukaryotes than prokaryotes due to altered helical conformation. The surface of Trxs was negatively charged, while Grxs surface was positively charged, however, the active site was constituted by uncharged amino acids in both proteins. Also, phylogenetic analysis of Trxs and Grxs in three domains of life supported endosymbiotic origins of chloroplast and mitochondria, and suggested their usefulness in molecular systematics. We also report previously unknown catalytic motifs of two proteins, and discuss in detail about effect of abovementioned parameters on overall structural and functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Wei W, Schon KR, Elgar G, et al (2022)

Nuclear-embedded mitochondrial DNA sequences in 66,083 human genomes.

Nature, 611(7934):105-114.

DNA transfer from cytoplasmic organelles to the cell nucleus is a legacy of the endosymbiotic event-the majority of nuclear-mitochondrial segments (NUMTs) are thought to be ancient, preceding human speciation[1-3]. Here we analyse whole-genome sequences from 66,083 people-including 12,509 people with cancer-and demonstrate the ongoing transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, contributing to a complex NUMT landscape. More than 99% of individuals had at least one of 1,637 different NUMTs, with 1 in 8 individuals having an ultra-rare NUMT that is present in less than 0.1% of the population. More than 90% of the extant NUMTs that we evaluated inserted into the nuclear genome after humans diverged from apes. Once embedded, the sequences were no longer under the evolutionary constraint seen within the mitochondrion, and NUMT-specific mutations had a different mutational signature to mitochondrial DNA. De novo NUMTs were observed in the germline once in every 10[4] births and once in every 10[3] cancers. NUMTs preferentially involved non-coding mitochondrial DNA, linking transcription and replication to their origin, with nuclear insertion involving multiple mechanisms including double-strand break repair associated with PR domain zinc-finger protein 9 (PRDM9) binding. The frequency of tumour-specific NUMTs differed between cancers, including a probably causal insertion in a myxoid liposarcoma. We found evidence of selection against NUMTs on the basis of size and genomic location, shaping a highly heterogenous and dynamic human NUMT landscape.

RevDate: 2022-10-20
CmpDate: 2022-10-20

Moreno ACR, Olean-Oliveira A, Olean-Oliveira T, et al (2022)

Resistance training prevents damage to the mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to secondary cigarette smoke.

Life sciences, 309:121017.

AIM: To analyze the consumption of oxygen and to quantify the mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins (OXPHOS) in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats exposed to cigarette smoke and/or RT practitioners.

MAIN METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (C), Smoker (S), Exercise (E) and Exercise Smoker (ES). Groups F and ES were exposed to the smoke of 4 cigarettes for 30 min, 2× a day, 5× a week, for 16 weeks. Groups E and ES performed four climbs with progressive load, 1× per day, 5× per week, for 16 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle was collected for analysis of OXPHOS content and oxygen consumption. Groups S (vs. C) and ES (vs. C and E) showed lower body weight gain when observing the evolution curve.

KEY FINDINGS: The S rats showed a reduction in the NDUFB8 proteins of complex 1, SDHB of complex 2, MTC01 of complex 4 and ATP5A of complex 5 (ATP Synthase) compared to Group C. Additionally, S rats also showed increased consumption of O2 in Basal, Leak, Complex I and I/II combined measures compared to the other groups, suggesting that the activity of the mitochondria of these animals increased in terms of coupling and uncoupling parameters.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that exposure to cigarette smoke for 16 weeks is capable of causing impairment of mitochondrial function with reduced expression of respiratory chain proteins in skeletal muscle. However, the RT was effective in preventing impairment of mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to secondary cigarette smoke.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Xiao S, Xing J, Nie T, et al (2022)

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of maize CMS-S subtypes provides new insights into male sterility stability.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):469.

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a trait of economic importance in the production of hybrid seeds. In CMS-S maize, exerted anthers appear frequently in florets of field-grown female populations where only complete male-sterile plants were expected. It has been reported that these reversions are associated with the loss of sterility-conferring regions or other rearrangements in the mitochondrial genome. However, the relationship between mitochondrial function and sterility stability is largely unknown.

RESULTS: In this study, we determined the ratio of plants carrying exerted anthers in the population of two CMS-S subtypes. The subtype with a high ratio of exerted anthers was designated as CMS-Sa, and the other with low ratio was designated as CMS-Sb. Through next-generation sequencing, we assembled and compared mitochondrial genomes of two CMS-S subtypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed strong similarities between the two mitochondrial genomes. The sterility-associated regions, S plasmids, and terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) were intact in both genomes. The two subtypes maintained high transcript levels of the sterility gene orf355 in anther tissue. Most of the functional genes/proteins were identical at the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence levels in the two subtypes, except for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). In the mitochondrial genome of CMS-Sb, a 3.3-kilobase sequence containing nad1-exon1 was absent from the second copy of the 17-kb repeat region. Consequently, we detected two copies of nad1-exon1 in CMS-Sa, but only one copy in CMS-Sb. During pollen development, nad1 transcription and mitochondrial biogenesis were induced in anthers of CMS-Sa, but not in those of CMS-Sb. We suggest that the impaired mitochondrial function in the anthers of CMS-Sb is associated with its more stable sterility.

CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive analyses revealed diversity in terms of the copy number of the mitochondrial gene nad1-exon1 between two subtypes of CMS-S maize. This difference in copy number affected the transcript levels of nad1 and mitochondrial biogenesis in anther tissue, and affected the reversion rate of CMS-S maize. The results of this study suggest the involvement of mitochondrial robustness in modulation of sterility stability in CMS-S maize.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Ikeda A, Imai Y, N Hattori (2022)

Neurodegeneration-associated mitochondrial proteins, CHCHD2 and CHCHD10-what distinguishes the two?.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:996061.

Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) and Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10 (CHCHD10) are mitochondrial proteins that are thought to be genes which duplicated during evolution and are the causative genes for Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal lobe dementia, respectively. CHCHD2 forms a heterodimer with CHCHD10 and a homodimer with itself, both of which work together within the mitochondria. Various pathogenic and disease-risk variants have been identified; however, how these mutations cause neurodegeneration in specific diseases remains a mystery. This review focuses on important new findings published since 2019 and discusses avenues to solve this mystery.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Govindharaj GP, Babu SB, Choudhary JS, et al (2022)

Genome Organization and Comparative Evolutionary Mitochondriomics of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Biotype 4 Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS).

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9):.

Nilaparvata lugens is the main rice pest in India. Until now, the Indian N. lugens mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced, which is a very important basis for population genetics and phylogenetic evolution studies. An attempt was made to sequence two examples of the whole mitochondrial genome of N. lugens biotype 4 from the Indian population for the first time. The mitogenomes of N. lugens are 16,072 and 16,081 bp long with 77.50% and 77.45% A + T contents, respectively, for both of the samples. The mitochondrial genome of N. lugens contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad1-6, nad4l, and cob), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA (rrnS and rrnL) subunits genes, which are typical of metazoan mitogenomes. However, both samples of N. lugens mitogenome in the present study retained one extra copy of the trnC gene. Additionally, we also found 93 bp lengths for the atp8 gene in both of the samples, which were 60-70 bp less than that of the other sequenced mitogenomes of hemipteran insects. The phylogenetic analysis of the 19 delphacids mitogenome dataset yielded two identical topologies when rooted with Ugyops sp. in one clade, and the remaining species formed another clade with P. maidis and M. muiri being sisters to the remaining species. Further, the genus Nilaparvata formed a separate subclade with the other genera (Sogatella, Laodelphax, Changeondelphax, and Unkanodes) of Delphacidae. Additionally, the relationship among the biotypes of N. lugens was recovered as the present study samples (biotype-4) were separated from the three biotypes reported earlier. The present study provides the reference mitogenome for N. lugens biotype 4 that may be utilized for biotype differentiation and molecular-aspect-based future studies of N. lugens.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Giannakis K, Arrowsmith SJ, Richards L, et al (2022)

Evolutionary inference across eukaryotes identifies universal features shaping organelle gene retention.

Cell systems, 13(11):874-884.e5.

Mitochondria and plastids power complex life. Why some genes and not others are retained in their organelle DNA (oDNA) genomes remains a debated question. Here, we attempt to identify the properties of genes and associated underlying mechanisms that determine oDNA retention. We harness over 15k oDNA sequences and over 300 whole genome sequences across eukaryotes with tools from structural biology, bioinformatics, machine learning, and Bayesian model selection. Previously hypothesized features, including the hydrophobicity of a protein product, and less well-known features, including binding energy centrality within a protein complex, predict oDNA retention across eukaryotes, with additional influences of nucleic acid and amino acid biochemistry. Notably, the same features predict retention in both organelles, and retention models learned from one organelle type quantitatively predict retention in the other, supporting the universality of these features-which also distinguish gene profiles in more recent, independent endosymbiotic relationships. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.

RevDate: 2022-10-24
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Lesch E, Schilling MT, Brenner S, et al (2022)

Plant mitochondrial RNA editing factors can perform targeted C-to-U editing of nuclear transcripts in human cells.

Nucleic acids research, 50(17):9966-9983.

RNA editing processes are strikingly different in animals and plants. Up to thousands of specific cytidines are converted into uridines in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria whereas up to millions of adenosines are converted into inosines in animal nucleo-cytosolic RNAs. It is unknown whether these two different RNA editing machineries are mutually incompatible. RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the key factors of plant organelle cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing. The complete absence of PPR mediated editing of cytosolic RNAs might be due to a yet unknown barrier that prevents its activity in the cytosol. Here, we transferred two plant mitochondrial PPR-type editing factors into human cell lines to explore whether they could operate in the nucleo-cytosolic environment. PPR56 and PPR65 not only faithfully edited their native, co-transcribed targets but also different sets of off-targets in the human background transcriptome. More than 900 of such off-targets with editing efficiencies up to 91%, largely explained by known PPR-RNA binding properties, were identified for PPR56. Engineering two crucial amino acid positions in its PPR array led to predictable shifts in target recognition. We conclude that plant PPR editing factors can operate in the entirely different genetic environment of the human nucleo-cytosol and can be intentionally re-engineered towards new targets.

RevDate: 2022-09-15
CmpDate: 2022-09-15

Zhou S, He LI, Ma S, et al (2022)

Taxonomic status of Rana nigromaculata mongolia and the validity of Pelophylax tenggerensis (Anura, Ranidae).

Zootaxa, 5165(4):486-500.

The Black-spotted Pond Frog, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, is widely distributed across mainland China, Korean Peninsula, and Japan. The taxonomic relationships among P. n. nigromaculatus, Rana nigromaculata mongolia (sensu P. n. mongolicus), and P. tenggerensis have long been ambiguous. Here we examine the topotype specimens of P. tenggerensis and R. n. mongolia, and provide phylogenic analyses based on four mitochondrial DNA sequences. The combined evidences from morphology and molecular phylogeny have shown the distinct specific-level of P. n. mongolicus that distant from P. nigromaculatus, while indicating the homogeneity between P. n. mongolicus and P. tenggerensis. Thus, we suggest elevating P. n. mongolicus as a full species Pelophylax mongolicus comb. nov., and place P. tenggerensis to be a secondary synonym of P. mongolicus comb. nov.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Joshi BD, Kumar V, De R, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial cytochrome b indicates the presence of two paraphyletic diverged lineages of the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur across the Indian Himalaya: conservation implications.

Molecular biology reports, 49(11):11177-11186.

BACKGROUND: Populations exhibit signatures of local adaptive traits due to spatial and environmental heterogeneity resulting in microevolution. The blue sheep is widely distributed across the high Asian mountains and are the snow leopard's principal prey species. These mountains differ in their evolutionary history due to differential glaciation and deglaciation periods, orography, and rainfall patterns, and such factors causes diversification in species.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Therefore, we assess the phylogeographic status of blue sheep using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (220 bp) across the Indian Himalayan region (IHR) and its relationship with other populations. Of the observed five haplotypes, two and three were from the western Himalayas (WH) and eastern Himalayas (EH) respectively. One of the haplotypes from WH was shared with the population of Pamir plateau, suggesting historical maternal connectivity between these areas. The phylogenetic analyses split the blue sheep into two paraphyletic clades, and western and eastern populations of IHR were within the Pamir and Tibetan plateau clades, respectively. We observed a relatively higher mean sequence divergence in the EH population than in the WH.

CONCLUSION: We propose five 'Evolutionary Significant Units' across the blue sheep distribution range based on observed variation in the species' ecological requirements, orography, climatic conditions, and maternal lineages, viz.; Western Himalaya-Pamir plateau (WHPP); Eastern Himalaya-Tibetan plateau (EHTP); Qilian mountains; Helan mountains and Hengduan mountains population. Despite the small sample size, population divergence was observed across the IHR, therefore, we suggest a transboundary, collaborative study on comparative morphology, anatomy, ecology, behaviour, and population genetics using harmonized different genetic markers for identifying the overall taxonomic status of the blue sheep across its range for planning effective conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2022-09-25
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Ba Q, Hei Y, Dighe A, et al (2022)

Proteotype coevolution and quantitative diversity across 11 mammalian species.

Science advances, 8(36):eabn0756.

Evolutionary profiling has been largely limited to the nucleotide level. Using consistent proteomic methods, we quantified proteomic and phosphoproteomic layers in fibroblasts from 11 common mammalian species, with transcriptomes as reference. Covariation analysis indicates that transcript and protein expression levels and variabilities across mammals remarkably follow functional role, with extracellular matrix-associated expression being the most variable, demonstrating strong transcriptome-proteome coevolution. The biological variability of gene expression is universal at both interindividual and interspecies scales but to a different extent. RNA metabolic processes particularly show higher interspecies versus interindividual variation. Our results further indicate that while the ubiquitin-proteasome system is strongly conserved in mammals, lysosome-mediated protein degradation exhibits remarkable variation between mammalian lineages. In addition, the phosphosite profiles reveal a phosphorylation coevolution network independent of protein abundance.

RevDate: 2022-09-20
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Wang S, H Luo (2022)

Estimating the Divergence Times of Alphaproteobacteria Based on Mitochondrial Endosymbiosis and Eukaryotic Fossils.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2569:95-116.

Alphaproteobacteria is one of the most abundant bacterial lineages that successfully colonize diverse marine and terrestrial environments on Earth. In addition, many alphaproteobacterial lineages have established close association with eukaryotes. This makes Alphaproteobacteria a promising system to test the link between the emergence of ecologically important bacteria and related geological events and the co-evolution between symbiotic bacteria and their hosts. Understanding the timescale of evolution of Alphaproteobacteria is key to testing these hypotheses, which is limited by the scarcity of bacterial fossils, however. Based on the mitochondrial endosymbiosis which posits that the mitochondrion originated from an alphaproteobacterial lineage, we propose a new strategy to estimate the divergence times of lineages within the Alphaproteobacteria by leveraging the fossil records of eukaryotes. In this chapter, we describe the workflow of the mitochondria-based method to date Alphaproteobacteria evolution by detailing the software, methods, and commands used for each step. Visualization of data and results is also described. We also provide related notes with background information and alternative options. All codes used to build this protocol are made available to the public, and we strive to make this protocol user-friendly in particular to microbiologists with limited practical skills in bioinformatics.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Zhang M, Zhang C, Hu P, et al (2022)

Comprehensive analysis of mitogenome of native Henan pig breeds with 58 worldwide pig breeds.

Animal genetics, 53(6):803-813.

Mitochondria follow non-Mendelian maternal inheritance, and thus can be used to compare genetic diversity and infer the expansion and migration between animal populations. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences of 58 pig breeds from Asia, Europe, Oceania, and America, we observed a distinct division of Eurasian pig species into two main Haplogroups (A and B), with the exception of the Berkshire and Yorkshire breeds. Oceanian pigs were much more similar to European and American pigs in Haplogroup A. Additionally, native Chinese pigs exhibited the most abundant genetic polymorphisms and occupied the centre of Haplogroup B. Miyazaki (Japan) and Siberia (Russia) are two distant and disconnected regions; however, most pigs from these regions were clustered into a subcluster, while native pigs from Korea clustered into a second subcluster. This study is the first to report that pigs from Thailand and Vietnam had haplotypes similar to those of Henan, where the earliest evidence of domestic pigs was found from the Yellow River Basin of North China. Local Henan pig breeds are related to many Asian breeds while still having their own mutation identity, such as g.314 delins T>AC/AT/C of the 12S rRNA gene in Yuxi. Some pigs from Palawan, Itbayat, and Batan Islands of the Philippines and Lanyu Island of China were distinct from other Asian pigs and clustered together into Haplogroup C. These findings show that the complexity of domestication of worldwide pig breeds and mitochondria could reflect genetic communication between pig breeds due to geographical proximity and human activities.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-22

Khan K, O Van Aken (2022)

The colonization of land was a likely driving force for the evolution of mitochondrial retrograde signalling in plants.

Journal of experimental botany, 73(21):7182-7197.

Most retrograde signalling research in plants was performed using Arabidopsis, so an evolutionary perspective on mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR) is largely missing. Here, we used phylogenetics to track the evolutionary origins of factors involved in plant MRR. In all cases, the gene families can be traced to ancestral green algae or earlier. However, the specific subfamilies containing factors involved in plant MRR in many cases arose during the transition to land. NAC transcription factors with C-terminal transmembrane domains, as observed in the key regulator ANAC017, can first be observed in non-vascular mosses, and close homologs to ANAC017 can be found in seed plants. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are common to eukaryotes, but E-type CDKs that control MRR also diverged in conjunction with plant colonization of land. AtWRKY15 can be traced to the earliest land plants, while AtWRKY40 only arose in angiosperms and AtWRKY63 even more recently in Brassicaceae. Apetala 2 (AP2) transcription factors are traceable to algae, but the ABI4 type again only appeared in seed plants. This strongly suggests that the transition to land was a major driver for developing plant MRR pathways, while additional fine-tuning events have appeared in seed plants or later. Finally, we discuss how MRR may have contributed to meeting the specific challenges that early land plants faced during terrestrialization.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Monsanto DM, Main DC, Janion-Scheepers C, et al (2022)

Mitogenome selection in the evolution of key ecological strategies in the ancient hexapod class Collembola.

Scientific reports, 12(1):14810.

A longstanding question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection and environmental pressures shape the mitochondrial genomic architectures of organisms. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in cellular respiration and aerobic metabolism, making their genomes functionally highly constrained. Evaluating selective pressures on mitochondrial genes can provide functional and ecological insights into the evolution of organisms. Collembola (springtails) are an ancient hexapod group that includes the oldest terrestrial arthropods in the fossil record, and that are closely associated with soil environments. Of interest is the diversity of habitat stratification preferences (life forms) exhibited by different species within the group. To understand whether signals of positive selection are linked to the evolution of life forms, we analysed 32 published Collembola mitogenomes in a phylomitogenomic framework. We found no evidence that signatures of selection are correlated with the evolution of novel life forms, but rather that mutations have accumulated as a function of time. Our results highlight the importance of nuclear-mitochondrial interactions in the evolution of collembolan life forms and that mitochondrial genomic data should be interpreted with caution, as complex selection signals may complicate evolutionary inferences.

RevDate: 2022-10-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-02

Kuhle B, Hirschi M, Doerfel LK, et al (2022)

Structural basis for shape-selective recognition and aminoacylation of a D-armless human mitochondrial tRNA.

Nature communications, 13(1):5100.

Human mitochondrial gene expression relies on the specific recognition and aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs (mtRNAs) by nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs). Despite their essential role in cellular energy homeostasis, strong mutation pressure and genetic drift have led to an unparalleled sequence erosion of animal mtRNAs. The structural and functional consequences of this erosion are not understood. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of the human mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase (mSerRS) in complex with mtRNA[Ser(GCU)]. These structures reveal a unique mechanism of substrate recognition and aminoacylation. The mtRNA[Ser(GCU)] is highly degenerated, having lost the entire D-arm, tertiary core, and stable L-shaped fold that define canonical tRNAs. Instead, mtRNA[Ser(GCU)] evolved unique structural innovations, including a radically altered T-arm topology that serves as critical identity determinant in an unusual shape-selective readout mechanism by mSerRS. Our results provide a molecular framework to understand the principles of mito-nuclear co-evolution and specialized mechanisms of tRNA recognition in mammalian mitochondrial gene expression.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

Liu Y, Chen C, Wang X, et al (2022)

An Epigenetic Role of Mitochondria in Cancer.

Cells, 11(16):.

Mitochondria are not only the main energy supplier but are also the cell metabolic center regulating multiple key metaborates that play pivotal roles in epigenetics regulation. These metabolites include acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), NAD[+], and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), which are the main substrates for DNA methylation and histone post-translation modifications, essential for gene transcriptional regulation and cell fate determination. Tumorigenesis is attributed to many factors, including gene mutations and tumor microenvironment. Mitochondria and epigenetics play essential roles in tumor initiation, evolution, metastasis, and recurrence. Targeting mitochondrial metabolism and epigenetics are promising therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment. In this review, we summarize the roles of mitochondria in key metabolites required for epigenetics modification and in cell fate regulation and discuss the current strategy in cancer therapies via targeting epigenetic modifiers and related enzymes in metabolic regulation. This review is an important contribution to the understanding of the current metabolic-epigenetic-tumorigenesis concept.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Wu L, Tong Y, Ayivi SPG, et al (2022)

The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Three Sphenomorphinae Species (Squamata: Scincidae) and the Selective Pressure Analysis on Mitochondrial Genomes of Limbless Isopachys gyldenstolpei.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(16):.

In order to adapt to diverse habitats, organisms often evolve corresponding adaptive mechanisms to cope with their survival needs. The species-rich family of Scincidae contains both limbed and limbless species, which differ fundamentally in their locomotor demands, such as relying on the movement of limbs or only body swing to move. Locomotion requires energy, and different types of locomotion have their own energy requirements. Mitochondria are the energy factories of living things, which provide a lot of energy for various physiological activities of organisms. Therefore, mitochondrial genomes could be tools to explore whether the limb loss of skinks are selected by adaptive evolution. Isopachys gyldenstolpei is a typical limbless skink. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genomes of I. gyldenstolpei, Sphenomorphus indicus, and Tropidophorus hainanus. The latter two species were included as limbed comparator species to the limbless I. gyldenstolpei. The results showed that the full lengths of the mitochondrial genomes of I. gyldenstolpei, S. indicus, and T. hainanus were 17,210, 16,944, and 17,001 bp, respectively. Three mitochondrial genomes have typical circular double-stranded structures similar to other reptiles, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and the control region. Three mitochondrial genomes obtained in this study were combined with fifteen mitochondrially complete genomes of Scincidae in the NCBI database; the phylogenetic relationship between limbless I. gyldenstolpei and limbed skinks (S. indicus and T. hainanus) is discussed. Through BI and ML trees, Sphenomorphinae and Mabuyinae were monophyletic, while the paraphyly of Scincinae was also recovered. The limbless skink I. gyldenstolpei is closer to the species of Tropidophorus, which has formed a sister group with (T. hainanus + T. hangman). In the mitochondrial genome adaptations between limbless I. gyldenstolpei and limbed skinks, one positively selected site was found in the branch-site model analysis, which was located in ND2 (at position 28, BEB value = 0.907). Through analyzing the protein structure and function of the selected site, we found it was distributed in mitochondrial protein complex I. Positive selection of some mitochondrial genes in limbless skinks may be related to the requirement of energy to fit in their locomotion. Further research is still needed to confirm this conclusion though.

RevDate: 2022-09-08
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Franzolin GN, Araújo BL, Zatti SA, et al (2022)

Occurrence of the host-parasite system Rhaphiodon vulpinus and Ceratomyxa barbata n. sp. in the two largest watersheds in South America.

Parasitology international, 91:102651.

While around world, species of the genus Ceratomyxa parasite majority marine hosts, growing diversity has been reported in South American freshwater fish. The present study reports Ceratomyxa barbata n. sp. parasitizing the gallbladder of the Rhaphiodon vulpinus fish from the Amazon and La Plata basins. Morphological (light and transmission electron microscopy), molecular (sequencing of small subunit ribosomal DNA - SSU rDNA), and phylogenetic analyses were used to characterize the new species. Worm-like plasmodia endowed with motility were found swimming freely in the bile. The myxospores were elongated, lightly arcuate, with rounded ends and had polar tubules with 3 coils in the polar capsules. Ultrastructural analysis revealed plasmodia composed of an outer cytoplasmic region, where elongated tubular mitochondria, a rough endoplasmic reticulum, sporogonic stages, and a large vacuole occupying the internal area were observed. Phylogenetic analysis, based on SSU rDNA, found that among all South America freshwater Ceratomyxa species, C. barbata n. sp. arises as an earlier divergent species. The present study reveals the occurrence of this host-parasite system (R. vulpinus/C. barbata n. sp.) in the two largest watersheds on the continent.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Hirakawa Y, Hanawa Y, Yoneda K, et al (2022)

Evolution of a chimeric mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase through gene fusion in a haptophyte alga.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a universal enzyme family that catalyses the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and they are localized in most compartments including mitochondria and plastids. Thus far, eight classes of CAs (α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ-, η-, θ- and ι-CA) have been characterized. This study reports an interesting gene encoding a fusion protein of β-CA and ι-CA found in the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. Recombinant protein assays demonstrated that the C-terminal ι-CA region catalyses CO2 hydration, whereas the N-terminal β-CA region no longer exhibits enzymatic activity. Considering that haptophytes generally have mitochondrion-localized β-CAs and plastid-localized ι-CAs, the fusion CA would show an intermediate stage in which mitochondrial β-CA is replaced by ι-CA in a haptophyte species.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-08-19

Yue J, Lu Q, Ni Y, et al (2022)

Comparative analysis of the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of Artemisia giraldii Pamp.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13931.

Artemisia giraldii Pamp. is an herbaceous plant distributed only in some areas in China. To understand the evolutionary relationship between plastid and mitochondria in A. giraldii, we sequenced and analysed the plastome and mitogenome of A. giraldii on the basis of Illumina and Nanopore DNA sequencing data. The mitogenome was 194,298 bp long, and the plastome was 151,072 bp long. The mitogenome encoded 56 genes, and the overall GC content was 45.66%. Phylogenetic analysis of the two organelle genomes revealed that A. giraldii is located in the same branching position. We found 13 pairs of homologous sequences between the plastome and mitogenome, and only one of them might have transferred from the plastid to the mitochondria. Gene selection pressure analysis in the mitogenome showed that ccmFc, nad1, nad6, atp9, atp1 and rps12 may undergo positive selection. According to the 18 available plastome sequences, we found 17 variant sites in two hypervariable regions that can be used in completely distinguishing 18 Artemisia species. The most interesting discovery was that the mitogenome of A. giraldii was only 43,226 bp larger than the plastome. To the best of our knowledge, this study represented one of the smallest differences between all sequenced mitogenomes and plastomes from vascular plants. The above results can provide a reference for future taxonomic and molecular evolution studies of Asteraceae species.

RevDate: 2022-09-12
CmpDate: 2022-09-09

Holt AG, AM Davies (2022)

A comparison of mtDNA deletion mutant proliferation mechanisms.

Journal of theoretical biology, 551-552:111244.

In this paper we use simulation methods to investigate the proliferation of deletion mutations of mitochondrial DNA in neurons. We simulate three mtDNA proliferation mechanisms, namely, random drift, replicative advantage and vicious cycle. For each mechanism, we investigated the effect mutation rates have on neuron loss within a human host. We also compare heteroplasmy of each mechanism at mutation rates that yield the levels neuron loss that would be associated with dementia. Both random drift and vicious cycle predicted high levels of heteroplasmy, while replicative advantage showed a small number of dominant clones with a low background of heteroplasmy.

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Wang G, Wang Y, Ni J, et al (2022)

An MCIA-like complex is required for mitochondrial complex I assembly and seed development in maize.

Molecular plant, 15(9):1470-1487.

During adaptive radiation, mitochondria have co-evolved with their hosts, leading to gain or loss of subunits and assembly factors of respiratory complexes. Plant mitochondrial complex I harbors ∼40 nuclear- and 9 mitochondrial-encoded subunits, and is formed by stepwise assembly during which different intermediates are integrated via various assembly factors. In mammals, the mitochondrial complex I intermediate assembly (MCIA) complex is required for building the membrane arm module. However, plants have lost almost all of the MCIA complex components, giving rise to the hypothesis that plants follow an ancestral pathway to assemble the membrane arm subunits. Here, we characterize a maize crumpled seed mutant, crk1, and reveal by map-based cloning that CRK1 encodes an ortholog of human complex I assembly factor 1, zNDUFAF1, the only evolutionarily conserved MCIA subunit in plants. zNDUFAF1 is localized in the mitochondria and accumulates in two intermediate complexes that contain complex I membrane arm subunits. Disruption of zNDUFAF1 results in severe defects in complex I assembly and activity, a cellular bioenergetic shift to aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial vacuolation. Moreover, we found that zNDUFAF1, the putative mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase ZmTIM17-1, and the isovaleryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase ZmIVD1 interact each other, and could be co-precipitated from the mitochondria and co-migrate in the same assembly intermediates. Knockout of either ZmTIM17-1 or ZmIVD1 could lead to the significantly reduced complex I stability and activity as well as defective seeds. These results suggest that zNDUFAF1, ZmTIM17-1 and ZmIVD1 probably form an MCIA-like complex that is essential for the biogenesis of mitochondrial complex I and seed development in maize. Our findings also imply that plants and mammals recruit MCIA subunits independently for mitochondrial complex I assembly, highlighting the importance of parallel evolution in mitochondria adaptation to their hosts.

RevDate: 2022-08-15
CmpDate: 2022-08-15

Manousaki A, Bagnall J, Spiller D, et al (2022)

Quantitative Characterisation of Low Abundant Yeast Mitochondrial Proteins Reveals Compensation for Haplo-Insufficiency in Different Environments.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(15):.

The quantification of low abundant membrane-binding proteins such as transcriptional factors and chaperones has proven difficult, even with the most sophisticated analytical technologies. Here, we exploit and optimise the non-invasive Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) for the quantitation of low abundance proteins, and as proof of principle, we choose two interacting proteins involved in the fission of mitochondria in yeast, Fis1p and Mdv1p. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the recruitment of Fis1p and Mdv1p to mitochondria is essential for the scission of the organelles and the retention of functional mitochondrial structures in the cell. We use FCS in single GFP-labelled live yeast cells to quantify the protein abundance in homozygote and heterozygote cells and to investigate the impact of the environments on protein copy number, bound/unbound protein state and mobility kinetics. Both proteins were observed to localise predominantly at mitochondrial structures, with the Mdv1p bound state increasing significantly in a strictly respiratory environment. Moreover, a compensatory mechanism that controls Fis1p abundance upon deletion of one allele was observed in Fis1p but not in Mdv1p, suggesting differential regulation of Fis1p and Mdv1p protein expression.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Silva NM, Kreutzer S, Souleles A, et al (2022)

Ancient mitochondrial diversity reveals population homogeneity in Neolithic Greece and identifies population dynamics along the Danubian expansion axis.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13474.

The aim of the study is to investigate mitochondrial diversity in Neolithic Greece and its relation to hunter-gatherers and farmers who populated the Danubian Neolithic expansion axis. We sequenced 42 mitochondrial palaeogenomes from Greece and analysed them together with European set of 328 mtDNA sequences dating from the Early to the Final Neolithic and 319 modern sequences. To test for population continuity through time in Greece, we use an original structured population continuity test that simulates DNA from different periods by explicitly considering the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations. We explore specific scenarios of the mode and tempo of the European Neolithic expansion along the Danubian axis applying spatially explicit simulations coupled with Approximate Bayesian Computation. We observe a striking genetic homogeneity for the maternal line throughout the Neolithic in Greece whereas population continuity is rejected between the Neolithic and present-day Greeks. Along the Danubian expansion axis, our best-fitting scenario supports a substantial decrease in mobility and an increasing local hunter-gatherer contribution to the gene-pool of farmers following the initial rapid Neolithic expansion. Οur original simulation approach models key demographic parameters rather than inferring them from fragmentary data leading to a better understanding of this important process in European prehistory.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-08-22

Liao T, Wang S, Stüeken EE, et al (2022)

Phylogenomic Evidence for the Origin of Obligate Anaerobic Anammox Bacteria Around the Great Oxidation Event.

Molecular biology and evolution, 39(8):.

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria can transform ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas, and this obligate anaerobic process accounts for up to half of the global nitrogen loss in surface environments. Yet its origin and evolution, which may give important insights into the biogeochemistry of early Earth, remain enigmatic. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenomic and molecular clock analysis of anammox bacteria within the phylum Planctomycetes. After accommodating the uncertainties and factors influencing time estimates, which include implementing both a traditional cyanobacteria-based and a recently developed mitochondria-based molecular dating approach, we estimated a consistent origin of anammox bacteria at early Proterozoic and most likely around the so-called Great Oxidation Event (GOE; 2.32-2.5 Ga) which fundamentally changed global biogeochemical cycles. We further showed that during the origin of anammox bacteria, genes involved in oxidative stress adaptation, bioenergetics, and anammox granules formation were recruited, which might have contributed to their survival on an increasingly oxic Earth. Our findings suggest the rising levels of atmospheric oxygen, which made nitrite increasingly available, was a potential driving force for the emergence of anammox bacteria. This is one of the first studies that link the GOE to the evolution of obligate anaerobic bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Paulino MG, Rossi PA, Venturini FP, et al (2022)

Liver dysfunction and energy storage mobilization in traíra, Hoplias malabaricus (Teleostei, Erythrinidae) induced by subchronic exposure to toxic cyanobacterial crude extract.

Environmental toxicology, 37(11):2683-2691.

Microcystins (MC) are hepatotoxic for organisms. Liver MC accumulation and structural change are intensely studied, but the functional hepatic enzymes and energy metabolism have received little attention. This study investigated the liver and hepatocyte structures and the activity of key hepatic functional enzymes with emphasis on energetic metabolism changes after subchronic fish exposure to cyanobacterial crude extract (CE) containing MC. The Neotropical erythrinid fish, Hoplias malabaricus, were exposed intraperitoneally to CE containing 100 μg MC-LR eq kg[-1] for 30 days and, thereafter, the plasma, liver, and white muscle was sampled for analyses. Liver tissue lost cellular structure organization showing round hepatocytes, hyperemia, and biliary duct obstruction. At the ultrastructural level, the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum exhibited disorganization. Direct and total bilirubin increased in plasma. In the liver, the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) increased, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreased; AST increased in plasma. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were unchanged in the liver, muscle, and plasma. Glycogen stores and the energetic metabolites as glucose, lactate, and pyruvate decrease in the liver; pyruvate decreased in plasma and lactate decreased in muscle. Ammonia levels increased and protein concentration decreased in plasma. CE alters liver morphology by causing hepatocyte intracellular disorder, obstructive cholestasis, and dysfunction in the activity of key liver enzymes. The increasing energy demand implies glucose mobilization and metabolic adjustments maintaining protein preservation and lipid recruitment to supply the needs for detoxification allowing fish survival.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Schavemaker PE, SA Muñoz-Gómez (2022)

The role of mitochondrial energetics in the origin and diversification of eukaryotes.

Nature ecology & evolution, 6(9):1307-1317.

The origin of eukaryotic cell size and complexity is often thought to have required an energy excess supplied by mitochondria. Recent observations show energy demands to scale continuously with cell volume, suggesting that eukaryotes do not have higher energetic capacity. However, respiratory membrane area scales superlinearly with the cell surface area. Furthermore, the consequences of the contrasting genomic architectures between prokaryotes and eukaryotes have not been precisely quantified. Here, we investigated (1) the factors that affect the volumes at which prokaryotes become surface area-constrained, (2) the amount of energy divested to DNA due to contrasting genomic architectures and (3) the costs and benefits of respiring symbionts. Our analyses suggest that prokaryotes are not surface area-constrained at volumes of 10[0]‒10[3] µm[3], the genomic architecture of extant eukaryotes is only slightly advantageous at genomes sizes of 10[6]‒10[7] base pairs and a larger host cell may have derived a greater advantage (lower cost) from harbouring ATP-producing symbionts. This suggests that eukaryotes first evolved without the need for mitochondria since these ranges hypothetically encompass the last eukaryotic common ancestor and its relatives. Our analyses also show that larger and faster-dividing prokaryotes would have a shortage of respiratory membrane area and divest more energy into DNA. Thus, we argue that although mitochondria may not have been required by the first eukaryotes, eukaryote diversification was ultimately dependent on mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Yu J, Ran Z, Zhang J, et al (2022)

Genome-Wide Insights Into the Organelle Translocation of Photosynthetic NDH-1 Genes During Evolution.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:956578.

Translocation of chloroplast-located genes to mitochondria or nucleus is considered to be a safety strategy that impedes mutation of photosynthetic genes and maintains their household function during evolution. The organelle translocation strategy is also developed in photosynthetic NDH-1 (pNDH-1) genes but its understanding is still far from complete. Here, we found that the mutation rate of the conserved pNDH-1 genes was gradually reduced but their selection pressure was maintained at a high level during evolution from cyanobacteria to angiosperm. By contrast, oxygenic photosynthesis-specific (OPS) pNDH-1 genes had an opposite trend, explaining the reason why they were transferred from the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-enriched chloroplast to the ROS-barren nucleus. Further, genome-wide sequence analysis supported the possibility that all conserved pNDH-1 genes lost in chloroplast genomes of Chlorophyceae and Pinaceae were transferred to the ROS-less mitochondrial genome as deduced from their truncated pNDH-1 gene fragments. Collectively, we propose that the organelle translocation strategy of pNDH-1 genes during evolution is necessary to maintain the function of the pNDH-1 complex as an important antioxidant mechanism for efficient photosynthesis.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Pani P, NC Bal (2022)

Avian adjustments to cold and non-shivering thermogenesis: whats, wheres and hows.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 97(6):2106-2126.

Avian cold adaptation is hallmarked by innovative strategies of both heat conservation and thermogenesis. While minimizing heat loss can reduce the thermogenic demands of body temperature maintenance, it cannot eliminate the requirement for thermogenesis. Shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) are the two synergistic mechanisms contributing to endothermy. Birds are of particular interest in studies of NST as they lack brown adipose tissue (BAT), the major organ of NST in mammals. Critical analysis of the existing literature on avian strategies of cold adaptation suggests that skeletal muscle is the principal site of NST. Despite recent progress, isolating the mechanisms involved in avian muscle NST has been difficult as shivering and NST co-exist with its primary locomotory function. Herein, we re-evaluate various proposed molecular bases of avian skeletal muscle NST. Experimental evidence suggests that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca[2+] -ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) are key in avian muscle NST, through their mediation of futile Ca[2+] cycling and thermogenesis. More recent studies have shown that SERCA regulation by sarcolipin (SLN) facilitates muscle NST in mammals; however, its role in birds is unclear. Ca[2+] signalling in the muscle seems to be common to contraction, shivering and NST, but elucidating its roles will require more precise measurement of local Ca[2+] levels inside avian myofibres. The endocrine control of avian muscle NST is still poorly defined. A better understanding of the mechanistic details of avian muscle NST will provide insights into the roles of these processes in regulatory thermogenesis, which could further inform our understanding of the evolution of endothermy among vertebrates.

RevDate: 2022-09-23
CmpDate: 2022-09-15

Atayik MC, U Çakatay (2022)

Melatonin-related signaling pathways and their regulatory effects in aging organisms.

Biogerontology, 23(5):529-539.

Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived ancestral molecule evolved in bacteria. According to the endosymbiotic theory, eukaryotic cells received mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles from bacteria by internalization. After the endosymbiosis, bacteria evolved into organelles and retained their ability of producing melatonin. Melatonin is a small, evolutionarily conserved indole with multiple receptor-mediated, receptor-dependent, and independent actions. Melatonin's initial function was likely a radical scavenger in bacteria that's why there was high intensity of free radicals on primitive atmosphere in the ancient times, and hormetic functions of melatonin, which are effecting through the level of gene expression via prooxidant and antioxidant redox pathways, are developed in throughout the eukaryotic evolution. In the earlier stages of life, endosymbiotic events between mitochondria and other downstream organelles continue with mutual benefits. However, this interaction gradually deteriorates as a result of the imperfection of both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial endosymbiotic crosstalk with the advancing age of eukaryotic organisms. Throughout the aging process melatonin levels tend to reduce and as a manifestation of this, many symptoms in organisms' homeostasis, such as deterioration in adjustment of cellular clocks, are commonly seen. In addition, due to deterioration in mitochondrial integrity and functions, immunity decreases, and lower levels of melatonin renders older individuals to be more susceptible to impaired redox modulation and age-related diseases. Our aim in this paper is to focus on the several redox modulation mechanisms in which melatonin signaling has a central role, to discuss melatonin's gerontological aspects and to provide new research ideas with researchers.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Ghanem J, Passadori A, Severac F, et al (2022)

Effects of Rehabilitation on Long-COVID-19 Patient's Autonomy, Symptoms and Nutritional Observance.

Nutrients, 14(15):.

BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in COVID-19 therapy, many patients still present with persistent symptoms and quality-of-life alterations. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate the long-term evolution of autonomy, malnutrition and long-lasting symptoms in people infected with COVID-19 and hospitalized in the ICU.

METHOD: Patients' clinical characteristics; extent of their loss of autonomy based on "Autonomie Gérontologie Groupes Iso-Ressources" (AG-GIR) classification; nutritional status while following the French and Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) recommendations; and symptom evolutions before infection, during hospitalization and rehabilitation, and up to 6 months after returning home were determined in thirty-seven patients.

RESULTS: Prior to a COVID-19 infection, all patients were autonomous, but upon admission to the rehabilitation center (CRM), 39% of them became highly dependent. After discharge from the center and 6 months after returning home, only 6 and 3%, respectively, still required considerable assistance. Of these thirty-seven patients, 11% were moderately malnourished and 81% presented with severe malnutrition, with a significant correlation being observed between malnutrition and autonomy (p < 0.05). Except for fatigue, which persisted in 70% of the patients 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation, all other symptoms decreased significantly.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a striking decrease in autonomy associated with malnutrition after hospitalization for a COVID-19 infection and a clear beneficial effect from personalized rehabilitation. However, although almost all patients regained autonomy 6 months after returning home, they often still suffer from fatigue. Patient compliance with their nutritional recommendations deserves further improvement, preferably through personalized and persistent follow-up with the patient.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Tao J, Li B, Cheng J, et al (2022)

Genomic Divergence Characterization and Quantitative Proteomics Exploration of Type 4 Porcine Astrovirus.

Viruses, 14(7):.

Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) has been identified as an important diarrheic pathogen with a broad global distribution. The PAstV is a potential pathogen to human beings and plays a role in public health. Until now, the divergence characteristics and pathogenesis of the PAstV are still not well known. In this study, the PAstV-4 strain PAstV/CH/2022/CM1 was isolated from the diarrheal feces of a piglet in Shanghai, which was identified to be a recombination of PAstV4/JPN (LC201612) and PAstV4/CHN (JX060808). A time tree based on the ORF2 protein of the astrovirus demonstrated that type 2-5 PAstV (PAstV-2 to 5) diverged from type 1 PAstV (PAstV-1) at a point from 1992 to 2000. To better understand the molecular basis of the virus, we sought to explore the host cell response to the PAstV/CH/2022/CM1 infection using proteomics. The results demonstrate that viral infection elicits global protein changes, and that the mitochondria seems to be a primary and an important target in viral infection. Importantly, there was crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis, in which ATG7 might be the key mediator. In addition, the NOD-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) in the mitochondria was activated and participated in several important antiviral signaling pathways after the PAstV/CH/2022/CM1 infection, which was closely related to mitophagy. The NLRX1 may be a crucial protein for antagonizing a viral infection through autophagy, but this has yet to be validated. In conclusion, the data in this study provides more information for understanding the virus genomic characterization and the potential antiviral targets in a PAstV infection.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Mendoza-Hoffmann F, Zarco-Zavala M, Ortega R, et al (2022)

Evolution of the Inhibitory and Non-Inhibitory ε, ζ, and IF1 Subunits of the F1FO-ATPase as Related to the Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria.

Microorganisms, 10(7):.

The F1FO-ATP synthase nanomotor synthesizes >90% of the cellular ATP of almost all living beings by rotating in the "forward" direction, but it can also consume the same ATP pools by rotating in "reverse." To prevent futile F1FO-ATPase activity, several different inhibitory proteins or domains in bacteria (ε and ζ subunits), mitochondria (IF1), and chloroplasts (ε and γ disulfide) emerged to block the F1FO-ATPase activity selectively. In this study, we analyze how these F1FO-ATPase inhibitory proteins have evolved. The phylogeny of the α-proteobacterial ε showed that it diverged in its C-terminal side, thus losing both the inhibitory function and the ATP-binding/sensor motif that controls this inhibition. The losses of inhibitory function and the ATP-binding site correlate with an evolutionary divergence of non-inhibitory α-proteobacterial ε and mitochondrial δ subunits from inhibitory bacterial and chloroplastidic ε subunits. Here, we confirm the lack of inhibitory function of wild-type and C-terminal truncated ε subunits of P. denitrificans. Taken together, the data show that ζ evolved to replace ε as the primary inhibitor of the F1FO-ATPase of free-living α-proteobacteria. However, the ζ inhibitory function was also partially lost in some symbiotic α-proteobacteria and totally lost in some strictly parasitic α-proteobacteria such as the Rickettsiales order. Finally, we found that ζ and IF1 likely evolved independently via convergent evolution before and after the endosymbiotic origin mitochondria, respectively. This led us to propose the ε and ζ subunits as tracer genes of the pre-endosymbiont that evolved into the actual mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Shang Y, Wang X, Liu G, et al (2022)

Adaptability and Evolution of Gobiidae: A Genetic Exploration.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(14):.

The Gobiidae family occupy one of the most diverse habitat ranges of all fishes. One key reason for their successful colonization of different habitats is their ability to adapt to different energy demands. This energy requirement is related to the ability of mitochondria in cells to generate energy via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Here, we assembled three complete mitochondrial genomes of Rhinogobius shennongensis, Rhinogobius wuyanlingensis, and Chaenogobius annularis. These mitogenomes are circular and include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and one non-coding control region (CR). We used comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome and selection pressure analyses to explore the structure and evolutionary rates of Gobiidae mitogenomics in different environments. The CmC model showed that the ω ratios of all mtDNA PCGs were <1, and that the evolutionary rate of adenosine triphosphate 8 (atp8) was faster in Gobiidae than in other mitochondrial DNA PCGs. We also found evidence of positive selection for several sites of NADH dehydrogenase (nd) 6 and atp8 genes. Thus, divergent mechanisms appear to underlie the evolution of mtDNA PCGs, which might explain the ability of Gobiidae to adapt to diverse environments. Our study provides new insights on the adaptive evolution of Gobiidae mtDNA genome and molecular mechanisms of OXPHOS.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Ge H, Xu J, Hua M, et al (2022)

Genome-wide identification and analysis of ACP gene family in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

BMC genomics, 23(1):538.

BACKGROUND: Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) constitute a very conserved carrier protein family. Previous studies have found that ACP not only takes part in the fatty acid synthesis process of almost all organisms, but also participates in the regulation of plant growth, development, and metabolism, and makes plants adaptable to stresses. However, this gene family has not been systematically studied in sorghum.

RESULTS: Nine ACP family members were identified in the sorghum genome, which were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 9, respectively. Evolutionary analysis among different species divided the ACP family into four subfamilies, showing that the SbACPs were more closely related to maize. The prediction results of subcellular localization showed that SbACPs were mainly distributed in chloroplasts and mitochondria, while fluorescence localization showed that SbACPs were mainly localized in chloroplasts in tobacco leaf. The analysis of gene structure revealed a relatively simple genetic structure, that there were 1-3 introns in the sorghum ACP family, and the gene structure within the same subfamily had high similarity. The amplification method of SbACPs was mainly large fragment replication, and SbACPs were more closely related to ACPs in maize and rice. In addition, three-dimensional structure analysis showed that all ACP genes in sorghum contained four α helices, and the second helix structure was more conserved, implying a key role in function. Cis-acting element analysis indicated that the SbACPs might be involved in light response, plant growth and development regulation, biotic and abiotic stress response, plant hormone regulation, and other physiological processes. What's more, qRT-PCR analysis uncovered that some of SbACPs might be involved in the adaptive regulation of drought and salt stresses, indicating the close relationship between fatty acids and the resistance to abiotic stresses in sorghum.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these results showed a comprehensive overview of the SbACPs and provided a theoretical basis for further studies on the biological functions of SbACPs in sorghum growth, development and abiotic stress responses.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-09-19

Wu CS, SM Chaw (2022)

Evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing in extant gymnosperms.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 111(6):1676-1687.

To unveil the evolution of mitochondrial RNA editing in gymnosperms, we characterized mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), plastid genomes, RNA editing sites, and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins from 10 key taxa representing four of the five extant gymnosperm clades. The assembled mitogenomes vary in gene content due to massive gene losses in Gnetum and Conifer II clades. Mitochondrial gene expression levels also vary according to protein function, with the most highly expressed genes involved in the respiratory complex. We identified 9132 mitochondrial C-to-U editing sites, as well as 2846 P-class and 8530 PLS-class PPR proteins. Regains of editing sites were demonstrated in Conifer II rps3 transcripts whose corresponding mitogenomic sequences lack introns due to retroprocessing. Our analyses reveal that non-synonymous editing is efficient and results in more codons encoding hydrophobic amino acids. In contrast, synonymous editing, although performed with variable efficiency, can increase the number of U-ending codons that are preferentially utilized in gymnosperm mitochondria. The inferred loss-to-gain ratio of mitochondrial editing sites in gymnosperms is 2.1:1, of which losses of non-synonymous editing are mainly due to genomic C-to-T substitutions. However, such substitutions only explain a small fraction of synonymous editing site losses, indicating distinct evolutionary mechanisms. We show that gymnosperms have experienced multiple lineage-specific duplications in PLS-class PPR proteins. These duplications likely contribute to accumulated RNA editing sites, as a mechanistic correlation between RNA editing and PLS-class PPR proteins is statistically supported.

RevDate: 2022-10-26
CmpDate: 2022-08-12

Ebner JN, Wyss MK, Ritz D, et al (2022)

Effects of thermal acclimation on the proteome of the planarian Crenobia alpina from an alpine freshwater spring.

The Journal of experimental biology, 225(15):.

Species' acclimation capacity and their ability to maintain molecular homeostasis outside ideal temperature ranges will partly predict their success following climate change-induced thermal regime shifts. Theory predicts that ectothermic organisms from thermally stable environments have muted plasticity, and that these species may be particularly vulnerable to temperature increases. Whether such species retained or lost acclimation capacity remains largely unknown. We studied proteome changes in the planarian Crenobia alpina, a prominent member of cold-stable alpine habitats that is considered to be a cold-adapted stenotherm. We found that the species' critical thermal maximum (CTmax) is above its experienced habitat temperatures and that different populations exhibit differential CTmax acclimation capacity, whereby an alpine population showed reduced plasticity. In a separate experiment, we acclimated C. alpina individuals from the alpine population to 8, 11, 14 or 17°C over the course of 168 h and compared their comprehensively annotated proteomes. Network analyses of 3399 proteins and protein set enrichment showed that while the species' proteome is overall stable across these temperatures, protein sets functioning in oxidative stress response, mitochondria, protein synthesis and turnover are lower in abundance following warm acclimation. Proteins associated with an unfolded protein response, ciliogenesis, tissue damage repair, development and the innate immune system were higher in abundance following warm acclimation. Our findings suggest that this species has not suffered DNA decay (e.g. loss of heat-shock proteins) during evolution in a cold-stable environment and has retained plasticity in response to elevated temperatures, challenging the notion that stable environments necessarily result in muted plasticity.

RevDate: 2022-10-18
CmpDate: 2022-09-22

Visinoni F, D Delneri (2022)

Mitonuclear interplay in yeast: from speciation to phenotypic adaptation.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 76:101957.

Saccharomyces yeasts have evolved into an important model system to study mitonuclear incompatibilities, thanks to recent advances in the field of sequencing, yeast hybridisation and multigenerational breeding. Yeast hybrids contain two homologous proteomes but retain only one type of mitochondria allowing studies on the effect of mitochondria on phenotype and gene expression. Here, we discuss the recent developments in the growing field of yeast mitogenomics spanning from the impact that this organelle has in shaping yeast fitness and genome evolution to the dissection of molecular determinants of mitonuclear incompatibilities. Applying the state-of-the-art genetic tools to a broader range of natural yeast species from different environments will help progress the field and untap the mitochondrial potential in strain development.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

McCall CE, Zhu X, Zabalawi M, et al (2022)

Sepsis, pyruvate, and mitochondria energy supply chain shortage.

Journal of leukocyte biology, 112(6):1509-1514.

Balancing high energy-consuming danger resistance and low energy supply of disease tolerance is a universal survival principle that often fails during sepsis. Our research supports the concept that sepsis phosphorylates and deactivates mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex control over the tricarboxylic cycle and the electron transport chain. StimulatIng mitochondrial energetics in septic mice and human sepsis cell models can be achieved by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases with the pyruvate structural analog dichloroacetate. Stimulating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by dichloroacetate reverses a disruption in the tricarboxylic cycle that induces itaconate, a key mediator of the disease tolerance pathway. Dichloroacetate treatment increases mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, decreases oxidant stress, overcomes metabolic paralysis, regenerates tissue, organ, and innate and adaptive immune cells, and doubles the survival rate in a murine model of sepsis.

RevDate: 2022-11-02
CmpDate: 2022-07-25

Cadart C, R Heald (2022)

Scaling of biosynthesis and metabolism with cell size.

Molecular biology of the cell, 33(9):.

Cells adopt a size that is optimal for their function, and pushing them beyond this limit can cause cell aging and death by senescence or reduce proliferative potential. However, by increasing their genome copy number (ploidy), cells can increase their size dramatically and homeostatically maintain physiological properties such as biosynthesis rate. Recent studies investigating the relationship between cell size and rates of biosynthesis and metabolism under normal, polyploid, and pathological conditions are revealing new insights into how cells attain the best function or fitness for their size by tuning processes including transcription, translation, and mitochondrial respiration. A new frontier is to connect single-cell scaling relationships with tissue and whole-organism physiology, which promises to reveal molecular and evolutionary principles underlying the astonishing diversity of size observed across the tree of life.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Brzęk P, Roussel D, M Konarzewski (2022)

Mice selected for a high basal metabolic rate evolved larger guts but not more efficient mitochondria.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1978):20220719.

Intra-specific variation in both the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and mitochondrial efficiency (the amount of ATP produced per unit of oxygen consumed) has profound evolutionary and ecological consequences. However, the functional mechanisms responsible for this variation are not fully understood. Mitochondrial efficiency is negatively correlated with BMR at the interspecific level but it is positively correlated with performance capacity at the intra-specific level. This discrepancy is surprising, as theories explaining the evolution of endothermy assume a positive correlation between BMR and performance capacity. Here, we quantified mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity and efficiency in two lines of laboratory mice divergently selected for either high (H-BMR) or low (L-BMR) levels of BMR. H-BMR mice had larger livers and kidneys (organs that are important predictors of BMR). H-BMR mice also showed higher oxidative phosphorylation activity in liver mitochondria but this difference can be hypothesized to be a direct effect of selection only if the heritability of this trait is low. However, mitochondrial efficiency in all studied organs did not differ between the two lines. We conclude that the rapid evolution of BMR can reflect changes in organ size rather than mitochondrial properties, and does not need to be accompanied obligatorily by changes in mitochondrial efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-08-18
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Carter CS, MA Kingsbury (2022)

Oxytocin and oxygen: the evolution of a solution to the 'stress of life'.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1858):20210054.

Oxytocin (OT) and the OT receptor occupy essential roles in our current understanding of mammalian evolution, survival, sociality and reproduction. This narrative review examines the hypothesis that many functions attributed to OT can be traced back to conditions on early Earth, including challenges associated with managing life in the presence of oxygen and other basic elements, including sulfur. OT regulates oxidative stress and inflammation especially through effects on the mitochondria. A related nonapeptide, vasopressin, as well as molecules in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including the corticotropin-releasing hormone family of molecules, have a broad set of functions that interact with OT. Interactions among these molecules have roles in the causes and consequence of social behaviour and the management of threat, fear and stress. Here, we discuss emerging evidence suggesting that unique properties of the OT system allowed vertebrates, and especially mammals, to manage over-reactivity to the 'side effects' of oxygen, including inflammation, oxidation and free radicals, while also supporting high levels of sociality and a perception of safety. This article is part of the theme issue 'Interplays between oxytocin and other neuromodulators in shaping complex social behaviours'.

RevDate: 2022-11-15
CmpDate: 2022-10-06

Rottenberg H (2022)

The accelerated evolution of human cytochrome c oxidase - Selection for reduced rate and proton pumping efficiency?.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics, 1863(8):148595.

The cytochrome c oxidase complex, complex VI (CIV), catalyzes the terminal step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain where the reduction of oxygen to water by cytochrome c is coupled to the generation of a protonmotive force that drive the synthesis of ATP. CIV evolution was greatly accelerated in humans and other anthropoid primates and appears to be driven by adaptive selection. However, it is not known if there are significant functional differences between the anthropoid primates CIV, and other mammals. Comparison of the high-resolution structures of bovine CIV, mouse CIV and human CIV shows structural differences that are associated with anthropoid-specific substitutions. Here I examine the possible effects of these substitutions in four CIV peptides that are known to affect proton pumping: the mtDNA-coded subunits I, II and III, and the nuclear-encoded subunit VIa2. I conclude that many of the anthropoid-specific substitutions could be expected to modulate the rate and/or the efficiency of proton pumping. These results are compatible with the previously proposed hypothesis that the accelerated evolution of CIV in anthropoid primates is driven by selection pressure to lower the mitochondrial protonmotive force and thus decrease the rate of superoxide generation by mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Biró B, Gál Z, Schiavo G, et al (2022)

Nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences in the rabbit genome.

Mitochondrion, 66:1-6.

Numtogenesis is observable in the mammalian genomes resulting in the integration of mitochondrial segments into the nuclear genomes (numts). To identify numts in rabbit, we aligned mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Alignment significance threshold was calculated and individual characteristics of numts were analysed. We found 153 numts in the nuclear genome. The GC content of numts were significantly lower than the GC content of their genomic flanking regions or the genome itself. The frequency of three mammalian-wide interspersed repeats were increased in the proximity of numts. The decreased GC content around numts strengthen the theory which supposes a link between DNA structural instability and numt integration.

RevDate: 2022-08-29

Shen LL, Waheed A, Wang YP, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial Genome Contributes to the Thermal Adaptation of the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:928464.

As a vital element of climate change, elevated temperatures resulting from global warming present new challenges to natural and agricultural sustainability, such as ecological disease management. Mitochondria regulate the energy production of cells in responding to environmental fluctuation, but studying their contribution to the thermal adaptation of species is limited. This knowledge is needed to predict future disease epidemiology for ecology conservation and food security. Spatial distributions of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) in 405 Phytophthora infestans isolates originating from 15 locations were characterized. The contribution of MtDNA to thermal adaptation was evaluated by comparative analysis of mtDNA frequency and intrinsic growth rate, relative population differentiation in nuclear and mtDNA, and associations of mtDNA distribution with local geography climate conditions. Significant variation in frequency, intrinsic growth rate, and spatial distribution was detected in mtDNA. Population differentiation in mtDNA was significantly higher than that in the nuclear genome, and spatial distribution of mtDNA was strongly associated with local climatic conditions and geographic parameters, particularly air temperature, suggesting natural selection caused by a local temperature is the main driver of the adaptation. Dominant mtDNA grew faster than the less frequent mtDNA. Our results provide useful insights into the evolution of pathogens under global warming. Given its important role in biological functions and adaptation to local air temperature, mtDNA intervention has become an increasing necessity for future disease management. To secure ecological integrity and food production under global warming, a synergistic study on the interactive effect of changing temperature on various components of biological and ecological functions of mitochondria in an evolutionary frame is urgently needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-18
CmpDate: 2022-11-16

Bononi G, Masoni S, Di Bussolo V, et al (2022)

Historical perspective of tumor glycolysis: A century with Otto Warburg.

Seminars in cancer biology, 86(Pt 2):325-333.

Tumors have long been known to rewire their metabolism to endorse their proliferation, growth, survival, and invasiveness. One of the common characteristics of these alterations is the enhanced glucose uptake and its subsequent transformation into lactic acid by means of glycolysis, regardless the availability of oxygen or the mitochondria effectiveness. This phenomenon is called the "Warburg effect", which has turned into a century of age now, since its first disclosure by German physiologist Otto Heinrich Warburg. Since then, this peculiar metabolic switch in tumors has been addressed by extensive studies covering several areas of research. In this historical perspective, we aim at illustrating the evolution of these studies over time and their implication in various fields of science.

RevDate: 2022-07-08
CmpDate: 2022-07-08

Gumińska N, R Milanowski (2022)

[Types of circular DNA in Eukarya].

Postepy biochemii, 68(2):129-141.

In eukaryotic cells, DNA occurs mainly in a linear chromosomes. In addition, it can also take the form of circular molecules. Mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are the most thoroughly studied circular DNAs. However, the repertoire of circular DNA in Eukarya is much broader. It also includes extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA): circular forms of rDNA, telomeric circles, small polydisperse DNA, microDNA, and other types of eccDNA of nuclear origin. The occurrence of eccDNA has been confirmed in all organisms tested so far. Previous studies have shown that some eccDNAs are present at every stage of the cell cycle, while others appear and/or accumulate under specific circumstances. It has been proven that eccDNA accumulation accompanies severe genome destabilization caused by malignancies or stress conditions. Despite growing interest in eccDNA, they remain a poorly understood component of eukaryotic genomes. Still little is known about the mechanisms of their formation, evolution and biological functions.

RevDate: 2022-08-16
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Savu DI, N Moisoi (2022)

Mitochondria - Nucleus communication in neurodegenerative disease. Who talks first, who talks louder?.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics, 1863(7):148588.

Mitochondria - nuclear coadaptation has been central to eukaryotic evolution. The dynamic dialogue between the two compartments within the context of multiorganellar interactions is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and directing the balance survival-death in case of cellular stress. The conceptualisation of mitochondria - nucleus communication has so far been focused on the communication from the mitochondria under stress to the nucleus and the consequent signalling responses, as well as from the nucleus to mitochondria in the context of DNA damage and repair. During ageing processes this dialogue may be better viewed as an integrated bidirectional 'talk' with feedback loops that expand beyond these two organelles depending on physiological cues. Here we explore the current views on mitochondria - nucleus dialogue and its role in maintaining cellular health with a focus on brain cells and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, we detail the transcriptional responses initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction in order to protect itself and the general cellular homeostasis. Additionally, we are reviewing the knowledge of the stress pathways initiated by DNA damage which affect mitochondria homeostasis and we add the information provided by the study of combined mitochondrial and genotoxic damage. Finally, we reflect on how each organelle may take the lead in this dialogue in an ageing context where both compartments undergo accumulation of stress and damage and where, perhaps, even the communications' mechanisms may suffer interruptions.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Anonymous (2022)

Abstracts of Presentations at the Association of Clinical Scientists 143[rd] Meeting Louisville, KY May 11-14,2022.

Annals of clinical and laboratory science, 52(3):511-525.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

Jardim-Messeder D, Zamocky M, Sachetto-Martins G, et al (2022)

Chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidases targeted to stroma or thylakoid membrane: The chicken or egg dilemma.

FEBS letters [Epub ahead of print].

Ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) are heme peroxidases that remove hydrogen peroxide in different subcellular compartments with concomitant ascorbate cycling. Here, we analysed and discussed phylogenetic and molecular features of the APX family. Ancient APX originated as a soluble stromal enzyme, and early during plant evolution, acquired both chloroplast-targeting and mitochondrion-targeting sequences and an alternative splicing mechanism whereby it could be expressed as a soluble or thylakoid membrane-bound enzyme. Later, independent duplication and neofunctionalization events in some angiosperm groups resulted in individual genes encoding stromal, thylakoidal and mitochondrial isoforms. These data reaffirm the complexity of plant antioxidant defenses that allow diverse plant species to acquire new means to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2022-08-04
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Mondal S, Kinatukara P, Singh S, et al (2022)

DIP2 is a unique regulator of diacylglycerol lipid homeostasis in eukaryotes.

eLife, 11:.

Chain-length-specific subsets of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipids are proposed to regulate differential physiological responses ranging from signal transduction to modulation of the membrane properties. However, the mechanism or molecular players regulating the subsets of DAG species remain unknown. Here, we uncover the role of a conserved eukaryotic protein family, DISCO-interacting protein 2 (DIP2) as a homeostatic regulator of a chemically distinct subset of DAGs using yeast, fly, and mouse models. Genetic and chemical screens along with lipidomics analysis in yeast reveal that DIP2 prevents the toxic accumulation of specific DAGs in the logarithmic growth phase, which otherwise leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress. We also show that the fatty acyl-AMP ligase-like domains of DIP2 are essential for the redirection of the flux of DAG subspecies to storage lipid, triacylglycerols. DIP2 is associated with vacuoles through mitochondria-vacuole contact sites and such modulation of selective DAG abundance by DIP2 is found to be crucial for optimal vacuole membrane fusion and consequently osmoadaptation in yeast. Thus, the study illuminates an unprecedented DAG metabolism route and provides new insights on how cell fine-tunes DAG subspecies for cellular homeostasis and environmental adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Kurt F, Kurt B, Filiz E, et al (2022)

Mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) gene in potato (Solanum tuberosum): comparative bioinformatics, physiological and expression analyses in response to drought and salinity.

Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine, 35(5):875-887.

Mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) genes are essential for mitochondrial acquisition/import of iron and vital to proper functioning of mitochondria. Unlike other organisms, research on the MITs in plants is limited. The present study provides comparative bioinformatics assays for the potato MIT gene (StMIT) as well as gene expression analyses. The phylogenetic analyses revealed monocots-dicot divergence in MIT proteins and it was also found clade specific motif diversity. In addition, docking analyses indicated that Asp172 and Gly100 residues to be identified as the closest residues binding to ferrous iron. The percentage of structure overlap of the StMIT 3D protein model with Arabidopsis, maize and rice MIT proteins was found between 80.18% and 85.71%. The transcript analyses exhibited that the expression of StMIT was triggered under drought and salinity stresses. The findings of the present study would provide valuable leads for further studies targeting specifically the MIT gene and generally the plant iron metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-09-30

Anderson L, Camus MF, Monteith KM, et al (2022)

Variation in mitochondrial DNA affects locomotor activity and sleep in Drosophila melanogaster.

Heredity, 129(4):225-232.

Mitochondria are organelles that produce cellular energy in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and this primary function is conserved among many taxa. Locomotion is a trait that is highly reliant on metabolic function and expected to be greatly affected by disruptions to mitochondrial performance. To this end, we aimed to examine how activity and sleep vary between Drosophila melanogaster strains with different geographic origins, how these patterns are affected by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, and how breaking up co-evolved mito-nuclear gene combinations affect the studied activity traits. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila strains from different locations differ in sleep and activity, and that females are generally more active than males. By comparing activity and sleep of mtDNA variants introgressed onto a common nuclear background in cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) strains, we were able to quantify the among-line variance attributable to mitochondrial DNA, and we establish that mtDNA variation affects both activity and sleep, in a sex-specific manner. Altogether our study highlights the important role that mitochondrial genome variation plays on organismal physiology and behaviour.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-06-30

Jenkins HL, Graham R, Porter JS, et al (2022)

Unprecedented frequency of mitochondrial introns in colonial bilaterians.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10889.

Animal mitogenomes are typically devoid of introns. Here, we report the largest number of mitochondrial introns ever recorded from bilaterian animals. Mitochondrial introns were identified for the first time from the phylum Bryozoa. They were found in four species from three families (Order Cheilostomatida). A total of eight introns were found in the complete mitogenome of Exechonella vieirai, and five, 17 and 18 introns were found in the partial mitogenomes of Parantropora penelope, Discoporella cookae and Cupuladria biporosa, respectively. Intron-encoded protein domains reverse transcriptase and intron maturase (RVT-IM) were identified in all species. Introns in E. vieirai and P. penelope had conserved Group II intron ribozyme domains V and VI. Conserved domains were lacking from introns in D. cookae and C. biporosa, preventing their further categorization. Putative origins of metazoan introns were explored in a phylogenetic context, using an up-to-date alignment of mitochondrial RVT-IM domains. Results confirmed previous findings of multiple origins of annelid, placozoan and sponge RVT-IM domains and provided evidence for common intron donor sources across metazoan phyla. Our results corroborate growing evidence that some metazoans with regenerative abilities (i.e. placozoans, sponges, annelids and bryozoans) are susceptible to intron integration, most likely via horizontal gene transfer.

RevDate: 2022-09-20
CmpDate: 2022-07-20

Garrido C, Wollman FA, I Lafontaine (2022)

The Evolutionary History of Peptidases Involved in the Processing of Organelle-Targeting Peptides.

Genome biology and evolution, 14(7):.

Most of the proteins present in mitochondria and chloroplasts, the organelles acquired via endosymbiotic events, are encoded in the nucleus and translated into the cytosol. Most of such nuclear-encoded proteins are specifically recognized via an N-terminal-encoded targeting peptide (TP) and imported into the organelles via a translocon machinery. Once imported, the TP is degraded by a succession of cleavage steps ensured by dedicated peptidases. Here, we retrace the evolution of the families of the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP), stromal processing peptidase (SPP), presequence protease (PreP), and organellar oligo-peptidase (OOP) that play a central role in TP processing and degradation across the tree of life. Their bacterial distributions are widespread but patchy, revealing unsurprisingly complex history of lateral transfers among bacteria. We provide evidence for the eukaryotic acquisition of MPP, OOP, and PreP by lateral gene transfers from bacteria at the time of the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. We show that the acquisition of SPP and of a second copy of OOP and PreP at the time of the chloroplast endosymbiosis was followed by a differential loss of one PreP paralog in photosynthetic eukaryotes. We identified some contrasting sequence conservations between bacterial and eukaryotic homologs that could reflect differences in the functional context of their peptidase activity. The close vicinity of the eukaryotic peptidases MPP and OOP to those of several bacterial pathogens, showing antimicrobial resistance, supports a scenario where such bacteria were instrumental in the establishment of the proteolytic pathway for TP degradation in organelles. The evidence for their role in the acquisition of PreP is weaker, and none is observed for SPP, although it cannot be excluded by the present study.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )