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Bibliography on: Endosymbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 28 Jun 2022 at 01:53 Created: 

Endosymbiosis

A symbiotic relationship in which one of the partners lives within the other, especially if it lives within the cells of the other, is known as endosymbiosis. Mitochondria, chloroplasts, and perhaps other cellular organelles are believed to have originated from a form of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes seems to have been a biological singularity — that is, it happened once, and only once, in the history of life on Earth.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-06-24

Karsenti N, Purssell A, Lau R, et al (2022)

Surveillance of Amoebic Keratitis-Causing Acanthamoebae for Potential Bacterial Endosymbionts in Ontario, Canada.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:pathogens11060661.

Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative pathogens of several infections, including amoebic keratitis (AK), a vision-threatening infection. Acanthamoebae from corneal specimens of patients with AK harbor bacterial endosymbionts, which may increase virulence. We sought to understand the spectrum of bacterial endosymbionts present in clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. identified in our reference parasitology laboratory. Isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. obtained from our biobank of anonymized corneal scrapings were screened for potential endosymbionts by PCR using primer pairs detecting bacteria belonging to orders Chlamydiales, Rickettsiales, or Legionellales and pan16S primers. Three primer pairs specific to the 18s rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba spp. were used for the amplification of Acanthamoeba DNA used for sequencing. Sanger sequencing of all PCR products was performed, followed by BLAST analysis for species identification. We screened 26 clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. for potential endosymbionts. Five isolates (19%) were found to contain bacterial DNA belonging to Legionellales. Three (11%) contained members of the Rickettsiales and Pseudomonas genticulata was detected in a Rickettsia-positive sample. One strain (4%) contained Neochlamydia hartmannellae, a member of the Chlamydiales order. Bacterial endosymbionts are prevalent in clinical strains of Acanthamoeba causing AK isolated from corneal scrapings. The demonstration of these organisms in clinical Acanthamoeba isolates supports a potential exploration of anti-endosymbiont therapeutics as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of AK.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Takahashi T (2022)

Method for Stress Assessment of Endosymbiotic Algae in Paramecium bursaria as a Model System for Endosymbiosis.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061248.

Endosymbiosis between heterotrophic host and microalga often breaks down because of environmental conditions, such as temperature change and exposure to toxic substances. By the time of the apparent breakdown of endosymbiosis, it is often too late for the endosymbiotic system to recover. In this study, I developed a technique for the stress assessment of endosymbiotic algae using Paramecium bursaria as an endosymbiosis model, after treatment with the herbicide paraquat, an endosymbiotic collapse inducer. Microcapillary flow cytometry was employed to evaluate a large number of cells in an approach that is more rapid than microscopy evaluation. In the assay, red fluorescence of the chlorophyll reflected the number of endosymbionts within the host cell, while yellow fluorescence fluctuated in response to the deteriorating viability of the endosymbiont under stress. Hence, the yellow/red fluorescence intensity ratio can be used as an algal stress index independent of the algal number. An optical evaluation revealed that the viability of the endosymbiotic algae within the host cell decreased after treatment with paraquat and that the remaining endosymbionts were exposed to high stress. The devised assay is a potential environmental monitoring method, applicable not only to P. bursaria but also to multicellular symbiotic units, such as corals.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Hassan K, Chepkirui C, Llanos-López NA, et al (2022)

Meroterpenoids Possibly Produced by a Bacterial Endosymbiont of the Tropical Basidiomycete Echinochaete brachypora.

Biomolecules, 12(6): pii:biom12060755.

A mycelial culture of the African basidiomycete Echinochaete cf. brachypora was studied for biologically active secondary metabolites, and four compounds were isolated from its crude extract derived from shake flask fermentations, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pure metabolites were identified using extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Aside from the new metabolites 1-methoxyneomarinone (1) and (E)-3-methyl-5-(-12,13,14-trimethylcyclohex-10-en-6-yl)pent-2-enoic acid (4), the known metabolites neomarinone (2) and fumaquinone (4) were obtained. Such compounds had previously only been reported from Actinobacteria but were never isolated from the cultures of a fungus. This observation prompted us to evaluate whether the above metabolites may actually have been produced by an endosymbiontic bacterium that is associated with the basidiomycete. We have indeed been able to characterize bacterial 16S rDNA in the fungal mycelia, and the production of the metabolites stopped when the fungus was sub-cultured on a medium containing antibacterial antibiotics. Therefore, we have found strong evidence that compounds 1-4 are not of fungal origin. However, the endofungal bacterium was shown to belong to the genus Ralstonia, which has never been reported to produce similar metabolites to 1-4. Moreover, we failed to obtain the bacterial strain in pure culture to provide final proof for its identity. In any case, the current report is the first to document that polyporoid Basidiomycota are associated with endosymbionts and constitutes the first report on secondary metabolites from the genus Echinochaete.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

George EE, Tashyreva D, Kwong WK, et al (2022)

Gene Transfer Agents in Bacterial Endosymbionts of Microbial Eukaryotes.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6615375 [Epub ahead of print].

Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are virus-like structures that package and transfer prokaryotic DNA from donor to recipient prokaryotic cells. Here, we describe widespread GTA gene clusters in the highly reduced genomes of bacterial endosymbionts from microbial eukaryotes (protists). Homologs of the GTA capsid and portal complexes were initially found to be present in several highly reduced alphaproteobacterial endosymbionts of diplonemid protists (Rickettsiales and Rhodospirillales). Evidence of GTA expression was found in polyA-enriched metatranscriptomes of the diplonemid hosts and their endosymbionts, but due to biases in the polyA-enrichment methods, levels of GTA expression could not be determined. Examining the genomes of closely related bacteria revealed that the pattern of retained GTA head/capsid complexes with missing tail components was common across Rickettsiales and Holosporaceae (Rhodospirillales), all obligate symbionts with a wide variety of eukaryotic hosts. A dN/dS analysis of Rickettsiales and Holosporaceae symbionts revealed that purifying selection is likely the main driver of GTA evolution in symbionts, suggesting they remain functional, but the ecological function of GTAs in bacterial symbionts is unknown. In particular, it is unclear how increasing horizontal gene transfer in small, largely clonal endosymbiont populations can explain GTA retention, and therefore, the structures may have been repurposed in endosymbionts for host interactions. Either way, their widespread retention and conservation in endosymbionts of diverse eukaryotes suggests an important role in symbiosis.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Nian X, Tao X, Xiao Z, et al (2022)

Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the Biological Characteristics and Wolbachia Titer in Parthenogenesis Trichogramma pretiosum.

Insects, 13(6): pii:insects13060559.

Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy and biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont that induces parthenogenesis in the parasitoid T. pretiosum. In this paper, the sublethal effects of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride on the development and reproduction of T. pretiosum were studied. Emerged females were fed with sublethal concentrations (LC5, LC15, and LC35) of tetracycline for ten generations. The biological parameters (longevity, parasitized eggs, and fecundity) of treated females significantly reduced compared with the control Moreover, the percentage of female offspring in the treatments significantly reduced, but the percentage of male offspring significantly increased. In addition, the Wolbachia titer sharply reduced after two generations of antibiotic treatments, but it could still be detected even after ten successive generations of antibiotic treatments, which indicated that Wolbachia was not completely removed by sublethal concentrations of tetracycline. The control lines with higher Wolbachia titers produced more female offspring than the tetracycline treatments with lower Wolbachia titers, indicating that the Wolbachia titer affected the sex determination of T. pretiosum. Our results show that sublethal concentrations of tetracycline had adverse effects on the development of T. pretiosum, and Wolbachia titers affected the sexual development of T. pretiosum eggs.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Dzul-Rosado K, Maldonado-Borges JI, Puerto-Manzano FI, et al (2022)

First exploratory study of bacterial pathogens and endosymbionts in head lice from a Mayan community in southern Mexico.

Zoonoses and public health [Epub ahead of print].

Lice represent one of the most neglected group of vectors worldwide, particularly in Latin America. Records of bacterial agents related to head lice are non-existent in this region of the continent. Many of these communities often do not have adequate access to public services and/or health protection. The normalization of this condition prevents them from manifesting discomfort, such as bites and itching, which further aggravates the situation, as they can be vectors of important diseases. For this reason, the aim of this work was to identify the richness of bacterial pathogens (Acinetobacter, Bartonella, and Rickettsia) and endosymbionts (Wolbachia) in head lice of paediatric patients from the indigenous municipality of Hoctun, Yucatan, Mexico. DNA extraction was performed using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. For the detection of bacterial pathogens, fragments of the gltA, rpoB, and 16S rDNA genes were amplified. For the detection of Wolbachia, the wsp gene was amplified. Of the 28 lice analysed, the presence of two genera of bacterial pathogens was detected Acinetobacter (42.9% = 12/28) and Bartonella (7.14% = 2/28). We also detected the endosymbiont Wolbachia (71.42% = 20/28). Our results showed that DNA from three bacteria species (Acinetobacter baumannii, Bartonella quintana, and Wolbachia pipientis) was present with frequencies ranging from 3.57% to 71.42%. This work represents the first exploratory study of the diversity of agents associated with head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) in Mexico and Latin America. Due to the findings generated in the present study, it is important to perform surveillance of head lice populations to identify the degree of spread of these pathogens and their impact on populations in the region.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Lan Y, Sun J, Chen C, et al (2022)

Endosymbiont population genomics sheds light on transmission mode, partner specificity, and stability of the scaly-foot snail holobiont.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

The scaly-foot snail (Chrysomallon squamiferum) inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean relies on its sulphur-oxidising gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts for nutrition and energy. In this study, we investigate the specificity, transmission mode, and stability of multiple scaly-foot snail populations dwelling in five vent fields with considerably disparate geological, physical and chemical environmental conditions. Results of population genomics analyses reveal an incongruent phylogeny between the endosymbiont and mitochondrial genomes of the scaly-foot snails in the five vent fields sampled, indicating that the hosts obtain endosymbionts via horizontal transmission in each generation. However, the genetic homogeneity of many symbiont populations implies that vertical transmission cannot be ruled out either. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation of ovarian tissue yields symbiont signals around the oocytes, suggesting that vertical transmission co-occurs with horizontal transmission. Results of in situ environmental measurements and gene expression analyses from in situ fixed samples show that the snail host buffers the differences in environmental conditions to provide the endosymbionts with a stable intracellular micro-environment, where the symbionts serve key metabolic functions and benefit from the host's cushion. The mixed transmission mode, symbiont specificity at the species level, and stable intracellular environment provided by the host support the evolutionary, ecological, and physiological success of scaly-foot snail holobionts in different vents with unique environmental parameters.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Chen L, Xiao Q, Shi M, et al (2022)

Detecting Wolbachia Strain wAlbB in Aedes albopictus Cell Lines.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

As a maternally harbored endosymbiont, Wolbachia infects large proportions of insect populations. Studies have recently reported the successful regulation of RNA virus transmission using Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes. Key strategies to control viruses include the manipulation of host reproduction via cytoplasmic incompatibility and the inhibition of viral transcripts via immune priming and competition for host-derived resources. However, the underlying mechanisms of the responses of Wolbachia-transfected mosquitoes to viral infection are poorly understood. This paper presents a protocol for the in vitro identification of Wolbachia infection at the nucleic acid and protein levels in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Aa23 cells to enhance the understanding of the interactions between Wolbachia and its insect vectors. Through the combined use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR, western blot, and immunological analytical methods, a standard morphologic protocol has been described for the detection of Wolbachia-infected cells that is more accurate than the use of a single method. This approach may also be applied to the detection of Wolbachia infection in other insect taxa.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Colunga-Salas P, Sánchez-Montes S, Torres-Castro M, et al (2022)

Is vertical transmission the only pathway for Rickettsia felis?.

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Rickettsia encompasses several species grouped in two main clusters, the Typhus and the Transitional group. The latter group contains Rickettsia felis, an endosymbiont of several arthropods with an uncertain human pathogenicity and whose most efficient transmission mechanism described so far is transovarial. The aim of this study was to evaluate if this pathway exists, using phylogenetic analysis and partial sequences of the 17kDa and gltA genes and comparing them with host phylogeny using the cytb region. This is the first study that evaluates the vertical transmission of R. felis. In general, both phylogenies of R. felis showed no polytomies, as suspected if this pathway was the only occurring. When phylogenies of the invertebrates and the gltA of R. felis were compared for strong co-evolutionary insight, intricate relationships were observed, suggesting that other transmission pathways must occur, such as horizontal transmission. Further studies are needed to determine which other transmission routes occur in hematophagous arthropods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

de Oliveira AL, Srivastava A, Espada-Hinojosa S, et al (2022)

The complete and closed genome of the facultative generalist Candidatus Endoriftia persephone from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

The mutualistic interactions between Riftia pachyptila and its endosymbiont Candidatus Endoriftia persephone (short Endoriftia) have been extensively researched. However, the closed Endoriftia genome is still lacking. Here, by employing single-molecule real-time sequencing we present the closed chromosomal sequence of Endoriftia. In contrast to theoretical predictions of enlarged and mobile genetic element-rich genomes related to facultative endosymbionts, the closed Endoriftia genome is streamlined with fewer than expected coding sequence regions, insertion-, prophage-sequences and transposase-coding sequences. Automated and manually curated functional analyses indicated that Endoriftia is more versatile regarding sulphur metabolism than previously reported. We identified the presence of two identical rRNA operons and two long CRISPR regions in the closed genome. Additionally, pangenome analyses revealed the presence of three types of secretion systems (II, IV and VI) in the different Endoriftia populations indicating lineage-specific adaptations. The in-depth mobilome characterisation identified the presence of shared genomic islands in the different Endoriftia drafts and in the closed genome, suggesting that the acquisition of foreign DNA predates the geographical dispersal of the different endosymbiont populations. Finally, we found no evidence of epigenetic regulation in Endoriftia, as revealed by gene screenings and absence of methylated modified base motifs in the genome. As a matter of fact, the restriction-modification system seems to be dysfunctional in Endoriftia, pointing to a higher importance of molecular memory-based immunity against phage via spacer incorporation into CRISPR system. The Endoriftia genome is the first closed tubeworm endosymbiont to date and will be valuable for future gene oriented and evolutionary comparative studies.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Lin GW, Chung CY, Cook CE, et al (2022)

Germline specification and axis determination in viviparous and oviparous pea aphids: conserved and divergent features.

Development genes and evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Aphids are hemimetabolous insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis without pupation. The annual life cycle of most aphids includes both an asexual (viviparous) and a sexual (oviparous) phase. Sexual reproduction only occurs once per year and is followed by many generations of asexual reproduction, during which aphids propagate exponentially with telescopic development. Here, we discuss the potential links between viviparous embryogenesis and derived developmental features in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, particularly focusing on germline specification and axis determination, both of which are key events of early development in insects. We also discuss potential evolutionary paths through which both viviparous and oviparous females might have come to utilize maternal germ plasm to drive germline specification. This developmental strategy, as defined by germline markers, has not been reported in other hemimetabolous insects. In viviparous females, furthermore, we discuss whether molecules that in other insects characterize germ plasm, like Vasa, also participate in posterior determination and how the anterior localization of the hunchback orthologue Ap-hb establishes the anterior-posterior axis. We propose that the linked chain of developing oocytes and embryos within each ovariole and the special morphology of early embryos might have driven the formation of evolutionary novelties in germline specification and axis determination in the viviparous aphids. Moreover, based upon the finding that the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola is closely associated with germ cells throughout embryogenesis, we propose presumptive roles for B. aphidicola in aphid development, discussing how it might regulate germline migration in both reproductive modes of pea aphids. In summary, we expect that this review will shed light on viviparous as well as oviparous development in aphids.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Higgins SA, Mann M, M Heck (2022)

Strain tracking of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', citrus greening disease pathogen, enabled by high-resolution microbiome analysis of the Asian citrus psyllid.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is an invasive insect and a vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), a bacterium whose growth in Citrus species results in huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. Methods to enrich and sequence CLas from D. citri often rely on biased genome amplification and nevertheless contain significant quantities of host DNA. To overcome these hurdles, we developed a simple pre-treatment DNase and filtration (hereafter PDF) protocol to remove host DNA and directly sequence CLas and the complete, primarily uncultivable, microbiome from D. citri adults. The PDF protocol yielded CLas abundances upwards of 60% and facilitated direct measurement of CLas and endosymbiont replication rates in psyllids. The PDF protocol confirmed our strains derived from a progenitor Florida CLas strain and accumulated 156 genetic variants, underscoring the utility of this data for bacterial strain tracking. CLas genetic polymorphisms arising in lab-reared psyllid populations included prophage encoding regions with key functions in CLas pathogenesis, putative antibiotic resistance loci, and a single secreted effector. These variants suggest laboratory propagation of CLas may result in different phenotypic trajectories among laboratories, and may confound CLas physiology or therapeutic design and evaluation if these differences remain undocumented. Finally, we obtained genetic signatures affiliated with Citrus nuclear and organellar genomes, entomopathogenic fungal mitochondria, and commensal bacteria from laboratory-reared and field-collected D. citri adults. Hence, the PDF protocol can directly inform agricultural management strategies related to bacterial strain tracking, insect microbiome surveillance, and antibiotic resistance screening.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Tvedte ES, Gasser M, Zhao X, et al (2022)

Accumulation of endosymbiont genomes in an insect autosome followed by endosymbiont replacement.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(22)00783-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryotic genomes can acquire bacterial DNA via lateral gene transfer (LGT).1 A prominent source of LGT is Wolbachia,2 a widespread endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that is transmitted maternally through female germline cells.3,4 The DNA transfer from the Wolbachia endosymbiont wAna to Drosophila ananassae is extensive5-7 and has been localized to chromosome 4, contributing to chromosome expansion in this lineage.6 As has happened frequently with claims of bacteria-to-eukaryote LGT, the contribution of wAna transfers to the expanded size of D. ananassae chromosome 4 has been specifically contested8 owing to an assembly where Wolbachia sequences were classified as contaminants and removed.9 Here, long-read sequencing with DNA from a Wolbachia-cured line enabled assembly of 4.9 Mbp of nuclear Wolbachia transfers (nuwts) in D. ananassae and a 24-kbp nuclear mitochondrial transfer. The nuwts are <8,000 years old in at least two locations in chromosome 4 with at least one whole-genome integration followed by rapid extensive duplication of most of the genome with regions that have up to 10 copies. The genes in nuwts are accumulating small indels and mobile element insertions. Among the highly duplicated genes are cifA and cifB, two genes associated with Wolbachia-mediated Drosophila cytoplasmic incompatibility. The wAna strain that was the source of nuwts was subsequently replaced by a different wAna endosymbiont. Direct RNA Nanopore sequencing of Wolbachia-cured lines identified nuwt transcripts, including spliced transcripts, but functionality, if any, remains elusive.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Bordenstein SR, SR Bordenstein (2022)

Widespread phages of endosymbionts: Phage WO genomics and the proposed taxonomic classification of Symbioviridae.

PLoS genetics, 18(6):e1010227 pii:PGENETICS-D-21-01513 [Epub ahead of print].

Wolbachia are the most common obligate, intracellular bacteria in animals. They exist worldwide in arthropod and nematode hosts in which they commonly act as reproductive parasites or mutualists, respectively. Bacteriophage WO, the largest of Wolbachia's mobile elements, includes reproductive parasitism genes, serves as a hotspot for genetic divergence and genomic rearrangement of the bacterial chromosome, and uniquely encodes a Eukaryotic Association Module with eukaryotic-like genes and an ensemble of putative host interaction genes. Despite WO's relevance to genome evolution, selfish genetics, and symbiotic applications, relatively little is known about its origin, host range, diversification, and taxonomic classification. Here we analyze the most comprehensive set of 150 Wolbachia and phage WO assemblies to provide a framework for discretely organizing and naming integrated phage WO genomes. We demonstrate that WO is principally in arthropod Wolbachia with relatives in diverse endosymbionts and metagenomes, organized into four variants related by gene synteny, often oriented opposite the putative origin of replication in the Wolbachia chromosome, and the large serine recombinase is an ideal typing tool to distinguish the four variants. We identify a novel, putative lytic cassette and WO's association with a conserved eleven gene island, termed Undecim Cluster, that is enriched with virulence-like genes. Finally, we evaluate WO-like Islands in the Wolbachia genome and discuss a new model in which Octomom, a notable WO-like Island, arose from a split with WO. Together, these findings establish the first comprehensive Linnaean taxonomic classification of endosymbiont phages, including non-Wolbachia phages from aquatic environments, that includes a new family and two new genera to capture the collective relatedness of these viruses.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

James EB, Pan X, Schwartz O, et al (2022)

SymbiQuant: A Machine Learning Object Detection Tool for Polyploid Independent Estimates of Endosymbiont Population Size.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:816608.

Quantifying the size of endosymbiont populations is challenging because endosymbionts are typically difficult or impossible to culture and commonly polyploid. Current approaches to estimating endosymbiont population sizes include quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting endosymbiont genomic DNA and flow-cytometry. While qPCR captures genome copy number data, it does not capture the number of bacterial cells in polyploid endosymbiont populations. In contrast, flow cytometry can capture accurate estimates of whole host-level endosymbiont population size, but it is not readily able to capture data at the level of endosymbiotic host cells. To complement these existing approaches for estimating endosymbiont population size, we designed and implemented an object detection/segmentation tool for counting the number of endosymbiont cells in micrographs of host tissues. The tool, called SymbiQuant, which makes use of recent advances in deep neural networks includes a graphic user interface that allows for human curation of tool output. We trained SymbiQuant for use in the model aphid/Buchnera endosymbiosis and studied Buchnera population dynamics and phenotype over aphid postembryonic development. We show that SymbiQuant returns accurate counts of endosymbionts, and readily captures Buchnera phenotype. By replacing our training data with data composed of annotated microscopy images from other models of endosymbiosis, SymbiQuant has the potential for broad application. Our tool, which is available on GitHub, adds to the repertoire of methods researchers can use to study endosymbiosis at the organismal, genome, and now endosymbiotic host tissue or cell levels.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Lu M, Tang G, Ren Z, et al (2022)

Ehrlichia, Coxiella and Bartonella infections in rodents from Guizhou Province, Southwest China.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases, 13(5):101974 pii:S1877-959X(22)00079-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Rodents are generally recognized to be the reservoir hosts of a great many zoonotic pathogens. In some areas of China, rodent-borne pathogens, as well as the role of rodents in the natural cycle of these pathogens, are still poorly investigated. To increase our knowledge on the distribution and epidemiology of rodent-borne bacterial pathogens, 81 rodent liver samples were collected in three locations of Guizhou province located in Southwest China, and screened for the presence of Ehrlichia, Coxiella, and Bartonella in them. A putative novel Ehrlichia species was identified in 5 Berylmys bowersi samples (100%, 5/5). Its 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL genes have highest 99.84%, 89.11%, and 98.02% identities to those from known Ehrlichia species, and form distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees. Herein we name it "Candidatus Ehrlichia zunyiensis". Bartonella was tested positive in 8 A. agrarius (striped field mouse), 2 A. chevrieri (Chevrier's field mouse), 1 R. norvegicus (Norway rat), 1 N. confucianus, and 1 N. lotipes, with a total positive rate of 16.05% (13/81). Sequence analysis indicated high genetic diversity in these Bartonella strains. Unexpectedly, two Coxiella strains were identified from the rodents (1 Niviventer confucianus and 1 Mus pahari). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis indicated that both of them are closely related to the Coxiella endosymbiont of ticks. This result supported previous conjectures that vertebrate hosts such as rodents may play a role in the preservation and transmission of Coxiella endosymbiont of ticks.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Kohga H, Mori T, Tanaka Y, et al (2022)

Crystal structure of the lipid flippase MurJ in a "squeezed" form distinct from its inward- and outward-facing forms.

Structure (London, England : 1993) pii:S0969-2126(22)00182-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The bacterial peptidoglycan enclosing the cytoplasmic membrane is a fundamental cellular architecture. The integral membrane protein MurJ plays an essential role in flipping the cell wall building block Lipid II across the cytoplasmic membrane for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Previously reported crystal structures of MurJ have elucidated its V-shaped inward- or outward-facing forms with an internal cavity for substrate binding. MurJ transports Lipid II using its cavity through conformational transitions between these two forms. Here, we report two crystal structures of inward-facing forms from Arsenophonus endosymbiont MurJ and an unprecedented crystal structure of Escherichia coli MurJ in a "squeezed" form, which lacks a cavity to accommodate the substrate, mainly because of the increased proximity of transmembrane helices 2 and 8. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations supported the hypothesis that the squeezed form is an intermediate conformation. This study fills a gap in our understanding of the Lipid II flipping mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Badrulisham AS, Abu Bakar MA, Md Zain BM, et al (2022)

Metabarcoding of Parasitic Wasp, Dolichogenidea metesae (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) That Parasitizing Bagworm, Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae).

Tropical life sciences research, 33(1):23-42.

Microbiome studies of the parasitoid wasp, Dolichogenidea metesae (Nixon) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) are important because D. metesae has potential as a biological control agent to suppress the pest, Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera, Psychidae). Three field populations of parasitic wasps with different Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices to control M. plana collected from Perak state (Tapah) and Johor state (Yong Peng and Batu Pahat districts) in Peninsular Malaysia were studied. Bacterial community composition and structure were analysed using α and β diversity metrics. Proteobacteria (83.31%) and Bacteroidetes (6.80%) were the most dominant phyla, whereas unknown family from order Rhizobiales was the most abundant family found in all populations followed by Pseudomonadaceae. Family Micrococcaceae was absent in Tapah. Rhizobiales gen. sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant in all populations. Pearson's correlation analysis showed the strongest correlation between individuals of Batu Pahat and Yong Peng (r = 0.89827, p < 0.05), followed by Tapah and Yong Peng with r = 0.75358, p < 0.05 and Batu Pahat and Tapah (r = 0.69552, p < 0.05). We hypothesise that low diversity and richness in Tapah might be due to direct and indirect effect of insecticides application. This preliminary data was the first study to do inventory of the microbiomes in the gut of the D. metesae.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Paight C, Hunter ES, CE Lane (2022)

Codependence of individuals in the Nephromyces species swarm requires heterospecific bacterial endosymbionts.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(22)00766-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiosis is one of the most important evolutionary processes shaping the biodiversity on Earth. Symbiotic associations often bring together organisms from different domains of life, which can provide an unparalleled route to evolutionary innovation.1-4 The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses 6,000 ubiquitous animal parasites; however, species in the recently described apicomplexan family, Nephromycidae, are reportedly non-virulent.5,6 The members of the genus Nephromyces live within a specialized organ of tunicates, called the renal sac, in which they use concentrated uric acid as a primary nitrogen source.7,8 Here, we report genomic and transcriptomic data from the diverse genus Nephromyces, as well as the three bacterial symbionts that live within this species complex. We show that the diversity of Nephromyces is unexpectedly high within each renal sac, with as many as 20 different species inhabiting the renal sacs in wild populations. The many species of Nephromyces can host three different types of bacterial endosymbionts; however, FISH microscopy allowed us to demonstrate that each individual Nephromyces cell hosts only a single bacterial type. Through the reconstruction and analyses of the endosymbiont bacterial genomes, we infer that each bacterial type supplies its host with different metabolites. No individual species of Nephromyces, in combination with its endosymbiont, can produce a complete set of essential amino acids, and culture experiments demonstrate that individual Nephromyces species cannot form a viable infection. Therefore, we hypothesize that Nephromyces spp. depend on co-infection with congeners containing different bacterial symbionts in order to exchange metabolites to meet their needs.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Liu W, Smith DAS, Raina G, et al (2022)

Global biogeography of warning coloration in the butterfly Danaus chrysippus.

Biology letters, 18(6):20210639.

Warning coloration provides a textbook example of natural selection, but the frequent observation of polymorphism in aposematic species presents an evolutionary puzzle. We investigated biogeography and polymorphism of warning patterns in the widespread butterfly Danaus chrysippus using records from citizen science (n = 5467), museums (n = 8864) and fieldwork (n = 2586). We find that polymorphism in three traits controlled by known mendelian loci is extensive. Broad allele frequency clines, hundreds of kilometres wide, suggest a balance between long-range dispersal and predation of unfamiliar morphs. Mismatched clines for the white hindwing and forewing tip in East Africa are consistent with a previous finding that the black wingtip allele has spread recently in the region through hitchhiking with a heritable endosymbiont. Light/dark background coloration shows more extensive polymorphism. The darker genotype is more common in cooler regions, possibly reflecting a trade-off between thermoregulation and predator warning. Overall, our findings show how studying local adaptation at the global scale provides a more complete picture of the evolutionary forces involved.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Calatrava V, Stephens TG, Gabr A, et al (2022)

Retrotransposition facilitated the establishment of a primary plastid in the thecate amoeba Paulinella.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(23):e2121241119.

SignificancePrimary endosymbiosis allowed the evolution of complex life on Earth. In this process, a prokaryote was engulfed and retained in the cytoplasm of another microbe, where it developed into a new organelle (mitochondria and plastids). During organelle evolution, genes from the endosymbiont are transferred to the host nuclear genome, where they must become active despite differences in the genetic nature of the "partner" organisms. Here, we show that in the amoeba Paulinella micropora, which harbors a nascent photosynthetic organelle, the "copy-paste" mechanism of retrotransposition allowed domestication of endosymbiont-derived genes in the host nuclear genome. This duplication mechanism is widespread in eukaryotes and may be a major facilitator for host-endosymbiont integration and the evolution of organelles.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Lu M, Tian J, Zhao H, et al (2022)

Molecular Survey of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Ticks, Sheep Keds, and Domestic Animals from Ngawa, Southwest China.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(5): pii:pathogens11050606.

Vector-borne pathogens are mainly transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, mites, etc. They pose a significant threat to animal and human health due to their worldwide distribution. Although much work has been performed on these pathogens, some neglected areas and undiscovered pathogens are still to be further researched. In this study, ticks (Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis), sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus), and blood samples from yaks and goats were collected in Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture located on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Southwest China. Several vector-borne bacterial pathogens were screened and studied. Anaplasma bovis strains representing novel genotypes were detected in ticks (8.83%, 37/419), yak blood samples (45.71%, 64/140), and goat blood samples (58.93%, 33/56). Two spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae, Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis, and a novel Rickettsia species named Candidatus Rickettsia hongyuanensis were identified in ticks. Another Rickettsia species closely related to the Rickettsia endosymbiont of Polydesmus complanatus was also detected in ticks. Furthermore, a Coxiella species was detected in ticks (3.34%, 14/419), keds (1.89%, 2/106), and yak blood (0.71%, 1/140). Interestingly, another Coxiella species and a Coxiella-like bacterium were detected in a tick and a goat blood sample, respectively. These results indicate the remarkable diversity of vector-borne pathogens circulating in this area. Further investigations on their pathogenicity to humans and domestic animals are still needed.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Csorba AB, Fora CG, Bálint J, et al (2022)

Endosymbiotic Bacterial Diversity of Corn Leaf Aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Associated with Maize Management Systems.

Microorganisms, 10(5): pii:microorganisms10050939.

In this study, different maize fields cultivated under different management systems were sampled to test corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis, populations in terms of total and endosymbiotic bacterial diversity. Corn leaf aphid natural populations were collected from traditionally managed maize fields grown under high agricultural and natural landscape diversity as well as conventionally treated high-input agricultural fields grown in monoculture and with fertilizers use, hence with low natural landscape diversity. Total bacterial community assessment by DNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. In total, 365 bacterial genera were identified and 6 endosymbiont taxa. A high abundance of the primary endosymbiont Buchnera and secondary symbionts Serratia and Wolbachia were detected in all maize crops. Their frequency was found to be correlated with the maize management system used, probably with fertilizer input. Three other facultative endosymbionts ("Candidatus Hamiltonella", an uncultured Rickettsiales genus, and Spiroplasma) were also recorded at different frequencies under the two management regimes. Principal components analyses revealed that the relative contribution of the obligate and dominant symbiont Buchnera to the aphid endosymbiotic bacterial community was 72%, whereas for the managed system this was only 16.3%. When facultative symbionts alone were considered, the effect of management system revealed a DNA diversity of 23.3%.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Salomon J, Fernandez Santos NA, Zecca IB, et al (2022)

Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus Sensu Lato) Infection with Endosymbiont and Human Pathogenic Rickettsia spp., in Northeastern México.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(10): pii:ijerph19106249.

Of the documented tick-borne diseases infecting humans in México, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is responsible for most fatalities. Given recent evidence of brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., as an emerging vector of human RMSF, we aimed to evaluate dogs and their ticks for rickettsiae infections as an initial step in assessing the establishment of this pathosystem in a poorly studied region of northeastern México while evaluating the use of dogs as sentinels for transmission/human disease risk. We sampled owned dogs living in six disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reynosa, northeastern México to collect whole blood and ticks. Of 168 dogs assessed, tick infestation prevalence was 53%, composed of exclusively Rh. sanguineus s. l. (n = 2170 ticks). Using PCR and sequencing, we identified an overall rickettsiae infection prevalence of 4.1% (n = 12/292) in ticks, in which eight dogs harbored at least one infected tick. Rickettsiae infections included Rickettsia amblyommatis and Rickettsia parkeri, both of which are emerging human pathogens, as well as Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This is the first documentation of pathogenic Rickettsia species in Rh. sanguineus s.l. collected from dogs from northeastern México. Domestic dog infestation with Rickettsia-infected ticks indicates ongoing transmission; thus, humans are at risk for exposure, and this underscores the importance of public and veterinary health surveillance for these pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Margarita V, Bailey NP, Rappelli P, et al (2022)

Two Different Species of Mycoplasma Endosymbionts Can Influence Trichomonas vaginalis Pathophysiology.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Trichomonas vaginalis can host the endosymbiont Mycoplasma hominis, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium capable of modulating T. vaginalis pathobiology. Recently, a new noncultivable mycoplasma, "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii," has been shown to be closely associated with women affected by trichomoniasis, suggesting a biological association. Although several features of "Ca. M. girerdii" have been investigated through genomic analysis, the nature of the potential T. vaginalis-"Ca. M. girerdii" consortium and its impact on the biology and pathogenesis of both microorganisms have not yet been explored. Here, we investigate the association between "Ca. M. girerdii" and T. vaginalis isolated from patients affected by trichomoniasis, demonstrating their intracellular localization. By using an in vitro model system based on single- and double-Mycoplasma infection of Mycoplasma-free isogenic T. vaginalis, we investigated the ability of the protist to establish a relationship with the bacteria and impact T. vaginalis growth. Our data indicate likely competition between M. hominis and "Ca. M. girerdii" while infecting trichomonad cells. Comparative dual-transcriptomics data showed major shifts in parasite gene expression in response to the presence of Mycoplasma, including genes associated with energy metabolism and pathogenesis. Consistent with the transcriptomics data, both parasite-mediated hemolysis and binding to host epithelial cells were significantly upregulated in the presence of either Mycoplasma species. Taken together, these results support a model in which this microbial association could modulate the virulence of T. vaginalis. IMPORTANCE T. vaginalis and M. hominis form a unique case of endosymbiosis that modulates the parasite's pathobiology. Recently, a new nonculturable mycoplasma species ("Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii") has been described as closely associated with the protozoon. Here, we report the characterization of this endosymbiotic relationship. Clinical isolates of the parasite demonstrate that mycoplasmas are common among trichomoniasis patients. The relationships are studied by devising an in vitro system of single and/or double infections in isogenic protozoan recipients. Comparative growth experiments and transcriptomics data demonstrate that the composition of different microbial consortia influences the growth of the parasite and significantly modulates its transcriptomic profile, including metabolic enzymes and virulence genes such as adhesins and pore-forming proteins. The data on modulation from RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) correlated closely with those of the cytopathic effect and adhesion to human target cells. We propose the hypothesis that the presence and the quantitative ratios of endosymbionts may contribute to modulating protozoan virulence. Our data highlight the importance of considering pathogenic entities as microbial ecosystems, reinforcing the importance of the development of integrated diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Verhoeve VI, Fauntleroy TD, Risteen RG, et al (2022)

Cryptic Genes for Interbacterial Antagonism Distinguish Rickettsia Species Infecting Blacklegged Ticks From Other Rickettsia Pathogens.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:880813.

Background: The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) encompasses numerous obligate intracellular species with predominantly ciliate and arthropod hosts. Notable species are pathogens transmitted to mammals by blood-feeding arthropods. Mammalian pathogenicity evolved from basal, non-pathogenic host-associations; however, some non-pathogens are closely related to pathogens. One such species, Rickettsia buchneri, is prevalent in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. While I. scapularis transmits several pathogens to humans, it does not transmit Rickettsia pathogens. We hypothesize that R. buchneri established a mutualism with I. scapularis, blocking tick superinfection with Rickettsia pathogens.

Methods: To improve estimates for assessing R. buchneri infection frequency in blacklegged tick populations, we used comparative genomics to identify an R. buchneri gene (REIS_1424) not present in other Rickettsia species present throughout the I. scapularis geographic range. Bioinformatic and phylogenomics approaches were employed to propose a function for the hypothetical protein (263 aa) encoded by REIS_1424.

Results: REIS_1424 has few analogs in other Rickettsiales genomes and greatest similarity to non-Proteobacteria proteins. This cohort of proteins varies greatly in size and domain composition, possessing characteristics of Recombination hotspot (Rhs) and contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI) toxins, with similarity limited to proximal C-termini (~145 aa). This domain was named CDI-like/Rhs-like C-terminal toxin (CRCT). As such proteins are often found as toxin-antidote (TA) modules, we interrogated REIS_1423 (151 aa) as a putative antidote. Indeed, REIS_1423 is similar to proteins encoded upstream of CRCT domain-containing proteins. Accordingly, we named these proteins CDI-like/Rhs-like C-terminal toxin antidotes (CRCA). R. buchneri expressed both REIS_1423 and REIS_1424 in tick cell culture, and PCR assays showed specificity for R. buchneri over other rickettsiae and utility for positive detection in three tick populations. Finally, phylogenomics analyses uncovered divergent CRCT/CRCA modules in varying states of conservation; however, only R. buchneri and related Tamurae/Ixodes Group rickettsiae carry complete TA modules.

Conclusion: We hypothesize that Rickettsia CRCT/CRCA modules circulate in the Rickettsia mobile gene pool, arming rickettsiae for battle over arthropod colonization. While its functional significance remains to be tested, R. buchneri CRCT/CRCA serves as a marker to positively identify infection and begin deciphering the role this endosymbiont plays in the biology of the blacklegged tick.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Guizzo MG, Tirloni L, Gonzalez SA, et al (2022)

Coxiella Endosymbiont of Rhipicephalus microplus Modulates Tick Physiology With a Major Impact in Blood Feeding Capacity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:868575.

In the past decade, metagenomics studies exploring tick microbiota have revealed widespread interactions between bacteria and arthropods, including symbiotic interactions. Functional studies showed that obligate endosymbionts contribute to tick biology, affecting reproductive fitness and molting. Understanding the molecular basis of the interaction between ticks and their mutualist endosymbionts may help to develop control methods based on microbiome manipulation. Previously, we showed that Rhipicephalus microplus larvae with reduced levels of Coxiella endosymbiont of R. microplus (CERM) were arrested at the metanymph life stage (partially engorged nymph) and did not molt into adults. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic differential analysis of the R. microplus metanymph in the presence and absence of its mutualist endosymbiont. The lack of CERM resulted in an altered expression profile of transcripts from several functional categories. Gene products such as DA-P36, protease inhibitors, metalloproteases, and evasins, which are involved in blood feeding capacity, were underexpressed in CERM-free metanymphs. Disregulation in genes related to extracellular matrix remodeling was also observed in the absence of the symbiont. Taken together, the observed alterations in gene expression may explain the blockage of development at the metanymph stage and reveal a novel physiological aspect of the symbiont-tick-vertebrate host interaction.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Bashir F, Kovács S, Ábrahám Á, et al (2022)

Viable protoplast formation of the coral endosymbiont alga Symbiodinium spp. in a microfluidics platform.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiodiniaceae is an important dinoflagellate family which lives in endosymbiosis with reef invertebrates, including coral polyps, making them central to the holobiont. With coral reefs currently under extreme threat from climate change, there is a pressing need to improve our understanding on the stress tolerance and stress avoidance mechanisms of Symbiodinium spp. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen are central players in mediating various stress responses; however, the detection of ROS using specific dyes is still far from definitive in intact Symbiodinium cells due to the hindrance of uptake of certain fluorescent dyes because of the presence of the cell wall. Protoplast technology provides a promising platform for studying oxidative stress with the main advantage of removed cell wall, however the preparation of viable protoplasts remains a significant challenge. Previous studies have successfully applied cellulose-based protoplast preparation in Symbiodiniaceae; however, the protoplast formation and regeneration process was found to be suboptimal. Here, we present a microfluidics-based platform which allowed protoplast isolation from individually trapped Symbiodinium cells, by using a precisely adjusted flow of cell wall digestion enzymes (cellulase and macerozyme). Trapped single cells exhibited characteristic changes in their morphology, cessation of cell division and a slight decrease in photosynthetic activity during protoplast formation. Following digestion and transfer to regeneration medium, protoplasts remained photosynthetically active, regrew cell walls, regained motility, and entered exponential growth. Elevated flow rates in the microfluidic chambers resulted in somewhat faster protoplast formation; however, cell wall digestion at higher flow rates partially compromised photosynthetic activity. Physiologically competent protoplasts prepared from trapped cells in microfluidic chambers allowed for the first time the visualization of the intracellular localization of singlet oxygen (using Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green dye) in Symbiodiniaceae, potentially opening new avenues for studying oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Chaput G, Ford J, DeDiego L, et al (2022)

Sodalis ligni Strain 159R Isolated from an Anaerobic Lignin-Degrading Consortium.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Novel bacterial isolates with the capabilities of lignin depolymerization, catabolism, or both, could be pertinent to lignocellulosic biofuel applications. In this study, we aimed to identify anaerobic bacteria that could address the economic challenges faced with microbial-mediated biotechnologies, such as the need for aeration and mixing. Using a consortium seeded from temperate forest soil and enriched under anoxic conditions with organosolv lignin as the sole carbon source, we successfully isolated a novel bacterium, designated 159R. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, the isolate belongs to the genus Sodalis in the family Bruguierivoracaceae. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.38 Mbp and a GC content of 55 mol%. To resolve the phylogenetic position of 159R, its phylogeny was reconstructed using (i) 16S rRNA genes of its closest relatives, (ii) multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 100 genes, (iii) 49 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) domains, and (iv) 400 conserved proteins. Isolate 159R was closely related to the deadwood associated Sodalis guild rather than the tsetse fly and other insect endosymbiont guilds. Estimated genome-sequence-based digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), genome percentage of conserved proteins (POCP), and an alignment analysis between 159R and the Sodalis clade species further supported that isolate 159R was part of the Sodalis genus and a strain of Sodalis ligni. We proposed the name Sodalis ligni str. 159R (=DSM 110549 = ATCC TSD-177). IMPORTANCE Currently, in the paper industry, paper mill pulping relies on unsustainable and costly processes to remove lignin from lignocellulosic material. A greener approach is biopulping, which uses microbes and their enzymes to break down lignin. However, there are limitations to biopulping that prevent it from outcompeting other pulping processes, such as requiring constant aeration and mixing. Anaerobic bacteria are a promising alternative source for consolidated depolymerization of lignin and its conversion to valuable by-products. We presented Sodalis ligni str. 159R and its characteristics as another example of potential mechanisms that can be developed for lignocellulosic applications.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Elaagip A, Absalon S, A Florentin (2022)

Apicoplast Dynamics During Plasmodium Cell Cycle.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:864819.

The deadly malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, contains a unique subcellular organelle termed the apicoplast, which is a clinically-proven antimalarial drug target. The apicoplast is a plastid with essential metabolic functions that evolved via secondary endosymbiosis. As an ancient endosymbiont, the apicoplast retained its own genome and it must be inherited by daughter cells during cell division. During the asexual replication of P. falciparum inside human red blood cells, both the parasite, and the apicoplast inside it, undergo massive morphological changes, including DNA replication and division. The apicoplast is an integral part of the cell and thus its development is tightly synchronized with the cell cycle. At the same time, certain aspects of its dynamics are independent of nuclear division, representing a degree of autonomy in organelle biogenesis. Here, we review the different aspects of organelle dynamics during P. falciparum intraerythrocytic replication, summarize our current understanding of these processes, and describe the many open questions in this area of parasite basic cell biology.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Parejo S, Cabrera JJ, Jiménez-Leiva A, et al (2022)

Fine-Tuning Modulation of Oxidation-Mediated Posttranslational Control of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens FixK2 Transcription Factor.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

FixK2 is a CRP/FNR-type transcription factor that plays a central role in a sophisticated regulatory network for the anoxic, microoxic and symbiotic lifestyles of the soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. Aside from the balanced expression of the fixK2 gene under microoxic conditions (induced by the two-component regulatory system FixLJ and negatively auto-repressed), FixK2 activity is posttranslationally controlled by proteolysis, and by the oxidation of a singular cysteine residue (C183) near its DNA-binding domain. To simulate the permanent oxidation of FixK2, we replaced C183 for aspartic acid. Purified C183D FixK2 protein showed both low DNA binding and in vitro transcriptional activation from the promoter of the fixNOQP operon, required for respiration under symbiosis. However, in a B. diazoefficiens strain coding for C183D FixK2, expression of a fixNOQP'-'lacZ fusion was similar to that in the wild type, when both strains were grown microoxically. The C183D FixK2 encoding strain also showed a wild-type phenotype in symbiosis with soybeans, and increased fixK2 gene expression levels and FixK2 protein abundance in cells. These two latter observations, together with the global transcriptional profile of the microoxically cultured C183D FixK2 encoding strain, suggest the existence of a finely tuned regulatory strategy to counterbalance the oxidation-mediated inactivation of FixK2 in vivo.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Buerger P, Vanstone RT, Maire J, et al (2022)

Long-Term Heat Selection of the Coral Endosymbiont Cladocopium C1acro (Symbiodiniaceae) Stabilizes Associated Bacterial Communities.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Heat-tolerant strains of the coral endosymbiont, Cladocopium C1acro (Symbiodiniaceae), have previously been developed via experimental evolution. Here, we examine physiological responses and bacterial community composition (using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding) in cultures of 10 heat-evolved (SS) and 9 wild-type (WT) strains, which had been exposed for 6 years to 31 °C and 27 °C, respectively. We also examine whether the associated bacterial communities were affected by a three-week reciprocal transplantation to both temperatures. The SS strains had bacterial communities with lower diversities that showed more stability and lower variability when exposed to elevated temperatures compared with the WT strains. Amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) of the bacterial genera Labrenzia, Algiphilus, Hyphobacterium and Roseitalea were significantly more associated with the SS strains compared with the WT strains. WT strains showed higher abundance of ASVs assigned to the genera Fabibacter and Tropicimonas. We hypothesize that these compositional differences in associated bacterial communities between SS and WT strains also contribute to the thermal tolerance of the microalgae. Future research should explore functional potential between bacterial communities using metagenomics to unravel specific genomic adaptations.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Zhou W, Zhang X, Wang A, et al (2022)

Widespread Sterol Methyltransferase Participates in the Biosynthesis of Both C4α- and C4β-Methyl Sterols.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

The 4-methyl steranes serve as molecular fossils and are used for studying both eukaryotic evolution and geological history. The occurrence of 4α-methyl steranes in sediments has long been considered evidence of products of partial demethylation mediated by sterol methyl oxidases (SMOs), while 4β-methyl steranes are attributed entirely to diagenetic generation from 4α-methyl steroids since possible biological sources of their precursor 4β-methyl sterols are unknown. Here, we report a previously unknown C4-methyl sterol biosynthetic pathway involving a sterol methyltransferase rather than the SMOs. We show that both C4α- and C4β-methyl sterols are end products of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in an endosymbiont of reef corals, Breviolum minutum, while this mechanism exists not only in dinoflagellates but also in eukaryotes from alveolates, haptophytes, and aschelminthes. Our discovery provides a previously untapped route for the generation of C4-methyl steranes and overturns the paradigm that all 4β-methyl steranes are diagenetically generated from the 4α isomers. This may facilitate the interpretation of molecular fossils and understanding of the evolution of eukaryotic life in general.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Thayanukul P, Lertanantawong B, Sirawaraporn W, et al (2022)

Simple, sensitive, and cost-effective detection of wAlbB Wolbachia in Aedes mosquitoes, using loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with the electrochemical biosensing method.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 16(5):e0009600 pii:PNTD-D-21-00900 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia is an endosymbiont bacterium generally found in about 40% of insects, including mosquitoes, but it is absent in Aedes aegypti which is an important vector of several arboviral diseasesdengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. The evidence that Wolbachia trans-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes lost their vectorial competence and became less capable of transmitting arboviruses to human hosts highlights the potential of using Wolbachia-based approaches for prevention and control of arboviral diseases. Recently, release of Wolbachia trans-infected Ae. aegypti has been deployed widely in many countries for the control of mosquito-borne viral diseases. Field surveillance and monitoring of Wolbachia presence in released mosquitoes is important for the success of these control programs. So far, a number of studies have reported the development of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to detect Wolbachia in mosquitoes, but the methods still have some specificity and cost issues.

We describe here the development of a LAMP assay combined with the DNA strand displacement-based electrochemical sensor (BIOSENSOR) method to detect wAlbB Wolbachia in trans-infected Ae. aegypti. Our developed LAMP primers used a low-cost dye detecting system and 4 oligo nucleotide primers which can reduce the cost of analysis while the specificity is comparable to the previous methods. The detection capacity of our LAMP technique was 1.4 nM and the detection limit reduced to 2.2 fM when combined with the BIOSENSOR. Our study demonstrates that a BIOSENSOR can also be applied as a stand-alone method for detecting Wolbachia; and it showed high sensitivity when used with the crude DNA extracts of macerated mosquito samples without DNA purification.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that both LAMP and BIOSENSOR, either used in combination or stand-alone, are robust and sensitive. The methods have good potential for routine detection of Wolbachia in mosquitoes during field surveillance and monitoring of Wolbachia-based release programs, especially in countries with limited resources.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Weyandt N, Aghdam SA, AMV Brown (2022)

Discovery of Early-Branching Wolbachia Reveals Functional Enrichment on Horizontally Transferred Genes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:867392.

Wolbachia is a widespread endosymbiont of insects and filarial nematodes that profoundly influences host biology. Wolbachia has also been reported in rhizosphere hosts, where its diversity and function remain poorly characterized. The discovery that plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) host Wolbachia strains with unknown roles is of interest evolutionarily, ecologically, and for agriculture as a potential target for developing new biological controls. The goal of this study was to screen communities for PPN endosymbionts and analyze genes and genomic patterns that might indicate their role. Genome assemblies revealed 1 out of 16 sampled sites had nematode communities hosting a Wolbachia strain, designated wTex, that has highly diverged as one of the early supergroup L strains. Genome features, gene repertoires, and absence of known genes for cytoplasmic incompatibility, riboflavin, biotin, and other biosynthetic functions placed wTex between mutualist C + D strains and reproductive parasite A + B strains. Functional terms enriched in group L included protoporphyrinogen IX, thiamine, lysine, fatty acid, and cellular amino acid biosynthesis, while dN/dS analysis suggested the strongest purifying selection on arginine and lysine metabolism, and vitamin B6, heme, and zinc ion binding, suggesting these as candidate roles in PPN Wolbachia. Higher dN/dS pathways between group L, wPni from aphids, wFol from springtails, and wCfeT from cat fleas suggested distinct functional changes characterizing these early Wolbachia host transitions. PPN Wolbachia had several putative horizontally transferred genes, including a lysine biosynthesis operon like that of the mitochondrial symbiont Midichloria, a spirochete-like thiamine synthesis operon shared only with wCfeT, an ATP/ADP carrier important in Rickettsia, and a eukaryote-like gene that may mediate plant systemic acquired resistance through the lysine-to-pipecolic acid system. The Discovery of group L-like variants from global rhizosphere databases suggests diverse PPN Wolbachia strains remain to be discovered. These findings support the hypothesis of plant-specialization as key to shaping early Wolbachia evolution and present new functional hypotheses, demonstrating promise for future genomics-based rhizosphere screens.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Moustafa MAM, Mohamed WMA, Lau ACC, et al (2022)

Novel symbionts and potential human pathogens excavated from argasid tick microbiomes that are shaped by dual or single symbiosis.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 20:1979-1992.

Research on vector-associated microbiomes has been expanding due to increasing emergence of vector-borne pathogens and awareness of the importance of symbionts in the vector physiology. However, little is known about microbiomes of argasid (or soft-bodied) ticks due to limited access to specimens. We collected four argasid species (Argas japonicus, Carios vespertilionis, Ornithodoros capensis, and Ornithodoros sawaii) from the nests or burrows of their vertebrate hosts. One laboratory-reared argasid species (Ornithodoros moubata) was also included. Attempts were then made to isolate and characterize potential symbionts/pathogens using arthropod cell lines. Microbial community structure was distinct for each tick species. Coxiella was detected as the predominant symbiont in four tick species where dual symbiosis between Coxiella and Rickettsia or Coxiella and Francisella was observed in C. vespertilionis and O. moubata, respectively. Of note, A. japonicus lacked Coxiella and instead had Occidentia massiliensis and Thiotrichales as alternative symbionts. Our study found strong correlation between tick species and life stage. We successfully isolated Oc. massiliensis and characterized potential pathogens of genera Ehrlichia and Borrelia. The results suggest that there is no consistent trend of microbiomes in relation to tick life stage that fit all tick species and that the final interpretation should be related to the balance between environmental bacterial exposure and endosymbiont ecology. Nevertheless, our findings provide insights on the ecology of tick microbiomes and basis for future investigations on the capacity of argasid ticks to carry novel pathogens with public health importance.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Kačar D, Schleissner C, Cañedo LM, et al (2022)

In vivo production of pederin by labrenzin pathway expansion.

Metabolic engineering communications, 14:e00198.

Pederin is a potent polyketide toxin that causes severe skin lesions in humans after contact with insects of genus Paederus. Due to its potent anticancer activities, pederin family compounds have raised the interest of pharmaceutical industry. Despite the extensive studies on the cluster of biosynthetic genes responsible for the production of pederin, it has not yet been possible to isolate and cultivate its bacterial endosymbiont producer. However, the marine bacterium Labrenzia sp. PHM005 was recently reported to produce labrenzin, the closest pederin analog. By cloning a synthetic pedO gene encoding one of the three O-methyltraferase of the pederin cluster into Labrenzia sp. PHM005 we have been able to produce pederin for the first time by fermentation in the new recombinant strain.

RevDate: 2022-05-08

Kumar D, Sharma SR, Adegoke A, et al (2022)

Recently Evolved Francisella-Like Endosymbiont Outcompetes an Ancient and Evolutionarily Associated Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont in the Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum) Linked to the Alpha-Gal Syndrome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:787209.

Background: Ticks are hematophagous arthropods that transmit various bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens of public health significance. The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an aggressive human-biting tick that transmits bacterial and viral pathogens, and its bites are suspected of eliciting the alpha-gal syndrome, a newly emerged delayed hypersensitivity following consumption of red meat in the United States. While ongoing studies have attempted to investigate the contribution of different tick-inherent factors to the induction of alpha-gal syndrome, an otherwise understudied aspect is the contribution of the tick microbiome and specifically obligate endosymbionts to the establishment of the alpha-gal syndrome in humans.

Materials and Methods: Here we utilized a high-throughput metagenomic sequencing approach to cataloging the entire microbial communities residing within different developmental stages and tissues of unfed and blood-fed ticks from laboratory-maintained ticks and three new geographical locations in the United States. The Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2) pipeline was used to perform data analysis and taxonomic classification. Moreover, using a SparCC (Sparse Correlations for Compositional data) network construction model, we investigated potential interactions between members of the microbial communities from laboratory-maintained and field-collected ticks.

Results: Overall, Francisellaceae was the most dominant bacteria identified in the microbiome of both laboratory-raised and field-collected Am. americanum across all tissues and developmental stages. Likewise, microbial diversity was seen to be significantly higher in field-collected ticks compared with laboratory-maintained ticks as seen with a higher number of both Operational Taxonomic Units and measures of species richness. Several potential positive and negative correlations were identified from our network analysis. We observed a strong positive correlation between Francisellaceae, Rickettsiaceae, and Midichloriaceae in both developmental stages and tissues from laboratory-maintained ticks, whereas ovarian tissues had a strong positive correlation of bacteria in the family Xanthobacteraceae and Rhizobiaceae. A negative interaction was observed between Coxiellaceae and Francisellaceae in Illinois, and all the bacteria detected from ticks from Delaware were negatively correlated.

Conclusion: This study is the first to catalog the microbiome of Am. americanum throughout its developmental stages and different tissue niches and report the potential replacement of Coxiellaceae by Francisellaceae across developmental stages and tissues tested except in ovarian tissues. These unique and significant findings advance our knowledge and open a new avenue of research to further understand the role of tick microbiome in tick-borne diseases and develop a holistic strategy to control alpha-gal syndrome.

RevDate: 2022-05-01

Noden BH, Henriquez BE, Roselli MA, et al (2022)

Use of an exclusion assay to detect novel rickettsiae in field collected Amblyomma americanum.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases, 13(4):101959 pii:S1877-959X(22)00064-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In the south-central United States, several tick-borne diseases (TbDs) occur at or near their highest levels of incidence of anywhere in the U.S. The diversity of Rickettsia species found in Amblyomma americanum continues to be under-characterized in this region and throughout the U.S. and Canada where this tick species is expanding. One reason for this lack of knowledge about Rickettsia diversity is the high prevalence of the endosymbiont Rickettsia amblyommatis that obscures detection of other bacteria in this genus. Focusing on unknown rickettsial agents, we used a recently described R. amblyommatis exclusion assay to screen 1909 A. americanum collected in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, which resulted in eight ticks that had unique rickettsial sequences. Through the process of characterizing primary and secondary rickettsiae, we identified ticks primarily infected with Rickettsia rhipicephali and a Rickettsia species (2019-CO-FNY) previously linked with a canine rickettsiosis case in Tulsa, Oklahoma. We also identified a Rickettsia agent that was 97% identical with an endosymbiont of Amblyomma tonelliae and which aligned with archaic rickettsial species. Through this study, we further demonstrate the usefulness of this exclusion assay for rapid screening in large cohort A. americanum studies to identify a small number of ticks that contain poorly described and previously undocumented rickettsiae.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Kaur R, Singh S, N Joshi (2022)

Pervasive Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Plays a Key Role in the Transmission of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Vectored by Asia II-1 Genetic Group of Bemisia tabaci.

Environmental entomology pii:6575736 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects often coevolved with their mutualistic partners such as gut endosymbionts, which play a key in the physiology of host. Studies on such interactions between Bemisia tabaci and its primary and secondary endosymbionts have gained importance due to their indispensable roles in the biology of this insect. Present study reports the predominance of two secondary endosymbionts, Arsenophonus and Cardinium in the Asia II-1 genetic group of whitefly and elucidates their role in the transmission of its vectored Cotton leaf curl virus. Selective elimination of endosymbionts was optimized using serial concentration of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin administered to viruliferous whiteflies through sucrose diet. Primary endosymbiont, Portiera was unresponsive to all the antibiotics, however, rifampicin and tetracycline at 90 μg/ml selectively eliminated Arsenophonus from the whitefly. Elimination of Arsenophonus resulted in significant decrease in virus titer from viruliferous whitefly, further the CLCuV transmission efficiency of these whiteflies was significantly reduced compared to the control flies. Secondary endosymbiont, Cardinium could not be eliminated completely even with higher concentrations of antibiotics. Based on the findings, Arsenophonus plays a key role in the retention and transmission of CLCuV in the Asia II-1 genetic group of B. tabaci, while the role of Cardinium could not be established due to its unresponsiveness to antibiotics.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Zhou JC, Shang D, Qian Q, et al (2022)

Penetrance during Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis of Trichogramma wasps is reduced by continuous oviposition, associated with exhaustion of Wolbachia titers in ovary and offspring eggs.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Thelytokous Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma wasps are superior to bisexual uninfected wasps regarding biological control programs. However, continuous oviposition weakens the parthenogenesis-inducing (PI) strength of Wolbachia. Whether this reduced PI strength relates to decreases in the titer of Wolbachia in the ovary and offspring eggs of Trichogramma remains unclear. Here, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods, we investigated how the penetrance of Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis, Wolbachia density, and distributions of two Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma species, T. pretiosum (TP) and T. dendrolimi (TD), were influenced by different host access treatments [newly-emerged virgin females (NE), 7-day-old females without access to host eggs (NAH), and 7-day-old virgin females with access to host eggs (AH)].

RESULTS: Continuous oviposition decreased Wolbachia PI strength and titers in TP and TD. Continuous oviposition in AH decreased Wolbachia titers in abdomen and offspring eggs of TP and TD females, compared with NAH and NE; NAH had a lower thorax Wolbachia titer than NE. The numbers of parasitized host eggs and offspring wasps, and emergence rates of offspring deposited by AH were lower than those of NE and NAH, for either species.

CONCLUSION: Weakened PI strength, driven by continuous oviposition in Trichogramma wasps, is associated with Wolbachia titer exhaustion in ovary and offspring eggs. Wolbachia density is dependent on PI strength in Trichogramma wasps, highlighting the side effects of continuous oviposition regarding thelytokous Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma in biological control programs. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Darwell CT, Souto-Vilarós D, Michalek J, et al (2022)

Predicting distributions of Wolbachia strains through host ecological contact-Who's manipulating whom?.

Ecology and evolution, 12(4):e8826.

Reproductive isolation in response to divergent selection is often mediated via third-party interactions. Under these conditions, speciation is inextricably linked to ecological context. We present a novel framework for understanding arthropod speciation as mediated by Wolbachia, a microbial endosymbiont capable of causing host cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). We predict that sympatric host sister-species harbor paraphyletic Wolbachia strains that provide CI, while well-defined congeners in ecological contact and recently diverged noninteracting congeners are uninfected due to Wolbachia redundancy. We argue that Wolbachia provides an adaptive advantage when coupled with reduced hybrid fitness, facilitating assortative mating between co-occurring divergent phenotypes-the contact contingency hypothesis. To test this, we applied a predictive algorithm to empirical pollinating fig wasp data, achieving up to 91.60% accuracy. We further postulate that observed temporal decay of Wolbachia incidence results from adaptive host purging-adaptive decay hypothesis-but implementation failed to predict systematic patterns. We then account for post-zygotic offspring mortality during CI mating, modeling fitness clines across developmental resources-the fecundity trade-off hypothesis. This model regularly favored CI despite fecundity losses. We demonstrate that a rules-based algorithm accurately predicts Wolbachia infection status. This has implications among other systems where closely related sympatric species encounter adaptive disadvantage through hybridization.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Gu X, Lu X, Lin S, et al (2022)

A Comparative Genomic Approach to Determine the Virulence Factors and Horizontal Gene Transfer Events of Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates.

Microbiology spectrum, 10(2):e0002522.

Acanthamoeba species are among the most ubiquitous protists that are widespread in soil and water and act as both a replicative niche and vectors for dispersal. They are the most important human intracellular pathogens, causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and severely damaging the human cornea. The sympatric lifestyle within the host and amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARMs) promotes horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, the genomic diversity of only A. castellanii and A. polyphaga has been widely studied, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, we examined 7 clinically pathogenic strains by comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and rhizome gene mosaicism analyses to explore amoeba-symbiont interactions that possibly contribute to pathogenesis. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed differences in functional characteristics between the "open" state of T3 and T4 isolates, which may contribute to the differences in virulence and pathogenicity. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified potential genes related to virulence, such as metalloprotease, laminin-binding protein, and HSP, that were specific to the genus Acanthamoeba. Then, analysis of putative sequence trafficking between Acanthamoeba and Pandoraviruses or Acanthamoeba castellanii medusaviruses provided the best hits with viral genes; among bacteria, Pseudomonas had the most significant numbers. The most parsimonious evolutionary scenarios were between Acanthamoeba and endosymbionts; nevertheless, in most cases, the scenarios are more complex. In addition, the differences in exchanged genes were limited to the same family. In brief, this study provided extensive data to suggest the existence of HGT between Acanthamoeba and ARMs, explaining the occurrence of diseases and challenging Darwin's concept of eukaryotic evolution. IMPORTANCE Acanthamoeba has the ability to cause serious blinding keratitis. Although the prevalence of this phenomenon has increased in recent years, our knowledge of the underlying opportunistic pathogenic mechanism maybe remains incomplete. In this study, we highlighted the importance of Pseudomonas in the pathogenesis pathway using comprehensive a whole genomics approach of clinical isolates. The horizontal gene transfer events help to explain how endosymbionts contribute Acanthamoeba to act as an opportunistic pathogen. Our study opens up several potential avenues for future research on the differences in pathogenicity and interactions among clinical strains.

RevDate: 2022-04-04

Ajendra J, JE Allen (2022)

Neutrophils: Friend or Foe in Filariasis?.

Parasite immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Infection with the filarial nematodes that cause diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis represent major public health challenges. With millions of people at risk of infection, new strategies for treatment or prevention are urgently needed. More complete understanding of the host immune system's ability to control and eliminate the infection is an important step towards fighting these debilitating infectious diseases. Neutrophils are innate immune cells that are rapidly recruited to inflamed or infected tissues and while considered primarily anti-microbial, there is increasing recognition of their role in helminth infections. Filarial nematodes present a unique situation, as many species harbour the bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. The unexpected involvement of neutrophils during filarial infections has been revealed both in human diseases and animal studies, with strong evidence for recruitment by Wolbachia. This present review will introduce the different human filarial diseases and discuss neutrophil involvement in both protective immune responses, but also in the exacerbation of pathology. Additionally, we will highlight the contributions of the murine model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis. While several studies have revealed the importance of neutrophils in these parasite infections, we will also draw attention to many questions that remain to be answered.

RevDate: 2022-04-05

Lupini S, Peña-Bahamonde J, Bonito G, et al (2022)

Effect of Endosymbiotic Bacteria on Fungal Resistance Toward Heavy Metals.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:822541.

Most studies on metal removal or tolerance by fungi or bacteria focus on single isolates, without taking into consideration that some fungi in nature may be colonized by endobacteria. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the tolerance and removal of diverse metals with two fungal species: Linnemannia elongata containing Burkholderia-related endobacteria and Benniella erionia containing Mollicute-related endobacteria. Isogenic lines of both species were generated with antibiotic treatments to remove their respective endobacteria. Experiments involved comparing the isogenic lines and wild type fungi in relation to the minimum inhibitory concentration for the metals, the fungal ability to remove these different metals via atomic adsorption spectroscopy, and the interaction of the metals with specific functional groups of the fungi and fungi-bacteria to determine the role of the bacteria via attenuated total reflection fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR). Finally, we determined the influence of different metal concentrations, associated with moderate and high fungal growth inhibition, on the presence of the endobacteria inside the fungal mycelium via quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the presence of the endosymbiont increased B. erionia resistance to Mn2+ and increased the removal of Fe2+ compared to isogenic lines. The absence of the endosymbiont in L. elongata increased the fungal resistance toward Fe2+ and improved the removal of Fe2+. Furthermore, when the bacterial endosymbiont was present in L. elongata, a decrease in the fungal resistance to Ca2+, Fe2+, and Cr6+was noticeable. In the ATR-FTIR analysis, we determined that C-H and C = O were the major functional groups affected by the presence of Cu2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+ for L. elongata and in the presence of Cu2+ and Ca2+ for B. eronia. It is noteworthy that the highest concentration of Pb2+ led to the loss of endobacteria in both L. elongata and B. eronia, while the other metals generally increased the concentration of endosymbionts inside the fungal mycelium. From these results, we concluded that bacterial endosymbionts of fungi can play a fundamental role in fungal resistance to metals. This study provides the first step toward a greater understanding of symbiotic interactions between bacteria and fungi in relation to metal tolerance and remediation.

RevDate: 2022-04-05

Flores E, Romanovicz DK, Nieves-Morión M, et al (2022)

Adaptation to an Intracellular Lifestyle by a Nitrogen-Fixing, Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterial Endosymbiont of a Diatom.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:799362.

The symbiosis between the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii and the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis makes an important contribution to new production in the world's oceans, but its study is limited by short-term survival in the laboratory. In this symbiosis, R. intracellularis fixes atmospheric dinitrogen in the heterocyst and provides H. hauckii with fixed nitrogen. Here, we conducted an electron microscopy study of H. hauckii and found that the filaments of the R. intracellularis symbiont, typically composed of one terminal heterocyst and three or four vegetative cells, are located in the diatom's cytoplasm not enclosed by a host membrane. A second prokaryotic cell was also detected in the cytoplasm of H. hauckii, but observations were infrequent. The heterocysts of R. intracellularis differ from those of free-living heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria in that the specific components of the heterocyst envelope seem to be located in the periplasmic space instead of outside the outer membrane. This specialized arrangement of the heterocyst envelope and a possible association of the cyanobacterium with oxygen-respiring mitochondria may be important for protection of the nitrogen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase, from photosynthetically produced oxygen. The cell envelope of the vegetative cells of R. intracellularis contained numerous membrane vesicles that resemble the outer-inner membrane vesicles of Gram-negative bacteria. These vesicles can export cytoplasmic material from the bacterial cell and, therefore, may represent a vehicle for transfer of fixed nitrogen from R. intracellularis to the diatom's cytoplasm. The specific morphological features of R. intracellularis described here, together with its known streamlined genome, likely represent specific adaptations of this cyanobacterium to an intracellular lifestyle.

RevDate: 2022-04-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Andreychuk S, L Yakob (2022)

Mathematical modelling to assess the feasibility of Wolbachia in malaria vector biocontrol.

Journal of theoretical biology, 542:111110.

Releasing mosquitoes transinfected with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is a novel strategy for interrupting vector-borne pathogen transmission. Following its success in controlling arboviruses spread by Aedes aegypti, this technology is being adapted for anopheline malaria vectors. However, antagonistic interactions between Wolbachia and naturally resident Asaia bacteria in malaria vectors have been demonstrated experimentally, potentially jeopardising Wolbachia biocontrol. We developed the first mathematical model accounting for interspecific competition between endosymbionts to assess the feasibility of this novel strategy for controlling malaria. First, Asaia prevalences among natural mosquito populations were compared with simulations parametrized with rates of Asaia transmission reported from laboratory studies. Discrepancies between projections and natural Asaia prevalences indicated potential overestimation of Asaia transmissibility in artificial laboratory settings. With parametrization that matches natural Asaia prevalence, simulations identified redundancies in Asaia's many infection routes (vertical, sexual and environmental). This resilience was only overcome when Wolbachia conferred very high resistance to environmental infection with Asaia, resulting in Wolbachia fixation and Asaia exclusion. Wolbachia's simulated spread was prevented when its maternal transmission was impeded in coinfected mosquitoes and the pre-control Asaia prevalence was beyond a threshold of 60-75%. This theoretical assessment highlights critical next steps in laboratory experiments to inform this strategy's feasibility.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Strunov A, Schmidt K, Kapun M, et al (2022)

Restriction of Wolbachia Bacteria in Early Embryogenesis of Neotropical Drosophila Species via Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Autophagy.

mBio, 13(2):e0386321.

Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that are not only restricted to the reproductive organs but also found in various somatic tissues of their native hosts. The abundance of the endosymbiont in the soma, usually a dead end for vertically transmitted bacteria, causes a multitude of effects on life history traits of their hosts, which are still not well understood. Thus, deciphering the host-symbiont interactions on a cellular level throughout a host's life cycle is of great importance to understand their homeostatic nature, persistence, and spreading success. Using fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Wolbachia tropism in soma and germ line of six Drosophila species at the intracellular level during host development. Our data uncovered diagnostic patterns of infections to embryonic primordial germ cells and to particular cells of the soma in three different neotropical Drosophila species that have apparently evolved independently. We further found that restricted patterns of Wolbachia tropism are determined in early embryogenesis via selective autophagy, and their spatially restricted infection patterns are preserved in adult flies. We observed tight interactions of Wolbachia with membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, which might play a scaffolding role for autophagosome formation and subsequent elimination of the endosymbiont. Finally, by analyzing D. simulans lines transinfected with nonnative Wolbachia, we uncovered that the host genetic background regulates tissue tropism of infection. Our data demonstrate a novel and peculiar mechanism to limit and spatially restrict bacterial infection in the soma during a very early stage of host development. IMPORTANCE All organisms are living in close and intimate interactions with microbes that cause conflicts but also cooperation between both unequal genetic partners due to their different innate interests of primarily enhancing their own fitness. However, stable symbioses often result in homeostatic interaction, named mutualism, by balancing costs and benefits, where both partners profit. Mechanisms that have evolved to balance and stably maintain homeostasis in mutualistic relationships are still quite understudied; one strategy is to "domesticate" potentially beneficial symbionts by actively controlling their replication rate below a critical and, hence, costly threshold, and/or to spatially and temporally restrict their localization in the host organism, which, in the latter case, in its most extreme form, is the formation of a specialized housing organ for the microbe (bacteriome). However, questions remain: how do these mutualistic associations become established in their first place, and what are the mechanisms for symbiont control and restriction in their early stages? Here, we have uncovered an unprecedented symbiont control mechanism in neotropical Drosophila species during early embryogenesis. The fruit fly evolved selective autophagy to restrict and control the proliferation of its intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia in a defined subset of the stem cells as soon as the host's zygotic genome is activated.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Li TP, Zhou CY, Wang MK, et al (2022)

Endosymbionts Reduce Microbiome Diversity and Modify Host Metabolism and Fecundity in the Planthopper Sogatella furcifera.

mSystems, 7(2):e0151621.

Endosymbionts can strongly affect bacterial microbiota in pests. The white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera, a notorious pest in rice, is usually co-infected with Cardinium and Wolbachia, but the effects of these endosymbionts together or individually on the host microbiome and fecundity are unclear. Here, we established three S. furcifera lines (Cardinium and Wolbachia double-infected, Cardinium single-infected, and both-uninfected lines) backcrossed to a common nuclear background and found that single and double infections reduced bacterial diversity and changed bacterial community structure across nymph and adult stages and across adult tissues. The endosymbionts differed in densities between adults and nymphs as well as across adult tissues, with the distribution of Cardinium affected by Wolbachia. Both the single infection and particularly the double infection reduced host fecundity. Lines also differed in levels of metabolites, some of which may influence fecundity (e.g., arginine biosynthesis and nicotinamide metabolism). Cardinium in the single-infected line upregulated metabolic levels, while Wolbachia in the double-infected line appeared to mainly downregulate them. Association analysis pointed to possible connections between various bacteria and differential metabolites. These results reveal that Cardinium by itself and in combination with Wolbachia affect bacterial microbiota and levels of metabolites, with likely effects on host fecundity. Many of the effects of these metabolically limited endosymbionts that are dependent on the hosts may be exerted through manipulation of the microbiome. IMPORTANCE Endosymbionts can profoundly affect the nutrition, immunity, development, and reproduction of insect hosts, but the effects of multiple endosymbiont infections on microbiota and the interaction of these effects with insect host fitness are not well known. By establishing S. furcifera lines with different endosymbiont infection status, we found that Cardinium and the combined Cardinium + Wolbachia infections differentially reduced bacterial diversity as well as changing bacterial community structure and affecting metabolism, which may connect to negative fitness effects of the endosymbionts on their host. These results established the connections between reduced bacterial diversity, decreased fecundity and metabolic responses in S. furcifera.

RevDate: 2022-04-13
CmpDate: 2022-04-11

Hochstrasser M (2022)

Cytoplasmic incompatibility: A Wolbachia toxin-antidote mechanism comes into view.

Current biology : CB, 32(6):R287-R289.

The Wolbachia cidA and cidB genes promote bacterial endosymbiont inheritance through the host female germline. CidB is now shown to load into maturing sperm nuclei. Following fertilization, it disrupts paternal chromosome condensation, triggering embryonic arrest if not countered by CidA in Wolbachia-infected eggs.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Bazzocchi C, Genchi M, Lucchetti C, et al (2022)

Transporter gene expression and Wolbachia quantification in adults of Dirofilaria immitis treated in vitro with ivermectin or moxidectin alone or in combination with doxycycline for 12 h.

Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 249:111475 pii:S0166-6851(22)00029-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to their marked larvicidal activity, macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are used for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs. They have also been shown to eliminate adult parasites after long-term administration, with a so-called "slow-kill" effect. In addition, recent studies have established that a combination of doxycycline, which eliminates the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and MLs has superior adulticide effects when compared to MLs alone. It has been hypothesized that the apparent synergism between doxycycline/MLs may be due to interaction with drug efflux transport proteins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gene expression of several transport proteins in D. immitis adults treated in vitro either with doxycycline alone, ivermectin alone, moxidectin alone, or a combination of ivermectin or moxidectin with doxycycline for 12 h. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a sex-dependent response to treatments. In female worms, Dim-pgp-10, Dim-haf-1 and Dim-haf-5 were upregulated compared to controls with doxycycline alone and when combined with ivermectin. Moxidectin did not induce any changes in gene expression. In males, moxidectin administered alone induced a slight increase in Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11and Di-avr-14, while ivermectin in combination with doxycycline produced significant upregulation of the ML receptor Di-avr-14. These results suggest possible synergism between the two drug classes and different susceptibility of males vs. females to adulticide effects.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Queffelec J, Postma A, Allison JD, et al (2022)

Remnants of horizontal transfers of Wolbachia genes in a Wolbachia-free woodwasp.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):36.

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia is a bacterial endosymbiont of many arthropod and nematode species. Due to its capacity to alter host biology, Wolbachia plays an important role in arthropod and nematode ecology and evolution. Sirex noctilio is a woodwasp causing economic loss in pine plantations of the Southern Hemisphere. An investigation into the genome of this wasp revealed the presence of Wolbachia sequences. Due to the potential impact of Wolbachia on the populations of this wasp, as well as its potential use as a biological control agent against invasive insects, this discovery warranted investigation.

RESULTS: In this study we first investigated the presence of Wolbachia in S. noctilio and demonstrated that South African populations of the wasp are unlikely to be infected. We then screened the full genome of S. noctilio and found 12 Wolbachia pseudogenes. Most of these genes constitute building blocks of various transposable elements originating from the Wolbachia genome. Finally, we demonstrate that these genes are distributed in all South African populations of the wasp.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that S. noctilio might be compatible with a Wolbachia infection and that the bacteria could potentially be used in the future to regulate invasive populations of the wasp. Understanding the mechanisms that led to a loss of Wolbachia infection in S. noctilio could indicate which host species or host population should be sampled to find a Wolbachia strain that could be used as a biological control against S. noctilio.

RevDate: 2022-03-29

Neyaz M, Gardner DR, Creamer R, et al (2022)

Localization of the Swainsonine-Producing Chaetothyriales Symbiont in the Seed and Shoot Apical Meristem in Its Host Ipomoea carnea.

Microorganisms, 10(3):.

Several species of fungi from the orders Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales have been reported to produce swainsonine and be associated as symbionts with plants of the Convolvulaceae and Fabaceae, respectively. An endosymbiont belonging to the Chaetothyriales produces swainsonine and grows as an epibiont on the adaxial leaf surfaces of Ipomoea carnea, but how the symbiont passes through plant growth and development is unknown. Herein, different types of microscopy were used to localize the symbiont in seeds and in cross sections of plant parts. The symbiont was found in several tissues including the hilum, the sclereids, and the hypocotyl of seeds. In five-day old seedlings and mature plants, the symbiont was found in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the adaxial surface of immature folded leaves. The mycelia generally formed a close association with peltate glandular trichomes. This report provides further data explaining the relationship between the seed transmitted Chaetothyriales symbiont and Ipomoea carnea. These results provide a possible explanation for how this symbiont, and others like Periglandula may persist and are transmitted over time.

RevDate: 2022-03-29

Petrone JR, Muñoz-Beristain A, Glusberger PR, et al (2022)

Unamplified, Long-Read Metagenomic Sequencing Approach to Close Endosymbiont Genomes of Low-Biomass Insect Populations.

Microorganisms, 10(3):.

With the current advancements in DNA sequencing technology, the limiting factor in long-read metagenomic assemblies is now the quantity and quality of input DNA. Although these requirements can be met through the use of axenic bacterial cultures or large amounts of biological material, insect systems that contain unculturable bacteria or that contain a low amount of available DNA cannot fully utilize the benefits of third-generation sequencing. The citrus greening disease insect vector Diaphorina citri is an example that exhibits both of these limitations. Although endosymbiont genomes have mostly been closed after the short-read sequencing of amplified template DNA, creating de novo long-read genomes from the unamplified DNA of an insect population may benefit communities using bioinformatics to study insect pathosystems. Here all four genomes of the infected D. citri microbiome were sequenced to closure using unamplified template DNA and two long-read sequencing technologies. Avoiding amplification bias and using long reads to assemble the bacterial genomes allowed for the circularization of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri for the first time and paralleled the annotation context of all four reference genomes without utilizing a traditional hybrid assembly. The strategies detailed here are suitable for the sequencing of other insect systems for which the input DNA, time, and cost are an issue.

RevDate: 2022-04-08
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Pacheco PJ, Cabrera JJ, Jiménez-Leiva A, et al (2022)

Effect of Copper on Expression of Functional Genes and Proteins Associated with Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Denitrification.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(6):.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. Denitrification is one of the largest sources of N2O in soils. The soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a model for rhizobial denitrification studies since, in addition to fixing N2, it has the ability to grow anaerobically under free-living conditions by reducing nitrate from the medium through the complete denitrification pathway. This bacterium contains a periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), a copper (Cu)-containing nitrite reductase (NirK), a c-type nitric oxide reductase (cNor), and a Cu-dependent nitrous oxide reductase (Nos) encoded by the napEDABC, nirK, norCBQD and nosRZDFYLX genes, respectively. In this work, an integrated study of the role of Cu in B. diazoefficiens denitrification has been performed. A notable reduction in nirK, nor, and nos gene expression observed under Cu limitation was correlated with a significant decrease in NirK, NorC and NosZ protein levels and activities. Meanwhile, nap expression was not affected by Cu, but a remarkable depletion in Nap activity was found, presumably due to an inhibitory effect of nitrite accumulated under Cu-limiting conditions. Interestingly, a post-transcriptional regulation by increasing Nap and NirK activities, as well as NorC and NosZ protein levels, was observed in response to high Cu. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of Cu in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of B. diazoefficiens denitrification. Thus, this study will contribute by proposing useful strategies for reducing N2O emissions from agricultural soils.

RevDate: 2022-04-25
CmpDate: 2022-04-25

Purkiss SA, Khudr MS, Aguinaga OE, et al (2022)

Symbiont-conferred immunity interacts with effects of parasitoid genotype and intraguild predation to affect aphid immunity in a clone-specific fashion.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):33.

BACKGROUND: Host-parasite interactions represent complex co-evolving systems in which genetic and associated phenotypic variation within a species can significantly affect selective pressures on traits, such as host immunity, in the other. While often modelled as a two-species interaction between host and parasite, some systems are more complex due to effects of host enemies, intraguild predation, and endosymbionts, all of which affect host immunity. However, it remains unclear how these factors, combined with genetic variation in the host and the parasitoid, affect host immunity. We address this question in an important agricultural pest system, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, which shows significant intraspecific variability in immunity to the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi. In a complex experiment, we use a quantitative genetic design in the parasitoid, two ecologically different aphid lineages and the aphid lion Chrysoperla carnea as an intraguild predator to unravel the complex interdependencies.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that aphid immunity as a key trait of this complex host-parasite system is affected by intraspecific genetic variation in the parasitoid and the aphid, the interaction of intraspecific genetic variation with intraguild predation, and differences in defensive endosymbionts between aphid lineages. Further, aphid lineages differ in their altruistic behaviour whereby infested aphids move away from the clonal colony to facilitate predation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new insights into the influence of endosymbiosis and genetic variability in an important host-parasitoid system which is influenced by natural enemies of the parasitoid and the aphid, including its endosymbiont communities. We show that endosymbiosis can mediate or influence the evolutionary arms race between aphids and their natural enemies. The outcome of these complex interactions between species has significant implications for understanding the evolution of multitrophic systems, including eco-agricultural settings.

RevDate: 2022-03-24
CmpDate: 2022-03-22

Hosseini SH, Manshori-Ghaishghorshagh F, Ramezani M, et al (2022)

Canine microfilaraemia in some regions of Iran.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):90.

BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are vector-borne zoonotic parasites which affect mainly dogs and humans worldwide. In Iran, information about the distribution of those nematodes is scant in several regions. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of these filarial parasites in stray dogs from five Iranian provinces where no information about these parasites is available.

METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 344 stray dogs in five provinces of Iran (i.e. Mazandaran, Gilan, Esfahan, Qazvin and Loresan). The presence of microfilariae was assessed using direct smear, modified Knott's test, molecular detection of filarial DNA (cox1 gene) and Wolbachia endosymbiont of parasitic nematodes (ftsZ gene) by conventional PCR (cPCR). All of the PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed.

RESULTS: In total, 75 dogs (21.8%) were found to be positive for D. immitis by cPCR. Infection was detected in all provinces, with the highest prevalence in Gilan province (22/28; 78.6%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum was diagnosed in five dogs (1.4%) from three provinces (i.e. Esfahan, Mazandaran, Gilan). Two dogs were infected with both parasites and three were only infected with A. reconditum. Dirofilaria repens infection was not found in the examined population. Representative sequences of the D. immitis cox1 gene from dogs from the northern provinces (Mazandaran, Gilan, Qazvin) were grouped together and distinctly separate from the ones from western and central provinces (Lorestan and Esfahan), suggesting that different nematode populations are present in the country.

CONCLUSION: The data reported herein fill existing gaps in knowledge about canine filarial infection in two Iranian provinces and record the highest prevalence of D. immitis ever reported in the country (i.e. 78.6%). A geographical review of the literature about Dirofilaria spp. and A. reconditum infections in dogs and humans has also been summarized, indicating that D. immitis and D. repens are distributed in 22 of 31 provinces in Iran, whereas A. reconditum is present in fewer regions. Effective control strategies are advocated for owned dogs, and a national program for the management of stray dogs is needed to minimize the risk of infection in animals and humans.

RevDate: 2022-03-19

Madeira C, Dias M, Ferreira A, et al (2022)

Does Predation Exacerbate the Risk of Endosymbiont Loss in Heat Stressed Hermatypic Corals? Molecular Cues Provide Insights Into Species-Specific Health Outcomes in a Multi-Stressor Ocean.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:801672.

Ocean warming has been a major driver of coral reef bleaching and mass mortality. Coupled to other biotic pressures, corals' ability for acclimatization and adaptation may become compromised. Here, we tested the combined effects of warming scenarios (26, 30, and 32°C) and predation (wound vs. no wound) in coral health condition (paleness, bleaching, and mortality), cellular stress responses (heat shock protein 70 kDa Hsp70, total ubiquitin Ub, and total antioxidant capacity TAC), and physiological state (integrated biomarker response index, IBR) of seven Scleractinian coral species, after being exposed for 60 days. Results show that although temperature was the main factor driving coral health condition, thermotolerant species (Galaxea fascicularis, Psammocora contigua, and Turbinaria reniformis) displayed increased paleness, bleaching, and mortality in predation treatments at high temperature, whereas thermosensitive species (Acropora tenuis, Echinopora lamellosa, and Montipora capricornis brown and green morphotypes) all died at 32°C, regardless of predation condition. At the molecular level, results show that there were significant main and interactive effects of species, temperature, and predation in the biomarkers assessed. Temperature affected Hsp70, Ub, and TAC, evidencing the role of protein folding and turnover, as well as reactive oxygen species scavenging in heat stress management. Predation increased Hsp70 and Ub, suggesting the activation of the pro-phenoloxidase system and cytokine activity, whereas the combination of both stressors mainly affected TAC during moderate stress and Ub under severe stress, suggesting that redox balance and defense of homeostasis are crucial in tissue repair at high temperature. IBR levels showed an increasing trend at 32°C in predated coral fragments (although non-significant). We conclude that coral responses to the combination of high temperature and predation pressure display high inter-species variability, but these stressors may pose a higher risk of endosymbiont loss, depending on species physiology and stress intensity.

RevDate: 2022-03-19

Yan K, Pei Z, Meng L, et al (2022)

Determination of Community Structure and Diversity of Seed-Vectored Endophytic Fungi in Alpinia zerumbet.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:814864.

Endophytic fungi act as seed endosymbiont, thereby playing a very crucial role in the growth and development of seeds. Seed-vectored endophytic fungi establish an everlasting association with seeds and travel from generation to generation. To explore the composition and diversity of endophytic fungi in Alpinia zerumbet seeds, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing was employed for the following stages: fruit formation period (YSJ1), young fruit period (YSJ2), early mature period (YSJ3), middle mature period (YSJ4), and late mature period (YSJ5). A total of 906,694 sequence reads and 745 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained and further classified into 8 phyla, 30 classes, 73 orders, 163 families, 302 genera, and 449 species. The highest endophytic fungal diversity was observed at YSJ5. The genera with the highest abundance were Cladosporium, Kodamaea, Hannaella, Mycothermus, Gibberella, Sarocladium, and Neopestalotiopsis. Functional Guild (FUNGuild) analysis revealed that endophytic fungi were undefined saprotroph, plant pathogens, animal pathogen-endophyte-lichen parasite-plant pathogen-wood saprotroph, and soil saprotrophs. Alternaria, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Sarocladium, which are potential probiotics and can be used as biocontrol agents, were also abundant. This study is part of the Sustainable Development Goals of United Nations Organization (UNO) to "Establish Good Health and Well-Being."

RevDate: 2022-04-22
CmpDate: 2022-04-22

Bhattacharya T, Yan L, Crawford JM, et al (2022)

Differential viral RNA methylation contributes to pathogen blocking in Wolbachia-colonized arthropods.

PLoS pathogens, 18(3):e1010393.

Arthropod endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis is part of a global biocontrol strategy to reduce the replication of mosquito-borne RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. We previously demonstrated the importance of a host cytosine methyltransferase, DNMT2, in Drosophila and viral RNA as a cellular target during pathogen-blocking. Here we report a role for DNMT2 in Wolbachia-induced alphavirus inhibition in Aedes species. Expression of DNMT2 in mosquito tissues, including the salivary glands, is elevated upon virus infection. Notably, this is suppressed in Wolbachia-colonized animals, coincident with reduced virus replication and decreased infectivity of progeny virus. Ectopic expression of DNMT2 in cultured Aedes cells is proviral, increasing progeny virus infectivity, and this effect of DNMT2 on virus replication and infectivity is dependent on its methyltransferase activity. Finally, examining the effects of Wolbachia on modifications of viral RNA by LC-MS show a decrease in the amount of 5-methylcytosine modification consistent with the down-regulation of DNMT2 in Wolbachia colonized mosquito cells and animals. Collectively, our findings support the conclusion that disruption of 5-methylcytosine modification of viral RNA is a vital mechanism operative in pathogen blocking. These data also emphasize the essential role of epitranscriptomic modifications in regulating fundamental alphavirus replication and transmission processes.

RevDate: 2022-03-23
CmpDate: 2022-03-17

Weck BC, Serpa MCA, Ramos VN, et al (2022)

Novel genotypes of Hepatozoon spp. in small mammals, Brazil.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):87.

BACKGROUND: Small mammals (rodents and marsupials) have been poorly explored for the occurrence of apicomplexan (genus Hepatozoon and genera of the order Piroplasmorida) and Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil. Thus, this study investigated the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp., Piroplasmorida, and Anaplasmataceae agents in small mammals in seven forest fragments in Brazil.

METHODS: During 2015-2018, small mammals were captured in six forest fragments in the State of São Paulo (Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes) and one fragment in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (Pantanal biome). Mammal blood, liver, spleen, and lung samples were tested molecularly for the presence of DNA of Hepatozoon, Piroplasmorida, and Anaplasmataceae agents.

RESULTS: A total of 524 mammals were captured, comprising seven species of marsupials, 14 rodents, two carnivores, and one Cingulata. Four novel haplotypes (1, 2, 3, 4) of Hepatozoon spp. were detected in small mammals from different biomes. In São Paulo state, haplotype 1 was detected in rodents from Cerrado and a transition area of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, whereas haplotype 2 was detected in rodents from the Atlantic Forest biome. On the other hand, haplotypes 3 and 4 were restricted to rodents and marsupials, respectively, from the Pantanal biome of Mato Grosso do Sul. No host species shared more than one haplotype. Despite these distinct geographical and host associations, our phylogenetic analyses indicated that the four Hepatozoon haplotypes belonged to the same clade that contained nearly all haplotypes previously reported on rodents and marsupials, in addition to several reptile-associated haplotypes from different parts of the world. No mammal samples yielded detectable DNA of Piroplasmorida agents. On the other hand, the Anaplasmataceae-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay amplified a sequence 100% identical to the Wolbachia pipientis endosymbiont of the rodent filarid Litomosoides galizai.

CONCLUSIONS: We report a variety of Hepatozoon haplotypes associated with small mammals in three Brazilian biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and Pantanal. Through phylogenetic analyses, the Hepatozoon agents grouped in the rodent-marsupial-reptile large clade of Hepatozoon spp. from the world. The detection of a W. pipientis associated with the rodent filarid L. galizai indicates that the rodent was infected by filarial nematodes.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Ndiaye EHI, Diatta G, Diarra AZ, et al (2022)

Morphological, Molecular and MALDI-TOF MS Identification of Bedbugs and Associated Wolbachia Species in Rural Senegal.

Journal of medical entomology, 59(3):1019-1032.

Bed bugs are known to carry several microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of bed bug infestation in two rural areas of Senegal and determine the species present in the population. A screening was conducted to detect some arthropod associated pathogenic bacteria in bed bugs and to evaluate the prevalence of endosymbiont carriage. One survey took place in 17 villages in Niakhar and two surveys in Dielmo and Ndiop and surroundings area in the same 20 villages. Bed bugs collected were identified morphologically and by MALDI-TOF MS tools. Microorganisms screening was performed by qPCR and confirmed by sequencing. During the survey in the Niakhar region, only one household 1/255 (0.4%) in the village of Ngayokhem was found infested by bed bugs. In a monitoring survey of the surroundings of Dielmo and Ndiop area, high prevalence was found during the two rounds of surveys in 65/314 (21%) in 16/20 villages (January-March) and 93/351 (26%) in 19/20 villages (December). All bed bugs were morphologically identified as the species Cimex hemipterus, of which 285/1,637 (17%) were randomly selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis and bacteria screening. Among the Bacteria tested only Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) DNA was found in 248/276 (90%) of the bedbugs. We briefly describe a high level of non-generalized bed bug infestation in rural Senegal and the diversity of Wolbachia strains carried by C. hemipterus. This study opens perspectives for raising household awareness of bed bug infestations and possibilities for appropriate control.

RevDate: 2022-03-16

Bermúdez C SE, Félix ML, Domínguez A L, et al (2021)

Molecular screening for tick-borne bacteria and hematozoa in Ixodes cf. boliviensis and Ixodes tapirus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) from western highlands of Panama.

Current research in parasitology & vector-borne diseases, 1:100034.

The first molecular screening for Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Borrelia, Babesia and Hepatozoon was carried out in questing Ixodes cf. boliviensis and Ixodes tapirus from Talamanca Mountains, Panama, using specific primers, sequencing and phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses for the microorganisms in Ixodes cf. boliviensis confirmed the presence of Rickettsia sp. strain IbR/CRC endosymbiont (26/27 ticks), three genotypes of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex (4/27 ticks), Babesia odocoilei (1/27 ticks), and Hepatozoon sp. (2/27 ticks), tentatively designated Hepatozoon sp. strain Chiriquensis. Phylogenetic analyses for the microorganisms in I. tapirus revealed an undescribed Rickettsia sp., tentatively designated Rickettsia sp. strain Itapirus LQ (6/6 ticks), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2/6 ticks). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) complex, A. phagocytophilum, B. odocoilei, and Hepatozoon sp. in Ixodes ticks from Central America, and also the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes species in Panama. In light of the importance of these findings, further studies are needed focusing on the role of I. tapirus and I. cf. boliviensis as vectors, and the vertebrates acting as reservoirs.

RevDate: 2022-03-16

Lefoulon E, McMullen JG, SP Stock (2022)

Transcriptomic Analysis of Steinernema Nematodes Highlights Metabolic Costs Associated to Xenorhabdus Endosymbiont Association and Rearing Conditions.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:821845.

Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema have a mutualistic relationship with bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus and together they form an antagonist partnership against their insect hosts. The nematodes (third-stage infective juveniles, or IJs) protect the bacteria from the external environmental stressors and vector them from one insect host to another. Xenorhabdus produce secondary metabolites and antimicrobial compounds inside the insect that protect the cadaver from soil saprobes and scavengers. The bacteria also become the nematodes' food, allowing them to grow and reproduce. Despite these benefits, it is yet unclear what the potential metabolic costs for Steinernema IJs are relative to the maintenance and vectoring of Xenorhabdus. In this study, we performed a comparative dual RNA-seq analysis of IJs of two nematode-bacteria partnerships: Steinernema carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus nematophila and Steinernema. puntauvense-Xenorhbdus bovienii. For each association, three conditions were studied: (1) IJs reared in the insect (in vivo colonized), (2) colonized IJs reared on liver-kidney agar (in vitro colonized), and (3) IJs depleted by the bacteria reared on liver-kidney agar (in vitro aposymbiotic). Our study revealed the downregulation of numerous genes involved in metabolism pathways, such as carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism when IJs were reared in vitro, both colonized and without the symbiont. This downregulation appears to impact the longevity pathway, with the involvement of glycogen and trehalose metabolism, as well as arginine metabolism. Additionally, a differential expression of the venom protein known to be secreted by the nematodes was observed when both Steinernema species were depleted of their symbiotic partners. These results suggest Steinernema IJs may have a mechanism to adapt their virulence in absence of their symbionts.

RevDate: 2022-03-14

Qin M, Chen J, Jiang L, et al (2022)

Insights Into the Species-Specific Microbiota of Greenideinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) With Evidence of Phylosymbiosis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:828170.

Aphids and their symbionts represent an outstanding model for studies of insect-symbiont interactions. The aphid microbiota can be shaped by aphid species, geography and host plants. However, the relative importance of phylogenetic and ecological factors in shaping microbial community structures is not well understood. Using Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, we characterized the microbial compositions of 215 aphid colonies representing 53 species of the aphid subfamily Greenideinae from different regions and plants in China, Nepal, and Vietnam. The primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola and secondary symbiont Serratia symbiotica dominated the microbiota of Greenideinae. We simultaneously explored the relative contribution of host identity (i.e., aphid genus and aphid species), geography and host plant to the structures of bacterial, symbiont and secondary symbiont communities. Ordination analyses and statistical tests highlighted the strongest impact of aphid species on the microbial flora in Greenideinae. Furthermore, we found a phylosymbiosis pattern in natural Greenideinae populations, in which the aphid phylogeny was positively correlated with microbial community dissimilarities. These findings will advance our knowledge of host-associated microbiota assembly across both host phylogenetic and ecological contexts.

RevDate: 2022-04-08

Mao B, Zhang W, Zheng Y, et al (2022)

Comparative phosphoproteomics reveal new candidates in the regulation of spermatogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster.

Insect science [Epub ahead of print].

The most common phenotype induced by the endosymbiont Wolbachia in insects is cytoplasmic incompatibility, where none or fewer progenies can be produced when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. This suggests that some modifications are induced in host sperms during spermatogenesis by Wolbachia. To identify the proteins whose phosphorylation states play essential roles in male reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic strategy combined with titanium dioxide (TiO2) enrichment to compare the phosphoproteome of Wolbachia-infected with that of uninfected male reproductive systems in D. melanogaster. We identified 182 phosphopeptides, defining 140 phosphoproteins, that have at least a 1.2 fold change in abundance with a P-value of <0.05. Most of the differentially abundant phosphoproteins (DAPPs) were associated with microtubule cytoskeleton organization and spermatid differentiation. The DAPPs included proteins already known to be associated with spermatogenesis, as well as many not previously studied during this process. Six genes coding for DAPPs were knocked down, respectively, in Wolbachia-free fly testes. Among them, Slmap knockdown caused the most severe damage in spermatogenesis, with no mature sperm observed in seminal vesicles. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the formation of individualization complex composed of actin cones was completely disrupted. These results suggest that Wolbachia may induce wide changes in the abundance of phosphorylated proteins which are closely related to male reproduction. By identifying phospho-modulated proteins we also provide a significant candidate set for future studies on their roles in spermatogenesis.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Matthews ML, Covey HO, Drolet BS, et al (2022)

Wolbachia wAlbB inhibits bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic fever viruses in Culicoides midge cells.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Culicoides midges are hematophagous insects that transmit arboviruses of veterinary importance. These viruses include bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic fever virus (EHDV). The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis Hertig spreads rapidly through insect host populations and has been demonstrated to inhibit viral pathogen transmission in multiple mosquito vectors. Here, we have demonstrated a replication inhibitory effect on BTV and EHDV in a Wolbachia (wAlbB strain)-infected Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones W8 cell line. Viral replication was significantly reduced by day 5 for BTV and by day 2 for EHDV as detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) of the non-structural NS3 gene of both viruses. Evaluation of innate cellular immune responses as a cause of the inhibitory effect showed responses associated with BTV but not with EHDV infection. Wolbachia density also did not play a role in the observed pathogen inhibitory effects, and an alternative hypothesis is suggested. Applications of Wolbachia-mediated pathogen interference to impact disease transmission by Culicoides midges are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Tang J, Cai W, Yan Z, et al (2022)

Interactive effects of acidification and copper exposure on the reproduction and metabolism of coral endosymbiont Cladocopium goreaui.

Marine pollution bulletin, 177:113508.

Ocean acidification resulting from increased CO2 and pollution from land-sourced toxicants such as copper have been linked to coral cover declines in coastal reef ecosystems. The impacts of ocean acidification and copper pollution on corals have been intensively investigated, whereas research on their effects on coral endosymbiont Symbiodiniaceae is limited. In this study, reproduction, photosynthetic parameters, nutrient accumulation and metabolome of Symbiodiniaceae Cladocopium goreaui were investigated after a weeklong treatment with acute CO2-induced acidification and copper ion. Acidification promoted algal reproduction through increased nutrients assimilation, upregulated citrate cycle and biomolecular biosynthesis pathway, while copper exposure repressed algal reproduction through toxic effects. The combined acidification and copper exposure caused the same decline in algal reproduction as copper exposure alone, but the upregulation of pentose phosphate pathway and the downregulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. These results suggest that copper pollution could override the positive effects of acidification on the symbiodiniacean reproduction.

RevDate: 2022-03-08

Roquis D, Cosseau C, Brener Raffalli K, et al (2021)

The tropical coral Pocillopora acuta displays an unusual chromatin structure and shows histone H3 clipping plasticity upon bleaching.

Wellcome open research, 6:195.

Background: Pocillopora acuta is a hermatypic coral with strong ecological importance. Anthropogenic disturbances and global warming are major threats that can induce coral bleaching, the disruption of the mutualistic symbiosis between the coral host and its endosymbiotic algae. Previous works have shown that somaclonal colonies display different levels of survival depending on the environmental conditions they previously faced. Epigenetic mechanisms are good candidates to explain this phenomenon. However, almost no work had been published on the P. acuta epigenome, especially on histone modifications. In this study, we aim at providing the first insight into chromatin structure of this species. Methods: We aligned the amino acid sequence of P. acuta core histones with histone sequences from various phyla. We developed a centri-filtration on sucrose gradient to separate chromatin from the host and the symbiont. The presence of histone H3 protein and specific histone modifications were then detected by western blot performed on histone extraction done from bleached and healthy corals. Finally, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestions were undertaken to study nucleosomal organization. Results: The centri-filtration enabled coral chromatin isolation with less than 2% of contamination by endosymbiont material. Histone sequences alignments with other species show that P. acuta displays on average ~90% of sequence similarities with mice and ~96% with other corals. H3 detection by western blot showed that H3 is clipped in healthy corals while it appeared to be intact in bleached corals. MNase treatment failed to provide the usual mononucleosomal digestion, a feature shared with some cnidarian, but not all; suggesting an unusual chromatin structure. Conclusions: These results provide a first insight into the chromatin, nucleosome and histone structure of P. acuta. The unusual patterns highlighted in this study and partly shared with other cnidarian will need to be further studied to better understand its role in corals.

RevDate: 2022-03-26

Gabr A, Stephens TG, D Bhattacharya (2022)

Hypothesis: Trans-splicing Generates Evolutionary Novelty in the Photosynthetic Amoeba Paulinella.

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

Plastid primary endosymbiosis has occurred twice, once in the Archaeplastida ancestor and once in the Paulinella (Rhizaria) lineage. Both events precipitated massive evolutionary changes, including the recruitment and activation of genes that are horizontally acquired (HGT) and the redeployment of existing genes and pathways in novel contexts. Here we address the latter aspect in Paulinella micropora KR01 (hereafter, KR01) that has independently evolved spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing (SLTS) of nuclear-derived transcripts. We investigated the role of this process in gene regulation, novel gene origination, and endosymbiont integration. Our analysis shows that 20% of KR01 genes give rise to transcripts with at least one (but in some cases, multiple) sites of SL addition. This process, which often occurs at canonical cis-splicing acceptor sites (internal introns), results in shorter transcripts that may produce 5'-truncated proteins with novel functions. SL-truncated transcripts fall into four categories that may show: (i) altered protein localization, (ii) altered protein function, structure, or regulation, (iii) loss of valid alternative start codons, preventing translation, or (iv) multiple SL addition sites at the 5'-terminus. The SL RNA genes required for SLTS are putatively absent in the heterotrophic sister lineage of photosynthetic Paulinella species. Moreover, a high proportion of transcripts derived from genes of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) and HGT origin contain SL sequences. We hypothesize that truncation of transcripts by SL addition may facilitate the generation and expression of novel gene variants and that SLTS may have enhanced the activation and fixation of foreign genes in the host genome of the photosynthetic lineages, playing a key role in primary endosymbiont integration.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Pawar MM, Shivanna B, Prasannakumar MK, et al (2022)

Spatial distribution and community structure of microbiota associated with cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch).

3 Biotech, 12(3):75.

Aphid populations were collected on cowpea, dolichos, redgram and black gram from Belagavi and Udupi locations. The samples were shotgun sequenced using the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system to understand the spatial distribution and community structure of microbiota (especially bacteria) associated with aphids. In the present study, we identified obligatory nutritional symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and facultative symbionts Rickettsia sp. and Bacteroidetes endosymbiont of Geopemphigus sp. in all the aphid samples studied, although in varied abundance. On the other hand, Serratia symbiotica, Arsenophonus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were only found in aphids on specific host plants, suggesting that host plants might influence the bacterial community structure. Furthermore, our study revealed that microbiota other than bacteria were highly insignificant in the aphid populations. Additionally, functional annotation of aphid metagenomes identified several pathways and enzymes involved in various physiological and ecological functions. Amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis-related pathways were predominant than carbohydrate metabolism, owing to their feeding habit and nutritional requirement. Chaperones related to stress tolerance such as GroEL and DnaK were identified. Enzymes involved in toxic chemical metabolisms such as glutathione transferase, phosphodiesterases and ABC transferases were observed. These enzymes may confer resistance to pesticides in the aphid populations. Overall, our results support the importance of host plants in structuring bacterial communities in aphids and show the functional roles of symbionts in aphid survival and development. Thus, these findings can be the basis for further detailed investigations and devising better strategies to manage the pests in field conditions.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03142-1.

RevDate: 2022-03-18
CmpDate: 2022-03-08

Hammoud A, Louni M, Missé D, et al (2022)

Phylogenetic relationship between the endosymbiont "Candidatus Riesia pediculicola" and its human louse host.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):73.

BACKGROUND: The human louse (Pediculus humanus) is a haematophagous ectoparasite that is intimately related to its host. It has been of great public health concern throughout human history. This louse has been classified into six divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, F, C and E). As with all haematophagous lice, P. humanus directly depends on the presence of a bacterial symbiont, known as "Candidatus Riesia pediculicola", to complement their unbalanced diet. In this study, we evaluated the codivergence of human lice around the world and their endosymbiotic bacteria. Using molecular approaches, we targeted lice mitochondrial genes from the six diverged clades and Candidatus Riesia pediculicola housekeeping genes.

METHODS: The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) of lice was selected for molecular analysis, with the aim to identify louse clade. In parallel, we developed four PCR primer pairs targeting three housekeeping genes of Candidatus Riesia pediculicola: ftsZ, groEL and two regions of the rpoB gene (rpoB-1 and rpoB-2).

RESULTS: The endosymbiont phylogeny perfectly mirrored the host insect phylogeny using the ftsZ and rpoB-2 genes, in addition to showing a significant co-phylogenetic congruence, suggesting a strict vertical transmission and a host-symbiont co-speciation following the evolutionary course of the human louse.

CONCLUSION: Our results unequivocally indicate that louse endosymbionts have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endosymbiotic bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-04-19
CmpDate: 2022-04-19

Bojko J, McCoy KA, AMH Blakeslee (2022)

'Candidatus Mellornella promiscua' n. gen. n. sp. (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): An intracytoplasmic, hepatopancreatic, pathogen of the flatback mud crab, Eurypanopeus depressus.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 190:107737.

Bacterial pathogens are a long-standing threat to the longevity and survival of crustacean hosts. Their presence and continuing emergence require close monitoring to understand their impact on fished, cultured, and wild crustacean populations. We describe a new bacterial pathogen belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales), providing pathological, ultrastructural, phylogenetic, and genomic evidence to determine a candidate genus and species ('Candidatus Mellornella promiscua'). This bacterium was found to infect the mud crab, Eurypanopeus depressus, on the North Carolina coastline (USA) at a prevalence of 10.8%. 'Candidatus Mellornella promiscua' was often observed in co-infection with the rhizocephalan barnacle, Loxothylacus panopaei. The bacterium was only found in the hepatopancreas of the mud crab host, causing cytoplasmic hypertrophy, tubule necrosis, large plaques within the cytoplasm of the host cell, and an abundance of sex-pili. The circular genome of the bacterium is 1,013,119 bp and encodes 939 genes in total. Phylogenetically, the new bacterium branches within the Anaplasmataceae. The genome is dissimilar from other described bacteria, with 16S gene similarity observed at a maximum of 85.3% to a Wolbachia endosymbiont. We explore this novel bacterial pathogen using genomic, phylogenetic, ultrastructural, and pathological methods, discussing these results in light of current bacterial taxonomy, similarity to other bacterial pathogens, and the potential impact upon the surrounding disease ecology of the host and benthic ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-05-07
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Marinov GK, Chen X, Wu T, et al (2022)

The chromatin organization of a chlorarachniophyte nucleomorph genome.

Genome biology, 23(1):65.

BACKGROUND: Nucleomorphs are remnants of secondary endosymbiotic events between two eukaryote cells wherein the endosymbiont has retained its eukaryotic nucleus. Nucleomorphs have evolved at least twice independently, in chlorarachniophytes and cryptophytes, yet they have converged on a remarkably similar genomic architecture, characterized by the most extreme compression and miniaturization among all known eukaryotic genomes. Previous computational studies have suggested that nucleomorph chromatin likely exhibits a number of divergent features.

RESULTS: In this work, we provide the first maps of open chromatin, active transcription, and three-dimensional organization for the nucleomorph genome of the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. We find that the B. natans nucleomorph genome exists in a highly accessible state, akin to that of ribosomal DNA in some other eukaryotes, and that it is highly transcribed over its entire length, with few signs of polymerase pausing at transcription start sites (TSSs). At the same time, most nucleomorph TSSs show very strong nucleosome positioning. Chromosome conformation (Hi-C) maps reveal that nucleomorph chromosomes interact with one other at their telomeric regions and show the relative contact frequencies between the multiple genomic compartments of distinct origin that B. natans cells contain.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first study of a nucleomorph genome using modern functional genomic tools, and derive numerous novel insights into the physical and functional organization of these unique genomes.

RevDate: 2022-04-08
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Ashraf HJ, Ramos Aguila LC, Akutse KS, et al (2022)

Comparative microbiome analysis of Diaphorina citri and its associated parasitoids Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis reveals Wolbachia as a dominant endosymbiont.

Environmental microbiology, 24(3):1638-1652.

Microbiome analysis in a host-parasitoid interaction network was conducted to compare the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities of Diaphornia citri, Tamarixia radiata, and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis. The comparative analysis revealed differences in the composition and diversity of the symbiont populations across the host and its associated parasitoids. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum, representing 67.80% of the total bacterial community, while Candidatus Profftella armature and Wolbachia were the dominant genera across the host and parasitoids. There were clear differences observed in alpha and beta diversity of microbiota through the host and its associated parasitoids. The function prediction of bacterial communities and Pearson correlation analysis showed that specific bacterial communities displayed positive correlations with the carbohydrate metabolism pathway. Furthermore, when symbiotic bacteria were eliminated using a broad-spectrum antibiotic, tetracycline hydrochloride, the parasitoids' median survival time and longevity were significantly reduced. We confirmed the physiological effects of symbiotic bacteria on the fitness of parasitoids and demonstrated the effect of antibiotics in decreasing the food intake and measurement of amino acids in the hemolymph. This study sheds light on basic information about the mutualism between parasitoids and bacteria, which may be a potential source for biocontrol strategies for citrus psyllid, especially D. citri.

RevDate: 2022-03-01

Cotinat P, Fricano C, Toullec G, et al (2022)

Intrinsically High Capacity of Animal Cells From a Symbiotic Cnidarian to Deal With Pro-Oxidative Conditions.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:819111.

The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is a mutualistic intracellular association based on the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbiont. This relationship involves significant constraints and requires co-evolution processes, such as an extensive capacity of the holobiont to counteract pro-oxidative conditions induced by hyperoxia generated during photosynthesis. In this study, we analyzed the capacity of Anemonia viridis cells to deal with pro-oxidative conditions by in vivo and in vitro approaches. Whole specimens and animal primary cell cultures were submitted to 200 and 500 μM of H2O2 during 7 days. Then, we monitored global health parameters (symbiotic state, viability, and cell growth) and stress biomarkers (global antioxidant capacity, oxidative protein damages, and protein ubiquitination). In animal primary cell cultures, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were also evaluated under H2O2 treatments. At the whole organism scale, both H2O2 concentrations didn't affect the survival and animal tissues exhibited a high resistance to H2O2 treatments. Moreover, no bleaching has been observed, even at high H2O2 concentration and after long exposure (7 days). Although, the community has suggested the role of ROS as the cause of bleaching, our results indicating the absence of bleaching under high H2O2 concentration may exculpate this specific ROS from being involved in the molecular processes inducing bleaching. However, counterintuitively, the symbiont compartment appeared sensitive to an H2O2 burst as it displayed oxidative protein damages, despite an enhancement of antioxidant capacity. The in vitro assays allowed highlighting an intrinsic high capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with pro-oxidative conditions, although we observed differences on tolerance between H2O2 treatments. The 200 μM H2O2 concentration appeared to correspond to the tolerance threshold of animal cells. Indeed, no disequilibrium on redox state was observed and only a cell growth decrease was measured. Contrarily, the 500 μM H2O2 concentration induced a stress state, characterized by a cell viability decrease from 1 day and a drastic cell growth arrest after 7 days leading to an uncomplete recovery after treatment. In conclusion, this study highlights the overall high capacity of cnidarian cells to cope with H2O2 and opens new perspective to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this peculiar resistance.

RevDate: 2022-03-05

Kumar D, Downs LP, Adegoke A, et al (2022)

An Exploratory Study on the Microbiome of Northern and Southern Populations of Ixodes scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes and Unique Bacterial Interactions.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(2):.

The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America. However, the prevalence of Lyme borreliosis is clustered around the Northern States of the United States of America. This study utilized a metagenomic sequencing approach to compare the microbial communities residing within Ix. scapularis populations from northern and southern geographic locations in the USA. Using a SparCC network construction model, we performed potential interactions between members of the microbial communities from Borrelia burgdorferi-infected tissues of unfed and blood-fed ticks. A significant difference in bacterial composition and diversity was found between northern and southern tick populations. The network analysis predicted a potential antagonistic interaction between endosymbiont Rickettsia buchneri and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The network analysis, as expected, predicted significant positive and negative microbial interactions in ticks from these geographic regions, with the genus Rickettsia, Francisella, and Borreliella playing an essential role in the identified clusters. Interactions between Rickettsia buchneri and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato need more validation and understanding. Understanding the interplay between the microbiome and tick-borne pathogens within tick vectors may pave the way for new strategies to prevent tick-borne infections.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Gabr A, Zournas A, Stephens TG, et al (2022)

Evidence for a robust photosystem II in the photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella.

The New phytologist, 234(3):934-945.

Paulinella represents the only known case of an independent primary plastid endosymbiosis, outside Archaeplastida, that occurred c. 120 (million years ago) Ma. These photoautotrophs grow very slowly in replete culture medium with a doubling time of 6-7 d at optimal low light, and are highly sensitive to photodamage under moderate light levels. We used genomic and biophysical methods to investigate the extreme slow growth rate and light sensitivity of Paulinella, which are key to photosymbiont integration. All photosystem II (PSII) genes except psb28-2 and all cytochrome b6 f complex genes except petM and petL are present in Paulinella micropora KR01 (hereafter, KR01). Biophysical measurements of the water oxidation complex, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthesis-irradiance curves show no obvious evidence of PSII impairment. Analysis of photoacclimation under high-light suggests that although KR01 can perform charge separation, it lacks photoprotection mechanisms present in cyanobacteria. We hypothesize that Paulinella species are restricted to low light environments because they are deficient in mitigating the formation of reactive oxygen species formed within the photosystems under peak solar intensities. The finding that many photoprotection genes have been lost or transferred to the host-genome during endosymbiont genome reduction, and may lack light-regulation, is consistent with this hypothesis.

RevDate: 2022-03-01

Latorre A, Domínguez-Santos R, García-Ferris C, et al (2022)

Of Cockroaches and Symbionts: Recent Advances in the Characterization of the Relationship between Blattella germanica and Its Dual Symbiotic System.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2):.

Mutualistic stable symbioses are widespread in all groups of eukaryotes, especially in insects, where symbionts have played an essential role in their evolution. Many insects live in obligate relationship with different ecto- and endosymbiotic bacteria, which are needed to maintain their hosts' fitness in their natural environment, to the point of even relying on them for survival. The case of cockroaches (Blattodea) is paradigmatic, as both symbiotic systems coexist in the same organism in two separated compartments: an intracellular endosymbiont (Blattabacterium) inside bacteriocytes located in the fat body, and a rich and complex microbiota in the hindgut. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is a good model for the study of symbiotic interactions, as it can be maintained in the laboratory in controlled populations, allowing the perturbations of the two symbiotic systems in order to study the communication and integration of the tripartite organization of the host-endosymbiont-microbiota, and to evaluate the role of symbiotic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in host control over their symbionts. The importance of cockroaches as reservoirs and transmission vectors of antibiotic resistance sequences, and their putative interest to search for AMPs to deal with the problem, is also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-04-12
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Dos Santos DL, Virginio VG, Berté FK, et al (2022)

Clinical and molecular diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in contact lens wearers in southern Brazil reveals the presence of an endosymbiont.

Parasitology research, 121(5):1447-1454.

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an infection that is mostly observed in contact lens wearers. It is often misdiagnosed causing delays in the administration of the correct treatment. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of clinical and molecular diagnosis of AK cases during the summer of 2019 in the southern region of Brazil. Three suspected cases of AK were discovered after an ophthalmic examination at a public hospital in the city of Porto Alegre. These cases were then confirmed through laboratory diagnosis (cell culture and molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing). In each of the three clinical sample cell cultures of corneal scraping and molecular analysis confirmed the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., all belonging to the morphological group II and to the genotype T4, which is the most common genotype associated with AK. In addition, Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from one of the clinical samples was found to harbor the Candidatus Paracaedibacter acanthamoeba, a bacterial endosymbiont. The presence of Ca. Paracaedibacter acanthamoeba in clinical isolates requires further research to reveal its possible role in the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba infections.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Detcharoen M, A Nilsai (2022)

Low Endosymbiont Incidence in Drosophila Species Across Peninsula Thailand.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Arthropods are known to harbor several endosymbionts, such as Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and Wolbachia. Wolbachia, for example, are the most widespread known endosymbionts in the world, which are found in about half of all arthropod species. To increase their transmission, these endosymbionts must manipulate their hosts in several ways such as cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. In tropical regions, endosymbiont diversity has not been studied exhaustively. Here, we checked four endosymbionts, including Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and Wolbachia, in eleven Drosophila species found in Thai Peninsula. The Wolbachia strain wRi-like was found in all populations of Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila simulans. Furthermore, we found two new strains, wMalA and wMalB, in two populations of Drosophila malerkotliana. Besides Wolbachia, we did not find any of the above endosymbionts in all fly species. This work reveals the hidden diversity of endosymbionts in Drosophila and is the first exhaustive study on Drosophila in the region.

RevDate: 2022-03-04

Gharabigloozare Y, Wähling A, C Bleidorn (2022)

Whole-Genome Sequence of the Wolbachia Strain wTcon, an Endosymbiont of the Confused Flour Beetle, Tribolium confusum.

Microbiology resource announcements, 11(2):e0114421.

Up to 60% of insects are infected with symbiont intracellular alphaproteobacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which are often able to manipulate their host's reproduction. Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequence of strain wTcon from the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, based on long- and short-read sequence data. The assembled genome is located on 12 contigs with a total size of 1,418,452 bp.

RevDate: 2022-05-04

Gagalova KK, Whitehill JGA, Culibrk L, et al (2022)

The genome of the forest insect pest Pissodes strobi reveals genome expansion and evidence of a Wolbachia endosymbiont.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.), 12(4):.

The highly diverse insect family of true weevils, Curculionidae, includes many agricultural and forest pests. Pissodes strobi, commonly known as the spruce weevil or white pine weevil, is a major pest of spruce and pine forests in North America. Pissodes strobi larvae feed on the apical shoots of young trees, causing stunted growth and can destroy regenerating spruce or pine forests. Here, we describe the nuclear and mitochondrial Pissodes strobi genomes and their annotations, as well as the genome of an apparent Wolbachia endosymbiont. We report a substantial expansion of the weevil nuclear genome, relative to other Curculionidae species, possibly driven by an abundance of class II DNA transposons. The endosymbiont observed belongs to a group (supergroup A) of Wolbachia species that generally form parasitic relationships with their arthropod host.

RevDate: 2022-03-10
CmpDate: 2022-03-10

Fish M, Nash D, German A, et al (2022)

New Insights into the Chloroplast Outer Membrane Proteome and Associated Targeting Pathways.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(3):.

Plastids are a dynamic class of organelle in plant cells that arose from an ancient cyanobacterial endosymbiont. Over the course of evolution, most genes encoding plastid proteins were transferred to the nuclear genome. In parallel, eukaryotic cells evolved a series of targeting pathways and complex proteinaceous machinery at the plastid surface to direct these proteins back to their target organelle. Chloroplasts are the most well-characterized plastids, responsible for photosynthesis and other important metabolic functions. The biogenesis and function of chloroplasts rely heavily on the fidelity of intracellular protein trafficking pathways. Therefore, understanding these pathways and their regulation is essential. Furthermore, the chloroplast outer membrane proteome remains relatively uncharted territory in our understanding of protein targeting. Many key players in the cytosol, receptors at the organelle surface, and insertases that facilitate insertion into the chloroplast outer membrane remain elusive for this group of proteins. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of well-characterized chloroplast outer membrane protein targeting pathways as well as provide new insights into novel targeting signals and pathways more recently identified using a bioinformatic approach. As a result of our analyses, we expand the known number of chloroplast outer membrane proteins from 117 to 138.

RevDate: 2022-03-14
CmpDate: 2022-03-14

Bueno E, Mania D, Mesa S, et al (2022)

Regulation of the Emissions of the Greenhouse Gas Nitrous Oxide by the Soybean Endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(3):.

The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) has strong potential to drive climate change. Soils are a major source of N2O, with microbial nitrification and denitrification being the primary processes involved in such emissions. The soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a model microorganism to study denitrification, a process that depends on a set of reductases, encoded by the napEDABC, nirK, norCBQD, and nosRZDYFLX genes, which sequentially reduce nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), N2O, and dinitrogen (N2). In this bacterium, the regulatory network and environmental cues governing the expression of denitrification genes rely on the FixK2 and NnrR transcriptional regulators. To understand the role of FixK2 and NnrR proteins in N2O turnover, we monitored real-time kinetics of NO3-, NO2-, NO, N2O, N2, and oxygen (O2) in a fixK2 and nnrR mutant using a robotized incubation system. We confirmed that FixK2 and NnrR are regulatory determinants essential for NO3- respiration and N2O reduction. Furthermore, we demonstrated that N2O reduction by B. diazoefficiens is independent of canonical inducers of denitrification, such as the nitrogen oxide NO3-, and it is negatively affected by acidic and alkaline conditions. These findings advance the understanding of how specific environmental conditions and two single regulators modulate N2O turnover in B. diazoefficiens.

RevDate: 2022-03-04
CmpDate: 2022-03-04

Skinner KM, Underwood J, Ghosh A, et al (2022)

Wolbachia Impacts Anaplasma Infection in Ixodes scapularis Tick Cells.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(3):.

The specific interactions of members of tick bacterial microbiota and their effects on pathogen transmission remains relatively unexplored. Here, we introduced a novel Wolbachia infection type into Ixodes scapularis tick cells and examined the antipathogenic effects on the intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. An increase in A. phagocytophilum replication was observed in Wolbachia-infected tick cells. However, Wolbachia infection densities decreased when cells were serially passaged and ultimately the infection was lost. Host-cell immune response was also examined as an additional factor that could have affected A. phagocytophilum replication in Wolbachia-infected cells. In early passages post-Wolbachia infection, a decreased immune response was observed, but in later passages of cells with low Wolbachia densities, there was no change in the immune response. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of studying the interactions of the tick microbiota, the host cell, and the pathogen and the development of novel tick and tick-borne disease-control approaches.

RevDate: 2022-04-11
CmpDate: 2022-04-11

Itabangi H, Sephton-Clark PCS, Tamayo DP, et al (2022)

A bacterial endosymbiont of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus drives phagocyte evasion and opportunistic virulence.

Current biology : CB, 32(5):1115-1130.e6.

Opportunistic infections by environmental fungi are a growing clinical problem, driven by an increasing population of people with immunocompromising conditions. Spores of the Mucorales order are ubiquitous in the environment but can also cause acute invasive infections in humans through germination and evasion of the mammalian host immune system. How they achieve this and the evolutionary drivers underlying the acquisition of virulence mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that a clinical isolate of Rhizopus microsporus contains a Ralstonia pickettii bacterial endosymbiont required for virulence in both zebrafish and mice and that this endosymbiosis enables the secretion of factors that potently suppress growth of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, as well as their ability to engulf and kill other microbes. As amoebas are natural environmental predators of both bacteria and fungi, we propose that this tri-kingdom interaction contributes to establishing endosymbiosis and the acquisition of anti-phagocyte activity. Importantly, we show that this activity also protects fungal spores from phagocytosis and clearance by human macrophages, and endosymbiont removal renders the fungal spores avirulent in vivo. Together, these findings describe a new role for a bacterial endosymbiont in Rhizopus microsporus pathogenesis in animals and suggest a mechanism of virulence acquisition through environmental interactions with amoebas.

RevDate: 2022-02-15

Chang CY, Sun XW, Tian PP, et al (2022)

Plant secondary metabolite and temperature determine the prevalence of Arsenophonus endosymbionts in aphid populations.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Transmission rate and role in hosts contribute to the prevalence of an endosymbiont. However, factors affecting transmission and role of facultative endosymbionts are still not well understood. Here, we illustrated that host plants and environmental temperatures affected the transmission, relative abundance and role of Arsenophonus in the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii. The transmission rate of this endosymbiont from mother aphids to offspring was relatively lower. High temperatures impeded the transmission, and infection rates declined as aphids were exposed to 30°C. Contents of amino acids and secondary metabolites were remarkably different among host plants. Aphids feeding on zucchini leaves containing a higher titre of amino acids and lower secondary metabolites harboured a relatively lower abundance of Arsenophonus. Concentrations of an amino acid and a plant secondary metabolite, cucurbitacin B, in aphid diet were not associated with Arsenophonus abundance. However, gossypol, another plant secondary metabolite, was strongly related with the abundance. Arsenophonus imparted a fitness benefit to aphids, and the benefit was dependent on host plants and gossypol concentration. In sum, plant secondary metabolite and environmental temperature affect transmission, relative abundance and role of Arsenophonus, which determine the endosymbiont prevalence in aphid populations.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Kaech H, Jud S, C Vorburger (2022)

Similar cost of Hamiltonella defensa in experimental and natural aphid-endosymbiont associations.

Ecology and evolution, 12(1):e8551.

Endosymbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids is common in aphids, but comes at a cost to the host in the absence of parasitoids. In black bean aphids (Aphis fabae), costs in terms of reduced lifespan and lifetime reproduction were demonstrated by introducing 11 isolates of the protective symbiont Hamiltonella defensa into previously uninfected aphid clones. Transfection of H. defensa isolates into a common genetic background allows to compare the costs of different endosymbiont isolates unconfounded by host genetic variation, but has been suggested to overestimate the realized costs of the endosymbiont in natural populations, because transfection creates new and potentially maladapted host-symbiont combinations that would be eliminated by natural selection in the field. In this experiment, we show that removing H. defensa isolates from their natural host clones with antibiotics results in a fitness gain that is comparable to the fitness loss from their introduction into two new clones. This suggests that estimating cost by transfecting endosymbiont isolates into a shared host genotype does not lead to gross overestimates of their realized costs, at least not in the two recipient genotypes used here. By comparing our data with data reported in previous publications using the same lines, we show that symbiont-induced costs may fluctuate over time. Thus, costs estimated after extended culture in the laboratory may not always be representative of the costs at the time of collection in the field. Finally, we report the accidental observation that two isolates from a distinct haplotype of H. defensa could not be removed by cefotaxime treatment, while all isolates from two other haplotypes were readily eliminated, which is suggestive of variation in susceptibility to this antibiotic in H. defensa.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Markalanda SH, McFadden CJ, Cassidy ST, et al (2022)

The soil microbiome increases plant survival and modifies interactions with root endosymbionts in the field.

Ecology and evolution, 12(1):e8283.

Evidence is accumulating that the soil microbiome-the community of microorganisms living in soils-has a major effect on plant traits and fitness. However, most work to date has taken place under controlled laboratory conditions and has not experimentally disentangled the effect of the soil microbiome on plant performance from the effects of key endosymbiotic constituents. As a result, it is difficult to extrapolate from existing data to understand the role of the soil microbiome in natural plant populations. To address this gap, we performed a field experiment using the black medick Medicago lupulina to test how the soil microbiome influences plant performance and colonization by two root endosymbionts (the mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Ensifer spp. and the parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla) under natural conditions. We inoculated all plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and factorially manipulated the soil microbiome and nematode infection. We found that plants grown in microbe-depleted soil exhibit greater mortality, but that among the survivors, there was no effect of the soil microbiome on plant performance (shoot biomass, root biomass, or shoot-to-root ratio). The soil microbiome also impacted parasitic nematode infection and affected colonization by mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in a plant genotype-dependent manner, increasing colonization in some plant genotypes and decreasing it in others. Our results demonstrate the soil microbiome has complex effects on plant-endosymbiont interactions and may be critical for survival under natural conditions.

RevDate: 2022-04-19
CmpDate: 2022-03-14

Katlav A, Nguyen DT, Morrow JL, et al (2022)

Endosymbionts moderate constrained sex allocation in a haplodiploid thrips species in a temperature-sensitive way.

Heredity, 128(3):169-177.

Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that affect host fitness are common in nature. Some endosymbionts colonise host populations by reproductive manipulations (such as cytoplasmic incompatibility; CI) that increase the reproductive fitness of infected over uninfected females. Theory predicts that CI-inducing endosymbionts in haplodiploid hosts may also influence sex allocation, including in compatible crosses, however, empirical evidence for this is scarce. We examined the role of two common CI-inducing endosymbionts, Cardinium and Wolbachia, in the sex allocation of Pezothrips kellyanus, a haplodiploid thrips species with a split sex ratio. In this species, irrespective of infection status, some mated females are constrained to produce extremely male-biased broods, whereas other females produce extremely female-biased broods. We analysed brood sex ratio of females mated with males of the same infection status at two temperatures. We found that at 20 °C the frequency of constrained sex allocation in coinfected pairs was reduced by 27% when compared to uninfected pairs. However, at 25 °C the constrained sex allocation frequency increased and became similar between coinfected and uninfected pairs, resulting in more male-biased population sex ratios at the higher temperature. This temperature-dependent pattern occurred without changes in endosymbiont densities and compatibility. Our findings indicate that endosymbionts affect sex ratios of haplodiploid hosts beyond the commonly recognised reproductive manipulations by causing female-biased sex allocation in a temperature-dependent fashion. This may contribute to a higher transmission efficiency of CI-inducing endosymbionts and is consistent with previous models that predict that CI by itself is less efficient in driving endosymbiont invasions in haplodiploid hosts.

RevDate: 2022-03-10

Rodrigues LR, Zélé F, Santos I, et al (2022)

No evidence for the evolution of mating behavior in spider mites due to Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 76(3):623-635.

Arthropods are often infected with Wolbachia inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereby crosses between uninfected females and infected males yield unviable fertilized offspring. Although uninfected females benefit from avoiding mating with Wolbachia-infected males, this behavior is not always present in host populations and its evolution may hinge upon various factors. Here, we used spider mites to test whether CI could select for mate preference in uninfected females in absence of kin recognition. We found that uninfected females from several field-derived populations showed no preference for infected or uninfected males, nor evolved a preference after being exposed to CI for 12-15 generations by maintaining uninfected females with both infected and uninfected males (i.e., stable "infection polymorphism"). This suggests that Wolbachia-mediated mate choice evolution may require very specific conditions in spider mites. However, after experimental evolution, the copulation duration of Wolbachia-infected control males was significantly higher than that of uninfected control males, but not than that of uninfected males from the "infection polymorphism" regime. This result illustrates how gene flow may oppose Wolbachia-driven divergence between infected and uninfected hosts in natural populations.

RevDate: 2022-01-25

Cull B, Burkhardt NY, Wang XR, et al (2021)

The Ixodes scapularis Symbiont Rickettsia buchneri Inhibits Growth of Pathogenic Rickettsiaceae in Tick Cells: Implications for Vector Competence.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 8:748427.

Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of tick-borne pathogens in North America but notably does not transmit pathogenic Rickettsia species. This tick harbors the transovarially transmitted endosymbiont Rickettsia buchneri, which is widespread in I. scapularis populations, suggesting that it confers a selective advantage for tick survival such as providing essential nutrients. The R. buchneri genome includes genes with similarity to those involved in antibiotic synthesis. There are two gene clusters not found in other Rickettsiaceae, raising the possibility that these may be involved in excluding pathogenic bacteria from the tick. This study explored whether the R. buchneri antibiotic genes might exert antibiotic effects on pathogens associated with I. scapularis. Markedly reduced infectivity and replication of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, R. monacensis, and R. parkeri were observed in IRE11 tick cells hosting R. buchneri. Using a fluorescent plate reader assay to follow infection dynamics revealed that the presence of R. buchneri in tick cells, even at low infection rates, inhibited the growth of R. parkeri by 86-100% relative to R. buchneri-free cells. In contrast, presence of the low-pathogenic species R. amblyommatis or the endosymbiont R. peacockii only partially reduced the infection and replication of R. parkeri. Addition of host-cell free R. buchneri, cell lysate of R. buchneri-infected IRE11, or supernatant from R. buchneri-infected IRE11 cultures had no effect on R. parkeri infection and replication in IRE11, nor did these treatments show any antibiotic effect against non-obligate intracellular bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. However, lysate from R. buchneri-infected IRE11 challenged with R. parkeri showed some inhibitory effect on R. parkeri infection of treated IRE11, suggesting that challenge by pathogenic rickettsiae may induce the antibiotic effect of R. buchneri. This research suggests a potential role of the endosymbiont in preventing other rickettsiae from colonizing I. scapularis and/or being transmitted transovarially. The confirmation that the observed inhibition is linked to R. buchneri's antibiotic clusters requires further investigation but could have important implications for our understanding of rickettsial competition and vector competence of I. scapularis for rickettsiae.

RevDate: 2022-02-28
CmpDate: 2022-02-28

Hidayanti AK, Gazali A, Y Tagami (2022)

Effect of Quorum Sensing Inducers and Inhibitors on Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Induced by Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in American Serpentine Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae): Potential Tool for the Incompatible Insect Technique.

Journal of insect science (Online), 22(1):.

Agricultural crops around the world are attacked by approximately 3,000-10,000 species of pest insect. There is increasing interest in resolving this problem using environmentally friendly approaches. Wolbachia (Hertig), an insect endosymbiont, can modulate host reproduction and offspring sex through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). The incompatible insect technique (IIT) based on CI-Wolbachia is a promising biological control method. Previous studies have reported an association between CI and Wolbachia density, which may involve a quorum sensing (QS) mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of manipulating QS in Wolbachia using several chemicals including 3O-C12-HSL; C2HSL; spermidine (QS inducers), 4-phenylbutanoyl; and 4-NPO (QS inhibitors) on American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]), an agricultural pest. The results showed that inducing QS with 3O-C12-HSL decreased the proportion of hatched eggs and increased Wolbachia density, whereas QS inhibition with 4-phenylbutanoyl had the opposite effects. Thus, manipulating QS in Wolbachia can alter cell density and the proportion of hatched eggs in the host L. trifolii, thereby reducing the number of insect progeny. These findings provide evidence supporting the potential efficacy of the IIT based on CI-Wolbachia for the environmentally friendly control of insect pest populations.

RevDate: 2022-01-28

Oborník M (2022)

Organellar Evolution: A Path from Benefit to Dependence.

Microorganisms, 10(1):.

Eukaryotic organelles supposedly evolved from their bacterial ancestors because of their benefits to host cells. However, organelles are quite often retained, even when the beneficial metabolic pathway is lost, due to something other than the original beneficial function. The organellar function essential for cell survival is, in the end, the result of organellar evolution, particularly losses of redundant metabolic pathways present in both the host and endosymbiont, followed by a gradual distribution of metabolic functions between the organelle and host. Such biological division of metabolic labor leads to mutual dependence of the endosymbiont and host. Changing environmental conditions, such as the gradual shift of an organism from aerobic to anaerobic conditions or light to dark, can make the original benefit useless. Therefore, it can be challenging to deduce the original beneficial function, if there is any, underlying organellar acquisition. However, it is also possible that the organelle is retained because it simply resists being eliminated or digested untill it becomes indispensable.

RevDate: 2022-04-23
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Schlabe S, Korir P, Lämmer C, et al (2022)

A qPCR to quantify Wolbachia from few Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae as a surrogate for adult worm histology in clinical trials of antiwolbachial drugs.

Parasitology research, 121(4):1199-1206.

The filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), a neglected tropical disease affecting 21 million people, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Targeting the endosymbiont Wolbachia with antibiotics leads to permanent sterilization and killing of adult worms. The gold standard to assess Wolbachia depletion is the histological examination of adult worms in nodules beginning at 6 months post-treatment. However, nodules can only be used once, limiting the time points to monitor Wolbachia depletion. A diagnostic to longitudinally monitor Wolbachia depletion from microfilariae (MF) at more frequent intervals < 6 months post-treatment would accelerate clinical trials of antiwolbachials. We developed a TaqMan qPCR amplifying the single-copy gene wOvftsZ to quantify Wolbachia from as few as one MF that had migrated from skin biopsies and compared quantification using circular and linearized plasmids or synthetic dsDNA (gBlock®). qPCR for MF from the rodent nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis was used to support the reproducibility and validate the principle. The qPCR using as few as 2 MF from O. volvulus and L. sigmodontis reproducibly quantified Wolbachia. Use of a linearized plasmid standard or synthesized dsDNA resulted in numbers of Wolbachia/MF congruent with biologically plausible estimates in O. volvulus and L. sigmodontis MF. The qPCR assay yielded a median of 48.8 (range 1.5-280.5) Wolbachia/O. volvulus MF. The qPCR is a sensitive tool for quantifying Wolbachia in a few MF from skin biopsies and allows for establishing the qPCR as a surrogate parameter for monitoring Wolbachia depletion in adult worms of new antiwolbachial candidates.

RevDate: 2022-03-09
CmpDate: 2022-02-14

Leitner M, Etebari K, S Asgari (2022)

Transcriptional response of Wolbachia-transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquito cells to dengue virus at early stages of infection.

The Journal of general virology, 103(1):.

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are responsible for viral infections and represent a considerable public health burden. Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue virus (DENV), therefore understanding the intrinsic virus-host interactions is vital, particularly in the presence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia, which blocks virus replication in mosquitoes. Here, we examined the transcriptional response of Wolbachia-transinfected Ae. aegypti Aag2 cells to DENV infection. We identified differentially expressed immune genes that play a key role in the activation of anti-viral defence such as the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. Further, genes encoding cytosine and N6-adenosine methyltransferases and SUMOylation, involved in post-transcriptional modifications, an antioxidant enzyme, and heat-shock response were up-regulated at the early stages of DENV infection and are reported here for the first time. Additionally, several long non-coding RNAs were among the differentially regulated genes. Our results provide insight into Wolbachia-transinfected Ae. aegypti's initial virus recognition and transcriptional response to DENV infection.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

El Hamss H, Ghosh S, Maruthi MN, et al (2021)

Microbiome diversity and reproductive incompatibility induced by the prevalent endosymbiont Arsenophonus in two species of African cassava Bemisia tabaci whiteflies.

Ecology and evolution, 11(24):18032-18041.

A minimum of 13 diverse whitefly species belonging to the Bemisia tabaci (B. tabaci) species complex are known to infest cassava crops in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), designated as SSA1-13. Of these, the SSA1 and SSA2 are the predominant species colonizing cassava crops in East Africa. The SSA species of B. tabaci harbor diverse bacterial endosymbionts, many of which are known to manipulate insect reproduction. One such symbiont, Arsenophonus, is known to drive its spread by inducing reproductive incompatibility in its insect host and are abundant in SSA species of B. tabaci. However, whether Arsenophonus affects the reproduction of SSA species is unknown. In this study, we investigated both the reproductive compatibility between Arsenophonus infected and uninfected whiteflies by inter-/intraspecific crossing experiments involving the sub-group three haplotypes of the SSA1 (SSA1-SG3), SSA2 species, and their microbial diversity. The number of eggs, nymphs, progenies produced, hatching rate, and survival rate were recorded for each cross. In intra-specific crossing trials, both male and female progenies were produced and thus demonstrated no reproductive incompatibility. However, the total number of eggs laid, nymphs hatched, and the emerged females were low in the intra-species crosses of SSA1-SG3A+, indicating the negative effect of Arsenophonus on whitefly fitness. In contrast, the inter-species crosses between the SSA1-SG3 and SSA2 produced no female progeny and thus demonstrated reproductive incompatibility. The relative frequency of other bacteria colonizing the whiteflies was also investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rDNA and diversity indices were recorded. Overall, SSA1-SG3 and SSA2 harbored high microbial diversity with more than 137 bacteria discovered. These results described for the first time the microbiome diversity and the reproductive behaviors of intra-/inter-species of Arsenophonus in whitefly reproduction, which is crucial for understanding the invasion abilities of cassava whiteflies.

RevDate: 2022-03-02
CmpDate: 2022-03-02

Neupane S, Bonilla SI, Manalo AM, et al (2022)

Complete de novo assembly of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) using long-read genome sequencing.

Scientific reports, 12(1):125.

Wolbachia, a gram-negative [Formula: see text]-proteobacterium, is an endosymbiont found in some arthropods and nematodes. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), are naturally infected with a strain of Wolbachia (wDi), which has been shown to colocalize with the bacteria pathogens CLas, the pathogen associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus. The relationship between wDi and CLas is poorly understood in part because the complete genome of wDi has not been available. Using high-quality long-read PacBio circular consensus sequences, we present the largest complete circular wDi genome among supergroup-B members. The assembled circular chromosome is 1.52 megabases with 95.7% genome completeness with contamination of 1.45%, as assessed by checkM. We identified Insertion Sequences (ISs) and prophage genes scattered throughout the genomes. The proteins were annotated using Pfam, eggNOG, and COG that assigned unique domains and functions. The wDi genome was compared with previously sequenced Wolbachia genomes using pangenome and phylogenetic analyses. The availability of a complete circular chromosome of wDi will facilitate understanding of its role within the insect vector, which may assist in developing tools for disease management. This information also provides a baseline for understanding phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia of other insect vectors.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Yang Y, Sun J, Chen C, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses reveal minor-yet-crucial roles of gut microbiome in deep-sea hydrothermal vent snail.

Animal microbiome, 4(1):3.

BACKGROUND: Marine animals often exhibit complex symbiotic relationship with gut microbes to attain better use of the available resources. Many animals endemic to deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems host chemoautotrophic bacteria endocellularly, and they are thought to rely entirely on these symbionts for energy and nutrition. Numerous investigations have been conducted on the interdependence between these animal hosts and their chemoautotrophic symbionts. The provannid snail Alviniconcha marisindica from the Indian Ocean hydrothermal vent fields hosts a Campylobacterial endosymbiont in its gill. Unlike many other chemosymbiotic animals, the gut of A. marisindica is reduced but remains functional; yet the contribution of gut microbiomes and their interactions with the host remain poorly characterised.

RESULTS: Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses showed that the gut microbiome of A. marisindica plays key nutritional and metabolic roles. The composition and relative abundance of gut microbiota of A. marisindica were different from those of snails that do not depend on endosymbiosis. The relative abundance of microbial taxa was similar amongst three individuals of A. marisindica with significant inter-taxa correlations. These correlations suggest the potential for interactions between taxa that may influence community assembly and stability. Functional profiles of the gut microbiome revealed thousands of additional genes that assist in the use of vent-supplied inorganic compounds (autotrophic energy source), digest host-ingested organics (carbon source), and recycle the metabolic waste of the host. In addition, members of five taxonomic classes have the potential to form slime capsules to protect themselves from the host immune system, thereby contributing to homeostasis. Gut microbial ecology and its interplay with the host thus contribute to the nutritional and metabolic demands of A. marisindica.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings advance the understanding of how deep-sea chemosymbiotic animals use available resources through contributions from gut microbiota. Gut microbiota may be critical in the survival of invertebrate hosts with autotrophic endosymbionts in extreme environments.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )